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Sample records for dna-pkcs deficiency leads

  1. Telomere Dysfunction and DNA-PKcs Deficiency: characterization and consequence

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Eli S.; Klingler, Rebekah; Ponnaiya, Brian; Hardt, Tanja; Schrock, Evelin; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Meek, Katheryn; Ullrich, Robert L.; Bailey, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which cells accurately distinguish between DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends and telomeric DNA ends remain poorly defined. Recent investigations have revealed intriguing interactions between DNA repair and telomeres. We were the first to report a requirement for the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in the effective end-capping of mammalian telomeres. Here, we report our continued characterization of uncapped (as opposed to shortened) dysfunctional telomeres in cells deficient for the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) and shed light on their consequence. We present evidence in support of our model that uncapped telomeres in this repair-deficient background are inappropriately detected and processed as DSBs, and so participate not only in spontaneous telomere-telomere fusion, but importantly, also in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced telomere-DSB fusion events. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs itself (Thr-2609 cluster) is a critical event for proper telomere end-processing and that ligase IV (NHEJ) is required for uncapped telomere fusion. We also find uncapped telomeres in cells from the BALB/c mouse, which harbors two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that result in reduced DNA-PKcs abundance and activity, most markedly in mammary tissue, and is both radiosensitive and susceptible to radiogenic mammary cancer. Our results suggest mechanistic links between uncapped/dysfunctional telomeres in DNA-PKcs repair-deficient backgrounds, radiation-induced instability and breast cancer. These studies provide the first direct evidence of genetic susceptibility and environmental insult interactions leading to a unique and on-going form of genomic instability capable of driving carcinogenesis. PMID:19244120

  2. DNA-PKcs deficiency leads to persistence of oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesions in human tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Peddi, Prakash; Loftin, Charles W.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Hair, Jessica M.; Burns, Kara J.; Aziz, Khaled; Francisco, Dave C.; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Sedelnikova, Olga A.; Bonner, William M.; Winters, Thomas A.; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.

    2010-01-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a key non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase involved in various DNA metabolic and damage signaling pathways contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability and prevention of cancer. In order to examine the role of DNA-PK in processing of non-DSB clustered DNA damage, we have used three different models of DNA-PK deficiency i.e. chemical inactivation of its kinase activity by novel inhibitors IC86621 and NU7026, knock-down and complete absence of the protein in human breast cancer (MCF-7) and glioblastoma cell lines (MO59-J/K). Compromised DNA-PK repair pathway has lead to accumulation of clustered DNA lesions induced by γ-rays. Tumor cells lacking protein expression or with inhibited kinase activity showed a marked decrease in their ability to process oxidatively-induced non-DSB clustered DNA lesions measured using a modified version of pulsed field gel electrophoresis or single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). In all cases, DNA-PK inactivation lead to a higher level of lesion persistence even after 24–72 hrs of repair. We suggest a model in which DNA-PK deficiency affects the processing of these clusters by first compromising base excision repair and second by the presence of catalytically inactive DNA-PK inhibiting the efficient processing of these lesions due to the failure of DNA-PK to disassociate from the DNA ends. The information rendered will be important not only for understating cancer etiology in the presence of a NHEJ deficiency but also lead to a better understanding of cancer treatments based on the induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of cluster repair. PMID:20193758

  3. Restoration of ATM Expression in DNA-PKcs-Deficient Cells Inhibits Signal End Joining.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jessica A; Xu, Yao; Abe, Masumi; Hendrickson, Eric; Meek, Katheryn

    2016-04-01

    Unlike most DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)-deficient mouse cell strains, we show in the present study that targeted deletion of DNA-PKcs in two different human cell lines abrogates VDJ signal end joining in episomal assays. Although the mechanism is not well defined, DNA-PKcs deficiency results in spontaneous reduction of ATM expression in many cultured cell lines (including those examined in this study) and in DNA-PKcs-deficient mice. We considered that varying loss of ATM expression might explain differences in signal end joining in different cell strains and animal models, and we investigated the impact of ATM and/or DNA-PKcs loss on VDJ recombination in cultured human and rodent cell strains. To our surprise, in DNA-PKcs-deficient mouse cell strains that are proficient in signal end joining, restoration of ATM expression markedly inhibits signal end joining. In contrast, in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells that are deficient in signal end joining, complete loss of ATM enhances signal (but not coding) joint formation. We propose that ATM facilitates restriction of signal ends to the classical nonhomologous end-joining pathway. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Essential role for DNA-PKcs in DNA double strand break repair and apoptosis in ATM deficient lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Callén, Elsa; Jankovic, Mila; Wong, Nancy; Zha, Shan; Chen, Hua-Tang; Difilippantonio, Simone; Di Virgilio, Michela; Heidkamp, Gordon; Alt, Frederick W.; Nussenzweig, André; Nussenzweig, Michel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The DNA double strand break (DSB) repair protein DNA-PKcs and the signal transducer ATM are both activated by DNA breaks and phosphorylate similar substrates in vitro, yet appear to have distinct functions in vivo. Here we show that ATM and DNA-PKcs have overlapping functions in lymphocytes. Ablation of both kinase activities in cells undergoing immunoglobulin class switch recombination leads to a compound defect in switching, and a synergistic increase in chromosomal fragmentation, DNA insertions and translocations due to aberrant processing of DSBs. These abnormalities are attributed to a compound deficiency in phosphorylation of key proteins required for DNA repair, class switching and cell death. Notably, both kinases are required for normal levels of p53 phosphorylation in B and T cells and p53 dependent apoptosis. Our experiments reveal a DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway that regulates DNA repair and activation of p53 in the absence of ATM. PMID:19450527

  5. Spontaneous tumor development in bone marrow-rescued DNA-PKcs(3A/3A) mice due to dysfunction of telomere leading strand deprotection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Matsunaga, S; Lin, Y-F; Sishc, B; Shang, Z; Sui, J; Shih, H-Y; Zhao, Y; Foreman, O; Story, M D; Chen, D J; Chen, B P C

    2016-07-28

    Phosphorylation of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) at the Thr2609 cluster is essential for its complete function in DNA repair and tissue stem cell homeostasis. This phenomenon is demonstrated by congenital bone marrow failure occurring in DNA-PKcs(3A/3A) mutant mice, which require bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to prevent early mortality. Surprisingly, an increased incidence of spontaneous tumors, especially skin cancer, was observed in adult BMT-rescued DNA-PKcs(3A/3A) mice. Upon further investigation, we found that spontaneous γH2AX foci occurred in DNA-PKcs(3A/3A) skin biopsies and primary keratinocytes and that these foci overlapped with telomeres during mitosis, indicating impairment of telomere replication and maturation. Consistently, we observed significantly elevated frequencies of telomere fusion events in DNA-PKcs(3A/3A) cells as compared with wild-type and DNA-PKcs-knockout cells. In addition, a previously identified DNA-PKcs Thr2609Pro mutation, found in breast cancer, also induces a similar impairment of telomere leading-end maturation. Taken together, our current analyses indicate that the functional DNA-PKcs T2609 cluster is required to facilitate telomere leading strand maturation and prevention of genomic instability and cancer development.

  6. Spontaneous Tumor Development in Bone Marrow Rescued DNA-PKcs3A/3A Mice Due to Dysfunction of Telomere Leading Strand Deprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shichuan; Matsunaga, Shinji; Lin, Yu-Fen; Sishc, Brock; Shang, Zengfu; Sui, Jiangdong; Shih, Hung-Ying; Zhao, Yong; Foreman, Oded; Story, Michael D.; Chen, David J.; Chen, Benjamin PC.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) at the Thr2609 cluster is essential for its complete function in DNA repair and tissue stem cell homeostasis. This phenomenon is demonstrated by congenital bone marrow failure occurring in DNA-PKcs3A/3A mutant mice, which require bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to prevent early mortality. Surprisingly, an increased incidence of spontaneous tumors, especially skin cancer, was observed in adult BMT-rescued DNA-PKcs3A/3A mice. Upon further investigation we found that spontaneous γH2AX foci occurred in DNA-PKcs3A/3A skin biopsies and primary keratinocytes and that these foci overlapped with telomeres during mitosis, indicating impairment of telomere replication and maturation. Consistently, we observed significantly elevated frequencies of telomere fusion events in DNA-PKcs3A/3A cells as compared to wild type and DNA-PKcs knockout cells. In addition, a previously identified DNA-PKcs Thr2609Pro mutation, found in breast cancer, also induces a similar impairment of telomere leading end maturation. Taken together, our current analyses indicate that the functional DNA-PKcs T2609 cluster is required to facilitate telomere leading strand maturation and prevention of genomic instability and cancer development. PMID:26616856

  7. Targeting BRCA1-BER deficient breast cancer by ATM or DNA-PKcs blockade either alone or in combination with cisplatin for personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Albarakati, Nada; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Doherty, Rachel; Russell, Roslin; Agarwal, Devika; Moseley, Paul; Perry, Christina; Arora, Arvind; Alsubhi, Nouf; Seedhouse, Claire; Rakha, Emad A; Green, Andrew; Ball, Graham; Chan, Stephen; Caldas, Carlos; Ellis, Ian O; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    BRCA1, a key factor in homologous recombination (HR) repair may also regulate base excision repair (BER). Targeting BRCA1-BER deficient cells by blockade of ATM and DNA-PKcs could be a promising strategy in breast cancer. We investigated BRCA1, XRCC1 and pol β protein expression in two cohorts (n = 1602 sporadic and n = 50 germ-line BRCA1 mutated) and mRNA expression in two cohorts (n = 1952 and n = 249). Artificial neural network analysis for BRCA1-DNA repair interacting genes was conducted in 249 tumours. Pre-clinically, BRCA1 proficient and deficient cells were DNA repair expression profiled and evaluated for synthetic lethality using ATM and DNA-PKcs inhibitors either alone or in combination with cisplatin. In human tumours, BRCA1 negativity was strongly associated with low XRCC1, and low pol β at mRNA and protein levels (p < 0.0001). In patients with BRCA1 negative tumours, low XRCC1 or low pol β expression was significantly associated with poor survival in univariate and multivariate analysis compared to high XRCC1 or high pol β expressing BRCA1 negative tumours (ps < 0.05). Pre-clinically, BRCA1 negative cancer cells exhibit low mRNA and low protein expression of XRCC1 and pol β. BRCA1-BER deficient cells were sensitive to ATM and DNA-PKcs inhibitor treatment either alone or in combination with cisplatin and synthetic lethality was evidenced by DNA double strand breaks accumulation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We conclude that XRCC1 and pol β expression status in BRCA1 negative tumours may have prognostic significance. BRCA1-BER deficient cells could be targeted by ATM or DNA-PKcs inhibitors for personalized therapy. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA-PKcs is critical for telomere capping

    SciTech Connect

    Gilley, David; Tanaka, Hiromi; Hande, M. Prakash; Kurimasa,Akihiro; Li, Gloria C.; Chen, David J.

    2001-04-10

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is critical for DNA repair via the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Previously, it was reported that bone marrow cells and spontaneously transformed fibroblasts from SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice have defects in telomere maintenance. The genetically defective SCID mouse arose spontaneously from its parental strain CB17. One known genomic alteration in SCID mice is a truncation of the extreme carboxyl-terminus of DNA-PKcs, but other as yet unidentified alterations may also exist. We have used a defined system, the DNA-PKcs knockout mouse, to investigate specifically the role DNA-PKcs specifically plays in telomere maintenance. We report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and primary cultured kidney cells from 6-8 month old DNA-PKcs deficient mice accumulate a large number of telomere fusions, yet still retain wildtype telomere length. Thus, the phenotype of this defect separates the two-telomere related phenotypes, capping and length maintenance. DNA-PKcs deficient MEFs also exhibit elevated levels of chromosome fragments and breaks, which correlate with increased telomere fusions. Based on the high levels of telomere fusions observed in DNA-PKcs deficient cells, we conclude that DNA-PKcs plays an important capping role at the mammalian telomere.

  9. A deficiency in DNA repair and DNA-PKcs expression in the radiosensitive BALB/c mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okayasu, R.; Suetomi, K.; Yu, Y.; Silver, A.; Bedford, J. S.; Cox, R.; Ullrich, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the efficiency of DNA double strand break (DSB) rejoining in primary cells from mouse strains that show large differences in in vivo radiosensitivity and tumor susceptibility. Cells from radiosensitive, cancer-prone BALB/c mice showed inefficient end joining of gamma ray-induced DSBs as compared with cells from all of the other commonly used strains and F1 hybrids of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. The BALB/c repair phenotype was accompanied by a significantly reduced expression level of DNA-PKcs protein as well as a lowered DNA-PK activity level as compared with the other strains. In conjunction with published reports, these data suggest that natural genetic variation in nonhomologous end joining processes may have a significant impact on the in vivo radiation response of mice.

  10. A deficiency in DNA repair and DNA-PKcs expression in the radiosensitive BALB/c mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okayasu, R.; Suetomi, K.; Yu, Y.; Silver, A.; Bedford, J. S.; Cox, R.; Ullrich, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the efficiency of DNA double strand break (DSB) rejoining in primary cells from mouse strains that show large differences in in vivo radiosensitivity and tumor susceptibility. Cells from radiosensitive, cancer-prone BALB/c mice showed inefficient end joining of gamma ray-induced DSBs as compared with cells from all of the other commonly used strains and F1 hybrids of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. The BALB/c repair phenotype was accompanied by a significantly reduced expression level of DNA-PKcs protein as well as a lowered DNA-PK activity level as compared with the other strains. In conjunction with published reports, these data suggest that natural genetic variation in nonhomologous end joining processes may have a significant impact on the in vivo radiation response of mice.

  11. Accessibility of chromosomal recombination breaks in nuclei of wild-type and DNA-PKcs-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Chang, Yung

    2009-07-04

    V(D)J recombination is a highly regulated process, proceeding from a site-specific cleavage to an imprecise end joining. After the DNA excision catalyzed by the recombinase encoded by recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1/2), newly generated recombination ends are believed held by a post-cleavage complex (PC) consisting of RAG1/2 proteins, and are subsequently resolved by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) machinery. The relay of these ends from PC to NHEJ remains elusive. It has been speculated that NHEJ factors modify the RAG1/2-PC to gain access to the ends or act on free ends after the disassembly of the PC. Thus, recombination ends may either be retained in a complex throughout the recombination process or left as unprotected free ends after cleavage, a condition that may permit an alternative, non-classical NHEJ end joining pathway. To directly test these scenarios on recombination induced chromosomal breaks, we have developed a recombination end protection assay to monitor the accessibility of recombination ends to exonuclease-V in intact nuclei. We demonstrate that these ends are well protected in the nuclei of wild-type cells, suggesting a seamless cleavage-joining reaction. However, divergent end protection of coding versus signal ends was found in cells derived from severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice that are defective in the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). While signal ends are resistant, opened coding ends are susceptible to enzymatic modification. Our data suggests a role of DNA-PKcs in protecting chromosomal coding ends. Furthermore, using recombination inducible scid cell lines, we demonstrate that conditional protection of coding ends is inversely correlated with the level of their resolution, i.e., the greater the accessibility of the coding ends, the higher level of coding joints formed. Taken together, our findings provide important insights into the resolution of recombination ends by error

  12. Murine Prkdc Polymorphisms Impact DNA-PKcs Function

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Kristin M.; Ramaiah, Lila; Dregalla, Ryan C.; Desaintes, Christian; Weil, Michael M.; Bailey, Susan M.; Ullrich, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes can increase the carcinogenic potential of exposure to ionizing radiation. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Prkdc, the gene encoding the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), have been identified in BALB/c mice and linked to reduced DNA-PKcs activity and mammary cancer susceptibility. We examined three additional mouse strains to better define the roles of the BALB/c Prkdc SNPs (R2140C and M3844V). One is a congenic strain (C.B6) that has the C57BL/6 Prkdc allele on a BALB/c background, and the other is a congenic strain (B6.C) that has the BALB/c variant Prkdc allele on a C57BL/6 background. We also examined the LEWES mouse strain, which possesses only one of the BALB/c Prkdc SNPs (M3844V). Our results demonstrate that both Prkdc SNPs are responsible for deficient DNA-PKcs protein expression, DNA repair and telomere function, while the LEWES SNP affects only DNA-PKcs expression and repair capacity. These studies provide insight into the separation of function between the two BALB/c SNPs as well as direct evidence that SNPs positioned within Prkdc can significantly influence DNA-PKcs function involving DNA repair capacity, telomere end-capping, and potentially cancer susceptibility. PMID:21265624

  13. Identification and Characterization of a Small Inhibitory Peptide That Can Target DNA-PKcs Autophosphorylation and Increase Tumor Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xiaonan; Yang Chunying; Liu Hai; Wang Qi; Wu Shixiu; Li Xia; Xie Tian; Brinkman, Kathryn L.; Teh, Bin S.; Butler, E. Brian; Xu Bo; Zheng, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is one of the critical elements involved in the DNA damage repair process. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs results in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR); therefore, this approach has been explored to develop molecular targeted radiosensitizers. Here, we aimed to develop small inhibitory peptides that could specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation, a critical step for the enzymatic activation of the kinase in response to IR. Methods and Materials: We generated several small fusion peptides consisting of 2 functional domains, 1 an internalization domain and the other a DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation inhibitory domain. We characterized the internalization, toxicity, and radiosensitization activities of the fusion peptides. Furthermore, we studied the mechanisms of the inhibitory peptides on DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and DNA repair. Results: We found that among several peptides, the biotin-labeled peptide 3 (BTW3) peptide, which targets DNA-PKcs threonine 2647 autophosphorylation, can abrogate IR-induced DNA-PKcs activation and cause prolonged {gamma}-H2AX focus formation. We demonstrated that BTW3 exposure led to hypersensitivity to IR in DNA-PKcs-proficient cells but not in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Conclusions: The small inhibitory peptide BTW3 can specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and enhance radiosensitivity; therefore, it can be further developed as a novel class of radiosensitizer.

  14. Identification of DNA-PKcs as a primary resistance factor of salinomycin in osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-dong; Zhou, Xiao-zhong; Zhu, Lun-qing

    2016-01-01

    Malignant osteosarcoma (OS) is still a deadly disease for many affected patients. The search for the novel anti-OS agent is extremely urgent and important. Our previous study has proposed that salinomycin is a novel anti-OS agent. Here we characterized DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a primary salinomycin resistance factor in OS cells. DNA-PKcs inhibitors (NU7026, NU7441 and LY294002) or DNA-PKcs shRNA knockdown dramatically potentiated salinomycin-induced death and apoptosis of OS cells (U2OS and MG-63 lines). Further, forced-expression of microRNA-101 (“miR-101”) downregulated DNA-PKcs and augmented salinomycin's cytotoxicity against OS cells. Reversely, over-expression of DNA-PKcs in OS cells inhibited salinomycin's lethality. For the mechanism study, we show that DNA-PKcs is required for salinomycin-induced pro-survival autophagy activation. DNA-PKcs inhibition (by NU7441), shRNA knockdown or miR-101 expression inhibited salinomycin-induced Beclin-1 expression and autophagy induction. Meanwhile, knockdown of Beclin-1 by shRNA significantly sensitized salinomycin-induced OS cell lethality. In vivo, salinomycin administration suppressed U2OS xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice, and its anti-tumor activity was dramatically potentiated with co-administration of the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7026. Together, these results suggest that DNA-PKcs could be a primary resistance factor of salinomycin in OS cells. DNA-PKcs inhibition or silence may thus significantly increase salinomycin's sensitivity in OS cells. PMID:27765904

  15. Identification of DNA-PKcs as a primary resistance factor of salinomycin in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yun-Fang; Li, Song-Tao; Zhu, Yun-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Zhong; Zhu, Lun-Qing

    2016-11-29

    Malignant osteosarcoma (OS) is still a deadly disease for many affected patients. The search for the novel anti-OS agent is extremely urgent and important. Our previous study has proposed that salinomycin is a novel anti-OS agent. Here we characterized DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a primary salinomycin resistance factor in OS cells. DNA-PKcs inhibitors (NU7026, NU7441 and LY294002) or DNA-PKcs shRNA knockdown dramatically potentiated salinomycin-induced death and apoptosis of OS cells (U2OS and MG-63 lines). Further, forced-expression of microRNA-101 ("miR-101") downregulated DNA-PKcs and augmented salinomycin's cytotoxicity against OS cells. Reversely, over-expression of DNA-PKcs in OS cells inhibited salinomycin's lethality. For the mechanism study, we show that DNA-PKcs is required for salinomycin-induced pro-survival autophagy activation. DNA-PKcs inhibition (by NU7441), shRNA knockdown or miR-101 expression inhibited salinomycin-induced Beclin-1 expression and autophagy induction. Meanwhile, knockdown of Beclin-1 by shRNA significantly sensitized salinomycin-induced OS cell lethality. In vivo, salinomycin administration suppressed U2OS xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice, and its anti-tumor activity was dramatically potentiated with co-administration of the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7026. Together, these results suggest that DNA-PKcs could be a primary resistance factor of salinomycin in OS cells. DNA-PKcs inhibition or silence may thus significantly increase salinomycin's sensitivity in OS cells.

  16. DNA-PKcs activates the Chk2-Brca1 pathway during mitosis to ensure chromosomal stability.

    PubMed

    Shang, Z; Yu, L; Lin, Y-F; Matsunaga, S; Shen, C-Y; Chen, B P C

    2014-02-03

    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is known to have a critical role in DNA double-strand break repair. We have previously reported that DNA-PKcs is activated when cells enter mitosis and functions in mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. Here we report that DNA-PKcs is the upstream regulator of the Chk2-Brca1 pathway, which impacts microtubule dynamics, kinetochore attachment and chromosomal segregation in mitosis. Downstream from Chk2, Brca1 promotes monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin to inhibit microtubule nucleation and growth. We found that DNA-PKcs is essential for mitotic Chk2 phosphorylation at Thr68. As in Chk2- and Brca1-deficient cells, loss of DNA-PKcs resulted in chromosome misalignment and lagging during anaphase owing to elevation in microtubule dynamics. Importantly, these mitotic aberrations in DNA-PKcs-defective cells were alleviated by the overexpression of phosphomimetic Chk2 or Brca1 mutant proteins but not their wild-type counterparts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that DNA-PKcs regulates mitotic spindle organization and chromosomal instability via the Chk2-Brca1 signaling pathway.

  17. DNA-PKcs plays role in cancer metastasis through regulation of secreted proteins involved in migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kotula, Ewa; Berthault, Nathalie; Agrario, Celine; Lienafa, Marie-Christine; Simon, Anthony; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Sibut, Vonick; Saule, Simon; Dutreix, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) plays a major role in DNA damage signaling and repair and is also frequently overexpressed in tumor metastasis. We used isogenic cell lines expressing different levels of DNA-PKcs to investigate the role of DNA-PKcs in metastatic development. We found that DNA-PKcs participates in melanoma primary tumor and metastasis development by stimulating angiogenesis, migration and invasion. Comparison of conditioned medium content from DNA-PKcs-proficient and deficient cells reveals that DNA-PKcs controls secretion of at least 103 proteins (including 44 metastasis-associated with FBLN1, SERPINA3, MMP-8, HSPG2 and the inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, such as α-2M and TIMP-2). High throughput analysis of secretomes, proteomes and transcriptomes, indicate that DNA-PKcs regulates the secretion of 85 proteins without affecting their gene expression. Our data demonstrate that DNA-PKcs has a pro-metastatic activity via the modification of the tumor microenvironment. This study shows for the first time a direct link between DNA damage repair and cancer metastasis and highlights the importance of DNA-PKcs as a potential target for anti-metastatic treatment. PMID:26017556

  18. DNA-PKcs plays role in cancer metastasis through regulation of secreted proteins involved in migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Kotula, Ewa; Berthault, Nathalie; Agrario, Celine; Lienafa, Marie-Christine; Simon, Anthony; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Sibut, Vonick; Saule, Simon; Dutreix, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) plays a major role in DNA damage signaling and repair and is also frequently overexpressed in tumor metastasis. We used isogenic cell lines expressing different levels of DNA-PKcs to investigate the role of DNA-PKcs in metastatic development. We found that DNA-PKcs participates in melanoma primary tumor and metastasis development by stimulating angiogenesis, migration and invasion. Comparison of conditioned medium content from DNA-PKcs-proficient and deficient cells reveals that DNA-PKcs controls secretion of at least 103 proteins (including 44 metastasis-associated with FBLN1, SERPINA3, MMP-8, HSPG2 and the inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, such as α-2M and TIMP-2). High throughput analysis of secretomes, proteomes and transcriptomes, indicate that DNA-PKcs regulates the secretion of 85 proteins without affecting their gene expression. Our data demonstrate that DNA-PKcs has a pro-metastatic activity via the modification of the tumor microenvironment. This study shows for the first time a direct link between DNA damage repair and cancer metastasis and highlights the importance of DNA-PKcs as a potential target for anti-metastatic treatment.

  19. DNA-PKcs Negatively Regulates Cyclin B1 Protein Stability through Facilitating Its Ubiquitination Mediated by Cdh1-APC/C Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zeng-Fu; Tan, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Lan; Li, Bing; Li, Ming; Song, Man; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Bei-Bei; Zhong, Cai-Gao; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is a critical component of the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double-stranded break repair. DNA-PKcs has also been shown recently functioning in mitotic regulation. Here, we report that DNA-PKcs negatively regulates the stability of Cyclin B1 protein through facilitating its ubiquitination mediated by Cdh1 / E 3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C pathway. Loss of DNA-PKcs causes abnormal accumulation of Cyclin B1 protein. Cyclin B1 degradation is delayed in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells as result of attenuated ubiquitination. The impact of DNA-PKcs on Cyclin B1 stability relies on its kinase activity. Our study further reveals that DNA-PKcs interacts with APC/C core component APC2 and its co-activator Cdh1. The destruction of Cdh1 is accelerated in the absence of DNA-PKcs. Moreover, overexpression of exogenous Cdh1 can reverse the increase of Cyclin B1 protein in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Thus, DNA-PKcs, in addition to its direct role in DNA damage repair, functions in mitotic progression at least partially through regulating the stability of Cyclin B1 protein.

  20. DNA-PKcs Negatively Regulates Cyclin B1 Protein Stability through Facilitating Its Ubiquitination Mediated by Cdh1-APC/C Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zeng-Fu; Tan, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Lan; Li, Bing; Li, Ming; Song, Man; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Bei-Bei; Zhong, Cai-Gao; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is a critical component of the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double-stranded break repair. DNA-PKcs has also been shown recently functioning in mitotic regulation. Here, we report that DNA-PKcs negatively regulates the stability of Cyclin B1 protein through facilitating its ubiquitination mediated by Cdh1 / E 3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C pathway. Loss of DNA-PKcs causes abnormal accumulation of Cyclin B1 protein. Cyclin B1 degradation is delayed in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells as result of attenuated ubiquitination. The impact of DNA-PKcs on Cyclin B1 stability relies on its kinase activity. Our study further reveals that DNA-PKcs interacts with APC/C core component APC2 and its co-activator Cdh1. The destruction of Cdh1 is accelerated in the absence of DNA-PKcs. Moreover, overexpression of exogenous Cdh1 can reverse the increase of Cyclin B1 protein in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Thus, DNA-PKcs, in addition to its direct role in DNA damage repair, functions in mitotic progression at least partially through regulating the stability of Cyclin B1 protein. PMID:26221070

  1. Targeting hyperactivated DNA-PKcs by KU0060648 inhibits glioma progression and enhances temozolomide therapy via suppression of AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanming; Zhang, Mingshan; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Zhihua; Zhou, Wei; Fan, Xinyi; Yu, Chunjiang; Zhan, Qimin; Song, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    The overall survival remains undesirable in clinical glioma treatment. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity by its inhibitors suppresses tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity of several tumors to chemotherapy. However, whether DNA-PKcs could be a potential target in glioma therapy remains unknown. In this study, we reported that the hyperactivated DNA-PKcs was profoundly correlated with glioma malignancy and observe a significant association between DNA-PKcs activation and survival of the glioma patients. Our data also found that inhibition of DNA-PKcs by its inhibitor KU0060648 sensitized glioma cells to TMZ in vitro. Specifically, we demonstrated that KU0060648 interrupted the formation of DNA-PKcs/AKT complex, leading to suppression of AKT signaling and resultantly enhanced TMZ efficacy. Combination of KU0060648 and TMZ substantially inhibited downstream effectors of AKT. The in vivo results were similar to those obtained in vitro. In conclusion, this study indicated that inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity could suppress glioma malignancies and increase TMZ efficacy, which was mainly through regulation of the of AKT signaling. Therefore, DNA-PKcs/AKT axis may be a promising target for improving current glioma therapy. PMID:27487130

  2. DNA-PKcs-Dependent Modulation of Cellular Radiosensitivity by a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kodym, Elisabeth; Kodym, Reinhard; Chen, Benjamin P.; Chen, David J.; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Choy, Hak; Saha, Debabrata

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 has been shown to increase radiosensitivity. Recently, the suppression of radiation-induced DNA-dependant protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity by the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib was reported. Given the importance of DNA-PK for repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end-joining and the clinical use of the substance, we investigated the relevance of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) for the modulation of cellular radiosensitivity by celecoxib. Methods and Materials: We used a syngeneic model of Chinese hamster ovarian cell lines: AA8, possessing a wild-type DNK-PKcs; V3, lacking a functional DNA-PKcs; and V3/WT11, V3 stably transfected with the DNA-PKcs. The cells were treated with celecoxib (50 {mu}M) for 24 h before irradiation. The modulation of radiosensitivity was determined using the colony formation assay. Results: Treatment with celecoxib increased the cellular radiosensitivity in the DNA-PKcs-deficient cell line V3 with a dose-enhancement ratio of 1.3 for a surviving fraction of 0.5. In contrast, clonogenic survival was increased in DNA-PKcs wild-type-expressing AA8 cells and in V3 cells transfected with DNA-PKcs (V3/WT11). The decrease in radiosensitivity was comparable to the radiosensitization in V3 cells, with a dose-enhancement ratio of 0.76 (AA8) and 0.80 (V3/WT11) for a survival of 0.5. Conclusions: We have demonstrated a DNA-PKcs-dependent differential modulation of cellular radiosensitivity by celecoxib. These effects might be attributed to alterations in signaling cascades downstream of DNA-PK toward cell survival. These findings offer an explanation for the poor outcomes in some recently published clinical trials.

  3. The Role of DNA-PKcs and Artemis in Opening Viral DNA Hairpin Termini in Various Tissues in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Katsuya; Ma, Congrong; Storm, Theresa A.; Kay, Mark A.; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    A subset of cellular DNA hairpins at double-strand breaks is processed by DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)- and Artemis-associated endonuclease. DNA hairpin termini of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are processed by DNA repair machinery; however, how and what cellular factors are involved in the process remain elusive. Here, we show that DNA-PKcs and Artemis open AAV inverted terminal repeat (ITR) hairpin loops in a tissue-dependent manner. We investigated recombinant AAV (rAAV) genome metabolism in various tissues of DNA-PKcs- or Artemis-proficient or -deficient mice. In the absence of either factor, ITR hairpin opening was impaired, resulting in accumulation of double-stranded linear rAAV genomes capped with covalently closed hairpins at termini. The 5′ end of 3-base hairpin loops of the ITR was the primary target for DNA-PKcs- and Artemis-mediated cleavage. In the muscle, heart, and kidney, DNA-PKcs- and Artemis-dependent hairpin opening constituted a significant pathway, while in the liver, undefined alternative pathways effectively processed hairpins. In addition, our study revealed a Holliday junction resolvase-like activity in the liver that cleaved T-shaped ITR hairpin shoulders by making nicks at diametrically opposed sites. Thus, our approach furthers our understanding of not only rAAV biology but also fundamental DNA repair systems in various tissues of living animals. PMID:17686847

  4. DNA-PKcs and ATM Co-Regulate DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Meena; Miller, Cheryl A.; De Haro, Leyma P.; Durant, Stephen T.; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Chen, David J.; Nickoloff, Jac A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). The NHEJ/HR decision is under complex regulation and involves DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). HR is elevated in DNA-PKcs null cells, but suppressed by DNA-PKcs kinase inhibitors, suggesting that kinase-inactive DNA-PKcs (DNA-PKcs-KR) would suppress HR. Here we use a direct repeat assay to monitor HR repair of DSBs induced by I-SceI nuclease. Surprisingly, DSB-induced HR in DNA-PKcs-KR cells was 2- to 3-fold above the elevated HR level of DNA-PKcs null cells, and ∼4- to 7-fold above cells expressing wild-type DNA-PKcs. The hyperrecombination in DNA-PKcs-KR cells compared to DNA-PKcs null cells was also apparent as increased resistance to DNA crosslinks induced by mitomycin C. ATM phosphorylates many HR proteins, and ATM is expressed at a low level in cells lacking DNA-PKcs, but restored to wild-type level in cells expressing DNA-PKcs-KR. Several clusters of phosphorylation sites in DNA-PKcs, including the T2609 cluster, which is phosphorylated by DNA-PKcs and ATM, regulate access of repair factors to broken ends. Our results indicate that ATM-dependent phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs-KR contributes to the hyperrecombination phenotype. Interestingly, DNA-PKcs null cells showed more persistent ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci (but lower HR levels) compared to DNA-PKcs-KR cells, consistent with HR completion requiring RAD51 turnover. ATM may promote RAD51 turnover, suggesting a second (not mutually exclusive) mechanism by which restored ATM contributes to hyperrecombination in DNA-PKcs-KR cells. We propose a model in which DNA-PKcs and ATM coordinately regulate DSB repair by NHEJ and HR. PMID:19535303

  5. Identification of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a Novel Target of Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Nashimoto, Akihiro; Hase, Yasuyoshi; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) forms the backbone of plastics and epoxy resins used to produce packaging for various foods and beverages. BPA is also an estrogenic disruptor, interacting with human estrogen receptors (ER) and other related nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, the effects of BPA on human health remain unclear. The present study identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a novel BPA-binding protein. DNA-PKcs, in association with the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80), is a critical enzyme involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Low levels of DNA-PK activity are previously reported to be associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer. Although the Kd for the interaction between BPA and a drug-binding mutant of DNA-PKcs was comparatively low (137 nM), high doses of BPA were required before cellular effects were observed (100–300 μM). The results of an in vitro kinase assay showed that BPA inhibited DNA-PK kinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In M059K cells, BPA inhibited the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at Ser2056 and H2AX at Ser139 in response to ionizing radiation (IR)-irradiation. BPA also disrupted DNA-PKcs binding to Ku70/80 and increased the radiosensitivity of M059K cells, but not M059J cells (which are DNA-PKcs-deficient). Taken together, these results provide new evidence of the effects of BPA on DNA repair in mammalian cells, which are mediated via inhibition of DNA-PK activity. This study may warrant the consideration of the possible carcinogenic effects of high doses of BPA, which are mediated through its action on DNA-PK. PMID:23227178

  6. Inhibiting DNA-PKCS radiosensitizes human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Tewodros; Mladek, Ann C; Shogren, Kris L; Gustafson, Carl; Gupta, Shiv K; Riester, Scott M; Maran, Avudaiappan; Galindo, Mario; van Wijnen, Andre J; Sarkaria, Jann N; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2017-04-29

    Osteosarcoma survival rate has not improved over the past three decades, and the debilitating side effects of the surgical treatment suggest the need for alternative local control approaches. Radiotherapy is largely ineffective in osteosarcoma, indicating a potential role for radiosensitizers. Blocking DNA repair, particularly by inhibiting the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKCS), is an attractive option for the radiosensitization of osteosarcoma. In this study, the expression of DNA-PKCS in osteosarcoma tissue specimens and cell lines was examined. Moreover, the small molecule DNA-PKCS inhibitor, KU60648, was investigated as a radiosensitizing strategy for osteosarcoma cells in vitro. DNA-PKCS was consistently expressed in the osteosarcoma tissue specimens and cell lines studied. Additionally, KU60648 effectively sensitized two of those osteosarcoma cell lines (143B cells by 1.5-fold and U2OS cells by 2.5-fold). KU60648 co-treatment also altered cell cycle distribution and enhanced DNA damage. Cell accumulation at the G2/M transition point increased by 55% and 45%, while the percentage of cells with >20 γH2AX foci were enhanced by 59% and 107% for 143B and U2OS cells, respectively. These results indicate that the DNA-PKCS inhibitor, KU60648, is a promising radiosensitizing agent for osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA-PKcs mediated transcriptional regulation drives prostate cancer progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Kothari, Vishal; Drake, Justin M.; Zhao, Shuang; Dylgjeri, Emanuela; Dean, Jeffry L.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; McNair, Christopher; Jones, Jennifer K.; Aytes, Alvaro; Magee, Michael S.; Snook, Adam E.; Zhu, Ziqi; Den, Robert B.; Birbe, Ruth C.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Graham, Nicholas A.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Takhar, Mandeep; Davicioni, Elai; Tomlins, Scott A.; Abate-Shen, Cory; Sharifi, Nima; Witte, Owen N.; Feng, Felix Y.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Emerging evidence demonstrates that the DNA repair kinase DNA-PKcs exerts divergent roles in transcriptional regulation of unsolved consequence. Here, in vitro and in vivo interrogation demonstrate that DNA-PKcs functions as a selective modulator of transcriptional networks that induce cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Accordingly, suppression of DNA-PKcs inhibits tumor metastases. Clinical assessment revealed that DNA-PKcs is significantly elevated in advanced disease, and independently predicts for metastases, recurrence, and reduced overall survival. Further investigation demonstrated that DNA-PKcs in advanced tumors is highly activated, independent of DNA damage indicators. Combined, these findings reveal unexpected DNA-PKcs functions, identify DNA-PKcs as a potent driver of tumor progression and metastases, and nominate DNA-PKcs as a therapeutic target for advanced malignancies. PMID:26175416

  8. Phosphorylated Sp1 is the regulator of DNA-PKcs and DNA ligase IV transcription of daunorubicin-resistant leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yayoi; Mizutani, Naoki; Inoue, Minami; Omori, Yukari; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Takagi, Akira; Kojima, Tetsuhito; Suzuki, Motoshi; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Minami, Yosuke; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Naoe, Tomoki; Murate, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious problem faced in the treatment of malignant tumors. In this study, we characterized the expression of non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) components, a major DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism in mammals, in K562 cell and its daunorubicin (DNR)-resistant subclone (K562/DNR). K562/DNR overexpressed major enzymes of NHEJ, DNA-PKcs and DNA ligase IV, and K562/DNR repaired DSB more rapidly than K562 after DNA damage by neocarzinostatin (MDR1-independent radiation-mimetic). Overexpressed DNA-PKcs and DNA ligase IV were also observed in DNR-resistant HL60 (HL60/DNR) cells as compared with parental HL60 cells. Expression level of DNA-PKcs mRNA paralleled its protein level, and the promoter activity of DNA-PKcs of K562/DNR was higher than that of K562, and the 5'-region between -49bp and the first exon was important for its activity. Because this region is GC-rich, we tried to suppress Sp1 family transcription factor using mithramycin A (MMA), a specific Sp1 family inhibitor, and siRNAs for Sp1 and Sp3. Both MMA and siRNAs suppressed DNA-PKcs expression. Higher serine-phosphorylated Sp1 but not total Sp1 of both K562/DNR and HL60/DNR was observed compared with their parental K562 and HL60 cells. DNA ligase IV expression of K562/DNR was also suppressed significantly with Sp1 family protein inhibition. EMSA and ChIP assay confirmed higher binding of Sp1 and Sp3 with DNA-PKcs 5'-promoter region of DNA-PKcs of K562/DNR than that of K562. Thus, the Sp1 family transcription factor affects important NHEJ component expressions in anti-cancer drug-resistant malignant cells, leading to the more aggressive MDR phenotype.

  9. Participation of DNA-PKcs in DSB repair after exposure to high- and low-LET radiation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Harper, Jane V; Cucinotta, Francis A; O'Neill, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Cellular lesions (e.g. DSBs) are induced into DNA upon exposure to radiation, with DSB complexity increasing with radiation ionization density. Using M059K and M059J human glioblastoma cells (proficient and deficient in DNA-PKcs activity, respectively), we investigated the repair of DNA damage, including DSBs, induced by high- and low-LET radiation [gamma rays, alpha particles and high-charge and energy (HZE) ions]. In the absence of DNA-PKcs activity, less DSB repair and increased recruitment of RAD51 was seen at 24 h. After exposure to (56)Fe heavy ions, the number of cells with RAD51 tracks was less than the number of cells with gamma-H2AX at 24 h with both cell lines. Using alpha particles, comparable numbers of cells with visible gamma-H2AX and RAD51 were seen at 24 h in both cell lines. M059J cells irradiated with alpha particles accumulated in S phase, with a greater number of cyclin A and RAD51 co-stained cells seen at 24 h compared with M059K cells, where an S-phase block is absent. It is proposed that DNA-PKcs plays a role in the repair of some frank DSBs, which are longer-lived in NHEJ-deficient cells, and some non-DSB clustered damage sites that are converted into DSBs at replication as the cell cycles through to S phase.

  10. Differential Radiosensitivity Phenotypes of DNA-PKcs Mutations Affecting NHEJ and HRR Systems following Irradiation with Gamma-Rays or Very Low Fluences of Alpha Particles

    PubMed Central

    Little, John B.; Kato, Takamitsu A.; Shih, Hung-Ying; Xie, Xian-Jin; Wilson Jr., Paul F.; Brogan, John R.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Chen, David J.; Bedford, Joel S.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.

    2014-01-01

    We have examined cell-cycle dependence of chromosomal aberration induction and cell killing after high or low dose-rate γ irradiation in cells bearing DNA-PKcs mutations in the S2056 cluster, the T2609 cluster, or the kinase domain. We also compared sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) production by very low fluences of α-particles in DNA-PKcs mutant cells, and in homologous recombination repair (HRR) mutant cells including Rad51C, Rad51D, and Fancg/xrcc9. Generally, chromosomal aberrations and cell killing by γ-rays were similarly affected by mutations in DNA-PKcs, and these mutant cells were more sensitive in G1 than in S/G2 phase. In G1-irradiated DNA-PKcs mutant cells, both chromosome- and chromatid-type breaks and exchanges were in excess than wild-type cells. For cells irradiated in late S/G2 phase, mutant cells showed very high yields of chromatid breaks compared to wild-type cells. Few exchanges were seen in DNA-PKcs-null, Ku80-null, or DNA-PKcs kinase dead mutants, but exchanges in excess were detected in the S2506 or T2609 cluster mutants. SCE induction by very low doses of α-particles is resulted from bystander effects in cells not traversed by α-particles. SCE seen in wild-type cells was completely abolished in Rad51C- or Rad51D-deficient cells, but near normal in Fancg/xrcc9 cells. In marked contrast, very high levels of SCEs were observed in DNA-PKcs-null, DNA-PKcs kinase-dead and Ku80-null mutants. SCE induction was also abolished in T2609 cluster mutant cells, but was only slightly reduced in the S2056 cluster mutant cells. Since both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and HRR systems utilize initial DNA lesions as a substrate, these results suggest the possibility of a competitive interference phenomenon operating between NHEJ and at least the Rad51C/D components of HRR; the level of interaction between damaged DNA and a particular DNA-PK component may determine the level of interaction of such DNA with a relevant HRR component. PMID:24714417

  11. Differential radiosensitivity phenotypes of DNA-PKcs mutations affecting NHEJ and HRR systems following irradiation with gamma-rays or very low fluences of alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Fen; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Little, John B; Kato, Takamitsu A; Shih, Hung-Ying; Xie, Xian-Jin; Wilson, Paul F; Brogan, John R; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Chen, David J; Bedford, Joel S; Chen, Benjamin P C

    2014-01-01

    We have examined cell-cycle dependence of chromosomal aberration induction and cell killing after high or low dose-rate γ irradiation in cells bearing DNA-PKcs mutations in the S2056 cluster, the T2609 cluster, or the kinase domain. We also compared sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) production by very low fluences of α-particles in DNA-PKcs mutant cells, and in homologous recombination repair (HRR) mutant cells including Rad51C, Rad51D, and Fancg/xrcc9. Generally, chromosomal aberrations and cell killing by γ-rays were similarly affected by mutations in DNA-PKcs, and these mutant cells were more sensitive in G1 than in S/G2 phase. In G1-irradiated DNA-PKcs mutant cells, both chromosome- and chromatid-type breaks and exchanges were in excess than wild-type cells. For cells irradiated in late S/G2 phase, mutant cells showed very high yields of chromatid breaks compared to wild-type cells. Few exchanges were seen in DNA-PKcs-null, Ku80-null, or DNA-PKcs kinase dead mutants, but exchanges in excess were detected in the S2506 or T2609 cluster mutants. SCE induction by very low doses of α-particles is resulted from bystander effects in cells not traversed by α-particles. SCE seen in wild-type cells was completely abolished in Rad51C- or Rad51D-deficient cells, but near normal in Fancg/xrcc9 cells. In marked contrast, very high levels of SCEs were observed in DNA-PKcs-null, DNA-PKcs kinase-dead and Ku80-null mutants. SCE induction was also abolished in T2609 cluster mutant cells, but was only slightly reduced in the S2056 cluster mutant cells. Since both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and HRR systems utilize initial DNA lesions as a substrate, these results suggest the possibility of a competitive interference phenomenon operating between NHEJ and at least the Rad51C/D components of HRR; the level of interaction between damaged DNA and a particular DNA-PK component may determine the level of interaction of such DNA with a relevant HRR component.

  12. Crystal Structure of DNA-PKcs Reveals a Large Open-Ring Cradle Comprised of HEAT Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Sibanda, Bancinyane L.; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y.; Blundell, Tom L.

    2009-01-01

    Broken chromosomes arising from DNA double strand breaks result from endogenous events such as the production of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism, as well as from exogenous sources such as ionizing radiation1, 2, 3. Left unrepaired or incorrectly repaired they can lead to genomic changes that may result in cell death or cancer. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a holo-enzyme that comprises DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)4, 5 and the heterodimer Ku70/Ku80, plays a major role in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the main pathway in mammals used to repair double strand breaks6, 7, 8. DNA-PKcs is a serine/threonine protein kinase comprising a single polypeptide chain of 4128 amino acids and belonging to the phosphotidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)- related protein family9. DNA-PKcs is involved in the sensing and transmission of DNA damage signals to proteins such as p53, setting off events that lead to cell cycle arrest10, 11. It phosphorylates a wide range of substrates in vitro, including Ku70/Ku80, which is translocated along DNA12. Here we present the crystal structure of human DNA-PKcs at 6.6Å resolution, in which the overall fold is for the first time clearly visible. The many α-helical HEAT repeats (helix-turn-helix motifs) facilitate bending and allow the polypeptide chain to fold into a hollow circular structure. The C-terminal kinase domain is located on top of this structure and a small HEAT repeat domain that likely binds DNA is inside. The structure provides a flexible cradle to promote DNA double-strand-break repair. PMID:20023628

  13. Hyperactivation of ATM upon DNA-PKcs inhibition modulates p53 dynamics and cell fate in response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Finzel, Ana; Grybowski, Andrea; Strasen, Jette; Cristiano, Elena; Loewer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A functional DNA damage response is essential for maintaining genome integrity in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks. It is mainly coordinated by the kinases ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs, which control the repair of broken DNA strands and relay the damage signal to the tumor suppressor p53 to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or senescence. Although many functions of the individual kinases have been identified, it remains unclear how they act in concert to ensure faithful processing of the damage signal. Using specific inhibitors and quantitative analysis at the single-cell level, we systematically characterize the contribution of each kinase for regulating p53 activity. Our results reveal a new regulatory interplay in which loss of DNA-PKcs function leads to hyperactivation of ATM and amplification of the p53 response, sensitizing cells for damage-induced senescence. This interplay determines the outcome of treatment regimens combining irradiation with DNA-PKcs inhibitors in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:27280387

  14. Hyperactivation of ATM upon DNA-PKcs inhibition modulates p53 dynamics and cell fate in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Finzel, Ana; Grybowski, Andrea; Strasen, Jette; Cristiano, Elena; Loewer, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    A functional DNA damage response is essential for maintaining genome integrity in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks. It is mainly coordinated by the kinases ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs, which control the repair of broken DNA strands and relay the damage signal to the tumor suppressor p53 to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or senescence. Although many functions of the individual kinases have been identified, it remains unclear how they act in concert to ensure faithful processing of the damage signal. Using specific inhibitors and quantitative analysis at the single-cell level, we systematically characterize the contribution of each kinase for regulating p53 activity. Our results reveal a new regulatory interplay in which loss of DNA-PKcs function leads to hyperactivation of ATM and amplification of the p53 response, sensitizing cells for damage-induced senescence. This interplay determines the outcome of treatment regimens combining irradiation with DNA-PKcs inhibitors in a p53-dependent manner. © 2016 Finzel et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. DNA-PKcs structure suggests an allosteric mechanism modulating DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, Bancinyane L; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Ascher, David B; Blundell, Tom L

    2017-02-03

    DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a central component of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), repairing DNA double-strand breaks that would otherwise lead to apoptosis or cancer. We have solved its structure in complex with the C-terminal peptide of Ku80 at 4.3 angstrom resolution using x-ray crystallography. We show that the 4128-amino acid structure comprises three large structural units: the N-terminal unit, the Circular Cradle, and the Head. Conformational differences between the two molecules in the asymmetric unit are correlated with changes in accessibility of the kinase active site, which are consistent with an allosteric mechanism to bring about kinase activation. The location of KU80ct194 in the vicinity of the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) binding site suggests competition with BRCA1, leading to pathway selection between NHEJ and homologous recombination.

  16. The catalytic subunit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) facilitates recovery from radiation-induced inhibition of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jun; DiBiase, Steven; Iliakis, George

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation inhibits DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner. The dose response is biphasic and the initial steep component reflects inhibition of replicon initiation thought to be mediated by activation of the S-phase checkpoint. In mammalian cells, inhibition of replicon initiation requires the ataxia telagiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol kinase-like (PIKL) family of protein kinases. We studied the effect on replicon initiation of another member of the PI-3 family of protein kinases, the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) by measuring either total DNA synthesis, or size distribution of nascent DNA using alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. Exposure of human cells proficient in DNA-PKcs (HeLa or M059-K) to 10 Gy inhibited replicon initiation in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition was at a maximum 1 h after irradiation and recovered at later times. Similar treatment of human cells deficient in DNA-PKcs (M059-J) inhibited replicon initiation to a similar level and with similar kinetics; however, no evidence for recovery, or only limited recovery, was observed for up to 8 h after irradiation. In addition a defect was observed in the maturation of nascent DNA. Similarly, a Chinese hamster cell line deficient in DNA-PKcs (irs-20) showed little evidence for recovery of DNA replication inhibition up to 6 h after irradiation, whereas the parental CHO cells showed significant recovery and an irs-20 derivative expressing the human DNA-PKcs complete recovery within 4 h. Normal kinetics of recovery were observed in xrs-5 cells, deficient in Ku80; in 180BR cells, deficient in DNA ligase IV; as well as XR-1 cells, deficient in XRCC4, an accessory factor of DNA ligase IV. Since all these cell lines share the DNA double strand break rejoining defect of M059-J and irs20 cells, the lack of recovery of DNA replication in the latter cells may not be attributed entirely to the prolonged

  17. The catalytic subunit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) facilitates recovery from radiation-induced inhibition of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Guan, J; DiBiase, S; Iliakis, G

    2000-03-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation inhibits DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner. The dose response is biphasic and the initial steep component reflects inhibition of replicon initiation thought to be mediated by activation of the S-phase checkpoint. In mammalian cells, inhibition of replicon initiation requires the ataxia telagiectasia mutated ( ATM ) gene, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol kinase-like (PIKL) family of protein kinases. We studied the effect on replicon initiation of another member of the PI-3 family of protein kinases, the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) by measuring either total DNA synthesis, or size distribution of nascent DNA using alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. Exposure of human cells proficient in DNA-PKcs (HeLa or M059-K) to 10 Gy inhibited replicon initiation in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition was at a maximum 1 h after irradiation and recovered at later times. Similar treatment of human cells deficient in DNA-PKcs (M059-J) inhibited replicon initiation to a similar level and with similar kinetics; however, no evidence for recovery, or only limited recovery, was observed for up to 8 h after irradiation. In addition a defect was observed in the maturation of nascent DNA. Similarly, a Chinese hamster cell line deficient in DNA-PKcs (irs-20) showed little evidence for recovery of DNA replication inhibition up to 6 h after irradiation, whereas the parental CHO cells showed significant recovery and an irs-20 derivative expressing the human DNA-PKcs complete recovery within 4 h. Normal kinetics of recovery were observed in xrs-5 cells, deficient in Ku80; in 180BR cells, deficient in DNA ligase IV; as well as XR-1 cells, deficient in XRCC4, an accessory factor of DNA ligase IV. Since all these cell lines share the DNA double strand break rejoining defect of M059-J and irs20 cells, the lack of recovery of DNA replication in the latter cells may not be attributed entirely to the prolonged

  18. DNA-PKcs dependence of Artemis endonucleolytic activity, differences between hairpins and 5' or 3' overhangs.

    PubMed

    Niewolik, Doris; Pannicke, Ulrich; Lu, Haihui; Ma, Yunmei; Wang, Ling-Chi Vicky; Kulesza, Peter; Zandi, Ebrahim; Lieber, Michael R; Schwarz, Klaus

    2006-11-10

    During V(D)J recombination, the RAG proteins create DNA hairpins at the V, D, or J coding ends, and the structure-specific nuclease Artemis is essential to open these hairpins prior to joining. Artemis also is an endonuclease for 5' and 3' overhangs at many DNA double strand breaks caused by ionizing radiation, and Artemis functions as part of the nonhomologous DNA end joining pathway in repairing these. All of these activities require activation of the Artemis protein by interaction with and phosphorylation by the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). In this study, we have identified a region of the Artemis protein involved in the interaction with DNA-PKcs. Furthermore, the biochemical and functional analyses of C-terminally truncated Artemis variants indicate that the hair-pin opening and DNA overhang endonucleolytic features of Artemis are triggered by DNA-PKcs in two modes. First, autoinhibition mediated by the C-terminal tail of Artemis is relieved by phosphorylation of this tail by DNA-PKcs. Thus, C-terminally truncated Artemis derivatives imitate DNA-PKcs-activated wild type Artemis protein and exhibit intrinsic hairpin opening activity. Second, DNA-PKcs may optimally configure 5' and 3' overhang substrates for the endonucleolytic function of Artemis.

  19. Inhibiting DNA-PKcs in a non-homologous end-joining pathway in response to DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Tian; Ren, Yufeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Ling, Clifton C; He, Fuqiu; Li, Gloria C; Wang, Chengtao; Wen, Bixiu

    2017-04-04

    DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a distinct factor in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We examined the crosstalk between key proteins in the DSB NHEJ repair pathway and cell cycle regulation and found that mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells deficient in DNA-PKcs or Ku70 were more vulnerable to ionizing radiation (IR) compared with wild-type cells and that DSB repair was delayed. γH2AX was associated with phospho-Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (Ser1987) and phospho-checkpoint effector kinase 1 (Ser345) foci for the arrest of cell cycle through the G2/M phase. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs prolonged IR-induced G2/M phase arrest because of sequential activation of cell cycle checkpoints. DSBs were introduced, and cell cycle checkpoints were recruited after exposure to IR in nasopharyngeal carcinoma SUNE-1 cells. NU7441 radiosensitized MEF cells and SUNE-1 cells by interfering with DSB repair. Together, these results reveal a mechanism in which coupling of DSB repair with the cell cycle radiosensitizes NHEJ repair-deficient cells, justifying further development of DNA-PK inhibitors in cancer therapy.

  20. Inhibiting DNA-PKcs in a non-homologous end-joining pathway in response to DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Tian; Ren, Yufeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Ling, Clifton C.; He, Fuqiu; Li, Gloria C.; Wang, Chengtao; Wen, Bixiu

    2017-01-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a distinct factor in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We examined the crosstalk between key proteins in the DSB NHEJ repair pathway and cell cycle regulation and found that mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells deficient in DNA-PKcs or Ku70 were more vulnerable to ionizing radiation (IR) compared with wild-type cells and that DSB repair was delayed. γH2AX was associated with phospho-Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (Ser1987) and phospho-checkpoint effector kinase 1 (Ser345) foci for the arrest of cell cycle through the G2/M phase. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs prolonged IR-induced G2/M phase arrest because of sequential activation of cell cycle checkpoints. DSBs were introduced, and cell cycle checkpoints were recruited after exposure to IR in nasopharyngeal carcinoma SUNE-1 cells. NU7441 radiosensitized MEF cells and SUNE-1 cells by interfering with DSB repair. Together, these results reveal a mechanism in which coupling of DSB repair with the cell cycle radiosensitizes NHEJ repair-deficient cells, justifying further development of DNA-PK inhibitors in cancer therapy. PMID:28186989

  1. Regulation of the DNA Damage Response by DNA-PKcs Inhibitory Phosphorylation of ATM.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jiang, Wenxia; Crowe, Jennie L; Zha, Shan; Paull, Tanya T

    2017-01-05

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) regulates the DNA damage response as well as DNA double-strand break repair through homologous recombination. Here we show that ATM is hyperactive when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is chemically inhibited or when the DNA-PKcs gene is deleted in human cells. Pre-incubation of ATM protein with active DNA-PKcs also significantly reduces ATM activity in vitro. We characterize several phosphorylation sites in ATM that are targets of DNA-PKcs and show that phospho-mimetic mutations at these residues significantly inhibit ATM activity and impair ATM signaling upon DNA damage. In contrast, phospho-blocking mutations at one cluster of sites increase the frequency of apoptosis during normal cell growth. DNA-PKcs, which is integral to the non-homologous end joining pathway, thus negatively regulates ATM activity through phosphorylation of ATM. These observations illuminate an important regulatory mechanism for ATM that also controls DNA repair pathway choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR Interplay Maintains Genome Integrity during Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-01-25

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system.

  3. The profiles of gamma-H2AX along with ATM/DNA-PKcs activation in the lymphocytes and granulocytes of rat and human blood exposed to gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yin, Lina; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Xuxia; Ding, Defang; Gao, Yun; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-08-01

    Establishing a rat model suitable for γ-H2AX biodosimeter studies has important implications for dose assessment of internal radionuclide contamination in humans. In this study, γ-H2AX, p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci were enumerated using immunocytofluorescence method, and their protein levels were measured by Western blot in rat blood lymphocytes and granulocytes exposed to γ-rays compared with human blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. It was found that DNA double-strand break repair kinetics and linear dose responses in rat lymphocytes were similar to those observed in the human counterparts. Moreover, radiation induced clear p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci formation and an increase in ratio of co-localization of p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs with γ-H2AX foci in rat lymphocytes similar to those of human lymphocytes. The level of γ-H2AX protein in irradiated rat and human lymphocytes was significantly reduced by inhibitors of ATM and DNA-PKcs. Surprisingly, unlike human granulocytes, rat granulocytes with DNA-PKcs deficiency displayed a rapid accumulation, but delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci with essentially no change from 10 h to 48 h post-irradiation. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM activity in rat granulocytes also decreased radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. In comparison, human granulocytes showed no response to irradiation regarding γ-H2AX, p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs foci. Importantly, incidence of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes after total-body radiation of rats was consistent with that of in vitro irradiation of rat lymphocytes. These findings show that rats are a useful in vivo model for validation of γ-H2AX biodosimetry for dose assessment in humans. ATM and DNA-PKcs participate together in DSB repair in rat lymphocytes similar to that of human lymphocytes. Further, rat granulocytes, which have the characteristic of delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci in response to radiation, may be a useful experimental system for biodosimetry studies.

  4. Targeting DNA-PKcs and ATM with miR-101 Sensitizes Tumors to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhaobin; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Mao, Hui; Hao, Chunhai; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Curran, Walter J.; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy kills tumor-cells by inducing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the efficient repair of tumors frequently prevents successful treatment. Therefore, identifying new practical sensitizers is an essential step towards successful radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the new hypothesis: identifying the miRNAs to target DNA DSB repair genes could be a new way for sensitizing tumors to ionizing radiation. Principal Findings Here, we chose two genes: DNA-PKcs (an essential factor for non-homologous end-joining repair) and ATM (an important checkpoint regulator for promoting homologous recombination repair) as the targets to search their regulating miRNAs. By combining the database search and the bench work, we picked out miR-101. We identified that miR-101 could efficiently target DNA-PKcs and ATM via binding to the 3′- UTR of DNA-PKcs or ATM mRNA. Up-regulating miR-101 efficiently reduced the protein levels of DNA-PKcs and ATM in these tumor cells and most importantly, sensitized the tumor cells to radiation in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions These data demonstrate for the first time that miRNAs could be used to target DNA repair genes and thus sensitize tumors to radiation. These results provide a new way for improving tumor radiotherapy. PMID:20617180

  5. DNA structure-specific priming of ATR activation by DNA-PKcs

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Eychenié, Sophie; Décaillet, Chantal; Basbous, Jihane

    2013-01-01

    Three phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase–related protein kinases implement cellular responses to DNA damage. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated respond primarily to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Ataxia-telangiectasia and RAD3-related (ATR) signals the accumulation of replication protein A (RPA)–covered single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is caused by replication obstacles. Stalled replication intermediates can further degenerate and yield replication-associated DSBs. In this paper, we show that the juxtaposition of a double-stranded DNA end and a short ssDNA gap triggered robust activation of endogenous ATR and Chk1 in human cell-free extracts. This DNA damage signal depended on DNA-PKcs and ATR, which congregated onto gapped linear duplex DNA. DNA-PKcs primed ATR/Chk1 activation through DNA structure-specific phosphorylation of RPA32 and TopBP1. The synergistic activation of DNA-PKcs and ATR suggests that the two kinases combine to mount a prompt and specific response to replication-born DSBs. PMID:23897887

  6. Cooperation of DNA-PKcs and WRN helicase in the maintenance of telomeric D-loops.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto-Matsuo, Rika; Opresko, Patricia L; Ramsden, Dale; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2010-05-01

    Werner syndrome is an inherited human progeriod syndrome caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Werner Syndrome protein, WRN. It has both 3'-5' DNA helicase and exonuclease activities, and is suggested to have roles in many aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair and telomere maintenance. The DNA-PK complex also functions in both DNA double strand break repair and telomere maintenance. Interaction between WRN and the DNA-PK complex has been reported in DNA double strand break repair, but their possible cooperation at telomeres has not been reported. This study analyzes thein vitro and in vivo interaction at the telomere between WRN and DNA-PKcs, the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK. The results show that DNA-PKcs selectively stimulates WRN helicase but not WRN exonuclease in vitro, affecting that WRN helicase unwinds and promotes the release of the full-length invading strand of a telomere D-loop model substrate. In addition, the length of telomeric G-tails decreases in DNA-PKcs knockdown cells, and this phenotype is reversed by overexpression of WRN helicase. These results suggest that WRN and DNA-PKcs may cooperatively prevent G-tail shortening in vivo.

  7. Cooperation of DNA-PKcs and WRN helicase in the maintenance of telomeric D-loops

    PubMed Central

    Kusumoto-Matsuo, Rika; Opresko, Patricia L.; Ramsden, Dale; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2010-01-01

    Werner syndrome is an inherited human progeriod syndrome caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Werner Syndrome protein, WRN. It has both 3'-5' DNA helicase and exonuclease activities, and is suggested to have roles in many aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair and telomere maintenance. The DNA-PK complex also functions in both DNA double strand break repair and telomere maintenance. Interaction between WRN and the DNA-PK complex has been reported in DNA double strand break repair, but their possible cooperation at telomeres has not been reported. This study analyzes thein vitro and in vivo interaction at the telomere between WRN and DNA-PKcs, the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK. The results show that DNA-PKcs selectively stimulates WRN helicase but not WRN exonuclease in vitro, affecting that WRN helicase unwinds and promotes the release of the full-length invading strand of a telomere D-loop model substrate. In addition, the length of telomeric G-tails decreases in DNA-PKcs knockdown cells, and this phenotype is reversed by overexpression of WRN helicase. These results suggest that WRN and DNA-PKcs may cooperatively prevent G-tail shortening in vivo. PMID:20519774

  8. DNA-PKcs Regulates a Single-stranded DNA Endonuclease Activity of Artemis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiafeng; Li, Sicong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ling-Chi; Niewolik, Doris; Schwarz, Klaus; Legerski, Randy J.; Zandi, Ebrahim; Lieber, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Human nuclease Artemis belongs to the metallo-beta-lactamase protein family. It acquires double-stranded DNA endonuclease activity in the presence of DNA-PKcs. This double-stranded DNA endonuclease activity is critical for opening DNA hairpins in V(D)J recombination and is thought to be important for processing overhangs during the nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) process. Here we show that purified human Artemis exhibits single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity. This activity is proportional to the amount of highly purified Artemis from a gel filtration column. The activity is stimulated by DNA-PKcs and modulated by purified antibodies raised against Artemis. Moreover, the divalent cation-dependence and sequence-dependence of this single-stranded endonuclease activity is the same as the double-stranded DNA endonuclease activity of Artemis:DNA-PKcs. These findings further expand the range of DNA substrates upon which Artemis and Artemis:DNA-PKcs can act. The findings are discussed in the context of NHEJ. PMID:20117966

  9. DNA-PKcs regulates a single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity of Artemis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiafeng; Li, Sicong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ling-Chi; Niewolik, Doris; Schwarz, Klaus; Legerski, Randy J; Zandi, Ebrahim; Lieber, Michael R

    2010-04-04

    Human nuclease Artemis belongs to the metallo-beta-lactamase protein family. It acquires double-stranded DNA endonuclease activity in the presence of DNA-PKcs. This double-stranded DNA endonuclease activity is critical for opening DNA hairpins in V(D)J recombination and is thought to be important for processing overhangs during the nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) process. Here we show that purified human Artemis exhibits single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity. This activity is proportional to the amount of highly purified Artemis from a gel filtration column. The activity is stimulated by DNA-PKcs and modulated by purified antibodies raised against Artemis. Moreover, the divalent cation-dependence and sequence-dependence of this single-stranded endonuclease activity is the same as the double-stranded DNA endonuclease activity of Artemis:DNA-PKcs. These findings further expand the range of DNA substrates upon which Artemis and Artemis:DNA-PKcs can act. The findings are discussed in the context of NHEJ. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DAB2IP regulates autophagy in prostate cancer in response to combined treatment of radiation and a DNA-PKcs inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Tumati, Vasu; Tseng, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Feng-Ming; Kim, D Nathan; Hong, David; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Jacobs, Corbin; Kapur, Payal; Saha, Debabrata

    2012-12-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an effective strategy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa) as well as local invasion. However, some locally advanced cancers develop radiation resistance and recur after therapy; therefore, the development of radiation-sensitizing compounds is essential for treatment of these tumors. DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP), which is a novel member of the Ras-GTPase activating protein family and a regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt activity, is often downregulated in aggressive PCa. Our previous studies have shown that loss of DAB2IP results in radioresistance in PCa cells primarily because of accelerated DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair kinetics, robust G(2)/M checkpoint control, and evasion of apoptosis. A novel DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441 can significantly enhance the effect of radiation in DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells. This enhanced radiation sensitivity after NU7441 treatment is primarily due to delayed DNA DSB repair. More significantly, we found that DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells show dramatic induction of autophagy after treatment with radiation and NU7441. However, restoring DAB2IP expression in PCa cells resulted in decreased autophagy-associated proteins, such as LC3B and Beclin 1, as well as decreased phosphorylation of S6K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, the presence of DAB2IP in PCa cells can lead to more apoptosis in response to combined treatment of NU7441 and ionizing radiation. Taken together, NU7441 is a potent radiosensitizer in aggressive PCa cells and DAB2IP plays a critical role in enhancing PCa cell death after combined treatment with NU7441 and radiation.

  11. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) regulate DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Neal, Jessica A; De Wever, Veerle; Morrice, Nick A; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2014-06-25

    The protein kinase activity of the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and its autophosphorylation are critical for DBS (DNA double-strand break) repair via NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). Recent studies have shown that depletion or inactivation of DNA-PKcs kinase activity also results in mitotic defects. DNA-PKcs is autophosphorylated on Ser2056, Thr2647 and Thr2609 in mitosis and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and the midbody. DNA-PKcs also interacts with PP6 (protein phosphatase 6), and PP6 has been shown to dephosphorylate Aurora A kinase in mitosis. Here we report that DNA-PKcs is phosphorylated on Ser3205 and Thr3950 in mitosis. Phosphorylation of Thr3950 is DNA-PK-dependent, whereas phosphorylation of Ser3205 requires PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1). Moreover, PLK1 phosphorylates DNA-PKcs on Ser3205 in vitro and interacts with DNA-PKcs in mitosis. In addition, PP6 dephosphorylates DNA-PKcs at Ser3205 in mitosis and after IR (ionizing radiation). DNA-PKcs also phosphorylates Chk2 on Thr68 in mitosis and both phosphorylation of Chk2 and autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs in mitosis occur in the apparent absence of Ku and DNA damage. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the roles of DNA-PKcs and PP6 in mitosis and suggest that DNA-PKcs' role in mitosis may be mechanistically distinct from its well-established role in NHEJ.

  12. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs enhances radiosensitivity and increases the levels of ATM and ATR in NSCLC cells exposed to carbon ion irradiation

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LINA; LIU, YUANYUAN; SUN, CHAO; YANG, XINRUI; YANG, ZHEN; RAN, JUNTAO; ZHANG, QIUNING; ZHANG, HONG; WANG, XINYU; WANG, XIAOHU

    2015-01-01

    ATM and ATR did not rescue the A549 cells subjected to ionizing irradiation. Therefore, future studies on DNA-PKcs, ATM and ATR may lead to novel specific therapies that supplement general radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:26722253

  13. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs enhances radiosensitivity and increases the levels of ATM and ATR in NSCLC cells exposed to carbon ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Yang, Xinrui; Yang, Zhen; Ran, Juntao; Zhang, Qiuning; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    ATM and ATR did not rescue the A549 cells subjected to ionizing irradiation. Therefore, future studies on DNA-PKcs, ATM and ATR may lead to novel specific therapies that supplement general radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer.

  14. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) regulate DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Neal, Jessica A.; De Wever, Veerle; Morrice, Nick A.; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase activity of the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and its autophosphorylation are critical for DBS (DNA double-strand break) repair via NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). Recent studies have shown that depletion or inactivation of DNA-PKcs kinase activity also results in mitotic defects. DNA-PKcs is autophosphorylated on Ser2056, Thr2647 and Thr2609 in mitosis and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and the midbody. DNA-PKcs also interacts with PP6 (protein phosphatase 6), and PP6 has been shown to dephosphorylate Aurora A kinase in mitosis. Here we report that DNA-PKcs is phosphorylated on Ser3205 and Thr3950 in mitosis. Phosphorylation of Thr3950 is DNA-PK-dependent, whereas phosphorylation of Ser3205 requires PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1). Moreover, PLK1 phosphorylates DNA-PKcs on Ser3205 in vitro and interacts with DNA-PKcs in mitosis. In addition, PP6 dephosphorylates DNA-PKcs at Ser3205 in mitosis and after IR (ionizing radiation). DNA-PKcs also phosphorylates Chk2 on Thr68 in mitosis and both phosphorylation of Chk2 and autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs in mitosis occur in the apparent absence of Ku and DNA damage. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the roles of DNA-PKcs and PP6 in mitosis and suggest that DNA-PKcs’ role in mitosis may be mechanistically distinct from its well-established role in NHEJ. PMID:24844881

  15. Abnormal DNA-PKcs and Ku 70/80 expression may promote malignant pathological processes in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xie, Chuan; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Jiang; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2013-10-28

    To determine the expression of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer (Ku 70/80) in gastric carcinoma. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 146 gastric carcinoma patients [Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative: 89 and H. pylori-positive: 57] and 34 from normal subjects (H. pylori-negative: 16 and H. pylori-positive: 18) via surgery and endoscopic detection from April 2011 to August 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. Pathological diagnosis and classification were made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization and the updated Sydney system. An ''in-house'' rapid urease test and modified Giemsa staining were employed to detect H. pylori infection. The expression of DNA-PKcs and the Ku 70/80 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Overall, the positive rates of both DNA-PKcs and Ku 70/80 were significantly increased in gastric cancer (χ(2) = 133.04, P < 0.001 for DNA-PKcs and χ(2) = 13.06, P < 0.01 for Ku) compared with normal gastric mucosa. There was hardly any detectable expression of DNA-PKcs in normal gastric mucosa, and the positive rate of DNA-PKcs protein expression in patients with a normal gastric mucosa was 0% (0/34), whereas the rate in gastric cancer (GC) was 93.8% (137/146). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Additionally, the positive rate of Ku 70/80 was 79.4% (27/34) in normal gastric mucosa and 96.6% (141/146) in gastric cancer. The DNA-PKcs protein level was significantly increased in gastric cancer (Mann-Whitney U = 39.00, P < 0.001), compared with normal gastric mucosa. In addition, there was a significant difference in the expression of Ku 70/80 (Mann-Whitney U = 1117.00, P < 0.001) between gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa. There was also a significant difference in Ku70/80 protein expression between GC patients with and without H. pylori infection (P < 0.05). Spearman analysis showed a negative

  16. Differential phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs regulates the interplay between end-processing and end-ligation during nonhomologous end-joining.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxia; Crowe, Jennifer L; Liu, Xiangyu; Nakajima, Satoshi; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Dubois, Richard L; Liu, Chao; Yu, Xiaochun; Lan, Li; Zha, Shan

    2015-04-02

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a major DNA double-strand break repair pathway that is conserved in eukaryotes. In vertebrates, NHEJ further acquires end-processing capacities (e.g., hairpin opening) in addition to direct end-ligation. The catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) is a vertebrate-specific NHEJ factor that can be autophosphorylated or transphosphorylated by ATM kinase. Using a mouse model expressing a kinase-dead (KD) DNA-PKcs protein, we show that ATM-mediated transphosphorylation of DNA-PKcs regulates end-processing at the level of Artemis recruitment, while strict autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs is necessary to relieve the physical blockage on end-ligation imposed by the DNA-PKcs protein itself. Accordingly, DNA-PKcs(KD/KD) mice and cells show severe end-ligation defects and p53- and Ku-dependent embryonic lethality, but open hairpin-sealed ends normally in the presence of ATM kinase activity. Together, our findings identify DNA-PKcs as the molecular switch that coordinates end-processing and end-ligation at the DNA ends through differential phosphorylations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs regulates the interplay between end-processing and end-ligation during non-homologous end-joining

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenxia; Crowe, Jennifer L.; Liu, Xiangyu; Nakajima, Satoshi; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J.; Dubois, Richard L.; Liu, Chao; Yu, Xiaochun; Lan, Li; Zha, Shan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a major DNA double strand break repair pathway that is conserved in eukaryotes. In vertebrates, NHEJ further acquires end-processing capacities (e.g., hairpin opening) in addition to direct end-ligation. The catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) is a vertebrate specific NHEJ factor that can be auto-phosphorylated or trans-phosphorylated by ATM kinase. Using a mouse model expressing a kinase-dead (KD) DNA-PKcs protein, we show that ATM-mediated trans-phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs regulates end-processing at the level of Artemis recruitment, while strictly auto-phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs is necessary to relieve the physical blockage on end-ligation imposed by the DNA-PKcs protein itself. Accordingly, DNA-PKcsKD/KD mice and cells show severe end-ligation defects and p53- and Ku-dependent embryonic lethality, but open hairpin-sealed ends normally in the presence of ATM kinase activity. Together, our findings identify DNA-PKcs as the molecular switch that coordinates end-processing and end-ligation at the DNA ends through differential phosphorylations. PMID:25818648

  18. Targeting DNA double strand break repair with hyperthermia and DNA-PKcs inhibition to enhance the effect of radiation treatment.

    PubMed

    van Oorschot, Bregje; Granata, Giovanna; Di Franco, Simone; Ten Cate, Rosemarie; Rodermond, Hans M; Todaro, Matilde; Medema, Jan Paul; Franken, Nicolaas A P

    2016-10-04

    Radiotherapy is based on the induction of lethal DNA damage, primarily DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Efficient DSB repair via Non-Homologous End Joining or Homologous Recombination can therefore undermine the efficacy of radiotherapy. By suppressing DNA-DSB repair with hyperthermia (HT) and DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441 (DNA-PKcsi), we aim to enhance the effect of radiation.The sensitizing effect of HT for 1 hour at 42°C and DNA-PKcsi [1 μM] to radiation treatment was investigated in cervical and breast cancer cells, primary breast cancer sphere cells (BCSCs) enriched for cancer stem cells, and in an in vivo human tumor model. A significant radio-enhancement effect was observed for all cell types when DNA-PKcsi and HT were applied separately, and when both were combined, HT and DNA-PKcsi enhanced radio-sensitivity to an even greater extent. Strikingly, combined treatment resulted in significantly lower survival rates, 2 to 2.5 fold increase in apoptosis, more residual DNA-DSB 6 h post treatment and a G2-phase arrest. In addition, tumor growth analysis in vivo showed significant reduction in tumor growth and elevated caspase-3 activity when radiation was combined with HT and DNA-PKcsi compared to radiation alone. Importantly, no toxic side effects of HT or DNA-PKcsi were found.In conclusion, inhibiting DNA-DSB repair using HT and DNA-PKcsi before radiotherapy leads to enhanced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This effect was even noticed in the more radio-resistant BCSCs, which are clearly sensitized by combined treatment. Therefore, the addition of HT and DNA-PKcsi to conventional radiotherapy is promising and might contribute to more efficient tumor control and patient outcome.

  19. Targeting DNA double strand break repair with hyperthermia and DNA-PKcs inhibition to enhance the effect of radiation treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Oorschot, Bregje; Granata, Giovanna; Di Franco, Simone; Cate, Rosemarie ten; Rodermond, Hans M.; Todaro, Matilde; Medema, Jan Paul; Franken, Nicolaas A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is based on the induction of lethal DNA damage, primarily DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Efficient DSB repair via Non-Homologous End Joining or Homologous Recombination can therefore undermine the efficacy of radiotherapy. By suppressing DNA-DSB repair with hyperthermia (HT) and DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441 (DNA-PKcsi), we aim to enhance the effect of radiation. The sensitizing effect of HT for 1 hour at 42°C and DNA-PKcsi [1 μM] to radiation treatment was investigated in cervical and breast cancer cells, primary breast cancer sphere cells (BCSCs) enriched for cancer stem cells, and in an in vivo human tumor model. A significant radio-enhancement effect was observed for all cell types when DNA-PKcsi and HT were applied separately, and when both were combined, HT and DNA-PKcsi enhanced radio-sensitivity to an even greater extent. Strikingly, combined treatment resulted in significantly lower survival rates, 2 to 2.5 fold increase in apoptosis, more residual DNA-DSB 6 h post treatment and a G2-phase arrest. In addition, tumor growth analysis in vivo showed significant reduction in tumor growth and elevated caspase-3 activity when radiation was combined with HT and DNA-PKcsi compared to radiation alone. Importantly, no toxic side effects of HT or DNA-PKcsi were found. In conclusion, inhibiting DNA-DSB repair using HT and DNA-PKcsi before radiotherapy leads to enhanced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This effect was even noticed in the more radio-resistant BCSCs, which are clearly sensitized by combined treatment. Therefore, the addition of HT and DNA-PKcsi to conventional radiotherapy is promising and might contribute to more efficient tumor control and patient outcome. PMID:27602767

  20. Enhanced Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in DNA Repair Deficient Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hui Kheng; Asharani, P. V.; Hande, M. Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) have been used in medicine and commercially due to their anti-microbial properties. Therapeutic potentials of these nanoparticles are being explored extensively despite the lack of information on their mechanism of action at molecular and cellular level. Here, we have investigated the DNA damage response and repair following Ag-np treatment in mammalian cells. Studies have shown that Ag-np exerts genotoxicity through double-strand breaks (DSBs). DNA-PKcs, the catalytic subunit of DNA dependent protein kinase, is an important caretaker of the genome which is known to be the main player mediating Non-homologous End-Joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. We hypothesize that DNA-PKcs is responsible for the repair of Ag-np induced DNA damage. In vitro studies have been carried out to investigate both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by Ag-np in normal human cells, DNA-PKcs proficient, and deficient mammalian cells. Chemical inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity with NU7026, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of DNA-PKcs, has been performed to further validate the role of DNA-PKcs in this model. Our results suggest that Ag-np induced more prominent dose-dependent decrease in cell viability in DNA-PKcs deficient or inhibited cells. The deficiency or inhibition of DNA-PKcs renders the cells with higher susceptibility to DNA damage and genome instability which in turn contributed to greater cell cycle arrest/cell death. These findings support the fact that DNA-PKcs is involved in the repair of Ag-np induced genotoxicity and NHEJ repair pathway and DNA-PKcs particularly is activated to safeguard the genome upon Ag-np exposure. PMID:22707954

  1. Enhanced genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in DNA repair deficient Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hui Kheng; Asharani, P V; Hande, M Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) have been used in medicine and commercially due to their anti-microbial properties. Therapeutic potentials of these nanoparticles are being explored extensively despite the lack of information on their mechanism of action at molecular and cellular level. Here, we have investigated the DNA damage response and repair following Ag-np treatment in mammalian cells. Studies have shown that Ag-np exerts genotoxicity through double-strand breaks (DSBs). DNA-PKcs, the catalytic subunit of DNA dependent protein kinase, is an important caretaker of the genome which is known to be the main player mediating Non-homologous End-Joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. We hypothesize that DNA-PKcs is responsible for the repair of Ag-np induced DNA damage. In vitro studies have been carried out to investigate both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by Ag-np in normal human cells, DNA-PKcs proficient, and deficient mammalian cells. Chemical inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity with NU7026, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of DNA-PKcs, has been performed to further validate the role of DNA-PKcs in this model. Our results suggest that Ag-np induced more prominent dose-dependent decrease in cell viability in DNA-PKcs deficient or inhibited cells. The deficiency or inhibition of DNA-PKcs renders the cells with higher susceptibility to DNA damage and genome instability which in turn contributed to greater cell cycle arrest/cell death. These findings support the fact that DNA-PKcs is involved in the repair of Ag-np induced genotoxicity and NHEJ repair pathway and DNA-PKcs particularly is activated to safeguard the genome upon Ag-np exposure.

  2. Radiosensitization and growth inhibition of cancer cells mediated by an scFv antibody gene against DNA-PKcs in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overexpression of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is commonly occurred in cancers and causes radioresistance and poor prognosis. In present study, the single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFv) targeting DNA-PKcs was developed for the application of radiosensitization in vitro and in vivo. A humanized semisynthetic scFv library and the phage-display antibodies technology were employed to screen DNA-PKcs scFv antibody. Methods DNA-PKcs epitopes were predicted and cloned. A humanized semisynthetic scFv library and the phage-display antibodies technology were employed to screen DNA-PKcs scFv antibody. DNA damage repair was analyzed by comet assay and immunofluorescence detection of γH2AX foci. The radiosensitization in vivo was determined on Balb/c athymic mice transplanted tumours of HeLa cells. Results Four epitopes of DNA-PKcs have been predicted and expressed as the antigens, and a specific human anti-DNA-PKcs scFv antibody gene, anti-DPK3-scFv, was obtained by screening the phage antibody library using the DNA-PKcs peptide DPK3. The specificity of anti-DPK3-scFv was verified, in vitro. Transfection of HeLa cells with the anti-DPK3-scFv gene resulted in an increased sensitivity to IR, decreased repair capability of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) detected by comet assay and immunofluorescence detection of γH2AX foci. Moreover, the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs was inhibited by anti-DPK3-scFv, which was displayed by the decreased phosphorylation levels of its target Akt/S473 and the autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on S2056 induced by radiation. Measurement of the growth and apoptosis rates showed that anti-DPK3-scFv enhanced the sensitivity of tumours transplanted in Balb/c athymic mice to radiation therapy. Conclusion The antiproliferation and radiosensitizing effects of anti-DPK3-scFv via targeting DNA-PKcs make it very appealing for the development as a novel biological radiosensitizer for cancer therapeutic potential

  3. Coordination of the Ser2056 and Thr2609 Clusters of DNA-PKcs in Regulating Gamma Rays and Extremely Low Fluencies of Alpha-Particle Irradiation to G0/G1 Phase Cells.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Lin, Yu-Fen; Kato, Takamitsu A; Brogan, John R; Shih, Hung-Ying; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Bedford, Joel S; Chen, Benjamin P C; Little, John B

    2017-02-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and its kinase activity are critical for mediation of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in mammalian cells after gamma-ray irradiation. Additionally, DNA-PKcs phosphorylations at the T2609 cluster and the S2056 cluster also affect DSB repair and cellular sensitivity to gamma radiation. Previously we reported that phosphorylations within these two regions affect not only NHEJ but also homologous recombination repair (HRR) dependent DSB repair. In this study, we further examine phenotypic effects on cells bearing various combinations of mutations within either or both regions. Effects studied included cell killing as well as chromosomal aberration induction after 0.5-8 Gy gamma-ray irradiation delivered to synchronized cells during the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Blocking phosphorylation within the T2609 cluster was most critical regarding sensitization and depended on the number of available phosphorylation sites. It was also especially interesting that only one substitution of alanine in each of the two clusters separately abolished the restoration of wild-type sensitivity by DNA-PKcs. Similar patterns were seen for induction of chromosomal aberrations, reflecting their connection to cell killing. To study possible change in coordination between HRR and NHEJ directed repair in these DNA-PKcs mutant cell lines, we compared the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by very low fluencies of alpha particles with mutant cells defective in the HRR pathway that is required for induction of SCEs. Levels of true SCEs induced by very low fluence of alpha-particle irradiation normally seen in wild-type cells were only slightly decreased in the S2056 cluster mutants, but were completely abolished in the T2609 cluster mutants and were indistinguishable from levels seen in HRR deficient cells. Again, a single substitution in the S2056 together with a single substitution

  4. Coordination of the Ser2056 and Thr2609 Clusters of DNA-PKcs in Regulating Gamma Rays and Extremely Low Fluencies of Alpha-Particle Irradiation to G0/G1 Phase Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Lin, Yu-Fen; Kato, Takamitsu A.; Brogan, John R.; Shih, Hung-Ying; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Bedford, Joel S.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Little, John B.

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and its kinase activity are critical for mediation of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in mammalian cells after gamma-ray irradiation. Additionally, DNA-PKcs phosphorylations at the T2609 cluster and the S2056 cluster also affect DSB repair and cellular sensitivity to gamma radiation. Previously we reported that phosphorylations within these two regions affect not only NHEJ but also homologous recombination repair (HRR) dependent DSB repair. In this study, we further examine phenotypic effects on cells bearing various combinations of mutations within either or both regions. Effects studied included cell killing as well as chromosomal aberration induction after 0.5–8 Gy gamma-ray irradiation delivered to synchronized cells during the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Blocking phosphorylation within the T2609 cluster was most critical regarding sensitization and depended on the number of available phosphorylation sites. It was also especially interesting that only one substitution of alanine in each of the two clusters separately abolished the restoration of wild-type sensitivity by DNA-PKcs. Similar patterns were seen for induction of chromosomal aberrations, reflecting their connection to cell killing. To study possible change in coordination between HRR and NHEJ directed repair in these DNA-PKcs mutant cell lines, we compared the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by very low fluencies of alpha particles with mutant cells defective in the HRR pathway that is required for induction of SCEs. Levels of true SCEs induced by very low fluence of alpha-particle irradiation normally seen in wild-type cells were only slightly decreased in the S2056 cluster mutants, but were completely abolished in the T2609 cluster mutants and were indistinguishable from levels seen in HRR deficient cells. Again, a single substitution in the S2056 together with a single

  5. Role of autophagy in chemoresistance: regulation of the ATM-mediated DNA-damage signaling pathway through activation of DNA-PKcs and PARP-1.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Jung, Sung-Hoo; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2012-03-15

    Capsaicin treatment was previously reported to reduce the sensitivity of breast cancer cells, but not normal MCF10A cells, to apoptosis. The present study shows that autophagy is involved in cellular resistance to genotoxic stress, through DNA repair. Capsaicin treatment of MCF-7 cells induced S-phase arrest and autophagy through the AMPKα-mTOR signaling pathway and the accumulation of p53 in the nucleus and cytosol, including a change in mitochondrial membrane potential. Capsaicin treatment also activated δ-H2AX, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1. Genetic or pharmacological disruption of autophagy attenuated capsaicin-induced phospho-ATM and phospho-DNA-PKcs and enhanced apoptotic cell death. ATM inhibitors, including Ku55933 and caffeine, and the genetic or pharmacological inhibition of p53 prevented capsaicin-induced DNA-PKcs phosphorylation and stimulated PARP-1 cleavage, but had no effect on microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II levels. Ly294002, a DNA-PKcs inhibitor, boosted the capsaicin-induced cleavage of PARP-1. In M059K cells, but not M059J cells, capsaicin induced ATM and DNA-PKcs phosphorylation, p53 accumulation, and the stimulation of LC3II production, all of which were attenuated by knockdown of the autophagy-related gene atg5. Ku55933 attenuated capsaicin-induced phospho-DNA-PKcs, but not LC3II, in M059K cells. In human breast tumors, but not in normal tissues, AMPKα, ATM, DNA-PKcs, and PARP-1 were activated and LC3II was induced. The induction of autophagy by genotoxic stress likely contributes to the sustained survival of breast cancer cells through DNA repair regulated by ATM-mediated activation of DNA-PKcs and PARP-1.

  6. Structural analysis of DNA-PKcs: modelling of the repeat units and insights into the detailed molecular architecture.

    PubMed

    Brewerton, Suzanne C; Doré, Andrew S; Drake, Adam C B; Leuther, Kerstin K; Blundell, Tom L

    2004-03-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is part of the eukaryotic DNA double strand break repair pathway and as such is crucial for maintenance of genomic stability, as well as for V(D)J (variable-diversity-joining) recombination. The catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) belongs to the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase-like kinase (PIKK) superfamily and is comprised of approximately 4100 amino acids. We have used a novel repeat detection method to analyse this enormous protein and have identified two different types of helical repeat motifs in the N-terminal region of the sequence, as well as other previously unreported features in this repeat region. A comparison with the ATMs, ATRs, and TORs show that the features identified are likely to be conserved throughout the PIKK superfamily. Homology modelling of parts of the DNA-PKcs sequence has been undertaken and we have been able to fit the models to previously obtained electron microscopy data. This work provides an insight into the overall architecture of the DNA-PKcs protein and identifies regions of interest for further experimental studies.

  7. In vitro binding kinetics of DNA double strand break repair proteins Ku70/80 and DNA-PKcs quantified by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdisalaam, Salim; Chen, David J.; Alexandrakis, George

    2012-02-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal types of DNA damage that occurs in eukaryotic cells. There are two distinct pathways of repairing DSBs, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). In the NHEJ repairing pathway, DSB recognition and repair initiation is directed by the interaction of DNAbinding subunit Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-PK protein catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). Mutations in these proteins result in repair stalling and eventual DNA misrepair that may lead to genomic instability. Studying the binding kinetics of these repair proteins is therefore important for understanding the conditions under which DSB repair stalls. Currently open questions are, what is the minimum DNA length that this complex needs to get a foothold onto a DSB and how tightly does DNA-PKcs bind onto the DNA-Ku70/80 complex. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCCS) techniques have the potential to give information about the binding kinetics of DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions at the single-molecule level. In this work, FCS/FCCS measurements were performed to explore the minimum DNA base-pair (bp) length that Ku70/80 needed as a foothold to bind effectively onto the tips of different lengths of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments that mimic DSBs. 25 bp, 33 bp and 50 bp of dsDNA were used for these experiments and binding was studied as a function of salt concentration in solution. It was found that the 25 bp binding was weak even at physiological salt concentrations while the dissociation constant (Kd) remained constant for 33 and 50 bp dsDNA strand lengths. These studies indicated that the minimum binding length for the Ku70/8 is in the vicinity of 25 bp. The specificity of binding of Ku70/80 was proven by competitive binding FCCS experiments between Cy5-labeled DNA, GFP-Ku70/80 and titrations of unlabeled Ku70/80. Finally, using FCCS it was possible to estimate

  8. Functional redundancy between the XLF and DNA-PKcs DNA repair factors in V(D)J recombination and nonhomologous DNA end joining.

    PubMed

    Oksenych, Valentyn; Kumar, Vipul; Liu, Xiangyu; Guo, Chunguang; Schwer, Bjoern; Zha, Shan; Alt, Frederick W

    2013-02-05

    Classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ) is a major mammalian DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that is required for assembly of antigen receptor variable region gene segments by V(D)J recombination. Recombination activating gene endonuclease initiates V(D)J recombination by generating DSBs between two V(D)J coding gene segments and flanking recombination signal sequences (RS), with the two coding ends and two RS ends joined by C-NHEJ to form coding joins and signal joins, respectively. During C-NHEJ, recombination activating gene factor generates two coding ends as covalently sealed hairpins and RS ends as blunt 5'-phosphorylated DSBs. Opening and processing of coding end hairpins before joining by C-NHEJ requires the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). However, C-NHEJ of RS ends, which do not require processing, occurs relatively normally in the absence of DNA-PKcs. The XRCC4-like factor (XLF) is a C-NHEJ component that is not required for C-NHEJ of chromosomal signal joins or coding joins because of functional redundancy with ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase, a protein that also has some functional overlap with DNA-PKcs in this process. Here, we show that XLF has dramatic functional redundancy with DNA-PKcs in the V(D)J SJ joining process, which is nearly abrogated in their combined absence. Moreover, we show that XLF functionally overlaps with DNA-PKcs in normal mouse development, promotion of genomic stability in mouse fibroblasts, and in IgH class switch recombination in mature B cells. Our findings suggest that DNA-PKcs has fundamental roles in C-NHEJ processes beyond end processing that have been masked by functional overlaps with XLF.

  9. An Intrinsically Disordered APLF Links Ku, DNA-PKcs, and XRCC4-DNA Ligase IV in an Extended Flexible Non-homologous End Joining Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, Michal; Yu, Yaping; Radhakrishnan, Sarvan K.; Chokshi, Chirayu; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kuzdovich, Monica; Remesh, Soumya G.; Fang, Shujuan; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Tainer, John A.

    2016-11-14

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in human cells is initiated by Ku heterodimer binding to a DSB, followed by recruitment of core NHEJ factors including DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4-like factor (XLF), and XRCC4 (X4)-DNA ligase IV (L4). Ku also interacts with accessory factors such as aprataxin and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase-like factor (APLF). But, how these factors interact to tether, process, and ligate DSB ends while allowing regulation and chromatin interactions remains enigmatic. Here, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and mutational analyses show APLF is largely an intrinsically disordered protein that binds Ku, Ku/DNA-PKcs (DNA-PK), and X4L4 within an extended flexible NHEJ core complex. X4L4 assembles with Ku heterodimers linked to DNA-PKcs via flexible Ku80 C-terminal regions (Ku80CTR) in a complex stabilized through APLF interactions with Ku, DNA-PK, and X4L4. Our collective results unveil the solution architecture of the six-protein complex and suggest cooperative assembly of an extended flexible NHEJ core complex that supports APLF accessibility while possibly providing flexible attachment of the core complex to chromatin. The resulting dynamic tethering furthermore, provides geometric access of L4 catalytic domains to the DNA ends during ligation and of DNA-PKcs for targeted phosphorylation of other NHEJ proteins as well as trans-phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on the opposing DSB without disrupting the core ligation complex. Overall the results shed light on evolutionary conservation of Ku, X4, and L4 activities, while explaining the observation that Ku80CTR and DNA-PKcs only occur in a subset of higher eukaryotes.

  10. An Intrinsically Disordered APLF Links Ku, DNA-PKcs, and XRCC4-DNA Ligase IV in an Extended Flexible Non-homologous End Joining Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Michal; Yu, Yaping; Radhakrishnan, Sarvan K.; Chokshi, Chirayu; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kuzdovich, Monica; Remesh, Soumya G.; Fang, Shujuan; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in human cells is initiated by Ku heterodimer binding to a DSB, followed by recruitment of core NHEJ factors including DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4-like factor (XLF), and XRCC4 (X4)-DNA ligase IV (L4). Ku also interacts with accessory factors such as aprataxin and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase-like factor (APLF). Yet, how these factors interact to tether, process, and ligate DSB ends while allowing regulation and chromatin interactions remains enigmatic. Here, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and mutational analyses show APLF is largely an intrinsically disordered protein that binds Ku, Ku/DNA-PKcs (DNA-PK), and X4L4 within an extended flexible NHEJ core complex. X4L4 assembles with Ku heterodimers linked to DNA-PKcs via flexible Ku80 C-terminal regions (Ku80CTR) in a complex stabilized through APLF interactions with Ku, DNA-PK, and X4L4. Collective results unveil the solution architecture of the six-protein complex and suggest cooperative assembly of an extended flexible NHEJ core complex that supports APLF accessibility while possibly providing flexible attachment of the core complex to chromatin. The resulting dynamic tethering furthermore, provides geometric access of L4 catalytic domains to the DNA ends during ligation and of DNA-PKcs for targeted phosphorylation of other NHEJ proteins as well as trans-phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on the opposing DSB without disrupting the core ligation complex. Overall the results shed light on evolutionary conservation of Ku, X4, and L4 activities, while explaining the observation that Ku80CTR and DNA-PKcs only occur in a subset of higher eukaryotes. PMID:27875301

  11. DNA requirements for interaction of the C-terminal region of Ku80 with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs).

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sarvan Kumar; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2017-09-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Critical to NHEJ is the DNA-dependent interaction of the Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the DNA-PK holoenzyme. However, precisely how Ku recruits DNA-PKcs to DSBs ends to enhance its kinase activity has remained enigmatic, with contradictory findings reported in the literature. Here we address the role of the Ku80 C-terminal region (CTR) in the DNA-dependent interaction of Ku70/80 with DNA-PKcs using purified components and defined DNA structures. Our results show that the Ku80 CTR is required for interaction with DNA-PKcs on short segments of blunt ended 25bp dsDNA or 25bp dsDNA with a 15-base poly dA single stranded (ss) DNA extension, but this requirement is less stringent on longer dsDNA molecules (35bp blunt ended dsDNA) or 25bp duplex DNA with either a 15-base poly dT or poly dC ssDNA extension. Moreover, the DNA-PKcs-Ku complex preferentially forms on 25 bp DNA with a poly-pyrimidine ssDNA extension.Our work clarifies the role of the Ku80 CTR and dsDNA ends on the interaction of DNA-PKcs with Ku and provides key information to guide assembly and biology of NHEJ complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An Intrinsically Disordered APLF Links Ku, DNA-PKcs, and XRCC4-DNA Ligase IV in an Extended Flexible Non-homologous End Joining Complex.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Michal; Yu, Yaping; Radhakrishnan, Sarvan K; Chokshi, Chirayu; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kuzdovich, Monica; Remesh, Soumya G; Fang, Shujuan; Tomkinson, Alan E; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Tainer, John A

    2016-12-30

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in human cells is initiated by Ku heterodimer binding to a DSB, followed by recruitment of core NHEJ factors including DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4-like factor (XLF), and XRCC4 (X4)-DNA ligase IV (L4). Ku also interacts with accessory factors such as aprataxin and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase-like factor (APLF). Yet, how these factors interact to tether, process, and ligate DSB ends while allowing regulation and chromatin interactions remains enigmatic. Here, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and mutational analyses show APLF is largely an intrinsically disordered protein that binds Ku, Ku/DNA-PKcs (DNA-PK), and X4L4 within an extended flexible NHEJ core complex. X4L4 assembles with Ku heterodimers linked to DNA-PKcs via flexible Ku80 C-terminal regions (Ku80CTR) in a complex stabilized through APLF interactions with Ku, DNA-PK, and X4L4. Collective results unveil the solution architecture of the six-protein complex and suggest cooperative assembly of an extended flexible NHEJ core complex that supports APLF accessibility while possibly providing flexible attachment of the core complex to chromatin. The resulting dynamic tethering furthermore, provides geometric access of L4 catalytic domains to the DNA ends during ligation and of DNA-PKcs for targeted phosphorylation of other NHEJ proteins as well as trans-phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on the opposing DSB without disrupting the core ligation complex. Overall the results shed light on evolutionary conservation of Ku, X4, and L4 activities, while explaining the observation that Ku80CTR and DNA-PKcs only occur in a subset of higher eukaryotes. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Non-redundant Functions of ATM and DNA-PKcs in Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Caron, Pierre; Choudjaye, Jonathan; Clouaire, Thomas; Bugler, Béatrix; Daburon, Virginie; Aguirrebengoa, Marion; Mangeat, Thomas; Iacovoni, Jason S; Álvarez-Quilón, Alejandro; Cortés-Ledesma, Felipe; Legube, Gaëlle

    2015-11-24

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicit the so-called DNA damage response (DDR), largely relying on ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), two members of the PI3K-like kinase family, whose respective functions during the sequential steps of the DDR remains controversial. Using the DIvA system (DSB inducible via AsiSI) combined with high-resolution mapping and advanced microscopy, we uncovered that both ATM and DNA-PKcs spread in cis on a confined region surrounding DSBs, independently of the pathway used for repair. However, once recruited, these kinases exhibit non-overlapping functions on end joining and γH2AX domain establishment. More specifically, we found that ATM is required to ensure the association of multiple DSBs within "repair foci." Our results suggest that ATM acts not only on chromatin marks but also on higher-order chromatin organization to ensure repair accuracy and survival.

  14. Non-redundant Functions of ATM and DNA-PKcs in Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Pierre; Choudjaye, Jonathan; Clouaire, Thomas; Bugler, Béatrix; Daburon, Virginie; Aguirrebengoa, Marion; Mangeat, Thomas; Iacovoni, Jason S.; Álvarez-Quilón, Alejandro; Cortés-Ledesma, Felipe; Legube, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    Summary DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicit the so-called DNA damage response (DDR), largely relying on ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), two members of the PI3K-like kinase family, whose respective functions during the sequential steps of the DDR remains controversial. Using the DIvA system (DSB inducible via AsiSI) combined with high-resolution mapping and advanced microscopy, we uncovered that both ATM and DNA-PKcs spread in cis on a confined region surrounding DSBs, independently of the pathway used for repair. However, once recruited, these kinases exhibit non-overlapping functions on end joining and γH2AX domain establishment. More specifically, we found that ATM is required to ensure the association of multiple DSBs within “repair foci.” Our results suggest that ATM acts not only on chromatin marks but also on higher-order chromatin organization to ensure repair accuracy and survival. PMID:26586426

  15. Preventing Damage Limitation: Targeting DNA-PKcs and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathways for Ovarian Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dungl, Daniela A.; Maginn, Elaina N.; Stronach, Euan A.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of ovarian cancer treatment, and its efficacy is dependent on the generation of DNA damage, with subsequent induction of apoptosis. Inappropriate or aberrant activation of the DNA damage response network is associated with resistance to platinum, and defects in DNA repair pathways play critical roles in determining patient response to chemotherapy. In ovarian cancer, tumor cell defects in homologous recombination – a repair pathway activated in response to double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) – are most commonly associated with platinum-sensitive disease. However, despite initial sensitivity, the emergence of resistance is frequent. Here, we review strategies for directly interfering with DNA repair pathways, with particular focus on direct inhibition of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), another DSB repair pathway. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a core component of NHEJ and it has shown considerable promise as a chemosensitization target in numerous cancer types, including ovarian cancer where it functions to promote platinum-induced survival signaling, via AKT activation. The development of pharmacological inhibitors of DNA-PKcs is on-going, and clinic-ready agents offer real hope to patients with chemoresistant disease. PMID:26579492

  16. Artemis C-terminal region facilitates V(D)J recombination through its interactions with DNA Ligase IV and DNA-PKcs.

    PubMed

    Malu, Shruti; De Ioannes, Pablo; Kozlov, Mikhail; Greene, Marsha; Francis, Dailia; Hanna, Mary; Pena, Jesse; Escalante, Carlos R; Kurosawa, Aya; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Adachi, Noritaka; Vezzoni, Paolo; Villa, Anna; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Cortes, Patricia

    2012-05-07

    Artemis is an endonuclease that opens coding hairpin ends during V(D)J recombination and has critical roles in postirradiation cell survival. A direct role for the C-terminal region of Artemis in V(D)J recombination has not been defined, despite the presence of immunodeficiency and lymphoma development in patients with deletions in this region. Here, we report that the Artemis C-terminal region directly interacts with the DNA-binding domain of Ligase IV, a DNA Ligase which plays essential roles in DNA repair and V(D)J recombination. The Artemis-Ligase IV interaction is specific and occurs independently of the presence of DNA and DNA-protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), another protein known to interact with the Artemis C-terminal region. Point mutations in Artemis that disrupt its interaction with Ligase IV or DNA-PKcs reduce V(D)J recombination, and Artemis mutations that affect interactions with Ligase IV and DNA-PKcs show additive detrimental effects on coding joint formation. Signal joint formation remains unaffected. Our data reveal that the C-terminal region of Artemis influences V(D)J recombination through its interaction with both Ligase IV and DNA-PKcs.

  17. Artemis C-terminal region facilitates V(D)J recombination through its interactions with DNA Ligase IV and DNA-PKcs

    PubMed Central

    Malu, Shruti; De Ioannes, Pablo; Kozlov, Mikhail; Greene, Marsha; Francis, Dailia; Hanna, Mary; Pena, Jesse; Escalante, Carlos R.; Kurosawa, Aya; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Adachi, Noritaka; Vezzoni, Paolo; Villa, Anna; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2012-01-01

    Artemis is an endonuclease that opens coding hairpin ends during V(D)J recombination and has critical roles in postirradiation cell survival. A direct role for the C-terminal region of Artemis in V(D)J recombination has not been defined, despite the presence of immunodeficiency and lymphoma development in patients with deletions in this region. Here, we report that the Artemis C-terminal region directly interacts with the DNA-binding domain of Ligase IV, a DNA Ligase which plays essential roles in DNA repair and V(D)J recombination. The Artemis–Ligase IV interaction is specific and occurs independently of the presence of DNA and DNA–protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), another protein known to interact with the Artemis C-terminal region. Point mutations in Artemis that disrupt its interaction with Ligase IV or DNA-PKcs reduce V(D)J recombination, and Artemis mutations that affect interactions with Ligase IV and DNA-PKcs show additive detrimental effects on coding joint formation. Signal joint formation remains unaffected. Our data reveal that the C-terminal region of Artemis influences V(D)J recombination through its interaction with both Ligase IV and DNA-PKcs. PMID:22529269

  18. An Intrinsically Disordered APLF Links Ku, DNA-PKcs, and XRCC4-DNA Ligase IV in an Extended Flexible Non-homologous End Joining Complex

    DOE PAGES

    Hammel, Michal; Yu, Yaping; Radhakrishnan, Sarvan K.; ...

    2016-11-14

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in human cells is initiated by Ku heterodimer binding to a DSB, followed by recruitment of core NHEJ factors including DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4-like factor (XLF), and XRCC4 (X4)-DNA ligase IV (L4). Ku also interacts with accessory factors such as aprataxin and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase-like factor (APLF). But, how these factors interact to tether, process, and ligate DSB ends while allowing regulation and chromatin interactions remains enigmatic. Here, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and mutational analyses show APLF is largely an intrinsically disordered protein that binds Ku, Ku/DNA-PKcsmore » (DNA-PK), and X4L4 within an extended flexible NHEJ core complex. X4L4 assembles with Ku heterodimers linked to DNA-PKcs via flexible Ku80 C-terminal regions (Ku80CTR) in a complex stabilized through APLF interactions with Ku, DNA-PK, and X4L4. Our collective results unveil the solution architecture of the six-protein complex and suggest cooperative assembly of an extended flexible NHEJ core complex that supports APLF accessibility while possibly providing flexible attachment of the core complex to chromatin. The resulting dynamic tethering furthermore, provides geometric access of L4 catalytic domains to the DNA ends during ligation and of DNA-PKcs for targeted phosphorylation of other NHEJ proteins as well as trans-phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on the opposing DSB without disrupting the core ligation complex. Overall the results shed light on evolutionary conservation of Ku, X4, and L4 activities, while explaining the observation that Ku80CTR and DNA-PKcs only occur in a subset of higher eukaryotes.« less

  19. Repair of radiation-induced heat-labile sites is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 or PARP

    SciTech Connect

    Stenerlöw, Bo; Karlsson, Karin H.; Radulescu, Irina; Rydberg, Bjorn; Stenerlow, Bo

    2008-04-29

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of different DNA lesions: in addition to the most critical DNA damage, the DSB, numerous base alterations, SSBs and other modifications of the DNA double-helix are formed. When several non-DSB lesions are clustered within a short distance along DNA, or close to a DSB, they may interfere with the repair of DSBs and affect the measurement of DSB induction and repair. We have previously shown that a substantial fraction of DSBs measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are in fact due to heat-labile sites (HLS) within clustered lesions, thus reflecting an artifact of preparation of genomic DNA at elevated temperature. To further characterize the influence of HLS on DSB induction and repair, four human cell lines (GM5758, GM7166, M059K, U-1810) with apparently normal DSB rejoining were tested for bi-phasic rejoining after gamma irradiation. When heat-released DSBs were excluded from the measurements the fraction of fast rejoining decreased to less than 50% of the total. However, neither the half-times of the fast (t{sub 1/2} = 7-8 min) or slow (t{sub 1/2} = 2.5 h) DSB rejoining were changed significantly. At t=0 the heat-released DSBs accounted for almost 40% of the DSBs, corresponding to 10 extra DSB/cell/Gy in the initial DSB yield. These heat-released DSBs were repaired within 60-90 min in all tested cells, including M059K cells treated with wortmannin or DNA-PKcs defect M059J cells. Furthermore, cells lacking XRCC1 or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) rejoined both total DSBs and heat-released DSBs similar to normal cells. In summary, the presence of heat-labile sites have a substantial impact on DSB induction yields and DSB rejoining rates measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and HLS repair is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 and PARP.

  20. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor TMU-35435 enhances etoposide cytotoxicity through the proteasomal degradation of DNA-PKcs in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Hua; Hong, Chi-Wei; Wang, Yi-Ching; Huang, Wei-Jan; Yeh, Ya-Ling; Wang, Bour-Jr; Wang, Ying-Jan; Chiu, Hui-Wen

    2017-08-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treatment offers only limited benefits, and it is very relevant given the significant number of deaths that it causes. DNA repair pathways can enable tumor cells to survive DNA damage that is induced by chemotherapeutic or radiation treatments. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) inhibited DNA repair proteins. However, the detailed mechanisms for this inhibition remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether a newly developed HDACi, TMU-35435, could enhance etoposide cytotoxicity by inhibiting DNA repair proteins in triple-negative breast cancer. We found synergistic cytotoxicity following treatment of 4T1 cells with etoposide and TMU-35435. Furthermore, TMU-35435 enhances etoposide-induced DNA damage by inhibiting the DNA repair pathway (non-homologous end joining, NHEJ). TMU-35435 suppresses the NHEJ pathway through the ubiquitination of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). In addition, TMU-35435 ubiquitinated DNA-PKcs by inducing the interaction between RNF144A (an E3 ligase) and DNA-PKcs. The combined treatment induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death in 4T1 cells. In an orthotopic breast cancer model, combined treatment with TMU-35435 and etoposide showed anti-tumor growth through the increase of DNA damage and cell death. Taken together, our data suggest that TMU-35435 enhances etoposide cytotoxicity by regulating ubiquitin-proteasome system and inhibiting the DNA repair pathway in TNBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA-PKcs interacts with Aire and regulates the expression of toll-like receptors in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Zhu, W; Fu, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, J; Yang, W; Li, Y

    2012-05-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) is a key mediator of the central tolerance for peripheral tissue self-antigen (PTAs) and is involved in the transcriptional control of many antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs). However, the function of Aire in peripheral lymphoid tissues and haematopoietic cells, particularly in monocytes and macrophages, remains poorly understood. We previously found that the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR3 and TLR8 was notably upregulated in pEGFPC1/Aire stably transfected RAW264.7 (GFP-Aire/RAW) cells, while the expressions of other TLRs were not significantly changed. The mechanism by which Aire affects TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8 expression is not clear. Interactions with other proteins, such as DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), are crucial for regulating the transcriptional activity of Aire. In this study, we found that Aire and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were co-located in the nucleus of GFP-Aire/RAW cells, and they interact with each other. Small interfering RNA knock-down of DNA-PKcs in these cells decreased the expression of TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8, but no change was observed in pEGFPC1 stably transfected RAW264.7 (GFP/RAW) cells. We did not observe any change in the expressions of other TLRs after DNA-PKcs knock-down in GFP-Aire/RAW or GFP/RAW cells. A similar observation has been made in pEGFPC1/Aire or pEGFPC1 transiently transfected primary peritoneal macrophages. Using a luciferase activity assay, we found the that the transcriptional activity of TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8 promoters was also decreased after knock-down of DNA-PKcs in GFP-Aire/RAW cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that DNA-PKcs may interact with Aire to promote the expression of TLRs in RAW264.7 cells. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Oversized AAV transductifon is mediated via a DNA-PKcs-independent, Rad51C-dependent repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Li, Chengwen; Bellon, Isabella; Yin, Chaoying; Chavala, Sai; Pryadkina, Marina; Richard, Isabelle; Samulski, Richard Jude

    2013-12-01

    A drawback of gene therapy using adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the DNA packaging restriction of the viral capsid (<4.7 kb). Recent observations demonstrate oversized AAV genome transduction through an unknown mechanism. Herein, AAV production using an oversized reporter (6.2 kb) resulted in chloroform and DNase-resistant particles harboring distinct "fragment" AAV (fAAV) genomes (5.0, 2.4, and 1.6 kb). Fractionation experiments determined that only the larger "fragments" mediated transduction in vitro, and relatively efficient transduction was also demonstrated in the muscle, the eye, and the liver. In contrast with concatemerization-dependent large-gene delivery by split AAV, fAAV transduction is independent of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) in vitro and in vivo while disproportionately reliant on the DNA strand-annealing protein Rad51C. Importantly, fAAV's unique dependence on DNA repair proteins, compared with intact AAV, strongly suggests that the majority of oversized AAV transduction is mediated by fragmented genomes. Although fAAV transduction is less efficient than intact AAV, it is enhanced fourfold in muscle and sevenfold in the retina compared with split AAV transduction. Furthermore, fAAV carrying codon-optimized therapeutic dysferlin cDNA in a 7.5 kb expression cassette restored dysferlin levels in a dystrophic model. Collectively, oversized AAV genome transduction requires unique DNA repair pathways and offers an alternative, more efficient strategy for large-gene therapy.

  3. Structure-Specific nuclease activities of Artemis and the Artemis: DNA-PKcs complex

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Howard H.Y.; Lieber, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemis is a vertebrate nuclease with both endo- and exonuclease activities that acts on a wide range of nucleic acid substrates. It is the main nuclease in the non-homologous DNA end-joining pathway (NHEJ). Not only is Artemis important for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in NHEJ, it is essential in opening the DNA hairpin intermediates that are formed during V(D)J recombination. Thus, humans with Artemis deficiencies do not have T- or B-lymphocytes and are diagnosed with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). While Artemis is the only vertebrate nuclease capable of opening DNA hairpins, it has also been found to act on other DNA substrates that share common structural features. Here, we discuss the key structural features that all Artemis DNA substrates have in common, thus providing a basis for understanding how this structure-specific nuclease recognizes its DNA targets. PMID:27198222

  4. Structure-Specific nuclease activities of Artemis and the Artemis: DNA-PKcs complex.

    PubMed

    Chang, Howard H Y; Lieber, Michael R

    2016-06-20

    Artemis is a vertebrate nuclease with both endo- and exonuclease activities that acts on a wide range of nucleic acid substrates. It is the main nuclease in the non-homologous DNA end-joining pathway (NHEJ). Not only is Artemis important for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in NHEJ, it is essential in opening the DNA hairpin intermediates that are formed during V(D)J recombination. Thus, humans with Artemis deficiencies do not have T- or B-lymphocytes and are diagnosed with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). While Artemis is the only vertebrate nuclease capable of opening DNA hairpins, it has also been found to act on other DNA substrates that share common structural features. Here, we discuss the key structural features that all Artemis DNA substrates have in common, thus providing a basis for understanding how this structure-specific nuclease recognizes its DNA targets. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Enhancement of Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer by DNA-PKcs Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid...leading cause of cancer death (~30,000/year) in men in the USA. Surgery and radiotherapy are the most effective therapies to treat PCa patients. However...cancer death (~30,000/year) in men in the USA. Surgery and radiotherapy are the most effective therapies to treat PCa patients. However, both these

  6. K-RAS(V12) Induces Autocrine Production of EGFR Ligands and Mediates Radioresistance Through EGFR-Dependent Akt Signaling and Activation of DNA-PKcs

    SciTech Connect

    Minjgee, Minjmaa; Toulany, Mahmoud; Kehlbach, Rainer; Giehl, Klaudia; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: It is known that postirradiation survival of tumor cells presenting mutated K-RAS is mediated through autocrine activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study the molecular mechanism of radioresistance of cells overexpressing mutated K-RAS(V12) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu) presenting wild-type K-RAS were transfected with empty vector or vector expressing mutated K-RAS(V12). The effect of K-RAS(V12) on autocrine production of EGFR ligands, activation of EGFR downstream pathways, DNA damage repair, and postirradiation survival was analyzed. Results: Conditioned medium collected from K-RAS(V12)-transfected cells enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway and increased postirradiation survival of wild-type K-RAS parental cells when compared with controls. These effects were reversed by amphiregulin (AREG)-neutralizing antibody. In addition, secretion of the EGFR ligands AREG and transforming growth factor {alpha} was significantly increased upon overexpression of K-RAS(V12). Expression of mutated K-RAS(V12) resulted in an increase in radiation-induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation at S2056. This increase was accompanied by increased repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Abrogation of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation by serum depletion or AREG-neutralizing antibody underscored the role of autocrine production of EGFR ligands, namely, AREG, in regulating DNA-PKcs activation in K-RAS mutated cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that radioresistance of K-RAS mutated tumor cells is at least in part due to constitutive production of EGFR ligands, which mediate enhanced repair of DNA double-strand breaks through the EGFR-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt cascade.

  7. The involvement of c-Myc in the DNA double-strand break repair via regulating radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM and DNA-PKcs activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fengmei; Fan, Rong; Chen, Qiu; He, Yongming; Song, Man; Shang, Zengfu; Zhang, Shimeng; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2015-08-01

    Deregulation of c-Myc often occurs in various human cancers, which not only contributes to the genesis and progression of cancers but also affects the outcomes of cancer radio- or chemotherapy. In this study, we have investigated the function of c-Myc in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) induced by γ-ray irradiation. A c-Myc-silenced Hela-630 cell line was generated from HeLa cells using RNA interference technology. The DNA DSBs were detected by γ-H2AX foci, neutral comet assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We found that the capability of DNA DSB repair in Hela-630 cells was significantly reduced, and the repair kinetics of DSB was delayed as compared to the control Hela-NC cells. Silence of c-myc sensitized the cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The phosphorylated c-Myc (Thr58/pSer62) formed the consistent co-localisation foci with γ-H2AX as well as the phosphorylated DNA-PKcs/S2056 in the irradiated cells. Moreover, depression of c-Myc largely attenuated the ionizing radiation-induced phosphorylation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and decreased the in vitro kinase activity of DNA-PKcs. Taken together, our results demonstrated that c-Myc protein functions in the process of DNA double-strand break repair, at least partially, through affecting the ATM phosphorylation and DNA-PKcs kinase activity. The overexpression of c-Myc in tumours can account for the radioresistance of some tumour cell types.

  8. Regulation of pairing between broken DNA-containing chromatin regions by Ku80, DNA-PKcs, ATM, and 53BP1

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Miwa; Hirakawa, Miyako; Tsujita, Keiko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangement is clinically and physiologically important because it can produce oncogenic fusion genes. Chromosome rearrangement requires DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at two genomic locations and misrejoining between the DSBs. Before DSB misrejoining, two DSB-containing chromatin regions move and pair with each other; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of ionizing radiation-induced foci of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a marker for DSB-containing chromatin. We found that some 53BP1 foci were paired, indicating that the two damaged chromatin regions neighboured one another. We searched for factors regulating the foci pairing and found that the number of paired foci increased when Ku80, DNA-PKcs, or ATM was absent. In contrast, 53BP1 depletion reduced the number of paired foci and dicentric chromosomes—an interchromosomal rearrangement. Foci were paired more frequently in heterochromatin than in euchromatin in control cells. Additionally, the reduced foci pairing in 53BP1-depleted cells was rescued by concomitant depletion of a heterochromatin building factor such as Krüppel-associated box-associated protein 1 or chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 3. These findings indicate that pairing between DSB-containing chromatin regions was suppressed by Ku80, DNA-PKcs, and ATM, and this pairing was promoted by 53BP1 through chromatin relaxation. PMID:28155885

  9. Cadmium delays non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair via inhibition of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation and downregulation of XRCC4 and Ligase IV.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Gu, Xueyan; Zhang, Xiaoning; Kong, Jinxin; Ding, Nan; Qi, Yongmei; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Jufang; Huang, Dejun

    2015-09-01

    Although studies have shown that cadmium (Cd) interfered with DNA damage repair (DDR), whether Cd could affect non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair remains elusive. To further understand the effect of Cd on DDR, we used X-ray irradiation of Hela cells as an in vitro model system, along with γH2AX and 53BP1 as markers for DNA damage. Results showed that X-ray significantly increased γH2AX and 53BP1 foci in Hela cells (p < 0.01), all of which are characteristic of accrued DNA damage. The number of foci declined rapidly over time (1-8h postirradiation), indicating an initiation of NHEJ process. However, the disappearance of γH2AX and 53BP1 foci was remarkably slowed by Cd pretreatment (p < 0.01), suggesting that Cd reduced the efficiency of NHEJ. To further elucidate the mechanisms of Cd toxicity, several markers of NHEJ pathway including Ku70, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and Ligase IV were examined. Our data showed that Cd altered the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs, and reduced the expression of both XRCC4 and Ligase IV in irradiated cells. These observations are indicative of the impairment of NHEJ-dependent DNA repair pathways. In addition, zinc (Zn) mitigated the effects of Cd on NHEJ, suggesting that the Cd-induced NHEJ alteration may partly result from the displacement of Zn or from an interference with the normal function of Zn-containing proteins by Cd. Our findings provide a new insight into the toxicity of Cd on NHEJ repair and its underlying mechanisms in human cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. B7-H1 antibodies lose antitumor activity due to activation of p38 MAPK that leads to apoptosis of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wu, Xiaosheng; Cao, Siyu; Harrington, Susan M.; Yin, Peng; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Dong, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    B7-H1 (aka PD-L1) blocking antibodies have been used in treatment of human cancers through blocking B7-H1 expressed by tumor cells; however, their impact on B7-H1 expressing tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells is still unknown. Here, we report that tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells expressing B7-H1 are functional effector cells. In contrast to normal B7-H1 blocking antibody, B7-H1 antibodies capable of activating p38 MAPK lose their antitumor activity by deleting B7-H1+ tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells via p38 MAPK pathway. B7-H1 deficiency or engagement with certain antibody results in more activation of p38 MAPK that leads to T cell apoptosis. DNA-PKcs is a new intracellular partner of B7-H1 in the cytoplasm of activated CD8+ T cells. B7-H1 suppresses p38 MAPK activation by sequestering DNA-PKcs in order to preserve T cell survival. Our findings provide a new mechanism of action of B7-H1 in T cells and have clinical implications in cancer immunotherapy when anti-B7-H1 (PD-L1) antibody is applied. PMID:27824138

  11. TRAIL sensitize MDR cells to MDR-related drugs by down-regulation of P-glycoprotein through inhibition of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and activation of caspases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of new modulator possessing high efficacy, low toxicity and high selectivity is a pivotal approach to overcome P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer treatment. In this study, we suggest a new molecular mechanism that TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) down-regulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp) through inhibition of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and activation of caspases and thereby sensitize MDR cells to MDR-related drugs. Results MDR variants, CEM/VLB10-2, CEM/VLB55-8 and CEM/VLB100 cells, with gradually increased levels of P-gp derived from human lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells, were gradually more susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity than parental CEM cells. The P-gp level of MDR variants was positively correlated with the levels of DNA-PKcs, pAkt, pGSK-3β and c-Myc as well as DR5 and negatively correlated with the level of c-FLIPs. Hypersensitivity of CEM/VLB100 cells to TRAIL was accompanied by the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as well as the activation of initiator caspases. In addition, TRAIL-induced down-regulation of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and c-FLIP and up-regulation of cell surface expression of death receptors were associated with the increased susceptibility to TRAIL of MDR cells. Moreover, TRAIL inhibited P-gp efflux function via caspase-3-dependent degradation of P-gp as well as DNA-PKcs and subsequently sensitized MDR cells to MDR-related drugs such as vinblastine and doxorubicin. We also found that suppression of DNA-PKcs by siRNA enhanced the susceptibility of MDR cells to vincristine as well as TRAIL via down-regulation of c-FLIP and P-gp expression and up-regulation of DR5. Conclusion This study showed for the first time that the MDR variant of CEM cells was hypersensitive to TRAIL due to up-regulation of DR5 and concomitant down-regulation of c-FLIP, and degradation of P-gp and DNA-PKcs by activation of caspase-3 might be

  12. Lead Toxicity and Iron Deficiency in Utah Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Stephen D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determines the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, aged 9-72 months. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity. Thirteen percent of all children tested, and 30 percent of those aged 9-23 months, were iron deficient. Hematocrit determination is an insensitive screen for iron deficiency.…

  13. Lead Toxicity and Iron Deficiency in Utah Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Stephen D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determines the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, aged 9-72 months. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity. Thirteen percent of all children tested, and 30 percent of those aged 9-23 months, were iron deficient. Hematocrit determination is an insensitive screen for iron deficiency.…

  14. Correct end use during end joining of multiple chromosomal double strand breaks is influenced by repair protein RAD50, DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PKcs, and transcription context.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Amanda; Bennardo, Nicole; Cheng, Anita; Stark, Jeremy M

    2011-12-09

    During repair of multiple chromosomal double strand breaks (DSBs), matching the correct DSB ends is essential to limit rearrangements. To investigate the maintenance of correct end use, we examined repair of two tandem noncohesive DSBs generated by endonuclease I-SceI and the 3' nonprocessive exonuclease Trex2, which can be expressed as an I-SceI-Trex2 fusion. We examined end joining (EJ) repair that maintains correct ends (proximal-EJ) versus using incorrect ends (distal-EJ), which provides a relative measure of incorrect end use (distal end use). Previous studies showed that ATM is important to limit distal end use. Here we show that DNA-PKcs kinase activity and RAD50 are also important to limit distal end use, but that H2AX is dispensable. In contrast, we find that ATM, DNA-PKcs, and RAD50 have distinct effects on repair events requiring end processing. Furthermore, we developed reporters to examine the effects of the transcription context on DSB repair, using an inducible promoter. We find that a DSB downstream from an active promoter shows a higher frequency of distal end use, and a greater reliance on ATM for limiting incorrect end use. Conversely, DSB transcription context does not affect end processing during EJ, the frequency of homology-directed repair, or the role of RAD50 and DNA-PKcs in limiting distal end use. We suggest that RAD50, DNA-PKcs kinase activity, and transcription context are each important to limit incorrect end use during EJ repair of multiple DSBs, but that these factors and conditions have distinct roles during repair events requiring end processing.

  15. Correct End Use during End Joining of Multiple Chromosomal Double Strand Breaks Is Influenced by Repair Protein RAD50, DNA-dependent Protein Kinase DNA-PKcs, and Transcription Context*

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Amanda; Bennardo, Nicole; Cheng, Anita; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2011-01-01

    During repair of multiple chromosomal double strand breaks (DSBs), matching the correct DSB ends is essential to limit rearrangements. To investigate the maintenance of correct end use, we examined repair of two tandem noncohesive DSBs generated by endonuclease I-SceI and the 3′ nonprocessive exonuclease Trex2, which can be expressed as an I-SceI-Trex2 fusion. We examined end joining (EJ) repair that maintains correct ends (proximal-EJ) versus using incorrect ends (distal-EJ), which provides a relative measure of incorrect end use (distal end use). Previous studies showed that ATM is important to limit distal end use. Here we show that DNA-PKcs kinase activity and RAD50 are also important to limit distal end use, but that H2AX is dispensable. In contrast, we find that ATM, DNA-PKcs, and RAD50 have distinct effects on repair events requiring end processing. Furthermore, we developed reporters to examine the effects of the transcription context on DSB repair, using an inducible promoter. We find that a DSB downstream from an active promoter shows a higher frequency of distal end use, and a greater reliance on ATM for limiting incorrect end use. Conversely, DSB transcription context does not affect end processing during EJ, the frequency of homology-directed repair, or the role of RAD50 and DNA-PKcs in limiting distal end use. We suggest that RAD50, DNA-PKcs kinase activity, and transcription context are each important to limit incorrect end use during EJ repair of multiple DSBs, but that these factors and conditions have distinct roles during repair events requiring end processing. PMID:22027841

  16. Functional Intersection of ATM and DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit in Coding End Joining during V(D)J Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Baeck-Seung; Gapud, Eric J.; Zhang, Shichuan; Dorsett, Yair; Bredemeyer, Andrea; George, Rosmy; Callen, Elsa; Daniel, Jeremy A.; Osipovich, Oleg; Oltz, Eugene M.; Bassing, Craig H.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Lees-Miller, Susan; Hammel, Michal; Chen, Benjamin P. C.

    2013-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is initiated by the RAG endonuclease, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the border between two recombining gene segments, generating two hairpin-sealed coding ends and two blunt signal ends. ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) are serine-threonine kinases that orchestrate the cellular responses to DNA DSBs. During V(D)J recombination, ATM and DNA-PKcs have unique functions in the repair of coding DNA ends. ATM deficiency leads to instability of postcleavage complexes and the loss of coding ends from these complexes. DNA-PKcs deficiency leads to a nearly complete block in coding join formation, as DNA-PKcs is required to activate Artemis, the endonuclease that opens hairpin-sealed coding ends. In contrast to loss of DNA-PKcs protein, here we show that inhibition of DNA-PKcs kinase activity has no effect on coding join formation when ATM is present and its kinase activity is intact. The ability of ATM to compensate for DNA-PKcs kinase activity depends on the integrity of three threonines in DNA-PKcs that are phosphorylation targets of ATM, suggesting that ATM can modulate DNA-PKcs activity through direct phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs. Mutation of these threonine residues to alanine (DNA-PKcs3A) renders DNA-PKcs dependent on its intrinsic kinase activity during coding end joining, at a step downstream of opening hairpin-sealed coding ends. Thus, DNA-PKcs has critical functions in coding end joining beyond promoting Artemis endonuclease activity, and these functions can be regulated redundantly by the kinase activity of either ATM or DNA-PKcs. PMID:23836881

  17. Lead toxicity and iron deficiency in Utah migrant children

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.D.; Lee, J.; Lutz, L.J.; Woolley, F.R.; Baxter, S. ); Civish, F. ); Johnson, M. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors determined the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, ages 9-72 months, during the summer of 1985. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity, 13% of those tested and 30% of the children ages 9-23 months were iron deficient. Hematocrit determinations accurately predicted iron deficiency in only 35% of the children confirmed to have this disorder via erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening.

  18. Lead toxicity and iron deficiency in Utah migrant children.

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, S D; Lee, J; Lutz, L J; Woolley, F R; Baxter, S; Civish, F; Johnson, M

    1989-01-01

    We determined the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, ages 9-72 months, during the summer of 1985. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity. Thirteen per cent of those tested and 30 per cent of the children ages 9-23 months were iron deficient. Hematocrit determinations accurately predicted iron deficiency in only 35 per cent of the children confirmed to have this disorder via erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening. PMID:2650572

  19. [Gaspar Casal: ecological description of pellagra, the leading deficiency disease].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    The third in a series of highlights from public health classics in Spain features Gaspar Casal (1680-1759), who discovered pellagra, the leading deficiency disease, in nosological terms, in his surrounding environment.

  20. DNA repair-deficient Xpa/p53 knockout mice are sensitive to the non-genotoxic carcinogen cyclosporine A: escape of initiated cells from immunosurveillance?

    PubMed Central

    van Kesteren, Petra C.E.; Beems, Rudolf B.; Luijten, Mirjam; Robinson, Joke; de Vries, Annemieke; van Steeg, Harry

    2009-01-01

    The DNA repair-deficient Xpa−/−p53+/− (Xpa/p53) mouse is a potent model for carcinogenicity testing, representing increased sensitivity toward genotoxic but surprisingly also toward true human non-genotoxic carcinogens. The mechanism of this increased sensitivity in Xpa/p53 mice toward non-genotoxic carcinogens is still unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the human non-genotoxic carcinogen cyclosporine A (CsA) in the Xpa/p53 mouse model. Xpa/p53 mice exposed to CsA for 39 weeks showed a significantly increased lymphoma incidence as compared with untreated Xpa/p53 mice and CsA-treated wild-type (WT) mice. We excluded concealed genotoxicity of CsA in Xpa/p53 mice by mutant frequency analyses. As a next step, we used a genetic approach: immunodeficient DNA-PKcs mice, defective in the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, were crossed with Xpa and Xpa/p53 mice. Xpa/p53 mice had an increased lymphoma incidence with shorter latency times as compared with DNA-PKcs-deficient WT and Xpa mice. Surprisingly, also six of 15 DNA-PKcs/Xpa/p53 females had developed an adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland. Tumor responses in CsA-treated and DNA-PKcs-deficient Xpa/p53 mice were comparable as both genotypes developed mainly splenic lymphomas enriched in B lymphocytes. From our present studies, we hypothesize that levels of initiated precancerous cells are elevated in Xpa/p53 mice. These cells are insufficiently eliminated due to either suppression of the immune system by CsA or through immune-related DNA-PKcs deficiency. Based on the current studies and those conducted previously, we conclude that the Xpa/p53 model is an excellent adjunct to the current chronic rodent bioassay. PMID:19136475

  1. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kohansieh, Michelle; Makaryus, Amgad N.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in an individual's mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism. PMID:26495139

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia and blood lead concentrations in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Conde, Andréia; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Sakuma, Alice

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between iron deficiency/iron deficiency anaemia, assessed by several parameters, and blood lead concentration in children. This cross-sectional study involved 384 Brazilian children, aged 2-11 years, who lived near a lead-manipulating industry. Complete blood counts were obtained by an automated cell counter. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin were determined respectively, by colorimetric, turbidimetric methods and chemiluminescence. Blood lead was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The impact of several parameters for assessment of iron status (haemoglobin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation, ferritin, red cell indices and red cell distribution width) and variables (gender, age, mother's education, income, body mass index, iron intake, and distance from home to lead-manipulating industry) on blood lead concentration was determined by multiple linear regression. There were significant negative associations between blood lead and the distance from home to the lead-manipulating industry (P<0.001), Hb (P=0.019), and ferritin (P=0.023) (R(2)=0.14). Based on these results, further epidemiological studies are necessary to investigate the impact of interventions like iron supplementation or fortification, as an attempt to decrease blood lead in children.

  3. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein and DNA-dependent protein kinase have complementary V(D)J recombination functions.

    PubMed

    Zha, Shan; Jiang, Wenxia; Fujiwara, Yuko; Patel, Harin; Goff, Peter H; Brush, James W; Dubois, Richard L; Alt, Frederick W

    2011-02-01

    Antigen receptor variable region exons are assembled during lymphocyte development from variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments. Each germ-line gene segment is flanked by recombination signal sequences (RSs). Recombination-activating gene endonuclease initiates V(D)J recombination by cleaving a pair of gene segments at their junction with flanking RSs to generate covalently sealed (hairpinned) coding ends (CEs) and blunt 5'-phosphorylated RS ends (SEs). Subsequently, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) opens, processes, and fuses CEs to form coding joins (CJs) and precisely joins SEs to form signal joins (SJs). DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) activates Artemis endonuclease to open and process hairpinned CEs before their fusion into CJs by other NHEJ factors. Although DNA-PKcs is absolutely required for CJs, SJs are formed to variable degrees and with variable fidelity in different DNA-PKcs-deficient cell types. Thus, other factors may compensate for DNA-PKcs function in SJ formation. DNA-PKcs and the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase are members of the same family, and they share common substrates in the DNA damage response. Although ATM deficiency compromises chromosomal V(D)J CJ formation, it has no reported role in SJ formation in normal cells. Here, we report that DNA-PKcs and ATM have redundant functions in SJ formation. Thus, combined DNA-PKcs and ATM deficiency during V(D)J recombination leads to accumulation of unjoined SEs and lack of SJ fidelity. Moreover, treatment of DNA-PKcs- or ATM-deficient cells, respectively, with specific kinase inhibitors for ATM or DNA-PKcs recapitulates SJ defects, indicating that the overlapping V(D)J recombination functions of ATM and DNA-PKcs are mediated through their kinase activities.

  4. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase is required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress independent of DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengxia; Lin, Yu-Fen; Palchik, Guillermo A; Matsunaga, Shinji; Wang, Dong; Chen, Benjamin P C

    2014-11-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are the two major kinases involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and are required for cellular resistance to ionizing radiation. Whereas ATM is the key upstream kinase for DSB signaling, DNA-PKcs is primarily involved in DSB repair through the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) mechanism. In addition to DSB repair, ATM has been shown to be involved in the oxidative stress response and could be activated directly in vitro on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. However, the role of DNA-PKcs in cellular response to oxidative stress is not clear. We hypothesize that DNA-PKcs may participate in the regulation of ATM activation in response to oxidative stress, and that this regulatory role is independent of its role in DNA double-strand break repair. Our findings reveal that H2O2 induces hyperactivation of ATM signaling in DNA-PKcs-deficient, but not Ligase 4-deficient cells, suggesting an NHEJ-independent role for DNA-PKcs. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs deficiency leads to the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and to a decrease in cellular survival against H2O2. For the first time, our results reveal that DNA-PKcs plays a noncanonical role in the cellular response to oxidative stress, which is independent from its role in NHEJ. In addition, DNA-PKcs is a critical regulator of the oxidative stress response and contributes to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Our findings reveal that DNA-PKcs is required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress and suppression of ROS buildup independently of its function in DSB repair.

  5. Mevalonate kinase deficiency leads to decreased prenylation of Rab GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Jurczyluk, Julie; Munoz, Marcia A; Skinner, Oliver P; Chai, Ryan C; Ali, Naveid; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Quinn, Julian MW; Preston, Alexandra; Tangye, Stuart G; Brown, Andrew J; Argent, Elizabeth; Ziegler, John B; Mehr, Sam; Rogers, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in a key enzyme of the mevalonate–cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, leading to recurrent autoinflammatory disease characterised by enhanced release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). It is currently believed that the inflammatory phenotype of MKD is triggered by temperature-sensitive loss of mevalonate kinase activity and reduced biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids required for the prenylation of small GTPase proteins. However, previous studies have not clearly shown any change in protein prenylation in patient cells under normal conditions. With lymphoblast cell lines from two compound heterozygous MKD patients, we used a highly sensitive in vitro prenylation assay, together with quantitative mass spectrometry, to reveal a subtle accumulation of unprenylated Rab GTPases in cells cultured for 3 days or more at 40 °C compared with 37 °C. This included a 200% increase in unprenylated Rab7A, Rab14 and Rab1A. Inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activation by fatostatin led to more pronounced accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins in MKD cells but not parent cells, suggesting that cultured MKD cells may partially overcome the loss of isoprenoid lipids by SREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes required for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, while inhibition of Rho/Rac/Rap prenylation promoted the release of IL-1β, specific inhibition of Rab prenylation by NE10790 had no effect in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human THP-1 monocytic cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time that mutations in mevalonate kinase can lead to a mild, temperature-induced defect in the prenylation of small GTPases, but that loss of prenylated Rab GTPases is not the cause of enhanced IL-1β release in MKD. PMID:27377765

  6. Mevalonate kinase deficiency leads to decreased prenylation of Rab GTPases.

    PubMed

    Jurczyluk, Julie; Munoz, Marcia A; Skinner, Oliver P; Chai, Ryan C; Ali, Naveid; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Quinn, Julian Mw; Preston, Alexandra; Tangye, Stuart G; Brown, Andrew J; Argent, Elizabeth; Ziegler, John B; Mehr, Sam; Rogers, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in a key enzyme of the mevalonate-cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, leading to recurrent autoinflammatory disease characterised by enhanced release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). It is currently believed that the inflammatory phenotype of MKD is triggered by temperature-sensitive loss of mevalonate kinase activity and reduced biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids required for the prenylation of small GTPase proteins. However, previous studies have not clearly shown any change in protein prenylation in patient cells under normal conditions. With lymphoblast cell lines from two compound heterozygous MKD patients, we used a highly sensitive in vitro prenylation assay, together with quantitative mass spectrometry, to reveal a subtle accumulation of unprenylated Rab GTPases in cells cultured for 3 days or more at 40 °C compared with 37 °C. This included a 200% increase in unprenylated Rab7A, Rab14 and Rab1A. Inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activation by fatostatin led to more pronounced accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins in MKD cells but not parent cells, suggesting that cultured MKD cells may partially overcome the loss of isoprenoid lipids by SREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes required for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, while inhibition of Rho/Rac/Rap prenylation promoted the release of IL-1β, specific inhibition of Rab prenylation by NE10790 had no effect in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human THP-1 monocytic cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time that mutations in mevalonate kinase can lead to a mild, temperature-induced defect in the prenylation of small GTPases, but that loss of prenylated Rab GTPases is not the cause of enhanced IL-1β release in MKD.

  7. Lead phytotoxicity in soils and nutrient solutions is related to lead induced phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheyns, Karlien; Peeters, Sofie; Delcourt, Dorien; Smolders, Erik

    2012-05-01

    This study was set up to relate lead (Pb) bioavailability with its toxicity to plants in soils. Tomato and barley seedlings were grown in six different PbCl(2) spiked soils (pH: 4.7-7.4; eCEC: 4.2-41.7 cmol(c)/kg). Soils were leached and pH corrected after spiking to exclude confounding factors. Plant growth was halved at 1600-6500 mg Pb/kg soil for tomato and at 1900-8300 mg Pb/kg soil for barley. These soil Pb threshold were unrelated to soil pH, organic carbon, texture or eCEC and neither soil solution Pb nor Pb(2+) ion activity adequately explained Pb toxicity among soils. Shoot phosphorus (P) concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tomato grown in hydroponics at either varying P supply or at increasing Pb (equal initial P) illustrated that shoot P explained growth response in both scenarios. The results suggest that Pb toxicity is partially related to Pb induced P deficiency, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation.

  8. Lead induced thiamine deficiency in the brain decreased the threshold of electroshock seizure in rat.

    PubMed

    Cheong, J H; Seo, D O; Ryu, J R; Shin, C Y; Kim, Y T; Kim, H C; Kim, W K; Ko, K H

    1999-04-15

    Many neurological disorders that occur frequently in lead intoxicated animals, have also been observed in thiamine deficient animals. To test whether lead intoxication could decrease the thiamine status and thresholds of electroshock seizure in rats, 3-week-old Wistar rats were treated with lead or lead plus thiamine. For comparison, a thiamine deficient group was included. Thiamine contents and transketolase activity, one of the thiamine dependent enzymes in the brain regions were significantly lowered by lead intoxication and thiamine deficiency. In both cases, thresholds of the electroshock seizure were significantly decreased. Thiamine supplementation reversed these signs and decreased the brain lead concentration in the lead treated group. The results from the present study suggest that the increased seizure susceptibility induced by lead intoxication in rats may be mediated at least in part through the changes of thiamine status.

  9. Smooth Muscle Hgs Deficiency Leads to Impaired Esophageal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jicheng; Hou, Ning; Zhang, Chong; Teng, Yan; Cheng, Xuan; Li, Zhenhua; Ren, Jie; Zeng, Jian; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiao; Lan, Yu

    2015-01-01

    As a master component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport proteins, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hgs) participates multiple cellular behaviors. However, the physiological role of Hgs in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is by far unknown. Here we explored the in vivo function of Hgs in SMCs by using a conditional gene knockout strategy. Hgs deficiency in SMCs uniquely led to a progressive dilatation of esophagus with a remarkable thinning muscle layer. Of note, the mutant esophagus showed a decreased contractile responsiveness to potassium chloride and acetylcholine stimulation. Furthermore, an increase in the inhibitory neurites along with an intense infiltration of T lymphocytes in the mucosa and muscle layer were observed. Consistently, Hgs deficiency in SMCs resulted in a disturbed expression of a set of genes involved in neurotrophin and inflammation, suggesting that defective SMC might be a novel source for excessive production of cytokines and chemokines which may trigger the neuronal dysplasia and ultimately contribute to the compromised esophageal motility. The data suggest potential implications in the pathogenesis of related diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:26078721

  10. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-08

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic lethal targeting of DNA double strand break repair deficient cells by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rebeka; McNeill, Daniel R.; Abbotts, Rachel; Mohammed, Mohammed Z.; Zdzienicka, Małgorzata Z.; Qutob, Haitham; Seedhouse, Claire; Laughton, Charles A.; Fischer, Peter M.; Patel, Poulam M.; Wilson, David M.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site is an obligatory cytotoxic intermediate in DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) that is processed by human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 is essential for BER and an emerging drug target in cancer. We have isolated novel small molecule inhibitors of APE1. In the current study we have investigated the ability of APE1 inhibitors to induce synthetic lethality in a panel of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair deficient and proficient cells; a) Chinese hamster (CH) cells: BRCA2 deficient (V-C8), ATM deficient (V-E5), wild type (V79) and BRCA2 revertant (V-C8(Rev1)). b) Human cancer cells: BRCA1 deficient (MDA-MB-436), BRCA1 proficient (MCF-7), BRCA2 deficient (CAPAN-1 and HeLa SilenciX cells), BRCA2 proficient (PANC1 and control SilenciX cells). We also tested synthetic lethality (SL) in CH ovary cells expressing a dominant–negative form of APE1 (E8 cells) using ATM inhibitors and DNA-PKcs inhibitors (DSB inhibitors). APE1 inhibitors are synthetically lethal in BRCA and ATM deficient cells. APE1 inhibition resulted in accumulation of DNA DSBs and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Synthetic lethality was also demonstrated in CH cells expressing a dominant–negative form of APE1 treated with ATM or DNA-PKcs inhibitors. We conclude that APE1 is a promising synthetic lethality target in cancer. PMID:22377908

  12. Iron deficiency associated with higher blood lead in children living in contaminated environments.

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, A; Eskenazi, B; Sutton, P; Athanasoulis, M; Goldman, L R

    2001-01-01

    The evidence that iron deficiency increases lead child exposure is based primarily on animal data and limited human studies, and some of this evidence is contradictory. No studies of iron status and blood lead levels in children have accounted for environmental lead contamination and, therefore, the source of their exposure. Thus, no studies have directly determined whether iron deficiency modifies the relationship of environmental lead and blood lead. In this study, we compared blood lead levels of iron-deficient and iron-replete children living in low, medium, or highly contaminated environments. Measurements of lead in paint, soil, dust, and blood, age of housing, and iron status were collected from 319 children ages 1-5. We developed two lead exposure factors to summarize the correlated exposure variables: Factor 1 summarized all environmental measures, and Factor 2 was weighted for lead loading of house dust. The geometric mean blood lead level was 4.9 microg/dL; 14% exceeded 10 microg/dL. Many of the children were iron deficient (24% with ferritin < 12 ng/dL). Seventeen percent of soil leads exceeded 500 microg/g, and 23% and 63% of interior and exterior paint samples exceeded 5,000 microg/g. The unadjusted geometric mean blood lead level for iron-deficient children was higher by 1 microg/dL; this difference was greater (1.8 microg/dL) after excluding Asians. Blood lead levels were higher for iron-deficient children for each tertile of exposure as estimated by Factors 1 and 2 for non-Asian children. Elevated blood lead among iron-deficient children persisted after adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate regression; the largest difference in blood lead levels between iron-deficient and -replete children, approximately 3 microg/dL, was among those living in the most contaminated environments. Asian children had a paradoxical association of sufficient iron status and higher blood lead level, which warrants further investigation. Improving iron status

  13. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    SciTech Connect

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra; Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad; Blann, Andrew; Ahmed, Nessar

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  14. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Muhammad Ataur; Rahman, Bushra; Ahmad, Muhammad Saeed; Blann, Andrew; Ahmed, Nessar

    2012-10-01

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] μg/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] μg/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  15. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein and DNA-dependent protein kinase have complementary V(D)J recombination functions

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Shan; Jiang, Wenxia; Fujiwara, Yuko; Patel, Harin; Goff, Peter H.; Brush, James W.; Dubois, Richard L.; Alt, Frederick W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigen receptor variable region exons are assembled during lymphocyte development from variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments. Each germ-line gene segment is flanked by recombination signal sequences (RSs). Recombination-activating gene endonuclease initiates V(D)J recombination by cleaving a pair of gene segments at their junction with flanking RSs to generate covalently sealed (hairpinned) coding ends (CEs) and blunt 5′-phosphorylated RS ends (SEs). Subsequently, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) opens, processes, and fuses CEs to form coding joins (CJs) and precisely joins SEs to form signal joins (SJs). DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) activates Artemis endonuclease to open and process hairpinned CEs before their fusion into CJs by other NHEJ factors. Although DNA-PKcs is absolutely required for CJs, SJs are formed to variable degrees and with variable fidelity in different DNA-PKcs–deficient cell types. Thus, other factors may compensate for DNA-PKcs function in SJ formation. DNA-PKcs and the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase are members of the same family, and they share common substrates in the DNA damage response. Although ATM deficiency compromises chromosomal V(D)J CJ formation, it has no reported role in SJ formation in normal cells. Here, we report that DNA-PKcs and ATM have redundant functions in SJ formation. Thus, combined DNA-PKcs and ATM deficiency during V(D)J recombination leads to accumulation of unjoined SEs and lack of SJ fidelity. Moreover, treatment of DNA-PKcs– or ATM-deficient cells, respectively, with specific kinase inhibitors for ATM or DNA-PKcs recapitulates SJ defects, indicating that the overlapping V(D)J recombination functions of ATM and DNA-PKcs are mediated through their kinase activities. PMID:21245310

  16. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 deficiency leads to cytokine resistance and protection against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Hui; Ohman, Miina K; Guo, Chiao; Shi, Kate; Wang, Julia; Eitzman, Daniel T

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to atherosclerotic plaque growth. However, mechanism(s) responsible for endothelial priming and deactivation in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis are not clear. Apolipoprotein E deficient mice were generated with deficiency of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (Psgl-1(-/-), ApoE(-/-)). On both standard chow and Western diet, Psgl-1(-/-), ApoE(-/-) mice were protected against atherosclerosis compared to Psgl-1(+/+), ApoE(-/-) controls. Psgl-1(-/-), ApoE(-/-) mice also showed reduced leukocyte rolling and firm attachment on endothelial cells, however, adoptively transferred Psgl-1(+/+), ApoE(-/-) leukocytes into Psgl-1(-/-), ApoE(-/-) hosts displayed similar reduced rolling as Psgl-1(-/-), ApoE(-/-) leukocytes. Hematopoietic deficiency of Psgl-1 conferred resistance to the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) on leukocyte rolling along with reduced circulating levels of sP-sel and sE-sel. Antibody blockade of Psgl-1 also reduced endothelial activation in response to IL-1β, eliminated leukocyte rolling, and was protective against atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. Monocyte depletion with clodronate restored the endothelial response to IL-1β in Psgl-1(-/-) mice. This study suggests that Psgl-1 deficiency leads to reduced atherosclerosis and adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes by indirectly regulating endothelial responses to cytokine stimulation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Brief report: impaired cell reprogramming in nonhomologous end joining deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Molina-Estevez, F Javier; Lozano, M Luz; Navarro, Susana; Torres, Yaima; Grabundzija, Ivana; Ivics, Zoltan; Samper, Enrique; Bueren, Juan A; Guenechea, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Although there is an increasing interest in defining the role of DNA damage response mechanisms in cell reprogramming, the relevance of proteins participating in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), a major mechanism of DNA double-strand breaks repair, in this process remains to be investigated. Herein, we present data related to the reprogramming of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from severe combined immunodeficient (Scid) mice defective in DNA-PKcs, a key protein for NHEJ. Reduced numbers of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies were generated from Scid cells using reprogramming lentiviral vectors (LV), being the reprogramming efficiency fourfold to sevenfold lower than that observed in wt cells. Moreover, these Scid iPSC-like clones were prematurely lost or differentiated spontaneously. While the Scid mutation neither reduce the proliferation rate nor the transduction efficacy of fibroblasts transduced with reprogramming LV, both the expression of SA-β-Gal and of P16/INK(4a) senescence markers were highly increased in Scid versus wt MEFs during the reprogramming process, accounting for the reduced reprogramming efficacy of Scid MEFs. The use of improved Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase systems allowed us, however, to isolate DNA-PKcs-deficient iPSCs which preserved their parental genotype and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. This new disease-specific iPSC model would be useful to understand the physiological consequences of the DNA-PKcs mutation during development and would help to improve current cell and gene therapy strategies for the disease. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Relationships among blood lead levels, iron deficiency, and cognitive development in two-year-old children.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, H A; Markowitz, M E; Bijur, P E; Rosen, J F

    1996-01-01

    The goals of this study were to explore the relationship of declining blood lead levels and cognitive development in 42 moderately lead poisoned children around 2 years of age and to investigate the potential interaction between iron and lead levels in the course of development. The cognitive functioning of children was assessed upon enrollment into a comprehensive intervention and 6 months later. The intervention consisted of chelation treatment, if appropriate, iron supplementation, if needed, and steps to eliminate the source of lead in the home environment. The children were referred because of blood lead levels between 25 and 55 mu g/dl; they were also selected on the basis of age between 18 and 30 months. The outcome measures were the global score on a standardized test of cognitive development and subscale scores for perceptual-motor and language functioning. Cognitive change over 6 months was related to an interaction between change in blood lead and initial iron status. Specifically, the change in standardized score (particularly change in perceptual-motor performance) was strongly related to change in blood lead in children who were iron sufficient at the outset: there was an increase of 1.2 points for every 1 mu g/dl decrease in blood lead. There was no such relationship in iron-deficient children. Secondary analyses suggested that 1) the change in cognitive functioning of iron-deficient children was related to change in hemoglobin, and 2) the decline in blood lead was less in iron-deficient than in iron-sufficient children. Thus, when iron is sufficient, changes in blood lead and changes in cognition are inversely related. When iron is deficient, other processes affect the outcome. PMID:8820586

  19. RADIATION SENSITIVITY & PROCESSING OF DNA DAMAGE FOLLOWING LOW DOSES OF GAMMA-RAY ALPHA PARTICLES & HZE IRRADIATION OF NORMAL DSB REPAIR DEFICIENT CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Peter

    2009-05-15

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) predominates in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) over homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ occurs throughout the cell cycle whereas HR occurs in late S/G2 due to the requirement of a sister chromatid (Rothkamm et al, Mol Cell Biol 23 5706-15 [2003]). To date evidence obtained with DSB repair deficient cells using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed the major pathway throughout all phases of the cell cycle for processing high dose induced DSBs is NHEJ (Wang et al, Oncogene 20 2212-24 (2001); Pluth et al, Cancer Res. 61 2649-55 [2001]). These findings however were obtained at high doses when on average >> 20-30 DSBs are formed per cell. The contribution of the repair pathways (NHEJ and HR) induced in response to DNA damage during the various phases of the cell cycle may depend upon the dose (the level of initial DSBs) especially since low levels of DSBs are induced at low dose. To date, low dose studies using NHEJ and HR deficient mutants have not been carried out to address this important question with radiations of different quality. The work presented here leads us to suggest that HR plays a relatively minor role in the repair of radiation-induced prompt DSBs. SSBs lead to the induction of DSBs which are associated specifically with S-phase cells consistent with the idea that they are formed at stalled replication forks in which HR plays a major role in repair. That DNA-PKcs is in some way involved in the repair of the precursors to replication-induced DSB remains an open question. Persistent non-DSB oxidative damage also leads to an increase in RAD51 positive DSBs. Both simple and complex non-DSB DNA damage may therefore contribute to indirect DSBs induced by ionising radiation at replication forks.

  20. Congenital brain serotonin deficiency leads to reduced ethanol sensitivity and increased ethanol consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Salahi, A Ayten; Caron, Marc G

    2014-02-01

    Serotonergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. However, whether congenital serotonin (5-HT) deficiency leads to increased alcohol consumption or affects ethanol-related behaviors has not been established. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line that expresses a hypofunctional variant of the 5-HT synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, to examine the impact of 5-HT deficiency on responses to alcohol. We demonstrate that these 5-HT-deficient transgenic animals (Tph2KI mice) recover their righting reflex more rapidly than wild-type controls following a high dose of ethanol and exhibit blunted locomotor retardation in response to repeated ethanol administration. In addition, compared to WT controls, 5-HT-deficient animals consume significantly more ethanol and exhibit increased preference for ethanol in two-bottle choice tests. Our data also suggest that 5-HT plays a critical role in mediating the effects of ethanol on Akt/GSK3β signaling in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results corroborate previous theories regarding the importance of brain 5-HT levels in mediating responsiveness to alcohol and demonstrate, for the first time, that congenital 5-HT deficiency leads to increased ethanol consumption and decreased sensitivity to the sedative-like effects of ethanol, perhaps in part through modulating Akt/GSK3β signaling.

  1. Association between iron deficiency and low-level lead poisoning in an urban primary care clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, R O; Shannon, M W; Wright, R J; Hu, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between iron deficiency and low-level lead poisoning. METHODS: Data were collected in an urban primary care clinic from 3650 children aged 9 to 48 months. Iron deficiency was defined as a red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of less than 70 fL and a red cell distribution width (RDW) of more than 14.5 in children younger than 2 years, and an MCV of less than 73 fL and RDW of more than 14.5 in those 2 years or older. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, hemoglobin concentration, and insurance status, the odds ratios for iron deficiency predicting blood lead levels greater than or equal to 5 micrograms/dL and greater than or equal to 10 micrograms/dL were 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29, 2.04) and 1.44 (95% CI = 1.004, 2.05). CONCLUSIONS: Iron deficiency is significantly associated with low-level lead poisoning in children aged 9 to 48 months. PMID:10394314

  2. Inducible Arginase 1 Deficiency in Mice Leads to Hyperargininemia and Altered Amino Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    St. Amand, Tim; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Arginase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a loss of the liver arginase isoform, arginase 1 (ARG1), which is the final step in the urea cycle for detoxifying ammonia. ARG1 deficiency leads to hyperargininemia, characterized by progressive neurological impairment, persistent growth retardation and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia. Using the Cre/loxP-directed conditional gene knockout system, we generated an inducible Arg1-deficient mouse model by crossing “floxed” Arg1 mice with CreERT2 mice. The resulting mice (Arg-Cre) die about two weeks after tamoxifen administration regardless of the starting age of inducing the knockout. These treated mice were nearly devoid of Arg1 mRNA, protein and liver arginase activity, and exhibited symptoms of hyperammonemia. Plasma amino acid analysis revealed pronounced hyperargininemia and significant alterations in amino acid and guanidino compound metabolism, including increased citrulline and guanidinoacetic acid. Despite no alteration in ornithine levels, concentrations of other amino acids such as proline and the branched-chain amino acids were reduced. In summary, we have generated and characterized an inducible Arg1-deficient mouse model exhibiting several pathologic manifestations of hyperargininemia. This model should prove useful for exploring potential treatment options of ARG1 deficiency. PMID:24224027

  3. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Manavifar, Lida; Badiee, Zahra; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Farhangi, Hamid; Mood, Mahdi Balali

    2013-09-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional anaemia among children. Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in children of Mashhad, Iran. This cross sectional study was performed on children between 1 year and 10 years, in Imam Reza teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Indeed during complete blood count (CBC), we measured iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) by colorimetric methods, ferritin by radioimmune assay and blood lead concentration by atomic absorption method. Results were analysed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 11.5), using statistical tests including independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as a significant level. We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD) blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212) μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159) μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713). We also did not find any correlation between blood lead concentration and haemoglobin, ferritin, iron, TIBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. Based on these results, no correlation was found between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in the children. Because all children had lead intoxication, further studies in highly polluted and a comparison with a low polluted area are necessary to make a general conclusion.

  4. Absorption and tissue distribution of lead in thiamin-replete and thiamin-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Sasser, L B; Hall, G G; Bratton, G R; Zmudzki, J

    1984-10-01

    Previous experimental results revealed that thiamin (vitamin B1) reduced lead (Pb) toxicity in calves and decreased tissue lead content in lead-treated calves and rodents. The objective of this experiment was to study the uptake and tissue distribution of lead in rats deprived of thiamin or given excess thiamin and to determine the effect of thiamin on lead absorption. Rats were divided into four groups and fed a thiamin-deficient or thiamin-supplemented diet. The thiamin-replete group also received daily injections of thiamin hydrochloride. Experimental diets were fed for 5 weeks, after which the rats were administered 10 muCi of 203Pb acetate (25 micrograms lead) and killed 6, 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Lead content and concentration of tissues increased twofold in the thiamin-replete group at 24 hours after dosing, but returned to control values 24 hours later. Tissue lead concentration of the thiamin-depleted group was slightly depressed at 24 hours after dosing, but this trend was reversed at the end of the experiment. Tissue lead concentrations in the pair-fed control group were three to seven times greater than in the other treatment groups 6 hours after dosing. The results indicate that thiamin facilitated absorption and increased the amount of lead initially taken up by tissue. Thiamin may also promote more rapid release of lead from tissues.

  5. Four-Quasiparticle High-K States in Neutron-Deficient Lead and Polonium Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yue; Xu, Furong

    2012-06-01

    Configuration-constrained potential energy surface calculations have been performed to investigate four-quasiparticle high-K configurations in neutron-deficient lead and polonium isotopes. A good agreement between the calculations and the experimental data has been found for the excitation energy of the observed Kπ = 19- state in 188Pb. Several lowly excited high-K states are predicted, and the large oblate deformation and low energy indicate high-K isomerism in these nuclei.

  6. Enhanced nonlinear optical properties of oxygen deficient lead-niobium-germanate film glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, J.; Fernandez, H.; Solis, J.; Munoz-Martin, D.; Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.; Afonso, C. N.; Fierro, J. L. G.

    2007-06-01

    The third order nonlinear optical properties of oxygen deficient lead-niobium-germanate film glasses with heavy metal contents beyond that of the bulk glass formation region have been investigated. Values of the nonlinear third order optical susceptibility up to /χ(3)/≈1.8×10-11esu have been measured by degenerate four wave mixing at 800nm in films having large heavy metal fractions (0.93). The fast buildup and decay times (≈130fs) of the nonlinear response confirm its nonresonant character. The partial reduction of Nb5+ to Nb4+ evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is associated with the oxygen deficiency, appears to be responsible for the strong enhancement of /χ(3)/.

  7. B12 deficiency leading to marked poikilocytosis versus true schistocytosis, a pernicious problem.

    PubMed

    Hall, James A; Mason, James; Choi, Julia; Holguin, Mark

    2017-06-20

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency is caused most commonly by autoimmune atrophic gastritis leading to loss of intrinsic factor. Vitamin B12 deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia and demyelinating central nervous system disease is well known; however, a rare presentation of B12 deficiency described as pseudothrombotic microangiopathy is not well known. This complication presents with signs of mechanical hemolysis, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), thrombocytopenia, and a low reticulocyte count, which can be incorrectly diagnosed as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and managed incorrectly. Decreased reticulocyte count and an LDH >2500IU/L is more commonly seen in B12 deficiency. However, recognizing the differences in marked poikilocytosis can be challenging, as seen with megaloblastic changes and true schistocytosis. To illustrate the challenge in differentiating between megaloblastic changes and true schistocytosis, we present the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented to her physician for symptomatic anemia and complaints of nausea, vomiting, and loose stool. She had a hemoglobin of 5.1g/dL, platelet count of 39×10(9)/L, LDH of 9915IU/L, haptoglobin below assay limit, and a reticulocyte count of 2.5%. Peripheral smear showed macrocytic anemia, rare hypersegmented neutrophils, and schistocytes. Vitamin B12 level was less than 50pg/mL, methylmalonic acid was 0.33μmol/L, anti-parietal cell antibody was >1:640, and intrinsic factor blocking antibody was positive-confirming the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. While hospitalized, she was treated with vitamin B12 1000μg intramuscular injections daily and thereafter continued with monthly injections, which ultimately resolved her severe macrocytic anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. GRK5 deficiency leads to susceptibility to intermittent hypoxia-induced cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, XueFeng; Suo, William Z.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to cognitive impairment in about 25% patients, though it remains elusive what makes one more susceptible than the other to be cognitively impaired. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) deficiency is recently found to render subjects more susceptible to cognitive impairment triggered by over-expression of Swedish mutant ß-amyloid precursor protein. This study is to determine whether GRK5 deficiency also renders subjects more susceptible to the OSA-triggered cognitive impairment. Both wild type (WT) and GRK5 knockout (KO) mice were placed in conditions absence and presence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) with 8%/21% O2 90-second cycle for 8 hours a day for a month, and then followed by behavioral assessments with battery of tasks. We found that the selected IH condition only induced marginally abnormal behavior (slightly elevated anxiety with most others unchanged) in the WT mice but it caused significantly more behavioral deficits in the KO mice, ranging from elevated anxiety, impaired balancing coordination, and impaired short-term spatial memory. These results suggest that GRK5 deficiency indeed makes the mice more susceptible to wide range of behavioral impairments, including cognitive impairments. PMID:26778781

  9. An analysis of factors leading to a reduction in iron deficiency in Swedish women*

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Leif; Bengtsson, Calle; Garby, Lars; Lennartsson, Jan; Rossander, Lena; Tibblin, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among Swedish women of child-bearing age has fallen markedly since the mid-1960s. At that time, population studies in Göteborg and Uppsala showed that iron deficiency anaemia was present in about 25-30% of women. Later, in population studies in Göteborg in 1968-69 and 1974-75, the prevalence in the same age group was found to have fallen to 6-7%. Several factors may explain the improved iron status. The level of iron fortification of flour was increased from 30 mg/kg of flour in 1943 to 65 mg in 1970, this increase adjusting the iron intake to compensate for the lower energy requirement and expenditure of present-day living habits. There has also been a marked increase in the intake of iron tablets and of tablets containing ascorbic acid. An analysis of various factors indicates that the 20-25% improvement in iron status can be accounted for by increased use of oral contraceptives (3-4%), the impact of increased iron fortification (7-8%), the widespread use of ascorbic acid supplements (3%), and greater prescribing of iron tablets (10%). This analysis of the factors leading to the marked reduction in the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among Swedish women may be useful to public health planners in other countries with similar problems. Our results indicate that several factors need to be considered when planning controlled field trials and evaluating the results obtained. The methods used to analyse the impact of different factors on the reduction in iron deficiency can also be used to predict the effects of various public health measures on the iron status of a population. PMID:317022

  10. Fucosylation Deficiency in Mice Leads to Colitis and Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwei; Huang, Dan; Chen, Kai-Yuan; Cui, Min; Wang, Weihuan; Huang, Xiaoran; Awadellah, Amad; Li, Qing; Friedman, Ann; Xin, William W; Di Martino, Luca; Cominelli, Fabio; Miron, Alex; Chan, Ricky; Fox, James G; Xu, Yan; Shen, Xiling; Kalady, Mathew F; Markowitz, Sanford; Maillard, Ivan; Lowe, John B; Xin, Wei; Zhou, Lan

    2017-01-01

    De novo synthesis of guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-fucose, a substrate for fucosylglycans, requires sequential reactions mediated by GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMDS) and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase-4-reductase (FX or tissue specific transplantation antigen P35B [TSTA3]). GMDS deletions and mutations are found in 6%-13% of colorectal cancers; these mostly affect the ascending and transverse colon. We investigated whether a lack of fucosylation consequent to loss of GDP-fucose synthesis contributes to colon carcinogenesis. FX deficiency and GMDS deletion produce the same biochemical phenotype of GDP-fucose deficiency. We studied a mouse model of fucosylation deficiency (Fx-/- mice) and mice with the full-length Fx gene (controls). Mice were placed on standard chow or fucose-containing diet (equivalent to a control fucosylglycan phenotype). Colon tissues were collected and analyzed histologically or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure cytokine levels; T cells also were collected and analyzed. Fecal samples were analyzed by 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing. Mucosal barrier function was measured by uptake of fluorescent dextran. We transplanted bone marrow cells from Fx-/- or control mice (Ly5.2) into irradiated 8-week-old Fx-/- or control mice (Ly5.1). We performed immunohistochemical analyses for expression of Notch and the hes family bHLH transcription factor (HES1) in colon tissues from mice and a panel of 60 human colorectal cancer specimens (27 left-sided, 33 right-sided). Fx-/- mice developed colitis and serrated-like lesions. The intestinal pathology of Fx-/- mice was reversed by addition of fucose to the diet, which restored fucosylation via a salvage pathway. In the absence of fucosylation, dysplasia appeared and progressed to adenocarcinoma in up to 40% of mice, affecting mainly the right colon and cecum. Notch was not activated in Fx-/- mice fed standard chow, leading to decreased expression of its target Hes1. Fucosylation deficiency

  11. Protocadherin-12 deficiency leads to modifications in the structure and function of arteries in mice.

    PubMed

    Philibert, C; Bouillot, S; Huber, P; Faury, G

    2012-02-01

    We studied the role of protocadherin-12 on arterial function. This protein belongs to the cadherin superfamily and is located at the intercellular junctions of endothelial cells where it promotes homotypic cellular adhesion. We previously showed that mice deficient for PCDH12 exhibited developmental growth retardation owing to placenta defects without altering neither survival nor fertility. Here, we investigated the effects of PCDH12 deficiency on the structural, mechanical properties and functionality of arteries from adult mice. Histological studies of the PCDH12(-/-) mouse arteries have shown age-independent modifications such as ramifications of medial elastic lamellae, accompanied by the appearance of radial fibers linking together two successive concentric elastic lamellae. Mechanical studies also revealed some age-independent modifications in the PCDH12(-/-) mice arteries such as an increase in inner-diameter and circumferential mid-wall stress. Moreover, the PCDH12(-/-) mice exhibited a mild reduction of blood pressure, thus maintaining the inner-diameter close to its normal value and a normal circumferential wall stress for vascular cells. This is likely a compensation mechanism enabling normal blood flow in the arteries. The vascular phenotypic differences observed between PCDH12(-/-) and wild type mice arteries did not seem to be age-dependent, except for some results regarding the carotid artery: the reactivity to acetylcholine and the circumferential mid-wall stress decreased with ageing in the PCDH12(-/-) mice, as opposed to the increase observed in the wild types. In conclusion, deficiency in one specific interendothelial junction component leads to significant changes in the structure and function of the vascular wall. Possible explanations for the observed modifications are discussed.

  12. Thiol Peroxidase Deficiency Leads to Increased Mutational Load and Decreased Fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Alaattin; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Koren, Amnon; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Koc, Ahmet; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    Thiol peroxidases are critical enzymes in the redox control of cellular processes that function by reducing low levels of hydroperoxides and regulating redox signaling. These proteins were also shown to regulate genome stability, but how their dysfunction affects the actual mutations in the genome is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has eight thiol peroxidases of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin families, and the mutant lacking all these genes (∆8) is viable. In this study, we employed two independent ∆8 isolates to analyze the genome-wide mutation spectrum that results from deficiency in these enzymes. Deletion of these genes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in point mutations, many of which clustered in close proximity and scattered throughout the genome, suggesting strong mutational bias. We further subjected multiple lines of wild-type and ∆8 cells to long-term mutation accumulation, followed by genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. ∆8 lines showed a significant increase in nonrecurrent point mutations and indels. The original ∆8 cells exhibited reduced growth rate and decreased life span, which were further reduced in all ∆8 mutation accumulation lines. Although the mutation spectrum of the two independent isolates was different, similar patterns of gene expression were observed, suggesting the direct contribution of thiol peroxidases to the observed phenotypes. Expression of a single thiol peroxidase could partially restore the growth phenotype of ∆8 cells. This study shows how deficiency in nonessential, yet critical and conserved oxidoreductase function, leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness. PMID:25173844

  13. Atrogin-1 Deficiency Leads to Myopathy and Heart Failure in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Anja; Kustermann, Monika; Bummer, Tiziana; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Sandri, Marco; Just, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Orchestrated protein synthesis and degradation is fundamental for proper cell function. In muscle, impairment of proteostasis often leads to severe cellular defects finally interfering with contractile function. Here, we analyze for the first time the role of Atrogin-1, a muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase known to be involved in the regulation of protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome and the autophagy/lysosome systems, in the in vivo model system zebrafish (Danio rerio). We found that targeted inactivation of zebrafish Atrogin-1 leads to progressive impairment of heart and skeletal muscle function and disruption of muscle structure without affecting early cardiogenesis and skeletal muscle development. Autophagy is severely impaired in Atrogin-1-deficient zebrafish embryos resulting in the disturbance of the cytoarchitecture of cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells. These observations are consistent with molecular and ultrastructural findings in an Atrogin-1 knockout mouse and demonstrate that the zebrafish is a suitable vertebrate model to study the molecular mechanisms of Atrogin-1-mediated autophagic muscle pathologies and to screen for novel therapeutically active substances in high-throughput in vivo small compound screens (SCS). PMID:26840306

  14. FGB mutations leading to congenital quantitative fibrinogen deficiencies: an update and report of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Casini, A; Lukowski, S; Quintard, V Louvain; Crutu, A; Zak, M; Regazzoni, S; de Moerloose, P; Neerman-Arbez, M

    2014-05-01

    Causative mutations leading to congenital quantitative fibrinogen are frequently clustered in FGA encoding the fibrinogen Aα-chain. Mutations of FGB encoding the Bβ-chain are less common and of interest since the Bβ-chain is considered the rate-limiting factor in the hepatic production of the fibrinogen hexamer. Four novel FGB mutations were identified in two afibrinogenemic (one new-born and one 30 years old male) and hypofibrinogenemic (a 49 years old female) patient, with heterogeneous thrombotic and bleeding phenotype. The human fibrinogen beta chain precursor protein sequence (P02675) was obtained from the UniProt database. The resulting models were analysed in SwissPdbViewer 4.1 and POV-Ray 3.7. The FGB c.895T>C p.Y299H (numbering from the initiator Met) and the FGB c.1415G>T p.G472V were predicted to be deleterious by SIFT analysis. The first replaces an uncharged aromatic amino acid side chain by a positively charged side chain modifying the balance in the distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic of the 10 Å neighbourhood residues. The second replaces one non-charged aliphatic side chain by another without any changes for the 10 Å surrounding region. The FGB c.352C>T p.Q118X leads to a severe premature termination codon and the FGB intron 4: IVS4-1G>C (c719-1G>C) leads to skipping of exon 5 or usage of a cryptic acceptor site located upstream or downstream of the normal site. The continuous characterization of novel molecular defects responsible for fibrinogen deficiency combined with modelling of mutant proteins will continue to provide a better comprehension of the complexity of fibrinogen synthesis and physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bito, Tomohiro; Misaki, Taihei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H2O2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities, indicating that vitamin B12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms. An NaCl chemotaxis associative learning assay indicated that vitamin B12 deficiency did not affect learning ability but impaired memory retention ability, which decreased to approximately 58% of the control value. When worms were treated with 1mmol/L GSH, L-ascorbic acid, or vitamin E for three generations during vitamin B12 deficiency, cellular malondialdehyde content as an index of oxidative stress decreased to the control level, but the impairment of memory retention ability was not completely reversed (up to approximately 50%). These results suggest that memory retention impairment formed during vitamin B12 deficiency is partially attributable to oxidative stress.

  16. Slitrk5 deficiency impairs corticostriatal circuitry and leads to obsessive-compulsive–like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shmelkov, Sergey V; Hormigo, Adília; Jing, Deqiang; Proenca, Catia C; Bath, Kevin G; Milde, Till; Shmelkov, Evgeny; Kushner, Jared S; Baljevic, Muhamed; Dincheva, Iva; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Gale, Nicholas W; Yancopoulos, George D; Ninan, Ipe; Lee, Francis S; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions, and it often encompasses anxiety and depressive symptoms1,2. Recently, the corticostriatal circuitry has been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD3,4. However, the etiology, pathophysiology and molecular basis of OCD remain unknown. Several studies indicate that the pathogenesis of OCD has a genetic component5–8. Here we demonstrate that loss of a neuron-specific transmembrane protein, SLIT and NTRK-like protein-5 (Slitrk5), leads to OCD-like behaviors in mice, which manifests as excessive self-grooming and increased anxiety-like behaviors, and is alleviated by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Slitrk5−/− mice show selective overactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex, abnormalities in striatal anatomy and cell morphology and alterations in glutamate receptor composition, which contribute to deficient corticostriatal neurotransmission. Thus, our studies identify Slitrk5 as an essential molecule at corticostriatal synapses and provide a new mouse model of OCD-like behaviors. PMID:20418887

  17. Long term use of metformin leading to vitamin B 12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tung, Moon Ley; Tan, Lip Kun

    2014-06-01

    Metformin is a commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent worldwide. Gastrointestinal side effects and lactic acidosis related to metformin usage are commonly recognized. However, the associated vitamin B12 deficiency is less well known. We present a case of long term metformin use resulting in vitamin B12 deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dihydrofolate reductase deficiency due to a homozygous DHFR mutation causes megaloblastic anemia and cerebral folate deficiency leading to severe neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Cario, Holger; Smith, Desirée E C; Blom, Henk; Blau, Nenad; Bode, Harald; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Pannicke, Ulrich; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Rump, Eva-Maria; Ayric, Zuleya; Kohne, Elisabeth; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Smulders, Yvo; Schwarz, Klaus

    2011-02-11

    The importance of intracellular folate metabolism is illustrated by the severity of symptoms and complications caused by inborn disorders of folate metabolism or by folate deficiency. We examined three children of healthy, distantly related parents presenting with megaloblastic anemia and cerebral folate deficiency causing neurologic disease with atypical childhood absence epilepsy. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome 5 including the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus. DHFR sequencing revealed a homozygous DHFR mutation, c.458A>T (p.Asp153Val), in all siblings. The patients' folate profile in red blood cells (RBC), plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was compatible with DHFR deficiency. DHFR activity and fluorescein-labeled methotrexate (FMTX) binding were severely reduced in EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cells of all patients. Heterozygous cells displayed intermediate DHFR activity and FMTX binding. RT-PCR of DHFR mRNA revealed no differences between wild-type and DHFR mutation-carrying cells, whereas protein expression was reduced in cells with the DHFR mutation. Treatment with folinic acid resulted in the resolution of hematological abnormalities, normalization of CSF folate levels, and improvement of neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the homozygous DHFR mutation p.Asp153Val causes DHFR deficiency and leads to a complex hematological and neurological disease that can be successfully treated with folinic acid. DHFR is necessary for maintaining sufficient CSF and RBC folate levels, even in the presence of adequate nutritional folate supply and normal plasma folate.

  19. Dihydrofolate Reductase Deficiency Due to a Homozygous DHFR Mutation Causes Megaloblastic Anemia and Cerebral Folate Deficiency Leading to Severe Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Holger; Smith, Desirée E.C.; Blom, Henk; Blau, Nenad; Bode, Harald; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Pannicke, Ulrich; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Rump, Eva-Maria; Ayric, Zuleya; Kohne, Elisabeth; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Smulders, Yvo; Schwarz, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The importance of intracellular folate metabolism is illustrated by the severity of symptoms and complications caused by inborn disorders of folate metabolism or by folate deficiency. We examined three children of healthy, distantly related parents presenting with megaloblastic anemia and cerebral folate deficiency causing neurologic disease with atypical childhood absence epilepsy. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome 5 including the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus. DHFR sequencing revealed a homozygous DHFR mutation, c.458A>T (p.Asp153Val), in all siblings. The patients' folate profile in red blood cells (RBC), plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was compatible with DHFR deficiency. DHFR activity and fluorescein-labeled methotrexate (FMTX) binding were severely reduced in EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cells of all patients. Heterozygous cells displayed intermediate DHFR activity and FMTX binding. RT-PCR of DHFR mRNA revealed no differences between wild-type and DHFR mutation-carrying cells, whereas protein expression was reduced in cells with the DHFR mutation. Treatment with folinic acid resulted in the resolution of hematological abnormalities, normalization of CSF folate levels, and improvement of neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the homozygous DHFR mutation p.Asp153Val causes DHFR deficiency and leads to a complex hematological and neurological disease that can be successfully treated with folinic acid. DHFR is necessary for maintaining sufficient CSF and RBC folate levels, even in the presence of adequate nutritional folate supply and normal plasma folate. PMID:21310277

  20. CX3CR1 deficiency leads to impairment of hippocampal cognitive function and synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Justin, T. Rogers; Josh, M. Morganti; Adam, D. Bachstetter; Charles, E. Hudson; Melinda, M. Peters; Bethany, A. Grimmig; Edwin, J. Weeber; Paula, C. Bickford; Gemma, Carmelina

    2011-01-01

    The protective/neurotoxic role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling in neurodegenerative disease is an intricate and highly debated research topic and it is becoming even more complicated as new studies reveal discordant results. It appears that the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis plays a direct role in neurodegeneration and/or neuroprotection depending upon the CNS insult. However, all the above studies focused on the role of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in pathological conditions, ignoring the relevance of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling under physiological conditions. No approach to date has been taken to decipher the significance of defects in CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in physiological condition. In the present study we used CX3CR1−/−, CX3CR1+/− and wild-type mice to investigate the physiological role of CX3CR1 receptor in cognition and synaptic plasticity. Our results demonstrated for the first time that mice lacking CX3CR1 receptor show contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze deficits. CX3CR1 deficiency also affects motor learning. Importantly, mice lacking the receptor have a significant impairment in long term potentiation (LTP). Infusion with IL-1β receptor antagonist significantly reversed the deficit in cognitive function and impairment in LTP. Our results reveal that under physiological conditions, disruption in CX3CL1 signaling will lead to impairment in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity via increased action of IL-1β. PMID:22072675

  1. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    SciTech Connect

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert; Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert; Liebisch, Gerhard; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  2. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase deficiency leads to dysbiosis and bacterial translocation in the newborn intestine.

    PubMed

    Fawley, Jason; Koehler, Shannon; Cabrera, Susan; Lam, Vy; Fredrich, Katherine; Hessner, Martin; Salzman, Nita; Gourlay, David

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has been shown to help maintain intestinal homeostasis. Decreased expression of IAP has been linked with pediatric intestinal diseases associated with bacterial overgrowth and subsequent inflammation. We hypothesize that the absence of IAP leads to dysbiosis, with increased inflammation and permeability of the newborn intestine. Sprague-Dawley heterozygote IAP cross-matches were bred. Pups were dam fed ad lib and euthanized at weaning. The microbiotas of terminal ileum (TI) and colon was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of subphylum-specific bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA. RT-PCR was performed on TI for inflammatory cytokines. Intestinal permeability was quantified by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability and bacterial translocation by qRT-PCR for bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA in mesenteric lymph nodes. Statistical analysis was done by chi-square analysis. All three genotypes had similar concentrations of bacteria in the TI and colon. However, IAP knockout (IAP-KO) had significantly decreased diversity of bacterial species in their colonic stool compared with heterozygous and wild-type (WT). IAP-KO pups had a nonstatistically significant 3.9-fold increased inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA expression compared with WT (IAP-KO, 3.92 ± 1.36; WT, 1.0 ± 0.27; P = 0.03). IAP-KO also had significantly increased bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred in IAP-KO (IAP-KO, 7625 RFU/g ± 3469; WT, 4957 RFU/g ± 1552; P = 0.04). Furthermore, IAP-KO had increased permeability (IAP-KO, 0.297 mg/mL ± 0.2; WT, 0.189 mg/mL ± 0.15 P = 0.07), but was not statistically significant. Deficiency of IAP in the newborn intestine is associated with dysbiosis and increased inflammation, permeability, and bacterial translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chelation in metal intoxication XXI: chelation in lead intoxication during vitamin B complex deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The vitamin B-complex deficiency increases the vulnerability to neuro- and systemic toxicity of Pb in young rats. Thus, the nutritional status of vitamins like that of protein or minerals seems to influence the etiology of Pb toxicity and may be expected to affect the response toward Pb chelators. 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene-diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) have been found to be effective antidotes to Pb intoxication. In the present study, these selective metal chelating agents were compared for their ability to reduce the body burden of Pb and restore the altered biochemical parameters in young developing Pb intoxicated rats maintained on normal or vitamin B-complex deficient diet. The investigation was aimed to suggest suitable prophylaxis of Pb poisoning prevalent among children who may also be suffering from vitamin deficiency in developing and poor countries.

  4. The effects of iron deficiency on lead accumulation in Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dunisijević Bojović, Danijela; Dukić, Matilda; Maksimović, Vuk; Skočajić, Dragana; Suručić, Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of root Fe deficiency on the uptake and translocation of toxic metals can be important for improving the phytoremediation strategies of polluted soils. The present study investigated how Fe nutritional status affects the uptake and root-to-shoot-translocation of Pb in hydroponically grown seedlings of (Mill.) Swingle. The interactions of Fe deficiency and Pb were assessed by measuring the root Fe(III) reductase activity, carboxylic acids concentration in root exudates, root and shoot biomass, and accumulation of Pb and other metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu) in roots and leaves of Fe-sufficient (+Fe) and Fe-deficient (-Fe) plants. The results indicate that Fe deficiency induced 18-fold higher Fe(III) reductase activity in roots compared with +Fe plants, which was followed by increased root exudation of citric acid (28.2 ± 1.39 in +Fe and 498 ± 256.4 μmol g DW 2 h in -Fe plants). Iron deficiency also induces a significant decrease of root and shoot dry weight compared with the control +Fe plants, whereas 2-wk Pb (20 μM) treatment did not influence root and shoot growth. Iron-sufficient plants accumulated more Pb (56.8 ± 17.29 μg g) in leaves than -Fe plants (21.5 ± 8.10 μg g). Two weeks of exposure to Pb significantly decreased Fe(III) reductase activity and accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Mn in the roots of -Fe plants. It is hypothesized that 2 wk of root exposure to Pb blocks functioning of a specific Fe transport system activated under Fe deficiency. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Alteration in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-mediated epigenetic regulation leads to Purkinje cell vulnerability in ATM deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dewei; Zhang, Ying; Hart, Ronald P.; Chen, Jianmin; Herrup, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing mystery surrounding ataxia-telangiectasia is why it is mainly cerebellar neurons, Purkinje cells in particular, that appear vulnerable to ATM deficiency. Here we present data showing that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a newly recognized epigenetic marker found at high levels in neurons, is substantially reduced in human ataxia-telangiectasia and Atm−/− mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. We further show that TET1, an enzyme that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5hmC, responds to DNA damage and manipulation of TET1 activity directly affects the DNA damage signalling and ATM-deficient neuronal cell cycle re-entry and death. Quantitative genome-wide analysis of 5hmC-containing sequences shows that in ATM deficiency there is a cerebellum- and Purkinje cell-specific shift in 5hmC enrichment in both regulatory elements and repeated sequences. Finally, we verify that TET1-mediated 5hmC production is linked to the degenerative process of Purkinje cells and behavioural deficits in Atm−/− mice. Taken together, the selective loss of 5hmC plays a critical role in driving Purkinje cell vulnerability in ATM deficiency. PMID:26510954

  6. Alteration in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-mediated epigenetic regulation leads to Purkinje cell vulnerability in ATM deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dewei; Zhang, Ying; Hart, Ronald P; Chen, Jianmin; Herrup, Karl; Li, Jiali

    2015-12-01

    A long-standing mystery surrounding ataxia-telangiectasia is why it is mainly cerebellar neurons, Purkinje cells in particular, that appear vulnerable to ATM deficiency. Here we present data showing that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a newly recognized epigenetic marker found at high levels in neurons, is substantially reduced in human ataxia-telangiectasia and Atm(-/-) mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. We further show that TET1, an enzyme that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5hmC, responds to DNA damage and manipulation of TET1 activity directly affects the DNA damage signalling and ATM-deficient neuronal cell cycle re-entry and death. Quantitative genome-wide analysis of 5hmC-containing sequences shows that in ATM deficiency there is a cerebellum- and Purkinje cell-specific shift in 5hmC enrichment in both regulatory elements and repeated sequences. Finally, we verify that TET1-mediated 5hmC production is linked to the degenerative process of Purkinje cells and behavioural deficits in Atm(-/-) mice. Taken together, the selective loss of 5hmC plays a critical role in driving Purkinje cell vulnerability in ATM deficiency. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mitochondrial energy deficiency leads to hyperproliferation of skeletal muscle mitochondria and enhanced insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Ryan M; Picard, Martin; Derbeneva, Olga; Leipzig, Jeremy; McManus, Meagan J; Gouspillou, Gilles; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Dos Santos, Carlos; Hepple, Russell T; Murdock, Deborah G; Wallace, Douglas C

    2017-03-07

    Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart-muscle-brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated. ANT1-deficient animals are insulin-hypersensitive, glucose-tolerant, and resistant to high fat diet (HFD)-induced toxicity. In ANT1-deficient skeletal muscle, mitochondrial gene expression is induced in association with the hyperproliferation of mitochondria. The ANT1-deficient muscle mitochondria produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are partially uncoupled. Hence, the muscle respiration under nonphosphorylating conditions is increased. Muscle transcriptome analysis revealed the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, down-regulation of diabetes-related genes, and increased expression of the genes encoding the myokines FGF21 and GDF15. However, FGF21 was not elevated in serum, and FGF21 and UCP1 mRNAs were not induced in liver or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Hence, increased oxidation of dietary-reducing equivalents by elevated muscle mitochondrial respiration appears to be the mechanism by which ANT1-deficient mice prevent diabetes, demonstrating that the rate of mitochondrial oxidation of calories is important in the etiology of metabolic disease.

  8. Mitochondrial energy deficiency leads to hyperproliferation of skeletal muscle mitochondria and enhanced insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Ryan M.; Picard, Martin; Derbeneva, Olga; Leipzig, Jeremy; McManus, Meagan J.; Gouspillou, Gilles; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Dos Santos, Carlos; Hepple, Russell T.; Murdock, Deborah G.; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart–muscle–brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated. ANT1-deficient animals are insulin-hypersensitive, glucose-tolerant, and resistant to high fat diet (HFD)-induced toxicity. In ANT1-deficient skeletal muscle, mitochondrial gene expression is induced in association with the hyperproliferation of mitochondria. The ANT1-deficient muscle mitochondria produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are partially uncoupled. Hence, the muscle respiration under nonphosphorylating conditions is increased. Muscle transcriptome analysis revealed the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, down-regulation of diabetes-related genes, and increased expression of the genes encoding the myokines FGF21 and GDF15. However, FGF21 was not elevated in serum, and FGF21 and UCP1 mRNAs were not induced in liver or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Hence, increased oxidation of dietary-reducing equivalents by elevated muscle mitochondrial respiration appears to be the mechanism by which ANT1-deficient mice prevent diabetes, demonstrating that the rate of mitochondrial oxidation of calories is important in the etiology of metabolic disease. PMID:28223503

  9. Iron homeostasis and pulmonary hypertension: iron deficiency leads to pulmonary vascular remodeling in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cotroneo, Emanuele; Ashek, Ali; Wang, Lei; Wharton, John; Dubois, Olivier; Bozorgi, Sophie; Busbridge, Mark; Alavian, Kambiz N; Wilkins, Martin R; Zhao, Lan

    2015-05-08

    Iron deficiency without anemia is prevalent in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and associated with reduced exercise capacity and survival. We hypothesized that iron deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and iron replacement is a possible therapeutic strategy. Rats were fed an iron-deficient diet (IDD, 7 mg/kg) and investigated for 4 weeks. Iron deficiency was evident from depleted iron stores (decreased liver, serum iron, and ferritin), reduced erythropoiesis, and significantly decreased transferrin saturation and lung iron stores after 2 weeks IDD. IDD rats exhibited profound pulmonary vascular remodeling with prominent muscularization, medial hypertrophy, and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration, associated with raised pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. IDD rat lungs demonstrated increased expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α and hypoxia-induced factor-2α, nuclear factor of activated T cells and survivin, and signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 activation, which promote vascular cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Biochemical examination showed reduced mitochondrial complex I activity and mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization in mitochondria from IDD rat pulmonary arteries. Along with upregulation of the glucose transporter, glucose transporter 1, and glycolytic genes, hk1 and pdk1, lung fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ligand uptake was significantly increased in IDD rats. The hemodynamic and pulmonary vascular remodeling were reversed by iron replacement (ferric carboxymaltose, 75 mg/kg) and attenuated in the presence of iron deficiency by dichloroacetate and imatinib, 2 putative treatments explored for pulmonary arterial hypertension that target aerobic glycolysis and proliferation, respectively. These data suggest a major role for iron in pulmonary vascular homeostasis and support the clinical evaluation of iron replacement

  10. Vitamin D deficiency leads to sensory and sympathetic denervation of the rat synovium

    PubMed Central

    Tague, Sarah E.; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to inflammatory arthritis. Sensory and sympathetic synovial nerves are critical to the development of inflammatory arthritis and spontaneously degenerate in the early phases of disease. These nerves contain vitamin D receptors and vitamin D influences nerve growth and neurotrophin expression. We therefore examined the density of synovial nerves and neurotrophin-containing cells in vitamin D deficient rats. Seven week old Sprague Dawley rats were fed either control or vitamin D deficient diets for four weeks. Knee synovium sections extending from patella to meniscus were immunostained for total nerves, myelinated and unmyelinated nerves, sympathetic nerves, peptidergic and non-peptidergic sensory nerves, and neurotrophins and immune cell markers. In control rats, intimal innervation by unmyelinated sensory fibers was denser than subintimal innervation. In contrast, sympathetic innervation was confined to the subintima. Many sensory axons contained markers for both peptidergic and non-peptidergic nerves. NGF was primarily expressed by intimal CD163-negative type B synoviocytes, while neurturin, a ligand selective for non-peptidergic sensory neurons, was expressed by synovial mast cells. In vitamin D deficient rats, there were significant reductions in sensory nerves in the intima and sympathetic nerves in the subintima. While there was no significant change in NGF-immunoreactivity, the number of neurturin-expressing mast cells was significantly reduced in the intima, suggesting that intimal reductions in sensory nerves may be related to reductions in neurturin. Vitamin D deficiency therefore may increase susceptibility to inflammatory arthritis by depleting sensory and sympathetic synovial nerves as a result of reduced synovial neurotrophin content. PMID:25193239

  11. Metaxin deficiency alters mitochondrial membrane permeability and leads to resistance to TNF-induced cell killing.

    PubMed

    Ono, Koh; Wang, Xiaofei; Kim, Sung Ouk; Armstrong, Lucas C; Bornstein, Paul; Han, Jiahuai

    2010-02-01

    Metaxin, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, is critical for TNF-induced cell death in L929 cells. Its deficiency, caused by retroviral insertion-mediated mutagenesis, renders L929 cells resistance to TNF killing. In this study, we further characterized metaxin deficiency-caused TNF resistance in parallel with Bcl-X(L) overexpression-mediated death resistance. We did not find obvious change in mitochondria membrane potential in metaxin-deficient (Met(mut)) and Bcl-X(L)-overexpressing cells, but we did find an increase in the release rate of the mitochondrial membrane potential probe rhodamine 123 (Rh123) that was preloaded into mitochondria. In addition, overexpression of a function-interfering mutant of metaxin (MetaΔTM/C) or Bcl-X(L) in MCF-7.3.28 cells also resulted in an acquired resistance to TNF killing and a faster rate of Rh123 release, indicating a close correlation between TNF resistance and higher rates of the dye release from the mitochondria. The release of Rh123 can be controlled by the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (PT) pore, as targeting an inner membrane component of the PT pore by cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibited Rh123 release. However, metaxin deficiency and Bcl-X(L) overexpression apparently affect Rh123 release from a site(s) different from that of CsA, as CsA can overcome their effect. Though both metaxin and Bcl-X(L) appear to function on the outer mitochondrial membrane, they do not interact with each other. They may use different mechanisms to increase the permeability of Rh123, since previous studies have suggested that metaxin may influence certain outer membrane porins while Bcl-X(L) may form pores on the outer membrane. The alteration of the mitochondrial outer membrane properties by metaxin deficiency and Bcl-X(L) overexpression, as indicated by a quicker Rh123 release, may be helpful in maintaining mitochondrial integrity.

  12. Induction and Persistence of Large γH2AX Foci by High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in DNA-Dependent protein kinase–Deficient Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Ibañez, Irene L.; Molinari, Beatriz; Palmieri, Mónica; Kreiner, Andrés; Valda, Alejandro; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the cell response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), an essential protein of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway, lacks kinase activity. Methods and Materials: CHO10B2, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and its derived radiosensitive mutant cell line, irs-20, lacking DNA-PKcs activity, were evaluated after 0 to 3 Gy of γ-rays, plateau and Bragg peak protons, and lithium beams by clonogenic assay, and as a measurement of double-strand breaks, phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci number and size were quantified by immunocytofluorescence. Results: Irs-20 exhibited greater radiosensitivity and a higher amount of γH2AX foci than CHO10B2 at 6 hours after irradiation for all types of radiations. Remarkably, CHO10B2 and irs-20 maintained their difference in radiosensitivity after high-LET radiation. Six hours after low-LET radiations, irs-20 did not reach basal levels of γH2AX at high doses, whereas CHO10B2 recovered basal levels for all doses. After high-LET radiation, only CHO10B2 exhibited a reduction in γH2AX foci, but it never reached basal levels. Persistent foci in irs-20 confirmed a repair deficiency. Interestingly, after 30 minutes of high-LET radiation both cell lines exhibited large foci (size >0.9 μm{sup 2}) related to the damage nature, whereas at 6 hours irs-20 showed a higher amount of large foci than CHO10B2, with a 7-fold increase at 3 Gy, that could also be associated to radiosensitivity. Conclusions: We demonstrated, for the first time, an association between deficient DNA-PKcs activity and not only high levels of H2AX phosphorylation but also persistence and size increase of γH2AX foci after high-LET irradiation.

  13. Plasma pseudo cholinesterase deficiency leading to seven hour apnoea in a child undergoing adeno-tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Deepa; Sharma, Jasvinder; Al-Abri, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare, silent, potentially fatal operative complication of seven hour apnoea in a patient undergoing adenotonsillectomy secondary to deficiency of plasma cholinesterase. Awareness of this hereditary disorder is important to otolaryngologist as; it is difficult to diagnose, can be unexpectedly alarming for parents and the surgeon. Case report and review of world literature. A four-year male with obstructive sleep apnoea underwent a routine elective adenotonsillectomy; there was no spontaneous recovery of respiration following surgery. He was transferred to the intensive care unit and 7 h later was successfully weaned from the ventilator and extubated. A plasma cholinesterase level of 456 1U/L was discovered much later. To our knowledge this is the first case report of pseudo cholinesterase deficiency reported in otolaryngology literature and first in Oman. The patient should receive information about the condition, the associated risks, inheritance and need for testing other family members. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Msh2 deficiency leads to chromosomal abnormalities, centrosome amplification, and telomere capping defect

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong; Liu, Yie

    2006-01-01

    Msh2 is a key mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene and mutations or deficiencies in mammalian Msh2 gene result in microsatellite instability (MSI+) and the development of cancer. Here, we report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in the murine MMR gene Msh2 (Msh2-/-) showed a significant increase in chromosome aneuploidy, centrosome amplification, and defective mitotic spindle organization and unequal chromosome segregation. Although Msh2-/- mouse tissues or primary MEFs had no apparent change in telomerase activity, telomere length, or recombination at telomeres, Msh2-/- MEFs showed an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA. These data suggest that MSH2 helps to maintain genomic stability through the regulation of the centrosome and normal telomere capping in vivo and that defects in MMR can contribute to oncogenesis through multiple pathways.

  15. Late vitamin K deficiency bleeding leading to a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ngo, B; Van Pelt, K; Labarque, V; Van De Casseye, W; Penders, J

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infants still occurs despite worldwide use of prophylaxis. Clinical manifestations can be dramatic with over 50% of patients presenting with intracranial haemorrhage and a mortality rate of 20% in late vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Special attention should be given to infants with a high risk profile (preterm, breast feeding, cholestasis, malabsorption). A tentative diagnosis can be made observing quick normalisation of some easy-to-perform haemostatic parameters (PT, aPTT) after administration of vitamin K. Nowadays, VKDB can still be the first clinical sign of diseases causing malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins. In this case report, VKDB led to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease among Caucasian people.

  16. Sulfite leads to neuron loss in the hippocampus of both normal and SOX-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Kocamaz, Erdogan; Adiguzel, Esat; Er, Buket; Gundogdu, Gulşah; Kucukatay, Vural

    2012-08-01

    Sulfites are compounds commonly used as preservatives in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals. Sulfite is also endogenously generated during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and drugs. It has been shown that sulfite is a highly toxic molecule. Many studies have examined the effects of sulfite toxicity, but the effect of ingested sulfite on the number of neurons in the hippocampus has not yet been reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ingested sulfite on pyramidal neurons by counting cells in CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions of the rat hippocampus. For this purpose, rats were assigned to one of four groups (6 rats per group): control (C), sulfite (S), deficient (D) and deficient+sulfite (DS). Sulfite oxidase deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding 200ppm tungsten (W) to their drinking water. Sulfite (70mg/kg) was also administered to the animals via their drinking water. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed by exsanguination under anesthesia, and their brains and livers quickly removed. The livers were used for a SOX activity assay, and the brains were used for neuronal counts in a known fraction of the CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions of the left hippocampus using the optical fractionator method, which is a stereological method. The results showed that sulfite treatment caused a significant decrease in the total number of pyramidal neurons in three subdivisions of the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3-2) in the S, D and DS groups compared with the control group. It is concluded that exogenous administration of sulfite causes loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions in both normal and SOX deficient rat hippocampus. This finding provides supporting evidence that sulfite is a neurotoxic molecule.

  17. Skin inflammation arising from cutaneous Treg deficiency leads to impaired viral immune responses1

    PubMed Central

    Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Mathias, Clinton B.; Diaz, Natalia; MacArthur, Daniel H.; Laouar, Amale; Manjunath, Narasimhaswamy; Hofer, Matthias D.; Wurbel, Marc-Andre; Campbell, James J.; Chatila, Talal A.; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) immunized with the small pox vaccine, vaccinia virus (VV), are susceptible to eczema vaccinatum (EV), a potentially-fatal disseminated infection. Dysfunction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. To test whether Treg-deficiency predisposes to EV, we percutaneously VV-infected FoxP3-deficient (FoxP3KO) mice, which completely lack FoxP3+ Treg. These animals generated both fewer VV-specific CD8+ effector T cells and interferon-γ producing CD8+ T cells than controls, had higher viral loads and exhibited abnormal Th2 polarized responses to the virus. To focus on the consequences of Treg deficiency confined to the skin, we generated mixed CCR4KO FoxP3KO bone marrow (CCR4/FoxP3) chimeras in which skin, but not other tissues or central lymphoid organs, lack Treg. Like FoxP3KO mice, the chimeras had impaired VV-specific effector T cell responses and higher viral loads. Skin cytokine expression was significantly altered in infected chimeras compared to controls. Levels of the antiviral cytokines, type I and II interferons and IL-12, were reduced whereas expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β and IL-23, was increased. Importantly, infection of CCR4/FoxP3 chimeras by a non-cutaneous route (i.p.) induced immune responses comparable to controls. Our findings implicate allergic skin inflammation resulting from local Treg deficiency in the pathogenesis of EV. PMID:20548030

  18. Skin inflammation arising from cutaneous regulatory T cell deficiency leads to impaired viral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Mathias, Clinton B; Diaz, Natalia; MacArthur, Daniel H; Laouar, Amale; Manjunath, Narasimhaswamy; Hofer, Matthias D; Wurbel, Marc-Andre; Campbell, James J; Chatila, Talal A; Oettgen, Hans C

    2010-07-15

    Individuals with atopic dermatitis immunized with the small pox vaccine, vaccinia virus (VV), are susceptible to eczema vaccinatum (EV), a potentially fatal disseminated infection. Dysfunction of Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Treg) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. To test whether Treg deficiency predisposes to EV, we percutaneously VV infected FoxP3-deficient (FoxP3(KO)) mice, which completely lack FoxP3(+) Treg. These animals generated both fewer VV-specific CD8(+) effector T cells and IFN-gamma-producing CD8(+) T cells than controls, had higher viral loads, and exhibited abnormal Th2-polarized responses to the virus. To focus on the consequences of Treg deficiency confined to the skin, we generated mixed CCR4(KO) FoxP3(KO) bone marrow (CCR4/FoxP3) chimeras in which skin, but not other tissues or central lymphoid organs, lack Treg. Like FoxP3(KO) mice, the chimeras had impaired VV-specific effector T cell responses and higher viral loads. Skin cytokine expression was significantly altered in infected chimeras compared with controls. Levels of the antiviral cytokines, type I and II IFNs and IL-12, were reduced, whereas expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-beta, and IL-23, was increased. Importantly, infection of CCR4/FoxP3 chimeras by a noncutaneous route (i.p.) induced immune responses comparable to controls. Our findings implicate allergic skin inflammation resulting from local Treg deficiency in the pathogenesis of EV.

  19. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Deficiency Leads to Hypersensitivity of the Pressor Response Against Angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Norikazu; Kanasaki, Keizo; Kanasaki, Megumi; Takeda, Satoru; Koya, Daisuke

    2017-06-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes 2-hydroxyestradiol into 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME); COMT deficiency has shown to be associated with hypertension in men and preeclampsia, the disease associated with hypersensitivity of pressor response against angiotensin II (Ang II). Here, we found that COMT deficiency could explain the hypersensitivity of pressor response against Ang II in mice because of the lack of 2-ME-dependent suppression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R). Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to COMT inhibitor (COMTi: 25 mg/kg per day) or oil (control) for 4 weeks, with or without low-dose Ang II infusion (ANGII: 70 ng/kg per minute) for the last 3 weeks. The Ang II-infused mice were treated with 2-ME (10 ng/d) or vehicle for the last 1 week. We obtained the following experimental groups: control, ANGII, COMTi, COMTi+ANGII, and COMTi+ANGII+2-ME. We performed similar experiments using the in vivo administration of small interfering RNA of COMT instead of COMTi. Neither ANGII nor COMTi exhibited significant alterations in systolic blood pressure. Compared with ANGII or COMTi, COMTi+ANGII displayed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, and glomerular endotheliosis; 2-ME normalized such alterations. Similar phenotypes were observed in COMT small interfering RNA-treated mice. In the aorta of COMT-deficient mice, AT1R expression was increased; 2-ME suppressed AT1R expression. The 2-ME exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonistic activity in vitro and ex vivo plasma from pregnant female mice as well. In vitro, 2-ME suppressed both basal and Ang II-induced AT1R levels in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent manner. The 2-ME is relevant to combat COMT deficiency-associated hypertensive disorders via suppression of AT1R by its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Adrenergic deficiency leads to impaired electrical conduction and increased arrhythmic potential in the embryonic mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Baker, Candice; Taylor, David G; Osuala, Kingsley; Natarajan, Anupama; Molnar, Peter J; Hickman, James; Alam, Sabikha; Moscato, Brittany; Weinshenker, David; Ebert, Steven N

    2012-07-06

    To determine if adrenergic hormones play a critical role in the functional development of the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system, we employed a mouse model where adrenergic hormone production was blocked due to targeted disruption of the dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene. Immunofluorescent histochemical evaluation of the major gap junction protein, connexin 43, revealed that its expression was substantially decreased in adrenergic-deficient (Dbh-/-) relative to adrenergic-competent (Dbh+/+ and Dbh+/-) mouse hearts at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), whereas pacemaker and structural protein staining appeared similar. To evaluate cardiac electrical conduction in these hearts, we cultured them on microelectrode arrays (8×8, 200 μm apart). Our results show a significant slowing of atrioventricular conduction in adrenergic-deficient hearts compared to controls (31.4±6.4 vs. 15.4±1.7 ms, respectively, p<0.05). To determine if the absence of adrenergic hormones affected heart rate and rhythm, mouse hearts from adrenergic-competent and deficient embryos were cultured ex vivo at E10.5, and heart rates were measured before and after challenge with the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol (0.5 μM). On average, all hearts showed increased heart rate responses following isoproterenol challenge, but a significant (p<0.05) 225% increase in the arrhythmic index (AI) was observed only in adrenergic-deficient hearts. These results show that adrenergic hormones may influence heart development by stimulating connexin 43 expression, facilitating atrioventricular conduction, and helping to maintain cardiac rhythm during a critical phase of embryonic development.

  1. Immune deficiency in mouse models for inherited peripheral neuropathies leads to improved myelin maintenance.

    PubMed

    Schmid, C D; Stienekemeier, M; Oehen, S; Bootz, F; Zielasek, J; Gold, R; Toyka, K V; Schachner, M; Martini, R

    2000-01-15

    The adhesive cell surface molecule P(0) is the most abundant glycoprotein in peripheral nerve myelin and fulfills pivotal functions during myelin formation and maintenance. Mutations in the corresponding gene cause hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In mice heterozygously deficient in P(0) (P(0)(+/-) mice), an established animal model for a subtype of hereditary neuropathies, T-lymphocytes are present in the demyelinating nerves. To monitor the possible involvement of the immune system in myelin pathology, we cross-bred P(0)(+/-) mice with null mutants for the recombination activating gene 1 (RAG-1) or with mice deficient in the T-cell receptor alpha-subunit. We found that in P(0)(+/-) mice myelin degeneration and impairment of nerve conduction properties is less severe when the immune system is deficient. Moreover, isolated T-lymphocytes from P(0)(+/-) mice show enhanced reactivity to myelin components of the peripheral nerve, such as P(0), P(2), and myelin basic protein. We hypothesize that autoreactive immune cells can significantly foster the demyelinating phenotype of mice with a primarily genetically based peripheral neuropathy.

  2. Deficient DNA damage signaling leads to chemoresistance to cisplatin in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Mosel, Adam J.; Oakley, Gregory G.; Peng, Aimin

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is an important determinant of cell sensitivity to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs that eliminate tumor cells through induction of DNA damage. It is therefore important to investigate whether alterations of the DNA damage signaling pathway confer chemoresistance in cancer cells, and whether pharmacological manipulation of the DDR pathway can re-sensitize these cells to cancer therapy. In a panel of oral/laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines, we observed deficiencies in DNA damage signaling in correlation with cisplatin-resistance, but not with DNA repair. These deficiencies are consistent with reduced expression of components of the ATM-dependent signaling pathway and, in particular, strong up-regulation of Wip1, a negative regulator of the ATM pathway. Wip1 knockdown or inhibition enhanced DNA damage signaling and re-sensitized oral SCC cells to cisplatin. In contrast to the previously reported involvement of Wip1 in cancer, Wip1 up-regulation and function in these SCC cells is independent of p53. Finally, using xenograft tumor models, we demonstrated that Wip1 up-regulation promotes tumorigenesis and its inhibition improves the tumor response to cisplatin. Thus, this study reveals that chemoresistance in oral SCCs is partially attributed to deficiencies in DNA damage signaling, and Wip1 is an effective drug target for enhanced cancer therapy. PMID:22973056

  3. Deficiency of lipoprotein lipase in neurons modifies the regulation of energy balance and leads to obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Astarita, Giuseppe; Taussig, Matthew D; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Ira J; Eckel, Robert H

    2011-01-05

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) suppress appetite when injected into the hypothalamus. To examine whether lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a serine hydrolase that releases FFAs from circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins, might contribute to FFA-mediated signaling in the brain, we created neuron-specific LPL-deficient mice. Homozygous mutant (NEXLPL-/-) mice were hyperphagic and became obese by 16 weeks of age. These traits were accompanied by elevations in the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, AgRP and NPY, and were followed by reductions in metabolic rate. The uptake of TG-rich lipoprotein fatty acids was reduced in the hypothalamus of 3-month-old NEXLPL-/- mice. Moreover, deficiencies in essential fatty acids in the hypothalamus were evident by 3 months, with major deficiencies of long-chain n-3 fatty acids by 12 months. These results indicate that TG-rich lipoproteins are sensed in the brain by an LPL-dependent mechanism and provide lipid signals for the central regulation of body weight and energy balance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ascorbic acid deficiency leads to increased grain chalkiness in transgenic rice for suppressed of L-GalLDH.

    PubMed

    Yu, Le; Liu, Yonghai; Lu, Lina; Zhang, Qilei; Chen, Yezheng; Zhou, Liping; Chen, Hua; Peng, Changlian

    2017-04-01

    The grain chalkiness of rice (Oryza sativa L.), which determines the rice quality and price, is a major concern in rice breeding. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in regulating rice endosperm chalkiness. Ascorbic acid (Asc) is a major plant antioxidant, which strictly regulates the levels of ROS. l-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (L-GalLDH, EC 1.3.2.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of Asc biosynthesis in higher plants. Here we show that the L-GalLDH-suppressed transgenic rice, GI-1 and GI-2, which have constitutively low (between 30% and 50%) leaf and grain Asc content compared with the wild-type (WT), exhibit significantly increased grain chalkiness. Further examination showed that the deficiency of Asc resulted in a higher lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content, accompanied by a lower hydroxyl radical scavenging rate, total antioxidant capacity and photosynthetic ability. In addition, changes of the enzyme activities and gene transcript abundances related to starch synthesis were also observed in GI-1 and GI-2 grains. The results we presented here suggest a close correlation between Asc deficiency and grain chalkiness in the L-GalLDH-suppressed transgenics. Asc deficiency leads to the accumulation of H2O2, affecting antioxidant capacity and photosynthetic function, changing enzyme activities and gene transcript abundances related to starch synthesis, finally leading to the increased grain chalkiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Suppression of DNA-dependent protein kinase sensitize cells to radiation without affecting DSB repair.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ann-Sofie; Abramenkovs, Andris; Stenerlöw, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Efficient and correct repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) is critical for cell survival. Defects in the DNA repair may lead to cell death, genomic instability and development of cancer. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is an essential component of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) which is the major DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells. In the present study, by using siRNA against DNA-PKcs in four human cell lines, we examined how low levels of DNA-PKcs affected cellular response to ionizing radiation. Decrease of DNA-PKcs levels by 80-95%, induced by siRNA treatment, lead to extreme radiosensitivity, similar to that seen in cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and low levels of DNA-PKcs promoted cell accumulation in G2/M phase after irradiation and blocked progression of mitosis. Surprisingly, low levels of DNA-PKcs did not affect the repair capacity and the removal of 53BP1 or γ-H2AX foci and rejoining of DSB appeared normal. This was in strong contrast to cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and cells treated with the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441, in which DSB repair were severely compromised. This suggests that there are different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs functions can sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. Further, foci of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (T2609 and S2056) co-localized with DSB and this was independent of the amount of DNA-PKcs but foci of DNA-PKcs was only seen in siRNA-treated cells. Our study emphasizes on the critical role of DNA-PKcs for maintaining survival after radiation exposure which is uncoupled from its essential function in DSB repair. This could have implications for the development of therapeutic strategies aiming to radiosensitize tumors by affecting the DNA-PKcs function.

  6. Deficiency of filaggrin regulates endogenous cysteine protease activity, leading to impaired skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Wang, X W; Wang, J J; Gutowska-Owsiak, D; Salimi, M; Selvakumar, T A; Gwela, A; Chen, L Y; Wang, Y J; Giannoulatou, E; Ogg, G

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder, characterized by skin barrier defects and enhanced allergen priming. Null mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are strongly associated with moderate to severe AD, but the pathways linking barrier dysfunction and cutaneous inflammation are still largely unknown. To assess alteration of endogenous cysteine protease activity in FLG-deficient keratinocytes, and to determine whether the alteration in cysteine protease activity affects epidermal barrier function and associated gene and protein expression. We established a stable FLG knockdown cell line, and reconstructed epidermal equivalents in vitro. Barrier function of the reconstructed epidermis, the barrier-associated genes and proteins, and the activity of endogenous cysteine proteases were tested. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases were used to further evaluate the role of endogenous cysteine proteases in epidermal barrier function. FLG knockdown induced impaired epidermal barrier function. Microarray, western blotting and fluorescence staining showed reduced expression of K10, ZO-1, E-cadherin, claudin-1 and occludin in FLG knockdown keratinocytes. Compared with cysteine protease activity in control cells, protease activity was dramatically enhanced in FLG knockdown keratinocytes. Furthermore, administration of cysteine protease inhibitors significantly recovered expression of K10 and tight junction proteins, and the barrier defect induced by FLG deficiency. This is the first observation of elevated endogenous cysteine protease activity in FLG-deficient keratinocytes, which may play an important role in impaired barrier function in AD skin. Modulation of cysteine protease activity might be a novel therapeutic approach for AD treatment. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Elevated Interleukin-10: A New Cause of Dyslipidemia Leading to Severe HDL Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Moraitis, Andreas G; Freeman, Lita A; Shamburek, Robert D; Wesley, Robert; Wilson, Wyndham; Grant, Cliona M; Price, Susan; Demosky, Stephen; Thacker, Seth G; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Hornung, Ronald L; Pucino, Frank; Csako, Gyorgy; Yarboro, Cheryl; McInnes, Iain B; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Rao, V. Koneti; Illei, Gabor G; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Investigating mechanisms underlying acquired severe HDL deficiency in noncritically ill patients (“Disappearing HDL Syndrome”) could provide new insights into HDL metabolism. OBJECTIVE To determine the cause of low HDL-C in patients with severe acquired HDL deficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS Patients with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL, n=2), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n=1), and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS, n=1) presenting with markedly decreased HDL-C, low LDL-C and elevated triglycerides were identified. The abnormal lipoprotein profile returned to normal following therapy in all four cases. All cases were found to have markedly elevated serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels that also normalized following therapy. In a cohort of ALPS patients (n=93), IL-10 showed a strong inverse correlation with HDL-C (R2=0·3720, P<0·0001). A direct causal role for increased serum IL-10 in inducing the observed changes in lipoproteins was established in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of recombinant human IL-10 (rhIL-10) in psoriatic arthritis patients (n=18). Within a week of initiating subcutaneous rhIL-10 injections, HDL-C precipitously decreased to near-undetectable levels. LDL-C also decreased by over 50% (P<0·0001) and triglycerides increased by approximately 2-fold (P<0·005). All values returned to baseline after discontinuing IL-10 therapy. CONCLUSION Increased IL-10 causes severe HDL-C deficiency, low LDL-C and elevated triglycerides. IL-10 is thus a potent modulator of lipoprotein levels, a potential new biomarker for B-cell disorders, and a novel cause of Disappearing HDL syndrome. PMID:25670364

  8. Plesiomonas shigelloides Septic Shock Leading to Death of Postsplenectomy Patient with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although Plesiomonas shigelloides, a water-borne bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae family, usually causes self-limiting gastroenteritis with diarrhea, several cases of sepsis have been reported. We report the case of a 43-year-old male patient with hemochromatosis, pyruvate kinase deficiency, and asplenia via splenectomy who developed septic shock caused by P. shigelloides complicated by respiratory failure, renal failure, liver failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Early aggressive antimicrobial therapy and resuscitation measures were unsuccessful and the patient passed away. We kindly suggest clinicians to implement early diagnosis of septic shock, empirical coverage with antibiotics, and prompt volume resuscitation based on the high mortality rate of P. shigelloides bacteremia. PMID:27610253

  9. Does B12 deficiency lead to lack of treatment response to conventional antidepressants?

    PubMed

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Agarwal, Munish

    2010-11-01

    We present two cases of treatment-resistant depression that improved with recognition and correction of the underlying medical etiology of vitamin B12 deficiency. Supplementations of vitamin B12 to the same antidepressant regimen that the patient had not responded earlier led to response. Two male subjects who were vegetarians presented with long-standing histories of depression and had not responded to three adequate trials of antidepressants. Upon investigation, the authors found that the subjects had low vitamin B12 levels. Both cases improved with supplementation of vitamin B12. Subjects with depression who do not respond to conventional antidepressants should be evaluated for nutritional factors.

  10. Human USP18 deficiency underlies type 1 interferonopathy leading to severe pseudo-TORCH syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oudesluijs, Grétel; Li, Zhi; Heijsman, Daphne; Hermann, Mark; Willemsen, Rob; Brouwer, Rutger W.W.; Bertoli Avella, Aida; Prinz, Marco; Crow, Yanick J.; Verheijen, Frans W.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudo-TORCH syndrome (PTS) is characterized by microcephaly, enlarged ventricles, cerebral calcification, and, occasionally, by systemic features at birth resembling the sequelae of congenital infection but in the absence of an infectious agent. Genetic defects resulting in activation of type 1 interferon (IFN) responses have been documented to cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, which is a cause of PTS. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18) is a key negative regulator of type I IFN signaling. In this study, we identified loss-of-function recessive mutations of USP18 in five PTS patients from two unrelated families. Ex vivo brain autopsy material demonstrated innate immune inflammation with calcification and polymicrogyria. In vitro, patient fibroblasts displayed severely enhanced IFN-induced inflammation, which was completely rescued by lentiviral transduction of USP18. These findings add USP18 deficiency to the list of genetic disorders collectively termed type I interferonopathies. Moreover, USP18 deficiency represents the first genetic disorder of PTS caused by dysregulation of the response to type I IFNs. Therapeutically, this places USP18 as a promising target not only for genetic but also acquired IFN-mediated CNS disorders. PMID:27325888

  11. MEC-17 deficiency leads to reduced α-tubulin acetylation and impaired migration of cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wei, Dan; Wang, Qiong; Pan, Jing; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xu; Bao, Lan

    2012-09-12

    Neuronal migration is a fundamental process during the development of the cerebral cortex and is regulated by cytoskeletal components. Microtubule dynamics can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to tubulin subunits. Acetylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40 is important in regulating microtubule properties, and this process is controlled by acetyltransferase and deacetylase. MEC-17 is a newly discovered α-tubulin acetyltransferase that has been found to play a major role in the acetylation of α-tubulin in different species in vivo. However, the physiological function of MEC-17 during neural development is largely unknown. Here, we report that MEC-17 is critical for the migration of cortical neurons in the rat. MEC-17 was strongly expressed in the cerebral cortex during development. MEC-17 deficiency caused migratory defects in the cortical projection neurons and interneurons, and perturbed the transition of projection neurons from the multipolar stage to the unipolar/bipolar stage in the intermediate zone of the cortex. Furthermore, knockdown of α-tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 or overexpression of tubulin(K40Q) to mimic acetylated α-tubulin could reduce the migratory and morphological defects caused by MEC-17 deficiency in cortical projection neurons. Thus, MEC-17, which regulates the acetylation of α-tubulin, appears to control the migration and morphological transition of cortical neurons. This finding reveals the importance of MEC-17 and α-tubulin acetylation in cortical development.

  12. Dietary magnesium deficiency alters gut microbiota and leads to depressive-like behaviour.

    PubMed

    Winther, Gudrun; Pyndt Jørgensen, Betina M; Elfving, Betina; Nielsen, Denis Sandris; Kihl, Pernille; Lund, Sten; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-06-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) has previously been associated with alterations in rodent behaviour, and since the GM is affected by the diet, the composition of the diet may be an important factor contributing to behavioural changes. Interestingly, a magnesium restricted diet has been shown to induce anxiety and depressive-like behaviour in humans and rodents, and it could be suggested that magnesium deficiency may mediate the effects through an altered GM. The present study therefore fed C57BL/6 mice with a standard diet or a magnesium deficient diet (MgD) for 6 weeks, followed by behavioural testing in the forced swim test (FST) to evaluate depressive-like behaviour. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed 2 day after the FST to assess metabolic alterations. Neuroinflammatory markers were analysed from hippocampus. GM composition was analysed and correlated to the behaviour and hippocampal markers. It was found that mice exposed to MgD for 6 weeks were more immobile than control mice in the FST, suggesting an increased depressive-like behaviour. No significant difference was detected in the GTT. GM composition correlated positively with the behaviour of undisturbed C57BL/6 mice, feeding MgD diet altered the microbial composition. The altered GM correlated positively to the hippocampal interleukin-6. In conclusion, we hypothesise that imbalances of the microbiota-gut-brain axis induced by consuming a MgD diet, contributes to the development of depressive-like behaviour.

  13. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with Graves' disease leading to the discovery of a hidden nonclassic 11β hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hwa; Park, Geon; Kim, Sang Yong; Bae, Hak Yeon

    2013-01-01

    11β hydroxylase deficiency (OHD) is one of the main causes of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. There have been only a few reported cases of nonclassic 11β OHD, a milder form of the disease. It is difficult to detect occult nonclassic 11β OHD because patients present with no or mild symptoms. We herein present a case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) with Graves' disease leading to the discovery of a hidden nonclassic 11β OHD. In this case, increased levels of thyroid hormone seem to have induced symptoms of occult nonclassic 11β OHD and aggravated TPP.

  14. PICK1 Deficiency Impairs Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis and Leads to Growth Retardation and Decreased Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anna M.; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K.; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N.; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K.; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine

  15. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine

  16. PNPLA1 Deficiency in Mice and Humans Leads to a Defect in the Synthesis of Omega-O-Acylceramides

    PubMed Central

    Grond, Susanne; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Dubrac, Sandrine; Kolb, Dagmar; Schmuth, Matthias; Fischer, Judith; Crumrine, Debra; Elias, Peter M.; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Lass, Achim; Radner, Franz P.W.

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in PNPLA1 have been identified as causative for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in humans and dogs. So far, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we generated and characterized PNPLA1-deficient mice and found that PNPLA1 is crucial for epidermal sphingolipid synthesis. The absence of functional PNPLA1 in mice impaired the formation of omega-O-acylceramides and led to an accumulation of nonesterified omega-hydroxy-ceramides. As a consequence, PNPLA1-deficient mice lacked a functional corneocyte-bound lipid envelope leading to a severe skin barrier defect and premature death of newborn animals. Functional analyses of differentiated keratinocytes from a patient with mutated PNPLA1 demonstrated an identical defect in omega-O-acylceramide synthesis in human cells, indicating that PNPLA1 function is conserved among mammals and indispensable for normal skin physiology. Notably, topical application of epidermal lipids from wild-type onto Pnpla1-mutant mice promoted rebuilding of the corneocyte-bound lipid envelope, indicating that supplementation of ichthyotic skin with omega-O-acylceramides might be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of skin symptoms in individuals affected by omega-O-acylceramide deficiency. PMID:27751867

  17. A late 17α-hydroxylase deficiency diagnosis that leads to the discovery of a new CYP17 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Guenego, Agathe; Morel, Yves; Ionesco, Oana; Mallet, Delphine; Priou-Guesdon, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    17α-Hydroxylase deficiency is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. It leads to a reduced production of cortisol and sex steroids and thus an increase in adrenocorticotrophic hormone and gonadotrophins levels. High adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels result in an accumulation of 17-deoxysteroids, such as deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. Deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone have an important mineralocorticoid activity. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with hypertension and symptomatic hypokalaemia. Primary hyperaldosteronism was suspected and a right adrenal mass was removed. After surgery, the patient was referred to the endocrinology department for persistant hypokalaemia. Actually, she presented some signs of hypogonadism (impuberism, primary amenorrhea, infertility). Cortisol and 17OH-progesterone serum levels were low. Deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were markedly elevated. The hypothesis of 17α-hydroxylase deficiency was considered and confirmed by genetic exploration. A non-sense mutation c.938G>A (p.Trp313X) in exon 5 of the CYP17 gene was found that had never been reported so far to our knowledge. Moreover, the patient's karyotype found a mosaic Turner syndrome. This case is particularly interesting because of the delay of diagnosis. The 17α-hydroxylase deficiency diagnosis is to be considered when hypertension is associated with hypokalaemia and hypogonadism, even in adult patients.

  18. Elevated blood lead concentrations and vitamin D deficiency in winter and summer in young urban children.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Francis W; Neti, Prasad V S V; Howell, Roger W; Wenger, Peter; Louria, Donald B; Bogden, John D

    2007-04-01

    It is widely recognized that blood lead concentrations are higher in the summer than in winter. Although the effects of some environmental factors such as lead in dust on this phenomenon have been studied, relationships to sunlight-induced vitamin D synthesis have not been adequately investigated. Vitamin D status is influenced by the diet, sunlight exposure, age, skin pigmentation, and other factors, and may modify gastrointestinal lead absorption or release of lead stored in bones into the bloodstream. We collected paired blood samples from 142 young, urban African-American and Hispanic children in the winter and summer to study the seasonal increase in blood lead and its relationships to vitamin D nutrition, age, and race. A winter/summer (W/S) increase in blood lead concentrations of 32.4% was found for children 1-3 years of age. There was a smaller W/S increase of 13.0% in children 4-8 years of age. None of the 51 Hispanic children had an elevated blood lead concentration (> or = 10 microg/dL) during the winter, and only one had an elevated summertime concentration. In contrast, elevated blood lead concentrations were frequent in the 91 African-American children, especially those 1-3 years of age. For the latter, the percentage with elevated blood lead levels increased from 12.2% in winter to 22.5% in summer. A 1.2% W/S increase in serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (serum 25-OH-D) concentrations was found for children 1-3 years of age. However, in children 4-8 years of age the W/S increase in serum 25-OH-D was much larger-33.6%. The percentages of children with low (< 16 microg/L) serum 25-OH-D concentrations were 12.0% in winter and 0.7% in summer and were consistently greater in African-American than in Hispanic children. The seasonal increases in blood lead and serum 25-OH-D in children 4-8 years of age were significantly associated. The higher summertime serum 25-OH-D concentrations for the 4- to 8-year-old children are likely caused by increased sunlight

  19. IL-15Rα deficiency leads to mitochondrial and myofiber differences in fast mouse muscles.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Emidio E; Guo, Ge; Stauber, William T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine mitochondrial changes in fast muscles from interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL-15RαKO) mice. We tested the hypothesis that fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice would have a greater mitochondrial density and altered internal structure compared to muscles from control mice. In fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice, mitochondrial density was 48% greater with a corresponding increase in mitochondrial DNA content. Although there were no differences in the relative size of isolated mitochondria, internal complexity was lower in mitochondria from IL-15RαKO mice. These data support an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and provide direct evidence for a greater density and altered internal structure of mitochondria in EDL muscles deficient in IL-15Rα.

  20. IL-15Rα deficiency leads to mitochondrial and myofiber differences in fast mouse muscles

    PubMed Central

    Pistilli, Emidio E.; Guo, Ge; Stauber, William T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine mitochondrial changes in fast muscles from interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL-15RαKO) mice. We tested the hypothesis that fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice would have a greater mitochondrial density and altered internal structure compared to muscles from control mice. In fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice, mitochondrial density was 48% greater with a corresponding increase in mitochondrial DNA content. Although there were no differences in the relative size of isolated mitochondria, internal complexity was lower in mitochondria from IL-15RαKO mice. These data support an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and provide direct evidence for a greater density and altered internal structure of mitochondria in EDL muscles deficient in IL-15Rα. PMID:23116661

  1. GRK5 Deficiency Leads to Selective Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    He, Minchao; Singh, Prabhakar; Cheng, Shaowu; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Wei; Ding, XueFeng; Li, Longxuan; Liu, Jun; Premont, Richard T.; Morgan, Dave; Burns, Jeffery M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Suo, William Z.

    2016-01-01

    Why certain diseases primarily affect one specific neuronal subtype rather than another is a puzzle whose solution underlies the development of specific therapies. Selective basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurodegeneration participates in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report the first recapitulation of the selective BFC neuronal loss that is typical of human AD in a mouse model termed GAP. We created GAP mice by crossing Tg2576 mice that over-express the Swedish mutant human β-amyloid precursor protein gene with G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) knockout mice. This doubly defective mouse displayed significant BFC neuronal loss at 18 months of age, which was not observed in either of the singly defective parent strains or in the wild type. Along with other supporting evidence, we propose that GRK5 deficiency selectively renders BFC neurons more vulnerable to degeneration. PMID:27193825

  2. Glutathione deficiency leads to riboflavin oversynthesis in the yeast Pichia guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Blazhenko, O V

    2014-07-01

    The Pichia guilliermondii GSH1 and GSH2 genes encoding Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologues of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, respectively, were cloned and deleted. Constructed P. guilliermondii Δgsh1 and Δgsh2 mutants were GSH auxotrophs, displayed significantly decreased cellular GSH+GSSG levels and sensitivity to tert-butyl hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and cadmium ions. In GSH-deficient synthetic medium, growths of Δgsh1 and Δgsh2 mutants were limited to 3-4 and 5-6 cell divisions, respectively. Under these conditions Δgsh1 and Δgsh2 mutants possessed 365 and 148 times elevated riboflavin production, 10.7 and 2.3 times increased cellular iron content, as well as 6.8 and 1.4 fold increased ferrireductase activity, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain. Glutathione addition to the growth medium completely restored the growth of both mutants and decreased riboflavin production, cellular iron content, and ferrireductase activity to the level of the parental strain. Cysteine also partially restored the growth of the Δgsh2 mutants, while methionine or dithiothreitol could not restore the growth neither of the Δgsh1, nor of the Δgsh2 mutants. Besides, it was shown that in GSH presence riboflavin production by both Δgsh1 and Δgsh2 mutants, similarly to that of the wild-type strain, depended on iron concentration in the growth medium. Furthermore, in GSH-deficient synthetic medium P. guilliermondii Δgsh2 mutant cells, despite iron overload, behaved like iron-deprived wild-type cells. Thus, in P. guilliermondii yeast, glutathione is required for proper regulation of both riboflavin and iron metabolism.

  3. Uterine Dysfunction in Biglycan and Decorin Deficient Mice Leads to Dystocia during Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiping; Aron, Abraham W.; Macksoud, Elyse E.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Hai, Chi-Ming; Lechner, Beatrice E.

    2012-01-01

    Cesarean birth rates are rising. Uterine dysfunction, the exact mechanism of which is unknown, is a common indication for Cesarean delivery. Biglycan and decorin are two small leucine-rich proteoglycans expressed in the extracellular matrix of reproductive tissues and muscle. Mice deficient in biglycan display a mild muscular dystrophy, and, along with mice deficient in decorin, are models of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, a connective tissue anomaly associated with uterine rupture. As a variant of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is caused by a genetic mutation resulting in abnormal biglycan and decorin secretion, we hypothesized that biglycan and decorin play a role in uterine function. Thus, we assessed wild-type, biglycan, decorin and double knockout pregnancies for timing of birth and uterine function. Uteri were harvested at embryonic days 12, 15 and 18. Nonpregnant uterine samples of the same genotypes were assessed for tissue failure rate and spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility. We discovered that biglycan/decorin mixed double-knockout dams displayed dystocia, were at increased risk of delayed labor onset, and showed increased tissue failure in a predominantly decorin-dependent manner. In vitro spontaneous uterine contractile amplitude and oxytocin-induced contractile force were decreased in all biglycan and decorin knockout genotypes compared to wild-type. Notably, we found no significant compensation between biglycan and decorin using quantitative real time PCR or immunohistochemistry. We conclude that the biglycan/decorin mixed double knockout mouse is a model of dystocia and delayed labor onset. Moreover, decorin is necessary for uterine function in a dose-dependent manner, while biglycan exhibits partial compensatory mechanisms in vivo. Thus, this model is poised for use as a model for testing novel targets for preventive or therapeutic manipulation of uterine dysfunction. PMID:22253749

  4. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead Contact Us Share Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built ... to protect people from harmful lead exposures. Less Lead in Drinking Water = Better Health Learn about the ...

  5. BRCA1 deficiency in skin epidermis leads to selective loss of hair follicle stem cells and their progeny

    PubMed Central

    Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A.; Karambelas, Andrea E.; Debaugnies, Maud; Candi, Aurelie; Bouwman, Peter; Moers, Virginie; Revenco, Tatiana; Rocha, Ana Sofia; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Jonkers, Jos; Blanpain, Cedric

    2013-01-01

    The accurate maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for tissue homeostasis. Deregulation of this process leads to cancer and aging. BRCA1 is a critical mediator of this process. Here, we performed conditional deletion of Brca1 during epidermal development and found that BRCA1 is specifically required for hair follicle (HF) formation and for development of adult HF stem cells (SCs). Mice deficient for Brca1 in the epidermis are hairless and display a reduced number of HFs that degenerate progressively. Surprisingly, the interfollicular epidermis and the sebaceous glands remain unaffected by Brca1 deletion. Interestingly, HF matrix transient amplifying progenitors present increased DNA damage, p53 stabilization, and caspase-dependent apoptosis compared with the interfollicular and sebaceous progenitors, leading to hyperproliferation, apoptosis, and subsequent depletion of the prospective adult HF SCs. Concomitant deletion of p53 and Brca1 rescues the defect of HF morphogenesis and loss of HF SCs. During adult homeostasis, BRCA1 is dispensable for quiescent bulge SCs, but upon their activation during HF regeneration, Brca1 deletion causes apoptosis and depletion of Brca1-deficient bulge SCs. Our data reveal a major difference in the requirement of BRCA1 between different types of epidermal SCs and progenitors and during the different activation stages of adult HF SCs. PMID:23271346

  6. FGF23 Deficiency Leads to Mixed Hearing Loss and Middle Ear Malformation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lysaght, Andrew C.; Yuan, Quan; Fan, Yi; Kalwani, Neil; Caruso, Paul; Cunnane, MaryBeth; Lanske, Beate; Stanković, Konstantina M.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating hormone important in phosphate homeostasis. Abnormal serum levels of FGF23 result in systemic pathologies in humans and mice, including renal phosphate wasting diseases and hyperphosphatemia. We sought to uncover the role FGF23 plays in the auditory system due to shared molecular mechanisms and genetic pathways between ear and kidney development, the critical roles multiple FGFs play in auditory development and the known hearing phenotype in mice deficient in klotho (KL), a critical co-factor for FGF23 signaling. Using functional assessments of hearing, we demonstrate that Fgf mice are profoundly deaf. Fgf mice have moderate hearing loss above 20 kHz, consistent with mixed conductive and sensorineural pathology of both middle and inner ear origin. Histology and high-voltage X-ray computed tomography of Fgf mice demonstrate dysplastic bulla and ossicles; Fgf mice have near-normal morphology. The cochleae of mutant mice appear nearly normal on gross and microscopic inspection. In wild type mice, FGF23 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the cochlea. Measurements from Fgf mice do not match the auditory phenotype of Kl−/− mice, suggesting that loss of FGF23 activity impacts the auditory system via mechanisms at least partially independent of KL. Given the extensive middle ear malformations and the overlap of initiation of FGF23 activity and Eustachian tube development, this work suggests a possible role for FGF23 in otitis media. PMID:25243481

  7. Claudin-16 Deficiency Impairs Tight Junction Function in Ameloblasts, Leading to Abnormal Enamel Formation.

    PubMed

    Bardet, Claire; Courson, Frédéric; Wu, Yong; Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Ribes, Sandy; Thumfart, Julia; Yamaguti, Paulo M; Rochefort, Gael Y; Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Breiderhoff, Tilman; Garcia-Castaño, Alejandro; Vallée, Benoit; Le Denmat, Dominique; Baroukh, Brigitte; Guilbert, Thomas; Schmitt, Alain; Massé, Jean-Marc; Bazin, Dominique; Lorenz, Georg; Morawietz, Maria; Hou, Jianghui; Carvalho-Lobato, Patricia; Manzanares, Maria Cristina; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Talmud, Deborah; Demontis, Renato; Neves, Francisco; Zenaty, Delphine; Berdal, Ariane; Kiesow, Andreas; Petzold, Matthias; Menashi, Suzanne; Linglart, Agnes; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Müller, Dominik; Houillier, Pascal; Chaussain, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Claudin-16 protein (CLDN16) is a component of tight junctions (TJ) with a restrictive distribution so far demonstrated mainly in the kidney. Here, we demonstrate the expression of CLDN16 also in the tooth germ and show that claudin-16 gene (CLDN16) mutations result in amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in the 5 studied patients with familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC). To investigate the role of CLDN16 in tooth formation, we studied a murine model of FHHNC and showed that CLDN16 deficiency led to altered secretory ameloblast TJ structure, lowering of extracellular pH in the forming enamel matrix, and abnormal enamel matrix protein processing, resulting in an enamel phenotype closely resembling human AI. This study unravels an association of FHHNC owing to CLDN16 mutations with AI, which is directly related to the loss of function of CLDN16 during amelogenesis. Overall, this study indicates for the first time the importance of a TJ protein in tooth formation and underlines the need to establish a specific dental follow-up for these patients. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Astroglial glutamate transporter deficiency increases synaptic excitability and leads to pathological repetitive behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Aida, Tomomi; Yoshida, Junichi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Tanimura, Asami; Iino, Yusuke; Soma, Miho; Bai, Ning; Ito, Yukiko; Cui, Wanpeng; Aizawa, Hidenori; Yanagisawa, Michiko; Nagai, Terumi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kano, Masanobu; Götz, Magdalena; Hirase, Hajime; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the ratio of cellular excitation to inhibition (E/I ratio) has been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). A proper E/I ratio is achieved via factors expressed in neuron and glia. In astrocytes, the glutamate transporter GLT1 is critical for regulating an E/I ratio. However, the role of GLT1 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown because mice with a complete deficiency of GLT1 exhibited seizures and premature death. Here, we show that astrocyte-specific GLT1 inducible knockout (GLAST(CreERT2/+)/GLT1(flox/flox), iKO) mice exhibit pathological repetitive behaviors including excessive and injurious levels of self-grooming and tic-like head shakes. Electrophysiological studies reveal that excitatory transmission at corticostriatal synapse is normal in a basal state but is increased after repetitive stimulation. Furthermore, treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine ameliorated the pathological repetitive behaviors in iKO mice. These results suggest that astroglial GLT1 has a critical role in controlling the synaptic efficacy at corticostriatal synapses and its dysfunction causes pathological repetitive behaviors.

  9. Bcl11a Deficiency Leads to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Defects with an Aging-like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Luc, Sidinh; Huang, Jialiang; McEldoon, Jennifer L; Somuncular, Ece; Li, Dan; Rhodes, Claire; Mamoor, Shahan; Hou, Serena; Xu, Jian; Orkin, Stuart H

    2016-09-20

    B cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (BCL11A) is a transcription factor and regulator of hemoglobin switching that has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for sickle cell disease and thalassemia. In the hematopoietic system, BCL11A is required for B lymphopoiesis, yet its role in other hematopoietic cells, especially hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains elusive. The extensive expression of BCL11A in hematopoiesis implicates context-dependent roles, highlighting the importance of fully characterizing its function as part of ongoing efforts for stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Here, we demonstrate that BCL11A is indispensable for normal HSC function. Bcl11a deficiency results in HSC defects, typically observed in the aging hematopoietic system. We find that downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6), and the ensuing cell-cycle delay, correlate with HSC dysfunction. Our studies define a mechanism for BCL11A in regulation of HSC function and have important implications for the design of therapeutic approaches to targeting BCL11A.

  10. Vav3 proto-oncogene deficiency leads to sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiovascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sauzeau, Vincent; Sevilla, María A; Rivas-Elena, Juan V; de Alava, Enrique; Montero, María J; López-Novoa, José M; Bustelo, Xosé R

    2006-07-01

    Although much is known about environmental factors that predispose individuals to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, little information is available regarding the genetic and signaling events involved. Indeed, few genes associated with the progression of these pathologies have been discovered despite intensive research in animal models and human populations. Here we identify Vav3, a GDP-GTP exchange factor that stimulates Rho and Rac GTPases, as an essential factor regulating the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Vav3-deficient mice exhibited tachycardia, systemic arterial hypertension and extensive cardiovascular remodeling. These mice also showed hyperactivity of sympathetic neurons from the time of birth. The high catecholamine levels associated with this condition led to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, increased levels of kidney-related hormones and the progressive loss of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with drugs targeting sympathetic and renin-angiotensin responses confirmed the causative role and hierarchy of these events in the development of the Vav3-null mouse phenotype. These observations uncover the crucial role of Vav3 in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and cardiovascular physiology, and reveal a signaling pathway that could be involved in the pathophysiology of human disease states involving tachycardia and sympathetic hyperactivity with unknown etiologies.

  11. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Deficiency Leads to Impaired Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Mantelmacher, Fernanda Dana; Fishman, Sigal; Cohen, Keren; Pasmanik Chor, Metsada; Yamada, Yuichiro; Zvibel, Isabel; Varol, Chen

    2017-04-15

    The bone marrow (BM) contains controlled specialized microenvironments, or niches, that regulate the quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut-derived incretin hormone that mediates postprandial insulin secretion and has anabolic effects on adipose tissue. Previous studies demonstrated altered bone microarchitecture in mice deficient for GIP receptor (Gipr(-/-) ), as well as the expression of high-affinity GIP receptor by distinct cells constructing the BM HSPC niche. Nevertheless, the involvement of GIP in the process of BM hematopoiesis remains elusive. In this article, we show significantly reduced representation and proliferation of HSPC and myeloid progenitors in the BM of Gipr(-/-) mice. This was further manifested by reduced levels of BM and circulating differentiated immune cells in young and old adult mice. Moreover, GIP signaling was required for the establishment of supportive BM HSPC niches during HSPC repopulation in radioablated BM chimera mice. Finally, molecular profiling of various factors involved in retention, survival, and expansion of HSPC revealed significantly lower expression of the Notch-receptor ligands Jagged 1 and Jagged 2 in osteoblast-enriched bone extracts from Gipr(-/-) mice, which are important for HSPC expansion. In addition, there was increased expression of CXCL12, a factor important for HSPC retention and quiescence, in whole-BM extracts from Gipr(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data suggest that the metabolic hormone GIP plays an important role in BM hematopoiesis.

  12. Astroglial Glutamate Transporter Deficiency Increases Synaptic Excitability and Leads to Pathological Repetitive Behaviors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Tomomi; Yoshida, Junichi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Tanimura, Asami; Iino, Yusuke; Soma, Miho; Bai, Ning; Ito, Yukiko; Cui, Wanpeng; Aizawa, Hidenori; Yanagisawa, Michiko; Nagai, Terumi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kano, Masanobu; Götz, Magdalena; Hirase, Hajime; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2015-01-01

    An increase in the ratio of cellular excitation to inhibition (E/I ratio) has been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). A proper E/I ratio is achieved via factors expressed in neuron and glia. In astrocytes, the glutamate transporter GLT1 is critical for regulating an E/I ratio. However, the role of GLT1 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown because mice with a complete deficiency of GLT1 exhibited seizures and premature death. Here, we show that astrocyte-specific GLT1 inducible knockout (GLASTCreERT2/+/GLT1flox/flox, iKO) mice exhibit pathological repetitive behaviors including excessive and injurious levels of self-grooming and tic-like head shakes. Electrophysiological studies reveal that excitatory transmission at corticostriatal synapse is normal in a basal state but is increased after repetitive stimulation. Furthermore, treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine ameliorated the pathological repetitive behaviors in iKO mice. These results suggest that astroglial GLT1 has a critical role in controlling the synaptic efficacy at corticostriatal synapses and its dysfunction causes pathological repetitive behaviors. PMID:25662838

  13. Vav3 proto-oncogene deficiency leads to sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiovascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sauzeau, Vincent; Sevilla, María A; Rivas-Elena, Juan V; de Álava, Enrique; Montero, María J; López-Novoa, José M; Bustelo, Xosé R

    2007-01-01

    Although much is known about environmental factors that predispose individuals to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, little information is available regarding the genetic and signaling events involved1-3. Indeed, few genes associated with the progression of these pathologies have been discovered despite intensive research in animal models and human populations1-3. Here we identify Vav3, a GDP-GTP exchange factor that stimulates Rho and Rac GTPases4, as an essential factor regulating the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system.Vav3-deficient mice exhibited tachycardia, systemic arterial hypertension and extensive cardiovascular remodeling. These mice also showed hyperactivity of sympathetic neurons from the time of birth. The high catecholamine levels associated with this condition led to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, increased levels of kidney-related hormones and the progressive loss of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with drugs targeting sympathetic and renin-angiotensin responses confirmed the causative role and hierarchy of these events in the development of theVav3-null mouse phenotype. These observations uncover the crucial role of Vav3 in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and cardiovascular physiology, and reveal a signaling pathway that could be involved in the pathophysiology of human disease states involving tachycardia and sympathetic hyperactivity with unknown etiologies2,5,6. PMID:16767097

  14. TLR7 Deficiency Leads to TLR8 Compensative Regulation of Immune Response against JEV in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Awais, Muhammad; Wang, Ke; Lin, Xianwu; Qian, Wenjie; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Chong; Wang, Kunlun; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F.; Cui, Min

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a highly fatal pathogen to human beings. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) plays a role as the first host defense against most single-stranded RNA flaviviruses. This study aims to investigate the role of TLR7 in inducing adaptive immune response in mice against JEV. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to examine the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in mice. After JEV infection, physical parameters of mice (survival rate and body weight) were evaluated, and organs or cells were collected for further analysis. The expression of TLR7 was increased significantly as compare to other TLR molecules post-JEV infection. The expression of CD80, CD86, and CD273 on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells was increased significantly in TLR7−/− mice. Furthermore, viral load was also increased significantly in TLR7−/− mice as compare to C57BL/6 mice. But there was no significant difference among survival rate and body weight in TLR7−/− mice as compare to C57BL/6. Interestingly, we also found that TLR8 was upregulated in TLR7−/− mice. The study concluded that TLR8 was upregulated in TLR7-deficient mice, and it might play a compensatory role in the immune response in TLR7−/− mice. PMID:28265274

  15. Molecular defects leading to human complement component C6 deficiency in an African-American family

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z-B; Totemchokchyakarn, K; Atkinson, T P; Volanakis, J E

    1998-01-01

    Complement component C6 deficiency (C6D) was diagnosed in a 16-year-old African-American male with meningococcal meningitis. The patient's father and two brothers also had C6D, but gave no history of meningitis or other neisserial infection. By using exon-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/single-strand conformation polymorphism as a screening step and nucleotide sequencing of target exons, we determined that the proband was a compound heterozygote for two C6 gene mutations. The first, 1195delC located in exon 7, is a novel mutation, while the second, 1936delG in exon 12, has been described before to cause C6D in an unrelated African-American individual. Both mutations result in premature termination codons and C6 null alleles. Allele-specific PCR indicated that the proband's two brothers also inherited the 1195delC mutation from their heterozygous mother and the 1936delG mutation from their homozygous father. PMID:9472666

  16. Adiponectin Deficiency Leads to Female Subfertility and Ovarian Dysfunctions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lixian; Shi, Hui; Jin, Yan; Li, Xiaoxi; Pan, Jinshun; Lai, Yimei; Lin, Yan; Jin, Ya; Roy, Gaurab; Zhao, Allan; Li, Fanghong

    2016-12-01

    Adipose tissue plays an important role in regulating female fertility, owing to not only its energy stores but also the endocrine actions of secreted adipokines. As one of the adipokines, adiponectin is almost exclusively secreted from the fat, and its circulating concentration is paradoxically reduced in obesity. Although recent studies implied a purported positive role of adiponectin in ovarian functions, definitive in vivo evidence has been sorely lacking. We have consistently observed subfertility in female adiponectin null mice and therefore postulated a protective role of adiponectin in ovarian functions. Female adiponectin null mice displayed impaired fertility, reduced retrieval of oocytes, disrupted estrous cycle, elevated number of atretic follicles, and impaired late folliculogenesis. Analysis of their sera revealed a significant decrease in estradiol and FSH but an increase in LH and testosterone at proestrus. In addition, we found marked reduction of progesterone levels at diestrus, a significant decrease in LH receptor expression as well as in the number of GnRH immunoreactive neurons. Adiponectin deficiency also altered the peak concentrations of LH surge and led to lower expression of Cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1 (P450scc), an enzyme critical for progesterone synthesis, as well as an increase in BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator and Insulin like growth factor binding protein 4 in atretic follicles. These physiological and molecular events were independent of insulin sensitivity. Thus, we have revealed a novel mechanism linking adiponectin and female fertility that entails regulation of reproductive hormone balance and ovarian follicle development.

  17. Liver-specific knockout of arginase-1 leads to a profound phenotype similar to inducible whole body arginase-1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Laurel L; Sin, Yuan Yan; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Li, Xinzhi; Hurlbut, David J; Funk, Colin D

    2016-12-01

    Arginase-1 (Arg1) converts arginine to urea and ornithine in the distal step of the urea cycle in liver. We previously generated a tamoxifen-inducible Arg1 deficient mouse model (Arg1-Cre) that disrupts Arg1 expression throughout the whole body and leads to lethality ≈ 2 weeks after gene disruption. Here, we evaluate if liver-selective Arg1 loss is sufficient to recapitulate the phenotype observed in global Arg1 knockout mice, as well as to gauge the effectiveness of gene delivery or hepatocyte transplantation to rescue the phenotype. Liver-selective Arg1 deletion was induced by using an adeno-associated viral (AAV)-thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) promoter-Cre recombinase vector administered to Arg1 "floxed" mice; Arg1(fl/fl) ). An AAV vector expressing an Arg1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Arg1-eGFP) transgene was used for gene delivery, while intrasplenic injection of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 hepatocytes after partial hepatectomy was used for cell delivery to "rescue" tamoxifen-treated Arg1-Cre mice. The results indicate that liver-selective loss of Arg1 (> 90% deficient) leads to a phenotype resembling the whole body knockout of Arg1 with lethality ≈ 3 weeks after Cre-induced gene disruption. Delivery of Arg1-eGFP AAV rescues more than half of Arg1 global knockout male mice (survival > 4 months) but a significant proportion still succumb to the enzyme deficiency even though liver expression and enzyme activity of the fusion protein reach levels observed in WT animals. Significant Arg1 enzyme activity from engrafted WT hepatocytes into knockout livers can be achieved but not sufficient for rescuing the lethal phenotype. This raises a conundrum relating to liver-specific expression of Arg1. On the one hand, loss of expression in this organ appears to be both necessary and sufficient to explain the lethal phenotype of the genetic disorder in mice. On the other hand, gene and cell-directed therapies suggest that rescue of extra-hepatic Arg1

  18. Abscisic acid deficiency leads to rapid activation of tomato defence responses upon infection with Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    PubMed

    Asselbergh, Bob; Achuo, Andrew Enow; Höfte, Monica; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the important role of abscisic acid (ABA) in abiotic stress signalling, basal and high ABA levels appear to have a negative effect on disease resistance. Using the ABA-deficient sitiens tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant and different application methods of exogenous ABA, we demonstrated the influence of this plant hormone on disease progression of Erwinia chrysanthemi. This necrotrophic plant pathogenic bacterium is responsible for soft rot disease on many plant species, causing maceration symptoms mainly due to the production and secretion of pectinolytic enzymes. On wild-type (WT) tomato cv. Moneymaker E. chrysanthemi leaf inoculation resulted in maceration both within and beyond the infiltrated zone of the leaf, but sitiens showed a very low occurrence of tissue maceration, which never extended the infiltrated zone. A single ABA treatment prior to infection eliminated the effect of pathogen restriction in sitiens, while repeated ABA spraying during plant development rendered both WT and sitiens very susceptible. Quantification of E. chrysanthemi populations inside the leaf did not reveal differences in bacterial growth between sitiens and WT. Sitiens was not more resistant to pectinolytic cell-wall degradation, but upon infection it showed a faster and stronger activation of defence responses than WT, such as hydrogen peroxide accumulation, peroxidase activation and cell-wall fortifications. Moreover, the rapid activation of sitiens peroxidases was also observed after application of bacteria-free culture filtrate containing E. chrysanthemi cell-wall-degrading enzymes and was absent during infection with an out E. chrysanthemi mutant impaired in secretion of these extracellular enzymes.

  19. TACI deficiency leads to alternatively activated macrophage phenotype and susceptibility to Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Windy R.; Dey, Ranadhir; Liu, Lunhua; Siddiqui, Shafiuddin; Coleman, Adam S.; Bhattacharya, Parna; Yano, Masahide; Uslu, Kadriye; Takeda, Kazuyo; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Akkoyunlu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The TNF family member, transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), is a key molecule for plasma cell maintenance and is required in infections where protection depends on antibody response. Here, we report that compared with WT mouse, TACI KO Μϕs expressed lower levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), CD14, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, and adaptor protein Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β and responded poorly to TLR agonists. Analysis of Μϕ phenotype revealed that, in the absence of TACI, Μϕs adapt the alternatively activated (M2) phenotype. Steady-state expression levels for M2 markers IL-4Rα, CD206, CCL22, IL-10, Arg1, IL1RN, and FIZZ1 were significantly higher in TACI KO Μϕ than in WT cells. Confirming their M2 phenotype, TACI-KO Mϕs were unable to control Leishmania major infection in vitro, and intradermal inoculation of Leishmania resulted in a more severe manifestation of disease than in the resistant C57BL/6 strain. Transfer of WT Μϕs to TACI KO mice was sufficient to significantly reduce disease severity. TACI is likely to influence Mϕ phenotype by mediating B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) signals because both these ligands down-regulated M2 markers in WT but not in TACI-deficient Μϕs. Moreover, treatment of Μϕs with BAFF or APRIL enhanced the clearance of Leishmania from cells only when TACI is expressed. These findings may have implications for understanding the shortcomings of host response in newborns where TACI expression is reduced and in combined variable immunodeficiency patients where TACI signaling is ablated. PMID:26170307

  20. Brain penetration of emodepside is increased in P-glycoprotein-deficient mice and leads to neurotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Elmshäuser, S; Straehle, L C; Kranz, J; Krebber, R; Geyer, J

    2015-02-01

    The antiparasitic drug emodepside (EMO) is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein multidrug efflux carrier (P-gp; syn. MDR1, ABCB1), which has an important function in protecting the brain from potentially toxic compounds by functional drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Many dogs of the Collie breed and even dogs of many other breeds have a loss-of-function 4-bp deletion mutation in the MDR1 gene. In these dogs, brain penetration of many P-gp-transported drugs is increased and so their therapeutic usage is restricted. To elucidate the role of P-gp at the BBB for the brain penetration of EMO, we applied EMO at 1 mg/kg to mdr1-deficient (PGP(mut) ) and mdr1-intact (PGP(WT) ) CF1 mice. Whereas in the brain of the PGP(WT) mice, EMO was below the detection level of 10 ng/g, its concentration was at 43.7 ng/g in the PGP(mut) mice. Furthermore, appearance of neurological toxicity was analyzed in these mice after application of 1 mg/kg EMO using a rotarod setup. In all PGP(mut) mice, but not in the PGP(WT) mice, the walking performance on the rotarod was impaired by EMO with clear differences in the degree and duration of neurological toxicity. Some of the mice were completely unable to walk on the rotarod already at 2 h after drug application and showed long-lasting ataxia over >24 h. Others even showed significantly reduced walking performance, but completely recovered within 1 day. In conclusion, P-gp restricts brain penetration of EMO and prevents neurological toxicity of this drug in mice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Olfactomedin 1 Deficiency Leads to Defective Olfaction and Impaired Female Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Diao, Honglu; Zhao, Fei; Xiao, Shuo; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E.; Dudley, Elizabeth A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) is a glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. Olfm1−/− female mice were previously reported to have reduced fertility. Previous microarray analysis revealed Olfm1 among the most highly upregulated genes in the uterine luminal epithelium upon embryo implantation, which was confirmed by in situ hybridization. We hypothesized that Olfm1 deficiency led to defective embryo implantation and thus impaired fertility. Indeed, Olfm1−/− females had defective embryo implantation. However, Olfm1−/− females rarely mated and those that mated rarely became pregnant. Ovarian histology indicated the absence of corpora lutea in Olfm1−/− females, indicating defective ovulation. Superovulation using equine chorionic gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin rescued mating, ovulation, and pregnancy, and equine chorionic gonadotropin alone rescued ovulation in Olfm1−/− females. Olfm1−/− females had a 13% reduction of hypothalamic GnRH neurons but comparable basal serum LH levels and GnRH-induced LH levels compared with wild-type controls. These results indicated no obvious local defects in the female reproductive system and a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Olfm1−/− females were unresponsive to the effects of male bedding stimulation on pubertal development and estrous cycle. There were 41% fewer cFos-positive cells in the mitral cell layer of accessory olfactory bulb upon male urine stimulation for 90 minutes. OLFM1 was expressed in the main and accessory olfactory systems including main olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, main olfactory bulb, and accessory olfactory bulb, with the highest expression detected in the axon bundles of olfactory sensory neurons. These data demonstrate that defective fertility in Olfm1−/− females is most likely a secondary effect of defective olfaction. PMID:26107991

  2. Glycogen-branching enzyme deficiency leads to abnormal cardiac development: novel insights into glycogen storage disease IV.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chia-Jung; Bali, Deeksha; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Yan, Yu-Ting

    2011-02-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD-IV) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency in glycogen-branching enzyme (GBE1) activity that results in the accumulation of amylopectin-like polysaccharide, which presumably leads to osmotic swelling and cell death. This disease is extremely heterogeneous in terms of tissue involvement, age of onset and clinical manifestation. The most severe fetal form presents as hydrops fetalis; however, its pathogenetic mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, mice carrying a stop codon mutation (E609X) in the Gbe1 gene were generated using a gene-driven mutagenesis approach. Homozygous mutants (Gbe(-/-) mice) recapitulated the clinical features of hydrops fetalis and the embryonic lethality of the severe fetal form of GSD-IV. However, contrary to conventional expectations, little amylopectin accumulation and no cell degeneration were found in Gbe(-/-) embryonic tissues. Glycogen accumulation was reduced in developing hearts of Gbe(-/-)embryos, and abnormal cardiac development, including hypertrabeculation and noncompaction of the ventricular wall, was observed. Further, Gbe1 ablation led to poor ventricular function in late gestation and ultimately caused heart failure, fetal hydrops and embryonic lethality. We also found that the cell-cycle regulators cyclin D1 and c-Myc were highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and likely contributed to cardiomyocyte proliferation and trabeculation/compaction of the ventricular wall. Our results reveal that early molecular events associated with Gbe1 deficiency contribute to abnormal cardiac development and fetal hydrops in the fetal form of GSD-IV.

  3. How do SMA-linked mutations of SMN1 lead to structural/functional deficiency of the SMA protein?

    PubMed

    Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease with dysfunctional α-motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMA is caused by loss (∼95% of SMA cases) or mutation (∼5% of SMA cases) of the survival motor neuron 1 gene SMN1. As the product of SMN1, SMN is a component of the SMN complex, and is also involved in the biosynthesis of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which play critical roles in pre-mRNA splicing in the pathogenesis of SMA. To investigate how SMA-linked mutations of SMN1 lead to structural/functional deficiency of SMN, a set of computational analysis of SMN-related structures were conducted and are described in this article. Of extraordinary interest, the structural analysis highlights three SMN residues (Asp44, Glu134 and Gln136) with SMA-linked missense mutations, which cause disruptions of electrostatic interactions for Asp44, Glu134 and Gln136, and result in three functionally deficient SMA-linked SMN mutants, Asp44Val, Glu134Lys and Gln136Glu. From the computational analysis, it is also possible that SMN's Lys45 and Asp36 act as two electrostatic clips at the SMN-Gemin2 complex structure interface.

  4. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice12345

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas DE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Design: Folic acid–supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/− mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Results: Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr+/− mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr+/− livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr+/− mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. Conclusions: We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2

  5. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas D E; Rozen, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr(+/-) mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr(+/-) livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr(+/-) mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2-hit mechanism whereby mutant hepatocytes cannot

  6. Deficiency of ATP13A2 leads to lysosomal dysfunction, α-synuclein accumulation, and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Usenovic, Marija; Tresse, Emilie; Mazzulli, Joseph R; Taylor, J Paul; Krainc, Dimitri

    2012-03-21

    The autophagy-lysosomal pathway plays an important role in the clearance of long-lived proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Lysosomal dysfunction has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies that are characterized by accumulations of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies. Recent identification of mutations in genes linked to lysosomal function and neurodegeneration has offered a unique opportunity to directly examine the role of lysosomes in disease pathogenesis. Mutations in lysosomal membrane protein ATP13A2 (PARK9) cause familial Kufor-Rakeb syndrome characterized by early-onset parkinsonism, pyramidal degeneration and dementia. While previous data suggested a role of ATP13A2 in α-synuclein misfolding and toxicity, the mechanistic link has not been established. Here we report that loss of ATP13A2 in human fibroblasts from patients with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome or in mouse primary neurons leads to impaired lysosomal degradation capacity. This lysosomal dysfunction results in accumulation of α-synuclein and toxicity in primary cortical neurons. Importantly, silencing of endogenous α-synuclein attenuated the toxicity in ATP13A2-depleted neurons, suggesting that loss of ATP13A2 mediates neurotoxicity at least in part via the accumulation of α-synuclein. Our findings implicate lysosomal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome and suggest that upregulation of lysosomal function and downregulation of α-synuclein represent important therapeutic strategies for this disorder.

  7. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the condition. Children should also be assessed for iron deficiency and general nutrition consistent with AAP guidelines. BLLs ... raised blood lead concentrations should be tested for iron deficiency . Each person eliminates lead differently. Thus, laboratory tests ...

  8. Ribosomal protein S19 deficiency in zebrafish leads to developmental abnormalities and defective erythropoiesis through activation of p53 protein family.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Nadia; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Lin, Shuo

    2008-12-15

    Mutations in several ribosomal proteins (RPs) lead to Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a syndrome characterized by defective erythropoiesis, congenital anomalies, and increased frequency of cancer. RPS19 is the most frequently mutated RP in DBA. RPS19 deficiency impairs ribosomal biogenesis, but how this leads to DBA or cancer remains unknown. We have found that rps19 deficiency in ze-brafish results in hematopoietic and developmental abnormalities resembling DBA. Our data suggest that the rps19-deficient phenotype is mediated by dysregulation of deltaNp63 and p53. During gastrulation, deltaNp63 is required for specification of nonneural ectoderm and its up-regulation suppresses neural differentiation, thus contributing to brain/craniofacial defects. In rps19-deficient embryos, deltaNp63 is induced in erythroid progenitors and may contribute to blood defects. We have shown that suppression of p53 and deltaNp63 alleviates the rps19-deficient phenotypes. Mutations in other ribosomal proteins, such as S8, S11, and S18, also lead to up-regulation of p53 pathway, suggesting it is a common response to ribosomal protein deficiency. Our finding provides new insights into pathogenesis of DBA. Ribosomal stress syndromes represent a broader spectrum of human congenital diseases caused by genotoxic stress; therefore, imbalance of p53 family members may become a new target for therapeutics.

  9. Phosphofructo-1-Kinase Deficiency Leads to a Severe Cardiac and Hematological Disorder in Addition to Skeletal Muscle Glycogenosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Miguel; Pujol, Anna; Ruzo, Albert; Riu, Efrén; Ruberte, Jesús; Arbós, Anna; Serafín, Anna; Albella, Beatriz; Felíu, Juan Emilio; Bosch, Fátima

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for muscle phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFKM), a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, cause Type VII glycogen storage disease (GSDVII). Clinical manifestations of the disease span from the severe infantile form, leading to death during childhood, to the classical form, which presents mainly with exercise intolerance. PFKM deficiency is considered as a skeletal muscle glycogenosis, but the relative contribution of altered glucose metabolism in other tissues to the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. To elucidate this issue, we have generated mice deficient for PFKM (Pfkm−/−). Here, we show that Pfkm−/− mice had high lethality around weaning and reduced lifespan, because of the metabolic alterations. In skeletal muscle, including respiratory muscles, the lack of PFK activity blocked glycolysis and resulted in considerable glycogen storage and low ATP content. Although erythrocytes of Pfkm−/− mice preserved 50% of PFK activity, they showed strong reduction of 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentrations and hemolysis, which was associated with compensatory reticulocytosis and splenomegaly. As a consequence of these haematological alterations, and of reduced PFK activity in the heart, Pfkm−/− mice developed cardiac hypertrophy with age. Taken together, these alterations resulted in muscle hypoxia and hypervascularization, impaired oxidative metabolism, fiber necrosis, and exercise intolerance. These results indicate that, in GSDVII, marked alterations in muscle bioenergetics and erythrocyte metabolism interact to produce a complex systemic disorder. Therefore, GSDVII is not simply a muscle glycogenosis, and Pfkm−/− mice constitute a unique model of GSDVII which may be useful for the design and assessment of new therapies. PMID:19696889

  10. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... are approximately half a million U.S. children ages 1-5 with blood lead levels above 5 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL), the reference level at which CDC recommends public health actions be initiated. No safe blood lead level in children has been ...

  11. A canine Arylsulfatase G (ARSG) mutation leading to a sulfatase deficiency is associated with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Marie; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Olby, Natasha J; Hitte, Christophe; Puech, Jean-Philippe; Maurer, Marie; Pilot-Storck, Fanny; Hédan, Benoit; Dréano, Stéphane; Brahimi, Sandra; Delattre, Delphine; André, Catherine; Gray, Françoise; Delisle, Françoise; Caillaud, Catherine; Bernex, Florence; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Aubin-Houzelstein, Geneviève; Blot, Stéphane; Tiret, Laurent

    2010-08-17

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) represent the most common group of inherited progressive encephalopathies in children. They are characterized by progressive loss of vision, mental and motor deterioration, epileptic seizures, and premature death. Rare adult forms of NCL with late onset are known as Kufs' disease. Loci underlying these adult forms remain unknown due to the small number of patients and genetic heterogeneity. Here we confirm that a late-onset form of NCL recessively segregates in US and French pedigrees of American Staffordshire Terrier (AST) dogs. Through combined association, linkage, and haplotype analyses, we mapped the disease locus to a single region of canine chromosome 9. We eventually identified a worldwide breed-specific variant in exon 2 of the Arylsulfatase G (ARSG) gene, which causes a p.R99H substitution in the vicinity of the catalytic domain of the enzyme. In transfected cells or leukocytes from affected dogs, the missense change leads to a 75% decrease in sulfatase activity, providing a functional confirmation that the variant might be the NCL-causing mutation. Our results uncover a protein involved in neuronal homeostasis, identify a family of candidate genes to be screened in patients with Kufs' disease, and suggest that a deficiency in sulfatase is part of the NCL pathogenesis.

  12. Sialic acid deficiency is associated with oxidative stress leading to muscle atrophy and weakness in GNE myopathy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Anna; Christine, May; Malicdan, V; Miyakawa, Miho; Nonaka, Ikuya; Nishino, Ichizo; Noguchi, Satoru

    2017-08-15

    Sialic acids are monosaccharides found in terminal sugar chains of cell surfaces and proteins; they have various biological functions and have been implicated in health and disease. Genetic defects of the GNE gene which encodes a critical bifunctional enzyme for sialic acid biosynthesis, lead to GNE myopathy, a disease manifesting with progressive muscle atrophy and weakness. The likely mechanism of disease is a lack of sialic acids. There remains, however, an unexplained link between hyposialylation and the muscle atrophy and weakness. In this study, we found that muscle proteins were highly modified by S-nitrosylation, and that oxidative stress-responsive genes were significantly upregulated, in hyposialylated muscles from human GNE myopathy patients and model mice. In both in vitro and in vivo models, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was elevated with cellular hyposialylation, and increasing overall sialylation by extrinsic sialic acid intake reduced ROS and protein S-nitrosylation. More importantly, the antioxidant, oral N-acetylcysteine led to amelioration of the muscle atrophy and weakness in Gne mutant mice. Our data provide evidence of additional important function of sialic acids as a ROS scavenger in skeletal muscles, expanding our understanding on how sialic acid deficiency contributes to disease pathology, and identify oxidative stress as a therapeutic target in GNE myopathy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Chronic maternal calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in Wistar rats programs abnormal hepatic gene expression leading to hepatic steatosis in female offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sona S; Jangale, Nivedita M; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Gokhale, Medha K; Joshi, Bimba N

    2017-02-08

    Importance of calcium and vitamin D deficiency is well established in adult dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency could alter offspring's lipid metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency on lipid metabolism and liver function of the F1 generation offspring. intergenerational calcium-deficient (CaD) and vitamin D-deficient (VDD) models were developed by mating normal male rats with deficient females and continuing maternal-deficient diets through pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed on control diet post-weaning and studied till 30 weeks. Lipid profile, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), calcium and vitamin D levels were analyzed. Liver fat deposition, omega-3 fatty acids level and mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), interleukin 6 (IL-6), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were determined. Low serum vitamin D levels with an increase in SGPT and TG levels in CaD and VDD female offspring were observed. Severe liver steatosis with down-regulation of PPAR-α and UCP2 and up-regulation of SREBP-1c, IL-6 and SOD-1 was observed in the female offspring born to deficient dams. CaD and VDD male offspring showed mild steatosis and down-regulation of UCP2 and SOD-1. We conclude that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency programs abnormal lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression in the F1 generation female offspring leading to hepatic steatosis, despite feeding them on control diet post-weaning.

  14. Evidence that cognitive deficit in children is associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether blood lead concentrations are elevated in iron-deficient children, and to examine the association between iron deficiency and/or elevated blood lead concentration and cognitive deficits in children. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 194 children who underwent testing of blood lead and serum C-reactive proteins (CRPs) and ferritin concentrations, and the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. In addition, the mothers' blood lead concentrations during pregnancy were included in the analyses. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between high blood lead and low serum ferritin concentrations, after adjustment for covariates, in children, as well as to analyze the association of verbal IQ with serum ferritin and blood lead concentrations. Lead and ferritin concentrations were inversely and significantly associated in children after adjustment for covariates. Moreover, both concentrations were associated with verbal IQ, after adjustment for covariates, and each was associated with cognitive deficits after adjustment for the other. Sobel test statistics showed that blood lead concentration was a significant partial mediator for the relationship between iron deficiency and verbal IQ. Due to the results discussed in the present study, cognitive deficit in children seems to be associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Msh2 deficiency leads to dysmyelination of the corpus callosum, impaired locomotion, and altered sensory function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Barthelemy; Devaraju, Prakash; Janke, Laura J.; Fan, Yiping; Frase, Sharon; Eddins, Donnie; Peters, Jennifer L.; Kim, Jieun; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Evans, William E.

    2016-01-01

    A feature in patients with constitutional DNA-mismatch repair deficiency is agenesis of the corpus callosum, the cause of which has not been established. Here we report a previously unrecognized consequence of deficiency in MSH2, a protein known primarily for its function in correcting nucleotide mismatches or insertions and deletions in duplex DNA caused by errors in DNA replication or recombination. We documented that Msh2 deficiency causes dysmyelination of the axonal projections in the corpus callosum. Evoked action potentials in the myelinated corpus callosum projections of Msh2-null mice were smaller than wild-type mice, whereas unmyelinated axons showed no difference. Msh2-null mice were also impaired in locomotive activity and had an abnormal response to heat. These findings reveal a novel pathogenic consequence of MSH2 deficiency, providing a new mechanistic hint to previously recognized neurological disorders in patients with inherited DNA-mismatch repair deficiency. PMID:27476972

  16. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bolus, W Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation.

  17. Low Levels of Pyrophosphate in Transgenic Potato Plants Expressing E. coli Pyrophosphatase Lead to Decreased Vitality Under Oxygen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    MUSTROPH, ANGELIKA; ALBRECHT, GERD; HAJIREZAEI, MOHAMMAD; GRIMM, BERNHARD; BIEMELT, SOPHIA

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of pyrophosphate (PPi) for plant metabolism and survival under low oxygen stress. Responses of roots of wild-type potato plants were compared with roots of transgenic plants containing decreased amounts of PPi as a result of the constitutive expression of Escherichia coli pyrophosphatase in the cytosol. • Methods For the experiments, roots of young wild-type and transgenic potato plants growing in nutrient solution were flushed for 4 d with nitrogen, and subsequently metabolite contents as well as enzyme activities of the glycolytic pathway were determined. • Key Results and Conclusions In roots of transgenic plants containing 40 % less PPi, UDPglucose accumulated while the concentrations of hexose-6-phosphate, other glycolytic intermediates and ATP were decreased, leading to a growth retardation in aerated conditions. Apart from metabolic alterations, the activity of sucrose synthase was increased to a lower extent in the transgenic line than in wild type during hypoxia. These data suggest that sucrose cleavage was inhibited due to PPi deficiency already under aerated conditions, which has severe consequences for plant vitality under low oxygen. This is indicated by a reduction in the glycolytic activity, lower ATP levels and an impaired ability to resume growth after 4 d of hypoxia. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate via PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase was not altered in roots of transgenic plants. Nevertheless, our data provide some evidence for the importance of PPi to maintain plant growth and metabolism under oxygen deprivation. PMID:16027130

  18. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency leads to α-synuclein aggregation and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 reduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Zhou, T; Wang, H; Liu, T; Ueda, K; Zhan, R; Zhao, L; Tong, Y; Tian, X; Zhang, T; Jin, Y; Han, X; Li, Z; Zhao, Y; Guo, X; Xiao, W; Fan, D; Liu, G; Chui, D

    2015-04-02

    We have previously reported that presynaptic dysfunction and cognitive decline have been found in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficient mice, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. Accumulating evidence supported that α-synuclein (α-syn) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) are required for normal synaptic and cognitive function. In this study, we found that α-syn aggregated and the expression of UCHL1 decreased in the brain of LPL deficient mice. Reduction of UCHL1 was resulted from nuclear retention of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 in LPL knockout mice. Reverse changes were found in cultured cells overexpressing LPL. Furthermore, deficiency of LPL increased ubiquitination of α-syn. These results indicated that aggregation of α-syn and reduction of UCHL1 expression in LPL-deficient mice may affect synaptic function.

  19. Manganese Deficiency Leads to Genotype-Specific Changes in Fluorescence Induction Kinetics and State Transitions1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Husted, Søren; Laursen, Kristian H.; Hebbern, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Sidsel B.; Pedas, Pai; Haldrup, Anna; Jensen, Poul E.

    2009-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes display a marked difference in their ability to tolerate growth at low manganese (Mn) concentrations, a phenomenon designated as differential Mn efficiency. Induction of Mn deficiency in two genotypes differing in Mn efficiency led to a decline in the quantum yield efficiency for both, although faster in the Mn-inefficient genotype. Leaf tissue and thylakoid Mn concentrations were reduced under Mn deficiency, but no difference between genotypes was observed and no visual Mn deficiency symptoms were developed. Analysis of the fluorescence induction kinetics revealed that in addition to the usual O-J-I-P steps, clear K and D steps were developed in the Mn-inefficient genotype under Mn deficiency. These marked changes indicated damages to photosystem II (PSII). This was further substantiated by state transition measurements, indicating that the ability of plants to redistribute excitation energy was reduced. The percentage change in state transitions for control plants with normal Mn supply of both genotypes was 9% to 11%. However, in Mn-deficient leaves of the Mn-inefficient genotypes, state transitions were reduced to less than 1%, whereas no change was observed for the Mn-efficient genotypes. Immunoblotting and the chlorophyll a/b ratio confirmed that Mn deficiency in general resulted in a significant reduction in abundance of PSII reaction centers relative to the peripheral antenna. In addition, PSII appeared to be significantly more affected by Mn limitation than PSI. However, the striking genotypic differences observed in Mn-deficient plants, when analyzing state transitions and fluorescence induction kinetics, could not be correlated with specific changes in photosystem proteins. Thus, there is no simple linkage between protein expression and the differential reduction in state transition and fluorescence induction kinetics observed for the genotypes under Mn deficiency. PMID:19369593

  20. Copper Deficiency Leads to Anemia, Duodenal Hypoxia, Upregulation of HIF-2α and Altered Expression of Iron Absorption Genes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. PMID:23555700

  1. Haploinsufficiency of E-selectin ligand-1 is associated with reduced atherosclerotic plaque macrophage content while complete deficiency leads to early embryonic lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Hui; Guo, Chiao; Wang, Jintao; Kwak, Jeffrey; Bahrou, Kristina L; Eitzman, Daniel T

    2012-10-01

    E-selectin-1 (ESL-1), also known as golgi complex-localized glycoprotein-1 (GLG1), homocysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor (CGR-1), and latent transforming growth factor-β complex protein 1 (LTCP-1), is a multifunctional protein with widespread tissue distribution. To determine the functional consequences of ESL-1 deficiency, mice were generated carrying an ESL-1 gene trap. After backcrossing to C57BL6/J for 6 generations, mice heterozygous for the gene trap (ESL-1(+/-)) were intercrossed to produce ESL-1(-/-) mice, however ESL-1(-/-) mice were not viable, even at embryonic day E10.5. To determine the effect of heterozygous ESL-1 deficiency on atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)), ESL-1(+/-) mice were generated and fed western diet. Compared to ApoE(-/-), ESL-1(+)(/)(+) mice, atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE(-/-), ESL-1(+/-) contained more collagen and fewer macrophages, suggesting increased plaque stability. In conclusion, heterozygous deficiency of ESL-1 is associated with features of increased atherosclerotic plaque stability while complete deficiency of ESL-1 leads to embryonic lethality.

  2. Gestational Vitamin B Deficiency Leads to Homocysteine-Associated Brain Apoptosis and Alters Neurobehavioral Development in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, Sébastien A.; Nédélec, Emmanuelle; Schroeder, Henri; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Daval, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as a risk factor for neurological disorders. To study the influence of early deficiency in nutritional determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia on the developing rat brain, dams were fed a standard diet or a diet lacking methyl groups during gestation and lactation. Homocysteinemia progressively increased in the offspring of the deficient group and at 21 days reached 13.3 ± 3.7 μmol/L versus 6.8 ± 0.3 μmol/L in controls. Homocysteine accumulated in both neurons and astrocytes of selective brain structures including the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the striatum, and the neurogenic subventricular zone. Most homocysteine-positive cells expressed p53 and displayed fragmented DNA indicative of apoptosis. Righting reflex and negative geotaxis revealed a delay in the onset of integration capacities in the deficient group. Between 19 and 21 days, a poorer success score was recorded in deficient animals in a locomotor coordination test. A switch to normal food after weaning allowed restoration of normal homocysteinemia. Nevertheless, at 80 days of age, the exploratory behavior in the elevated-plus maze and the learning and memory behavior in the eight-arm maze revealed that early vitamin B deprivation is associated with persistent functional disabilities, possibly resulting from the ensuing neurotoxic effects of homocysteine. PMID:17255334

  3. Occurrence of cleft-palate and alteration of Tgf-β(3) expression and the mechanisms leading to palatal fusion in mice following dietary folic-acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Estela; Murillo, Jorge; Barrio, Carmen; del Río, Aurora; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Partearroyo, Teresa; Paradas, Irene; Maestro, Carmen; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is essential for numerous bodily functions. Its decrease during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations in the progeny. The relationship between FA deficiency and the appearance of cleft palate (CP) is controversial, and little information exists on a possible effect of FA on palate development. We investigated the effect of a 2-8 weeks' induced FA deficiency in female mice on the development of CP in their progeny as well as the mechanisms leading to palatal fusion, i.e. cell proliferation, cell death, and palatal-shelf adhesion and fusion. We showed that an 8 weeks' maternal FA deficiency caused complete CP in the fetuses although a 2 weeks' maternal FA deficiency was enough to alter all the mechanisms analyzed. Since transforming growth factor-β(3) (TGF-β(3)) is crucial for palatal fusion and since most of the mechanisms impaired by FA deficiency were also observed in the palates of Tgf-β(3)null mutant mice, we investigated the presence of TGF-β(3) mRNA, its protein and phospho-SMAD2 in FA-deficient (FAD) mouse palates. Our results evidenced a large reduction in Tgf-β(3) expression in palates of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 8 weeks; Tgf-β(3) expression was less reduced in palates of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 2 weeks. Addition of TGF-β(3) to palatal-shelf cultures of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 2 weeks normalized all the altered mechanisms. Thus, an insufficient folate status may be a risk factor for the development of CP in mice, and exogenous TGF-β(3) compensates this deficit in vitro. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  5. Combined ascorbate and glutathione deficiency leads to decreased cytochrome b5 expression and impaired reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine

    PubMed Central

    Bhusari, Sachin; Abouraya, Mahmoud; Padilla, Marcia L.; Pinkerton, Marie E.; Drescher, Nicholas J.; Sacco, James C.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfonamide antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) have been associated with drug hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in patients with AIDS. A reactive oxidative metabolite, sulfamethoxazole-nitroso (SMX-NO), forms drug-tissue adducts that elicit a T cell response. Antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA) and glutathione (GSH) reduce SMX-NO to the less reactive hydroxylamine metabolite (SMX-HA), which is further reduced to the non-immunogenic parent compound by cytochrome b5 (b5) and its reductase (b5R). We hypothesized that deficiencies in AA and GSH would enhance drug-tissue adduct formation and immunogenicity towards SMX-NO, and that these antioxidant deficiencies might also impair the activity of the b5/b5R pathway. We tested these hypotheses in guinea pigs fed either a normal or AA-restricted diet, followed by buthionine sulfoximine treatment (250 mg/kg SC daily, or vehicle); and SMX-NO (1 mg/kg IP 4 days per week, or vehicle), for 2 weeks. Guinea pigs did not show any biochemical or histopathologic evidence of SMX-NO related toxicity. Combined AA and GSH deficiency in this model did not significantly increase tissue drug-adduct formation, or splenocyte proliferation in response to SMX-NO. However, combined antioxidant deficiency was associated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome b5, as well as significant decreases in SMX-HA reduction in SMX-NO treated pigs. These results suggest that SMX-HA detoxification may be down-regulated in combined AA and GSH deficiency. This mechanism could contribute to the higher risk of SMX hypersensitivity in AIDS patients with antioxidant depletion. PMID:20221587

  6. Combined ascorbate and glutathione deficiency leads to decreased cytochrome b5 expression and impaired reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Bhusari, Sachin; Abouraya, Mahmoud; Padilla, Marcia L; Pinkerton, Marie E; Drescher, Nicholas J; Sacco, James C; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2010-08-01

    Sulfonamide antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) have been associated with drug hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in patients with AIDS. A reactive oxidative metabolite, sulfamethoxazole-nitroso (SMX-NO), forms drug-tissue adducts that elicit a T-cell response. Antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA) and glutathione (GSH) reduce SMX-NO to the less reactive hydroxylamine metabolite (SMX-HA), which is further reduced to the non-immunogenic parent compound by cytochrome b (5) (b5) and its reductase (b5R). We hypothesized that deficiencies in AA and GSH would enhance drug-tissue adduct formation and immunogenicity toward SMX-NO and that these antioxidant deficiencies might also impair the activity of the b5/b5R pathway. We tested these hypotheses in guinea pigs fed either a normal or AA-restricted diet, followed by buthionine sulfoximine treatment (250 mg/kg SC daily, or vehicle); and SMX-NO (1 mg/kg IP 4 days per week, or vehicle), for 2 weeks. Guinea pigs did not show any biochemical or histopathologic evidence of SMX-NO-related toxicity. Combined AA and GSH deficiency in this model did not significantly increase tissue-drug adduct formation, or splenocyte proliferation in response to SMX-NO. However, combined antioxidant deficiency was associated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome b (5), as well as significant decreases in SMX-HA reduction in SMX-NO-treated pigs. These results suggest that SMX-HA detoxification may be down-regulated in combined AA and GSH deficiency. This mechanism could contribute to the higher risk of SMX hypersensitivity in patients with AIDS with antioxidant depletion.

  7. Thrombospondin-2 deficiency in growing mice alters bone collagen ultrastructure and leads to a brittle bone phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Eugene; Perosky, Joseph E.; Khoury, Basma M.; Reddy, Anita B.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) is a matricellular protein component of the bone extracellular matrix. Long bones of adult TSP2-deficient mice have increased endosteal bone thickness due to expansion of the osteoblast progenitor cell pool, and these cells display deficits in osteoblastic potential. Here, we investigated the effects of TSP2 deficiency on whole bone geometric and mechanical properties in growing 6-wk-old male and female wild-type and TSP2-knockout (KO) mice. Microcomputed tomography and mechanical testing were conducted on femora and L2 vertebrae to assess morphology and whole bone mechanical properties. In a second series of experiments, femoral diaphyses were harvested from wild-type and TSP2-KO mice. Detergent-soluble type I collagen content was determined by Western blot of right femora. Total collagen content was determined by hydroxyproline analysis of left femora. In a third series of experiments, cortical bone was dissected from the anterior and posterior aspects of the femoral middiaphysis and imaged by transmission electron microscopy to visualize collagen fibrils. Microcomputed tomography revealed minimal structural effects of TSP2 deficiency. TSP2 deficiency imparted a brittle phenotype on cortical bone. Femoral tissue mineral density was not affected by TSP2 deficiency. Instead, transmission electron microscopy revealed less intensely stained collagen fibrils with altered morphology in the extracellular matrix assembled by osteoblasts on the anterior surface of TSP2-KO femora. Femoral diaphyseal bone displayed comparable amounts of total collagen, but the TSP2-KO bones had higher levels of detergent-extractable type I collagen. Together, our data suggest that TSP2 is required for optimal collagen fibrillogenesis in bone and thereby contributes to normal skeletal tissue quality. PMID:26272319

  8. G(s)alpha deficiency in skeletal muscle leads to reduced muscle mass, fiber-type switching, and glucose intolerance without insulin resistance or deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Feng, Han-Zhong; Gupta, Divakar; Kelleher, James; Dickerson, Kathryn E; Wang, Jie; Hunt, Desmond; Jou, William; Gavrilova, Oksana; Jin, Jian-Ping; Weinstein, Lee S

    2009-04-01

    The ubiquitously expressed G protein alpha-subunit G(s)alpha is required for receptor-stimulated intracellular cAMP responses and is an important regulator of energy and glucose metabolism. We have generated skeletal muscle-specific G(s)alpha-knockout (KO) mice (MGsKO) by mating G(s)alpha-floxed mice with muscle creatine kinase-cre transgenic mice. MGsKO mice had normal body weight and composition, and their serum glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, and triglyceride levels were similar to that of controls. However, MGsKO mice were glucose intolerant despite the fact that insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were normal, suggesting an insulin-independent mechanism. Isolated muscles from MGsKO mice had increased basal glucose uptake and normal responses to a stimulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which indicates that AMPK and its downstream pathways are intact. Compared with control mice, MGsKO mice had reduced muscle mass with decreased cross-sectional area and force production. In addition, adult MGsKO mice showed an increased proportion of type I (slow-twitch, oxidative) fibers based on kinetic properties and myosin heavy chain isoforms, despite the fact that these muscles had reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator protein-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and reduced mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. Therefore G(s)alpha deficiency led to fast-to-slow fiber-type switching, which appeared to be dissociated from the expected change in oxidative capacity. MGsKO mice are a valuable model for future studies of the role of G(s)alpha signaling pathways in skeletal muscle adaptation and their effects on whole body metabolism.

  9. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Taisuke; Nagamatsu, Go; Kosaka, Takeo; Takubo, Keiyo; Hotta, Akitsu; Ellis, James; Suda, Toshio

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} iPS cells were induced with a fluorescence monitoring system. {yields} ATM-deficient tail-tip fibroblasts exhibited quite a low reprogramming efficiency. {yields} iPS cells obtained from ATM-deficient cells had pluripotent cell characteristics. {yields} ATM-deficient iPS cells had abnormal chromosomes, which were accumulated in culture. -- Abstract: During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  10. ATP Synthase Deficiency due to TMEM70 Mutation Leads to Ultrastructural Mitochondrial Degeneration and Is Amenable to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Braczynski, Anne K.; Vlaho, Stefan; Müller, Klaus; Wittig, Ilka; Blank, Anna-Eva; Tews, Dominique S.; Drott, Ulrich; Kleinle, Stephanie; Abicht, Angela; Horvath, Rita; Plate, Karl H.; Stenzel, Werner; Goebel, Hans H.; Schulze, Andreas; Harter, Patrick N.; Kieslich, Matthias; Mittelbronn, Michel

    2015-01-01

    TMEM70 is involved in the biogenesis of mitochondrial ATP synthase and mutations in the TMEM70 gene impair oxidative phosphorylation. Herein, we report on pathology and treatment of ATP synthase deficiency in four siblings. A consanguineous family of Roma (Gipsy) ethnic origin gave birth to 6 children of which 4 were affected presenting with dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, cardiomyopathy, metabolic crises, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria as clinical symptoms. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous mutation (c.317-2A>G) in the TMEM70 gene. While light microscopy was unremarkable, ultrastructural investigation of muscle tissue revealed accumulation of swollen degenerated mitochondria with lipid crystalloid inclusions, cristae aggregation, and exocytosis of mitochondrial material. Biochemical analysis of mitochondrial complexes showed an almost complete ATP synthase deficiency. Despite harbouring the same mutation, the clinical outcome in the four siblings was different. Two children died within 60 h after birth; the other two had recurrent life-threatening metabolic crises but were successfully managed with supplementation of anaplerotic amino acids, lipids, and symptomatic treatment during metabolic crisis. In summary, TMEM70 mutations can cause distinct ultrastructural mitochondrial degeneration and almost complete deficiency of ATP synthase but are still amenable to treatment. PMID:26550569

  11. A novel mutation in TAP1 gene leading to MHC class I deficiency: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hanalioglu, Damla; Ayvaz, Deniz Cagdas; Ozgur, Tuba Turul; van der Burg, Mirjam; Sanal, Ozden; Tezcan, Ilhan

    2017-02-02

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I deficiency syndrome is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the peptide transporter complex associated with antigen presentation (TAP) gene which plays a crucial role in intracellular peptide antigen presentation. A few cases have been reported to date. Recurrent sinopulmonary infections and skin ulcers are the main characteristics of the syndrome. Here we report two siblings diagnosed with TAP1 deficiency syndrome associated only with recurrent sinopulmonary infections with the description of a novel mutation leading to a premature stop codon in TAP1 gene and review of the relevant literature. Both of the siblings had recurrent sinopulmonary infections since childhood, responded to antibiotherapy well, neither of them had hospitalization history because of infections. One had chronic hepatitis B infection which may possibly be related to TAP1 gene defect.

  12. Thiamine deficiency caused by thiamine antagonists triggers upregulation of apoptosis inducing factor gene expression and leads to caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in neuronally differentiated rat PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chornyy, Sergiy; Parkhomenko, Julia; Chorna, Nataliya

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that alterations in oxidative metabolism induced by thiamine deficiency lead to neuronal cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still under extensive investigation. Here, we report that rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells differentiated in the presence of NGF into neurons undergo apoptosis due to thiamine deficiency caused by antagonists of thiamine - amprolium, pyrithiamine and oxythiamine. Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy revealed that annexin V binds to PC-12 cells in presence of thiamine antagonists after 72 h incubation. Results also show that thiamine antagonists trigger upregulation of gene expression of mitochondrial-derived apoptosis inducing factor, DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and translocation of active product to the nucleus. We therefore propose that apoptosis induced by amprolium, pyrithiamine or oxythiamine occurs via the mitochondria-dependent caspase 3-mediated signaling pathway. In addition, our data indicate that pyrithiamine and oxythiamine are more potent inducers of apoptosis than amprolium.

  13. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. PMID:24275069

  14. Deficiency of PTP1B in Leptin Receptor-Expressing Neurons Leads to Decreased Body Weight and Adiposity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ryan C.; Zimmer, Derek J.; De Jonghe, Bart C.

    2012-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase implicated in the negative regulation of leptin and insulin receptor signaling. PTP1B−/− mice possess a lean metabolic phenotype attributed at least partially to improved hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. Interestingly, mice lacking both leptin and PTP1B (ob/ob:PTP1B−/−) have reduced body weight compared with mice lacking leptin only, suggesting that PTP1B may have important leptin-independent metabolic effects. We generated mice with PTP1B deficiency specifically in leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons (LepRb-PTP1B−/−) and compared them with LepRb-Cre-only wild-type (WT) controls and global PTP1B−/− mice. Consistent with PTP1B's role as a negative regulator of leptin signaling, our results show that LepRb-PTP1B−/− mice are leptin hypersensitive and have significantly reduced body weight when maintained on chow or high-fat diet (HFD) compared with WT controls. LepRb-PTP1B−/− mice have a significant decrease in adiposity on HFD compared with controls. Notably, the extent of attenuated body weight gain on HFD, as well as the extent of leptin hypersensitivity, is similar between LepRb-PTP1B−/− mice and global PTP1B−/− mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that PTP1B deficiency in LepRb-expressing neurons results in reduced body weight and adiposity compared with WT controls and likely underlies the improved metabolic phenotype of global and brain-specific PTP1B-deficient models. Subtle phenotypic differences between LepRb-PTP1B−/− and global PTP1B−/− mice, however, suggest that PTP1B independent of leptin signaling may also contribute to energy balance in mice. PMID:22802463

  15. Deficiency and Also Transgenic Overexpression of Timp-3 Both Lead to Compromised Bone Mass and Architecture In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, Mark; Poulet, Blandine; Pollard, Andrea S.; Shefelbine, Sandra J.; Chang, Yu-Mei; Francis-West, Philippa; Bou-Gharios, George; Pitsillides, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) regulates extracellular matrix via its inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and membrane-bound sheddases. Timp-3 is expressed at multiple sites of extensive tissue remodelling. This extends to bone where its role, however, remains largely unresolved. In this study, we have used Micro-CT to assess bone mass and architecture, histological and histochemical evaluation to characterise the skeletal phenotype of Timp-3 KO mice and have complemented this by also examining similar indices in mice harbouring a Timp-3 transgene driven via a Col-2a-driven promoter to specifically target overexpression to chondrocytes. Our data show that Timp-3 deficiency compromises tibial bone mass and structure in both cortical and trabecular compartments, with corresponding increases in osteoclasts. Transgenic overexpression also generates defects in tibial structure predominantly in the cortical bone along the entire shaft without significant increases in osteoclasts. These alterations in cortical mass significantly compromise predicted tibial load-bearing resistance to torsion in both genotypes. Neither Timp-3 KO nor transgenic mouse growth plates are significantly affected. The impact of Timp-3 deficiency and of transgenic overexpression extends to produce modification in craniofacial bones of both endochondral and intramembranous origins. These data indicate that the levels of Timp-3 are crucial in the attainment of functionally-appropriate bone mass and architecture and that this arises from chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. PMID:27519049

  16. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 2-Deficiency Leads to Neuronal Degeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through Altered AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chen; Xie, Chengsong; McCormack, Stefanie G.; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Michalak, Marta K.; Lin, Xian; Chandran, Jayanth; Shim, Hoon; Shimoji, Mika; Cookson, Mark R.; Huganir, Richard L.; Rothstein, Jeffrey D.; Price, Donald L.; Wong, Philip C.; Martin, Lee J.; Zhu, J. Julius; Cai, Huaibin

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease is caused by a selective loss of motor neurons. One form of juvenile onset autosomal recessive ALS (ALS2) has been linked to the loss of function of the ALS2 gene. The pathogenic mechanism of ALS2-deficiency, however, remains unclear. To further understand the function of alsin that is encoded by the full-length ALS2 gene, we screened proteins interacting with alsin. Here, we report that alsin interacted with glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) both in vitro and in vivo, and colocalized with GRIP1 in neurons. In support of the physiological interaction between alsin and GRIP1, the subcellular distribution of GRIP1 was altered in ALS2-/- spinal motor neurons, which correlates with a significant reduction of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) at the synaptic/cell surface of ALS2-/- neurons. The decrease of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors at the cell/synaptic surface rendered ALS2-/- neurons more susceptible to glutamate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. Our findings reveal a novel function of alsin in AMPA receptor trafficking and provide a novel pathogenic link between ALS2-deficiency and motor neuron degeneration, suggesting a protective role of alsin in maintaining the survival of motor neurons. PMID:17093100

  17. Carnitine deficiency in OCTN2-/- newborn mice leads to a severe gut and immune phenotype with widespread atrophy, apoptosis and a pro-inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Srinivas; Shekhawat, Prem S; Matern, Dietrich; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Ignatowicz, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the gross, microscopic and molecular effects of carnitine deficiency in the neonatal gut using a mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in the OCTN2 (SLC22A5) carnitine transporter. The tissue carnitine content of neonatal homozygous (OCTN2(-/-)) mouse small intestine was markedly reduced; the intestine displayed signs of stunted villous growth, early signs of inflammation, lymphocytic and macrophage infiltration and villous structure breakdown. Mitochondrial β-oxidation was active throughout the GI tract in wild type newborn mice as seen by expression of 6 key enzymes involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids and genes for these 6 enzymes were up-regulated in OCTN2(-/-) mice. There was increased apoptosis in gut samples from OCTN2(-/-) mice. OCTN2(-/-) mice developed a severe immune phenotype, where the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes became atrophied secondary to increased apoptosis. Carnitine deficiency led to increased expression of CD45-B220(+) lymphocytes with increased production of basal and anti-CD3-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. Real-time PCR array analysis in OCTN2(-/-) mouse gut epithelium demonstrated down-regulation of TGF-β/BMP pathway genes. We conclude that carnitine plays a major role in neonatal OCTN2(-/-) mouse gut development and differentiation, and that severe carnitine deficiency leads to increased apoptosis of enterocytes, villous atrophy, inflammation and gut injury.

  18. Carnitine Deficiency in OCTN2−/− Newborn Mice Leads to a Severe Gut and Immune Phenotype with Widespread Atrophy, Apoptosis and a Pro-Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Srinivas; Shekhawat, Prem S.; Matern, Dietrich; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Ignatowicz, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the gross, microscopic and molecular effects of carnitine deficiency in the neonatal gut using a mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in the OCTN2 (SLC22A5) carnitine transporter. The tissue carnitine content of neonatal homozygous (OCTN2−/−) mouse small intestine was markedly reduced; the intestine displayed signs of stunted villous growth, early signs of inflammation, lymphocytic and macrophage infiltration and villous structure breakdown. Mitochondrial β-oxidation was active throughout the GI tract in wild type newborn mice as seen by expression of 6 key enzymes involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids and genes for these 6 enzymes were up-regulated in OCTN2−/− mice. There was increased apoptosis in gut samples from OCTN2−/− mice. OCTN2−/− mice developed a severe immune phenotype, where the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes became atrophied secondary to increased apoptosis. Carnitine deficiency led to increased expression of CD45-B220+ lymphocytes with increased production of basal and anti-CD3-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. Real-time PCR array analysis in OCTN2−/− mouse gut epithelium demonstrated down-regulation of TGF-β/BMP pathway genes. We conclude that carnitine plays a major role in neonatal OCTN2−/− mouse gut development and differentiation, and that severe carnitine deficiency leads to increased apoptosis of enterocytes, villous atrophy, inflammation and gut injury. PMID:23112839

  19. Missense mutations in the melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein that lead to late onset familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C R; Chung, T T; Habeb, A M; Kelestimur, F; Clark, A J L; Metherell, L A

    2010-07-01

    Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Mutations in the ACTH receptor [melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R)] or the MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) cause FGD types 1 and 2, respectively. Typically, type 2 patients present early (median age, 0.1 yr), and no patient reported to date has presented after 1.6 yr. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of disease in two families with late-onset FGD. The proband in family 1 was diagnosed at age 4 yr. Family review revealed two older siblings with undiagnosed FGD. One sibling was well, whereas the second had cerebral palsy secondary to hypoglycemic seizures. The proband in family 2 was diagnosed at age 18 yr with symptoms of fatigue, weight loss, and depression. The coding exons of MC2R and MRAP were sequenced. ACTH dose-response curves were generated for MC2R when transfected with wild-type or mutant MRAP constructs using HEK293 cells. MC2R trafficking with both mutant MRAPs was investigated using immunocytochemistry. MRAP gene analysis identified two novel homozygous missense mutations, c.175T>G (pY59D) in family 1 and c.76T>C (p.V26A) in family 2. In vitro analysis showed that the Y59D mutant had significant impairment of cAMP generation, and both mutants caused a shift in the dose-response curve to the right when compared to wild type. Immunocytochemistry showed normal trafficking of MC2R when transfected with both mutant MRAPs, indicating a probable signaling defect. These results indicate that missense MRAP mutations present with a variable phenotype of ACTH resistance and can present late in life.

  20. Depletion of ATR selectively sensitizes ATM-deficient human mammary epithelial cells to ionizing radiation and DNA-damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuxia; Palii, Stela S; Innes, Cynthia L; Paules, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) to double strand breaks is coordinated by 3 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family members: the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), the ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase and the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). ATM and ATR are central players in activating cell cycle checkpoints and function as an active barrier against genome instability and tumorigenesis in replicating cells. Loss of ATM function is frequently reported in various types of tumors, thus placing more reliance on ATR for checkpoint arrest and cell survival following DNA damage. To investigate the role of ATR in the G2/M checkpoint regulation in response to ionizing radiation (IR), particularly when ATM is deficient, cell lines deficient of ATM, ATR, or both were generated using a doxycycline-inducible lentiviral system. Our data suggests that while depletion of ATR or ATM alone in wild-type human mammary epithelial cell cultures (HME-CCs) has little effect on radiosensitivity or IR-induced G2/M checkpoint arrest, depletion of ATR in ATM-deficient cells causes synthetic lethality following IR, which correlates with severe G2/M checkpoint attenuation. ATR depletion also inhibits IR-induced autophagy, regardless of the ATM status, and enhances IR-induced apoptosis particularly when ATM is deficient. Collectively, our results clearly demonstrate that ATR function is required for the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint activation and subsequent survival of cells with ATM deficiency. The synthetic lethal interaction between ATM and ATR in response to IR supports ATR as a therapeutic target for improved anti-cancer regimens, especially in tumors with a dysfunctional ATM pathway.

  1. Loss of the Sall3 Gene Leads to Palate Deficiency, Abnormalities in Cranial Nerves, and Perinatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, M.; Ott, T.; Lance-Jones, C.; Schuetz, G.; Schwaeger-Nickolenko, A.; Monaghan, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Spalt gene family encode putative transcription factors characterized by seven to nine C2H2 zinc finger motifs. Four genes have been identified in mice—Spalt1 to Spalt4 (Sall1 to Sall4). Spalt homologues are widely expressed in neural and mesodermal tissues during early embryogenesis. Sall3 is normally expressed in mice from embryonic day 7 (E7) in the neural ectoderm and primitive streak and subsequently in the brain, peripheral nerves, spinal cord, limb buds, palate, heart, and otic vesicles. We have generated a targeted disruption of Sall3 in mice. Homozygous mutant animals die on the first postnatal day and fail to feed. Examination of the oral structures of these animals revealed that abnormalities were present in the palate and epiglottis from E16.5. In E10.5 embryos, deficiencies in cranial nerves that normally innervate oral structures, particularly the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), were observed. These studies indicate that Sall3 is required for the development of nerves that are derived from the hindbrain and for the formation of adjacent branchial arch derivatives. PMID:15282310

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the brain leads to DNA hypomethylation in the TCblR/CD320 knockout mouse

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is an epigenetic phenomenon that can modulate gene function by up or downregulation of gene expression. Vitamin B12 and folate pathways are involved in the production of S-Adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor. Findings Brain vitamin B12 concentration and global DNA methylation was determined in transcobalamin receptor (TCblR/CD320) knock out (KO) (n = 4) and control mice (n = 4) at 20–24 weeks of age. Median [IQR] brain vitamin B12 concentrations (pg/mg) in TCblR/CD320 KO mice compared with control mice was 8.59 [0.52] vs 112.42 [33.12]; p < 0.05. Global DNA methylation levels in brain genomic DNA were lower in TCblR/CD320 KO compared with control mice (Median [IQR]: 0.31[0.16] % vs 0.55[0.15] %; p < 0.05.). Conclusions In TCblR/CD320 KO mice, brain vitamin B12 drops precipitously by as much as 90% during a 20 week period. This decrease is associated with a 40% decrease in global DNA methylation in the brain. Future research will reveal whether the disruption in gene expression profiles due to changes in DNA hypomethylation contribute to central nervous system pathologies that are frequently seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:22607050

  3. Ectodysplasin signalling deficiency in mouse models of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia leads to middle ear and nasal pathology

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Ali; Piccinelli, Chiara; Brown, Helen; Headon, Denis; Cheeseman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) results from mutation of the EDA, EDAR or EDARADD genes and is characterized by reduced or absent eccrine sweat glands, hair follicles and teeth, and defective formation of salivary, mammary and craniofacial glands. Mouse models with HED also carry Eda, Edar or Edaradd mutations and have defects that map to the same structures. Patients with HED have ear, nose and throat disease, but this has not been investigated in mice bearing comparable genetic mutations. We report that otitis media, rhinitis and nasopharyngitis occur at high frequency in Eda and Edar mutant mice and explore the pathogenic mechanisms related to glandular function, microbial and immune parameters in these lines. Nasopharynx auditory tube glands fail to develop in HED mutant mice and the functional implications include loss of lysozyme secretion, reduced mucociliary clearance and overgrowth of nasal commensal bacteria accompanied by neutrophil exudation. Heavy nasopharynx foreign body load and loss of gland protection alters the auditory tube gating function and the auditory tubes can become pathologically dilated. Accumulation of large foreign body particles in the bulla stimulates granuloma formation. Analysis of immune cell populations and myeloid cell function shows no evidence of overt immune deficiency in HED mutant mice. Our findings using HED mutant mice as a model for the human condition support the idea that ear and nose pathology in HED patients arises as a result of nasal and nasopharyngeal gland deficits, reduced mucociliary clearance and impaired auditory tube gating function underlies the pathological sequelae in the bulla. PMID:27378689

  4. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Taisuke; Nagamatsu, Go; Kosaka, Takeo; Takubo, Keiyo; Hotta, Akitsu; Ellis, James; Suda, Toshio

    2011-04-08

    During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Meiosis I Arrest Abnormalities Lead to Severe Oligozoospermia in Meiosis 1 Arresting Protein (M1ap)-Deficient Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Nelson Alexander; Li, Li; Dabir, Deepa; Nicolau, Fotini; Pieretti-Vanmarcke, Rafael; Koehler, Carla; McCarrey, John R.; Lu, Naifang; Donahoe, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meiosis 1 arresting protein (M1ap) is a novel vertebrate gene expressed exclusively in germ cells of the embryonic ovary and the adult testis. In male mice, M1ap expression, which is present from spermatogonia to secondary spermatocytes, is evolutionarily conserved and has a specific spatial and temporal pattern suggestive of a role during germ cell development. To test its function, mice deficient in M1ap were created. Whereas females had histologically normal ovaries, males exhibited reduced testicular size and a myriad of tubular defects, which led to severe oligozoospermia and infertility. Although some germ cells arrested at the zygotene/pachytene stages, most cells advanced to metaphase I before arresting and entering apoptosis. Cells that reached metaphase I were unable to properly align their chromosomes at the metaphase plate due to abnormal chromosome synapses and failure to form crossover foci. Depending on the state of tubular degeneration, all germ cells, with the exemption of spermatogonia, disappeared; with further deterioration, tubules displaying only Sertoli cells reminiscent of Sertoli cell-only syndrome in humans were observed. Our results uncovered an essential role for M1ap as a novel germ cell gene not previously implicated in male germ cell development and suggest that mutations in M1AP could account for some cases of nonobstructive oligozoospermia in men. PMID:23269666

  6. Mutations in the selenocysteine insertion sequence–binding protein 2 gene lead to a multisystem selenoprotein deficiency disorder in humans

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, Erik; Agostini, Maura; Mitchell, Catherine; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Papp, Laura; Rajanayagam, Odelia; Padidela, Raja; Ceron-Gutierrez, Lourdes; Doffinger, Rainer; Prevosto, Claudia; Luan, Jian’an; Montano, Sergio; Lu, Jun; Castanet, Mireille; Clemons, Nick; Groeneveld, Matthijs; Castets, Perrine; Karbaschi, Mahsa; Aitken, Sri; Dixon, Adrian; Williams, Jane; Campi, Irene; Blount, Margaret; Burton, Hannah; Muntoni, Francesco; O’Donovan, Dominic; Dean, Andrew; Warren, Anne; Brierley, Charlotte; Baguley, David; Guicheney, Pascale; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Coles, Alasdair; Gaston, Hill; Todd, Pamela; Holmgren, Arne; Khanna, Kum Kum; Cooke, Marcus; Semple, Robert; Halsall, David; Wareham, Nicholas; Schwabe, John; Grasso, Lucia; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Ogunko, Arthur; Dattani, Mehul; Gurnell, Mark; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element that is fundamental to human health, is incorporated into some proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), generating a family of selenoproteins. Sec incorporation is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Sec insertion sequence–binding protein 2 (SECISBP2; also known as SBP2). Here, we describe subjects with compound heterozygous defects in the SECISBP2 gene. These individuals have reduced synthesis of most of the 25 known human selenoproteins, resulting in a complex phenotype. Azoospermia, with failure of the latter stages of spermatogenesis, was associated with a lack of testis-enriched selenoproteins. An axial muscular dystrophy was also present, with features similar to myopathies caused by mutations in selenoprotein N (SEPN1). Cutaneous deficiencies of antioxidant selenoenzymes, increased cellular ROS, and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation–induced oxidative damage may mediate the observed photosensitivity. Reduced levels of selenoproteins in peripheral blood cells were associated with impaired T lymphocyte proliferation, abnormal mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, and telomere shortening. Paradoxically, raised ROS in affected subjects was associated with enhanced systemic and cellular insulin sensitivity, similar to findings in mice lacking the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1). Thus, mutation of SECISBP2 is associated with a multisystem disorder with defective biosynthesis of many selenoproteins, highlighting their role in diverse biological processes. PMID:21084748

  7. Rapid degradation of an active formylglycine generating enzyme variant leads to a late infantile severe form of multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schlotawa, Lars; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Baumgartner, Matthias; Schmid, Regula; Schmidt, Bernhard; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting posttranslational activation of sulfatases by the formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE). Due to mutations in the encoding SUMF1 gene, FGE's catalytic capacity is impaired resulting in reduced cellular sulfatase activities. Both, FGE protein stability and residual activity determine disease severity and have previously been correlated with the clinical MSD phenotype. Here, we report a patient with a late infantile severe course of disease. The patient is compound heterozygous for two so far undescribed SUMF1 mutations, c.156delC (p.C52fsX57) and c.390A>T (p.E130D). In patient fibroblasts, mRNA of the frameshift allele is undetectable. In contrast, the allele encoding FGE-E130D is expressed. FGE-E130D correctly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and has a very high residual molecular activity in vitro (55% of wildtype FGE); however, it is rapidly degraded. Thus, despite substantial residual enzyme activity, protein instability determines disease severity, which highlights that potential MSD treatment approaches should target protein folding and stabilization mechanisms.

  8. Does problem-based learning lead to deficiencies in basic science knowledge? An empirical case on anatomy.

    PubMed

    Prince, Katinka J A H; van Mameren, Henk; Hylkema, Nelien; Drukker, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2003-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is supposed to enhance the integration of basic and clinical sciences. In a non-integrative curriculum, these disciplines are generally taught in separate courses. Problem-based learning students perceive deficiencies in their knowledge of basic sciences, particularly in important areas such as anatomy. Outcome studies on PBL show controversial results, sometimes indicating that medical students at PBL schools have less knowledge of basic sciences than do their colleagues at more traditional medical schools. We aimed to identify differences between PBL and non-PBL students in perceived and actual levels of knowledge of anatomy. Samples of Year 4 students in all eight medical schools in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire on perceived knowledge and took part in a computerised anatomy test consisting of both clinically contextualised items and items without context. Problem-based learning students were found to have the same perceived level of anatomy knowledge as students at other medical schools. Differences in actual levels of knowledge were found between schools. No significant effects on knowledge levels were found for PBL schools versus non-PBL schools. The results of this study show that PBL does not result in a lower level of anatomy knowledge than more traditional educational approaches. It remains to be ascertained whether the levels students attain are adequate. Subjects for further study are the desired level of anatomy knowledge at the end of undergraduate medical education and the effectiveness of basic science learning within a clinical context and with repetition over the course of the curriculum.

  9. High dietary folate in pregnant mice leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency and altered methyl metabolism, with embryonic growth delay and short-term memory impairment in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bahous, Renata H; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Deng, Liyuan; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Lu, Jessica; Malysheva, Olga; Leung, Kit-Yi; Ho, Ming-Kai; Pallàs, Mercè; Kaliman, Perla; Greene, Nicholas D E; Bedell, Barry J; Caudill, Marie A; Rozen, Rima

    2017-03-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C > T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring. Female mice were placed on control diet (CD) or folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD) throughout mating, pregnancy and lactation. Three-week-old male pups were evaluated for motor and cognitive function. Tissues from E17.5 embryos, pups and dams were collected for choline/methyl metabolite measurements, immunoblotting or gene expression of relevant enzymes. Brains were examined for morphology of hippocampus and cortex. Pups of FASD mothers displayed short-term memory impairment, decreased hippocampal size and decreased thickness of the dentate gyrus. MTHFR protein levels were reduced in FASD pup livers, with lower concentrations of phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine in liver and hippocampus, respectively. FASD pup brains showed evidence of altered acetylcholine availability and Dnmt3a mRNA was reduced in cortex and hippocampus. E17.5 embryos and placentas from FASD dams were smaller. MTHFR protein and mRNA were reduced in embryonic liver, with lower concentrations of choline, betaine and phosphocholine. Embryonic brain displayed altered development of cortical layers. In summary, high folate intake during pregnancy leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, disturbed choline/methyl metabolism, embryonic growth delay and memory impairment in offspring. These findings highlight the unintended negative consequences of supplemental folic acid. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Disruption of the CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE DEFICIENT1 Gene Leads to Cytochrome c Oxidase Depletion and Reorchestrated Respiratory Metabolism in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Jennifer; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Macherel, David; Benamar, Abdelilah; Belcram, Katia; Quadrado, Martine; Arnal, Nadège; Mireau, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the last respiratory complex of the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and is responsible for transferring electrons to oxygen, the final acceptor, in the classical respiratory pathway. The essentiality of this step makes it that depletion in complex IV leads to lethality, thereby impeding studies on complex IV assembly and respiration plasticity in plants. Here, we characterized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) embryo-lethal mutant lines impaired in the expression of the CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE DEFICIENT1 (COD1) gene, which encodes a mitochondria-localized PentatricoPeptide Repeat protein. Although unable to germinate under usual conditions, cod1 homozygous embryos could be rescued from immature seeds and developed in vitro into slow-growing bush-like plantlets devoid of a root system. cod1 mutants were defective in C-to-U editing events in cytochrome oxidase subunit2 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit4 transcripts, encoding subunits of respiratory complex IV and I, respectively, and consequently lacked cytochrome c oxidase activity. We further show that respiratory oxygen consumption by cod1 plantlets is exclusively associated with alternative oxidase activity and that alternative NADH dehydrogenases are also up-regulated in these plants. The metabolomics pattern of cod1 mutants was also deeply altered, suggesting that alternative metabolic pathways compensated for the probable resulting restriction in NADH oxidation. Being the first complex IV-deficient mutants described in higher plants, cod1 lines should be instrumental to future studies on respiration homeostasis. PMID:25301889

  11. Disruption of the CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE DEFICIENT1 gene leads to cytochrome c oxidase depletion and reorchestrated respiratory metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Jennifer; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Macherel, David; Benamar, Abdelilah; Belcram, Katia; Quadrado, Martine; Arnal, Nadège; Mireau, Hakim

    2014-12-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the last respiratory complex of the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and is responsible for transferring electrons to oxygen, the final acceptor, in the classical respiratory pathway. The essentiality of this step makes it that depletion in complex IV leads to lethality, thereby impeding studies on complex IV assembly and respiration plasticity in plants. Here, we characterized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) embryo-lethal mutant lines impaired in the expression of the CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE DEFICIENT1 (COD1) gene, which encodes a mitochondria-localized PentatricoPeptide Repeat protein. Although unable to germinate under usual conditions, cod1 homozygous embryos could be rescued from immature seeds and developed in vitro into slow-growing bush-like plantlets devoid of a root system. cod1 mutants were defective in C-to-U editing events in cytochrome oxidase subunit2 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit4 transcripts, encoding subunits of respiratory complex IV and I, respectively, and consequently lacked cytochrome c oxidase activity. We further show that respiratory oxygen consumption by cod1 plantlets is exclusively associated with alternative oxidase activity and that alternative NADH dehydrogenases are also up-regulated in these plants. The metabolomics pattern of cod1 mutants was also deeply altered, suggesting that alternative metabolic pathways compensated for the probable resulting restriction in NADH oxidation. Being the first complex IV-deficient mutants described in higher plants, cod1 lines should be instrumental to future studies on respiration homeostasis.

  12. Early Diagnosis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for IL10R Deficiency Leading to Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease Are Essential in Familial Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aksu, Guzide; Ulusoy, Ezgi; Gozmen, Salih; Genel, Ferah; Akarcan, Sanem; Gulez, Nesrin; Hirschmugl, Tatjana; Kansoy, Savas; Boztug, Kaan

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of immune homeostasis in the gut may result in development of inflammatory bowel disease. A five-month-old girl was referred for recurrent respiratory and genitourinary tract infections, sepsis in neonatal period, chronic diarrhea, perianal abscess, rectovaginal fistula, and hyperemic skin lesions. She was born to second-degree consanguineous, healthy parents. Her elder siblings were lost at 4 months of age due to sepsis and 1 year of age due to inflammatory bowel disease, respectively. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulin levels, and lymphocyte subsets were normal ruling out severe congenital neutropenia and classic severe combined immunodeficiencies. Quantitative determination of oxidative burst was normal, excluding chronic granulomatous disease. Colonoscopy revealed granulation, ulceration, and pseudopolyps, compatible with colitis. Very early-onset colitis and perianal disease leading to fistula formation suggested probability of inherited deficiencies of IL-10 or IL-10 receptor. A mutation at position c.G477A in exon of the IL10RB gene, resulting in a stop codon at position p.W159X, was identified. The patient underwent myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from full matched father at 11 months of age. Perianal lesions, chronic diarrhea, and recurrent infections resolved after transplantation. IL-10/IL-10R deficiencies must be considered in patients with early-onset enterocolitis. PMID:27699073

  13. Nuclear Charge Radii of Neutron-Deficient Lead Isotopes Beyond N=104 Midshell Investigated by In-Source Laser Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H. de; Cocolios, T. E.; Dean, S.; Huyse, M.; Lesher, S. R.; Mukha, I.; Stefanescu, I.; Vel, K. van de; Walle, J. van de; Duppen, P. van; Andreyev, A. N.; Barre, N.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J.; Bender, M.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Jeppessen, H.

    2007-03-16

    The shape of exotic even-mass {sup 182-190}Pb isotopes was probed by measurement of optical isotope shifts providing mean square charge radii ({delta}). The experiment was carried out at the isolde (cern) on-line mass separator, using in-source laser spectroscopy. Small deviations from the spherical droplet model are observed, but when compared to model calculations, those are explained by high sensitivity of {delta} to beyond mean-field correlations and small admixtures of intruder configurations in the ground state. The data support the predominantly spherical shape of the ground state of the proton-magic Z=82 lead isotopes near neutron midshell (N=104)

  14. A metabolic synthetic lethal strategy with arginine deprivation and chloroquine leads to cell death in ASS1-deficient sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Gregory R; Kremer, Jeff C; Prudner, Bethany C; Schenone, Aaron D; Yao, Juo-Chin; Schultze, Matthew B; Chen, David Y; Tanas, Munir R; Adkins, Douglas R; Bomalaski, John; Rubin, Brian P; Michel, Loren S; Van Tine, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas comprise a large heterogeneous group of mesenchymal cancers with limited therapeutic options. When treated with standard cytotoxic chemotherapies, many sarcomas fail to respond completely and rapidly become treatment resistant. A major problem in the investigation and treatment of sarcomas is the fact that no single gene mutation or alteration has been identified among the diverse histologic subtypes. We searched for therapeutically druggable targets that are common to a wide range of histologies and hence could provide alternatives to the conventional chemotherapy. Seven hundred samples comprising 45 separate histologies were examined. We found that almost 90% were arginine auxotrophs, as the expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 was lost or significantly reduced. Arginine auxotrophy confers sensitivity to arginine deprivation, leading temporarily to starvation and ultimately to cell survival or death under different circumstances. We showed that, in sarcoma, arginine deprivation therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) maintains a prolonged state of arginine starvation without causing cell death. However, when starvation was simultaneously prolonged by ADI-PEG20 while inhibited by the clinically available drug chloroquine, sarcoma cells died via necroptosis and apoptosis. These results have revealed a novel metabolic vulnerability in sarcomas and provided the basis for a well-tolerated alternative treatment strategy, potentially applicable to up to 90% of the tumors, regardless of histology. PMID:27735949

  15. Novel spontaneous deletion of artemis exons 10 and 11 in mice leads to T- and B-cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Barthels, Christian; Puchałka, Jacek; Racek, Tomas; Klein, Christoph; Brocker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a novel, spontaneous, 4035 basepairs long deletion in the DNA cross-link repair 1C (Dclre1c)-locus in C57BL/6-mice, which leads to loss of exons 10 and 11 of the gene encoding for Artemis, a protein involved into V(D) J-recombination of antigen receptors of T and B cells. While several spontaneous mutations of Artemis have been described to cause SCID in humans, in mice, only targeted deletions by knockout technology are known to cause the same phenotype so far. The deletion we observed causes a loss of Artemis function in the C57BL/6 strain and, consequently, the absence of T and B cells, in presence of normal numbers of NK cells and cells of the myeloid lineage. Thus, for the first time we present T(-)B(-)NK(+) severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) phenotype after spontaneously occurring modification of Artemis gene in mice. Our mouse model may serve as a valuable tool to study mechanisms as well as potential therapies of SCID in humans.

  16. The TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Blocks XRCC4-Mediated Nonhomologous End-Joining Repair and Radiosensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells to PARP Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Payel; Choudhary, Gaurav S; Alswillah, Turkeyah; Xiong, Xiahui; Heston, Warren D; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Zhang, Junran; Klein, Eric A; Almasan, Alexandru

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation (IR), produces DNA damage, leading to DNA double-strand breaks (DSB); IR toxicity is augmented when the DNA repair is impaired. We reported that radiosensitization by a PARP inhibitor (PARPi) was highly prominent in prostate cancer cells expressing the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion protein. Here, we show that TMPRSS2-ERG blocks nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair by inhibiting DNA-PKcs. VCaP cells, which harbor TMPRSS2-ERG and PC3 cells that stably express it, displayed γH2AX and 53BP1 foci constitutively, indicating persistent DNA damage that was absent if TMPRSS2-ERG was depleted by siRNA in VCaP cells. The extent of DNA damage was enhanced and associated with TMPRSS2-ERG's ability to inhibit DNA-PKcs function, as indicated by its own phosphorylation (Thr2609, Ser2056) and that of its substrate, Ser1778-53BP1. DNA-PKcs deficiency caused by TMPRSS2-ERG destabilized critical NHEJ components on chromatin. Thus, XRCC4 was not recruited to chromatin, with retention of other NHEJ core factors being reduced. DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation was restored to the level of parental cells when TMPRSS2-ERG was depleted by siRNA. Following IR, TMPRSS2-ERG-expressing PC3 cells had elevated Rad51 foci and homologous recombination (HR) activity, indicating that HR compensated for defective NHEJ in these cells, hence addressing why TMPRSS2-ERG alone did not lead to radiosensitization. However, the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG, by inhibiting NHEJ DNA repair, enhanced PARPi-mediated radiosensitization. IR in combination with PARPi resulted in enhanced DNA damage in TMPRSS2-ERG-expressing cells. Therefore, by inhibiting NHEJ, TMPRSS2-ERG provides a synthetic lethal interaction with PARPi in prostate cancer patients expressing TMPRSS2-ERG. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion blocks XRCC4-mediated non-homologous end-joining repair and radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells to PARP inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Payel; Choudhary, Gaurav S.; Alswillah, Turkeyah; Xiong, Xiahui; Heston, Warren D.; Magi-Galuzzi, Cristina; Zhang, Junran; Klein, Eric A.; Almasan, Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation (IR) produces DNA damage leading to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); IR toxicity is augmented when the DNA repair is impaired. We reported that radiosensitization by a PARP inhibitor (PARPi) was highly prominent in prostate cancer (PCa) cells expressing the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion protein. Here, we show that TMPRSS2-ERG blocks non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair by inhibiting DNA-PKcs. VCaP cells, which harbor TMPRSS2-ERG and PC3 cells that stably express it displayed γH2AX and 53BP1 foci constitutively, indicating persistent DNA damage that was absent if TMPRSS2-ERG was depleted by siRNA in VCaP cells. The extent of DNA damage was enhanced and associated with TMPRSS2-ERG’s ability to inhibit DNA-PKcs function, as indicated by its own phosphorylation (Thr2609, Ser2056) and that of its substrate, Ser1778-53BP1. DNA-PKcs deficiency caused by TMPRSS2-ERG destabilized critical NHEJ components on chromatin. Thus, XRCC4 was not recruited to chromatin, with retention of other NHEJ core factors being reduced. DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation was restored to the level of parental cells when TMPRSS2-ERG was depleted by siRNA. Following IR, TMPRSS2-ERG-expressing PC3 cells had elevated Rad51 foci and homologous recombination (HR) activity, indicating that HR compensated for defective NHEJ in these cells, hence addressing why TMPRSS2-ERG alone did not lead to radiosensitization. However, the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG, by inhibiting NHEJ DNA repair, enhanced PARPi-mediated radiosensitization. IR in combination with PARPi resulted in enhanced DNA damage in TMPRSS2-ERG-expressing cells. Thus, by inhibiting NHEJ, TMPRSS2-ERG provides a synthetic lethal interaction with PARPi in PCa patients expressing TMPRSS2-ERG. PMID:26026052

  18. Disruption of murine Hexa gene leads to enzymatic deficiency and to neuronal lysosomal storage, similar to that observed in Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Tannoudji, M; Marchand, P; Akli, S; Sheardown, S A; Puech, J P; Kress, C; Gressens, P; Nassogne, M C; Beccari, T; Muggleton-Harris, A L

    1995-12-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by beta-hexosaminidase A deficiency and leads to death in early childhood. The disease results from mutations in the HEXA gene, which codes for the alpha chain of beta-hexosaminidase. The castastrophic neurodegenerative progression of the disease is thought to be a consequence of massive neuronal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside and related glycolipids in the brain and nervous system of the patients. Fuller understanding of the pathogenesis and the development of therapeutic procedures have both suffered from the lack of an animal model. We have used gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells to disrupt the mouse Hexa gene. Mice homozygous for the disrupted allele mimic several biochemical and histological features of human Tay-Sachs disease. Hexa-/- mice displayed a total deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase A activity, and membranous cytoplasmic inclusions typical of GM2 gangliosidoses were found in the cytoplasm of their neurons. However, while the number of storage neurons increased with age, it remained low compared with that found in human, and no apparent motor or behavioral disorders could be observed. This suggests that the presence of beta-hexosaminidase A is not an absolute requirement of ganglioside degradation in mice. These mice should help us to understand several aspects of the disease as well as the physiological functions of hexosaminidase in mice. They should also provide a valuable animal model in which to test new forms of therapy, and in particular gene delivery into the central nervous system.

  19. Enhancement of Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer by DNA-PKcs Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    prostate. Dr. Song will be responsible for treatment planning, dosimetry, dose distribution and he will work under the supervision of Dr. Solberg . Dr... Solberg . The reason this task takes a long time because we are anticipating a significant tumor growth delay in response to combined modality treatment...Dawen Zhao, Masaya Takahashi, Timothy Dobin, Leah Gandee, Timothy D. Solberg , Amyn A. Habib and Debabrata Saha; International Journal of Oncology, 42

  20. Binding of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) to Ku but not to DNA-PKcs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunmei; Lieber, Michael R

    2002-03-29

    The nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) pathway is responsible for repairing a major fraction of double strand DNA breaks in somatic cells of all multicellular eukaryotes. As an indispensable protein in the NHEJ pathway, Ku has been hypothesized to be the first protein to bind at the DNA ends generated at a double strand break being repaired by this pathway. When bound to a DNA end, Ku improves the affinity of another DNA end-binding protein, DNA-PK(cs), to that end. The Ku.DNA-PK(cs) complex is often termed the DNA-PK holoenzyme. It was recently shown that myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) stimulates the joining of complementary DNA ends in a cell free system. Moreover, the binding data suggested that IP(6) bound to DNA-PK(cs) (not to Ku). Here we clearly show that, in fact, IP(6) associates not with DNA-PK(cs), but rather with Ku. Furthermore, the binding of DNA ends and IP(6) to Ku are independent of each other. The possible relationship between inositol phosphate metabolism and DNA repair is discussed in light of these findings.

  1. Enhancement of Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer by DNA-PKcs Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    of DAB2IP in chemo- resistance of prostate cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 2013;19:4740- 4749. POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FOR TARGETED... cancer , NU7441, Targeting John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A 1 POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FOR TARGETED...The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390 Running Title: Nanoparticles for radiosensitization of prostate cancer cells

  2. Enhancement of Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer by DNA-PKcs Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    modulate cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis by coordinating PI3K , Akt, and the ASK1 pathway [25, 26]. Our previous work indicated that loss...of S6K almost totally attenuated in DAB2IP overexpressed PCa cells . Notably, DAB2IP functions as a scaffold protein to inhibit the PI3K -Akt pathway ... via a direct protein interaction with PI3K through its PR domain [25]. Autophagy-defective cells also show an increase in DNA-DSB in response to

  3. Distinct effects of DNA-PKcs and Artemis inactivation on signal joint formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Touvrey, Cédric; Couedel, Chrystelle; Soulas, Pauline; Couderc, Rachel; Jasin, Maria; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Marche, Patrice N; Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne; Candéias, Serge M

    2008-07-01

    The assembly of functional immune receptor genes via V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes generates DNA double-stranded breaks intermediates that are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). This repair pathway requires the sequential recruitment and activation onto coding and signal DNA ends of several proteins, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase and the nuclease Artemis. Artemis activity, triggered by the DNA-dependent protein kinase, is necessary to process the genes hairpin-sealed coding ends but appears dispensable for the ligation of the reciprocal phosphorylated, blunt-ended signal ends into a signal joint. The DNA-dependent protein kinase is however present on signal ends and could potentially recruit and activate Artemis during signal joint formation. To determine whether Artemis plays a role during the resolution of signal ends during V(D)J recombination, we analyzed the structure of signal joints generated in developing thymocytes during the rearrangement of T cell receptor genes in wild type mice and mice mutated for NHEJ factors. These joints exhibit junctional diversity resulting from N nucleotide polymerization by the terminal nucleotidyl transferase and nucleotide loss from one or both of the signal ends before they are ligated. Our results show that Artemis participates in the repair of signal ends in vivo. Furthermore, our results also show that while the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex protects signal ends from processing, including deletions, Artemis seems on the opposite to promote their accessibility to modifying enzymes. In addition, these data suggest that Artemis might be the nuclease responsible for nucleotide loss from signal ends during the repair process.

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 deficiency in macrophages leads to defective p110γ PI3K signaling and impairs cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Manuel D; Osma-García, Inés C; Iñiguez, Miguel A; Fresno, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 dependent PGs modulate several functions in many pathophysiological processes, including migration of immune cells. In this study, we addressed the role of Cox-2 in macrophage migration by using in vivo and in vitro models. Upon thioglycolate challenge, CD11b(+) F4/80(+) macrophages showed a diminished ability to migrate to the peritoneal cavity in cox-2(-/-) mice. In vivo migration of cox-2(-/-) macrophages from the peritoneal cavity to lymph nodes, as well as cell adhesion to the mesothelium, was reduced in response to LPS. In vitro migration of cox-2(-/-) macrophages toward MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, or MIP-1β, as well as cell adhesion to ICAM-1 or fibronectin, was impaired. Defects in cell migration were not due to changes in chemokine receptor expression. Remarkably, cox-2(-/-) macrophages showed a deficiency in focal adhesion formation, with reduced phosphorylation of paxillin (Tyr(188)). Interestingly, expression of the p110γ catalytic subunit of PI3K was severely reduced in the absence of Cox-2, leading to defective Akt phosphorylation, as well as cdc42 and Rac-1 activation. Our results indicate that the paxillin/p110γ-PI3K/Cdc42/Rac1 axis is defective in cox-2(-/-) macrophages, which results in impaired cell adhesion and migration.

  5. AAV-mediated gene therapy in Dystrophin-Dp71 deficient mouse leads to blood-retinal barrier restoration and oedema reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Ophélie; Charles-Messance, Hugo; El Mathari, Brahim; Sene, Abdoulaye; Barbe, Peggy; Fouquet, Stéphane; Aragón, Jorge; Darche, Marie; Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Tadayoni, Ramin; Montañez, Cecilia; Dalkara, Deniz; Rendon, Alvaro

    2016-07-15

    Dystrophin-Dp71 being a key membrane cytoskeletal protein, expressed mainly in Müller cells that provide a mechanical link at the Müller cell membrane by direct binding to actin and a transmembrane protein complex. Its absence has been related to blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability through delocalization and down-regulation of the AQP4 and Kir4.1 channels (1). We have previously shown that the adeno-associated virus (AAV) variant, ShH10, transduces Müller cells in the Dp71-null mouse retina efficiently and specifically (2,3). Here, we use ShH10 to restore Dp71 expression in Müller cells of Dp71 deficient mouse to study molecular and functional effects of this restoration in an adult mouse displaying retinal permeability. We show that strong and specific expression of exogenous Dp71 in Müller cells leads to correct localization of Dp71 protein restoring all protein interactions in order to re-establish a proper functional BRB and retina homeostasis thus preventing retina from oedema. This study is the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies in dealing with diseases with BRB breakdown and macular oedema such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) "Sash" mutant mice display aberrant myelopoiesis leading to the accumulation of splenocytes that act as myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anastasija; Schüler, Andrea; Friedrich, Pamela; Döner, Fatma; Bopp, Tobias; Radsak, Markus; Hoffmann, Markus; Relle, Manfred; Distler, Ute; Kuharev, Jörg; Tenzer, Stefan; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Schild, Hansjörg; Schmitt, Edgar; Becker, Marc; Stassen, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) "sash" mice are widely used to investigate mast cell functions. However, mutations of c-Kit also affect additional cells of hematopoietic and nonimmune origin. In this study, we demonstrate that Kit(W-sh) causes aberrant extramedullary myelopoiesis characterized by the expansion of immature lineage-negative cells, common myeloid progenitors, and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors in the spleen. A consistent feature shared by these cell types is the reduced expression of c-Kit. Populations expressing intermediate and high levels of Ly6G, a component of the myeloid differentiation Ag Gr-1, are also highly expanded in the spleen of sash mice. These cells are able to suppress T cell responses in vitro and phenotypically and functionally resemble myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSC typically accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and are able to dampen immune responses. Consequently, transfer of MDSC from naive sash mice into line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma tumor-bearing wild-type littermates leads to enhanced tumor progression. However, although it can also be observed in sash mice, accelerated growth of transplanted line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma tumors is a mast cell-independent phenomenon. Thus, the Kit(W-sh) mutation broadly affects key steps in myelopoiesis that may have an impact on mast cell research.

  7. Penning-trap mass spectrometry and mean-field study of nuclear shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V.; Ascher, P.; Atanasov, D.; Barzakh, A. E.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Cocolios, T. E.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Marsh, B.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of nuclear shape coexistence in the region of neutron-deficient lead isotopes. The midshell gold isotopes 180,185,188,190Au (Z =79 ), the two long-lived nuclear states in 197At (Z =85 ), and the neutron-rich nuclide 219At were produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and their masses were determined with the high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The studied gold isotopes address the trend of binding energies in a region of the nuclear chart where the nuclear charge radii show pronounced discontinuities. Significant deviations from the atomic-mass evaluation were found for Au,190188. The new trend of two-neutron separation energies is smoother, although it does reveal the onset of deformation. The origin of this effect is interpreted in connection to the odd-even staggering of binding energies, as well as theoretically by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations including quasiparticle blocking. The role of blocking for reproducing the large odd-even staggering of charge radii in the mercury isotopic chain is illustrated.

  8. Germline PMS2 and somatic POLEexo mutations cause hypermutability of the leading DNA strand in Biallelic Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Andrianova, Maria A; Chetan, Ghati Kasturirangan; Sibin, Madathan Kandi; Mckee, Thomas; Merkler, Doron; Narasinga, Rao Kvl; Ribaux, Pascale; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Nikolaev, Sergey I

    2017-08-14

    Biallelic Mismatch Repair Deficiency (bMMRD) in tumors is frequently associated with somatic mutations in the exonuclease domains of DNA polymerases POLE or POLD1 and results to a characteristic mutational profile. In this study we describe the genetic basis of ultramutated high grade brain tumors in the context of bMMRD. We performed exome sequencing of two second-cousin patients from a large consanguineous family of Indian origin with early onset of high grade glioblastoma and astrocytoma. We identified a germline homozygous nonsense variant R802X in the PMS2 gene. Additionally, by genome sequencing of these tumors we have observed extremely high somatic mutation rates (237 and 123 mut/Mb) as well as somatic mutations in the proofreading domain of POLE polymerase (P436H and L424V), that replicates the leading DNA strand. Most interestingly, we have observed in both cancers that the vast majority of mutations were consistent with the signature of PolE exo-, i.e. the abundance of C > A and C > T mutations, particularly in special contexts, on the leading strand. We showed that the fraction of mutations under positive selection among mutations in tumor suppressor genes is more than 2-fold lower in ultramutated tumors compared to other glioblastomas. Genetic analyses enabled the diagnosis of the two consanguineous childhood brain tumors due to a combination of PMS2 germline and POLE somatic variants and confirmed them as a bMMRD/POLEexo- disorder. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Wnt5a Deficiency Leads to Anomalies in Ureteric Tree Development, Tubular Epithelial Cell Organization and Basement Membrane Integrity Pointing to a Role in Kidney Collecting Duct Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Renata; Kaisto, Susanna; Tika, Elisavet; van Eerde, Albertien M.; Salo, Antti M.; Garma, Leonardo; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Feitz, Wout F.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Juffer, André; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Myllyharju, Johanna; Vainio, Seppo J.

    2016-01-01

    The Wnts can be considered as candidates for the Congenital Anomaly of Kidney and Urinary Tract, CAKUT diseases since they take part in the control of kidney organogenesis. Of them Wnt5a is expressed in ureteric bud (UB) and its deficiency leads to duplex collecting system (13/90) uni- or bilateral kidney agenesis (10/90), hypoplasia with altered pattern of ureteric tree organization (42/90) and lobularization defects with partly fused ureter trunks (25/90) unlike in controls. The UB had also notably less tips due to Wnt5a deficiency being at E15.5 306 and at E16.5 765 corresponding to 428 and 1022 in control (p<0.02; p<0.03) respectively. These changes due to Wnt5a knock out associated with anomalies in the ultrastructure of the UB daughter epithelial cells. The basement membrane (BM) was malformed so that the BM thickness increased from 46.3 nm to 71.2 nm (p<0.01) at E16.5 in the Wnt5a knock out when compared to control. Expression of a panel of BM components such as laminin and of type IV collagen was also reduced due to the Wnt5a knock out. The P4ha1 gene that encodes a catalytic subunit of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase I (C-P4H-I) in collagen synthesis expression and the overall C-P4H enzyme activity were elevated by around 26% due to impairment in Wnt5a function from control. The compound Wnt5a+/-;P4ha1+/- embryos demonstrated Wnt5a-/- related defects, for example local hyperplasia in the UB tree. A R260H WNT5A variant was identified from renal human disease cohort. Functional studies of the consequence of the corresponding mouse variant in comparison to normal ligand reduced Wnt5a-signalling in vitro. Together Wnt5a has a novel function in kidney organogenesis by contributing to patterning of UB derived collecting duct development contributing putatively to congenital disease. PMID:26794322

  10. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects. PMID:26835453

  11. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects.

  12. Deficiency of MALT1 paracaspase activity results in unbalanced regulatory and effector T and B cell responses leading to multiorgan inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bornancin, Frédéric; Renner, Florian; Touil, Ratiba; Sic, Heiko; Kolb, Yeter; Touil-Allaoui, Ismahane; Rush, James S; Smith, Paul A; Bigaud, Marc; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Burkhart, Christoph; Dawson, Janet; Niwa, Satoru; Katopodis, Andreas; Nuesslein-Hildesheim, Barbara; Weckbecker, Gisbert; Zenke, Gerhard; Kinzel, Bernd; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Brenner, Dirk; Brüstle, Anne; St Paul, Michael; Zamurovic, Natasa; McCoy, Kathy D; Rolink, Antonius; Régnier, Catherine H; Mak, Tak W; Ohashi, Pamela S; Patel, Dhavalkumar D; Calzascia, Thomas

    2015-04-15

    The paracaspase MALT1 plays an important role in immune receptor-driven signaling pathways leading to NF-κB activation. MALT1 promotes signaling by acting as a scaffold, recruiting downstream signaling proteins, as well as by proteolytic cleavage of multiple substrates. However, the relative contributions of these two different activities to T and B cell function are not well understood. To investigate how MALT1 proteolytic activity contributes to overall immune cell regulation, we generated MALT1 protease-deficient mice (Malt1(PD/PD)) and compared their phenotype with that of MALT1 knockout animals (Malt1(-/-)). Malt1(PD/PD) mice displayed defects in multiple cell types including marginal zone B cells, B1 B cells, IL-10-producing B cells, regulatory T cells, and mature T and B cells. In general, immune defects were more pronounced in Malt1(-/-) animals. Both mouse lines showed abrogated B cell responses upon immunization with T-dependent and T-independent Ags. In vitro, inactivation of MALT1 protease activity caused reduced stimulation-induced T cell proliferation, impaired IL-2 and TNF-α production, as well as defective Th17 differentiation. Consequently, Malt1(PD/PD) mice were protected in a Th17-dependent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. Surprisingly, Malt1(PD/PD) animals developed a multiorgan inflammatory pathology, characterized by Th1 and Th2/0 responses and enhanced IgG1 and IgE levels, which was delayed by wild-type regulatory T cell reconstitution. We therefore propose that the pathology characterizing Malt1(PD/PD) animals arises from an immune imbalance featuring pathogenic Th1- and Th2/0-skewed effector responses and reduced immunosuppressive compartments. These data uncover a previously unappreciated key function of MALT1 protease activity in immune homeostasis and underline its relevance in human health and disease.

  13. A Lethal Murine Infection Model for Dengue Virus 3 in AG129 Mice Deficient in Type I and II Interferon Receptors Leads to Systemic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Vanessa V.; White, Mellodee; Li, Li; Gorder, Summer R.; Pyles, Richard B.; Campbell, Gerald A.; Milligan, Gregg N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mosquito-borne disease dengue (DEN) is caused by four serologically and genetically related viruses, termed DENV-1 to DENV-4. Infection with one DENV usually leads to acute illness and results in lifelong homotypic immunity, but individuals remain susceptible to infection by the other three DENVs. The lack of a small-animal model that mimics systemic DEN disease without neurovirulence has been an obstacle, but DENV-2 models that resemble human disease have been recently developed in AG129 mice (deficient in interferon alpha/beta and interferon gamma receptor signaling). However, comparable DENV-1, -3, and -4 models have not been developed. We utilized a non-mouse-adapted DENV-3 Thai human isolate to develop a lethal infection model in AG129 mice. Intraperitoneal inoculation of six to eight-week-old animals with strain C0360/94 led to rapid, fatal disease. Lethal C0360/94 infection resulted in physical signs of illness, high viral loads in the spleen, liver, and large intestine, histological changes in the liver and spleen tissues, and increased serum cytokine levels. Importantly, the animals developed vascular leakage, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Overall, we have developed a lethal DENV-3 murine infection model, with no evidence of neurotropic disease based on a non-mouse-adapted human isolate, which can be used to investigate DEN pathogenesis and to evaluate candidate vaccines and antivirals. This suggests that murine models utilizing non-mouse-adapted isolates can be obtained for all four DENVs. IMPORTANCE Dengue (DEN) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by four DENV serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4) that have no treatments or vaccines. Primary infection with one DENV usually leads to acute illness followed by lifelong homotypic immunity, but susceptibility to infection by the other three DENVs remains. Therefore, a vaccine needs to protect from all four DENVs simultaneously. To date a suitable animal model to mimic systemic human illness

  14. Adult vitamin D deficiency leads to behavioural and brain neurochemical alterations in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Groves, Natalie J; Kesby, James P; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Burne, Thomas H J

    2013-03-15

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that low levels of vitamin D may predispose people to develop depression and cognitive impairment. While rodent studies have demonstrated that prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with altered brain development, there is a lack of research examining adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of AVD deficiency on behaviour and brain function in the mouse. Ten-week old male C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 10 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We assessed a broad range of behavioural domains, excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain tissue, and, in separate groups of mice, locomotor response to d-amphetamine and MK-801. Overall, AVD deficiency resulted in hyperlocomotion in a novel open field and reduced GAD65/67 levels in brain tissue. AVD-deficient BALB/c mice had altered behaviour on the elevated plus maze, altered responses to heat, sound and shock, and decreased levels of glutamate and glutamine, and increased levels of GABA and glycine. By contrast C57BL/6J mice had a more subtle phenotype with no further behavioural changes but significant elevations in serine, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Although the behavioural phenotype of AVD did not seem to model a specific disorder, the overall reduction in GAD65/67 levels associated with AVD deficiency may be relevant to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions. This is the first study to show an association between AVD deficiency and prominent changes in behaviour and brain neurochemistry in the mouse. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human TRAF3 adaptor molecule deficiency leads to impaired Toll-like receptor 3 response and susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    de Diego, Rebeca Pérez; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Puel, Anne; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Picard, Capucine; Herman, Melina; Cardon, Annabelle; Durandy, Anne; Bustamante, Jacinta; Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Bravo, Jerónimo; Warnatz, Klaus; Chaix, Yves; Cascarrigny, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Karin, Michael; Tardieu, Marc; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) functions downstream of multiple receptors that induce interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN–β and IFN-λ production, including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is deficient in some patients with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis (HSE). Mice lacking TRAF3 die in the neonatal period, preventing direct investigation of the role of TRAF3 in immune responses and host defenses in vivo. Here we reported the autosomal dominant, human TRAF3 deficiency in a young adult with a history of HSE in childhood. The TRAF3 mutant allele was a loss-of-expression, loss-of-function, dominant-negative phenotype, and was associated with impaired, but not abolished TRAF3-dependent responses upon stimulation of both TNF receptors and receptors that induce IFN production. TRAF3 deficiency was associated with a clinical phenotype limited to HSE resulting from the impairment of TLR3-dependent induction of IFN. Thus, TLR3-mediated immunity against primary infection by HSV-1 in the central nervous system is critically dependent on TRAF3. Highlight sentence Autosomal dominant TRAF3 deficiency is a genetic etiology of herpes simplex encephalitis. Highlight sentence R118W TRAF3 allele is loss-of-function, loss-of-expression, and dominant-negative. Highlight sentence Human TRAF3 deficiency impairs the TLR3-dependent induction of anti-viral interferons. PMID:20832341

  16. Plasminogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Celkan, Tiraje

    2017-01-01

    Plasminogen plays an important role in fibrinolysis as well as wound healing, cell migration, tissue modeling and angiogenesis. Congenital plasminogen deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that leads to the development of thick, wood-like pseudomembranes on mucosal surfaces, mostly seen in conjunctivas named as ''ligneous conjunctivitis''. Local conjunctival use of fresh frozen plazma (FFP) in combination with other eye medications such as cyclosporin and artificial tear drops may relieve the symptoms. Topical treatment with plasminogen eye drops is the most promising treatment that is not yet available in Turkey.

  17. Metabolic control of respiratory levels in coenzyme Q biosynthesis-deficient Escherichia coli strains leading to fine-tune aerobic lactate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-08-01

    A novel strategy to finely control the electron transfer chain (ETC) activity of Escherichia coli was established. In this study, the fine-tuning of the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway was applied to further controlling ETC function in coenzyme Q8 biosynthesis-deficient E. coli strains, HW108 and HW109, which contain mutations in ubiE and ubiG, respectively. A competing pathway on the intermediate substrates of the Q8 synthesis pathway, catalyzed by diphosphate:4-hydroxybenzoate geranyltransferase (PGT-1) of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, was introduced into these mutant strains. A nearly theoretical yield of lactate production can be achieved under fully aerobic conditions via an in vivo, genetically fine-tunable means to further control the activity of the ETC of the Q8 biosynthesis-deficient E. coli strains.

  18. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver from damage. The condition can lead to emphysema and liver disease ( cirrhosis ). ... descent. Adults with severe A1AT deficiency will develop emphysema, often before 40 years of age. Smoking can ...

  19. Biotinidase deficiency: an atypical presentation.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Suresh, Beena; Seshadri, Suresh; Suzuki, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder which can cause dermatological manifestations and lead to severe neurological sequelae if untreated. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency also has similar manifestations and needs to be differentiated. We present a neonate who had atypical early onset symptoms and was diagnosed to have biotinidase deficiency. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  20. High LET Radiation Amplifies Centrosome Overduplication Through a Pathway of γ-Tubulin Monoubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Mikio; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation induces centrosome overduplication, leading to mitotic catastrophe and tumorigenesis. Because mitotic catastrophe is one of the major tumor cell killing factors in high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation therapy and long-term survivors from such treatment have a potential risk of secondary tumors, we investigated LET dependence of radiation-induced centrosome overduplication and the underlying mechanism. Methods and Materials: Carbon and iron ion beams (13-200 keV/μm) and γ-rays (0.5 keV/μm) were used as radiation sources. To count centrosomes after IR exposure, human U2OS and mouse NIH3T3 cells were immunostained with antibodies of γ-tubulin and centrin 2. Similarly, Nbs1-, Brca1-, Ku70-, and DNA-PKcs-deficient mouse cells and their counterpart wild-type cells were used for measurement of centrosome overduplication. Results: The number of excess centrosome-containing cells at interphase and the resulting multipolar spindle at mitosis were amplified with increased LET, reaching a maximum level of 100 keV/μm, followed by sharp decrease in frequency. Interestingly, Ku70 and DNA-PKcs deficiencies marginally affected the induction of centrosome overduplication, whereas the cell killings were significantly enhanced. This was in contrast to observation that high LET radiation significantly enhanced frequencies of centrosome overduplication in Nbs1- and Brca1-deficient cells. Because NBS1/BRCA1 is implicated in monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin, we subsequently tested whether it is affected by high LET radiation. As a result, monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin was abolished in 48 to 72 hours after exposure to high LET radiation, although γ-ray exposure slightly decreased it 48 hours postirradiation and was restored to a normal level at 72 hours. Conclusions: High LET radiation significantly reduces NBS1/BRCA1-mediated monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin and amplifies centrosome overduplication with a peak at 100 keV/μm. In contrast, Ku70 and DNA-PKcs

  1. G6PD Deficiency (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... trigger, is removed. In rare cases, G6PD deficiency leads to chronic anemia . With the right precautions, a child with G6PD deficiency can lead a healthy and active life. About G6PD Deficiency ...

  2. Contiguous Xp11.4 Gene Deletion Leading to Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency Detected by High-density Single-nucleotide Array

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Mizuho; Tsuda, Junnosuke; Mouri, Yoko; Arai, Junichi; Arinami, Tadao; Noguchi, Emiko

    2010-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) is one of the enzymes involved in the urea cycle. OTC deficiency, which is caused by impaired synthesis of OTC in the liver, is the most common inherited disease of urea cycle disorders. In this paper, we describe the case of an OTC-deficient Japanese boy wherein an analysis based on high-density single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed the absence of the entire OTC locus and nearby genes. We identified a deletion on Xp11.4; the size of the deletion fragment was approximately 1 Mb. The deleted region included genes encoding transmembrane 4 superfamily member 2 (TSPAN7), MID1 interacting protein 1 (MID1IP1) and part of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) in addition to OTC. The results of a high-density SNP assay and PCR confirmed that the mother of the patient was a carrier of the mutation. Previously, determination of breakpoints for large unknown deletions was timeconsuming and laborintensive. However, the use of the widely available DNA chip technology allows for rapid determination of deletion breakpoints; therefore, it will become a standard technique in study of patients with a large genomic deletion of contiguous genes for provision of comprehensive genetic counseling and initiation of clinical management. PMID:23926375

  3. Cryo-EM Imaging of DNA-PK DNA Damage Repair Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Phoebe L. Stewart

    2005-06-27

    objective is to locate the kinase domain of DNA-PKcs by determining the structure of a kinase deletion mutant both as an isolated protein and as part of a DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. A third objective is to pursue higher resolution studies of DNA-PKcs and the DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. If the crystal structure determination of DNA-PKcs is completed during the project period, the atomic coordinates of DNA-PKcs will be modeled within the cryo-EM structure of the complex. In order to achieve these goals, a collaborative effort is proposed between Dr. Phoebe Stewart at UCLA, whose laboratory has expertise in cryo-EM reconstruction methods, and Dr. David Chen at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, who has a long-standing interest in DNA repair. Advantages of the cryo-EM structural method include the fact that the sample is imaged in a frozen-hydrated and unstained state, avoiding artifacts associated with drying and staining in other EM approaches. Also crystals of the sample are not needed for the single particle reconstruction method and only microgram quantities of sample are required. Cryo-EM structural information of macromolecular assemblies is complementary to both atomic structures of individual component molecules, as well as low resolution information obtained from x-ray and neutron scattering. Knowledge of the geometrical arrangement of the complex, and the position of the essential DNA-PKcs kinase domain, should lead to a greater understanding of the molecular events in DNA double-strand break repair following exposure to low doses of radiation.

  4. A defect in the synthesis of Interferon-γ by the T cells of Complement-C5 deficient mice leads to enhanced susceptibility for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mashruwala, Mary Anne; Smith, Amanda K; Lindsey, Devin R; Moczygemba, Margaret; Wetsel, Rick A; Klein, John R; Actor, Jeffrey K; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

    2011-12-01

    Interferon-γ (IFNγ) plays a major role during host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). T cells produce IFNγ in response to IL-12 and IL-18 secreted from Mtb infected macrophages. IFNγ in turn, induces nitric oxide secretion in macrophages that kills Mtb. IFNγ knockout mice are thus hyper-susceptible to tuberculosis. We reported earlier that Complement-C5 deficient (C5(-/-)) congenic mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis and showed reduced IL-12 synthesis in their macrophages. Using C5(-/-) congenic mice that carry a deletion in the C5 gene and the wild type C5(+/+) mice, we demonstrate here that, the C5(-/-) derived CD3(+) T cells, have an additional defect in the synthesis of IFNγ. C5(-/-) T cells produced lower levels of IFNγ upon stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs) infected with Mtb or when stimulated directly with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18. The latter was in part due to a reduced phosphorylation of STAT4 following IL-12/IL-18 stimulation. Addition of C5a peptide to IL-12/IL-18 partially restored STAT4 phosphorylation and IFNγ synthesis in C5(-/-) T cells indicating that IL-12/IL-18 mediated signaling within CD3(+) T cells involves C5a peptide. Finally, C5(-/-) T cells derived from M. bovis BCG or Mtb infected mice showed a reduced expression of T-bet (T-box expressed in T cells) transcription factor, which correlated well with a reduced T cell secretion of IFNγ. Since T-bet mediated IFNγ synthesis facilitates Th1 expansion, C5(-/-) mouse derived T cells appear to have an intrinsic defect in the production of IFNγ, which is related to C5 deficiency and this may explain their increased susceptibility to infection with Mtb and BCG. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A defect in the synthesis of Interferon-γ by the T cells of Complement-C5 deficient mice leads to enhanced susceptibility for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mashruwala, Mary Anne; Smith, Amanda K.; Lindsey, Devin R.; Moczygemba, Margaret; Wetsel, Rick A.; Klein, John R.; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFNγ) plays a major role during host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). T cells produce IFNγ in response to IL-12 and IL-18 secreted from Mtb infected macrophages. IFNγ in turn, induces nitric oxide secretion in macrophages that kills Mtb. IFNγ knock-out mice are thus hyper-susceptible to tuberculosis. We reported earlier that Complement C5 deficient (C5-/-) congenic mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis and showed reduced IL-12 synthesis in their macrophages. Using C5-/- congenic mice that carry a deletion in the C5 gene and the wild type C5+/+ mice, we demonstrate here that, the C5-/-derived CD3+ T cells, have an additional defect in the synthesis of IFNγ. C5-/- T cells produced lower levels of IFNγ upon stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs) infected with Mtb or when stimulated directly with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18. The latter was in part due to a reduced phosphorylation of STAT-4 following IL-12/IL-18 stimulation. Addition of C5a peptide to IL-12/IL-18 partially restored STAT4 phosphorylation and IFNγ synthesis in C5-/- T cells indicating that IL-12/IL-18 mediated signaling within CD3+ T cells involves C5a peptide. Finally, C5-/- T cells derived from M.bovis BCG or Mtb infected mice showed a reduced expression of T-bet (T-box expressed in T cells) transcription factor, which correlated well with a reduced T cell secretion of IFNγ. Since T-bet mediated IFNγ synthesis facilitates Th1 expansion, C5-/- mouse derived T cells appear to have an intrinsic defect in the production of IFNγ, which is related to C5 deficiency and this may explain their increased susceptibility to infection with Mtb and BCG. PMID:22154007

  6. Developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency leads to HFS-induced LTD in rat hippocampal CA1 region: involvement of AMPA receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Song, Binbin; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Min, Hui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Hypothyroidism induced by severe iodine deficiency (ID) during developmental period seriously damages the central nervous system function. In addition to developmental hypothyroidism induced by severe ID, developmental hypothyroxinemia induced by mild ID is potentially damaging for neurodevelopment and learning and memory in children. Wistar rats were treated with iodine-deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) during pregnancy and lactation to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism in the present study. Pups were weaned on postnatal day (PN) 21 and used for electrophysiological recordings on PN80. It is generally accepted that long-term depression (LTD) is induced at low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in hippocampal CA1 region. Surprisingly, we observed developmental hypothyroxinemia as well as developmental hypothyroidism led to high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced LTD in hippocampal CA1 region. The abnormal HFS-induced LTD suggests not only developmental hypothyroidism but also developmental hypothyroxinemia impairs learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms responsible for the HFS-induced LTD, the phosphorylation status of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) was investigated. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia as well as developmental hypothyroidism decreased the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) at serine 831 and serine 845 in hippocampal CA1 region. Neither developmental hypothyroxinemia nor developmental hypothyroidism altered the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) at serine 880. Increased levels of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) were also observed in hippocampal CA1 regions of pups subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased levels of PP1 caused by developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism may account for the dephosphorylation of GluR1 at serine 831 and

  7. Maternal Antibody-Mediated Disease Enhancement in Type I Interferon-Deficient Mice Leads to Lethal Disease Associated with Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Martínez Gómez, Julia María; Ong, Li Ching; Lam, Jian Hang; Binte Aman, Siti Amanlina; Libau, Eshele Anak; Lee, Pei Xuan; St John, Ashley L; Alonso, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that most of the severe dengue cases occur upon a secondary heterologous infection. Furthermore, babies born to dengue immune mothers are at greater risk of developing severe disease upon primary infection with a heterologous or homologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype when maternal antibodies reach sub-neutralizing concentrations. These observations have been explained by the antibody mediated disease enhancement (ADE) phenomenon whereby heterologous antibodies or sub-neutralizing homologous antibodies bind to but fail to neutralize DENV particles, allowing Fc-receptor mediated entry of the virus-antibody complexes into host cells. This eventually results in enhanced viral replication and heightened inflammatory responses. In an attempt to replicate this ADE phenomenon in a mouse model, we previously reported that upon DENV2 infection 5-week old type I and II interferon (IFN) receptors-deficient mice (AG129) born to DENV1-immune mothers displayed enhancement of disease severity characterized by increased virus titers and extensive vascular leakage which eventually led to the animals' death. However, as dengue occurs in immune competent individuals, we sought to reproduce this mouse model in a less immunocompromised background. Here, we report an ADE model that is mediated by maternal antibodies in type I IFN receptor-deficient A129 mice. We show that 5-week old A129 mice born to DENV1-immune mothers succumbed to a DENV2 infection within 4 days that was sub-lethal in mice born to naïve mothers. Clinical manifestations included extensive hepatocyte vacuolation, moderate vascular leakage, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Anti-TNFα therapy totally protected the mice and correlated with healthy hepatocytes. In contrast, blocking IL-6 did not impact the virus titers or disease outcome. This A129 mouse model of ADE may help dissecting the mechanisms involved in dengue pathogenesis and evaluate the efficacy of vaccine and

  8. MicroRNA-155 Deficiency Leads to Decreased Atherosclerosis, Increased White Adipose Tissue Obesity, and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A NOVEL MOUSE MODEL OF OBESITY PARADOX.

    PubMed

    Virtue, Anthony; Johnson, Candice; Lopez-Pastraña, Jahaira; Shao, Ying; Fu, Hangfei; Li, Xinyuan; Li, Ya-Feng; Yin, Ying; Mai, Jietang; Rizzo, Victor; Tordoff, Michael; Bagi, Zsolt; Shan, Huimin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-27

    Obesity paradox (OP) describes a widely observed clinical finding of improved cardiovascular fitness and survival in some overweight or obese patients. The molecular mechanisms underlying OP remain enigmatic partly due to a lack of animal models mirroring OP in patients. Using apolipoprotein E knock-out (apoE(-/-)) mice on a high fat (HF) diet as an atherosclerotic obesity model, we demonstrated 1) microRNA-155 (miRNA-155, miR-155) is significantly up-regulated in the aortas of apoE(-/-) mice, and miR-155 deficiency in apoE(-/-) mice inhibits atherosclerosis; 2) apoE(-/-)/miR-155(-/-) (double knock-out (DKO)) mice show HF diet-induced obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and present with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; 3) DKO mice demonstrate HF diet-induced elevations of plasma leptin, resistin, fed-state and fasting insulin and increased expression of adipogenic transcription factors but lack glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Our results are the first to present an OP model using DKO mice with features of decreased atherosclerosis, increased obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our findings suggest the mechanistic role of reduced miR-155 expression in OP and present a new OP working model based on a single miRNA deficiency in diet-induced obese atherogenic mice. Furthermore, our results serve as a breakthrough in understanding the potential mechanism underlying OP and provide a new biomarker and novel therapeutic target for OP-related metabolic diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) deficiency leads to delayed development of joint damage and functional deficits in a murine model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sambamurthy, Nisha; Nguyen, Vu; Smalley, Ryan; Xiao, Rui; Hankenson, Kurt; Gan, Justin; Miller, Rachel E; Malfait, Anne-Marie; Dodge, George R; Scanzello, Carla R

    2017-08-02

    Elevated chemokine receptor Ccr7 is observed in knee osteoarthritis (OA) and associated with severity of symptoms. In this study, we confirmed that CCR7 protein expression is elevated in synovial tissue from OA patients by immunohistochemical staining. We then investigated whether Ccr7 deficiency impacted structural and functional joint degeneration utilizing a murine model of OA. OA-like disease was induced in male C57BL/6 and Ccr7-deficient (Ccr7(-/-) ) mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Functional deficits were measured by computer integrated monitoring of spontaneous activity every 4 weeks after DMM surgery up 16 weeks. Joint degeneration was evaluated at 6 and 19 weeks post-surgery by histopathology, and subchondral bone changes analyzed by microCT. Results showed reduction in locomotor activities in DMM-operated C57BL/6 mice by 8 weeks, while activity decreases in Ccr7(-/-) mice were delayed until 16 weeks. Histopathologic evaluation showed minimal protection from early cartilage degeneration (p = 0.06) and osteophytosis (p = 0.04) in Ccr7(-/-) mice 6 weeks post-DMM compared to C57BL/6 controls, but not at 19 weeks. However, subchondral bone mineral density (p = 0.03) and histologic sclerosis (p = 0.02) increased in response to surgery in C57BL/6 mice at 6 weeks, while Ccr7(-/-) mice were protected from these changes. Our results are the first to demonstrate a role for Ccr7 in early development of functional deficits and subchondral bone changes in the DMM model. Understanding the mechanism of Ccr7 receptor signaling in the initiation of joint pathology and disability will inform the development of innovative therapies to slow symptomatic OA development after injury. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Maternal Antibody-Mediated Disease Enhancement in Type I Interferon-Deficient Mice Leads to Lethal Disease Associated with Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jian Hang; Binte Aman, Siti Amanlina; Libau, Eshele Anak; Lee, Pei Xuan; St. John, Ashley L.; Alonso, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that most of the severe dengue cases occur upon a secondary heterologous infection. Furthermore, babies born to dengue immune mothers are at greater risk of developing severe disease upon primary infection with a heterologous or homologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype when maternal antibodies reach sub-neutralizing concentrations. These observations have been explained by the antibody mediated disease enhancement (ADE) phenomenon whereby heterologous antibodies or sub-neutralizing homologous antibodies bind to but fail to neutralize DENV particles, allowing Fc-receptor mediated entry of the virus-antibody complexes into host cells. This eventually results in enhanced viral replication and heightened inflammatory responses. In an attempt to replicate this ADE phenomenon in a mouse model, we previously reported that upon DENV2 infection 5-week old type I and II interferon (IFN) receptors-deficient mice (AG129) born to DENV1-immune mothers displayed enhancement of disease severity characterized by increased virus titers and extensive vascular leakage which eventually led to the animals’ death. However, as dengue occurs in immune competent individuals, we sought to reproduce this mouse model in a less immunocompromised background. Here, we report an ADE model that is mediated by maternal antibodies in type I IFN receptor-deficient A129 mice. We show that 5-week old A129 mice born to DENV1-immune mothers succumbed to a DENV2 infection within 4 days that was sub-lethal in mice born to naïve mothers. Clinical manifestations included extensive hepatocyte vacuolation, moderate vascular leakage, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Anti-TNFα therapy totally protected the mice and correlated with healthy hepatocytes. In contrast, blocking IL-6 did not impact the virus titers or disease outcome. This A129 mouse model of ADE may help dissecting the mechanisms involved in dengue pathogenesis and evaluate the efficacy of vaccine and

  11. Targeted Knockdown of GDCH in Rice Leads to a Photorespiratory-Deficient Phenotype Useful as a Building Block for C4 Rice.

    PubMed

    Lin, HsiangChun; Karki, Shanta; Coe, Robert A; Bagha, Shaheen; Khoshravesh, Roxana; Balahadia, C Paolo; Ver Sagun, Julius; Tapia, Ronald; Israel, W Krystler; Montecillo, Florencia; de Luna, Albert; Danila, Florence R; Lazaro, Andrea; Realubit, Czarina M; Acoba, Michelle G; Sage, Tammy L; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert T; Cousins, Asaph B; Hibberd, Julian M; Quick, W Paul; Covshoff, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    The glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) plays a critical role in the photorespiratory C2 cycle of C3 species by recovering carbon following the oxygenation reaction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Loss of GDC from mesophyll cells (MCs) is considered a key early step in the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. To assess the impact of preferentially reducing GDC in rice MCs, we decreased the abundance of OsGDCH (Os10g37180) using an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) driven by a promoter that preferentially drives expression in MCs. GDC H- and P-proteins were undetectable in leaves of gdch lines. Plants exhibited a photorespiratory-deficient phenotype with stunted growth, accelerated leaf senescence, reduced chlorophyll, soluble protein and sugars, and increased glycine accumulation in leaves. Gas exchange measurements indicated an impaired ability to regenerate ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate in photorespiratory conditions. In addition, MCs of gdch lines exhibited a significant reduction in chloroplast area and coverage of the cell wall when grown in air, traits that occur during the later stages of C4 evolution. The presence of these two traits important for C4 photosynthesis and the non-lethal, down-regulation of the photorespiratory C2 cycle positively contribute to efforts to produce a C4 rice prototype.

  12. Caveolin-1 deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to cell death and fibrosis in white adipose tissue: characterization of a lipodystrophic model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sally; Fernandez-Rojo, Manuel A; Stanley, Amanda C; Bastiani, Michele; Okano, Satomi; Nixon, Susan J; Thomas, Gethin; Stow, Jennifer L; Parton, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an important regulator of adipose tissue homeostasis. In the present study we examined the impact of CAV1 deficiency on the properties of mouse adipose tissue both in vivo and in explant cultures during conditions of metabolic stress. In CAV1(-/-) mice fasting caused loss of adipose tissue mass despite a lack of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation. In addition, fasting resulted in increased macrophage infiltration, enhanced deposition of collagen, and a reduction in the level of the lipid droplet protein perilipin A (PLIN1a). Explant cultures of CAV1(-/-) adipose tissue also showed a loss of PLIN1a during culture, enhanced secretion of IL-6, increased release of lactate dehydrogenase, and demonstrated increased susceptibility to cell death upon collagenase treatment. Attenuated PKA-mediated signaling to HSL, loss of PLIN1a and increased secretion of IL-6 were also observed in adipose tissue explants of CAV1(+/+) mice with diet-induced obesity. Together these results suggest that while alterations in adipocyte lipid droplet biology support adipose tissue metabolism in the absence of PKA-mediated pro-lipolytic signaling in CAV1(-/-) mice, the tissue is intrinsically unstable resulting in increased susceptibility to cell death, which we suggest underlies the development of fibrosis and inflammation during periods of metabolic stress.

  13. Concurrent overactivation of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase and the GABA shunt in the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato leads to resistance against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Hamed Soren; Curvers, Katrien; De Vleesschauwer, David; Delaere, Ilse; Aziz, Aziz; Höfte, Monica

    2013-07-01

    Deficiency of abscisic acid (ABA) in the sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) culminates in increased resistance to Botrytis cinerea through a rapid epidermal hypersensitive response (HR) and associated phenylpropanoid pathway-derived cell wall fortifications. This study focused on understanding the role of primary carbon : nitrogen (C : N) metabolism in the resistance response of sitiens to B. cinerea. How alterations in C : N metabolism are linked with the HR-mediated epidermal arrest of the pathogen has been also investigated. Temporal alterations in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle and phenylpropanoid pathway were transcriptionally, enzymatically and metabolically monitored in both wild-type and sitiens plants. Virus-induced gene silencing, microscopic analyses and pharmacological assays were used to further confirm the data. Our results on the sitiens-B. cinerea interaction favor a model in which cell viability in the cells surrounding the invaded tissue is maintained by a constant replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle through overactivation of the GS/GOGAT cycle and the GABA shunt, resulting in resistance through both tightly controlling the defense-associated HR and slowing down the pathogen-induced senescence. Collectively, this study shows that maintaining cell viability via alterations in host C : N metabolism plays a vital role in the resistance response against necrotrophic pathogens. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Concomitant alpha7 and beta2 nicotinic AChR subunit deficiency leads to impaired energy homeostasis and increased physical activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Somm, Emmanuel; Guérardel, Audrey; Maouche, Kamel; Toulotte, Audrey; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Maskos, Uwe; Hüppi, Petra S; Schwitzgebel, Valérie M

    2014-05-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated cation channels well characterized in neuronal signal transmission. Moreover, recent studies have revealed nAChR expression in nonneuronal cell types throughout the body, including tissues involved in metabolism. In the present study, we screen gene expression of nAChR subunits in pancreatic islets and adipose tissues. Mice pancreatic islets present predominant expression of α7 and β2 nAChR subunits but at a lower level than in central structures. Characterization of glucose and energy homeostasis in α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice revealed no major defect in insulin secretion and sensitivity but decreased glycemia apparently unrelated to gluconeogenesis or glycogenolysis. α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice presented an increase in lean and bone body mass and a decrease in fat storage with normal body weight. These observations were associated with elevated spontaneous physical activity in α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice, mainly due to elevation in fine vertical (rearing) activity while their horizontal (ambulatory) activity remained unchanged. In contrast to α7nAChR(-/-) mice presenting glucose intolerance and insulin resistance associated to excessive inflammation of adipose tissue, the present metabolic phenotyping of α7β2nAChR(-/-) mice revealed a metabolic improvement possibly linked to the increase in spontaneous physical activity related to central β2nAChR deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  16. LAMP-2 deficiency leads to hippocampal dysfunction but normal clearance of neuronal substrates of chaperone-mediated autophagy in a mouse model for Danon disease.

    PubMed

    Rothaug, Michelle; Stroobants, Stijn; Schweizer, Michaela; Peters, Judith; Zunke, Friederike; Allerding, Mirka; D'Hooge, Rudi; Saftig, Paul; Blanz, Judith

    2015-01-31

    The Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein type-2 (LAMP-2) is an abundant lysosomal membrane protein with an important role in immunity, macroautophagy (MA) and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Mutations within the Lamp2 gene cause Danon disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder characterized by (cardio)myopathy and intellectual dysfunction. The pathological hallmark of this disease is an accumulation of glycogen and autophagic vacuoles in cardiac and skeletal muscle that, along with the myopathy, is also present in LAMP-2-deficient mice. Intellectual dysfunction observed in the human disease suggests a pivotal role of LAMP-2 within brain. LAMP-2A, one specific LAMP-2 isoform, was proposed to be important for the lysosomal degradation of selective proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's and Parkinson's disease. To elucidate the neuronal function of LAMP-2 we analyzed knockout mice for neuropathological changes, MA and steady-state levels of CMA substrates. The absence of LAMP-2 in murine brain led to inflammation and abnormal behavior, including motor deficits and impaired learning. The latter abnormality points to hippocampal dysfunction caused by altered lysosomal activity, distinct accumulation of p62-positive aggregates, autophagic vacuoles and lipid storage within hippocampal neurons and their presynaptic terminals. The absence of LAMP-2 did not apparently affect MA or steady-state levels of selected CMA substrates in brain or neuroblastoma cells under physiological and prolonged starvation conditions. Our data contribute to the understanding of intellectual dysfunction observed in Danon disease patients and highlight the role of LAMP-2 within the central nervous system, particularly the hippocampus.

  17. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity.

  18. Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) deficiency in brain leads to altered locomotor activity and decreased anxiety-like behaviours in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Daglas, Maria; Medcalf, Robert L; Mantamadiotis, Theo; Georgy, Smitha R; Darido, Charbel; Jane, Stephen M; Ting, Stephen B

    2016-12-01

    The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here we show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviours. Using both Grhl3-knockout mice (Grhl3(-/-) ), and brain-specific conditional deletion of Grhl3 in adult mice (Nestin-Cre/Grhl3(flox/flox) ), we performed histological expression analyses and behavioural tests to assess long-term effects of Grhl3 loss on motor co-ordination, spatial memory, anxiety and stress. We found that complete deletion of Grhl3 did not lead to noticeable structural or cell-intrinsic defects in the embryonic brain, however aged Grhl3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice showed enlarged lateral ventricles and displayed marked changes in motor function and behaviours suggestive of decreased fear and anxiety. We conclude that loss of Grhl3 in the brain leads to significant alterations in locomotor activity and decreased self-inhibition, and as such, these mice may serve as a novel model of human conditions of impulsive behaviour or hyperactivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Common and unique genetic interactions of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases PARP1 and PARP2 with DNA double-strand break repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajib; Roy, Sanchita; Kamyab, Johan; Dantzer, Francoise; Franco, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian cells, chromatin poly(ADP-ribos)ylation (PARylation) at sites of DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) is mediated by two highly related enzymes, PARP1 and PARP2. However, enzyme-specific genetic interactions with other DSB repair factors remain largely undefined. In this context, it was previously shown that mice lacking PARP1 and H2AX, a histone variant that promotes DSB repair throughout the cell cycle, or the core nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factor Ku80 are not viable, while mice lacking PARP1 and the noncore NHEJ factor DNA-PKcs are severely growth retarded and markedly lymphoma-prone. Here, we have examined the requirement for PARP2 in these backgrounds. We find that, like PARP1, PARP2 is essential for viability in mice lacking H2AX. Moreover, treatment of H2AX-deficient primary fibroblasts or B lymphocytes with PARP inhibitors leads to activation of the G2/M checkpoint and accumulation of chromatid-type breaks in a lineage- and gene-dose dependent manner. In marked contrast to PARP1, loss of PARP2 does not result in additional phenotypes in growth, development or tumorigenesis in mice lacking either Ku80 or DNA-PKcs. Altogether these findings highlight specific nonoverlapping functions of PARP1 and PARP2 at H2AX-deficient chromatin during replicative phases of the cell cycle and uncover a unique requirement for PARP1 in NHEJ-deficient cells.

  20. Levels of iron, silver, zinc, and lead in oranges and avocados from two gold-rich towns compared with levels in an adjacent gold-deficient town

    SciTech Connect

    Golow, A.A.; Laryea, J.N. )

    1994-09-01

    Fruits such as oranges and avocados are important sources of drinks and food in the Ghanaian Society. If such fruits contain various types of metals they may augument the types and amounts of them in the human body. The metals in fruits may depend on what is in the soils from which they are grown. If the soils contain toxic metals like lead, mercury and cadmium then the consumers may be poisoned as happened in the [open quotes]Ouchi - ouchi[close quotes], disease in Japan and similar episodes. In the area under study, the Geological Survey indicates the presence of 2.5 ppm of lead, 10 - 20 ppm of copper and less than 15 ppm of nickel. Silver, not reported in commercial amounts, is a byproduct of gold productions at Obuasi. Since copper and nickel are presented in the area traces of silver will certainly occur. In the same manner zinc is usually associated with lead as sulphide of zinc blend trace amounts of it are likely to occur in the area. Of the four metals measured, iron and zinc essential for citrus. The extractable iron and zinc in the area of study were 90 and 1.8 mg/kg, levels on the low side for the healthy growth of crops. The investigation reported here is the comparison of the levels of some metals in oranges and avocados from farms in Obuasi and Konongo with those from farms in Kumasi City. This is a part of a project aimed at finding out differences in the metal contents of various food crops grown in various regions of the country. Konongo and Obuasi have soils which are rich in gold but Kumasi city, which is not too distant from these towns, does not have gold in its soil. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Disaccharidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bayless, T M; Christopher, N L

    1969-02-01

    This review of the literature and current knowledge concerning a nutritional disorder of disaccharidase deficiency discusses the following topics: 1) a description of disorders of disaccharide digestion; 2) some historical perspective on the laboratory and bedside advances in the past 10 years that have helped define a group of these digestive disorders; 3) a classification of conditions causing disaccharide intolerance; and 4) a discussion of some of the specific clinical syndromes emphasizing nutritional consequences of these syndromes. The syndromes described include congenital lactase deficiency, acquired lactase deficiency in teenagers and adults, acquired generalized disaccharidase deficiency secondary to diffuse mucosal damage, acquired lactose intolerance secondary to alterations in the intestinal transit, sucrase-isomaltase deficiencies, and other disease associations connected with lactase deficiency such as colitis.

  2. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients.

  3. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  4. Pituitary deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes insipidus, arising from damage to or congenital abnormalities of the neurohypophysis, is the most common pituitary deficiency in animals. Hypopituitarism and isolated growth hormone or thyrotropin deficiency may result in growth abnormalities in puppies and kittens. In addition, treatment of associated hormone deficiencies, such as hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism, in patients with panhypopituitarism is vital to restore adequate growth in dwarfed animals. Secondary hypoadrenocorticism is an uncommon clinical entity; however differentiation of primary versus secondary adrenal insufficiency is of utmost importance in determining optimal therapy. This article will focus on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of hormone deficiencies of the pituitary gland and neurohypophysis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  6. DNA-PK inhibition causes a low level of H2AX phosphorylation and homologous recombination repair in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Urushihara, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Junya; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Komatsu, Kenshi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of DNA-PK inhibition on DSB repair using fish cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A radiation sensitive mutant RIC1 strain showed a low level of DNA-PK activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads defects in HR repair and DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads a slight increase in the number of 53BP1 foci after DSBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads an alternative NHEJ that depends on 53BP1. -- Abstract: Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are known as DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. It has been reported that DNA-PK, a member of PI3 kinase family, promotes NHEJ and aberrant DNA-PK causes NHEJ deficiency. However, in this study, we demonstrate that a wild-type cell line treated with DNA-PK inhibitor and a mutant cell line with dysfunctional DNA-PK showed decreased HR efficiency in fish cells (Medaka, Oryzias latipes). Previously, we reported that the radiation-sensitive mutant RIC1 strain has a defect in the Histone H2AX phosphorylation after {gamma}-irradiation. Here, we showed that a DNA-PK inhibitor, NU7026, treatment resulted in significant reduction in the number of {gamma}H2AX foci after {gamma}-irradiation in wild-type cells, but had no significant effect in RIC1 cells. In addition, RIC1 cells showed significantly lower levels of DNA-PK kinase activity compared with wild-type cells. We investigated NHEJ and HR efficiency after induction of DSBs. Wild-type cells treated with NU7026 and RIC1 cells showed decreased HR efficiency. These results indicated that aberrant DNA-PK causes the reduction in the number of {gamma}H2AX foci and HR efficiency in RIC1 cells. We performed phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (Thr2609) and 53BP1 focus assay after {gamma}-irradiation. RIC1 cells showed significant reduction in the number of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs foci and no deference in the

  7. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bollée, Guillaume; Harambat, Jérôme; Bensman, Albert; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Daudon, Michel; Ceballos-Picot, Irène

    2012-09-01

    Complete adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that leads to the formation and hyperexcretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) into urine. The low solubility of DHA results in precipitation of this compound and the formation of urinary crystals and stones. The disease can present as recurrent urolithiasis or nephropathy secondary to crystal precipitation into renal parenchyma (DHA nephropathy). The diagnostic tools available-including stone analysis, crystalluria, and APRT activity measurement-make the diagnosis easy to confirm when APRT deficiency is suspected. However, the disease can present at any age, and the variability of symptoms can present a diagnostic challenge to many physicians. The early recognition and treatment of APRT deficiency are of crucial importance for preventing irreversible loss of renal function, which still occurs in a non-negligible proportion of cases. This review summarizes the genetic and metabolic mechanisms underlying stone formation and renal disease, along with the diagnosis and management of APRT deficiency.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: familial glucocorticoid deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1 lead to defective trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. J ... short stature, and natural killer cell deficiency in humans. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar;122(3):814- ...

  9. Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency leads to long-term immunological recovery and metabolic correction.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, H Bobby; Cooray, Samantha; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Parsley, Kathryn L; Zhang, Fang; Adams, Stuart; Bjorkegren, Emma; Bayford, Jinhua; Brown, Lucinda; Davies, E Graham; Veys, Paul; Fairbanks, Lynette; Bordon, Victoria; Petropoulou, Theoni; Petropolou, Theoni; Kinnon, Christine; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-08-24

    Genetic defects in the purine salvage enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with profound depletion of T, B, and natural killer cell lineages. Human leukocyte antigen-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a successful treatment option. However, individuals who lack a matched donor must receive mismatched transplants, which are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for ADA-SCID is available, but the associated suboptimal correction of immunological defects leaves patients susceptible to infection. Here, six children were treated with autologous CD34-positive hematopoietic bone marrow stem and progenitor cells transduced with a conventional gammaretroviral vector encoding the human ADA gene. All patients stopped ERT and received mild chemotherapy before infusion of gene-modified cells. All patients survived, with a median follow-up of 43 months (range, 24 to 84 months). Four of the six patients recovered immune function as a result of engraftment of gene-corrected cells. In two patients, treatment failed because of disease-specific and technical reasons: Both restarted ERT and remain well. Of the four reconstituted patients, three remained off enzyme replacement. Moreover, three of these four patients discontinued immunoglobulin replacement, and all showed effective metabolic detoxification. All patients remained free of infection, and two cleared problematic persistent cytomegalovirus infection. There were no adverse leukemic side effects. Thus, gene therapy for ADA-SCID is safe, with effective immunological and metabolic correction, and may offer a viable alternative to conventional unrelated donor HSCT.

  10. Deficient Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Leads to Severe Chronic DSS-Induced Colitis in Ncf1/p47phox-Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Sousa, Tiago; Ladeirinha, Ana Filipa; Santiago, Ana Raquel; Carvalheiro, Helena; Raposo, Bruno; Alarcão, Ana; Cabrita, António; Holmdahl, Rikard; Carvalho, Lina; Souto-Carneiro, M. Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Background Colitis is a common clinical complication in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired oxidative burst. Existing experimental data from NADPH-oxidase knockout mice propose contradictory roles for the involvement of reactive oxygen species in colitis chronicity and severity. Since genetically controlled mice with a point-mutation in the Ncf1 gene are susceptible to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, we tested whether they presented increased predisposition to develop chronic colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in Ncf1-mutant and wild-type mice by a 1st 7-days cycle of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), intercalated by a 7-days resting period followed by a 2nd 7-days DSS-cycle. Cytokines were quantified locally in the colon inflammatory infiltrates and in the serum. Leukocyte infiltration and morphological alterations of the colon mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Clinical scores demonstrated a more severe colitis in Ncf1-mutant mice than controls, with no recovery during the resting period and a severe chronic colitis after the 2nd cycle, confirmed by histopathology and presence of infiltrating neutrophils, macrophages, plasmocytes and lymphocytes in the colon. Severe colitis was mediated by increased local expression of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A) and phosphorylation of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Serological cytokine titers of those inflammatory cytokines were more elevated in Ncf1-mutant than control mice, and were accompanied by systemic changes in functional subsets of monocytes, CD4+T and B cells. Conclusion This suggests that an ineffective oxidative burst leads to severe chronic colitis through local accumulation of peroxynitrites, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes and systemic immune deregulation similar to CGD. PMID:24873968

  11. Deficient production of reactive oxygen species leads to severe chronic DSS-induced colitis in Ncf1/p47phox-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Sousa, Tiago; Ladeirinha, Ana Filipa; Santiago, Ana Raquel; Carvalheiro, Helena; Raposo, Bruno; Alarcão, Ana; Cabrita, António; Holmdahl, Rikard; Carvalho, Lina; Souto-Carneiro, M Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Colitis is a common clinical complication in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired oxidative burst. Existing experimental data from NADPH-oxidase knockout mice propose contradictory roles for the involvement of reactive oxygen species in colitis chronicity and severity. Since genetically controlled mice with a point-mutation in the Ncf1 gene are susceptible to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, we tested whether they presented increased predisposition to develop chronic colitis. Colitis was induced in Ncf1-mutant and wild-type mice by a 1st 7-days cycle of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), intercalated by a 7-days resting period followed by a 2nd 7-days DSS-cycle. Cytokines were quantified locally in the colon inflammatory infiltrates and in the serum. Leukocyte infiltration and morphological alterations of the colon mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Clinical scores demonstrated a more severe colitis in Ncf1-mutant mice than controls, with no recovery during the resting period and a severe chronic colitis after the 2nd cycle, confirmed by histopathology and presence of infiltrating neutrophils, macrophages, plasmocytes and lymphocytes in the colon. Severe colitis was mediated by increased local expression of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A) and phosphorylation of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Serological cytokine titers of those inflammatory cytokines were more elevated in Ncf1-mutant than control mice, and were accompanied by systemic changes in functional subsets of monocytes, CD4+ T and B cells. This suggests that an ineffective oxidative burst leads to severe chronic colitis through local accumulation of peroxynitrites, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes and systemic immune deregulation similar to CGD.

  12. Effects of targeted phosphorylation site mutations in the DNA-PKcs phosphorylation domain on low and high LET radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Ian M; Bell, Justin J; Maeda, Junko; Genet, Matthew D; Romero, Ashley; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamuta, Hisashi; Kamada, Tadashi; Chen, David J; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of targeted mutations in the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and phosphorylation domains on the survival of cells in response to different qualities of ionizing radiation. Mutated Chinese hamster ovary V3 cells were exposed to 500 MeV/nucleon initial energy and 200 keV/μm monoenergetic Fe ions; 290 MeV/nucleon initial energy and average 50 keV/μm spread-out Bragg peak C ions; 70 MeV/nucleon initial energy and 1 keV/μm monoenergetic protons; and 0.663 MeV initial energy and 0.3 keV/μm Cs(137) γ radiation. The results demonstrated that sensitivity to high linear energy transfer radiation is increased when both S2056 and T2609 clusters each contain a point mutation or multiple mutations are present in either cluster, whereas the phosphoinositide 3 kinase cluster only requires a single mutation to induce the sensitized phenotype of V3 cells. Additionally, the present study demonstrated that sensitivity to DNA cross-linking damage by cisplatin only requires a single mutation in one of the three clusters and that additional point mutations do not increase cell sensitivity.

  13. Zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Melanie J; Fazel, Nasim

    2009-03-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in numerous biochemical pathways. Zinc deficiency affects many organ systems, including the integumentary, gastrointestinal, central nervous system, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems. This article aims to discuss zinc metabolism and highlights a few of the diseases associated with zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency results in dysfunction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity and increases the susceptibility to infection. Supplementation of zinc has been shown to reduce the incidence of infection as well as cellular damage from increased oxidative stress. Zinc deficiency is also associated with acute and chronic liver disease. Zinc supplementation protects against toxin-induced liver damage and is used as a therapy for hepatic encephalopathy in patients refractory to standard treatment. Zinc deficiency has also been implicated in diarrheal disease, and supplementation has been effective in both prophylaxis and treatment of acute diarrhea. This article is not meant to review all of the disease states associated with zinc deficiency. Rather, it is an introduction to the influence of the many roles of zinc in the body, with an extensive discussion of the influence of zinc deficiency in selected diseases. Zinc supplementation may be beneficial as an adjunct to treatment of many disease states.

  14. SIRT6 stabilizes DNA-dependent Protein Kinase at chromatin for DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Ronald A.; Michishita, Eriko; Hong, Tao; Berber, Elisabeth; Boxer, Lisa D.; Kusumoto, Rika; Guan, Shenheng; Shi, Xiaobing; Gozani, Or; Burlingame, Alma L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Chua, Katrin F.

    2009-01-01

    The Sir2 chromatin regulatory factor links maintenance of genomic stability to life span extension in yeast. The mammalian Sir2 family member SIRT6 has been proposed to have analogous functions, because SIRT6-deficiency leads to shortened life span and an aging-like degenerative phenotype in mice, and SIRT6 knockout cells exhibit genomic instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not fully understood. Here, we show that SIRT6 forms a macromolecular complex with the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) and promotes DNA DSB repair. In response to DSBs, SIRT6 associates dynamically with chromatin and is necessary for an acute decrease in global cellular acetylation levels on histone H3 Lysine 9. Moreover, SIRT6 is required for mobilization of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to chromatin in response to DNA damage and stabilizes DNA-PKcs at chromatin adjacent to an induced site-specific DSB. Abrogation of these SIRT6 activities leads to impaired resolution of DSBs. Together, these findings elucidate a mechanism whereby regulation of dynamic interaction of a DNA repair factor with chromatin impacts on the efficiency of repair, and establish a link between chromatin regulation, DNA repair, and a mammalian Sir2 factor. PMID:20157594

  15. Does Vitamin D Deficiency Lead to Hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shivika

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is one of the most chronic and deadliest disorders in the world. There are many risk factors responsible for HTN which include age, race, using tobacco, high salt intake, etc. One of the risk factors we would like to highlight is low vitamin D levels. While there is strong evidence that Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining bone and muscle health, there has been recent debate regarding its role in hypertension. However, there are many studies that have shown an indirect relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level and blood pressure. However, we suggest that more studies, especially randomised trials, should be conducted. PMID:28357170

  16. Glcci1 Deficiency Leads to Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Nishibori, Yukino; Katayama, Kan; Parikka, Mataleena; Oddsson, Ásmundur; Nukui, Masatoshi; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika; He, Bing; Ebarasi, Lwaki; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Norlin, Jenny; Uhlén, Mathias; Patrakka, Jaakko; Betsholtz, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Unbiased transcriptome profiling and functional genomics approaches identified glucocorticoid-induced transcript 1 (GLCCI1) as being a transcript highly specific for the glomerulus, but its role in glomerular development and disease is unknown. Here, we report that mouse glomeruli express far greater amounts of Glcci1 protein compared with the rest of the kidney. RT-PCR and Western blotting demonstrated that mouse glomerular Glcci1 is approximately 60 kD and localizes to the cytoplasm of podocytes in mature glomeruli. In the fetal kidney, intense Glcci1 expression occurs at the capillary-loop stage of glomerular development. Using gene knockdown in zebrafish with morpholinos, morphants lacking Glcci1 function had collapsed glomeruli with foot-process effacement. Permeability studies of the glomerular filtration barrier in these zebrafish morphants demonstrated a disruption of the selective glomerular permeability filter. Taken together, these data suggest that Glcci1 promotes the normal development and maintenance of podocyte structure and function. PMID:21949092

  17. Thiamine Deficiency and Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shahid; Freeman, C.; Barker, Narviar C.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Maitra, Sarbani; Olagbemiro, Yetunde; Richie, William; Bailey, Rahn K.

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives. Deficiency of this vitamin leads to a very serious clinical condition known as delirium. Studies performed in the United States and other parts of the world have established the link between thiamine deficiency and delirium. This literature review examines the physiology, pathophysiology, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations (e.g., Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, structural and functional brain injuries) and diagnosis of thiamine deficiency and delirium. Current treatment practices are also discussed that may improve patient outcome, which ultimately may result in a reduction in healthcare costs. PMID:23696956

  18. Iodine deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace mineral, required for the production of thyroid hormone. Iodine deficiency may result in goiter, hypothyroidism, miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, infant and neonatal mortality, and impaired growth. Adequate thyroid hormone is critically important for normal growth and neurodevelopment in fetal life, infancy and childhood. The population iodine status is most commonly assessed using median urinary iodine concentration values, but goiter prevalence (determined by palpation or by ultrasound), serum thyroglobulin levels, and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone values can also be used. Universal salt iodization programs have been the mainstay of public health efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency worldwide. However, in some regions targeted fortification of foods such as bread has been used to combat iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation may be required in areas where dietary fortification is not feasible or where it is not sufficient for vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. Although international public health efforts over the past several decades have been highly effective, nearly one third of children worldwide remain at risk for iodine deficiency, and iodine deficiency is considered the leading preventable cause of preventable intellectual deficits.

  19. Congenital prothrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Stefano; De Cristofaro, Raimondo

    2009-06-01

    Prothrombin deficiency is among the rarest inherited coagulation disorders, with a prevalence of approximately 1:2,000,000. Two main phenotypes can be distinguished: (1) hypoprothrombinemia (type I deficiency), characterized by concomitantly low levels of activity and antigen; and (2) dysprothrombinemia (type II deficiency), characterized by the normal or near-normal synthesis of a dysfunctional protein. In some cases, hypoprothrombinemia associated with dysprothrombinemia was also described in compound heterozygous defects. No living patient with undetectable plasma prothrombin has been reported to date. Prothrombin is encoded by a gene of approximately 21 kb located on chromosome 11 and containing 14 exons. Forty different mutations have been identified and characterized in prothrombin deficiency. Many of them surround the catalytic site, whereas another "hot spot" is localized in the recognition domain called anion binding exosite I, also called fibrinogen recognition site. Recently, mutations were identified also in the Na (+)-binding loop and in the light A-chain of thrombin. Most hypoprothrombinemia-associated mutations are missense, but there are also nonsense mutations leading to stop codons and one single nucleotide deletion. Finally, the main aspects of clinical manifestations and therapy of congenital prothrombin deficiency are presented and discussed.

  20. Cobalamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) consists of a corrinoid structure with cobalt in the centre of the molecule. Neither humans nor animals are able to synthesize this vitamin. Foods of animal source are the only natural source of cobalamin in human diet. There are only two enzymatic reactions in mammalian cells that require cobalamin as cofactor. Methylcobolamin is a cofactor for methionine synthase. The enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA-mutase requires adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor. Therefore, serum concentrations of homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) will increase in cobalamin deficiency. The cobalamin absorption from diet is a complex process that involves different proteins: haptocorrin, intrinsic factor and transcobalamin (TC). Cobalamin that is bound to TC is called holotranscobalamin (holoTC) which is the metabolically active vitamin B12 fraction. HoloTC consists 6 and 20% of total cobalamin whereas 80% of total serum cobalamin is bound to another binding protein, haptocorrin. Cobalamin deficiency is common worldwide. Cobalamin malabsorption is common in elderly subjects which might explain low vitamin status. Subjects who ingest low amount of cobalamin like vegetarians develop vitamin deficiency. No single parameter can be used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. Total serum cobalamin is neither sensitive nor it is specific for cobalamin deficiency. This might explain why many deficient subjects would be overlooked by utilizing total cobalamin as status marker. Concentration of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) in serum is an earlier marker that becomes decreased before total serum cobalamin. Concentrations of MMA and tHcy increase in blood of cobalamin deficient subjects. Despite limitations of these markers in patients with renal dysfunction, concentrations of MMA and tHcy are useful functional markers of cobalamin status. The combined use of holoTC and MMA assays may better indicate cobalamin status than either of them. Because Cbl deficiency is a risk factor

  1. TRIP13 promotes error-prone nonhomologous end joining and induces chemoresistance in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rajat; Russo, Nickole; Liu, Min; Basrur, Venkatesha; Bellile, Emily; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Scanlon, Christina S; van Tubergen, Elizabeth; Inglehart, Ronald C; Metwally, Tarek; Mani, Ram-Shankar; Yocum, Anastasia; Nyati, Mukesh K; Castilho, Rogerio M; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; D'Silva, Nisha J

    2014-07-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is a common, aggressive, treatment-resistant cancer with a high recurrence rate and mortality, but the mechanism of treatment resistance remains unclear. Here we describe a mechanism where the AAA-ATPase TRIP13 promotes treatment resistance. Overexpression of TRIP13 in non-malignant cells results in malignant transformation. High expression of TRIP13 in SCCHN leads to aggressive, treatment-resistant tumors and enhanced repair of DNA damage. Using mass spectrometry, we identify DNA-PKcs complex proteins that mediate nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), as TRIP13-binding partners. Using repair-deficient reporter systems, we show that TRIP13 promotes NHEJ, even when homologous recombination is intact. Importantly, overexpression of TRIP13 sensitizes SCCHN to an inhibitor of DNA-PKcs. Thus, this study defines a new mechanism of treatment resistance in SCCHN and underscores the importance of targeting NHEJ to overcome treatment failure in SCCHN and potentially in other cancers that overexpress TRIP13.

  2. TRIP13 promotes error-prone nonhomologous end joining and induces chemoresistance in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rajat; Russo, Nickole; Liu, Min; Basrur, Venkatesha; Bellile, Emily; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Scanlon, Christina S.; van Tubergen, Elizabeth; Inglehart, Ronald C.; Metwally, Tarek; Mani, Ram-Shankar; Yocum, Anastasia; Nyati, Mukesh K.; Castilho, Rogerio M.; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (SCCHN) is a common, aggressive, treatment-resistant cancer with a high recurrence rate and mortality, but the mechanism of treatment-resistance remains unclear. Here we describe a mechanism where the AAA-ATPase TRIP13 promotes treatment-resistance. Overexpression of TRIP13 in non-malignant cells results in malignant transformation. High expression of TRIP13 in SCCHN leads to aggressive, treatment-resistant tumors and enhanced repair of DNA damage. Using mass spectrometry, we identify DNA-PKcs complex proteins that mediate non homologous end joining (NHEJ), as TRIP13 binding partners. Using repair-deficient reporter systems, we show that TRIP13 promotes NHEJ, even when homologous recombination is intact. Importantly, overexpression of TRIP13 sensitizes SCCHN to an inhibitor of DNA-PKcs. Thus, this study defines a new mechanism of treatment resistance in SCCHN and underscores the importance of targeting NHEJ to overcome treatment failure in SCCHN and potentially in other cancers that overexpress TRIP13. PMID:25078033

  3. Interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme-like protease cleaves DNA- dependent protein kinase in cytotoxic T cell killing

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells (CTL) represent the major defense mechanism against the spread of virus infection. It is believed that the pore-forming protein, perforin, facilitates the entry of a series of serine proteases (particularly granzyme B) into the target cell which ultimately leads to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. We demonstrate here that during CTL-mediated cytolysis the catalytic subunit of DNA- dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), an enzyme implicated in the repair of double strand breaks in DNA, is specifically cleaved by an interleukin (IL)-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE)-like protease. A serine protease inhibitor, 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin (DCl), which is known to block granzyme B activity, inhibited CTL-induced apoptosis and prevented the degradation of DNA-PKcs in cells but failed to prevent the degradation of purified DNA-PKcs by CTL extracts. However, Tyr-Val- Ala-Asp-CH2Cl (YVAD-CMK) and other cysteine protease inhibitors prevented the degradation of purified DNA-PKcs by CTL extracts. Furthermore, incubation of DNA-PKcs with granzyme B did not produce the same cleavage pattern observed in cells undergoing apoptosis and when this substrate was incubated with either CTL extracts or the ICE-like protease, CPP32. Sequence analysis revealed that the cleavage site in DNA-PKcs during CTL killing was the same as that when this substrate was exposed to CPP32. This study demonstrates for the first time that the cleavage of DNA-PKcs in this intact cell system is exclusively due to an ICE-like protease. PMID:8760815

  4. [Thyrotropic deficiency].

    PubMed

    Chanson, P

    1998-11-15

    Central hypothyroidism (thyrotropic deficiency) is due to a defect in TSH secretion by thyrotrophs (or alternatively to an altered bioactivity of TSH). Central hypothyroidism is rare and is often associated with other pituitary deficiencies as it is generally encountered in case of hypothalamo-pituitary tumoral process. Clinical symptoms are milder than those of primary thyroid failure. Diagnosis is based on free T4 measurement whose level is decreased while TSH concentration is normal or minimally increased, reflecting an alteration in the bioactivity of TSH. Replacement therapy is monitored by T4 level measurement: the objective is to obtain normal T4 levels. TSH concentration must not be taken into account for the adjustment of the thyroxine doses.

  5. Citrin deficiency and current treatment concepts.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Tushima, Anmi; Mutoh, Kozo; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the historical aspects of citrin and citrin deficiency, characteristic food preference and food aversion of citrin-deficient subjects, and carbohydrate toxicity in relation to ureogenesis and issues of the conventional treatment procedures for hyperammonemia in citrin deficiency, leading to current treatment concepts for citrin deficiency. We also emphasize the importance of a citrin deficiency mouse model in elucidating the pathophysiology and developing novel therapeutics based on the pathophysiology, such as sodium pyruvate. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  7. Wortmannin potentiates the combined effect of etoposide and cisplatin in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Pastwa, Elzbieta; Poplawski, Tomasz; Lewandowska, Urszula; Somiari, Stella B; Blasiak, Janusz; Somiari, Richard I

    2014-08-01

    The combination of etoposide and cisplatin represents a common modality for treating of glioma patients. These drugs directly and indirectly produce the most lethal DNA double-stand breaks (DSB), which are mainly repaired by non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ). Drugs that can specifically inhibit the kinase activity of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), the major component of NHEJ, are of special interest in cancer research. These small molecule inhibitors can effectively enhance the efficacy of current cancer treatments that generate DNA damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of DNA-PKcs inhibitor, wortmannin, on the cytotoxic mechanism of etoposide and cisplatin in MO59K and MO59J human glioblastoma cell lines. These cell lines are proficient and deficient in DNA-PKcs, respectively. Wortmannin synergistically increased the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and etoposide, when combined, in NHEJ-proficient MO59K cells. Surprisingly, wortmannin sensitizing effect was also observed in DNA-PKcs-deficient MO59J cells. These data suggest that wortmannin sensitization to etoposide and cisplatin in human glioma cells is mediated by inhibition of not only DNA-PKcs activity but other enzymes from PI3-K family, e.g. ATM and ATR. A concentration-dependent increase in etoposide and cisplatin-induced DSB levels was potentiated by inhibitor in both cell lines. Moreover, drug-induced accumulation in the G2/M checkpoint and S-phase was increased by wortmannin. Wortmannin significantly inhibited drug-induced DSB repair in MO59 cells and this effect was more pronounced in MO59J cells. We conclude that the mechanism of wortmannin potentiation of etoposide and cisplatin cytotoxicity involves DSBs induction, DSBs repair inhibition, G2/M checkpoint arrest and inhibition of not only DNA-PKcs activity.

  8. [Selenium deficiency and infertility. Andrologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Szöllosi, János; Závaczki, Zoltán; Pál, Attila

    2008-09-14

    Absolute selenium deficiency in human is very rare, although suboptimal daily selenium intake may lead to an unrecognized relative deficiency. Among the many consequences ascribed to decreased selenium level, the effect on male fertility is summarised by the authors. Implications from biochemical, animal experimental and human research are discussed.

  9. Reaction of Aldehydes/Ketones with Electron-Deficient 1,3,5-Triazines Leading to Functionalized Pyrimidines as Diels-Alder/Retro-Diels-Alder Reaction Products: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Dang, Qun; Cai, Pei-Jun; Gao, Yang; Yu, Zhi-Xiang; Bai, Xu

    2017-03-03

    Catalytic inverse electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reactions of heterocyclic aza-dienes are rarely reported since highly reactive and electron-rich dienophiles are often found not compatible with strong acids such as Lewis acids. Herein, we disclose that TFA-catalyzed reactions of electron-deficient 1,3,5-triazines and electron-deficient aldehydes/ketones can take place. These reactions led to highly functionalized pyrimidines as products in fair to good yields. The reaction mechanism was carefully studied by the combination of experimental and computational studies. The reactions involve a cascade of stepwise inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder (ihDA) reactions, followed by retro-Diels-Alder (rDA) reactions and elimination of water. An acid was required for both ihDA and rDA reactions. This mechanism was further verified by comparing the relative reactivity of aldehydes/ketones and their corresponding vinyl ethers in the current reaction system.

  10. SCID Dogs: Similar Transplant Potential but Distinct Intra-Uterine Growth Defects and Premature Replicative Senescence Compared with SCID Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Katheryn; Jutkowitz, Ari; Allen, Lisa; Glover, Jillian; Convery, Erin; Massa, Alisha; Mullaney, Tom; Stanley, Bryden; Rosenstein, Diana; Bailey, Susan M.; Johnson, Cheri; Georges, George

    2014-01-01

    We have previously described DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) mutations in horses and dogs that result in deficits in V(D)J recombination, DNA repair, and SCID. In this paper, we document substantial developmental growth defects in DNA-PKcs-deficient dogs that are not apparent in SCID mice. Fibroblast cell strains derived from either fetal or adult SCID dogs proliferate poorly in culture and undergo premature replicative senescence, somewhat reminiscent of cells derived from Ku-deficient mice. A limited number of animals have been immune reconstituted (by bone marrow transplantation) so that they can be maintained in a normal environment for long periods. Several of these animals have developed conditions associated with premature ageing at 2–3 years of age, roughly 20% of their expected lifespan. These conditions include intestinal malabsorption and primary neural cell neoplasia. These results suggest that DNA-PKcs deficiency is not tolerated equally in all species, perhaps providing insight into why DNA-PKcs deficiency has not been observed in humans. Finally, this study demonstrates the feasibility of maintaining SCID dogs for extended periods of time and documents their utility for bone marrow transplantation studies and as hosts for the propagation of xenografts. In sum, SCID dogs may present researchers with new possibilities for the development of animal models of human disease. PMID:19635917

  11. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Patient Information Sheet Lead Toxicity What is lead? How are people exposed to lead? • Lead is a soft, blue- ...

  12. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of lead in household dust. DRINKING WATER: Lead may get into drinking water when materials used in plumbing materials, such as ... and dishware. Lead may also be in contaminated water. Lead poisoning is harmful to human health and ...

  13. Biotinidase deficiency: novel mutations in Algerian patients.

    PubMed

    Tiar, A; Mekki, A; Nagara, M; Rhouma, F Ben; Messaoud, O; Halim, N Ben; Kefi, R; Hamlaoui, M T; Lebied, A; Abdelhak, S

    2014-02-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism leading to varying degrees of neurologic and cutaneous symptoms when untreated. In the present study, we report the clinical features and the molecular investigation of biotinidase deficiency in four unrelated consanguineous Algerian families including five patients with profound biotinidase deficiency and one child characterized as partial biotinidase deficiency. Mutation analysis revealed three novel mutations, c.del631C and c.1557T>G within exon 4 and c.324-325insTA in exon 3. Since newborn screening is not available in Algeria, cascade screening in affected families would be very helpful to identify at risk individuals.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: mevalonate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... shape, leading to a reduction of mevalonate kinase enzyme activity. Despite this shortage (deficiency) of mevalonate kinase activity, ... who have less than 1 percent of normal enzyme activity usually develop MVA. Learn more about the gene ...

  15. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John J; Trakadis, Yannis J; Scriver, Charles R

    2011-08-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine. It occurs in approximately 1:15,000 individuals. Deficiency of this enzyme produces a spectrum of disorders including classic phenylketonuria, mild phenylketonuria, and mild hyperphenylalaninemia. Classic phenylketonuria is caused by a complete or near-complete deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and without dietary restriction of phenylalanine most children will develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Mild phenylketonuria and mild hyperphenylalaninemia are associated with lower risk of impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency can be diagnosed by newborn screening based on detection of the presence of hyperphenylalaninemia using the Guthrie microbial inhibition assay or other assays on a blood spot obtained from a heel prick. Since the introduction of newborn screening, the major neurologic consequences of hyperphenylalaninemia have been largely eradicated. Affected individuals can lead normal lives. However, recent data suggest that homeostasis is not fully restored with current therapy. Treated individuals have a higher incidence of neuropsychological problems. The mainstay of treatment for hyperphenylalaninemia involves a low-protein diet and use of a phenylalanine-free medical formula. This treatment must commence as soon as possible after birth and should continue for life. Regular monitoring of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations is necessary. Targets of plasma phenylalanine of 120-360 μmol/L (2-6 mg/dL) in the first decade of life are essential for optimal outcome. Phenylalanine targets in adolescence and adulthood are less clear. A significant proportion of patients with phenylketonuria may benefit from adjuvant therapy with 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin stereoisomer. Special consideration must be

  16. GRK6 regulates ROS response and maintains hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Le, Qiumin; Yao, Wenqing; Chen, Yuejun; Yan, Biao; Liu, Cao; Yuan, Man; Zhou, Yuqing; Ma, Lan

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are critically involved in immune response through regulation of cytokine receptors in mature leukocytes, but their role in hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that GRK6 knockout (GRK6−/−) mice exhibit lymphocytopenia, loss of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and multiple progenitor populations. GRK6 deficiency leads to compromised lymphoid differentiation, largely owing to the impairment of HSC self-renewal. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis suggest that GRK6 is involved in reactive oxygen species signaling. GRK6 could interact with DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit) and regulate its phosphorylation. Moreover, reactive oxygen species scavenger α-lipoic acid administration could partially rescue the loss of HSC in GRK6−/− mice. Our work demonstrates the importance of GRK6 in regulation of HSC self-renewal and reveals its potential role in participation of stress response. PMID:27882944

  17. [Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems].

    PubMed

    Dahlerup, Jens; Lindgren, Stefan; Moum, Björn

    2015-03-10

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems leading to deterioration in patients' quality of life and more serious prognosis in patients with chronic diseases. The cause of iron deficiency and anemia is usually a combination of increased loss and decreased intestinal absorption and delivery from iron stores due to inflammation. Oral iron is first line treatment, but often hampered by intolerance. Intravenous iron is safe, and the preferred treatment in patients with chronic inflammation and bowel diseases. The goal of treatment is normalisation of hemoglobin concentration and recovery of iron stores. It is important to follow up treatment to ensure that these objectives are met and also long-term in patients with chronic iron loss and/or inflammation to avoid recurrence of anemia.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics of iron deficiency in soybean leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is an important agricultural concern leading to lower yields and crop quality. A better understanding of the condition, at the metabolome level, could contribute to the design of strategies to ameliorate Fe deficiency problems. Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soybean leaf extract...

  19. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  20. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  1. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  2. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  3. Dietary vitamin D deficiency in rats from middle to old age leads to elevated tyrosine nitration and proteomics changes in levels of key proteins in brain: implications for low vitamin D-dependent age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Jeriel T R; Förster, Sarah; Sultana, Rukhsana; Brewer, Lawrence D; Latimer, Caitlin S; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Porter, Nada M; Butterfield, D Allan

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the well-known effects of vitamin D (VitD) in maintaining bone health, there is increasing appreciation that this vitamin may serve important roles in other organs and tissues, including the brain. Given that VitD deficiency is especially widespread among the elderly, it is important to understand how the range of serum VitD levels that mimic those found in humans (from low to high) affects the brain during aging from middle age to old age. To address this issue, 27 male F344 rats were split into three groups and fed isocaloric diets containing low (100 IU/kg food), control (1000 IU/kg food), or high (10,000 IU/kg food) VitD beginning at middle age (12 months) and continued for a period of 4-5 months. We compared the effects of these dietary VitD manipulations on oxidative and nitrosative stress measures in posterior brain cortices. The low-VitD group showed global elevation of 3-nitrotyrosine compared to control and high-VitD-treated groups. Further investigation showed that this elevation may involve dysregulation of the nuclear factor κ-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway and NF-κB-mediated transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as indicated by translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus and elevation of iNOS levels. Proteomics techniques were used to provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying these effects. Several brain proteins were found at significantly elevated levels in the low-VitD group compared to the control and high-VitD groups. Three of these proteins, 6-phosphofructokinase, triose phosphate isomerase, and pyruvate kinase, are involved directly in glycolysis. Two others, peroxiredoxin-3 and DJ-1/PARK7, have peroxidase activity and are found in mitochondria. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (cyclophilin A) has been shown to have multiple roles, including protein folding, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, immunoregulation, cell signaling, and redox status. Together, these

  4. Dietary Vitamin D Deficiency in Rats from Middle- to Old-age Leads to Elevated Tyrosine Nitration and Proteomics Changes in Levels of Key Proteins in Brain: Implications for Low Vitamin D-dependent Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Jeriel T. R.; Förster, Sarah; Sultana, Rukhsana; Brewer, Lawrence D.; Latimer, Caitlin S.; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B.; Porter, Nada M.; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the well-known effects of vitamin D (VitD) in maintaining bone health, there is increasing appreciation that this vitamin may serve important roles in other organs and tissues, including the brain. Given that VitD deficiency is especially widespread among the elderly, it is important to understand how the range of serum VitD levels that mimic those found in humans (from low to high) affects the brain during aging from middle-age to old-age. To address this issue, twenty-seven male F344 rats were split into three groups and fed isocaloric diets containing low (100 IU/kg food), control (1000 IU/kg food), or high (10000 IU/kg food) VitD beginning at middle-age (12 months) and continued for a period of 4–5 months. We compared the effects of these dietary VitD manipulations on oxidative and nitrosative stress measures in posterior brain cortices. The low VitD group showed global elevation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) compared to control and high VitD treated groups. Further investigation showed that this elevation may involve dysregulation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway and NF-κB mediated transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as indicated by translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus and elevation of iNOS levels. Proteomic techniques were used to provide insights into potential mechanisms underlying these effects. Several brain proteins were found at significantly elevated levels in low VitD group compared to the control and high VitD groups. Three of these proteins, 6-phosphofructokinase, triosephosphate isomerase, and pyruvate kinase, are involved directly in glycolysis. Two others, peroxiredoxin-3 and DJ-1/PARK7, have peroxidase activity and are found in mitochondria. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA or cyclophilin A) has been shown to have multiple roles including protein folding, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, immunoregulation, cell signaling, and redox

  5. Pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the second most common cause, after glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency . PKD is found in people ... Read More Anemia Autosomal recessive Enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Hemolytic anemia Review Date 10/27/ ...

  6. [Vitamin A deficiency and xerophtalmia

    PubMed

    Diniz, A da S; Santos, L M

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review cases of vitamin A deficiency and the effects of vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Articles published in scientific journals, technical and scientific books, and also publications by international organizations were used as source of information. RESULTS: Clinical manifestations of xerophthalmia affect the retina (night blindness), the conjunctiva (conjunctival xerosis, with or without Bitot spots), and the cornea (corneal xerosis). Corneal xerosis may lead to corneal ulceration and liquefactive necrosis (keratomalacia). A priori, these signs and symptoms are the best indicators of vitamin A deficiency; they are, however, extremely rare. Laboratory indicators include Conjunctival Impression Cytology and serum retinol concentrations. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of two biological markers in order to characterize vitamin A deficiency in a given population. If only one biological marker is used, this marker has to be backed up by a set of at least four additional risk factors. Corneal xerophthalmia should be treated as a medical emergency; In the event of suspected vitamin A deficiency, a 200,000 IU vitamin A dose should be administered orally, repeating the dose after 24 hours (half the dose for infants younger than one year). Vitamin A supplementation in endemic areas may cause a 23 to 30% reduction in the mortality rate of children aged between 6 months and five years, and attenuate the severity of diarrhea. The methods for the control of vitamin A deficiency are available in the short (supplementation with megadoses), medium (food fortification), and long run (diet diversification). CONCLUSION: There is evidence of vitamin A deficiency among Brazilian children. Pediatricians must be aware of the signs and symptoms of this disease, however sporadic they might be. It is of paramount importance that vitamin A be included in public policy plans so that we can ensure the survival of

  7. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... through deteriorating paint, household dust, bare soil, air, drinking water, food, ceramics, home remedies, hair dyes and other ... an elevated blood lead level can easily result. Drinking water can also sometimes contribute to elevated blood lead ...

  8. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  9. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome.

  10. [CD36 Antigen Deficiency and Platelet Transfusion].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Zhou, Yan; Shen, Wei-Dong

    2016-06-01

    CD36 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, a multi-ligand receptor, possesses various biological functions. CD36 deficiency may stimulate the body to produce anti-CD36 alloimmune antibodies through the several pathways, such as blood transfusion, pregnancy or organ transplantation and so on, leading to the refractoriness of immune platelet transfusion and other diseases. The recent research advances of CD36 deficiency and its molecular biological basis, platelet transfusion and CD36 antibody detection are summarized briefey in this review.

  11. Analysis of gene transcription in cells lacking DNA-PK activity.

    PubMed

    Bryntesson, F; Regan, J C; Jeggo, P A; Taccioli, G E; Hubank, M

    2001-08-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), comprised of the Ku70/Ku80 (now known as G22p1/Xrcc5) heterodimer and the catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs (now known as Prkdc), is required for the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. The mechanism of action of DNA-PK remains unclear. We have investigated whether DNA-PK regulates gene transcription in vivo after DNA damage using the subtractive hybridization technique of cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA). Differential transcription, both radiation-dependent and independent, was detected and confirmed in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts from DNA-PKcs(-/-) and DNA-PKcs(+/+) mice. We present evidence that transcription of the extracellular matrix gene laminin alpha 4 (Lama4) is regulated by DNA-PK in a radiation-independent manner. However, screening of both primary and immortalized DNA-PKcs-deficient cell lines demonstrates that the majority of differences were not consistently dependent on DNA-PK status. Similar results were obtained in experiments using KU mutant hamster cell lines, indicating heterogeneity of transcription between closely related cell lines. Our results suggest that while DNA-PK may be involved in limited gene-specific transcription, it does not play a major role in the transcriptional response to DNA damage.

  12. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase is downstream of ATM and feeds forward oxidative stress in the selenium-induced senescence response.

    PubMed

    Rocourt, Caroline R B; Wu, Min; Chen, Benjamin P C; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2013-05-01

    Selenium induces a senescence response in cells through induction of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although a role of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) in DNA double-strand break repair is established, it is unclear how these proteins function in response to selenium-induced oxidative stress and senescence induction. In this study, we demonstrated that pretreating normal human diploid fibroblasts with DNA-PK kinase inhibitor NU 7026 suppressed selenium-induced senescence response. Selenium treatment induced phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on Thr-2647 and Ser-2056, the extent of which was decreased in the presence of ATM kinase inhibitor KU 55933 or the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In contrast, the selenium-induced phosphorylation of ATM on Ser-1981 was not affected by NU 7026. Cells deficient in DNA-PKcs or pretreated with NU 7026 or N-acetylcysteine were defective in selenite-induced ROS formation. Taken together, these results indicate a distinct role of DNA-PKcs, in which this kinase can respond to and feed forward selenium-induced ROS formation and is placed downstream of ATM in the resultant senescence response.

  13. Lead Pencils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A study, undertaken to determine the lead content of paint on various pencils in the Goddard supply system, is reported. The survey found that lead content varied from .04 mg per pencil for carmine colored pencils to approximately 43 mg per pencil for yellow colored pencils. Results also show that yellow pencils had higher lead content than other colors analyzed. More detailed results are given in tabular form.

  14. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  15. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  16. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  17. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-12-09

    It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  19. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Brito, Alex; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Miller, Joshua W; Molloy, Anne M; Nexo, Ebba; Stabler, Sally; Toh, Ban-Hock; Ueland, Per Magne; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2017-06-29

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age are also at high risk of deficiency in populations where dietary intake of B12-containing animal-derived foods is restricted. Deficiency is caused by either inadequate intake, inadequate bioavailability or malabsorption. Disruption of B12 transport in the blood, or impaired cellular uptake or metabolism causes an intracellular deficiency. Diagnostic biomarkers for B12 status include decreased levels of circulating total B12 and transcobalamin-bound B12, and abnormally increased levels of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid. However, the exact cut-offs to classify clinical and subclinical deficiency remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes and manifestations of B12 deficiency.

  1. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  2. Iodine deficiency, more than cretinism and goiter.

    PubMed

    Verheesen, R H; Schweitzer, C M

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports of the World Health Organization show iodine deficiency to be a worldwide occurring health problem. As iodine status is based on median urinary iodine excretion, even in countries regarded as iodine sufficient, a considerable part of the population may be iodine deficient. Iodine is a key element in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and as a consequence, severe iodine deficiency results in hypothyroidism, goiter, and cretinism with the well known biochemical alterations. However, it is also known that iodine deficiency may give rise to clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism without abnormality of thyroid hormone values. This led us to the hypothesis that iodine deficiency may give rise to subtle impairment of thyroid function leading to clinical syndromes resembling hypothyroidism or diseases that have been associated with the occurrence of hypothyroidism. We describe several clinical conditions possibly linked to iodine deficiency, a connection that has not been made thus far. In this paper we will focus on the relationship between iodine deficiency and obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), psychiatric disorders, fibromyalgia, and malignancies.

  3. Magnesium deficiency impairs fear conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Bardgett, Mark E; Schultheis, Patrick J; McGill, Diana L; Richmond, Raymond E; Wagge, Jordan R

    2005-03-15

    Magnesium (Mg2+) is one of the most abundant cations found in the body. In the central nervous system, Mg2+ plays an important role in the function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, which are centrally involved in memory processing. Despite the relatively large concentration of Mg2+ in the CNS, little is known about the behavioral consequences of Mg2+ deficiency. The purpose of this study was to address this issue by assessing fear conditioning and related behaviors in mice maintained on normal or Mg(2+)-deficient diets. Young adult male C57Bl/6J mice were placed on a control or Mg(2+)-deficient diet, and testing was conducted between 10 and 21 days later. Magnesium-deficient mice exhibited impairments in contextual and cued fear conditioning. These impairments could not be attributed to changes in locomotor activity, exploration, or pain sensitivity. Furthermore, Mg(2+)-deficient mice were more sensitive to the convulsant effects of a peripheral injection of NMDA (100 mg/kg, IP). The results suggest that magnesium deficiency can lead to specific impairments in emotional memory. Such impairments may be related to hypersensitivity of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in Mg(2+)-deficient mice.

  4. MyD88 deficiency leads to decreased NK cell gamma interferon production and T cell recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but a predominant Th1 response and enhanced monocytic inflammation are associated with infection resolution.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Sikes, James; Prantner, Daniel; Andrews, Charles W; Frazer, Lauren; Goodwin, Anna; Snowden, Jessica N; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that MyD88 knockout (KO) mice exhibit delayed clearance of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection compared to wild-type (WT) mice. A blunted Th1 response and ineffective suppression of the Th2 response were also observed in MyD88 KO mice. The goal of the present study was to investigate specific mechanisms whereby absence of MyD88 leads to these effects and address the compensatory mechanisms in the genital tract that ultimately clear infection in the absence of MyD88. It was observed that NK cells recruited to the genital tract in MyD88 KO mice failed to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA and protein. This defect was associated with decreased local production of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but normal levels of IL-12p70. Additionally, recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract was reduced in MyD88 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. Although chronic infection in MyD88 KO mice resulted in oviduct pathology comparable to that of WT mice, increased histiocytic inflammation was observed in the uterine horns. This was associated with increased CCL2 levels and recruitment of macrophages as a potential compensatory mechanism. Further deletion of TLR4-TRIF signaling in MyD88 KO mice, using TLR4/MyD88 double-KO mice, did not further compromise host defense against chlamydiae, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms are Toll-like receptor (TLR) independent. Despite some polarization toward a Th2 response, a Th1 response remained predominant in the absence of MyD88, and it provided equivalent protection against a secondary infection as observed in WT mice.

  5. Neuronal Protein 3.1 Deficiency Leads to Reduced Cutaneous Scar Collagen Deposition and Tensile Strength due to Impaired Transforming Growth Factor-β1 to -β3 Translation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Yue, Michael; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Wang, Xin; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Varani, James; Schuger, Lucia

    2017-02-01

    Neuronal protein 3.1 (P311), a conserved RNA-binding protein, represents the first documented protein known to stimulate transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to -β3 translation in vitro and in vivo. Because TGF-βs play critical roles in fibrogenesis, we initiated efforts to define the role of P311 in skin scar formation. Here, we show that P311 is up-regulated in skin wounds and in normal and hypertrophic scars. Genetic ablation of p311 resulted in a significant decrease in skin scar collagen deposition. Lentiviral transfer of P311 corrected the deficits, whereas down-regulation of P311 levels by lentiviral RNA interference reproduced the deficits seen in P311(-/-) mice. The decrease in collagen deposition resulted in scars with reduced stiffness but also reduced scar tensile strength. In vitro studies using murine and human dermal fibroblasts showed that P311 stimulated TGF-β1 to -β3 translation, a process that involved eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit b as a P311 binding partner. This resulted in increased TGF-β levels/activity and increased collagen production. In addition, P311 induced dermal fibroblast activation and proliferation. Finally, exogenous TGF-β1 to -β3, each restituted the normal scar phenotype. These studies demonstrate that P311 is required for the production of normal cutaneous scars and place P311 immediately up-stream of TGF-βs in the process of fibrogenesis. Conditions that decrease P311 levels could result in less tensile scars, which could potentially lead to higher incidence of dehiscence after surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in women.

    PubMed

    Percy, Laura; Mansour, Diana; Fraser, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide with >20% of women experiencing it during their reproductive lives. Hepcidin, a peptide hormone mostly produced by the liver, controls the absorption and regulation of iron. Understanding iron metabolism is pivotal in the successful management of ID and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) using oral preparations, parenteral iron or blood transfusion. Oral preparations vary in their iron content and can result in gastrointestinal side effects. Parenteral iron is indicated when there are compliance/tolerance issues with oral iron, comorbidities which may affect absorption or ongoing iron losses that exceed absorptive capacity. It may also be the preferred option when rapid iron repletion is required to prevent physiological decompensation or given preoperatively for non-deferrable surgery. As gynaecologists, we focus on managing women's heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and assume that primary care clinicians are treating the associated ID/IDA. We now need to take the lead in diagnosing, managing and initiating treatment for ID/IDA and treating HMB simultaneously. This dual management will significantly improve their quality of life. In this chapter we will summarise the importance of iron in cellular functioning, describe how to diagnose ID/IDA and help clinicians choose between the available treatment options. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. X-linked creatine transporter deficiency: clinical aspects and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Jiddeke M; Mancini, Grazia M; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-09-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency was discovered in 2001 as an X-linked cause of intellectual disability characterized by cerebral creatine deficiency. This review describes the current knowledge regarding creatine metabolism, the creatine transporter and the clinical aspects of creatine transporter deficiency. The condition mainly affects the brain while other creatine requiring organs, such as the muscles, are relatively spared. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that creatine synthesis also occurs in the brain, leading to the intriguing question of why cerebral creatine is deficient in creatine transporter deficiency. The possible mechanisms explaining the cerebral creatine deficiency are discussed. The creatine transporter knockout mouse provides a good model to study the disease. Over the past years several treatment options have been explored but no treatment has been proven effective. Understanding the pathogenesis of creatine transporter deficiency is of paramount importance in the development of an effective treatment.

  8. DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

  9. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Audemard-Verger, A.; Descloux, E.; Ponard, D.; Deroux, A.; Fantin, B.; Fieschi, C.; John, M.; Bouldouyre, A.; Karkowsi, L.; Moulis, G.; Auvinet, H.; Valla, F.; Lechiche, C.; Davido, B.; Martinot, M.; Biron, C.; Lucht, F.; Asseray, N.; Froissart, A.; Buzelé, R.; Perlat, A.; Boutboul, D.; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.; Isnard, S.; Bienvenu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies. A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis. Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15–67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1–10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35

  10. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  11. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  12. Biotinidase deficiency: presymptomatic treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, S J

    1985-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency presents with clinical signs of biotin deficiency at the age of 3 months, or soon after. In an infant in whom the diagnosis was made on cord blood, vision and hearing were normal before presymptomatic treatment with biotin. Physical and mental development are good at 14 months. PMID:4015175

  13. Biotinidase deficiency: presymptomatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Wallace, S J

    1985-06-01

    Biotinidase deficiency presents with clinical signs of biotin deficiency at the age of 3 months, or soon after. In an infant in whom the diagnosis was made on cord blood, vision and hearing were normal before presymptomatic treatment with biotin. Physical and mental development are good at 14 months.

  14. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  15. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  16. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat cancer can interfere with the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most people with a vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia lack intrinsic factor — a protein secreted by the stomach that is necessary for ...

  17. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  18. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  19. Leading Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; Heynderickx, James

    Chapter 13 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers suggestions to help educators improve their performance in meetings, both as group leaders and as participants. Well-run meetings can rejuvenate an organization, leading to improved teamwork, communication, and morale. A poor meeting, on the other hand, can have a…

  20. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  1. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  2. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  3. So you know how to treat iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Stanley L

    2015-10-22

    In this issue of Blood, Moretti et al provide data that challenge the entrenched oral treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The paper shows how the newer understanding of hepcidin and iron metabolism in general can lead to very practical improvements in the management of iron deficiency anemia, a disorder that may affect as many as 1 billion people.

  4. Factor XIII deficiency: a rare cause of repeated abortions.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, L D; Mhaskar, R; Mhaskar, A; Ross, C R

    2004-04-01

    Factor XIII deficiency is a rare cause of early abortion. The obstetrical outcome of four pregnancies in two women with factor XIII deficiency is reported. Both women were treated with substitution therapy using locally-prepared cryoprecipitate. The outcome in these two women demonstrated the need for substitution therapy in early pregnancy leading to an increased chance of obstetrical success.

  5. Drugs producing vitamin deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Montenero, A S

    1980-01-01

    Many drugs produce vitamin deficiencies. They belong to the most important and common therapeutical classes: analgesics, antianemics, antibacterial and antiblastic agents, antibiotics, antidiabetics, antimalarials, antiphlogistics, antipyretics, diuretics, laxatives and purgatives, tranquilizers and anticonvulsives, radiomimetics, hormones and vitamins themselves. The vitamin deprivation processes may be produced by a variety of mechanisms and may involve all vitamins. Recent experiments indicate that there is a competition for binding sites on proteins between vitamin C and salicylate and between dicoumarol and vitamin K. Usually a drug exerts a "devitaminizing" action with respect to only one vitamin. However there are examples of multiple vitamin deficiencies induced by a single drug, like salicylate which deprives the organism of vitamins C, K and pantothenate. These deficiencies may develop either all at the same time or successively. A direct and concomitant vitamin depriving action occurs when an antibiotic blocks the production of vitamins by the enteric flora. A different mode of action occurs in the drug induced folic acid deficiency, which in turn induces a deficiency of vitamin B12. It has been reported that a vitamin deficiency may result from intake of high pharmacological doses of other vitamins. These data need confirmation in patients treated with high doses of nicotinic acid. The drug induced vitamin deficiencies are studied with the same methodology employed for avitaminoses in general; hence they can be diagnosed using the same criteria.

  6. Betaine deficiency in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, C. ); Rich, P.J.; Ju, G.C.; Yang, Wenju; Rhodes, D. ); Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency. This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline {r arrow} betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde.

  7. Lack of Communications: The Most Common Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A survey with employers and teacher-coordinators of cooperative education programs showed that young employees' most common deficiencies are in communication skills, both written and oral. Poor handwriting was the leading complaint, followed by misspelling, ignorance of grammar and rhetoric, poor customer relations, and lack of comprehension and…

  8. Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2017-03-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of anemia. The 2 main etiologies of iron deficiency are blood loss due to menstrual periods and blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Beyond anemia, lack of iron has protean manifestations, including fatigue, hair loss, and restless legs. The most efficient test for the diagnosis of iron deficiency is the serum ferritin. Iron replacement can be done orally, or in patients in whom oral iron is not effective or contraindicated, with intravenous iron. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  10. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  11. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  12. Iron deficiency: from diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Polin, Vanessa; Coriat, Romain; Perkins, Géraldine; Dhooge, Marion; Abitbol, Vered; Leblanc, Sarah; Prat, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2013-10-01

    Iron deficiency is the most frequent cause of anaemia worldwide. It impairs quality of life, increases asthenia and can lead to clinical worsening of patients. In addition, iron deficiency has a complex mechanism whose pathologic pathway is recently becoming better understood. The discovery of hepcidin has allowed a better clarification of iron metabolism regulation. Furthermore, the ratio of concentration of soluble transferrin receptor to the log of the ferritin level, has been developed as a tool to detect iron deficiency in most situations. The cause of iron deficiency should always be sought because the underlying condition can be serious. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding diagnostic algorithms for iron deficiency anaemia. The majority of aetiologies occur in the digestive tract, in men and postmenopausal women, and justify morphological examination of the gut. First line investigations are upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy, and when negative, the small bowel should be explored; newer tools such as video capsule endoscopy have also been developed. The treatment of iron deficiency is aetiological if possible and iron supplementation whether in oral or in parenteral form. New parenteral formulations are available and seem to have promising results in terms of efficacy and safety.

  13. Norovirus infection in primary immune deficiency.

    PubMed

    Brown, Li-An K; Clark, Ian; Brown, Julianne R; Breuer, Judith; Lowe, David M

    2017-03-08

    Norovirus is acknowledged to be a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and its importance as a cause of chronic infection in immune deficient hosts is increasingly recognised. Current evidence suggests that a coordinated response of innate immune mechanisms, CD8+ cytotoxicity and a humoral response, with CD4+ orchestration, is necessary for norovirus clearance. We explain how primary immune deficiency impairs these host defences and predisposes to chronic infection, associated with protracted diarrhoea, weight loss, and requirement for parenteral nutrition. The mucosal villous atrophy frequently seen in norovirus infection appears to be immune mediated, suggesting that some functional immune response is required in order for chronic norovirus infection to become symptomatic in primary immune deficiency. We provide a comprehensive summary of published cases of norovirus infection in patients with primary immune deficiency. Spontaneous viral clearance has been described; however, the majority of reported cases have had prolonged and severe illness. Treatment strategies are discussed in detail. Approaches that have been tried in patients with primary immune deficiency include exclusion diets, enteral and intravenous immunoglobulins, breast milk, immunosuppressants, ribavirin, and nitazoxanide. To date, only ribavirin has been used with apparent success to achieve clearance of chronic norovirus in primary immune deficiency, and randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate a number of promising therapies that are discussed.

  14. TLR8 deficiency leads to autoimmunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Demaria, Olivier; Pagni, Philippe P.; Traub, Stephanie; de Gassart, Aude; Branzk, Nora; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Flavell, Richard A.; Alexopoulou, Lena

    2010-01-01

    TLRs play an essential role in the induction of immune responses by detecting conserved molecular products of microorganisms. However, the function of TLR8 is largely unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of TLR8 signaling in immunity in mice. We found that Tlr8–/– DCs overexpressed TLR7, were hyperresponsive to various TLR7 ligands, and showed stronger and faster NF-κB activation upon stimulation with the TLR7 ligand R848. Tlr8–/– mice showed splenomegaly, defective development of marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells, and increased serum levels of IgM and IgG2a. Furthermore, Tlr8–/– mice exhibited increased serum levels of autoantibodies against small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, ribonucleoprotein, and dsDNA and developed glomerulonephritis, whereas neither Tlr7–/– nor Tlr8–/–Tlr7–/– mice showed any of the phenotypes observed in Tlr8–/– mice. These data provide evidence for a pivotal role for mouse TLR8 in the regulation of mouse TLR7 expression and prevention of spontaneous autoimmunity. PMID:20811154

  15. KANK deficiency leads to podocyte dysfunction and nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Heon Yung; Zhang, Fujian; Ashraf, Shazia; Kohl, Stefan; Sadowski, Carolin E.; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Zhou, Weibin; Lovric, Svjetlana; Fang, Humphrey; Nettleton, Margaret; Zhu, Jun-yi; Hoefele, Julia; Weber, Lutz T.; Podracka, Ludmila; Boor, Andrej; Fehrenbach, Henry; Innis, Jeffrey W.; Washburn, Joseph; Levy, Shawn; Lifton, Richard P.; Otto, Edgar A.; Han, Zhe; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a frequent cause of progressive renal function decline and affects millions of people. In a recent study, 30% of SRNS cases evaluated were the result of monogenic mutations in 1 of 27 different genes. Here, using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in kidney ankyrin repeat-containing protein 1 (KANK1), KANK2, and KANK4 in individuals with nephrotic syndrome. In an independent functional genetic screen of Drosophila cardiac nephrocytes, which are equivalents of mammalian podocytes, we determined that the Drosophila KANK homolog (dKank) is essential for nephrocyte function. RNAi-mediated knockdown of dKank in nephrocytes disrupted slit diaphragm filtration structures and lacuna channel structures. In rats, KANK1, KANK2, and KANK4 all localized to podocytes in glomeruli, and KANK1 partially colocalized with synaptopodin. Knockdown of kank2 in zebrafish recapitulated a nephrotic syndrome phenotype, resulting in proteinuria and podocyte foot process effacement. In rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes, KANK2 interacted with ARHGDIA, a known regulator of RHO GTPases in podocytes that is dysfunctional in some types of nephrotic syndrome. Knockdown of KANK2 in cultured podocytes increased active GTP-bound RHOA and decreased migration. Together, these data suggest that KANK family genes play evolutionarily conserved roles in podocyte function, likely through regulating RHO GTPase signaling. PMID:25961457

  16. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... much as 20 years. AAT deficiency has no cure, but treatments are available. Treatments often are based on the type of disease you develop. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: October 11, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  17. Factor VII deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  18. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  19. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. ... The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. This gland controls the body's balance of hormones. It ...

  20. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  1. DOCK8 Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... care at NIAID, visit the NIAID PIDD site . Credit: NIAID Scientist at microscope. Causes DOCK8 deficiency is ... The End of an Era Acknowledgments References Photo Credits Dr. Joseph Kinyoun: Selected Bibliography NIAID 60th Anniversary ...

  2. [Selenium deficiency in pregnancy?].

    PubMed

    Lechner, W; Jenewein, I; Ritzberger, G; Sölder, E; Waitz-Penz, A; Schirmer, M; Abfalter, E

    1990-07-15

    Selenium content was investigated by atomic absorbtion spectroscopy in 32 normal pregnant women in the 38th-42, week of pregnancy. In congruence with other investigations from middle and northern Europe, selenium deficiency was stated in all of the patients.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Linsey Utami; How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to osteopenia, osteoporosis and falls risk in the elderly. Screening for vitamin D deficiency is important in high-risk patients, especially for patients who suffered minimal trauma fractures. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated according to the severity of the deficiency. In high-risk adults, follow-up serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration should be measured 3–4 months after initiating maintenance therapy to confirm that the target level has been achieved. All patients should maintain a calcium intake of at least 1,000 mg for women aged ≤ 50 years and men ≤ 70 years, and 1,300 mg for women > 50 years and men > 70 years. PMID:26311908

  4. Relative nutritional deficiencies associated with centrally acting monoamines

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Two primary categories of nutritional deficiency exist. An absolute nutritional deficiency occurs when nutrient intake is not sufficient to meet the normal needs of the system, and a relative nutritional deficiency exists when nutrient intake and systemic levels of nutrients are normal, while a change occurs in the system that induces a nutrient intake requirement that cannot be supplied from diet alone. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the primary component of chronic centrally acting monoamine (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) disease is a relative nutritional deficiency induced by postsynaptic neuron damage. Materials and methods Monoamine transporter optimization results were investigated, reevaluated, and correlated with previous publications by the authors under the relative nutritional deficiency hypothesis. Most of those previous publications did not discuss the concept of a relative nutritional deficiency. It is the purpose of this paper to redefine the etiology expressed in these previous writings into the realm of relative nutritional deficiency, as demonstrated by monoamine transporter optimization. The novel and broad range of amino acid precursor dosing values required to address centrally acting monoamine relative nutritional deficiency properly is also discussed. Results Four primary etiologies are described for postsynaptic neuron damage leading to a centrally acting monoamine relative nutritional deficiency, all of which require monoamine transporter optimization to define the proper amino acid dosing values of serotonin and dopamine precursors. Conclusion Humans suffering from chronic centrally acting monoamine-related disease are not suffering from a drug deficiency; they are suffering from a relative nutritional deficiency involving serotonin and dopamine amino acid precursors. Whenever low or inadequate levels of monoamine neurotransmitters exist, a relative nutritional deficiency is present

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oh, Robert; Brown, David L

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common cause of macrocytic anemia and has been implicated in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. The role of B12 deficiency in hyperhomocysteinemia and the promotion of atherosclerosis is only now being explored. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is typically based on measurement of serum vitamin B12 levels; however, about 50 percent of patients with subclinical disease have normal B12 levels. A more sensitive method of screening for vitamin B12 deficiency is measurement of serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels, which are increased early in vitamin B12 deficiency. Use of the Schilling test for detection of pernicious anemia has been supplanted for the most part by serologic testing for parietal cell and intrinsic factor antibodies. Contrary to prevailing medical practice, studies show that supplementation with oral vitamin B12 is a safe and effective treatment for the B12 deficiency state. Even when intrinsic factor is not present to aid in the absorption of vitamin B12 (pernicious anemia) or in other diseases that affect the usual absorption sites in the terminal ileum, oral therapy remains effective.

  6. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  7. Iron deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established

  8. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and an important public health problem especially in developing countries. Since the most important indicator of iron deficieny is anemia, the terms “iron deficiency” and “iron deficiency anemia” are often used interchangeably. However, iron deficiency may develop in the absence of anemia and the tissues may be affected from this condition. The most common causes of iron deficiency in children include insufficient intake together with rapid growth, low birth weight and gastrointestinal losses related to excessive intake of cow’s milk. If insufficient intake can be excluded and there is insufficient response to oral iron treatment in patients with iron deficiency especially in older children, blood loss should be considered as the underlying cause. The main principles in management of iron deficiency anemia include investigation and elimination of the cause leading to iron deficiency, replacement of deficiency, improvement of nutrition and education of the patient and family. In this article, the practical approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and the experience of our center have been reviewed. PMID:26078692

  9. Association between vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders related to obesity.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Tostes, Maria das Graças V; Anunciação, Pamella C; da Silva, Bárbara P; Sant'Ana, Helena M Pinheiro

    2017-10-13

    Inappropriate food behavior contributes to obesity and leads to vitamin deficiency. This review discusses the nutritional status of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in obese subjects. We verified that most vitamins are deficient in obese individuals, especially the fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C. However, some vitamins have been less evaluated in cases of obesity. The adipose tissue is considered a metabolic and endocrine organ, which in excess leads to changes in body homeostasis, as well as vitamin deficiency which can aggravate the pathological state. Therefore, the evaluation of vitamin status is of fundamental importance in obese individuals.

  10. Multiple carboxylase deficiency: inherited and acquired disorders of biotin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, E R; Suormala, T

    1997-01-01

    Acquired biotin deficiency and the two known congenital disorders of biotin metabolism, biotinidase and holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) deficiency, all lead to deficiency of the 4 biotin-dependent carboxylases, i.e. to multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD). The underlying mechanism in HCS-deficiency, discovered in 1981, is decreased affinity of HCS for biotin impairing the formation of holocarboxylases at physiological biotin levels. In biotinidase deficiency, discovered in 1983, MCD results from progressive development of biotin-deficiency due to inability to liberate and recycle biotin which is lost in urine as biocytin. MCD leads to typical organic aciduria and severe life-threatening illness. Main symptoms and signs are feeding difficulties, neurologic abnormalities (hypotonia, impaired consciousness, seizures, ataxia) and cutaneous changes (rash, alopecia). However, the clinical presentation and age of onset are extremely variable, and organic aciduria may initially be absent in biotinidase deficiency. Therefore, the definitive diagnosis requires enzyme studies. MCD can be detected in lymphocytes obtained before treatment and biotinidase deficiency is confirmed or excluded by a colorimetric enzyme assay in plasma. Newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency has resulted in the detection of patients with partial deficiency (10-30% of mean normal activity) in addition to patients with profound deficiency (0-10%). Severe illness has been observed mainly in patients with O-activity or a Km-mutation, detection of which requires detailed investigation. HCS-deficiency has to be confirmed by enzyme assay in cultured cells. Both congenital disorders respond clinically and biochemically to oral biotin therapy. Whereas 10 mg/day or less is sufficient to treat profound biotinidase deficiency, the optimal biotin dose for patients with HCS-deficiency must be assessed individually. The prognosis of both disorders is good if biotin therapy is introduced early and continued

  11. [Vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Zito, Annapaola; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Vestito, Domenico; Scicchitano, Pietro; Iacoviello, Massimo; De Pergola, Giovanni; Devito, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a condition that affects a high percentage of individuals of all ages. Considerable attention has been paid recently to the possible role of deficiency of this vitamin in the development of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In particular, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increase in conditions such as obesity, insulin-resistance, hypertension, diabetes, and an increased risk of death from these pathologies. There is also a significant correlation with mortality for major cardiovascular events such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, stroke, atrial fibrillation, and peripheral vascular disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these correlations are yet to be determined, but hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system seems to play a leading role. The role of therapy with vitamin D supplements in improving cardiovascular outcome in patients with low levels of vitamin D remains to be determined.

  12. Experimental models of melatonin-deficient hypertension.

    PubMed

    Simko, Fedor; Reiter, Russel J; Pechanova, Olga; Paulis, Ludovit

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and its administration reduces hypertension both in animals and humans. There are two experimental models of melatonin-deficient hypertension: one induced by pinealectomy and another by continuous 24 hour exposure to light. Both models cause melatonin deficiency and prevent darkness-mediated nocturnal melatonin secretion and are associated with increased BP and myocardial, vascular and renal dysfunction. These models also lead to neurohumoral activation of the renin-angiotensin system, sympathetic nervous system, adrenocorticotrophin-glucocorticoid axis and cause insulin resistance. Together, these alterations contribute to rise in blood pressure by vasoconstrictive or circulatory fluid volume overload. The light induced hypertension model mimics the melatonin deficiency in patients with insufficient nocturnal BP decline, in those who have night shift or who are exposed to environmental light pollution. For this reason, this model is useful in development of anti-hypertensive drugs.

  13. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  14. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zempleni, Janos; Hassan, Yousef I; Wijeratne, Subhashinee SK

    2009-01-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases in mammals. Biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze the fixation of bicarbonate in organic acids and play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Carboxylase activities decrease substantially in response to biotin deficiency. Biotin is also covalently attached to histones; biotinylated histones are enriched in repeat regions in the human genome and appear to play a role in transcriptional repression of genes and genome stability. Biotin deficiency may be caused by insufficient dietary uptake of biotin, drug–vitamin interactions and, perhaps, by increased biotin catabolism during pregnancy and in smokers. Biotin deficiency can also be precipitated by decreased activities of the following proteins that play critical roles in biotin homeostasis: the vitamin transporters sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter and monocarboxylate transporter 1, which mediate biotin transport in the intestine, liver and peripheral tissues, and renal reabsorption; holocarboxylase synthetase, which mediates the binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones; and biotinidase, which plays a central role in the intestinal absorption of biotin, the transport of biotin in plasma and the regulation of histone biotinylation. Symptoms of biotin deficiency include seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, dermatitis, hair loss, mental retardation, ketolactic acidosis, organic aciduria and also fetal malformations. This review focuses on the deficiencies of both biotin and biotinidase, and the medical management of such cases. PMID:19727438

  15. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zempleni, Janos; Hassan, Yousef I; Wijeratne, Subhashinee Sk

    2008-11-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases in mammals. Biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze the fixation of bicarbonate in organic acids and play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Carboxylase activities decrease substantially in response to biotin deficiency. Biotin is also covalently attached to histones; biotinylated histones are enriched in repeat regions in the human genome and appear to play a role in transcriptional repression of genes and genome stability. Biotin deficiency may be caused by insufficient dietary uptake of biotin, drug-vitamin interactions and, perhaps, by increased biotin catabolism during pregnancy and in smokers. Biotin deficiency can also be precipitated by decreased activities of the following proteins that play critical roles in biotin homeostasis: the vitamin transporters sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter and monocarboxylate transporter 1, which mediate biotin transport in the intestine, liver and peripheral tissues, and renal reabsorption; holocarboxylase synthetase, which mediates the binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones; and biotinidase, which plays a central role in the intestinal absorption of biotin, the transport of biotin in plasma and the regulation of histone biotinylation. Symptoms of biotin deficiency include seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, dermatitis, hair loss, mental retardation, ketolactic acidosis, organic aciduria and also fetal malformations. This review focuses on the deficiencies of both biotin and biotinidase, and the medical management of such cases.

  16. Effects of dietary calcium on lead absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Aungst, B.J.; Fung, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic analysis of lead absorption, distribution, and elimination was conducted in rats maintained on calcium-deficient, control, and calcium-supplemented diets. Dietary calcium affected lead disposition in a number of ways. Systematic lead clearance after a 10-mg/kg intracardiac lead dose was approximately 25% lower than control in rats administered dietary calcium supplements. In rats maintained on a calcium-deficient diet, systemic lead clearance was estimated to be 40% less than control. The apparent volume of lead distribution was increased. The apparent systemic availability of 1-, 10-, and 100-mg.kg oral lead doses was three- to fourfold greater than control in calcium-deficient rats. The percentage absorption was dose-dependent in control and calcium-deficient rats. The observed changes in lead absorption and systemic clearance associated with the calcium-deficient diet represent synergistic effects that could elevate blood lead accumulation and thus potentially influence susceptibility to lead toxicity.

  17. [Vitamin deficiencies and hypervitaminosis].

    PubMed

    Mino, M

    1999-10-01

    There have recently been very few deficiencies with respect to fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in Japan All-trans-retinoic acid as induction or maintenance treatment improves disease free and overall survival against acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the isolated vitamin E deficiencies gene mutation has been cleared for alpha-tocopherol transferprotein. Recently, a relation of nutritional vitamin K intake and senile osteoporosis in women was epidemiologically demonstrated on a prospective study. Thiamin was yet noticed as development of deficiency in alcoholism, while the importance of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy has become especially clear in light of studies showing that folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in the fetus. With respect to hypervitaminosis, the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), USA, has established safe intakes by identifying the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) and LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level). Summaries of NOAEL and LOAEL for individual vitamins were shown.

  18. Antepartum ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Takeda, Masako; Hara, Noriko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Urita, Yoshihisa; Hattori, Risa; Miura, Ken; Taniguchi, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left.

  19. [Prevalence of iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Dupont, C

    2017-05-01

    Studies of prévalence in iron deficiency separate iron depletion (defined as decreased blood ferritin) and iron deficiency anemia (defined as blood decrease in both ferritin and hemoglobin). In Europe, most studies are outdated. Prevalence of iron depletion varies from 7 to 18 % and 24 to 36% in toddlers and adolescents, respectively. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia varies from 2 to 8.5% and 7 to 10% in toddlers and adolescents. In French speaking African countries, Demography Health Surveys show that 80% of children aged 0 to 2 years are anemic, severely for 5 to 9% of them. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  20. Natural killer cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Orange, Jordan S

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune defense against infection and cancer and are especially useful in combating certain viral pathogens. The utility of NK cells in human health has been underscored by a growing number of persons who are deficient in NK cells and/or their functions. This can be in the context of a broader genetically defined congenital immunodeficiency, of which there are more than 40 presently known to impair NK cells. However, the abnormality of NK cells in certain cases represents the majority immunologic defect. In aggregate, these conditions are termed NK cell deficiency. Recent advances have added clarity to this diagnosis and identified defects in 3 genes that can cause NK cell deficiency, as well as some of the underlying biology. Appropriate consideration of these diagnoses and patients raises the potential for rational therapeutic options and further innovation.

  1. Mevalonate kinase deficiency: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Leslie A; Schulert, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disorder with a spectrum of manifestations, including the well-defined clinical phenotypes of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome and mevalonic aciduria. Patients with MKD have recurrent attacks of hyperinflammation associated with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgias, and mucocutaneous lesions, and more severely affected patients also have dysmorphisms and central nervous system anomalies. MKD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase, with the degree of residual enzyme activity largely determining disease severity. Mevalonate kinase is essential for the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids, which mediate protein prenylation. Although the precise pathogenesis of MKD remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that deficiency in protein prenylation leads to innate immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation. Given the emerging understanding of MKD as an autoinflammatory disorder, recent treatment approaches have largely focused on cytokine-directed biologic therapy. Herein, we review the current genetic and pathologic understanding of MKD, its various clinical phenotypes, and the evolving treatment approach for this multifaceted disorder. PMID:27499643

  2. Corneal epithelial stem cells: deficiency and regulation.

    PubMed

    Secker, Genevieve A; Daniels, Julie T

    2008-09-01

    The corneal epithelium is continuously renewed by a population of stem cells that reside in the corneoscleral junction, otherwise known as the limbus. These limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) are imperative for corneal maintenance with deficiencies leading to in-growth of conjunctival cells, neovascularisation of the corneal stroma and eventual corneal opacity and visual loss. One such disease that has traditionally been thought to be due to LESC deficiency is aniridia, a pan-ocular congenital eye disease due to mutations in the PAX6 gene. Corneal changes or aniridia related keratopathy (ARK) seen in aniridia are typical of LESC deficiency. However, the pathophysiology behind ARK is still ill defined, with current theories suggesting it may be caused by a deficiency in the stem cell niche and adjacent corneal stroma, with altered wound healing responses also playing a role (Ramaesh et al, International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 37:547-557, 2005) or abnormal epidermal differentiation of LESC (Li et al., The Journal of Pathology 214:9, 2008). PAX6 is considered the master control gene for the eye and is required for normal eye development with expression continuing in the adult cornea, thus inferring a role for corneal repair and regeneration (Sivak et al., Developments in Biologicals 222:41-54, 2000). Studies of models of Pax6 deficiency, such as the small eyed (sey) mouse, should help to reveal the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms involved in normal LESC function.

  3. Oxalate metabolism in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Rattan, V; Thind, S K; Jethi, R K; Sidhu, H; Nath, R

    1993-06-01

    Male weanling rats were maintained on magnesium-deficient diet for 30 d and compared with pair-fed control rats fed magnesium-supplemented diet. Magnesium deficiency led to slow growth and finally to a significant decrease in body weight (P < 0.001) accompanied by a significant hypomagnesaemia, hypomagnesuria and hyperoxaluria (P < 0.001 in each case) in experimental rats as compared to the control rats. Magnesium deficiency altered the glyoxylate metabolism in the liver and kidney mitochondria by significantly decreasing glyoxylate oxidation (by 26 per cent in liver and 17 per cent in kidney) and activity of alpha-ketoglutarate:glyoxylate carboligase enzyme (by 35 per cent in liver and 27 per cent in kidney) in the experimental animals. A significant increase in the specific activities of glycolic acid oxidase (P < 0.001) and glycolic acid dehydrogenase (P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in alanine transaminase (P < 0.01) was also observed in magnesium-deficient rats. No change in liver and kidney lactate dehydrogenase was observed. Thus magnesium deficiency in rats leads to accumulation of glyoxylate in the tissues, a part of which is converted into oxalate, thereby promoting hyperoxaluria.

  4. Effects of iron therapy on blood lead concentrations in infants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Sim, Chang Sun; Lee, Heun; Kim, Yangho

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether blood lead concentration is elevated in iron-deficient infants, blood lead and serum ferritin concentrations, serum iron/transferring iron-binding capacity (Fe/TIBC) and complete blood counts were measured in 30 iron deficient and 35 control infants, aged 6-24 months. All 30 iron-deficient infants received iron supplementation (ferric hydroxide-polymaltose complex, 6mg/kg Fe(3+)/day) for 1-6 months. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 18 of the iron deficient infants after their ferritin levels returned to the normal range. The geometric mean blood lead concentration was higher in iron deficient than in control infants (1.846 vs. 1.416μg/dL). After iron therapy, the blood lead levels of iron-deficient infants decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment levels (1.785 vs. 2.386μg/dL), and the hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations increased significantly. These findings indicate that iron deficiency increases blood lead concentrations in infants with very low blood lead concentrations.

  5. Multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soong, B W; Casamassima, A C; Fink, J K; Constantopoulos, G; Horwitz, A L

    1988-08-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of several sulfatases and the accumulation of sulfatides, glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids, and steroid sulfates in tissues and body fluids. The clinical manifestations represent the summation of two diseases: late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis. We present a 9-year-old girl with a phenotype similar to a mucopolysaccharidosis: short stature, microcephaly, and mild facial dysmorphism, along with dysphagia, retinal degeneration, developmental arrest, and ataxia. We discuss the importance of measuring the sulfatase activities in the leukocytes, and the instability of sulfatases in the cultured skin fibroblasts.

  6. A link between premenopausal iron deficiency and breast cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young breast cancer (BC) patients less than 45 years old are at higher risk of dying from the disease when compared to their older counterparts. However, specific risk factors leading to this poorer outcome have not been identified. Methods One candidate is iron deficiency, as this is common in young women and a clinical feature of young age. In the present study, we used immuno-competent and immuno-deficient mouse xenograft models as well as hemoglobin as a marker of iron status in young BC patients to demonstrate whether host iron deficiency plays a pro-metastatic role. Results We showed that mice fed an iron-deficient diet had significantly higher tumor volumes and lung metastasis compared to those fed normal iron diets. Iron deficiency mainly altered Notch but not TGF-β and Wnt signaling in the primary tumor, leading to the activation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was revealed by increased expression of Snai1 and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Importantly, correcting iron deficiency by iron therapy reduced primary tumor volume, lung metastasis, and reversed EMT markers in mice. Furthermore, we found that mild iron deficiency was significantly associated with lymph node invasion in young BC patients (p<0.002). Conclusions Together, our finding indicates that host iron deficiency could be a contributor of poor prognosis in young BC patients. PMID:23800380

  7. [Treatment and Pathomechanism of Citrin Deficiency].

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Numakura, Chikahiko; Watanabe, Hisayoshi

    2015-06-01

    Citrin, encoded by SLC25A13, is a component of the malate-aspartate shuttle, which is the main NADH-transporting system in the liver. Citrin deficiency causes neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD), which usually resolves within the first year of life. However, a small number of adults with citrin deficiency develop adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), which causes hyperammonemic encephalopathy leading to death due to cerebral edema. Liver transplantation is the only definitive therapy for patients with CTLN2. Hepatic glycolysis is coupled with hepatic lipogenesis via the NADH shuttles composed of the malate-aspartate shuttle and malate-citrate shuttle. Citrin deficiency is expected to impair glycolysis and lipogenesis in hepatocytes. We noticed that a lactose (galactose)-restricted and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-supplemented formula is notably effective for patients with NICCD. We extended this therapy for CTLN2 and found that an MCT supplementation therapy under a low-carbohydrate formula prevented the relapse of hyperammonemic encephalopathy, normalized the liver dysfunction (including the Fisher ratio), and gradually improved the level of plasma citrulline and fatty liver. An MCT supplement can provide energy to hepatocytes and promote hepatic lipogenesis, leading to improvement of the cytosolic NAD+/NADH ratio via the malate-citrate shuttle. MCT supplementation could be a promising therapy for citrin deficiency.

  8. [Iron deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Helsen, Tuur; Joosten, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Anemia is a common diagnosis in the geriatric population, especially in institutionalized and hospitalized elderly. Most common etiologies for anemia in elderly people admitted to a geriatric ward are iron-deficiency anemia and anemia associated with chronic disease. Determination of serum ferritin is the most used assay in the differential diagnosis, despite low sensitivity and moderate specificity. New insights into iron homeostasis lead to new diagnostic assays such as serum hepcidin, serum transferrin receptor and reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent.Importance of proper diagnosis and treatment for this population is large since there is a correlation between anemia and morbidity - mortality. Anemia is usually defined as hemoglobin less than 12 g/dl for women and less than 13 g/dl for men. There is no consensus for which hemoglobinvalue an investigation into underlying pathology is obligatory. This needs to be evaluated depending on functional condition of the patient.

  9. G6PC3 Deficiency: Primary Immune Deficiency Beyond Just Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Kiykim, Ayca; Baris, Safa; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Ozen, Ahmet O; Ogulur, Ismail; Bozkurt, Suheyla; Ataizi, Cigdem C; Boztug, Kaan; Barlan, Isil B

    2015-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 3 (G6PC3) deficiency was recently defined as a new severe congenital neutropenia subgroup remarkable with congenital heart defects, urogenital malformations, endocrine abnormalities, and prominent superficial veins. Here, we report 3 patients with G6PC3 deficiency presenting with recurrent diarrhea, failure to thrive, and sinopulmonary infections leading to bronchiectasis. In patient I and II, a combined immune deficiency was suspected due to early-onset disease with lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, along with variable reductions in lymphocyte subpopulations and favorable response to intravenous γ-globulin therapy. Apart from neutropenia, all 3 patients had intermittent thrombocytopenia, anemia, and lymphopenia. All patients had failure to thrive and some of the classic syndromic features of G6PC3 deficiency, including cardiac abnormalities and visibility of superficial veins in all, endocrinologic problems in PI and PIII, and urogenital abnormalities in PII. Our experience suggests that a diagnosis of congenital neutropenia due to G6PC3 may not be as straightforward in such patients with combined lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. A high index of suspicion and the other syndromic features of G6PC3 were clues to diagnosis. Screening of all combined immune deficiencies with neutropenia may help to uncover the whole spectra of G6PC3 deficiency.

  10. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  11. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  13. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

    1996-12-01

    Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.

  14. AMPD3-deficient mice exhibit increased erythrocyte ATP levels but anemia not improved due to PK deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jidong; Morisaki, Hiroko; Toyama, Keiko; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru; Morisaki, Takayuki

    2012-11-01

    AMP deaminase (AMPD) catalyzes AMP to IMP and plays an important role in energy charge and nucleotide metabolism. Human AMPD3 deficiency is a type of erythrocyte-specific enzyme deficiency found in individuals without clinical symptoms, although an increased level of ATP in erythrocytes has been reported. To better understand the physiological and pathological roles of AMPD3 deficiency, we established a line of AMPD3-deficient [A3(-/-)] mice. No AMPD activity and a high level of ATP were observed in erythrocytes of these mice, similar to human RBC-AMPD3 deficiency, while other characteristics were unremarkable. Next, we created AMPD3 and pyruvate kinase (PK) double-deficient [PKA(-/-,-/-)] mice by mating A3(-/-) mice with CBA-Pk-1slc/Pk-1slc mice [PK(-/-)], a spontaneous PK-deficient strain showing hemolytic anemia. In PKA(-/-,-/-) mice, the level of ATP in red blood cells was increased 1.5 times as compared to PK(-/-) mice, although hemolytic anemia in those animals was not improved. In addition, we observed osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in A3(-/-) mice under fasting conditions. In contrast, the ATP level in erythrocytes was elevated in A3(-/-) mice as compared to the control. In conclusion, AMPD3 deficiency increases the level of ATP in erythrocytes, but does not improve anemia due to PK deficiency and leads to erythrocyte dysfunction.

  15. Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation highlights some of the things EPA looks for during drinking water system site visits, how to avoid significant deficiencies and what to do if you receive one.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: prothrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... II deficiency University of Iowa Health Care: Prothrombin Gene Mutation (PDF) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Canadian Hemophilia Society National Hemophilia Foundation: Factor II Deficiency ClinicalTrials. ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: biotinidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... links) Children Living With Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK): Biotinidase Deficiency (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Biotinidase Deficiency Illinois ... Group Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 ...

  18. Simulating Colour Vision Deficiency from a Spectral Image.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raju

    2016-01-01

    People with colour vision deficiency (CVD) have difficulty seeing full colour contrast and can miss some of the features in a scene. As a part of universal design, researcher have been working on how to modify and enhance the colour of images in order to make them see the scene with good contrast. For this, it is important to know how the original colour image is seen by different individuals with CVD. This paper proposes a methodology to simulate accurate colour deficient images from a spectral image using cone sensitivity of different cases of deficiency. As the method enables generation of accurate colour deficient image, the methodology is believed to help better understand the limitations of colour vision deficiency and that in turn leads to the design and development of more effective imaging technologies for better and wider accessibility in the context of universal design.

  19. Biomarkers of cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency and its application.

    PubMed

    Chatthanawaree, W

    2011-03-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency in the elderly is an under recognized problem in daily clinical practice. It seems to be important because the deficiency of this vitamin can lead to irreversible neurological damage, anemia, osteoporosis, and cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Some clinical abnormalities that we thought were related to the normal aging changes may actually be caused by cobalamin deficiency, such as lack of ankle jerk reflex. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency increases with age (ranges from 0.6% to 46% depending on the population studies and criteria for diagnosis). Other than clinical manifestations, there are some biomarkers for detection of cobalamin deficiency: the red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV); serum cobalamin level; plasma holotranscobalamin; serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels and serum homocysteine levels. The interpretation and the application of these biomarkers are here presented.

  20. Periconceptional Folate Deficiency and Implications in Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Safi, J.; Joyeux, L.; Chalouhi, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies are preventable etiological and epigenetic factors causing congenital abnormalities, first cause of infant mortality. Folate deficiency has a well-established teratogenic effect, leading to an increasing risk of neural tube defects. This paper highlights the most recent medical literature about folate deficiency, be it maternal or paternal. It then focuses on associated deficiencies as nutritional deficiencies are multiple and interrelated. Observational and interventional studies have all been consistent with a 50–70% protective effect of adequate women consumption of folates on neural tube defects. Since strategies to modify women's dietary habits and vitamin use have achieved little progress, scientific as well as political effort is mandatory in order to implement global preventive public health strategies aimed at improving the alimentation of women in reproductive age, especially folic acid supplementation. Even with the recent breakthrough of fetal surgery for myelomeningocele, the emphasis should still be on prevention as the best practice rather than treatment of neural tube defects. PMID:22900183

  1. IL-12 receptor 1β deficiency with features of autoimmunity and photosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ling, Galina; Ling, Eduard; Broides, Arnon; Poran Feldman, Hagit; Levy, Jacov; Garty, Ben-Zion; Nahum, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiences are often accompanied by autoimmune phenomena. IL-12 receptor deficiency is a well characterized primary immunodeficiency that leads to propensity to intracellular infections mainly with mycobacteria and Salmonella. We report on two patients with IL-12 receptor β1 deficiency that presented with autoimmune manifestations and photosensitivity dermatitis and describe possible pathogenetic mechanisms leading to development of clinically significant autoimmune phenomena.

  2. Mechanisms of cataractogenesis in the presence of magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Iezhitsa, Igor N; Agarwal, Puneet; Spasov, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Senile cataract is the most common cause of bilateral blindness and results from the loss of transparency of the lens. Maintenance of the unique tissue architecture of the lens is vital for keeping the lens transparent. Membrane transport mechanisms utilizing several magnesium (Mg)-dependent ATPases, play an important role in maintaining lens homeostasis. Therefore, in Mg-deficiency states, ATPase dysfunctions lead to intracellular depletion of K(+) and accumulation of Na(+) and Ca(2+). High intracellular Ca(2+) causes activation of the enzyme calpain II, which leads to the denaturation of crystallin, the soluble lens protein required for maintaining the transparency of the lens. Mg deficiency also interferes with ATPase functions by causing cellular ATP depletion. Furthermore, Mg deficiency enhances lenticular oxidative stress by increased production of free radicals and depletion of antioxidant defenses. Therefore, Mg supplementation may be of therapeutic value in preventing the onset and progression of cataracts in conditions associated with Mg deficiency.

  3. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Relinque, B; Bardallo, L; Granero, M; Jiménez, P J; Luna, S

    2015-03-10

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is an uncommon metabolic disease. Only few cases of its isolated form have been reported in the literature. We report a case of severe neonatal onset. A newborn baby of 41 weeks gestational age, weighted at birth of 3240 grams and had an Apgar score of 6-10-10. Fifty-three hours after being born, the baby started with seizures that were refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Brain function was monitored using a-EEG. Laboratory and imaging tests were performed. All of them were consistent with sulfite oxidase deficiency. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic testing. We highlight the importance of this disease as part of the differential diagnosis of seizures during the neonatal period, as well as the importance of the therapeutic support based on dietary restrictions. It's also remarkable the possibility of prenatal diagnosis by quantifying enzyme activity and it's also possible carrying out DNA mutational analysis.

  4. Biotinidase deficiency in childhood.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Balaji, Padma; Panigrahi, Debasis; Jamal, Rafat

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the clinical, laboratory profile and outcome in seven patients with biotinidase deficiency. The serum biotinidase activity was assayed using spectrophotometric analysis. The age at presentation varied from day 1 of life to the 5 th month. Seizures were the presenting complaint in six patients and clonic seizures were the predominant seizure type. Sparse hair was seen in four patients, while three did not have any cutaneous manifestation. None of the patients had acidosis or hyperammonemia. The clinical response to biotin was dramatic with seizure control in all patients. One patient had neurological deficit at follow-up, while none had optic atrophy or sensorineural hearing loss. Biotinidase deficiency, a potentially treatable condition, should be thought of in any child presenting with neurological symptoms, especially seizures, even in the absence of cutaneous or laboratory manifestations.

  5. [Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency].

    PubMed

    Binek, Alicja; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class A is the main protein of the mucosal immune system. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (sIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. sIGAD is strongly associated with the certain major histocompatibility complex region. Most individuals with sIgAD are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune manifestations. Several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves disease and celiac disease, are associated with an increased prevalence of sIgAD. Screening for sIgAD in coeliac disease is essential. Patients need treatment of associated diseases. It is also known that IgA deficiency may progress into a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Pathogenesis and molecular mechanism involved in sIgAD should be elucidated in the future.

  6. Language deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Morehead, D M; Morehead, K E; Morehead, W A

    1980-01-01

    Research in cognition and language has provided useful constructs which suggests that specific deficits underlie language deficiencies in children. In addition, this research has provided procedures that the determine what a child knows about language at a particular level of development and has established a sequence of linguistic development that maps the specific content and structure of training programs. Two new areas of research offer additional approaches to assessment and remediation. One approach focuses on the actual principles and strategies that normal children use to learn language, making it possible to determine which methods are most efficient. The second research approach looks at the contextual conditions adults and children provide the first language learner. Preliminary work suggests that the natural conditions found universally in first language learning may be the best indicators of how to proceed with language-deficient children.

  7. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  8. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated? Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia ...

  9. Factor XI deficiency diagnosed following use of adalimumab.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Guven; Karatoprak, Cumali; Kiskac, Muharrem; Zorlu, Mehmet; Rezvani, Aylin; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Adalimumab is a drug used in the treatment of refractory psoriasis. We present a case of a 55-year-old male patient who developed petechiae and purpura after the ninth dose of adalimumab therapy. The results of laboratory investigations revealed factor XI (F.XI) deficiency. It should be recognized that F XI deficiency may develop in patients using long-term adalimumab, leading to increased risk of bleeding.

  10. [Asymptomatic gastric phytobezoar and anaemia due to iron deficiency revealing an autoimmune gastritis].

    PubMed

    Granel, B; Serratrice, J; Disdier, P; Laugier, R; Weiller, P-J

    2004-10-09

    This observation recalls that gastric phytobezoar should lead to a search for an underlying disease and that a iron deficiency can be associated and hide macrocytosis related to a vitamin B12 deficiency. A 19 year-old woman consulted for asthenia. Microcyte anaemia associated with iron deficiency was diagnosed. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed severe, totally asymptomatic phytobezoar. Biological investigations revealed a vitamin B12 deficiency, high serum gastrin level and strong positivity for gastric antiparietal anti-cell antibodies, suggestive of an autoimmune gastritis. Total immunoglobulin A deficiency was also noted. Autoimmune gastritis is responsible for megaloblastic anaemia (vitamin B12 deficiency) but can also provoke microcytic (iron-deficiency) anaemia due to insufficient absorption of the latter and related to gastric achlorhydria. Phytobezoar might also be related to achlorhydria and/or gastroparesia associated with autoimmune gastritis. Hence, autoimmune gastritis should be searched for when confronted with unexplained gastric bezoar or iron-deficiency anaemia.

  11. The disorders induced by iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1994-01-01

    steps of the intrathyroidal metabolism of iodine leading to preferential synthesis and secretion of triiodotyronine (T3). They are triggered and maintained by increased secretion of TSH, which is ultimately responsible for the development of goiter. The acceleration of the main steps of iodine kinetics and the degree of hyperstimulation by TSH are much more marked in the pediatric age groups, including neonates, than in adults, and the development of goiter appears as an unfavorable side effect in the process of adaptation to iodine deficiency during growth. The most serious complication of iodine deficiency is endemic cretinism, a syndrome characterized by irreversible mental retardation together with either a predominant neurological syndrome or predominant hypothyroidism, or a combination of both syndromes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  12. [Limbal stem cell deficiency management. A review].

    PubMed

    Kocaba, V; Damour, O; Auxenfans, C; Burillon, C

    2016-11-01

    Limbal stem cell deficiency is predominantly caused by severe eye burns resulting in a decreased or a complete ablation of the regenerative potential of these stem cells. The inability to reconstruct the corneal epithelium further leads conjunctivalization of the gimbal-epithelial barrier. These abnormalities collectively result in the progressive opacification of the cornea responsible for blindness that is driven by chronic corneal ulceration and neovascularization. The underlying pathology of the cornea affects the homeostasis of the neighboring conjunctiva, eyelids, and tear film. Therefore, the ocular reconstruction to treat limbal stem cell deficiency is quite prolonged and involves a continued treatment plan. The management of limbal stem cell deficiency has undergone a multitude of changes over the past several decades. The understanding of limbal anatomy and physiology, as well as therapeutic advances in the stem cell field have propelled the development of new treatments offering new hope to severely disabled patients. Cultivated limbal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial transplantations are therefore viable alternatives that could be utilized for the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency.

  13. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management.

    PubMed

    Langan, Robert C; Goodbred, Andrew J

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such as gastric or small intestine resections, inflammatory bowel disease, use of metformin for more than four months, use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 blockers for more than 12 months, vegans or strict vegetarians, and adults older than 75 years. Initial laboratory assessment should include a complete blood count and serum vitamin B12 level. Measurement of serum methylmalonic acid should be used to confirm deficiency in asymptomatic high-risk patients with low-normal levels of vitamin B12. Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B12 (1 to 2 mg daily) is as effective as intramuscular administration for correcting anemia and neurologic symptoms. Intramuscular therapy leads to more rapid improvement and should be considered in patients with severe deficiency or severe neurologic symptoms. Absorption rates improve with supplementation; therefore, patients older than 50 years and vegans or strict vegetarians should consume foods fortified with vitamin B12 or take vitamin B12 supplements. Patients who have had bariatric surgery should receive 1 mg of oral vitamin B12 per day indefinitely. Use of vitamin B12 in patients with elevated serum homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease does not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke, or alter cognitive decline.

  14. [Prevention of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in tropical areas].

    PubMed

    Dillon, J C

    2000-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most widespread nutritional disease in the World. It is prevalent in tropical areas especially in pregnant women and children. The main cause in these areas is consumption of foods containing inhibitors of iron absorption resulting in insufficient bioavailability. In advanced stages of iron deficiency, low hemoglobin levels lead to anemia. Functional consequences of anemia depend on age including mental and physical retardation in children and work disability in adults. Although other disorders including parasitic, infectious, genetic, and nutritional diseases may be involved in anemia in tropical areas, iron deficiency is always a factor because of nutritional conditions. The WHO has proposed laboratory criteria for use in establishing the incidence of iron deficiency and related anemia in a given population. Based on several surveys, four preventive strategies have been developed, i.e., dietary diversification, iron supplementation, general public health measures, and food fortification. Each of these strategies has advantages and disadvantages. The prevailing consensus is that coordinated use of these approaches holds forth the only hope of impacting the incidence of iron-deficiency anemia in tropical regions.

  15. Suppression of Non-Homologous End Joining Repair by Overexpression of HMGA2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Angela Y.J.; Boo, Lee Ming; Wang, Shih-Ya; Lin, H. Helen; Wang, Clay C.C.; Yen, Yun; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Chen, David J.; Ann, David K.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the molecular details associated with aberrant high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) gene expression is key to establishing the mechanism(s) underlying its oncogenic potential and impact on the development of therapeutic strategies. Here, we report the involvement of HMGA2 in impairing DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) during the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) process. We demonstrated that HMGA2-expressing cells displayed deficiency in overall and precise DNA end-joining repair and accumulated more endogenous DNA damage. Proper and timely activation of DNA-PK, consisting of Ku70, Ku80 and DNA-PKcs subunits, is essential for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generated endogenously or by exposure to genotoxins. In cells overexpressing HMGA2, accumulation of histone 2A variant X phosphorylation at Ser-139 (γ-H2AX) was associated with hyper-phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at Thr-2609 and Ser-2056 before and after the induction of DSBs. Also, the steady-state complex of Ku and DNA ends was altered by HMGA2. Microirradiation and real-time imaging in living cells revealed that HMGA2 delayed the release of DNA-PKcs from DSB sites, similar to observations found in DNA-PKcs mutants. Moreover, HMGA2 alone was sufficient to induce chromosomal aberrations, a hallmark of deficiency in NHEJ-mediated DNA repair. In summary, a novel role for HMGA2 to interfere with NHEJ processes was uncovered, implicating HMGA2 in the promotion of genome instability and tumorigenesis. PMID:19549901

  16. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  17. Placental steroid deficiency: association with arylsulfatase A deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Vidgoff, J; Buxman, M M; Shapiro, L J; Dimond, R L; Wilson, T G; Hepburn, C A; Tabei, T; Heinrichs, W R

    1982-01-01

    A family with an obstetric history consistent with placental sulfatase deficiency has X-linked ichthyosis. Steroid sulfatase deficiency was confirmed in placenta, leukocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts of affected males; arylsulfatase A diminution was also observed in these tissues of both affected males and 2 generations of related females. No symptoms of metachromatic leukodystrophy are present in any family members. In this family, placental sulfatase deficiency, and arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency are nonallelic. PMID:6123259

  18. Monocyte esterase deficiency in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, G M; Curry, R C; Swain, D; Morris, T C; McCormick, J A; Alexander, H D; Edgar, S

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To substantiate the high incidence of monocyte esterase deficiency (MED) in gastrointestinal carcinoma already reported in a small group of patients; to compare the clinical findings in esterase deficient and esterase positive patients. METHODS--Peripheral blood smears (n = 22) or cytocentrifuge preparations (n = 52) of mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood of patients with gastrointestinal carcinoma were stained by the non-specific esterase stain (pH 5.8) using a batch technique. Samples containing > or = 85% esterase negative monocytes were identified at light microscopic examination. RESULTS--Seven of 74 patients were identified as having MED. This correlated exactly with the proportion (five of 46) found before, using an automated method, and was significantly higher than the 0.8% incidence in normal blood donors shown in that study. Comparison of the clinical details of the 12 MED patients with those of 105 esterase positive patients showed a significantly longer disease free survival in the MED cohort and increased occurrence of benign neoplasms--largely colorectal polyps--in this group also. Three patients had a borderline degree of deficiency and were excluded from comparisons, although they showed the same clinical tendencies as the MED group. CONCLUSIONS--There is a strong degree of association between monocyte esterase deficiency and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Further evidence must be sought to prove that the deficiency precedes the disease and therefore may predispose to it, or at least may identify subjects with such a predisposition. This could lead to early diagnosis and effective treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoma in a sizeable proportion of patients. PMID:8331174

  19. Carnitine deficiency disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Charles A

    2004-11-01

    Mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain fatty acids provides an important source of energy for the heart as well as for skeletal muscle during prolonged aerobic work and for hepatic ketogenesis during long-term fasting. The carnitine shuttle is responsible for transferring long-chain fatty acids across the barrier of the inner mitochondrial membrane to gain access to the enzymes of beta-oxidation. The shuttle consists of three enzymes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, carnitine acylcarnitine translocase, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 2) and a small, soluble molecule, carnitine, to transport fatty acids as their long-chain fatty acylcarnitine esters. Carnitine is provided in the diet (animal protein) and also synthesized at low rates from trimethyl-lysine residues generated during protein catabolism. Carnitine turnover rates (300-500 micromol/day) are <1% of body stores; 98% of carnitine stores are intracellular (total carnitine levels are 40-50 microM in plasma vs. 2-3 mM in tissue). Carnitine is removed by urinary excretion after reabsorption of 98% of the filtered load; the renal carnitine threshold determines plasma concentrations and total body carnitine stores. Because of its key role in fatty acid oxidation, there has long been interest in the possibility that carnitine might be of benefit in genetic or acquired disorders of energy production to improve fatty acid oxidation, to remove accumulated toxic fatty acyl-CoA metabolites, or to restore the balance between free and acyl-CoA. Two disorders have been described in children where the supply of carnitine becomes limiting for fatty acid oxidation: (1) A recessive defect of the muscle/kidney sodium-dependent, plasma membrane carnitine symporter, which presents in infancy with cardiomyopathy or hypoketotic hypoglycemia; treatment with oral carnitine is required for survival. (2) Chronic administration of pivalate-conjugated antibiotics in which excretion of pivaloyl-carnitine can lead to carnitine depletion

  20. Familial apolipoprotein E deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, E J; Gregg, R E; Ghiselli, G; Forte, T M; Ordovas, J M; Zech, L A; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    A unique kindred with premature cardiovascular disease, tubo-eruptive xanthomas, and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) associated with familial apolipoprotein (apo) E deficiency was examined. Homozygotes (n = 4) had marked increases in cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), which could be effectively lowered with diet and medication (niacin, clofibrate). Homozygotes had only trace amounts of plasma apoE, and accumulations of apoB-48 and apoA-IV in VLDL, IDL, and low density lipoproteins. Radioiodinated VLDL apoB and apoE kinetic studies revealed that the homozygous proband had markedly retarded fractional catabolism of VLDL apoB-100, apoB-48 and plasma apoE, as well as an extremely low apoE synthesis rate as compared to normals. Obligate heterozygotes (n = 10) generally had normal plasma lipids and mean plasma apoE concentrations that were 42% of normal. The data indicate that homozygous familial apoE deficiency is a cause of type III HLP, is associated with markedly decreased apoE production, and that apoE is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. Images PMID:3771793

  1. by Cu Deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian-Ran; Li, Fu; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-06-01

    This work revealed that the Cu-deficient ternary compounds Cu3- x SbSe4 free of Te and Pb exhibit enhanced thermoelectric performance. Cu3- x SbSe4 ( x = 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075) polycrystalline materials with high phase purity were fabricated by a facile method combining mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Effects of Cu deficiencies on crystal structures, microstructures, element chemical states, and thermoelectric properties were systematically studied. High carrier concentration was obtained for the compositions Cu2.95SbSe4 and Cu2.925SbSe4 due to additional Cu vacancies, contributing to a remarkable increase in electrical conductivity. Together with a satisfactorily large Seebeck coefficient above 300 μV/K, a high power factor of about 890 μW/m-K2 at 523 K was achieved for Cu2.95SbSe4 and Cu2.925SbSe4, almost 60% larger than that of the stoichiometric sample with x = 0. The maximum ZT value was increased to 0.50 at 673 K in the Cu2.925SbSe4 sample sintered at a high temperature (703 K); this is the highest value reported so far for the undoped Cu3SbSe4 system.

  2. Subclinical cobalamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph

    2012-03-01

    This review focuses on recent developments and controversies in the diagnosis, consequences, and management of subclinical cobalamin deficiency (SCCD), which affects many elderly persons. Diagnosis of SCCD depends exclusively on biochemical tests whose individual limitations suggest that combinations of tests are needed, especially in epidemiologic research. The causes of SCCD are unknown in more than 60% of cases, which limits prognostic predictions and identification of health consequences. After years of varying, often inconclusive associations, new clinical trials suggest that homocysteine reduction by high doses of folic acid, cobalamin, and pyridoxine may reduce progression of structural brain changes and cognitive impairment, especially in predisposed individuals. The causative or contributory roles, if any, of SCCD itself in cognitive dysfunction require direct study. If the findings are confirmed, high-dose supplementation with three vitamins will probably be more effective than fortification of the diet. The story of SCCD, which is severalfold times more common in the elderly than clinical cobalamin deficiency but also differs from it in arising only infrequently from severe malabsorption and thus being less likely to progress, continues to evolve. Preventive benefits need to be confirmed and expanded, and will require fuller understanding of SCCD pathophysiology, natural history, and health consequences.

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  4. Iron-deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D

    1994-12-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common clinical problem throughout the world and an enormous public health problem in developing countries. The cornerstone of the laboratory identification of IDA is a low haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentration although a normal serum ferritin does exclude IDA. When the serum ferritin is normal in an anaemic patient with iron-deficient erythropoiesis, it is common practise to perform a bone marrow examination to diagnose IDA. The recent introduction of serum transferrin receptor measurements is a useful alternative for distinguishing IDA from the anaemia of chronic disease because the serum receptor concentration is usually elevated in patients with IDA but normal in patients with anaemia due to inflammation or neoplasia. It is helpful for the clinican to be aware of the causes of physiological IDA. The most important are increased rate of body growth, excessive menstrual blood loss, pregnancy, regular blood donation, intensive endurance training, chronic aspirin use and a vegetarian diet. Without these, a careful search for unsuspected gastrointestinal blood loss must be made and even when the suspicion of physiological IDA is high, it is prudent to screen for fecal occult blood. In most patients, IDA responds promptly to oral iron therapy. Patients who experience troublesome side-effects with oral iron might benefit from a gastric delivery system for oral iron which eliminates nausea and vomiting and improves iron absorption when given with food.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    PubMed

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  6. Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency but not copper deficiency increases vascular complexity in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Thomas W; Santarriaga, Stephanie; Nguyen, Thu An; Prohaska, Joseph R; Georgieff, Michael K; Anderson, Grant W

    2015-01-01

    Anemia caused by nutritional deficiencies, such as iron and copper deficiencies, is a global health problem. Iron and copper deficiencies have their most profound effect on the developing fetus/infant, leading to brain development deficits and poor cognitive outcomes. Tissue iron depletion or chronic anemia can induce cellular hypoxic signaling. In mice, chronic hypoxia induces a compensatory increase in brain blood vessel outgrowth. We hypothesized that developmental anemia, due to iron or copper deficiencies, induces angiogenesis/vasculogenesis in the neonatal brain. To test our hypothesis, three independent experiments were performed where pregnant rats were fed iron- or copper-deficient diets from gestational day 2 through mid-lactation. Effects on the neonatal brain vasculature were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess mRNA levels of angiogenesis/vasculogenesis-associated genes and GLUT1 immunohistochemistry to assess brain blood vessel density and complexity. Iron deficiency, but not copper deficiency, increased mRNA expression of brain endothelial cell- and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis-associated genes (i.e. Glut1, Vwf, Vegfa, Ang2, Cxcl12, and Flk1) in the neonatal brain, suggesting increased cerebrovascular density. Iron deficiency also increased hippocampal and cerebral cortical blood vessel branching by 62 and 78%, respectively. This study demonstrates increased blood vessel complexity in the neonatal iron-deficient brain, which is likely due to elevated angiogenic/vasculogenic signaling. At least initially, this is probably an adaptive response to maintain metabolic substrate homeostasis in the developing iron-deficient brain. However, this may also contribute to long-term neurodevelopmental deficits.

  7. How I treat ADA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, H Bobby; Aiuti, Alessandro; Porta, Fulvio; Candotti, Fabio; Hershfield, Michael S; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2009-10-22

    Adenosine deaminase deficiency is a disorder of purine metabolism leading to severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID). Without treatment, the condition is fatal and requires early intervention. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the major treatment for ADA-SCID, although survival following different donor sources varies considerably. Unlike other SCID forms, 2 other options are available for ADA-SCID: enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with pegylated bovine ADA, and autologous haematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (GT). Due to the rarity of the condition, the lack of large scale outcome studies, and availability of different treatments, guidance on treatment strategies is limited. We have reviewed the currently available evidence and together with our experience of managing this condition propose a consensus management strategy. Matched sibling donor transplants represent a successful treatment option with high survival rates and excellent immune recovery. Mismatched parental donor transplants have a poor survival outcome and should be avoided unless other treatments are unavailable. ERT and GT both show excellent survival, and therefore the choice between ERT, MUD transplant, or GT is difficult and dependent on several factors, including accessibility to the different modalities, response of patients to long-term ERT, and the attitudes of physicians and parents to the short- and potential long-term risks associated with different treatments.

  8. A WRKY Transcription Factor Regulates Fe Translocation under Fe Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Chun Xiao; Sun, Li; Ren, Jiang Yuan; Li, Gui Xin; Ding, Zhong Jie; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-07-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects plant growth and development, leading to reduction of crop yields and quality. Although the regulation of Fe uptake under Fe deficiency has been well studied in the past decade, the regulatory mechanism of Fe translocation inside the plants remains unknown. Here, we show that a WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 is involved in response to Fe deficiency. Lack of WRKY46 (wrky46-1 and wrky46-2 loss-of-function mutants) significantly affects Fe translocation from root to shoot and thus causes obvious chlorosis on the new leaves under Fe deficiency. Gene expression analysis reveals that expressi