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Sample records for dnabindprot fluctuation-based predictor

  1. Fluctuation-based imaging of nuclear Rac1 activation by protein oligomerisation

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Elizabeth; Yokomori, Kyoko; Gaus, Katharina; Hahn, Klaus M.; Gratton, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a fluctuation-based method to quantify how protein oligomerisation modulates signalling activity of a multifunctional protein. By recording fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data of a FRET biosensor in a format that enables concomitant phasor and cross Number and Brightness (cN&B) analysis, we measure the nuclear dynamics of a Rac1 FRET biosensor and assess how Rac1 homo-oligomers (N&B) regulate Rac1 activity (hetero-oligomerisation with the biosensor affinity reagent, PBD, by FLIM-FRET) or interaction with an unknown binding partner (cN&B). The high spatiotemporal resolution of this method allowed us to discover that upon DNA damage monomeric and active Rac1 in the nucleus is segregated from dimeric and inactive Rac1 in the cytoplasm. This reorganisation requires Rac1 GTPase activity and is associated with an importin-α2 redistribution. Only with this multiplexed approach can we assess the oligomeric state a molecular complex must form in order to regulate a complex signalling network. PMID:24573109

  2. Spectral Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  3. Prematurity and potential predictors.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2008-02-01

    Prematurity continues to be the leading cause of neonatal death and developmental disability, highlighting the importance of identifying potential predictors of prematurity as well as interventions that can be linked to the predictors. This review covers recent research on potential psychological, physiological, and biochemical predictors. Among the psychological stressors are depression, anxiety, difficult relationships, and lack of social support. Biochemical predictors include corticotropin-releasing hormone, cortisol, and fetal fibronectin. A program of research that links an intervention for prematurity with a predictor for prematurity, that is, massage therapy to reduce cortisol and, in turn, reduce prematurity, is then presented.

  4. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  5. Predictors of depression stigma.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F

    2008-04-18

    To investigate and compare the predictors of personal and perceived stigma associated with depression. Three samples were surveyed to investigate the predictors: a national sample of 1,001 Australian adults; a local community sample of 5,572 residents of the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan aged 18 to 50 years; and a psychologically distressed subset (n = 487) of the latter sample. Personal and Perceived Stigma were measured using the two subscales of the Depression Stigma Scale. Potential predictors included demographic variables (age, gender, education, country of birth, remoteness of residence), psychological distress, awareness of Australia's national depression initiative beyondblue, depression literacy and level of exposure to depression. Not all predictors were used for all samples. Personal stigma was consistently higher among men, those with less education and those born overseas. It was also associated with greater current psychological distress, lower prior contact with depression, not having heard of a national awareness raising initiative, and lower depression literacy. These findings differed from those for perceived stigma except for psychological distress which was associated with both higher personal and higher perceived stigma. Remoteness of residence was not associated with either type of stigma. The findings highlight the importance of treating the concepts of personal and perceived stigma separately in designing measures of stigma, in interpreting the pattern of findings in studies of the predictors of stigma, and in designing, interpreting the impact of and disseminating interventions for stigma.

  6. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  7. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  8. Predictors of human rotation.

    PubMed

    Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.

  9. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  10. Counting Dependence Predictors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-02

    and operand communication among cores uses a number of two-dimensional wormhole -routed meshes. Each block owner has the PCs of all in-flight blocks...predictor according to the description in Chrysos and Emer’s paper [2]. This implementation is ideal in that message latencies are not modeled and access to

  11. Personality predictors of happiness.

    PubMed

    Neto, F

    2001-06-01

    The Oxford Happiness Inventory and a battery of personality measures were completed by 171 subjects. The results showed predicted positive correlations for happiness with satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and sociability and negative correlations of happiness with embarrassability, loneliness, shyness, and social anxiety. Four predictors (satisfaction with life, shyness, loneliness, and sociability) accounted for 58% of the variance in happiness scores. These results support previous research as well as validate the Portuguese version of the happiness inventory.

  12. Identifying predictors of treatment response.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul; Compton, Don

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for considering predictors of growth in a treatment group as inadequate to identifying predictors of treatment response. When we interpret predictors of growth in a treatment group as synonymous with predictors of treatment response, we implicitly attribute all of the treated children's growth to the treatment, an untenable assumption under most conditions. We also contend that the use of standard scores in predictors of growth studies does not allow us to differentiate growth from treatment, from growth from other factors. We present two research methodologies that are appropriate methods of identifying predictors of treatment response: (a) single-subject experimental logic utilized to identify the specific participants in which treatment responses (not just growth) were found, combined with follow-up group comparison logic to identify the characteristics on which responders and nonresponders differ, and (b) statistical interactions among child/family/context characteristics and randomly assigned group membership. Principles for selecting potential predictors of treatment response are provided.

  13. Predictors of male microchimerism

    PubMed Central

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K.; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed. PMID:22926759

  14. Predictors of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Katon, Wayne; Russo, Joan; Gavin, Amelia

    2014-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, prepregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes as risk factors for post-partum depression (PPD). A prospective cohort study screened women at 4 and 8 months of pregnancy and used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine predictors of PPD. The study sample include 1,423 pregnant women at a university-based high risk obstetrics clinic. A score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) indicated clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women without significant postpartum depressive symptoms, women with PPD were significantly younger (p<0.0001), more likely to be unemployed (p=0.04), had more pregnancy associated depressive symptoms (p<0.0001) and psychosocial stress (p<0.0001), were more likely to be smokers (p<0.0001), were more likely to be taking antidepressants (ADs) during pregnancy (p=0.002), were less likely to drink any alcohol during pregnancy (p=0.02), and were more likely to have prepregnancy medical illnesses, including diabetes (p=0.02) and neurologic conditions (p=0.02). Specific sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for PPD were identified that could help physicians target depression case finding for pregnant women.

  15. A balanced secondary structure predictor.

    PubMed

    Nasrul Islam, Md; Iqbal, Sumaiya; Katebi, Ataur R; Tamjidul Hoque, Md

    2016-01-21

    Secondary structure (SS) refers to the local spatial organization of a polypeptide backbone atoms of a protein. Accurate prediction of SS can provide crucial features to form the next higher level of 3D structure of a protein accurately. SS has three different major components, helix (H), beta (E) and coil (C). Most of the SS predictors express imbalanced accuracies by claiming higher prediction performances in predicting H and C, and on the contrary having low accuracy in E predictions. E component being in low count, a predictor may show very good overall performance by over-predicting H and C and under predicting E, which can make such predictors biologically inapplicable. In this work we are motivated to develop a balanced SS predictor by incorporating 33 physicochemical properties into 15-tuble peptides via Chou׳s general PseAAC, which allowed obtaining higher accuracies in predicting all three SS components. Our approach uses three different support vector machines for binary classification of the major classes and then form optimized multiclass predictor using genetic algorithm (GA). The trained three binary SVMs are E versus non-E (i.e., E/¬E), C/¬C and H/¬H. This GA based optimized and combined three class predictor, called cSVM, is further combined with SPINE X to form the proposed final balanced predictor, called MetaSSPred. This novel paradigm assists us in optimizing the precision and recall. We prepared two independent test datasets (CB471 and N295) to compare the performance of our predictors with SPINE X. MetaSSPred significantly increases beta accuracy (QE) for both the datasets. QE score of MetaSSPred on CB471 and N295 were 71.7% and 74.4% respectively. These scores are 20.9% and 19.0% improvement over the QE scores given by SPINE X alone on CB471 and N295 datasets respectively. Standard deviations of the accuracies across three SS classes of MetaSSPred on CB471 and N295 datasets were 4.2% and 2.3% respectively. On the other hand, for SPINE X

  16. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  17. Information graphs for binary predictors.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G; McRoberts, N; Burnett, F J

    2015-01-01

    Binary predictors are used in a wide range of crop protection decision-making applications. Such predictors provide a simple analytical apparatus for the formulation of evidence related to risk factors, for use in the process of Bayesian updating of probabilities of crop disease. For diagrammatic interpretation of diagnostic probabilities, the receiver operating characteristic is available. Here, we view binary predictors from the perspective of diagnostic information. After a brief introduction to the basic information theoretic concepts of entropy and expected mutual information, we use an example data set to provide diagrammatic interpretations of expected mutual information, relative entropy, information inaccuracy, information updating, and specific information. Our information graphs also illustrate correspondences between diagnostic information and diagnostic probabilities.

  18. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  19. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  20. Infant Predictors of Behavioural Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehler, Eva; Kagan, Jerome; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Brunner, Romuald; Poustka, Luise; Haffner, Johann; Resch, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural inhibition in the second year of life is a hypothesized predictor for shyness, social anxiety and depression in later childhood, adolescence and even adulthood. To search for the earliest indicators of this fundamental temperamental trait, this study examined whether behavioural characteristics in early infancy can predict behavioural…

  1. Predictors of Rural Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel-Flom, Penelope

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes toward the urban environment and place of origin were found to be the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. Findings of this study imply that optometry students most likely to enter rural practice can be objectively identified early in their training and that the predictive equation presented may be useful in the…

  2. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  3. Predictors of Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makar, Kathryn K.

    2013-01-01

    Research conclusions concerning predictors of academic success have been, at best, less than convincing. In fact, these conclusions are more conflicting or mixed when emotional constructs are used. As a result, modern curriculum developers as well as classroom instructors seem to deemphasize, if not ignore, the role of the affective domain in…

  4. Infant Predictors of Behavioural Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehler, Eva; Kagan, Jerome; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Brunner, Romuald; Poustka, Luise; Haffner, Johann; Resch, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural inhibition in the second year of life is a hypothesized predictor for shyness, social anxiety and depression in later childhood, adolescence and even adulthood. To search for the earliest indicators of this fundamental temperamental trait, this study examined whether behavioural characteristics in early infancy can predict behavioural…

  5. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  6. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption.

    PubMed

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices.

  7. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  8. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  9. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  10. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end of treatment and one year. Abstinence was lower at one year for subjects with a history of major depression. At end of treatment, a 2-way interaction was detected suggesting bupropion SR may be efficacious for subjects with other household tobacco users. Conclusions Younger ST users and those with a history of depression are less likely to quit ST use. PMID:18442352

  11. Evaluating Predictors of Foreign Language Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    DLAB), and the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT TM ). Specifically, this study determined if these predictors had any influence as to whether or not...predictive of exceeding the OPI standard? • A weighted composite of the Defense Language Aptitude Battery (DLAB) and the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPTTM) is...predictors of the DLPT, please see SWA Consulting Inc. (2008, Nov.). SOF language training analysis support project: Wonderlic Personnel Test as a predictor

  12. Predictors of spoken language learning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We found those who were successful to have higher activation in bilateral auditory cortex, larger volume in Heschl's Gyrus, and more accurate pitch pattern perception. All of these measures were performed before training began. In the second set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned a phonological grammatical system governing the formation of words of an artificial language. Again, neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, and cognitive factors predicted to an extent how well these adults learned. Taken together, these experiments suggest that neural and behavioral factors can be used to predict spoken language learning. These predictors can inform the redesign of existing training paradigms to maximize learning for learners with different learning profiles. Readers will be able to: (a) understand the linguistic concepts of lexical tone and phonological grammar, (b) identify the brain regions associated with learning lexical tone and phonological grammar, and (c) identify the cognitive predictors for successful learning of a tone language and phonological rules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Successful aging: criteria and predictors].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ballesteros García, Rocío; Zamarrón Casinello, Ma Dolores; López Bravo, Ma Dolores; Molina Martínez, Ma Ángeles; Díez Nicolás, Juan; Montero López, Pilar; Schettini del Moral, Rocío

    2010-11-01

    In the Anglo-Saxon scientific literature, successful aging has been consolidated during the last four decades. Nevertheless, several terms have been used as synonymous: healthy, active, productive, optimal, positive aging. Although, all these terms have been described through a broad set of bio-psycho-social factors, usually, research in this field reduces successful aging to daily life functioning and physical health. Also, in spite of the fact that authors consider that determinants might be multi-domain, empirical research usually reduces them to life styles. Logically, the prevalence of this kind of ageing found empirically is not very consistent and research of its determinants or predictors refers to biomedical conditions. In this study, data from 458 participants (170 males and 288 females; mean age: 66.47, range: 55-75) from ELEA ("Longitudinal Study of Active Aging") were examined. The results show (depending on the simple or multidimensional definitions used) a very varied range of proportions of successfully aging older persons as well as a large number of multi-domain predictors of successful ageing, among which are intelligence, personality and motivational psychological characteristics.

  14. Individual predictors of sensorimotor adaptability

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    There are large individual variations in strategies and rates of sensorimotor adaptation to spaceflight. This is seen in both the magnitude of performance disruptions when crewmembers are first exposed to microgravity, and in the rate of re-adaptation when they return to Earth’s gravitational environment. Understanding the sources of this variation can lead to a better understanding of the processes underlying adaptation, as well as provide insight into potential routes for facilitating performance of “slow adapters”. Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation. For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke. Moreover, the extent of recruitment of specific brain regions during learning and adaptation has been shown to be predictive of the magnitude of subsequent learning. We close with suggestions for forward work aimed at identifying predictors of spaceflight adaptation success. Identification of “slow adapters” prior to spaceflight exposure would allow for more targeted preflight training and/or provision of booster training and adaptation adjuncts during spaceflight. PMID:26217197

  15. Electrocardiographic predictors of peripartum cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Karaye, Kamilu M; Karaye, Kamilu M; Lindmark, Krister; Henein, Michael Y; Lindmark, Krister; Henein, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To identify potential electrocardiographic predictors of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Methods: This was a case–control study carried out in three hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. Logistic regression models and a risk score were developed to determine electrocardiographic predictors of PPCM. Results: A total of 54 PPCM and 77 controls were consecutively recruited after satisfying the inclusion criteria. After controlling for confounding variables, a rise in heart rate of one beat/minute increased the risk of PPCM by 6.4% (p = 0.001), while the presence of ST–T-wave changes increased the odds of PPCM 12.06-fold (p < 0.001). In the patients, QRS duration modestly correlated (r = 0.4; p < 0.003) with left ventricular dimensions and end-systolic volume index, and was responsible for 19.9% of the variability of the latter (R2 = 0.199; p = 0.003). A risk score of ≥ 2, developed by scoring 1 for each of the three ECG disturbances (tachycardia, ST–T-wave abnormalities and QRS duration), had a sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 64.9%, negative predictive value of 86.2% and area under the curve of 83.8% (p < 0.0001) for potentially predicting PPCM. Conclusion In postpartum women, using the risk score could help to streamline the diagnosis of PPCM with significant accuracy, prior to confirmatory investigations PMID:27213852

  16. Alternative predictors in chaotic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, P. R. L.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2017-06-01

    In the scheme of reconstruction, non-polynomial predictors improve the forecast from chaotic time series. The algebraic manipulation in the Maple environment is the basis for obtaining of accurate predictors. Beyond the different times of prediction, the optional arguments of the computational routines optimize the running and the analysis of global mappings.

  17. Predictors of Organizational Responses to Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Barbara; Zammuto, Raymond F.

    Results of research on predictors of organizational responses to declining enrollments at 56 small to medium-sized colleges and universities are discussed. Decline was experienced from 1978-1979 to 1981-1982. Severity of decline was selected as an objective predictor of organizational response, while internal agreement on mission and attributions…

  18. Predictors of Participation in Parenting Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Fleming, Charles B.; Lonczak, Heather S.; Oxford, Monica L.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines predictors of attendance at parenting workshops. Variables that were considered as predictors of parent attendance include social demographic characteristics, parent characteristics, and child characteristics. Parent education and parent's perception of their child's antisocial behavior both had positive and statistically…

  19. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  20. Predictors of Sustainability of Social Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon E.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a large scale study that tested a comprehensive model of predictors of three manifestations of sustainability: continuation, institutionalization, and duration. Based on the literature the predictors were arrayed in four groups: variables pertaining to the project, the auspice organization, the community, and…

  1. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  2. Predictors of intubation in children.

    PubMed

    Nikhar, Sapna A; Grover, Vinod K; Mathew, Preethy Joseph

    2010-12-01

    To estimate the relation of mentohyoid, thyromental and sternomental distances to height, weight and age of children with normal airway. We carried out a prospective, double blind pilot study in 400 children posted for elective surgery to measure mentohyoid, thyromental and sternomental distances pre-operatively followed by intra-op evaluation of intubation using Cormack and Lehane grading. On assessing the contribution of age, height and weight to predict mentohyoid, thyromental and sternomental distances in children, the best predictor was found to be height (p=0.001)followed by age (p=0.04)of the patient. We have derived simple formulae to predict mentohyoid, thyromental and sternomental distances relevant to airway based on height and age of children.

  3. Dosimetric Predictors of Laryngeal Edema

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Adapala, Prashanth; Endres, Eugene J. C; Brack, Collin; Fiorino, Claudio; Sormani, Maria Pia; Parker, Brent

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric predictors of laryngeal edema after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 66 patients were selected who had squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with grossly uninvolved larynx at the time of RT, no prior major surgical operation except for neck dissection and tonsillectomy, treatment planning data available for analysis, and at least one fiberoptic examination of the larynx within 2 years from RT performed by a single observer. Both the biologically equivalent mean dose at 2 Gy per fraction and the cumulative biologic dose-volume histogram of the larynx were extracted for each patient. Laryngeal edema was prospectively scored after treatment. Time to endpoint, moderate or worse laryngeal edema (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2+), was calculated with log rank test from the date of treatment end. Results: At a median follow-up of 17.1 months (range, 0.4- 50.0 months), the risk of Grade 2+ edema was 58.9% {+-} 7%. Mean dose to the larynx, V30, V40, V50, V60, and V70 were significantly correlated with Grade 2+ edema at univariate analysis. At multivariate analysis, mean laryngeal dose (continuum, hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.15; p < 0.001), and positive neck stage at RT (N0-x vs. N +, hazard ratio, 3.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-9.58; p = 0.008) were the only independent predictors. Further stratification showed that, to minimize the risk of Grade 2+ edema, the mean dose to the larynx has to be kept {<=}43.5 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Conclusion: Laryngeal edema is strictly correlated with various dosimetric parameters; mean dose to the larynx should be kept {<=}43.5 Gy.

  4. DDR3 SDRAM with a Complete Predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankovic, Vladimir V.; Milenkovic, Nebojsa Z.

    In the arsenal of resources for improving computer memory system performance, predictors have gained an increasing role in the past few years. They enable hiding the latencies when accessing cache or main memory. In our previous work we proposed a DDR SDRAM controller with predictors that not only close the opened DRAM row but also predict the next row to be opened. In this paper we explore the possibilities of trying the same techniques on the latest type of DRAM memory, DDR3 SDRAM, with further improvements of the predictors.

  5. Codependency: predictors and psychometric issues.

    PubMed

    Lindley, N R; Giordano, P J; Hammer, E D

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between codependency and age, gender, self-confidence, autonomy, and succorance, which is the quality of soliciting emotional support from others. The study also tested the validity of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (Fischer, Spann, & Crawford, 1991). Ninety-five undergraduates completed a demographic sheet, the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1983), the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale, the Co-Dependents Anonymous Checklist (Whitfield, 1991), and a questionnaire developed for this study based on the work of Hemfelt, Minirth, and Meier (1989). As predicted, codependency was negatively related to self-confidence and positively related to succorance. However, contrary to expectation, a negative relationship between codependency and autonomy was not found. In addition, low self-confidence was the strongest predictor of codependency. Finally, all three measures of codependency were strongly related, attesting to the convergent validity of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale. Future studies should further investigate the role of emotional autonomy and codependency and should begin to utilize an experimental approach, making predictions regarding the behavior of codependent and noncodependent persons in experimental situations.

  6. Biopsychosocial predictors of preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, Martina; Maier, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to integrate a psychosomatic approach in the investigation of causes for preterm deliveries. A prospective study including 589 pregnant women between the 13(th) and the 24(th) gestation week (GW) was performed. In addition to medical and sociodemographic risk factors for preterm birth, factors such as biographical information, coping strategies and personality factors, pregnancy-related attitudes and anxieties as well as the pregnant women's social environment were examined. A factor analysis was performed using a principal component method with subsequent varimax rotation. Psychosocial variables were found to have a significant influence on the course of pregnancy and delivery. A total of 29 pregnant women (5.8%) delivered prematurely before they completed the 37(th) GW. Lack of support, poor emotional understanding by the partner, and additional stress subsequent to gynecological disorders were significantly associated with prematurity delivery. Pregnancy-related fears and general anxiety were additional significant predictors for preterm delivery. Partner relationships, women's support groups, psychosomatic reactions due to problems with reproductive functions, and anxiety deserve special attention for the prevention of preterm birth.

  7. Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Combat Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-07

    findings from the New Haven Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Brain Inj 2001, 15(11):935–945. 49. Jordan BK, Marmar CR, Fairbank JA, Schlenger WE...reservist Marines with at least one prior deployment to a combat area (N = 1576). Participants were recruited from U.S. Marine Corps bases in Southern...current analyses . Predictor measures Most of the predictor measures were obtained from the Warfighter Status Survey by Booth-Kewley et al. [37

  8. Personality variables as predictors of Facebook usage.

    PubMed

    Caci, Barbara; Cardaci, Maurizio; Tabacchi, Marco E; Scrima, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the role of personality factors as predictors of Facebook usage. Data concerning Facebook usage and personality factors from 654 Facebook users were gathered using a web survey. Using path analysis, the results showed Openness was a predictor of Facebook early adoption, Conscientiousness with sparing use, Extraversion with long sessions and abundant friendships, and Neuroticism with high frequency of sessions. The possible role of Agreeableness in predicting low session frequency and friendships needs further validation.

  9. Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0738 TITLE: Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Karen K. Swenson CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0738 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...guides treatment decisions. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect following axillary lymph node dissection is upper-extremity lymphedema . The

  10. Predictors of outcome in fungal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh Prajna, N; Krishnan, T; Mascarenhas, J; Srinivasan, M; Oldenburg, C E; Toutain-Kidd, C M; Sy, A; McLeod, S D; Zegans, M E; Acharya, N R; Lietman, T M; Porco, T C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyse predictors of clinical outcome in fungal keratitis. Methods Data was collected during a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-masked clinical trial of treatment for fungal keratitis. Clinical features at presentation and demographics were collected at the enrolment visit for all patients. Pre-specified clinical outcomes included 3-month visual acuity and infiltrate/scar size, time to re-epithelialization, and corneal perforation. A separate multivariable model with each outcome as the dependent variable included all predictor variables. Results Predictors for worse 3-month visual acuity include older age (P=0.024), worse presentation visual acuity (P<0.001), larger infiltrate size at presentation (P<0.001), and pigmented ulcer (P=0.030). Larger infiltrate size at presentation was a significant predictor of worse 3-month infiltrate/scar size (P<0.001). Larger epithelial defect size was a significant predictor of perforation (P=0.0013). Predictors of longer time to re-epithelialization include infiltrate size at presentation (P<0.001) and older age (P=0.025). Conclusion Ulcer severity at presentation is highly predictive of worse outcomes. Presentation of clinical characteristics such as baseline acuity and infiltrate scar can provide important information to clinicians about prognosis, and may help guide management and treatment decisions. Prevention of corneal ulcer remains important, as it is difficult to change the course of the ulcer once it has begun. PMID:22744392

  11. Predictors of psychiatric disorders in combat veterans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous research that has examined mental health among Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combatants has relied on self-report measures to assess mental health outcomes; few studies have examined predictors of actual mental health diagnoses. The objective of this longitudinal investigation was to identify predictors of psychiatric disorders among Marines who deployed to combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. Methods The study sample consisted of 1113 Marines who had deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Demographic and psychosocial predictor variables from a survey that all Marines in the sample had completed were studied in relation to subsequent psychiatric diagnoses. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the influence of the predictors on the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. Results In a sample of Marines with no previous psychiatric disorder diagnoses, 18% were diagnosed with a new-onset psychiatric disorder. Adjusting for other variables, the strongest predictors of overall psychiatric disorders were female gender, mild traumatic brain injury symptoms, and satisfaction with leadership. Service members who expressed greater satisfaction with leadership were about half as likely to develop a mental disorder as those who were not satisfied. Unique predictors of specific types of mental disorders were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the study’s most relevant result was that two potentially modifiable factors, low satisfaction with leadership and low organizational commitment, predicted mental disorder diagnoses in a military sample. Additional research should aim to clarify the nature and impact of these factors on combatant mental health. PMID:23651663

  12. New predictors of sleep efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da Woon; Lee, Yu Jin; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-01-01

    Sleep efficiency is a commonly and widely used measure to objectively evaluate sleep quality. Monitoring sleep efficiency can provide significant information about health conditions. As an attempt to facilitate less cumbersome monitoring of sleep efficiency, our study aimed to suggest new predictors of sleep efficiency that enable reliable and unconstrained estimation of sleep efficiency during awake resting period. We hypothesized that the autonomic nervous system activity observed before falling asleep might be associated with sleep efficiency. To assess autonomic activity, heart rate variability and breathing parameters were analyzed for 5 min. Using the extracted parameters as explanatory variables, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses and k-fold cross-validation tests were performed with 240 electrocardiographic and thoracic volume change signal recordings to develop the sleep efficiency prediction model. The developed model's sleep efficiency predictability was evaluated using 60 piezoelectric sensor signal recordings. The regression model, established using the ratio of the power of the low- and high-frequency bands of the heart rate variability signal and the average peak inspiratory flow value, provided an absolute error (mean ± SD) of 2.18% ± 1.61% and a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.94 (p < 0.01) between the sleep efficiency predictive values and the reference values. Our study is the first to achieve reliable and unconstrained prediction of sleep efficiency without overnight recording. This method has the potential to be utilized for home-based, long-term monitoring of sleep efficiency and to support reasonable decision-making regarding the execution of sleep efficiency improvement strategies.

  13. Meta-Analyses of Predictors of Hope in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify predictors of hope in the literature reviewed, to use meta-analysis to determine the mean effect size (ES) across studies between each predictor and hope, and to examine four moderators on each predictor-hope relationship. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for the literature reviewed, 77 published studies or doctoral dissertations completed between 1990 and 2012 met the inclusion criteria. Eleven predictors of hope were identified and each predictor in relation to hope was subjected to meta-analysis. Five predictors (positive affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, and social support) of hope had large mean ESs, 1 predictor (depression) had a medium ES, 4 predictors (negative affect, stress, academic achievement, and violence) had small ESs, and 1 predictor (gender) had a trivial ES. Findings are interpreted for the 11 predictors in relation to hope. Limitations and conclusions are addressed; future studies are recommended.

  14. Sonohysterographic Predictors of Successful Hysteroscopic Myomectomies

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Alexis D.; Morrissey, Mary Breda; Vega, Mario; Moshier, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the rate of persistent submucosal myomas and intrauterine scarring after hysteroscopic myomectomy, as well as to evaluate the preoperative and intraoperative sonohysterographic findings that will predict persistence of myomas, scarring, and the need for repeat surgery. Methods: Charts from all hysteroscopic myomectomies performed by a single surgeon between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative sonohysterographic findings. Predictors included myoma number, diameter and percent extension into the cavity of the largest fibroid, and percent surgically resected. These predictors were assessed with postoperative sonohysterography. Statistics included t test, logistic regression, χ2 test, and Fisher exact test. Results: Among the 79 cases with postoperative sonohysterograms, 17 (21.5%) had persistent submucosal myoma, and 9 (11.4%) had intrauterine scarring on postoperative sonohysterogram. Repeat hysteroscopic myomectomy was required in 11 (13.9%), but none required lysis of adhesions. The myoma number was not a significant predictor. A higher percentage of myoma within the cavity (63.35% vs 44.89%, P < .05) and smaller myoma size (2.22 cm vs 3.31 cm, P < .01) were significant predictors of a complete resection, a normal postoperative sonohysterogram, and avoidance of repeat surgery. On regression analysis, the percent of the myoma resected was the most significant outcome predictor (P < .001). Conclusion: Larger myomas with a lower percent found within the uterine cavity are less likely to be completely resected. Percent resection at the time of surgery is the most significant predictor of a normal postoperative sonohysterogram, as well as the best predictor of the need for repeat surgery. PMID:25848194

  15. Childhood Predictors of Teen Dating Violence Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Carl D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on predictors of teen dating violence (TDV) has used cross-sectional data, which weakens predictive modeling and hypothesis testing analyses. This study uses prospective and retrospective longitudinal data on a community sample to examine previously identified predictors of TDV victimization and pathways from childhood risk and protection to TDV victimization. Data are from 941 participants in the Raising Healthy Children project. Bivariate analyses found associations in the expected direction between potential predictors and TDV victimization. For girls, a multivariate path model indicated that higher levels of bonding to parents and social skills protected against TDV victimizations, partly by reducing early adolescent alcohol use. While externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early adolescence were predicted by childhood risk and protective factors for girls, neither uniquely predicted TDV victimization. For boys, there was an indirect path from childhood bonding to parents to TDV victimization through early adolescent externalizing behavior. PMID:20514813

  16. Predictors of turnover intention in nurse faculty.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Denise K; Kennerly, Susan

    2011-04-01

    Turnover of nurse faculty is an increasingly important issue in nursing as the available number of qualified faculty continues to decrease. Understanding the factors that contribute to turnover is important to academic administrators to retain and recruit qualified nursing faculty. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of turnover intention in nurse faculty working in departments and schools of nursing in Carnegie Doctoral/Research Universities-Extensive, public and private, not-for-profit institutions. The multidimensional model of organizational commitment was used to frame this study. The predictor variables explored were organizational climate, organizational commitment, work role balance, role ambiguity, and role conflict. The work roles examined were research, teaching, and service. Logistical regression was performed to examine the predictors of turnover intention. Organizational climate intimacy and disengagement, affective and continuance organizational commitment, and role ambiguity were shown to predict turnover intention in nurse faculty. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Wettenschwiler, Patrick D.; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Stämpfli, Rolf; Rossi, René M.; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Annaheim, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports). It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001) predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low back pain or injury

  18. Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to robust, Predictor-based Model Reference Adaptive Control (PMRAC) design. The proposed adaptive system is compared with the now-classical Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) architecture. Simulation examples are presented. Numerical evidence indicates that the proposed PMRAC tracking architecture has better than MRAC transient characteristics. In this paper, we presented a state-predictor based direct adaptive tracking design methodology for multi-input dynamical systems, with partially known dynamics. Efficiency of the design was demonstrated using short period dynamics of an aircraft. Formal proof of the reported PMRAC benefits constitute future research and will be reported elsewhere.

  19. AIDS: Predictors of Safer Sex Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, John R.; And Others

    This study was conducted to assess the predictors of safe sex practices among a group of college students. Subjects were 261 students attending the evening division of a large urban university campus, 68% of whom were female and 94% of whom reported being heterosexual. The average age of respondents was 26 years. Subjects responded to questions…

  20. Predictors of Turnover of Female Factory Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James L.; Rhodes, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines predictors of turnover of female factory workers in a multivariate framework. Findings indicate that organizational, job, and personal characteristics are equally important in explaining turnover. Variables significantly related to turnover are tenure, cycle time, peer leadership, communication flow, training time, family income, and…

  1. Predictors of successful transition to registered nurse.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Craig; Esterman, Adrian; Smith, Colleen; Kenny, Amanda

    2013-06-01

    To identify predictors of successful transition from undergraduate student to registered nurse and to identify whether any particular pre-registration paid employment choice impacted on transition. Nursing students in Australia and internationally, engage in a variety of paid employment whilst completing their university studies. However, there is little empirical evidence about the different types of employment chosen by students and any relationship to graduate nurse transition. A descriptive questionnaire survey. This cross-sectional study was conducted with newly graduated nurses throughout Australia. The survey data were collected over 4 months in 2011, with 392 registered nurses completing a questionnaire. Respondents were categorized into four groups, according to their chosen work type (hospitality/retail, enrolled nurse, other healthcare worker, and non-worker) and transition scores were identified. Transition scores were significantly higher for undergraduates who were employed compared with non-workers. Postregistration institutional work factors appeared to be stronger predictors of successful transition than pre-registration employment factors. Assistance in dealing with complex patients, orientation to a new environment, and respect from colleagues were the best predictors for successful transition. Engaging in some form of paid employment in the final year of undergraduate university study is beneficial. However, it is not pre-registration employment choice per se that is the best predictor of successful transition, but the influence of work factors which new graduates experience in their first year of practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  3. Student Success Factors: Identifying Key Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulaiman, Ainin; Mohezar, Suhana

    2006-01-01

    The authors' main aim in this study was to identify key predictors of Master of Business Administration (MBA) students' academic performance. The authors measured performance by the students' cumulative grade point average achieved, using data from the Students Information Systems and Application database. The authors found that a student's…

  4. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  5. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  6. Violent Behavior in Female Inmates: Possible Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia M.; Davis, Joanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Research findings have been equivocal regarding the relationship between experiencing trauma and exhibiting violent behavior in women. This study seeks to determine predictors of violent behavior in female inmates utilizing various conceptualizations of traumatic experiences. Results indicate a significant univariate relationship between…

  7. An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The documentation and user's guide for the Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP) computer program is presented. The ASOP is based on mathematical methods that represent a new state-of-the-art for rapid orbit computation techniques. It is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle/orbiter and its payloads.

  8. Predictor variable resolution governs modeled soil types

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil mapping identifies different soil types by compressing a unique suite of spatial patterns and processes across multiple spatial scales. It can be quite difficult to quantify spatial patterns of soil properties with remotely sensed predictor variables. More specifically, matching the right scale...

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  10. Predictors of Learning from Public Service Announcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Hsiu-hui

    A study focused on predictors of people's learning from public service announcements (PSAs) seen on television. Telephone interviews were conducted with 480 adults randomly selected from residents in Dane County, Wisconsin, in October 1987. Typical demographic information was obtained: sex, age, income, occupation and education. Commercial slogans…

  11. Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the design and analysis of a predictor-based model reference adaptive control. Stable adaptive laws are derived using Lyapunov framework. The proposed architecture is compared with the now classical model reference adaptive control. A simulation example is presented in which numerical evidence indicates that the proposed controller yields improved transient characteristics.

  12. Predictors of Academic Success for Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Optometry school admissions are very competitive. With more applicants than available slots, admission committees must choose those students whom they feel will be successful graduates. Previous studies in the health profession schools have demonstrated that the predictors of academic achievement are preadmission science grade point average (GPA),…

  13. Predictors of Success in an Anesthesiology Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, Shirley S.; Crumrine, Robert S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that contributed to successful residency performance by anesthesiology residents were examined in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anethesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialities.…

  14. Predictors of Success in an Anesthesiology Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, Shirley S.; Crumrine, Robert S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that contributed to successful residency performance by anesthesiology residents were examined in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anethesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialities.…

  15. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  16. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  17. Exploring the Psychological Predictors of Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Aydin, Emin; Kabaca, Tolga

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the predictors of programming achievement. With this aim in mind, the students' success in the programming courses is specified as the dependent variable and creativity, problem solving, general aptitudes, computer attitudes and mathematics achievement are specified as the independent variables. A…

  18. Psychological Predictors of Human Hardiness Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeer, Evald F.; Yugova, Elena A.; Karpova, Natalia P.; Trubetskaya, Olga V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is conditioned by the growing social and psychological tension in the ever-changing post-industrial society and psychoemotional disorders affecting the human lifespan, developing on this background. The goal of the article is to disclose and analyse psychological predictors of hardiness formation,…

  19. Congruence as a Predictor of Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lynette F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An examination of the relationship among nine measures of Holland's concept of congruence and their relationship to job stress used data from 154 workers. Iachan's M index was the best predictor of stress and strain. The relationship between congruence and stress was significant but dependent on the congruence measure used. (SK)

  20. Developmental Predictors of Fraction Concepts and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Hansen, Nicole; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Siegler, Robert S.; Gersten, Russell; Micklos, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Developmental predictors of children's fraction concepts and procedures at the end of fourth grade were investigated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Participants were 357 children who started the study in third grade. Attentive behavior, language, nonverbal reasoning, number line estimation, calculation fluency, and reading fluency each…

  1. Congruence as a Predictor of Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lynette F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An examination of the relationship among nine measures of Holland's concept of congruence and their relationship to job stress used data from 154 workers. Iachan's M index was the best predictor of stress and strain. The relationship between congruence and stress was significant but dependent on the congruence measure used. (SK)

  2. Predictors of Lithium Response in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Sarah K.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    While lithium is generally regarded as the first-line agent for patients with bipolar disorder, it does not work for everyone, which raises the question: can we predict who will be most likely to respond? In this paper, we review the most compelling clinical, biologic, and genetic predictors of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Among clinical factors, the strongest predictors of good response are fewer hospitalizations preceding treatment, an episodic course characterized by an illness pattern of mania followed by depression, and a later age at onset of bipolar disorder. While several biologic predictors have been studied, the results are preliminary and require replication with studies of larger patient samples over longer observation periods. Neuroimaging is a particularly promising method given that it might concurrently illuminate pathophysiologic underpinnings of bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action of lithium, and potential predictors of lithium response. The first genome-wide association study of lithium response was recently completed. No definitive results emerged, perhaps because the study was underpowered. With major new initiatives in progress aiming to identify genes and genetic variations associated with lithium response, there is much reason to be hopeful that clinically useful information might be generated within the next several years. This could ultimately translate into tests that could guide the choice of mood-stabilizing medication for patients. In addition, it might facilitate pharmacologic research aimed at developing newer, more effective medications that might act more quickly and yield fewer side effects. PMID:23251751

  3. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  4. Predictors of Academic Success for Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Optometry school admissions are very competitive. With more applicants than available slots, admission committees must choose those students whom they feel will be successful graduates. Previous studies in the health profession schools have demonstrated that the predictors of academic achievement are preadmission science grade point average (GPA),…

  5. Evaluation of Common Predictors for Selection of Postdoctoral Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handelman, Stanley; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relative value of academic standing, letters of recommendation, and personal interview impressions as predictors of performance during general dentistry training programs was assessed. Academic standing was the best predictor, with personal interview and recommendation letters next. (MSE)

  6. Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth has gained growing attention in the recent years. Although a number of predictors for PTSD following childbirth have been identified (e.g., history of sexual trauma, emergency caesarean section, low social support), only very few studies have tested predictors derived from current theoretical models of the disorder. This study first aimed to replicate the association of PTSD symptoms after childbirth with predictors identified in earlier research. Second, cognitive predictors derived from Ehlers and Clark’s (2000) model of PTSD were examined. Methods N = 224 women who had recently given birth completed an online survey. In addition to computing single correlations between PTSD symptom severities and variables of interest, in a hierarchical multiple regression analyses posttraumatic stress symptoms were predicted by (1) prenatal variables, (2) birth-related variables, (3) postnatal social support, and (4) cognitive variables. Results Wellbeing during pregnancy and age were the only prenatal variables contributing significantly to the explanation of PTSD symptoms in the first step of the regression analysis. In the second step, the birth-related variables peritraumatic emotions and wellbeing during childbed significantly increased the explanation of variance. Despite showing significant bivariate correlations, social support entered in the third step did not predict PTSD symptom severities over and above the variables included in the first two steps. However, with the exception of peritraumatic dissociation all cognitive variables emerged as powerful predictors and increased the amount of variance explained from 43% to a total amount of 68%. Conclusions The findings suggest that the prediction of PTSD following childbirth can be improved by focusing on variables derived from a current theoretical model of the disorder. PMID:25026966

  7. Predictors of mental health in female teachers.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): < 5; MH(-): ≥ 5); 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  8. Predictors of Orthopaedic Surgery in NCAA Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dean; Rugg, Caitlin Marie; Mayer, Erik; Sulzicki, Pamela; Vail, Jeremy; Hame, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Orthopaedic injury and surgery is relatively common in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and can have devastating career consequences. However, there is a paucity of data regarding predictors of orthopaedic surgery in collegiate athletes. The purpose of this study was to analyze player-related predictors of orthopaedic surgery, including that of the shoulder, hip, and knee, in NCAA athletes. Methods: All NCAA Division I collegiate athletes at a single institution who began participation from the 2003-2004 through 2008-2009 seasons were retrospectively identified. Player-related factors, including gender, sport, and any pre-college upper or lower extremity orthopaedic surgery, were elicited through pre-participation evaluations (PPEs). Athletes who underwent an orthopaedic surgery in college were identified through the Sports Injury Monitoring System and medical records. All patient-related independent variables were included in a multiple Cox regression model. Exposure time was calculated from the date of PPE to the date of surgery (event) or to the end of the collegiate athletic career (censored). Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: In total, 1,142 athletes in 12 sports (baseball/softball, basketball, football, golf, gymnastics, rowing, swimming & diving, soccer, tennis, track & field/cross country, volleyball, water polo) were identified. There were 262 documented orthopaedic surgeries, including those involving the shoulder (n = 34), hip (n = 25), and knee (n = 72), in 182 athletes. Using the multiple Cox regression model, pre-college lower extremity surgery was an independent predictor of orthopaedic (P = 0.004, HR = 1.88) and knee (P < 0.001, HR = 3.91) surgery, and type of sport was an independent predictor of orthopaedic (P < 0.001), shoulder (P = 0.002), and knee surgery (P < 0.001) (Table 1). Participation in gymnastics, basketball, and

  9. Praiseworthiness: predictors of positive interpersonal judgments.

    PubMed

    Ogletree, Shirley M; Covington, Jennifer A; Archer, Richard L

    2013-06-01

    Deterministic attitudes, information about a person's background, one's perceived similarity to a target person, and attributions of effort and ability may affect praiseworthiness. Two vignette studies with college student participants were conducted to consider this issue. Based on regression analyses, attributing achievement to effort was the strongest predictor of praiseworthiness across both studies. In addition, evidence for an augmenting effect of an impoverished background on praiseworthiness was found. In the first study, perceived similarity to the target individual and religious-philosophical determinism were also predictors of praiseworthiness, while belief in free will predicted praiseworthiness in the second study. Judgments of praiseworthiness may be tied to a number of factors; among the most important of these are overcoming an impoverished childhood background and the attributed effort required for success.

  10. Developmental predictors of fraction concepts and procedures.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nancy C; Hansen, Nicole; Fuchs, Lynn S; Siegler, Robert S; Gersten, Russell; Micklos, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Developmental predictors of children's fraction concepts and procedures at the end of fourth grade were investigated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Participants were 357 children who started the study in third grade. Attentive behavior, language, nonverbal reasoning, number line estimation, calculation fluency, and reading fluency each contributed uniquely to later conceptual understanding of fractions. Number line estimation, attentive behavior, calculation fluency, and working memory made unique contributions to acquisition of fraction arithmetic procedures. Notably, number line estimation made the largest independent contribution in both models. The results suggest that although there is considerable shared variance among the predictors, both general and number-related competencies are uniquely important for explaining why some children struggle with fractions.

  11. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed.

  12. Predictors of Wellness and American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia S.; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-01-01

    Wellness is an important American Indian (AI) concept, understood as being in balance with one’s body, mind, and environment. Wellness predictors are reported in this paper within the context of health. A cross-sectional randomized household survey of 457 AI adults at 13 rural health care sites in California was conducted. Measures included wellness perceptions, barriers, health status/health conditions, spirituality, cultural connectivity, high-risk behaviors and abuse history. Statistical analysis obtained the best predictive model for wellness. Predictors of wellness were general health status perception, participation in AI cultural practices and suicide ideation. Significant differences in wellness status were observed depending on experience of adverse events in childhood and adulthood (neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). Cultural connectivity (speaking tribal language, participating in AI practices, and feeling connected to community) was also associated with perceptions of wellness. Recommendations are for culturally-appropriate education and interventions emphasizing community and cultural connectivity for improving wellness status. PMID:21841279

  13. Predictors of Treatment Utilization in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Dana M.; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Stanley, Barbara; Burke, Ainsley; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide attempters with major depression are at risk for repeat attempts and often do not utilize treatment. Identifying predictors of treatment non-utilization could inform interventions to motivate treatment use and reduce suicide risk in major depression. Two hundred and seventy three participants with a major depressive episode as part of a major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, were assessed for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline and again 1 year later to identify predictors of treatment utilization. Treatment utilization rate was high 1 year after initial evaluation (72.5%). Severity of baseline depression, baseline treatment status, and education were associated with treatment utilization at 1 year. Interventions focused on increasing knowledge about depression and treatment efficacy may improve treatment adherence when treating depression. PMID:21541862

  14. Predictors of wellness and American Indians.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Felicia S; Nandy, Karabi

    2011-08-01

    Wellness is an important American Indian (AI) concept, understood as being in balance with one's body, mind, and environment. Wellness predictors are reported in this paper within the context of health. A cross-sectional randomized household survey of 457 AI adults at 13 rural health care sites in California was conducted. Measures included wellness perceptions, barriers, health status/health conditions, spirituality, cultural connectivity, high-risk behaviors and abuse history. Statistical analysis obtained the best predictive model for wellness. Predictors of wellness were general health status perception, participation in AI cultural practices and suicide ideation. Significant differences in wellness status were observed depending on experience of adverse events in childhood and adulthood (neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). Cultural connectivity (speaking tribal language, participating in AI practices, and feeling connected to community) was also associated with perceptions of wellness. Recommendations are for culturally-appropriate education and interventions emphasizing community and cultural connectivity for improving wellness status.

  15. Longitudinal predictors of high school completion.

    PubMed

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L

    2012-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75% to 88%. Model A, which included the Behavioral Symptoms Index, School Problems composite, Iowa Tests of Basic Skills battery, and teacher ratings of student work habits, best predicted female and African American dropouts. Model B, which comprised the Adaptive Skills composite, the Externalizing composite, the School Problems composite, referral for a student support team meeting, and sex, was more accurate for predicting Caucasian dropouts. Both models demonstrated the same hit rates for predicting male dropouts. Recommendations for early warning indicators and linking predictors with interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Pretreatment predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Halmi, K A; Goldberg, S C; Casper, R C; Eckert, E D; Davis, J M

    1979-01-01

    The relationship of selected pretreatment characteristics to weight gain during treatment was examined in 81 anorexia nervosa patients. Good prognostic indicators correlating positively with weight gain were: no previous hospitalizations for anorexia nervosa, a great amount of overactivity before treatment, less denial of illness, less psychosexual immaturity and the admission to feeling hunger. A perinatal history of delivery complications was associated with the poor outcome predictor of prior hospitalizations.

  17. [Predictors of Family Dysfunction among Adolescent Students].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bustamante, Edna Margarita; Castillo-Ávila, Irma; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2013-03-01

    Determination of family dysfunction predictors in adolescent students of Cartagena, Colombia. A cross-sectional analytical research was conducted by means of a probabilistic sample per conglomerate of high-school students. Participation of students between 13 and 17 years was requested. Family dysfunction was identified through the family APGAR scale. Predictors were adjusted by binary logistic regression. A total of 1,730 students agreed to participate, mean age was 14.7 years (SD=1.2), and 52.7% were girls. The family APGAR scale showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.78. A group of 896 students (51.8%) reported family dysfunction. Predictors of family dysfunction were: clinically significant depressive symptoms (OR=3.61; IC 95%: 2.31-5.63), low religiosity (OR=1.73; CI 95%: 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, CI 95% 1.71-2.09) (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, 95%: CI 1.41-2.09), consumption of any illegal substance in their lives (OR=1.67, CI 95%: 1.15-2.13), residents of depressed neighborhoods (OR = 1.49; CI 95%: 1.19-1.87), and poor academic performance (OR=1.43; CI 95%: 1.15-1.76). Clinically significant depressive symptoms, low religiosity and non-nuclear family are the main predictors of family dysfunction among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. The association is possibly bidirectional. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of binge drinking in elderly Americans.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Roopali B; Junquera, Patricia; Canaan, Yusef; Oms, Juan D

    2015-10-01

    The increasing trend in elderly binge drinking in the U.S. is cause for alarm. We sought to describe the predictors of binge drinking in elderly men and women and evaluate the relationship between binge drinking and mental health disorders in this population. The 2008 Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was utilized to identify a cohort of 4,815 individuals in the U.S. of age 65 or older. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported binge drinking, defined as an affirmative response to the question: "How many times in the past 30 days have you had more than five drinks (in men) or more than four drinks (in women) on an occasion?" Among 4,815 elderly participants studied, a total of 466 (9.7%) participants reported binge drinking over the past 30 days while 4,349 (90.3%) participants reported no binge drinking. Binge drinking was not associated with anxiety or depressive disorders in the overall population, however, elderly women reporting binge drinking had higher rates of depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of binge drinking in elderly participants included younger age, male gender, smoking, absence of college education, lower annual income, and absence of coronary artery disease. Predictors of binge drinking differed in elderly men and women. Younger age, male gender, smoking, lack of college education, lower annual income, and absence of coronary artery disease are independently associated with higher rates of binge drinking among elderly Americans. Elderly men and women had disparate predictors of binge drinking. This study provides valuable information to be applied to the substance abuse screening process in elderly men and women. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Posterior quadrant epilepsy surgery: predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kristin L; Murro, Anthony M; Park, Yong D; Lee, Gregory P; Cohen, Morris J; Smith, Joseph R

    2012-11-01

    To identify predictors of seizure recurrence following posterior quadrant epilepsy surgery. Between 1983 and 2008, 43 medically refractory epilepsy patients underwent posterior quadrant epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgery involved the occipital lobe in all cases; some cases also included resection of the adjacent parietal or temporal cortex. Using a logistic regression model, we evaluated the relationship between outcome (Engel class I-IV) and 5 outcome predictors: absence of a visual aura, a temporal lobe type aura, versive head movement unaccompanied by a visual aura, non-focal interictal scalp EEG, and surgical pathology other than low grade tumor or cortical dysplasia. We also determined the relative risk for significant post-operative cognitive decline of Wechsler intelligence test score among those receiving complete lobectomies compared to those receiving partial lobectomies. Overall, outcome was favorable at 1 year following surgery: 22 (51.2%) patients Engel class I, 10 (24%) patients Engel class II, 5 (12%) patients Engel class III, and 6 (14%) patients Engel class IV. The 3 best univariate predictors of seizure recurrence were versive head movement unaccompanied by visual aura, non-focal interictal scalp EEG, and pathology other than low grade tumor or cortical dysplasia. A multivariate predictor combining temporal lobe type aura, versive head movement unaccompanied by visual aura, non-focal interictal scalp EEG, and pathology other than low grade tumor or cortical dysplasia was optimum. Complete lobectomy significantly increased the risk of post-operative decline of Wechsler intelligence score. These findings indicate that posterior quadrant epilepsy surgery may provide sustained seizure control. A multivariate model combining temporal lobe type aura, versive head movement unaccompanied by a visual aura, non-focal interictal scalp EEG, and pathology other than low grade tumor or cortical dysplasia may contribute to predicting seizure recurrence following

  20. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C; Hines, Paul D H; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  1. Predictors of Transfer Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Department of Psychology . : PREDICTORS OF TRANSFER AIIJUSTNEN: . A LONGITUDIN4AL STUDY"- Jaues B. Shaw Cynthia D. Fisher and Richard W. Woodman...1985 Acssa o NTIS GRA&I TR-ONR-7 DTIC TAB Unannounced E Just ification Distribution/ Department of Psychology Availability Codes Department of...PROJECT. TASKAREA & WORK UNIT NUMIBERS Departments of Management and Psychology 62763 N Texas.A&M University RF 63521 College Station, TX 77843 RF

  2. Predictors for trismus in patients receiving radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    van der Geer, S Joyce; Kamstra, Jolanda I; Roodenburg, Jan L N; van Leeuwen, Marianne; Reintsema, Harry; Langendijk, Johannes A; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2016-11-01

    Trismus, a restricted mouth opening in head and neck cancer patients may be caused by tumor infiltration in masticatory muscles, radiation-induced fibrosis or scarring after surgery. It may impede oral functioning severely. The aims of our study were to determine: (1) the incidence of trismus at various time points; and (2) the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics that predict the development of trismus after radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients using a large database (n = 641). Maximal mouth opening was measured prior to and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months after radiotherapy. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed as potential predictors for trismus using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. At six months after radiotherapy, 28.1% of the patients without trismus prior to radiotherapy developed trismus for the first time. At subsequent time points the incidence declined. Over a total period of 48 months after radiotherapy, the incidence of trismus was 3.6 per 10 person years at risk. Patients who had tumors located in the oral cavity, oropharynx or nasopharynx, and the salivary glands or ear, and who had a longer overall treatment time of radiotherapy, were more likely to develop trismus in the first six months after radiotherapy. Maximal mouth opening was a predictor for developing trismus at all time points. Incidence of trismus is 3.6 per 10 person years at risk. Tumor localization and overall treatment time of radiotherapy are predictors for developing trismus the first six months after radiotherapy. Maximal mouth opening is a significant predictor for developing trismus at all time points. Regular measurements of maximal mouth opening are needed to predict trismus.

  3. An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The documentation and user's guide are presented for the analytical satellite orbit predictor computer program which is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle orbiter and its payloads. The Poincare-Similar elements used make it possible to compute near-earth orbits to within an accuracy of a few meters. Recursive equations are used instead of complicated formulas. Execution time is on the order of a few milliseconds.

  4. Effects of Predictor Weighting Methods on Incremental Validity.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Paul R; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Shewach, Oren R; Kuncel, Nathan R

    2017-05-22

    It is common to add an additional predictor to a selection system with the goal of increasing criterion-related validity. Research on the incremental validity of a second predictor is generally based on forming a regression-weighted composite of the predictors. However, in practice predictors are commonly used in ways other than regression-weighted composites, and we examine the robustness of incremental validity findings to other ways of using predictors, namely, unit weighting and multiple hurdles. We show that there are settings in which the incremental value of a second predictor disappears, and can even produce lower validity than the first predictor alone, when these alternatives to regression weighting are used. First, we examine conditions under which unit weighting will negate gain in predictive power attainable via regression weights. Second, we revisit Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) summary of incremental validity of predictors over cognitive ability, evaluating whether the reported incremental value of a second predictor is different when predictors are unit weighted rather than regression weighted. Third, we analyze data reported in the published literature to discern the frequency with which unit weighting might affect conclusions about whether there is value in adding a second predictor to a first. Finally, we shift from unit weighting to multiple hurdle selection, examining conditions under which conclusions about incremental validity differ when regression weighting is replaced by multiple-hurdle selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Predictors of Homelessness Among Street Living Youth

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The sample included 118 males and the reported ethnicity included Latino (n = 54), Anglo (n = 73), Native American (n = 24), African American (n = 6) and mixed ethnicity or “other” (n = 23). Four distinct patterns of change in homelessness were identified among youth which included those who (1) had fairly low rates of homelessness at each follow-up point, (2) started in the mid-range of homelessness, increased at 3 months and sharply declined at 6-months (MHL), (3) reported high rates of homelessness at baseline and low rates at each follow-up point (HLL), and finally, (4) remained consistently homeless across time (HMH). These patterns of change were most strongly predicted by social connections and engagement in HIV risk behaviors. The findings from this study suggest that developing trust and linkages between homeless youth and service providers may be a more powerful immediate target of intervention than targeting child abuse issues, substance use and mental health problems. PMID:18584069

  6. Predictors of employment after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sahota, Amandeep; Zaghla, Hassan; Adkins, Rodney; Ramji, Alnoor; Lewis, Susan; Moser, Jennifer; Sher, Linda S; Fong, Tse-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Employment after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) indicates recipients' physical/psychosocial adjustment. Our aim was to determine clinical, socioeconomic and health-related quality of life parameters influencing employment after OLT. Questionnaire on demographics, medical conditions, alcohol and drug use before/after OLT, and a validated 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) were mailed to 126 adult OLT patients. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to identify best predictors of post-OLT employment. Among non-retirees, 49% were employed after OLT. The predictors of employment were: employment status, income, disability status before OLT and Model of End Stage Liver Disease score. These variables had prediction rate of 82%. Individuals working during the five yr prior to OLT were likely to return to work (p<0.0001), particularly those who held a job for >6 months prior to OLT (p<0.0001), income>$80 000 before OLT compared with <$30 000 (p=0.036). Patients receiving Social Security Insurance (SSI) payment for >or=6 months prior to OLT, were less likely to work (p=0.0005). Severity/duration of liver dysfunction prior to OLT did not correlate with employment. Sense of physical health was poorer in those employed after OLT than in unemployed (p=0.0003). Socioeconomic factors were the most important predictors of post-OLT employment.

  7. Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Ilia M; Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among education, leadership experience, emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of nurse managers. Nursing leadership research provides limited evidence of predictors of transformational leadership style in nurse managers. A predictive correlational design was used with a sample of nurse managers (n = 148) working in varied health care settings. Data were collected using the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Simple linear and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships. A statistically significant relationship was found between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (r = 0.59, P < 0.001) explaining 34% variance in transformational leadership. Nurse managers should be well informed of the predictors of transformational leadership in order to pursue continuing education and development opportunities related to those predictors. The results of this study emphasise the need for emotional intelligence continuing education, leadership development and leader assessment programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Predictors of extubation failure in myasthenic crisis.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Janaka; Mandrekar, Jay; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2008-07-01

    The ideal timing for extubation of patients with myasthenic crisis (MC) and the factors that influence extubation outcome are not well established. To assess the risk of extubation failure in MC and to identify predictors of extubation failure. We reviewed consecutive episodes of MC treated with endotracheal intubation from January 1, 1987, through December 31, 2006. Mayo Clinic. Patients Forty patients with 46 episodes of MC underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The main outcome measures were extubation failure and reintubation. Extubation failure was defined as reintubation, tracheostomy, or death while intubated. Reintubation was also analyzed as a separate end point. Univariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of extubation failure and reintubation. Of the 46 episodes of MC, extubation failure occurred in 20 (44%), including 9 of 35 episodes (26%) of reintubation. Male sex, history of previous crisis, atelectasis, and intubation for more than 10 days were associated with extubation failure. Lower pH and lower forced vital capacity on the time of extubation, atelectasis, and bilevel intermittent positive airway pressure use after extubation predicted the need for reintubation. Atelectasis showed the strongest association with both end points. Extubation failure and reintubation were associated with significant prolongation in intensive care unit and hospital length of stay. Extubation failure is relatively common in patients with MC. Atelectasis is the strongest predictor of this complication.

  9. Predictors of Calcium Retention in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kathleen M.; Braun, Michelle; Kern, Mark; Martin, Berdine R.; Navalta, James W.; Sedlock, Darlene A.; McCabe, Linda; McCabe, George P.; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The relationship between calcium (Ca) intake and Ca retention in adolescent boys was recently reported. Objective: This study evaluated the influence of Ca intake, serum hormone levels, biomarkers of bone metabolism, habitual physical activity, habitual Ca intake, and physical fitness on Ca retention in the same sample. Design: This study was a randomized, cross-over design that consisted of two 3-wk metabolic balance periods. Setting: The study took place on a university campus as a summer camp. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 31 American white boys (13–15 yr) participated in the study. Interventions: Each subject consumed a controlled diet with one of five high-low Ca intake pairs that ranged from 670-2003 mg/d, which was manipulated utilizing a fortified beverage. Main Outcome Measures: Ca retention was determined by Ca intake minus urinary and fecal Ca excretion during each balance period. Results: Ca intake explained 21.7% of the variability in Ca retention, and serum IGF-I concentration explained an additional 11.5%. Other serum hormone levels did not significantly add to the model. Biomarkers of bone metabolism, habitual physical activity, habitual Ca intake, and physical fitness were not significant predictors of Ca retention in adolescent boys. Conclusions: IGF-I, a regulator of growth during puberty, is an important predictor of Ca retention in adolescent boys. However, dietary Ca intake is an even greater predictor of Ca retention during this period of growth. PMID:18840643

  10. Predictors of outcome in acute encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kiran T.; Motta, Melissa; Asemota, Anthony O.; Kirsch, Hannah L.; Benavides, David R.; Schneider, Eric B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Geocadin, Romergryko G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate predictors of outcome in patients with all-cause encephalitis receiving care in the intensive care unit. Methods: A retrospective analysis of encephalitis cases at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center was performed. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we examined mortality and predictors of good outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale scores of 1–3) and poor outcome (scores 4 and 5) in those surviving to hospital discharge. Results: In our cohort of 103 patients, the median age was 52 years (interquartile range 26), 52 patients (50.49%) were male, 28 patients (27.18%) had viral encephalitis, 19 (18.45%) developed status epilepticus (SE), 15 (14.56%) had cerebral edema, and 19 (18.45%) died. In our multivariate logistic regression analysis, death was associated with cerebral edema (odds ratio [OR] 18.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.14–103.92), SE (OR 8.16, 95% CI 1.55–43.10), and thrombocytopenia (OR 6.28, 95% CI 1.41–28.03). Endotracheal intubation requirement with ventilator support was highly correlated with death (95%). In addition, in those patients who survived, viral, nonviral, and unknown causes of encephalitis were less likely to have a poor outcome at hospital discharge compared with an autoimmune etiology (viral encephalitis: OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.57; nonviral encephalitis: OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.01–0.31; unknown etiology: OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04–0.91). Conclusions: Our study suggests that predictors of death in patients with encephalitis comprise potentially reversible conditions including cerebral edema, SE, and thrombocytopenia. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether aggressive management of these complications in patients with encephalitis improves outcome. PMID:23892708

  11. Predictors of treatment preference for mandibular fracture

    PubMed Central

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Gironda, Melanie W.; Black, Edward E.; Belin, Thomas R.; Atchison, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient treatment preferences do not necessarily remain stable over time. Objective This study focuses on predictors of patient treatment choice and on the extent to which patients are willing to take risks by choosing surgical versus non-surgical treatment for mandibular fracture. Methods Surveys of African-American and Hispanic adults receiving treatment at King/Drew Medical Center for either a mandibular fracture (n = 98) or third-molar removal (n = 105) were used to investigate patterns of patient preference over the course of a 4-month study period using generalized estimating equations controlling for age, gender, income, and fracture versus third-molar patient. The study examined the effects of symptom rating and a “standard gamble” measure reflecting a patient’s willingness to accept scarring or nerve damage. This analysis is based on 169 patients who participated in four waves of data collection. Results The most salient predictor of patient treatment was the standard gamble measure at 1-month follow-up. Subjects with higher risk tolerance were more likely to select surgery versus jaw wiring. A higher likelihood of choosing surgery was associated with higher income and greater symptom severity. Fracture patients were more likely to select surgery compared with third-molar patients. Conclusions The significance of symptom severity 1-month post-surgery raises an important issue regarding the healing process. Moreover, the significance of standard gamble as a predictor of treatment choice for mandibular fracture should encourage other researchers to use this measure of willingness to accept risk when studying acute conditions such as jaw fracture. PMID:19694938

  12. Social network predictors of latrine ownership.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation, including the lack of clean functioning toilets, is a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in the developing world. We examine correlates of latrine ownership in rural India with a focus on social network predictors. Participants from 75 villages provided the names of their social contacts as well as their own relevant demographic and household characteristics. Using these measures, we test whether the latrine ownership of an individual's social contacts is a significant predictor of individual latrine ownership. We also investigate whether network centrality significantly predicts latrine ownership, and if so, whether it moderates the relationship between the latrine ownership of the individual and that of her social contacts. Our results show that, controlling for the standard predictors of latrine ownership such as caste, education, and income, individuals are more likely to own latrines if their social contacts own latrines. Interaction models suggest that this relationship is stronger among those of the same caste, the same education, and those with stronger social ties. We also find that more central individuals are more likely to own latrines, but the correlation in latrine ownership between social contacts is strongest among individuals on the periphery of the network. Although more data is needed to determine how much the clustering of latrine ownership may be caused by social influence, the results here suggest that interventions designed to promote latrine ownership should consider focusing on those at the periphery of the network. The reason is that they are 1) less likely to own latrines and 2) more likely to exhibit the same behavior as their social contacts, possibly as a result of the spread of latrine adoption from one person to another. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of treatment preference for mandibular fracture.

    PubMed

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Gironda, Melanie W; Black, Edward E; Belin, Thomas R; Atchison, Kathryn A

    2010-01-01

    Patient treatment preferences do not necessarily remain stable over time. This study focuses on predictors of patient treatment choice and on the extent to which patients are willing to take risks by choosing surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for mandibular fracture. Surveys of African-American and Hispanic adults receiving treatment at King/Drew Medical Center for either a mandibular fracture (n = 98) or third-molar removal (n = 105) were used to investigate patterns of patient preference over the course of a 4-month study period using generalized estimating equations controlling for age, gender, income, and fracture versus third-molar patient. The study examined the effects of symptom rating and a"standard gamble" measure reflecting a patient's willingness to accept scarring or nerve damage. This analysis is based on 169 patients who participated in four waves of data collection. The most salient predictor of patient treatment was the standard gamble measure at 1-month follow-up. Subjects with higher risk tolerance were more likely to select surgery versus jaw wiring. A higher likelihood of choosing surgery was associated with higher income and greater symptom severity. Fracture patients were more likely to select surgery compared with third-molar patients. The significance of symptom severity 1-month post-surgery raises an important issue regarding the healing process. Moreover, the significance of standard gamble as a predictor of treatment choice for mandibular fracture should encourage other researchers to use this measure of willingness to accept risk when studying acute conditions such as jaw fracture.

  14. Systematic review of kidney transplantation functional predictors.

    PubMed

    Miret Alomar, E; Trilla Herrera, E; Lorente Garcia, D; Regis Placido, L; López Del Campo, R; Cuadras Solé, M; Pont Castellana, T; Moreso Mateos, F; Serón Micas, D; Morote Robles, J

    2017-08-10

    Kidney transplantation from donors with expanded criteria has increased the pool of kidneys at the cost of a higher risk of short and long-term graft dysfunction. The main issue lies in determining which kidneys will offer acceptable function and survival compared with the risk represented by surgery and subsequent immunosuppression. The objective of our article is to review the current evidence on the tools for predicting the functionality of kidney transplantation from cadaveric donors with expanded criteria and determining the validity for their use in standard practice. We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PRISM criteria, through Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and using the keywords (in isolation or in conjunction) "cadaveric renal transplantation; kidney graft function appraisal, graft function predictors". We selected prospective and retrospective series and review articles. A total of 375 articles were analysed, 39 of which were ultimately selected for review. The predictors of functionality include the following: The donor risk indices; the calculation of the renal functional weight or the assessment of the nephronic mass; the measurement of vascular resistances during perfusion in hypothermia; the measurement of the donor's biomarkers in urine and in the perfusion liquid; the measurement of functional and reperfusion parameters in normothermia; and the measurement of morphological parameters (microscopic and macroscopic) of the target organ. In this article, we present an explanatory summary of each of these parameters, as well as their most recent evidence on this issue. None of the reviewed parameters in isolation could reliably predict renal function and graft survival. There is a significant void in terms of the macroscopic assessment of kidney transplantation. We need to continue developing predictors of renal functionality to accurately define the distribution of each currently available donor kidney. Copyright © 2017

  15. Predictors of calf cramping in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Summers, Katherine M; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Callister, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) in the calf are common in rugby league. To date, the etiology and predictors of calf cramping are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to undertake a prospective investigation to identify predictors of calf cramping in rugby league players. Demographic and anthropometric data and calf cramp and injury history were collected in the preseason. Hydration status, number of games played, and calf cramps were recorded on game days. Male rugby league players (n = 103, mean age 18.8 ± 4.1 years) were classified as either EAMC (experienced at least 1 incident of calf cramps in the season) or no EAMC (no calf cramps). The following were investigated as possible predictors of EAMC using logistic regression modeling: competition level, age, ethnicity, playing position, history of cramping, precramping, low back pain, foot orthotic usage, foot posture, foot strike, muscle flexibility, calf girth, hydration status, and number of games played. Half the players, n = 52, experienced at least 1 incidence of calf cramping. Playing in a senior competition level (odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.75; p = 0.016), a history of calf cramping (10.85; 2.16-54.44; p = 0.004), and a history of low back pain resulting in missed field minutes (4.50, 1.37-14.79; p = 0.013) were found to predict EAMC. This study suggests that there is a high incidence of calf cramping in rugby league, especially at senior competition levels, and supports preseason screening in senior players to idetify those at risk of calf cramping and the development of possible preventative strategies.

  16. Predictors of Driving Outcomes in Advancing Age

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Jamie L.; Johnson, Amy M.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop predictive models for real-life driving outcomes in older drivers. Demographics, driving history, on-road driving errors, and performance on visual, motor, and neuropsychological test scores at baseline were assessed in 100 older drivers (ages 65–89 years [72.7]). These variables were used to predict time to driving cessation, first moving violation, or crash. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, significant individual predictors for driving cessation were greater age and poorer scores on Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Useful Field of View, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail Making Test-Part A, Benton Visual Retention Test, Grooved Pegboard, and a composite index of overall cognitive ability. Greater weekly mileage, higher education, and “serious” on-road errors predicted moving violations. Poorer scores from Trail Making Test-Part B or Trail Making Test (B-A) and serious on-road errors predicted crashes. Multivariate models using “off-road” predictors revealed (1) age and Contrast Sensitivity as best predictors for driving cessation; (2) education, weekly mileage, and Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall for moving violations; and (3) education, number of crashes over the past year, Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall, and Trail Making Test (B-A) for crashes. Diminished visual, motor, and cognitive abilities in older drivers can be easily and noninvasively monitored with standardized off-road tests, and performances on these measures predict involvement in motor vehicle crashes and driving cessation, even in the absence of a neurological disorder. PMID:22182364

  17. Childhood Predictors of Adult Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Irma; Chen, Chin-Chih; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the early determinants of substance abuse is a major focus of life course research. In this study, we investigated the child, family, and school-related antecedents of the onset and prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 for a cohort of 1,208 low-income minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Data onon well-being have been collected prospectively since birth from administrative records, parents, teachers, and children. Results indicated that the prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 was 32 percent (self reports or criminal justice system records) with a median age of first use of 17. Probit regression analysis indicated that substance abuse prevalence was primarily determined by gender (males had a higher rate), trouble making behavior by age 12, school mobility, and previous substance use. Family and peer predictors included involvement in the child welfare system by age 9, parent expectations for school success at age 9, parent substance abuse by children's age 15, and deviant peer affiliation by age 16. Age of first substance use was predicted by gender and race/ethnicity (males and Blacks had earlier incidence), involvement in the child welfare system, and family risk status at age 8. As with prevalence, the pattern of predictors for males was similar to the overall sample but the magnitude of effects was stronger.. The predictors of the timing of substance use dependency were gender, family conflict by age 5, involvement in the child welfare system, social maturity at age 9, adolescent school mobility, and school dropout by age 16. Findings indicate that the promotion of family involvement and positive school and social behavior can reduce the risk of substance abuse. PMID:27867242

  18. Predictors of outcome in acute encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kiran T; Motta, Melissa; Asemota, Anthony O; Kirsch, Hannah L; Benavides, David R; Schneider, Eric B; McArthur, Justin C; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Venkatesan, Arun

    2013-08-27

    To investigate predictors of outcome in patients with all-cause encephalitis receiving care in the intensive care unit. A retrospective analysis of encephalitis cases at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center was performed. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we examined mortality and predictors of good outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale scores of 1-3) and poor outcome (scores 4 and 5) in those surviving to hospital discharge. In our cohort of 103 patients, the median age was 52 years (interquartile range 26), 52 patients (50.49%) were male, 28 patients (27.18%) had viral encephalitis, 19 (18.45%) developed status epilepticus (SE), 15 (14.56%) had cerebral edema, and 19 (18.45%) died. In our multivariate logistic regression analysis, death was associated with cerebral edema (odds ratio [OR] 18.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.14-103.92), SE (OR 8.16, 95% CI 1.55-43.10), and thrombocytopenia (OR 6.28, 95% CI 1.41-28.03). Endotracheal intubation requirement with ventilator support was highly correlated with death (95%). In addition, in those patients who survived, viral, nonviral, and unknown causes of encephalitis were less likely to have a poor outcome at hospital discharge compared with an autoimmune etiology (viral encephalitis: OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.57; nonviral encephalitis: OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.31; unknown etiology: OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.91). Our study suggests that predictors of death in patients with encephalitis comprise potentially reversible conditions including cerebral edema, SE, and thrombocytopenia. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether aggressive management of these complications in patients with encephalitis improves outcome.

  19. Predictors of Dysphagia in Acute Pontine Infarction.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Sriramya; Luger, Sebastian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Henke, Christian; Wagner, Marlies; Foerch, Christian

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the frequency and the clinical characteristics of neurogenic dysphagia in pontine strokes. In this study, we sought to identify predictors for dysphagia in a cohort of patients with isolated pontine infarctions. We included all patients admitted to our department between 2008 and 2014 having an acute (<48 hours after symptom onset) ischemic stroke in the pons, as documented by means of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Precise infarct localization was stratified according to established vascular territories. The presence of dysphagia was the primary end point of the study and was assessed by a Speech-Language Pathologist according to defined criteria. The study recruited 59 patients, 14 with and 45 without dysphagia. Median (interquartile range) stroke severity (in terms of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale values) was higher in the dysphagic group as compared with patients without dysphagia (8.5 [6-12] versus 2 [1-5]; P<0.001). Infarct localization in the upper part of the pons (78.6% versus 33.3%; P=0.004) and in the anterolateral vascular territory (78.6% versus 31.1%; P=0.002) occurred more often in the dysphagic group. In a multivariate model, age, infarct volume, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale value were independent predictors of dysphagia. Dysphagia occurs frequently in patients with isolated pontine infarctions. Clinical and imaging predictors of dysphagia may help to provide optimal screening, to prevent complications and to improve long-term prognosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Predictors of dominance in male Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, P M

    1985-03-01

    The formation of dominance/subordinancy relations in pairs of male Siamese fighting fish was examined in six experiments. Dominant animals typically were those fish that built the largest nests and that attacked an image of a live, displaying male most intensely prior to combat. However, pretest performance on an operant task and reaction to an animal's own mirror image were not useful predictors of subsequent dominance. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that domesticated Bettas have a territorial social strategy that includes both nest-building and fighting behaviors.

  1. Predictors of Functional Outcome Following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard L

    2015-11-01

    Predicting functional outcome in stroke is challenging to most clinicians, partly because of the complexity of the condition and also because of the lack of validated prognostic models. The strongest predictors of functional outcome are age and motor function at stroke onset. There is a growing literature on predicting recovery of upper limb after stroke; however, literature on prediction of language recovery remains sparse. This review covers the current status of predicting functional outcome after stroke focusing on recovery of activities of daily living, ambulation, upper limb use, and aphasia. Use of clinical factors, imaging, and neurophysiological measures are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sacrifice as a predictor of marital outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott M; Whitton, Sarah W; Sadberry, Sabina Low; Clements, Mari L; Markman, Howard J

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the prospective associations between attitudes about sacrifice and marital outcomes in 38 married couples. Specifically, a measure of satisfaction with sacrifice was proposed to be a potent longitudinal predictor of marital adjustment and distress based on existing cross-sectional studies and also to mediate the association between commitment and marital adjustment. Results demonstrated that attitudes about sacrifice discriminated between couples who would become distressed versus nondistressed over time. Sacrifice attitudes also predicted the maintenance of relationship adjustment over time even better than earlier relationship adjustment. Finally, sacrifice attitudes mediated the link between commitment and relationship adjustment for husbands, but not wives. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  3. Complementarity of genotoxic and nongenotoxic predictors of rodent carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Kitchin, K T; Brown, J L; Kulkarni, A P

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one chemicals carcinogenic in rodent bioassays were selected for study. The chemicals were administered by gavage in two dose levels to female Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of these 21 chemicals on four biochemical assays [hepatic DNA damage by alkaline elution (DD), hepatic ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC), serum alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), and hepatic cytochrome P-450 content (P450)] were determined. Available data from seven cancer predictors published by others [the Ames test (AMES), mutation in Salmonella typhimurium TA 1537 (TA 1537), structural alerts (SA), mutation in mouse lymphoma cells (MOLY), chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells (ABS), sister chromatid exchange in hamster ovary cells (SCE), and the ke test (ke)] were also compiled for these 21 chemical carcinogens plus 28 carcinogens and 62 noncarcinogens already published by our laboratory. From the resulting 111 (chemicals) by 11 (individual cancer predictors) data matrix, the five operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity, negative predictivity, and concordance) of each of the 11 individual cancer predictors (four biochemical parameters of this study and seven cancer predictors of others) are presented. Two examples of complementarity or synergy of composite cancer predictors were found. To obtain maximum concordance it was necessary to combine both genotoxic and nongenotoxic cancer predictors. The composite cancer predictor (DD or [ODC and P450] or [ODC and ALT]) had higher concordance than did any of the four individual cancer predictors from which it was constructed. Similarly, the composite cancer predictor (TA 1537 or DD or [ODC and P450] or [ODC and ALT]) had higher concordance than any of its five individual constituent cancer predictors. Complementarity or synergy has been demonstrated both 1) among genotoxic cancer predictors (DD and TA 1537) and 2) between nongenotoxic (ODC, P450, and ALT) and genotoxic cancer

  4. Parent Training: Goals, Models and Predictors. Symposium--Parent Training: Models and Predictors of Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce L.

    Parent training goals, models, and predictors of effectiveness are examined with examples from three parent training models: (1) a combination of group sessions and intensive in-home consultation visits to prepare families receiving their child home again after residential treatment; (2) intensive in-home training intended to prevent residential…

  5. Predictors of Poor Outcome in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV).

    PubMed

    Vega, Luis E; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-12-01

    It is important to recognize factors that might predict poor outcome and prognosis in patients with AAV. The predictors reported in the literature encompass genetic, histopathological, and clinical ones. Genetic studies (genetic predictors) have found genes that are associated with prediction of poor response to treatment, deterioration of renal function, and risk of mortality. Histopathological studies (histopathological predictors) have shown that sclerotic renal lesions are associated with increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and death. Lastly, scores (clinical predictors) obtained with tool as FFS, Maldini risk score, VDI, and emerging new biomarkers could potentially be helpful in assessment of prognosis in the future.

  6. SHORT-TERM SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING MULTIRESOLUTION PREDICTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Daren; Huang Xin; Hu Qinghua; Zhou Rui; Wang Huaning; Cui Yanmei

    2010-01-20

    Multiresolution predictors of solar flares are constructed by a wavelet transform and sequential feature extraction method. Three predictors-the maximum horizontal gradient, the length of neutral line, and the number of singular points-are extracted from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager longitudinal magnetograms. A maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform is used to decompose the sequence of predictors into four frequency bands. In each band, four sequential features-the maximum, the mean, the standard deviation, and the root mean square-are extracted. The multiresolution predictors in the low-frequency band reflect trends in the evolution of newly emerging fluxes. The multiresolution predictors in the high-frequency band reflect the changing rates in emerging flux regions. The variation of emerging fluxes is decoupled by wavelet transform in different frequency bands. The information amount of these multiresolution predictors is evaluated by the information gain ratio. It is found that the multiresolution predictors in the lowest and highest frequency bands contain the most information. Based on these predictors, a C4.5 decision tree algorithm is used to build the short-term solar flare prediction model. It is found that the performance of the short-term solar flare prediction model based on the multiresolution predictors is greatly improved.

  7. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  8. Predictors of Neurocognitive Syndromes in Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael J; Gill, Jessica; Leaman, Suzanne; Law, Wendy; Ndiongue, Rochelle; Taylor, Patricia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bieler, Gayle S; Garge, Nikhil; Rapp, Paul E; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic; Xydakis, Michael; Pham, Dzung; Wassermann, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are neurocognitive syndromes often associated with impairment of physical and mental health, as well as functional status. These syndromes are also frequent in military service members (SMs) after combat, although their presentation is often delayed until months after their return. The objective of this prospective cohort study was the identification of independent predictors of neurocognitive syndromes upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention to prevent disability. We completed a comprehensive baseline assessment, followed by serial evaluations at three, six, and 12 months, to assess for new-onset PTSD, depression, or postconcussive syndrome (PCS) in order to identify baseline factors most strongly associated with subsequent neurocognitive syndromes. On serial follow-up, seven participants developed at least one neurocognitive syndrome: five with PTSD, one with depression and PTSD, and one with PCS. On univariate analysis, 60 items were associated with syndrome development at p < 0.15. Decision trees and ensemble tree multivariate models yielded four common independent predictors of PTSD: right superior longitudinal fasciculus tract volume on MRI; resting state connectivity between the right amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (BA41/42) on functional MRI; and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for myelin basic protein as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings require follow-up studies with greater sample size and suggest that neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers may help distinguish those at high risk for post-deployment neurocognitive syndromes. PMID:26251769

  9. Predictors of Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Slade O.; Vaska, Vikram L.; Espedido, Björn A.; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes. PMID:22491776

  10. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lange, Carolin; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Steinmann, Susanne; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach. Methods In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations) were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments) on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits. Results The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3), dementia (OR = 154.1) and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7) were strongly associated with institutionalization. Conclusion Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a) living alone and (b) suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges. PMID:26658776

  11. Predictors of rapid relapse in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Olmsted, Marion P; MacDonald, Danielle E; McFarlane, Traci; Trottier, Kathryn; Colton, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Relapse remains a significant concern in bulimia nervosa, with some patients relapsing within months of treatment completion. The purpose of the study was to identify predictors of relapse within the first 6 months following treatment. The 116 participants were bingeing and/or vomiting ≥ 8 times per month before day hospital (DH), and had ≤ 2 episodes per month in the last month of DH and the first month after DH. Rapid relapse was defined as ≥ 8 episodes per month for 3 months starting within 6 months. The rate of rapid relapse was 27.6%. Patients who relapsed soon after DH had higher frequencies of bingeing and vomiting before treatment, engaged in less body avoidance before treatment and were more likely to be slow responders to treatment. Weight and shape concerns and body checking were not significant predictors. More frequent bulimic symptoms accompanied by less body avoidance may indicate an entrenchment in the illness which in turn augurs a labored and transient response to DH treatment that is difficult to sustain after intensive treatment ends. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Predictors of mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    van Hal, Sebastian J; Jensen, Slade O; Vaska, Vikram L; Espedido, Björn A; Paterson, David L; Gosbell, Iain B

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes.

  13. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child’s age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child’s age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child’s age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child’s age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  14. Predictors of Generalized Anxiety Disorder stigma.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Barney, Lisa J; Parsons, Alison

    2013-04-30

    The stigma associated with mental illness can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including delaying or avoiding help seeking. Identifying the characteristics of people who are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes enables the development of targeted stigma reduction programs. However, no previous research has systematically examined the predictors of anxiety stigma. This study used the Generalized Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS) to assess the predictors of personal stigma and perceived stigma associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. A community sample of 617 Australian adults completed a survey that included the GASS, the Depression Stigma Scale, exposure to anxiety disorders, emotional distress and a range of demographic characteristics. Linear regression models indicated that women, people with greater exposure to anxiety disorders and people reporting a previous anxiety diagnosis had lower personal stigma toward anxiety. Higher exposure to anxiety disorders and rurality were significantly associated with higher perceived anxiety stigma. Results also suggested that respondents who had only been exposed to anxiety disorders through the media tended to be no more stigmatizing than respondents who had direct contact with people with an anxiety disorder. Media campaigns may be an effective vehicle for decreasing stigmatizing views in the community.

  15. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age.

    PubMed

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lange, Carolin; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Steinmann, Susanne; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; König, Hans-Helmut

    2015-01-01

    To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach. In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations) were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments) on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits. The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3), dementia (OR = 154.1) and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7) were strongly associated with institutionalization. Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a) living alone and (b) suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges.

  16. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  17. Intrapartum predictors of maternal levator ani injury.

    PubMed

    Caudwell-Hall, Jessica; Kamisan Atan, Ixora; Martin, Andrew; Guzman Rojas, Rodrigo; Langer, Susanne; Shek, Kalai; Dietz, Hans P

    2017-04-01

    Damage to the pelvic floor during vaginal childbirth is common, and may take the form of levator avulsion or irreversible overdistension of the levator hiatus (microtrauma). Such trauma is a major risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse later in life. In this study we aimed to identify intrapartum risk factors for levator trauma. This is a retrospective analysis of data obtained in two perinatal studies on primiparous women. Between 2005 and 2014, 1148 women carrying an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy in the late third trimester were seen for 4D pelvic floor ultrasound and an interview. They were invited for a repeat assessment at three months postpartum. Of 1148 women, 871 (76%) returned for assessment at a mean of five months postpartum. The datasets of 844 women were analyzed due to missing data or concurrent pregnancy in 27. In all, 452 (54%) had a normal vaginal delivery, 102 (12%) a vacuum, 55 (6%) a forceps, and 235 (28%) a cesarean section. On multivariate analysis forceps, length of second stage and obstetric anal sphincter tears were significantly associated with levator avulsion. There were no significant predictors identified for irreversible overdistension. The use of forceps, a prolonged second stage, and obstetric anal sphincter tears were associated with levator avulsion. There were no associated intrapartum predictors for hiatal overdistension. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Predictors of fatigue in obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Paul J.; Kim, Jong-Heun; Bardwell, Wayne; Hong, Suzi; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine potential inflammatory predictors of fatigue in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and methods Fifty-six women and men untreated OSA patients had their sleep monitored with polysomnography. Fatigue was assessed by the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form. Depressed mood was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Blood was drawn to assess circulating levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI). Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, OSA severity, depressed mood, and inflammatory biomarkers were entered into a hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis predicting self-reported fatigue. Results Approximately 42% of the patients reported significant amounts of fatigue. Higher BMI (p=0.014), greater depressed mood (p=0.004), and higher sTNF-RI levels (p=0.033) were independent predictors of fatigue in the final model (full model R2=.571; p=.003). Age, gender, blood pressure and apnea severity were unrelated to fatigue. Conclusion The findings suggest that in addition to depressed mood, fatigue in OSA may be associated with increased body weight and elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine receptor sTNF-RI. The findings support a linkage between the widely reported fatigue in OSA and a sleep-related component of inflammation. PMID:18516635

  19. Predictors of empathy in health science students.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Boyle, Malcolm; Williams, Brett; Molloy, Andrew; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Molloy, Liz

    2011-01-01

    The significance of both empathy and effective communication as key components in the provision of health care services is widely acknowledged. It is important, therefore, to promote those communication styles which facilitate an empathetic understanding among health science students. To explores whether listening and communication styles are predictive of empathy among health science students. A cross-sectional study of 860 undergraduate health science students (response rate, 59%) using paper-based versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Health Professional Version, Listening Styles Profile, Communicator Styles Measure, and a brief demographic questionnaire. Two stepwise linear regression analyses were completed using the empathy construct as the dependent/criterion variable and listening and communication styles as the two sets of independent/predictor variables. As there was a statistically significant difference in empathy between males and females, gender was controlled for in both regression models. In first model, the People and Time listening styles were found to be predictive of empathy, accounting for 20.3% of the total variance. In the second model, both the Friendly and Relaxed communication styles were predictive of empathy, accounting for 9.7% of the total variance. The findings indicate that People and Time listening styles and the Friendly and Relaxed communication styles were significant predictors of empathy in health science students. The findings suggest that promoting effective communication among health science students may improve their ability to empathize.

  20. [Predictors of Resilience in Adolescents with Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Sil; Park, Ho Ran

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors relating to resilience for adolescents with leukemia and examine the relationship between these factors. From June to September in 2014, 199 adolescents aged 11 to 21 participated in the study as they visited the out-patient clinic at C university hospital for follow-up care. To verify the predictors and the effects of resilience, uncertainty, symptom distress, perceived social support, spiritual perspective, defensive coping, courageous coping, hope, and self-transcendence were measured. Collected data were analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis with the SAS statistics program. The final regression model showed that courageous coping, hope, and self-transcendence were significant predictors related to resilience in adolescents with leukemia and explained for 63% of the variance in resilience. The findings indicate that adolescent-oriented intervention programs enhancing courageous coping, hope, and self-transcendence should be provide for adolescents with leukemia in order to overcome illness-related stress and support physical, psychological and social adjustment.

  1. Predictors of Neurocognitive Syndromes in Combat Veterans.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle; Gill, Jessica; Leaman, Suzanne; Law, Wendy; Ndiongue, Rochelle; Taylor, Patricia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bieler, Gayle S; Garge, Nikhil; Rapp, Paul E; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic; Xydakis, Michael; Pham, Dzung; Wassermann, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are neurocognitive syndromes often associated with impairment of physical and mental health, as well as functional status. These syndromes are also frequent in military service members (SMs) after combat, although their presentation is often delayed until months after their return. The objective of this prospective cohort study was the identification of independent predictors of neurocognitive syndromes upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention to prevent disability. We completed a comprehensive baseline assessment, followed by serial evaluations at three, six, and 12 months, to assess for new-onset PTSD, depression, or postconcussive syndrome (PCS) in order to identify baseline factors most strongly associated with subsequent neurocognitive syndromes. On serial follow-up, seven participants developed at least one neurocognitive syndrome: five with PTSD, one with depression and PTSD, and one with PCS. On univariate analysis, 60 items were associated with syndrome development at p < 0.15. Decision trees and ensemble tree multivariate models yielded four common independent predictors of PTSD: right superior longitudinal fasciculus tract volume on MRI; resting state connectivity between the right amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (BA41/42) on functional MRI; and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for myelin basic protein as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings require follow-up studies with greater sample size and suggest that neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers may help distinguish those at high risk for post-deployment neurocognitive syndromes.

  2. Predictors of poststroke mobility: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Craig, Louise E; Wu, Olivia; Bernhardt, Julie; Langhorne, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Regaining poststroke mobility is considered a primary goal of the stroke patient in early rehabilitation. Predictive recovery of poststroke mobility is clinically important, and provides important information to healthcare professionals, patients and their families. We conducted a systematic review aimed at identifying the predictive or associated baseline factors, assessed within one-week of stroke onset, and the recovery of poststroke mobility within 30 days. A comprehensive search strategy was applied to all major electronic databases to identify potentially relevant studies. Included in the review are two studies that evaluate the predictive value of baseline factors by developing a prognostic model, and three studies that assess the baseline factors that were associated with the outcome by univariate analysis. Walking is the most commonly assessed mobility outcome; age, the severity of paresis, reduced leg power, presence of hemianopia, size of brain lesion and type of stroke were shown to be predictive or associated with walking within 30 days poststroke. This review has identified the potential predictors of the recovery of mobility poststroke. There is a need to explore and validate these predictors in other patient cohorts, and consider additional factors believed to be associated with mobility. The recovery of mobility other than walking also needs investigation. In order to move prognostic research in stroke forward, a collaborative approach to sharing and collecting data is recommended. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  3. PRECONCEPTION PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examined preconception (prepregnancy) predictors of pregnancy weight gain and weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in a prospective study. Methods Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2 years later. The analytic sample includes 103 women who were not pregnant at baseline and gave birth to full-term singletons during the follow-up period. Preconception maternal weight category as well as health behaviors, psychosocial stress, parity, and age were examined as predictors of pregnancy weight gain and of weight gain in excess of the IOM recommendations using multiple linear and logistic regression analysis. Results Pregnancy weight gain averaged 33.01 pounds, with 51% of women gaining weight in excess of the 2009 IOM recommendations for their preconception weight category. Preconception overweight (BMI = 25–29.9) increased the odds of excessive pregnancy weight gain nearly threefold, whereas preconception physical activity levels meeting activity guidelines reduced the odds of excessive weight gain but was marginally statistically significant. Conclusion Although future research examining the role of physical activity in relation to pregnancy weight gain is needed, preconception overweight and physical activity levels are prime targets for interventions to avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain. PMID:20133152

  4. Hospital prescribing errors: epidemiological assessment of predictors

    PubMed Central

    Fijn, R; Van den Bemt, P M L A; Chow, M; De Blaey, C J; De Jong-Van den Berg, L T W; Brouwers, J R B J

    2002-01-01

    Aims To demonstrate an epidemiological method to assess predictors of prescribing errors. Methods A retrospective case-control study, comparing prescriptions with and without errors. Results Only prescriber and drug characteristics were associated with errors. Prescriber characteristics were medical specialty (e.g. orthopaedics: OR: 3.4, 95% CI 2.1, 5.4) and prescriber status (e.g. verbal orders transcribed by nursing staff: OR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.6). Drug characteristics were dosage form (e.g. inhalation devices: OR: 4.1, 95% CI 2.6, 6.6), therapeutic area (e.g. gastrointestinal tract: OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.2, 2.4) and continuation of preadmission treatment (Yes: OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.3, 2.3). Conclusions Other hospitals could use our epidemiological framework to identify their own error predictors. Our findings suggest a focus on specific prescribers, dosage forms and therapeutic areas. We also found that prescriptions originating from general practitioners involved errors and therefore, these should be checked when patients are hospitalized. PMID:11874397

  5. Predictors of Metastatic Disease After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, Kevin; Burri, Ryan; Stone, Nelson; Stock, Richard G.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To identify predictors of metastatic disease after brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients who received either brachytherapy alone (implant) or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy for treatment of localized prostate cancer at The Mount Sinai Hospital between June 1990 and March 2007 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed on the following variables: risk group, Gleason score (GS), clinical T stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, post-treatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT), treatment type (implant vs. implant plus external beam radiation therapy), treatment era, total biological effective dose, use of androgen deprivation therapy, age at diagnosis, and race. PSA-DT was analyzed in the following ordinate groups: 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 180 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days. Results: We included 1,887 patients in this study. Metastases developed in 47 of these patients. The 10-year freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM) rate for the entire population was 95.1%. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 2-15 years). The only two significant predictors of metastatic disease by multivariable analyses were GS and PSA-DT (p < 0.001 for both variables). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for GS of 6 or less, GS of 7, and GS of 8 or greater were 97.9%, 94.3%, and 76.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated FFDM rates for PSA-DT of 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 181 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days were 17.5%, 67.9%, 74%, and 94.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 98.6%, 96.2%, and 86.7%, respectively. A demographic shift to patients presenting with higher-grade disease in more recent years was observed. Conclusions: GS and post-treatment PSA-DT are both statistically significant independent predictors of metastatic

  6. The Generalizability of Substance Use Predictors Across Racial Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tamara L.; Miller, Joshua D.; Clayton, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have examined the predictors of substance use for ethnic minority adolescents. The current longitudinal study investigated whether factors predictive of substance use for Caucasian adolescents were also predictive for African American adolescents. Results indicated which predictors of substance use actually differ across African…

  7. Kindergarten Predictors of Second versus Eighth Grade Reading Comprehension Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge are good predictors of reading achievement in the primary grades. However, less attention has been given to the early predictors of later reading achievement. This study used a modified best-subsets variable-selection technique to examine…

  8. Predictors of Service Utilization among Youth Diagnosed with Mood Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Amy N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I investigated patterns and predictors of service utilization for children with mood disorders. The Behavioral Model for Health Care Utilization was used as an organizing framework for identifying predictors of the number and quality of services utilized. Hierarchical regression was used in secondary data analyses of the…

  9. Predictors of Anxiety and Depression in Taiwanese Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Lawrenz, Frances

    This study investigated significant predictors of anxiety and depression in Taiwanese secondary students and the different functions of these predictors. Surveys were completed by 1,672 senior high school students in Taiwan. As part of a larger study, these students completed the Secondary Student Questionnaire (SSQ), an instrument developed by…

  10. Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…

  11. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  12. An Effect Size for Regression Predictors in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloe, Ariel M.; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2012-01-01

    A new effect size representing the predictive power of an independent variable from a multiple regression model is presented. The index, denoted as r[subscript sp], is the semipartial correlation of the predictor with the outcome of interest. This effect size can be computed when multiple predictor variables are included in the regression model…

  13. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  14. Beyond ORF: Student-Level Predictors of Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Angela I.; Proctor, Briley E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored student-level predictors of reading achievement among third grade regular education students. Predictors included student demographics (sex and socioeconomic status (SES), using free and reduced lunch as proxy for SES), direct observations of reading skills (oral reading fluency (ORF) and word decoding skill (nonsense word…

  15. Effects of Internship Predictors on Successful Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Fred; Morton, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Finds that a majority of advertising and public-relations interns found their internships successful. Indicates that successful internships depend on predictors given the least attention by school programs: quality of supervision was the most important single predictor variable, followed in importance by organizational practices/policies, positive…

  16. Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…

  17. Low Social Inclusion in Childhood: Adjustment and Early Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, Lillianne; Henricsson, Lisbeth; Rydell, Ann-Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to obtain a deeper understanding than hitherto of the concurrent correlates and prospective predictors of loneliness and poor peer acceptance, both falling under the umbrella term low social inclusion. Problematic and socially competent behaviours were investigated as possible predictors of low social…

  18. School Counselors' Career Satisfaction and Commitment: Correlates and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Osborn, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate correlates and predictors of school counselors' career satisfaction and commitment. Regression analyses of 1,280 Florida counselors' survey responses indicated that positive predictors of career satisfaction included appropriate duties, high self-efficacy, and district and peer supervision, while…

  19. Kindergarten Predictors of Second versus Eighth Grade Reading Comprehension Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge are good predictors of reading achievement in the primary grades. However, less attention has been given to the early predictors of later reading achievement. This study used a modified best-subsets variable-selection technique to examine…

  20. Determining Predictor Importance in Hierarchical Linear Models Using Dominance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wen; Azen, Razia

    2013-01-01

    Dominance analysis (DA) is a method used to evaluate the relative importance of predictors that was originally proposed for linear regression models. This article proposes an extension of DA that allows researchers to determine the relative importance of predictors in hierarchical linear models (HLM). Commonly used measures of model adequacy in…

  1. Predictors of Sextypical and Asextypical Career Choice in College Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran, Paula R.; Lopez, Linda C.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the influence of sex, sex-role orientation, family size, birth order, and locus of control as predictors of sextypical career choice in 113 college students who completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory and Rotter I-E Scale. Results showed biological sex was the most influential predictor, especially for males. (JAC)

  2. Predictors of Service Utilization among Youth Diagnosed with Mood Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Amy N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I investigated patterns and predictors of service utilization for children with mood disorders. The Behavioral Model for Health Care Utilization was used as an organizing framework for identifying predictors of the number and quality of services utilized. Hierarchical regression was used in secondary data analyses of the…

  3. Predictors of Outcomes in a Performance Ladder Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Robert H.; McHenry, James D.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated variables from initial inmate evaluations at a state penitentiary as predictors of inmate success in behavioral ladder program. Results indicated that academic test variables were best predictors of overall success level, attitudes, and work habits. Personality variables and one interview observation variable were also found to be…

  4. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  5. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  6. LACIE performance predictor FOC users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LACIE Performance Predictor (LPP) is a computer simulation of the LACIE process for predicting worldwide wheat production. The simulation provides for the introduction of various errors into the system and provides estimates based on these errors, thus allowing the user to determine the impact of selected error sources. The FOC LPP simulates the acquisition of the sample segment data by the LANDSAT Satellite (DAPTS), the classification of the agricultural area within the sample segment (CAMS), the estimation of the wheat yield (YES), and the production estimation and aggregation (CAS). These elements include data acquisition characteristics, environmental conditions, classification algorithms, the LACIE aggregation and data adjustment procedures. The operational structure for simulating these elements consists of the following key programs: (1) LACIE Utility Maintenance Process, (2) System Error Executive, (3) Ephemeris Generator, (4) Access Generator, (5) Acquisition Selector, (6) LACIE Error Model (LEM), and (7) Post Processor.

  7. Predictors of telomere content in dragon lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballen, Cissy; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael; Olsson, Mats

    2012-08-01

    Telomeres shorten as a consequence of DNA replication, in particular in cells with low production of telomerase and perhaps in response to physiological stress from exposure to reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide. This process of telomere attrition is countered by innate antioxidation, such as via the production of superoxide dismutase. We studied the inheritance of telomere length in the Australian painted dragon lizard ( Ctenophorus pictus) and the extent to which telomere length covaries with mass-corrected maternal reproductive investment, which reflects the level of circulating yolk precursor and antioxidant, vitellogenin. Our predictors of offspring telomere length explained 72 % of telomere variation (including interstitial telomeres if such are present). Maternal telomere length and reproductive investment were positively influencing offspring telomere length in our analyses, whereas flow cytometry-estimated superoxide level was negatively impacting offspring telomere length. We suggest that the effects of superoxide on hatchling telomere shortening may be partly balanced by transgenerational effects of vitellogenin antioxidation.

  8. Family stressors as predictors of codependency.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J A; Warner, R M

    2000-02-01

    Codependency has been defined as an extreme focus on relationships, caused by a stressful family background (J. L. Fischer, L. Spann, & D. W. Crawford, 1991). In this study the authors assessed the relationship of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (J. L. Fischer et al., 1991) and the Potter-Efron Codependency Assessment (L. A. Potter-Efron & P. S. Potter-Efron, 1989) with self-reported chronic family stress and family background. Students (N = 257) completed 2 existing self-report codependency measures and provided family background information. Results indicated that women had higher codependency scores than men on the Spann-Fischer scale. Students with a history of chronic family stress (with an alcoholic, mentally ill, or physically ill parent) had significantly higher codependency scores on both scales. The findings suggest that other types of family stressors, not solely alcoholism, may be predictors of codependency.

  9. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  10. Masking mediated print defect visibility predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaochen; Nachlieli, Hila; Shaked, Doron; Shiffman, Smadar; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Banding is a well-known artifact produced by printing systems. It usually appears as lines perpendicular to the process direction of the print. Therefore, banding is an important print quality issue which has been analyzed and assessed by many researchers. However, little literature has focused on the study of the masking effect of content for this kind of print quality issue. Compared with other image and print quality research, our work is focused on the print quality of typical documents printed on a digital commercial printing press. In this paper, we propose a Masking Mediated Print Defect Visibility Predictor (MMPDVP) to predict the visibility of defects in the presence of customer content. The parameters of the algorithm are trained from ground-truth images that have been marked by subjects. The MMPDVP could help the press operator decide whether the print quality is acceptable for specific customer requirements. Ultimately, this model can be used to optimize the print-shop workflow.

  11. Hurricane Katrina: addictive behavior trends and predictors.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2011-01-01

    Post-disaster trends in alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, as well as their predictors, were identified. Methods. Data from cross-sectional and panel surveys of African American adults in New Orleans, Louisiana, were used from before (2004: n = 1,867; 2005: n = 879) and after (2006a: n = 500; 2006b: n = 500) Hurricane Katrina. Alcohol consumption increased significantly from pre- to post-Hurricane Katrina, while cigarette smoking remained constant. In 2006, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with cigarette smoking, whereas "news attention" and "provided social support" were inversely associated with cigarette smoking. "News attention" was also inversely associated with cigarette smoking frequency, while "neighborliness" was associated with alcohol consumption. In addition, the effects of PTSD on alcohol consumption were moderated by "neighborliness." In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, there were complex predictive processes of addictive behaviors involving PTSD, news information, and social capital-related measures.

  12. Predictors of Moral Disengagement in Sport.

    PubMed

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have made productive use of Bandura's (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of "bracketed morality" found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.

  13. Heteroscedasticity generated by errors in predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.V.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The heteroscedasticity or changing variance observed ``raw`` data may be the result of randomness or uncertainty in the predictor variables. As an example we consider ``Charpy Test`` experiments widely used to characterize the ductile-brittle toughness of steels such as those used for nuclear pressure vessels. While this type of experiment is of interest in itself, our main objective is to show that the use of a proper statistical technique may help to avoid the use of more complicated physical models to explain the heteroscedasticity of the observations. We also extend the existing method of regression analysis with errors in controllable variables to the case when the variances of the response and the controllable variables are both unknown.

  14. Stent Thrombosis: Incidence, Predictors and New Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Gill Louise; Basavarajaiah, Sandeep; Chieffo, Alaide

    2012-01-01

    Some concerns have been raised regarding the risk of late and very late stent thrombosis (ST) following drug-eluting stent implantation. Despite remaining an uncommon complication of percutaneous coronary intervention, when ST occurs, it can be catastrophic to the individual, commonly presenting as acute ST elevation myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death. The incidence and predictors of ST have been reported in the literature and the role of dual antiplatelet therapies in the avoidance of such a complication remains vital. Ongoing studies are assessing the role of these therapies including platelet reactivity testing, genetic testing and optimum duration of therapy. In addition, newer polymer-free and bioabsorbable stents are under investigation in the quest to potentially minimise the risk of ST. PMID:22577541

  15. Predictors of media multitasking in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-12-01

    We examined predictors of media multitasking in Chinese adolescents from 3 contexts: characteristics of the media user, types of media use and family media contexts. Three hundred and twenty adolescents, 11-18 years of age, completed questionnaires to measure media use, impulsivity, sensation seeking, time management disposition and family media environment. The results showed that media multitasking was positively correlated with age and total media use time. Participants with high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking reported more multitasking behaviour. Multitasking was negatively correlated with time management. Children from media-oriented families often engage in more multitasking. What's more, social networking sites use and music use can mediate the effect of individual and family factors on media multitasking.

  16. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G

    2005-02-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.

  17. Stable LPV realisation of the Smith predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchini, Franco; Casagrande, Daniele; Miani, Stefano; Viaro, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    The paper is concerned with the control of a linear plant with an output delay. As is known, when the plant parameters do not vary in time, the transfer function approach can be used to find a high-performing controller with the Smith-predictor structure. Such an approach in the domain of the Laplace transform is not directly applicable in the time-variant case. Nevertheless, it is shown that the transfer function of the Smith controller valid for constant values of the parameters can be realised in such a way that closed-loop stability, as well as point-wise optimal performance, is ensured also when the parameters vary with time. The suggested technique is applied to the control of a heat exchanger whose varying parameters include a measurement delay.

  18. Design of the hybrid automated reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, R.; Trivedi, K.; Dugan, J. B.; Smotherman, M.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP), now under development at Duke University, is presented. The HARP approach to reliability prediction is characterized by a decomposition of the overall model into fault-occurrence and fault-handling sub-models. The fault-occurrence model is a non-homogeneous Markov chain which is solved analytically, while the fault-handling model is a Petri Net which is simulated. HARP provides automated analysis of sensitivity to uncertainties in the input parameters and in the initial state specifications. It then produces a predicted reliability band as a function of mission time, as well as estimates of the improvement (narrowing of the band) to be gained by a specified amount of reduction in uncertainty.

  19. Personality trait predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Lena Catherine; Sellbom, Martin; Tackett, Jennifer Lee; Bagby, Robert Michael

    2009-09-30

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided a good fit to the data. This dimension was predicted by Neuroticism and (negative) Agreeableness. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as two separate dimensions of mania and depression also provided a good fit to the data. Depression was associated with Neuroticism and (negative) Extraversion, whereas mania was associated with Neuroticism, Extraversion and (negative) Agreeableness. Symptoms of bipolar disorder can be usefully understood in terms of two dimensions of mania and depression, which have distinct personality correlates.

  20. Design of the hybrid automated reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, R.; Trivedi, K.; Dugan, J. B.; Smotherman, M.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP), now under development at Duke University, is presented. The HARP approach to reliability prediction is characterized by a decomposition of the overall model into fault-occurrence and fault-handling sub-models. The fault-occurrence model is a non-homogeneous Markov chain which is solved analytically, while the fault-handling model is a Petri Net which is simulated. HARP provides automated analysis of sensitivity to uncertainties in the input parameters and in the initial state specifications. It then produces a predicted reliability band as a function of mission time, as well as estimates of the improvement (narrowing of the band) to be gained by a specified amount of reduction in uncertainty.

  1. Sports concussion: management and predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Cara Camiolo; Collins, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Interest in sports concussion has grown widely in the last two decades among laypersons and medical professionals. Significant contributions of evidence-based research have led to a better understanding of this multifaceted, but still often elusive, injury. This information has transformed all aspects of concussion management, from on-field evaluation through return-to-play guidelines. The aim of this article is to highlight important research regarding predictors of outcome and treatment protocols. This research has been the basis of the paradigm shift from traditional concussion grading scales to individualized care. Today, concussion management requires a patient-centered approach with individualized assessment, including risk factor analysis, neurocognitive testing, and a thorough symptom evaluation.

  2. Predictors of physical therapy faculty job turnover.

    PubMed

    Radtka, S

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what factors are predictive of job turnover of faculty in physical therapy education programs. Four hundred six physical therapy faculty and 92 academic program directors participated in the study. Data were collected from two questionnaires mailed to the participants. Fifteen predictors of turnover were tested, using correlational and multiple regression analyses for data on faculty and education programs. Findings showed that 10% of the faculty resigned within a 1-year period. Low, but significant, correlations were found between higher turnover and fewer years of employment, behavioral intentions to leave, lower salary, higher job stress, and baccalaureate programs. Multiple regression analysis revealed that education programs with faculty having fewer years of employment and the availability of many job alternatives demonstrated significantly higher turnover. Measures to reduce turnover, including faculty recruitment and retention plans, job redesign strategies, and faculty development programs for new faculty, are recommended.

  3. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  4. Desire thinking as a predictor of gambling.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2014-04-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. A desired target can relate to an object, an internal state or an activity, such as gambling. This study investigated the role of desire thinking in gambling in a cohort of participants recruited from community and clinical settings. Ninety five individuals completed a battery of self-report measures consisting of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Gambling Craving Scale (GCS), the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Correlation analyses revealed that gender, educational level, recruitment source, anxiety and depression, craving and desire thinking were correlated with gambling. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that both recruitment source and desire thinking were the only independent predictors of gambling when controlling for all other study variables, including craving. These findings are discussed in the light of metacognitive therapy (MCT).

  5. Parent predictors of adolescents’ explanatory style

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (six month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents’ explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents’ explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents’ explanatory style for their children’s negative events. The sample included 129 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years at baseline and their parents. Adolescents reported on their own explanatory style and their parents’ caregiving behaviors; parents self-reported on their caregiving behaviors and their explanatory style for their own and their children’s events. Regression analyses identified maternal acceptance as a significant predictor of T2 adolescents’ explanatory style. Marginal effects emerged for fathers’ psychological control and fathers’ explanatory style for their children’s events. Findings suggest that the ways parents – especially mothers - interact with their children may play a role in adolescents’ cognitive vulnerability to depression. PMID:28090130

  6. Evaluation of bedform predictors in tidal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferret, Y.; Ernstsen, V.; Lefebvre, A.; Winter, C.

    2012-04-01

    The seabed of coastal environments commonly exhibits a large range of complex mobile bedforms due to the interaction between hydrodynamics and sediment transport. Yet, no fundamental law has been identified which describes the initiation and development of these ubiquitous, flow and wave driven features. Thus, the prediction of bedform dimensions and dynamics is carried out using empirical relationships. In this study we evaluate some of these equations, based on a large data set consisting of high resolution multi-beam bathymetry, modelled hydrodynamics and sediment characteristics collected in the Jade Bay, and the Weser and the Elbe estuaries (German Bight, North Sea). More than 2000 individual bedforms were identified; they display a wide range of dimensions with heights ranging from 0.1 to 5 m and wavelengths between 10 and 300 m. They were used to test the classical relationships of Flemming (1988) and Francken et al. (2004) for the interdependency of length and height of individual bedforms. Taking into account all the data resulted in a large scatter, with weak correlations of averaged measured and predicted parameters (bedform height and length). However, applying a generalized extreme value method (which weights the Gaussian distribution of bedform height with the maximum frequency for every measured bedform length) in order to get the maximum density of bedform height, a strong dependency was identified (r2 = 0.76). Furthermore predictor equations that relate equilibrium flow and sediment characteristics to bedform dimensions and hydraulic roughness were tested (e.g. Yalin, 1964; Van Rijn, 1984). Results showed a significant scatter and limited reliability. Statistical analyses were used to accurately quantify the influence of the physical environment (depth, current velocity, grain size) on bedform morphologies in order to enhance the bedform predictors.

  7. Predictors of Hemorrhage Volume after Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Shon, Sang Hyun; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Kim, Bum Joon; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Kwon, Youngnam; Yi, Sang Hun; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Young Seo; Kim, Hyun Young; Koh, Seong-Ho; Chang, Dae-Il

    2016-10-01

    Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most feared complications after administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA). The aim of this study was to determine correlations between hemorrhage volume (HV) after IV rtPA treatment and risk factors for sICH. We analyzed 318 patients from the stroke registries of 4 hospitals in Korea. We confirmed hemorrhage by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging within 36 hours. Patient groups were classified by HV (0, 0-10, 10-25, and greater than 25 mL). Based on the HV, we evaluated the following: (1) predictors for hemorrhage; (2) rates of sICH according to various sICH definitions; and (3) 3-month functional outcomes after IV rtPA treatment. Among the 318 patients, hemorrhage occurred in 72 patients. HV was significantly correlated with atrial fibrillation (OR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.87-6.09), early CT changes (OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.69-5.93), and dense artery sign (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.07-3.39). Compared with the groups with HV less than 25 mL, patients with an HV of greater than 25 mL were more likely to have higher mortality rates (33.3% versus 11.8%) and worse outcomes at 3 months (good: 8.3% versus 50.3%; excellent: 0% versus 33.7%). HV after IV rtPA is an important predictor of clinical outcomes. Atrial fibrillation, early CT changes, and dense artery sign were significantly associated with large HVs; therefore, these patient factors might be considered before and after thrombolytic treatment. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulmonary Predictors of Incident Diabetes in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Gregory L; Baker, Emma H; Klein, Oana L; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L; Wan, Emily S; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Bowler, Russell P; Lutz, Sharon M; Young, Kendra A; Duca, Lindsey M; Washko, George R; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D; Hokanson, John E

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and its complications are a large and increasing burden for health care worldwide. Reduced pulmonary function has been observed in diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), and this reduction is thought to occur prior to diagnosis. Other measures of pulmonary health are associated with diabetes, including lower exercise tolerance, greater dyspnea, lower quality of life (as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionaire [SGRQ]) and susceptibility to lung infection and these measures may also predate diabetes diagnosis. We examined 7080 participants in the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene) study who did not report diabetes at their baseline visit and who provided health status updates during 4.2 years of longitudinal follow-up (LFU). We used Cox proportional hazards modeling, censoring participants at final LFU contact, reported mortality or report of incident diabetes to model predictors of diabetes. These models were constructed using known risk factors as well as proposed markers related to pulmonary health, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, respiratory exacerbations (RE), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), pulmonary associated quality of life (as measured by the SGRQ), corticosteroid use, chronic bronchitis and dyspnea. Over 21,519 person years of follow-up, 392 of 7080 participants reported incident diabetes which was associated with expected predictors; increased body mass index (BMI), high blood pressure, high cholesterol and current smoking status. Age, gender and accumulated smoking exposure were not associated with incident diabetes. Additionally, preserved ratio with impaired spirometry (PRISm) pattern pulmonary function, reduced 6MWD and any report of serious pulmonary events were associated with incident diabetes. This cluster of pulmonary indicators may aid clinicians in identifying and treating patients with pre- or undiagnosed diabetes.

  9. PREDICTORS FOR POST- STROKE DELIRIUM OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Dostovic, Zikrija; Dostovic, Ernestina; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Ibrahimagic, Omer C.; Avdic, Leila; Becirovic, Elvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: There have been only a small number of studies that have evaluated the outcome of post-stroke delirium. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of gender, age, stroke localization, delirium severity, previous illnesses, associated medical complications on delirium outcome as well as, to determine effects of delirium on cognitive functioning one year after stroke. Patients and Methods: Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments were performed within the first week of stroke onset, at hospital discharge, and followed-up for 3, 6 and 12 months after stroke. We used diagnostic tools such as Glazgow Coma Scale, Delirium Rating Scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Mini-Mental State. Results: Patients who developed post-stroke delirium had significantly more complications (p = 0.0005). Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of several factors on the likelihood that patients will die. The strongest predictor of outcome was age, mean age ≥ 65 years with a odds ratio (OR) 4.9. Cox’s regression survival was conducted to assess the impact of multiple factors on survival. The accompanying medical complications were the strongest predictor of respondents poore outcome with Hazard-risk 3.3. Cognitive assessments including Mini Mental State score have showen that post-stroke delirium patients had significant cognitive impairment, three (p = 0.0005), six months (p = 0.0005) and one year (p = 0.0005) after stroke, compared to patients without delirium. Conclusion: Patient gender, age, localization of stroke, severity of delirium, chronic diseases and emerging complications significantly affect the outcome of post- stroke delirium. Delirium significantly reduced cognitive functioning of after stroke patients. PMID:27999490

  10. Nutritional Predictors of Complications Following Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David C.; Riggs, Stephen B.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Matthews, Jonathan E.; Woods, Michael E.; Wallen, Eric M.; Pruthi, Raj S.; Smith, Angela B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of preoperative nutritional status on the development of surgical complications following cystectomy using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). Methods We performed a retrospective review of the NSQIP 2005–2012 Participant Use Data Files. ACS-NSQIP collects data on 135 variables, including pre- and intraoperative data and 30-day post-operative complications and mortality on all major surgical procedures at participating institutions. Preoperative albumin (<3.5 or >3.5 g/dl), weight loss 6 months before surgery (>10%), and BMI were identified as nutritional variables within the database. The overall complication rate was calculated and predictors of complications were identified using multivariable logistic regression models. Results 1,213 patients underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between 2005–2012. The overall 30-day complication rate was 55.1% (n=668). While 14.7% (n=102) had a preoperative albumin <3.5 g/dL, 3.4% had >10% weight loss in the 6 months prior to surgery, and the mean BMI was 28 kg/m2. After controlling for age, sex, medical comorbidities, medical resident involvement, operation year, operative time and prior operation, only albumin <3.5g/dl was a significant predictor of experiencing a postoperative complication (p=0.03). This remained significant when albumin was evaluated as a continuous variable (p=0.02) Conclusions Poor nutritional status measured by serum albumin is predictive of an increased rate of surgical complications following radical cystectomy. This finding supports the importance of preoperative nutritional status in this population and highlights the need for the development of effective nutritional interventions in the preoperative setting. PMID:25240535

  11. Non linear anthropometric predictors in swimming.

    PubMed

    Sekulić, Damir; Zenić, Natasa; Zubcević, Nada Grcić

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we have tried to identify the significance and character of the linear and non-linear relations between simple anthropometric predictors: body height (BH), body weight (BW), and body mass index, and swimming performance: freestyle swimming 50 (FS50) and 400 meters (FS400), in a sample of young (15 years old on average) male (N = 40) and female (N = 28) swimmers. Linear (general model: y = a+bx) and nonlinear regression (general model: y = a+bx+cx2) were calculated simultaneously. Morphological variables are a significantly better predictor of the FS50 in males (BH mostly), and FS400 in females (BW mostly). This study emphasized some of the main advantages in the nonlinear regression calculation (including an interpretation of the relationships at a more superior level), and consequently allowed a precise anthropometric modeling in swimming using simple and easily measurable variables. For example, the best results in FS400 can be expected for the subjects that are average in BW (which guarantees solid muscle mass--the generator of force), but above average in BH (because of the physical law of lever). In conclusion, nonlinear regressions allow one to define the real nature of the relationships between variables, but only if compared with the linear ones. Additionally, this study emphasized one of the most important factors in defining possible specification-equation (e.g. structure of the influence of the different dimensions on the sport achievement) in different sports. In short, it underlines the importance of sampling the appropriate sample of the subject--highly skilled athletes exclusively.

  12. Predictors of reintubation in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Miu, Timothy; Joffe, Aaron M; Yanez, N David; Khandelwal, Nita; Dagal, Armagan Hc; Deem, Steven; Treggiari, Miriam M

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of a patient's readiness for removal of the endotracheal tube in the ICU is based on respiratory, airway, and neurological measures. However, nearly 20% of patients require reintubation. We created a prediction model for the need for reintubation, which incorporates variables importantly contributing to extubation failure. This was a cohort study of 2,007 endotracheally intubated subjects who required ICU admission at a tertiary care center. Data collection included demographic, hemodynamic, respiratory, and neurological variables preceding extubation. Data were compared between subjects extubated successfully and those who required reintubation, using bivariate logistic regression models, with the binary outcome reintubation and the baseline characteristics as predictors. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with robust variance was used to build the prediction model. Of the 2,007 subjects analyzed, 376 (19%) required reintubation. In the bivariate analysis, admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, oxygenation, number of prior SBTs, rapid shallow breathing index, airway-secretions suctioning frequency and quantity, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure differed significantly between the extubation success and failure groups. In the multivariable analysis, higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and suctioning frequency were associated with failed extubation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.68 for failure at any time, and 0.71 for failure within 24 hours. However, prior failed SBT, minute ventilation, and diastolic blood pressure were additional independent predictors of failure at any time, whereas oxygenation predicted extubation failure within 24 hours. A small number of independent variables explains a substantial portion of the variability of extubation failure, and can help identify patients at high risk of needing reintubation. These characteristics

  13. Application of the Disruption Predictor Feature Developer to developing a machine-portable disruption predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Matthew; Tang, William; Feibush, Eliot

    2016-10-01

    Plasma disruptions pose a major threat to the operation of tokamaks which confine a large amount of stored energy. In order to effectively mitigate this damage it is necessary to predict an oncoming disruption with sufficient warning time to take mitigative action. Machine learning approaches to this problem have shown promise but require further developments to address (1) the need for machine-portable predictors and (2) the availability of multi-dimensional signal inputs. Here we demonstrate progress in these two areas by applying the Disruption Predictor Feature Developer to data from JET and NSTX, and discuss topics of focus for ongoing work in support of ITER. The author is also supported under the Fulbright U.S. Student Program as a graduate student in the department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  14. Autoencoder-based identification of predictors of Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Moumita; Mitra, Pabitra; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2016-10-01

    Prediction of Indian summer monsoon uses a number of climatic variables that are historically known to provide a high skill. However, relationships between predictors and predictand could be complex and also change with time. The present work attempts to use a machine learning technique to identify new predictors for forecasting the Indian monsoon. A neural network-based non-linear dimensionality reduction technique, namely, the sparse autoencoder is used for this purpose. It extracts a number of new predictors that have prediction skills higher than the existing ones. Two non-linear ensemble prediction models of regression tree and bagged decision tree are designed with identified monsoon predictors and are shown to be superior in terms of prediction accuracy. Proposed model shows mean absolute error of 4.5 % in predicting the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Lastly, geographical distribution of the new monsoon predictors and their characteristics are discussed.

  15. The development of a Kalman filter clock predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John A.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Boudjemaa, Redoane

    2005-01-01

    A Kalman filter based clock predictor is developed, and its performance evaluated using both simulated and real data. The clock predictor is shown to possess a neat to optimal Prediction Error Variance (PEV) when the underlying noise consists of one of the power law noise processes commonly encountered in time and frequency measurements. The predictor's performance is the presence of multiple noise processes is also examined. The relationship between the PEV obtained in the presence of multiple noise processes and those obtained for the individual component noise processes is examined. Comparisons are made with a simple linear clock predictor. The clock predictor is used to predict future values of the time offset between pairs of NPL's active hydrogen masers.

  16. Correlates and predictors of physical inactivity among Tennessee adults.

    PubMed

    Hart, Peter D; Barreira, Tiago V; Kang, Minsoo

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sociodemographic predictors and health-related correlates of no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in a representative sample of Tennessee adults. Data from 5024 adults participating in the 2008 Tennessee Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used for the analysis. Overall, 28.9 percent of Tennessee adults (26.2 percent of men and 31.4 percent of women) reported no LTPA. The sociodemographic predictors of no LTPA were age, race, and education. No LTPA was a useful predictor of health status markers such as self-report health, obesity, smoking, and cardiovascular disease. This study found that selected sociodemographic characteristics were adequate predictors of no LTPA among Tennessee adults. Also, the absence of LTPA was found to be a significant predictor of health status.

  17. Predictor symbology in computer-generated perspective displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced display format for the four dimensional commercial aircraft approach-to-landing is evaluated. The desired curved and descending approach path is presented by displaying the perspective image of a tunnel. Attention is focussed on the predictor symbology, superimposed on the tunnel image. A perspective three dimensional predictor symbol, providing future position, as well as future attitude information, is compared with a flat two dimensional version, which only provides the future position. In addition to this, the predictor displays the actual airspeed as well as the desired airspeed, prescribed by the four dimensional path. Results show that the three dimensional predictor symbol outperforms the two dimensional predictor in following the trajectory in a moderate-to-heavy turbulent environment, which is manifested in accurate manual true airspeed control was obtained without affecting the main task performance significantly.

  18. Predictors for secondary procedures in walking DDH.

    PubMed

    Gholve, Purushottam A; Flynn, John M; Garner, Matthew R; Millis, Michael B; Kim, Young-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Persistent or recurrent hip dysplasia and/or loss of reduction can complicate the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in walking children. In this study, we identify predictors for secondary procedures after open reduction of the hip in walking children with DDH. We performed a retrospective study of walking children with idiopathic DDH treated with open reduction of the hip and followed up for >5 years. Perioperative factors were analyzed to investigate predictors of reoperation. Factors associated with the need for secondary procedures were identified. Acetabular remodeling was analyzed with a graphical plot of serial (0, 6 and 12 mo, and yearly) mean acetabular index and SD. There were 49 open reductions of the hip in 42 patients (34 female, 8 male) at a mean age of 31.3 months (range, 15.3 to 92.6 mo), with a mean follow-up of 9.7 years (5 to 16.9 y). Twelve (24%) patients had open reduction only, 15 (31%) had concurrent pelvic osteotomy, 4 (8%) had femoral osteotomy, and 18 (37%) had both femoral and pelvic osteotomy. Four (8%) patients required repeat open reduction at a mean of 5.1 months (range, 4 to 7.5 mo) after index surgery. Twenty-four (49%) patients had at least 1 secondary surgery for dysplasia at a mean of 3.2 years after index surgery. Six of the 24 (25%) had 2 and 2/24 (8.3%) had 3 additional operations. Of the 27 patients who did not have concurrent femoral osteotomy at index surgery, 19/27 (73%) required a secondary procedure; this significantly predicted the need for reoperation (P<0.001). Only 5/22 patients with femoral osteotomy at index surgery required a secondary procedure. Maximum acetabular remodeling was observed in the first 4 years after primary reduction, and the mean acetabular index remodeled from 43.9 to 20.3 degrees during this period. Forty-nine percent of the patients in this cohort required secondary procedures to treat hip dysplasia. Open reduction without concurrent femoral osteotomy strongly predicted the

  19. Severe hyperkalemia requiring hospitalization: predictors of mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Severe hyperkalemia, with potassium (K+) levels ≥ 6.5 mEq/L, is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalance. For prompt and effective treatment, it is important to know its risk factors, clinical manifestations, and predictors of mortality. Methods An observational cohort study was performed at 2 medical centers. A total of 923 consecutive Korean patients were analyzed. All were 19 years of age or older and were hospitalized with severe hyperkalemia between August 2007 and July 2010; the diagnosis of severe hyperkalemia was made either at the time of admission to the hospital or during the period of hospitalization. Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics at the time of hyperkalemia diagnosis were assessed, and clinical outcomes such as in-hospital mortality were reviewed, using the institutions' electronic medical record systems. Results Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was the most common underlying medical condition, and the most common precipitating factor of hyperkalemia was metabolic acidosis. Emergent admission was indicated in 68.6% of patients, 36.7% had electrocardiogram findings typical of hyperkalemia, 24.5% had multi-organ failure (MOF) at the time of hyperkalemia diagnosis, and 20.3% were diagnosed with severe hyperkalemia at the time of cardiac arrest. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30.7%; the rate was strongly correlated with the difference between serum K+ levels at admission and at their highest point, and with severe medical conditions such as malignancy, infection, and bleeding. Furthermore, a higher in-hospital mortality rate was significantly associated with the presence of cardiac arrest and/or MOF at the time of diagnosis, emergent admission, and intensive care unit treatment during hospitalization. More importantly, acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with normal baseline renal function was a strong predictor of mortality, compared with AKI superimposed on CKD. Conclusions Severe hyperkalemia occurs in

  20. Early Predictors of Hypocalcemia After Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Genther, Dane J.; Lopez, Michael; Agrawal, Nishant; Tufano, Ralph P.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Postoperative hypocalcemia is common after total thyroidectomy, and perioperative monitoring of serum calcium levels is arguably the primary reason for overnight hospitalization. Confidently predicting which patients will not develop significant hypocalcemia may allow for a safe earlier discharge. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of patient characteristics with hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH) level after total thyroidectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy by a single high-volume surgeon between February 1, 2010, and November 30, 2012. Postoperative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D), calcium, and IPTH levels were tested within 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Mild hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.4 to 8.0 mg/dL. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.0 mg/dL or the development of hypocalcemia-related symptoms. INTERVENTIONS Total thyroidectomy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Associations of patient demographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory values with postoperative mild and significant hypocalcemia were examined using univariate analysis, and independent predictors of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and IPTH level were determined using multivariate analysis. RESULTS Overall, 304 total thyroidectomies were performed. Mild and significant hypocalcemia occurred in 68 (22.4%) and 91 (29.9%) patients, respectively, of which the majority were female (P = .003). The development of significant hypocalcemia was associated with postoperative IPTH level (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, males had a decreased risk of developing mild (odds ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.16–0.85]) and significant (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.09–0.78]) hypocalcemia. Every 10-pg/mL increase in postoperative IPTH level

  1. Predictors of mortality after transjugular portosystemic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Ascha, Mona; Abuqayyas, Sami; Hanouneh, Ibrahim; Alkukhun, Laith; Sands, Mark; Dweik, Raed A; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if echocardiographic and hemodynamic determinations obtained at the time of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can provide prognostic information that will enhance risk stratification of patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 467 patients who underwent TIPS between July 2003 and December 2011 at our institution. We recorded information regarding patient demographics, underlying liver disease, indication for TIPS, baseline laboratory values, hemodynamic determinations at the time of TIPS, and echocardiographic measurements both before and after TIPS. We recorded patient comorbidities that may affect hemodynamic and echocardiographic determinations. We also calculated Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) class. The following pre- and post-TIPS echocardiographic determinations were recorded: Left ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, subjective RV dilation, and subjective RV function. We recorded the following hemodynamic measurements: Right atrial (RA) pressure before and after TIPS, inferior vena cava pressure before and after TIPS, free hepatic vein pressure, portal vein pressure before and after TIPS, and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). RESULTS: We reviewed 418 patients with portal hypertension undergoing TIPS. RA pressure increased by a mean ± SD of 4.8 ± 3.9 mmHg (P < 0.001), HVPG decreased by 6.8 ± 3.5 mmHg (P < 0.001). In multivariate linear regression analysis, a higher MELD score, lower platelet count, splenectomy and a higher portal vein pressure were independent predictors of higher RA pressure (R = 0.55). Three variables predicted 3-mo mortality after TIPS in a multivariate analysis: Age, MELD score, and CTP grade C. Change in the RA pressure after TIPS predicted long-term mortality (per 1 mmHg change, HR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.01-1.06, P < 0.012). CONCLUSION: RA pressure increased immediately after TIPS particularly in

  2. Parametric study of predictor accuracy impact on OFT rendezvous targeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric study was made to quantitatively define the effects of errors in the state vector predictor used by the Operational Flight Trainer (OFT) rendezvous targeting algorithms. The effect of the predictor accuracy on the OFT rendezvous profile is shown by the sensitivity of various critical rendezvous parameters with respect to downrange and radial predictor error rates. The effect of both inertial (same errors on both vehicles) and relative (differential errors on one vehicle with respect to the other) errors were considered. Relative radial error rates had the largest impact on the rendezvous followed by relative downrange errors, radial inertial errors and downrange inertial errors.

  3. Predictors of severity in primary postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Atalay; Gezer, Cenk; Solmaz, Ulas; Taner, Cuneyt Eftal; Dogan, Askin; Ozeren, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    To identify risk factors and etiologies leading to severe primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in women with PPH. Women who experienced PPH within the first 24 h after delivery over a 3-year period were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of severe PPH (n = 125) or non-severe PPH (n = 411). Risk factors and etiologies for severe PPH were explored using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. PPH and severe PPH complicated 2.1 and 0.49 % of all deliveries, respectively. Previous cesarean delivery (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI = 1.02-10.3; p = 0.001), prolonged labor (OR = 3.62, 95 % CI = 3.21-4.03; p < 0.001), oxytocin augmentation (OR = 3.32, 95 % CI 2.05-5.93; p < 0.001) and emergency cesarean delivery (OR = 4.75, 95 % CI 1.32-12.96; p < 0.001) were the factors independently associated with severe PPH. Etiologies significantly associated with severe PPH are uterine atony (OR = 2.72, 95 % CI 1.64-4.55; p < 0.001) and abnormal placentation (OR = 3.05, 95 % CI 1.56-6.27; p = 0.006). Previous cesarean delivery, prolonged labor, oxytocin augmentation and emergency cesarean delivery are strongest predictors of severe blood loss in women with PPH. In addition, uterine atony and abnormal placentation are the etiologies significantly associated with severe PPH.

  4. Adolescent predictors of emerging adult sexual patterns.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Waller, Martha W; Spriggs, Aubrey; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2006-12-01

    This study estimates the percentages of young adults who fall into three groups based on the context of sexual transition: (1) those who had vaginal intercourse before marriage (Premaritals), (2) those who postponed sex until after marriage (Postponers), and (3) those who have never had vaginal intercourse (Virgins). The second purpose is to determine adolescent biopsychosocial factors that predict membership in these adult groups. Analyses are based on 11,407 respondents ages 18-27 years who participated in Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Adolescent indicators reflecting sociodemographic, biosocial, experiential, and contextual factors were used to predict young adult sexual status using multinomial logistic regression models. About 8% of the sample were virgins and 2% were virgins until marriage. Almost 90% had sex before marriage (Premaritals--referent group). Most predictors of status were similar for males and females. Compared with Premaritals, Virgins were younger, non-Black, not advanced in physical maturity relative to peers in adolescence, had higher body mass indexes, were more religious, and perceived parental disapproval of sex during adolescence. Postponers were also more religious than Premaritals but were older. Female Postponers were non-Black and perceived parental disapproval of sex during adolescence. Male Postponers were less likely to have same-gender attractions or no sexual attractions. Findings document premarital sexual activity as the almost universal sexual trajectory into young adulthood for these cohorts and underscore the roles of biosocial factors and conventional institutions in emerging sexual patterns.

  5. Predictors of Hearing-Aid Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A; Johannesen, Peter T; Pérez-González, Patricia; Blanco, José L; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Over 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. Most of them can be treated with hearing aids. Unfortunately, performance with hearing aids and the benefit obtained from using them vary widely across users. Here, we investigate the reasons for such variability. Sixty-eight hearing-aid users or candidates were fitted bilaterally with nonlinear hearing aids using standard procedures. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring aided speech intelligibility in a time-reversed two-talker background and self-reported improvement in hearing ability. Statistical predictive models of these outcomes were obtained using linear combinations of 19 predictors, including demographic and audiological data, indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction and auditory temporal processing skills, hearing-aid settings, working memory capacity, and pretreatment self-perceived hearing ability. Aided intelligibility tended to be better for younger hearing-aid users with good unaided intelligibility in quiet and with good temporal processing abilities. Intelligibility tended to improve by increasing amplification for low-intensity sounds and by using more linear amplification for high-intensity sounds. Self-reported improvement in hearing ability was hard to predict but tended to be smaller for users with better working memory capacity. Indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, alone or in combination with hearing settings, did not affect outcome predictions. The results may be useful for improving hearing aids and setting patients' expectations.

  6. Cognitive predictors of balance in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Mendes, Andreia; Rocha, Nuno; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-06-01

    Postural instability is one of the most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and appears to be related to cognitive deficits. This study aims to determine the cognitive factors that can predict deficits in static and dynamic balance in individuals with PD. A sociodemographic questionnaire characterized 52 individuals with PD for this work. The Trail Making Test, Rule Shift Cards Test, and Digit Span Test assessed the executive functions. The static balance was assessed using a plantar pressure platform, and dynamic balance was based on the Timed Up and Go Test. The results were statistically analysed using SPSS Statistics software through linear regression analysis. The results show that a statistically significant model based on cognitive outcomes was able to explain the variance of motor variables. Also, the explanatory value of the model tended to increase with the addition of individual and clinical variables, although the resulting model was not statistically significant The model explained 25-29% of the variability of the Timed Up and Go Test, while for the anteroposterior displacement it was 23-34%, and for the mediolateral displacement it was 24-39%. From the findings, we conclude that the cognitive performance, especially the executive functions, is a predictor of balance deficit in individuals with PD.

  7. Predictors of metabolic risk in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Anita; Maffeis, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Most of the complications of juvenile obesity are due to metabolic disturbances induced by an excessive accumulation of fat which leads to chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Finding effective ways of identifying obese paediatric patients who are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic complications has been recognised to be a promising strategy to improve prevention of complications of early obesity. Moreover, correctly identifying obese children who are already affected by metabolic co-morbidities should be a clinical priority. According to the state of the art summarised in this review, traditional metabolic variables included in the definitions of metabolic syndrome (MS), pre-diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis and, in obese girls, the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome are the best available longitudinal predictors of CVD and T2DM among obese children and adolescents. In clinical practice, traditional metabolic variables included in the definitions of MS should be assessed in all obese children and adolescents; fasting metabolic variables have been proposed to identify obese patients likely to be affected by impaired glucose tolerance or T2DM, and ultrasound has proved to be a valid surrogate for biopsy in the diagnosis of NAFLD. Further large longitudinal and cross-sectional studies are needed to improve our chances of identifying obese youth at the highest metabolic risk.

  8. Hurricane Katrina: Addictive Behavior Trends and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Post-disaster trends in alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, as well as their predictors, were identified. Methods Data from cross-sectional and panel surveys of African American adults in New Orleans, Louisiana, were used from before (2004: n=1,867; 2005: n=879) and after (2006a: n=500; 2006b: n=500) Hurricane Katrina. Results Alcohol consumption increased significantly from pre- to post-Hurricane Katrina, while cigarette smoking remained constant. In 2006, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with cigarette smoking, whereas “news attention” and “provided social support” were inversely associated with cigarette smoking. “News attention” was also inversely associated with cigarette smoking frequency, while “neighborliness” was associated with alcohol consumption. In addition, the effects of PTSD on alcohol consumption were moderated by “neighborliness.” Conclusions In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, there were complex predictive processes of addictive behaviors involving PTSD, news information, and social capital-related measures. PMID:21553669

  9. Spirituality: an overlooked predictor of placebo effects?

    PubMed

    Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James

    2011-06-27

    Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural 'top-down' effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness.

  10. Predictors of completed childhood vaccination in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Osetinsky, Brianna; Gaydos, Laura M; Leon, Juan S

    2015-01-01

    This project examines how access issues, ethnicity, and geographic region affect vaccination of children by two years of age in Bolivia. Bolivia’s rich variation in culture and geography results in unequal healthcare utilization even for basic interventions such as childhood vaccination. This study utilizes secondary data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey for Bolivia to examine predictors of vaccination completion in children by two years of age. Using logistic regression methods, we control for health system variables (difficulty getting to a health center and type of health center as well as demographic and socio-economic covariates). The results indicated that children whose parents reported distance as a problem in obtaining health care were less likely to have completed all vaccinations. Ethnicity was not independently statistically significant, however, in a sub-analysis, people from the Quechua ethnic group were more likely to report ‘distance as a problem in obtaining healthcare.’ Surprisingly, living in a rural environment has a protective effect on completed vaccinations. However, geographic region did predict significant differences in the probability that children would be fully vaccinated; children in the region with the lowest vaccination completion coverage were 80% less likely to have completed vaccination compared to children in the best performing region, which may indicate unequal access and utilization of health services nationally. Further study of regional differences, urbanicity, and distance as a healthcare access problem will help refine implications for the Bolivian health system. PMID:26609338

  11. Use of Postpartum Care: Predictors and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    DiBari, Jessica N.; Yu, Stella M.; Chao, Shin M.; Lu, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (N = 4,075) were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women's health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women's health care. PMID:24693433

  12. Spirituality: an overlooked predictor of placebo effects?

    PubMed Central

    Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James

    2011-01-01

    Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural ‘top-down’ effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness. PMID:21576141

  13. Predictors of Hearing-Aid Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Blanco, José L.; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Over 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. Most of them can be treated with hearing aids. Unfortunately, performance with hearing aids and the benefit obtained from using them vary widely across users. Here, we investigate the reasons for such variability. Sixty-eight hearing-aid users or candidates were fitted bilaterally with nonlinear hearing aids using standard procedures. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring aided speech intelligibility in a time-reversed two-talker background and self-reported improvement in hearing ability. Statistical predictive models of these outcomes were obtained using linear combinations of 19 predictors, including demographic and audiological data, indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction and auditory temporal processing skills, hearing-aid settings, working memory capacity, and pretreatment self-perceived hearing ability. Aided intelligibility tended to be better for younger hearing-aid users with good unaided intelligibility in quiet and with good temporal processing abilities. Intelligibility tended to improve by increasing amplification for low-intensity sounds and by using more linear amplification for high-intensity sounds. Self-reported improvement in hearing ability was hard to predict but tended to be smaller for users with better working memory capacity. Indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, alone or in combination with hearing settings, did not affect outcome predictions. The results may be useful for improving hearing aids and setting patients’ expectations. PMID:28929903

  14. Predictors affecting personal health information management skills.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Abner, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated major factors affecting personal health records (PHRs) management skills associated with survey respondents' health information management related activities. A self-report survey was used to assess individuals' personal characteristics, health knowledge, PHR skills, and activities. Factors underlying respondents' current PHR-related activities were derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Scale scores were calculated based on the results of the PCA, and hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to identify respondent characteristics associated with the scale scores. Internal consistency of the derived scale scores was assessed with Cronbach's α. Among personal health information activities surveyed (N = 578 respondents), the four extracted factors were subsequently grouped and labeled as: collecting skills (Cronbach's α = 0.906), searching skills (Cronbach's α = 0.837), sharing skills (Cronbach's α = 0.763), and implementing skills (Cronbach's α = 0.908). In the hierarchical regression analyses, education and computer knowledge significantly increased the explanatory power of the models. Health knowledge (β = 0.25, p < 0.001) emerged as a positive predictor of PHR collecting skills. This study confirmed that PHR training and learning should consider a full spectrum of information management skills including collection, utilization and distribution to support patients' care and prevention continua.

  15. Predictors of attributional style change in children.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Alloy, Lauren B; Walshaw, Patricia D; Comer, Jonathan S; Shen, Gail H C; Villari, Annette G

    2006-06-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the initial assessment predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, elevated levels of verbal victimization occurring between the 2 assessments, as well as that occurring in the 6 months preceding the initial assessment, prospectively predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the follow-up. Further, initial depressive symptoms and verbal victimization during the follow-up continued to significantly predict attributional style change even when the overlap among the predictors was statistically controlled. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, neither parent-reported levels of overall negative life events nor parents' attributions for their children's events predicted changes in children's attributional styles.

  16. Predictors of Stress in College Students.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Dalia; Camart, Nathalie; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    University students often face different stressful situations and preoccupations: the first contact with the university, the freedom of schedule organization, the selection of their master's degree, very selective fields, etc. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a model of vulnerability to stress in French college students. Stress factors were evaluated by a battery of six scales that was accessible online during 3 months. A total of 483 students, aged between 18 and 24 years (Mean = 20.23, standard deviation = 1.99), was included in the study. The results showed that 72.9, 86.3, and 79.3% of them were suffering from psychological distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. More than half the sample was also suffering from low self-esteem (57.6%), little optimism (56.7%), and a low sense of self-efficacy (62.7%). Regression analyses revealed that life satisfaction, self-esteem, optimism, self-efficacy and psychological distress were the most important predictors of stress. These findings allow us to better understand stress-vulnerability factors in students and drive us to substantially consider them in prevention programs.

  17. Predictors of Stress in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Dalia; Camart, Nathalie; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    University students often face different stressful situations and preoccupations: the first contact with the university, the freedom of schedule organization, the selection of their master's degree, very selective fields, etc. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a model of vulnerability to stress in French college students. Stress factors were evaluated by a battery of six scales that was accessible online during 3 months. A total of 483 students, aged between 18 and 24 years (Mean = 20.23, standard deviation = 1.99), was included in the study. The results showed that 72.9, 86.3, and 79.3% of them were suffering from psychological distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. More than half the sample was also suffering from low self-esteem (57.6%), little optimism (56.7%), and a low sense of self-efficacy (62.7%). Regression analyses revealed that life satisfaction, self-esteem, optimism, self-efficacy and psychological distress were the most important predictors of stress. These findings allow us to better understand stress-vulnerability factors in students and drive us to substantially consider them in prevention programs. PMID:28179889

  18. Early predictors of boys’ antisocial trajectories

    PubMed Central

    SHAW, DANIEL S.; HYDE, LUKE W.; BRENNAN, LAURETTA M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies tracing patterns of youth antisocial behavior (AB) during adolescence, few have prospective data on the developmental precursors of AB beginning during infancy. Using a cohort of 268 low-income boys first assessed at 18 months, the current study examined predictors of early- and late-starting trajectories of AB assessed during early childhood and early adolescence. Four trajectory groups were identified, including early- and late-starting groups, a low stable group, and a high decreasing group, characterized by multiple risk factors during early childhood and early adolescence. During early childhood, parenting and maternal depression discriminated two AB trajectory groups, an early-starting and a high decreasing group, who would go on to demonstrate a high preponderance of juvenile court involvement (60% to 79%) and elevated rates of clinical depression 13 to 15 years later. The results were discussed in reference to targeting malleable family risk factors during early childhood associated with patterns of AB and mental health disorders during adolescence. PMID:22781860

  19. Predictors of success in an anesthesiology residency.

    PubMed

    Warrick, S S; Crumrine, R S

    1986-07-01

    The selection of residents in medical specialty programs is a difficult task facing all selection committees. The present authors examined factors that contribute to successful residency performance by 26 anesthesiology residents in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anesthesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialties. Comparison of the residents' scores on the Anesthesiology In-Training Examination (ITE) and their scores on Part I of the examinations of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) showed a statistically significant negative correlation. The higher that residents scored on the NBME Part I examination, the lower they scored on the ITE. No significant correlations were found between the residents' ITE scores and undergraduate grade-point average or nonacademic variables such as the residents' age or parents' level of education. The residents' composite grade-point average (GPA) for the residency and their interview scores had a strong positive relationship significant at the 0.06 level.

  20. Surface Electrocardiogram Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghani, Samy A.; Rosenthal, Todd M.; Morin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart disease is a major cause of death in industrialized nations, with approximately 50% of these deaths attributable to sudden cardiac arrest. If patients at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest can be identified, their odds of surviving fatal arrhythmias can be significantly improved through prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. This review summarizes the current knowledge pertaining to surface electrocardiogram (ECG) predictors of sudden cardiac arrest. Methods: We conducted a literature review focused on methods of predicting sudden cardiac arrest through noninvasive electrocardiographic testing. Results: Several electrocardiographic-based methods of risk stratification of sudden cardiac arrest have been studied, including QT prolongation, QRS duration, fragmented QRS complexes, early repolarization, Holter monitoring, heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, signal-averaged ECG, T wave alternans, and T-peak to T-end. These ECG findings have shown variable effectiveness as screening tools. Conclusion: At this time, no individual ECG finding has been found to be able to adequately stratify patients with regard to risk for sudden cardiac arrest. However, one or more of these candidate surface ECG parameters may become useful components of future multifactorial risk stratification calculators. PMID:27660578

  1. Predictors of citations in the urological literature.

    PubMed

    Willis, Daniel L; Bahler, Clint D; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp

    2011-06-01

    To assess the factors associated with increased citation rates in the urological literature by reviewing articles published in the four major urological journals to help authors improve the impact of their work. A random sample of 200 original research articles published between January and June 2004 was analysed from The Journal of Urology, Urology, European Urology and BJU International. Study information was abstracted by two independent reviewers and citation counts within 4 years of publication were collected using Web of Science(TM) . Study characteristics and citation rates were analysed using median and interquartile ranges (IQRs), and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate which factors predicted greater citation rates. The overall median number of citations per published article was 6.0 (IQR 3-12). After univariate analysis, we found that study design, study topic, continent of origin and sample size were associated with greater median citation rates. In a multivariate linear regression model, study design and study topic (oncology) predicted increased citation rates. Randomized controlled trials were cited a median of 13.5 times and were the strongest predictor of citation rates with an odds ratio of 115.5 (95% confidence interval 9.4-1419.6). Citation rates are associated with study design and study topic in the urological literature. Authors may improve the impact of their work by designing clinical studies with greater methodological safeguards against bias.

  2. Early predictors of boys' antisocial trajectories.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W; Brennan, Lauretta M

    2012-08-01

    Despite the large number of studies tracing patterns of youth antisocial behavior (AB) during adolescence, few have prospective data on the developmental precursors of AB beginning during infancy. Using a cohort of 268 low-income boys first assessed at 18 months, the current study examined predictors of early- and late-starting trajectories of AB assessed during early childhood and early adolescence. Four trajectory groups were identified, including early- and late-starting groups, a low stable group, and a high decreasing group, characterized by multiple risk factors during early childhood and early adolescence. During early childhood, parenting and maternal depression discriminated two AB trajectory groups, an early-starting and a high decreasing group, who would go on to demonstrate a high preponderance of juvenile court involvement (60% to 79%) and elevated rates of clinical depression 13 to 15 years later. The results were discussed in reference to targeting malleable family risk factors during early childhood associated with patterns of AB and mental health disorders during adolescence.

  3. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed.

  4. Estimating Interaction Effects With Incomplete Predictor Variables

    PubMed Central

    Enders, Craig K.; Baraldi, Amanda N.; Cham, Heining

    2014-01-01

    The existing missing data literature does not provide a clear prescription for estimating interaction effects with missing data, particularly when the interaction involves a pair of continuous variables. In this article, we describe maximum likelihood and multiple imputation procedures for this common analysis problem. We outline 3 latent variable model specifications for interaction analyses with missing data. These models apply procedures from the latent variable interaction literature to analyses with a single indicator per construct (e.g., a regression analysis with scale scores). We also discuss multiple imputation for interaction effects, emphasizing an approach that applies standard imputation procedures to the product of 2 raw score predictors. We thoroughly describe the process of probing interaction effects with maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. For both missing data handling techniques, we outline centering and transformation strategies that researchers can implement in popular software packages, and we use a series of real data analyses to illustrate these methods. Finally, we use computer simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques. PMID:24707955

  5. Predictors affecting personal health information management skills

    PubMed Central

    Abner, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated major factors affecting personal health records (PHRs) management skills associated with survey respondents’ health information management related activities. Methods A self-report survey was used to assess individuals’ personal characteristics, health knowledge, PHR skills, and activities. Factors underlying respondents current PHR-related activities were derived using Principle Component Analysis (PCA). Scale scores were calculated based on the results of the PCA, and hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to identify respondent characteristics associated with the scale scores. Internal consistency of the derived scale scores was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Results Among personal health information activities surveyed (N=578 respondents), the four extracted factors were subsequently grouped and labeled as: Collecting Skills (Cronbach’s α = .906), Searching skills (Cronbach’s α = .837), Sharing skills (Cronbach’s α = .763), and Implementing skills (Cronbach’s α = .908). In the hierarchical regression analyses, education and computer knowledge significantly increased the explanatory power of the models. Health knowledge (β = 0.25, P < 0.001) emerged as a positive predictor of PHR Collecting skills. Conclusions This study confirmed that PHR training and learning should consider a full spectrum of information management skills including collection, utilization, and distribution to support patients’ care and prevention continua. PMID:26268728

  6. Neurocognitive predictors of source monitoring in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Mohammed Kalathil; Docherty, Nancy Marsh

    2012-12-30

    Source monitoring (SM) is a metacognitive process involved in making judgments about the origin of information by recruiting cognitive processes. Deficits in SM have been linked to positive symptoms of schizophrenia. We investigated whether certain neurocognitive functions - specifically attention, working memory, and organizational sequencing - were associated with SM in a sample of schizophrenia patients. Attention (Auditory Continuous Performance Test), organizational sequencing (Trail-Making Test B-A), working memory (Digits Backward), and internal SM were assessed in 45 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Standard multiple regression analysis showed attention, working memory and organizational sequencing together predicted SM. Organizational sequencing was the only significant individual predictor, with better organizational sequencing ability being associated with better SM. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that working memory by itself did not result in a significant predictive model of SM, but adding organizational sequencing led to a significant change from the working memory model and resulted in a significant overall model, accounting for 26% of the variance in SM. Neurocognitive functions were associated with SM in schizophrenia. Organizational sequencing, which requires an awareness of self-generated actions, predicted SM performance even after controlling for working memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of juveniles' noncompliance with probation requirements.

    PubMed

    NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; McKitten, Rhonda L; Prelic, Ana; Ebbecke, Jenna; Foster, Erika; Burkard, Casey

    2014-12-01

    Probation is the most common disposition for adjudicated youth, but little is known about which specific requirements are commonly imposed on juveniles, the requirements with which juveniles most often fail to comply, and how certain youth characteristics and/or imposed requirements might relate to probation noncompliance. An investigation of 120 archived files of youth represented by an urban public defender's office identified 29 probation requirements imposed on youth and 18 requirements with which youth commonly failed to comply. Results revealed that 52% of youth failed to comply with at least one probation requirement; prior probation noncompliance and race were both significantly associated with noncompliance in the examined probation disposition. In addition, the probability of probation noncompliance was significantly higher when youth received either of two substance-related probation requirements: drug tests or drug and alcohol counseling. Such results may prompt further investigation of juvenile probation-related predictors, identify areas of need for clinical service provision to foster successful completion of probation requirements, and help identify areas of potential biases among juvenile court personnel. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

  9. Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

  10. Student Admission Criteria as Predictors of Research Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Gary L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study at one university found that traditional admission criteria for a graduate microbiology program, undergraduate grade point average, and Graduate Record Examination scores, were not good predictors of student potential as a researcher, as measured by faculty ratings. (MSE)

  11. Clinical predictors of therapeutic response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U

    2014-12-01

    The search for clinical outcome predictors for schizophrenia is as old as the field of psychiatry. However, despite a wealth of large, longitudinal studies into prognostic factors, only very few clinically useful outcome predictors have been identified. The goal of future treatment is to either affect modifiable risk factors, or use nonmodifiable factors to parse patients into therapeutically meaningful subgroups. Most clinical outcome predictors are nonspecific and/or nonmodifiable. Nonmodifiable predictors for poor odds of remission include male sex, younger age at disease onset, poor premorbid adjustment, and severe baseline psychopathology. Modifiable risk factors for poor therapeutic outcomes that clinicians can act upon include longer duration of untreated illness, nonadherence to antipsychotics, comorbidities (especially substance-use disorders), lack of early antipsychotic response, and lack of improvement with non-clozapine antipsychotics, predicting clozapine response. It is hoped that this limited capacity for prediction will improve as pathophysiological understanding increases and/or new treatments for specific aspects of schizophrenia become available.

  12. Predictors of relationship power among drug-involved women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V

    2012-08-01

    Gender-based relationship power is frequently linked to women's capacity to reduce sexual risk behaviors. This study offers an exploration of predictors of relationship power, as measured by the multidimensional and theoretically grounded sexual relationship power scale, among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Linear models were used to test nine predictors (age, race/ethnicity, education, time in treatment, economic dependence, substance use, sexual concurrency, partner abuse, and sex role orientation) of relationship power among 513 women participating in a multi-site HIV risk reduction intervention study. Significant predictors of relationship control included having a non-abusive male partner, only one male partner, and endorsing traditional masculine (or both masculine and feminine) sex role attributes. Predictors of decision-making dominance were interrelated, with substance use × partner abuse and age × sex role orientation interactions. Results contribute to the understanding of factors which may influence relationship power and to their potential role in HIV sexual risk reduction interventions.

  13. Predictors of Employee Involvement in a Worksite Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Kathryn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A recruitment effort aimed at utility company employees enrolled 64 percent (679) in a health promotion program. Results demonstrate that sociodemographic predictors of recruitment are almost a mirror image of employee participation in worksite health promotion programs. (JOW)

  14. Predictors of Teachers' Perceived Self-Competence in Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined predictors of teachers' (N=182) management beliefs (the degree to which teachers believe they can personally manage a behavior). Found variables relating to greatest number of dependent measures were student academic achievement and socioeconomic status. (Author/ABL)

  15. Early Predictors of Students at Risk of Poor PANCE Performance.

    PubMed

    Butina, Michelle; Wyant, Andrew R; Remer, Randa; Cardom, Robert

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify early predictors in the physician assistant (PA) program curriculum that could be used to identify students "at risk" of failing the Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination (PANCE), allowing for early intervention. Previous literature implicates grades on foundational coursework as promising early predictors of PANCE performance. Secondary data analyses were performed using student data from 2003 to 2014 school years in the PA program at a large university. Path analysis indicated that grades from foundational coursework were the strongest early predictors of PANCE performance, accounting for over half of the variance in PANCE performance. Although admission criteria provide some indication of how a student might perform on the PANCE, foundational coursework is the best early predictor of PANCE performance based on this research. Remediation strategies may be most successful when targeting students who have difficulty in these classes during their first year.

  16. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  17. Designing Estimator/Predictor Digital Phase-Locked Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Hurd, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Signal delays in equipment compensated automatically. New approach to design of digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) incorporates concepts from estimation theory and involves decomposition of closed-loop transfer function into estimator and predictor. Estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher order derivatives of phase with respect to time, while predictor compensates for delay, called "transport lag," caused by PLL equipment and by DPLL computations.

  18. An estimator-predictor approach to PLL loop filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph I.; Hurd, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of digital phase locked loops (DPLL) using estimation theory concepts in the selection of a loop filter is presented. The key concept, that the DPLL closed-loop transfer function is decomposed into an estimator and a predictor, is discussed. The estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher-order derivatives, and the predictor compensates for the transport lag inherent in the loop.

  19. Behavioral, Psychological, and Demographic Predictors of Physical Fitness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-14

    psychological factors related to beliefs about fitness and weight control, and background/ demographic factors . These findings represent a successful attempt to...7AD-A192 697 BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS OF j PHYSICAL FITNESS(U) NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA T L CONW~AY 1.4...DEC 87 NHRC-87-37 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 6/ie NL Illll i 11 .0 14w -W -- - -JCFILE Copy BEHAVIORALF PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND DEMOGRAPHIC - PREDICTORS OPPHYSICAL

  20. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor Volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.

    1987-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminals. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will be detected and is composed of a base map and satellite track overlay for each satellite. A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  1. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor, Vol 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James, Major

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  2. An estimator-predictor approach to PLL loop filter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, Joseph I.; Hurd, William J.

    1990-10-01

    The design of digital phase locked loops (DPLL) using estimation theory concepts in the selection of a loop filter is presented. The key concept, that the DPLL closed-loop transfer function is decomposed into an estimator and a predictor, is discussed. The estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher-order derivatives, and the predictor compensates for the transport lag inherent in the loop.

  3. Designing Estimator/Predictor Digital Phase-Locked Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Hurd, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Signal delays in equipment compensated automatically. New approach to design of digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) incorporates concepts from estimation theory and involves decomposition of closed-loop transfer function into estimator and predictor. Estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher order derivatives of phase with respect to time, while predictor compensates for delay, called "transport lag," caused by PLL equipment and by DPLL computations.

  4. Establishing predictors for successfully planned endotracheal extubation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Liu, Wei-Lun; Weng, Shih-Feng; Sung, Mei-I; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish predictors for successfully planned extubation, which can be followed by medical personnel. The patients who were admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital and met the following criteria between January 2005 and December 2014 were collected retrospectively: intubation > 48 hours; and candidate for extubation. The patient characteristics, including disease severity, rapid shallow breath index (RSBI), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), cuff leak test (CLT) before extubation, and outcome, were recorded. The CLT was classified as 2+ with audible flow without a stethoscope, 1+ with audible flow using a stethoscope, and negative (N) with no audible flow, even with a stethoscope. Failure to extubate was defined as reintubation within 48 hours. In total, 6583 patients were enrolled and 403 patients (6.1%) had extubation failures. Male patients dominated the patient cohort (4261 [64.7%]). The mean age was 64.5±16.3 years. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 11.3%. The extubation failure rate for females was greater than males (7.7% vs 5.3%, P < 0.001). The group of patients who failed extubation were older (66.7 ± 14.4 vs 64.3 ± 16.4, P = 0.002), had higher APACHE II scores (16.8 ± 7.6 vs 15.9 ± 7.8, P = 0.023), lower coma scales (10.3 ± 3.7 vs 10.8 ± 3.7, P = 0.07), a higher RSBI (69.9 ± 37.3 vs 58.6 ± 30.3, P < 0.001), a lower MIP, and MEP (-35.6 ± 15.3 vs -37.8 ± 14.6, P = 0.0001 and 49.6 ± 28.4 vs 58.6 ± 30.2, P < 0.001, respectively), and a higher mortality rate (25.6% vs 10.5%, P < 0.001) compared to the successful extubation group. Based on multivariate logistic regression, a CLT of 2+ (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07, P < 0.001), a MEP ≥ 55 cmH2O (OR = 1.73, P < 0.001), and a RSBI < 68 breath/min/ml (OR = 1.57, P < 0.001) were independent predictors for successful

  5. Predictors of Trachomatous Trichiasis Surgery Outcome.

    PubMed

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Gashaw, Bizuayehu; Wondimagegn, Guadie S; Mengistie, Hiwot D; Rajak, Saul N; Callahan, Kelly; Weiss, Helen A; Burton, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Unfavorable outcomes after trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surgery are undermining the global trachoma elimination effort. This analysis investigates predictors of postoperative TT (PTT), eyelid contour abnormalities (ECAs), and granuloma in the 2 most common TT surgery procedures: posterior lamellar tarsal rotation (PLTR) and bilamellar tarsal rotation (BLTR). Secondary data analysis from a randomized, controlled, single-masked clinical trial. A total of 1000 patients with TT, with lashes touching the eye or evidence of epilation, in association with tarsal conjunctival scarring. Participants were randomly allocated and received BLTR (n = 501) or PLTR (n = 499) surgery. Disease severity at baseline, surgical incisions, sutures, and corrections were graded during and immediately after surgery. Participants were examined at 6 and 12 months by assessors masked to allocation. Predictors of PTT, ECA, and granuloma. Data were available for 992 (99.2%) trial participants (496 in each arm). There was strong evidence that performing more peripheral dissection with scissors in PLTR (odd ratio [OR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.91; P = 0.008) and BLTR (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.96; P = 0.01) independently protected against PTT. Baseline major trichiasis and mixed location lashes and immediate postoperative central undercorrection independently predicted PTT in both surgical procedures. Peripheral lashes in PLTR (OR, 5.91; 95% CI, 1.48-23.5; P = 0.01) and external central incision height ≥4 mm in BLTR (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.55-5.41; P = 0.001) were independently associated with PTT. Suture interval asymmetry of >2 mm (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.31-7.70; P = 0.01) in PLTR and baseline conjunctival scarring in BLTR (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.06-2.81; P = 0.03) were independently associated with ECA. Older age was independently associated with ECA in both PLTR (P value for trend < 0.0001) and BLTR (P value for trend = 0.03). There was substantial intersurgeon variability

  6. Predictors of health service use over the palliative care trajectory.

    PubMed

    Masucci, Lisa; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C

    2013-05-01

    Health system restructuring coupled with the preference of patients to be cared for at home has altered the setting for the provision of palliative care. Accordingly, there has been emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care by multidisciplinary teams of health care providers. Evidence suggests that these teams are better able to identify and deal with the needs of patients and their family members. Currently there is a lack of literature examining the predictors of palliative care service use for various professional service categories. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of the propensity and intensity of five main health service categories in the last three months of life for home-based palliative care patients. This was a prospective cohort study. The predictors of service use were assessed using a two-part model, which treats the decision to use a service (propensity) and the amount of service use (intensity) as two distinct processes. Propensity was modeled using a logistic regression and intensity was modeled using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicate that each service category emerged with a different set of predictor variables. Common predictors of health service use across service categories were patient age and functional status. The results suggest that a consistent set of predictors across service categories does not exist, and thus the determinants of access to each service category are unique. These findings will help case managers, health administrators, and policy decision makers better allocate human resources to palliative patients.

  7. STABLE BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION AND GLUCOCORTICOID PRODUCTION AS PREDICTORS OF LONGEVITY

    PubMed Central

    Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Ragan, Christina M.; Michael, Kerry C.; Kovacsics, Colleen E.; Bruscke, Alexander P.

    2009-01-01

    Several personality/temperament traits have been linked to health outcomes in humans and animals but underlying physiological mechanisms for these differential outcomes are minimally understood. In this paper, we compared the strength of a behavioral trait (behavioral inhibition) and an associated physiological trait (glucocorticoid production) in predicting life span. In addition, we examined the relative stability of both the behavioral and physiological trait within individuals over a significant portion of adulthood, and tested the hypothesis that a stable behavioral trait is linked with a stable physiological bias. In a sample of 60 Sprague-Dawley male rats, we found that stable inhibition/neophobia was a stronger predictor of life span than stably elevated glucocorticoid production. In addition, these predictors appeared to have an additive influence on life span in that males with both risk factors (stable inhibition and consistently high glucocorticoid production) had the shortest life spans of all, suggesting both traits are important predictors of life span. Across a 4-month period in young adulthood, inhibition and glucocorticoid reactivity were relatively stable traits, however these two traits were not highly correlated with one another. Interestingly, baseline glucocorticoid production was a better predictor of life span than reactivity levels. The results indicate that glucocorticoid production in young adulthood is an important predictor of life span, although not as strong a predictor as inhibition, and that other physiological processes may further explain the shortened life span in behaviorally-inhibited individuals. PMID:19477191

  8. PREDICTORS OF NONATTENDANCE AT AN ENDOCRINOLOGY OUTPATIENT CLINIC.

    PubMed

    Eid, Wael Emad; Shehata, Shehata Farag; Cole, Dan Arthur; Doerman, Krista Lynn

    2016-08-01

    To identify predictors potentially contributing to patients' nonattendance or to same-day cancellation of scheduled appointments at an adult endocrinology office practice. A retrospective, records-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 9,305 electronic medical records of patients presenting at a U.S. metropolitan adult endocrinology clinic in 2013. Statistical analyses included multivariate regression, calculated odds ratios, and posttest probabilities. Of 29,178 total patient visits analyzed, 68% were attended by patients. Of total scheduled appointments, 7% resulted in nonattendance and 5% in same-day cancellation. The most significant predictors of nonatten-dance were a previous history of nonattendance (P<.001), uncontrolled diabetes (P<.001), and new patients to the practice (P<.001). Long lead-time to appointment (P = .001), younger age (P<.001), and certain insurance carriers (P<.001) also were significant predictors. Specific predictors of nonattendance at scheduled appointments were identified using statistical analysis of electronic medical record data. Previous history of nonattendance and having uncontrolled diabetes (especially in patients newly referred to the practice) are among these significant predictors. Identifying specific predictors for nonattendance enables targeted strategies to be developed. APRN = Advanced Practice Registered Nurse CI = confidence interval DM = diabetes mellitus EMR = electronic medical record HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin NS = no-show OR = odds ratio SDC = same-day cancellation.

  9. Gradient forests: calculating importance gradients on physical predictors.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Nick; Smith, Stephen J; Pitcher, C Roland

    2012-01-01

    In ecological analyses of species and community distributions there is interest in the nature of their responses to environmental gradients and in identifying the most important environmental variables, which may be used for predicting patterns of biodiversity. Methods such as random forests already exist to assess predictor importance for individual species and to indicate where along gradients abundance changes. However, there is a need to extend these methods to whole assemblages, to establish where along the range of these gradients the important compositional changes occur, and to identify any important thresholds or change points. We develop such a method, called "gradient forest," which is an extension of the random forest approach. By synthesizing the cross-validated R2 and accuracy importance measures from univariate random forest analyses across multiple species, sampling devices, and surveys, gradient forest obtains a monotonic function of each predictor that represents the compositional turnover along the gradient of the predictor. When applied to a synthetic data set, the method correctly identified the important predictors and delineated where the compositional change points occurred along these gradients. Application of gradient forest to a real data set from part of the Great Barrier Reef identified mud fraction of the sediment as the most important predictor, with highest compositional turnover occurring at mud fraction values around 25%, and provided similar information for other predictors. Such refined information allows for more accurate capturing of biodiversity patterns for the purposes of bioregionalization, delineation of protected areas, or designing of biodiversity surveys.

  10. Predictors of depression in youth with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeffrey G; Srinath, Arvind I; Youk, Ada O; Kirshner, Margaret A; McCarthy, F Nicole; Keljo, David J; Bousvaros, Athos; DeMaso, David R; Szigethy, Eva M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether infliximab use and other potential predictors are associated with decreased prevalence and severity of depression in pediatric patients with Crohn disease (CD). A total of 550 (n = 550) youth ages 9 to 17 years with biopsy-confirmed CD were consecutively recruited as part of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Out of the 550, 499 patients met study criteria and were included in the analysis. At recruitment, each subject and a parent completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). A child or parent CDI score ≥  12 was used to denote clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS). Child and parent CDI scores were summed to form total CDI (CDIT). Infliximab use, demographic information, steroid use, laboratory values, and Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) were collected as the potential predictors of depression. Univariate regression models were constructed to determine the relations among predictors, CSDS, and CDIT. Stepwise multivariate regression models were constructed to predict the relation between infliximab use and depression while controlling for other predictors of depression. Infliximab use was not associated with a decreased proportion of CSDS and CDIT after adjusting for multiple comparisons. CSDS and CDIT were positively associated with PCDAI, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and steroid dose (P < 0.01) and negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES) (P < 0.001). In multivariate models, PCDAI and SES were the strongest predictors of depression. Disease activity and SES are significant predictors of depression in youth with Crohn disease.

  11. Improved Smith predictor control for fast steering mirror system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zheng; Chen, Jing; Deng, Chao; Mao, Yao; Li, Zhijun

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a novel Smith predictor control strategy improved by a high bandwidth inner loop for fast steering mirror (FSM) tracking control system based on a charge-coupled device (CCD) and rate sensor is proposed. A high bandwidth velocity closed-loop constructed by a fiber-optic gyroscope is utilized to provide a robust controlled plant for the Smith predictor controller. Usually, due to the mechanical resonances and time delay induced by a low CCD sampling rate, the tracking performance of FSM system is insufficient when suffering uncertain input command. Therefore, the Smith predictor control, which is famous for its delay-free characteristic and suitable for regulating systems with an excessively long time delay, is recommended to compensate for the CCD time delay. However, the classical Smith predictor is sensitive to plant parameter variations, which could deteriorate the stability of the control system. Thus, in order to make a robust Smith predictor, a cascaded dual closed-loop including a high bandwidth velocity inner loop is introduced to reduce the influence of plant parameter variations. The low sensitivity to parameter variation of this method shows the significant improvement of the conventional Smith predictor control. Simultaneously, the analysis of tracking accuracy and the bandwidth of the FSM system is also presented. A series of comparative experimental results demonstrate that the tracking performance of the FSM control system can be effectively improved by the proposed approach.

  12. Nonparametric Bayes modeling for case control studies with many predictors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Herring, Amy H; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Olshan, Andrew F; Dunson, David B

    2016-03-01

    It is common in biomedical research to run case-control studies involving high-dimensional predictors, with the main goal being detection of the sparse subset of predictors having a significant association with disease. Usual analyses rely on independent screening, considering each predictor one at a time, or in some cases on logistic regression assuming no interactions. We propose a fundamentally different approach based on a nonparametric Bayesian low rank tensor factorization model for the retrospective likelihood. Our model allows a very flexible structure in characterizing the distribution of multivariate variables as unknown and without any linear assumptions as in logistic regression. Predictors are excluded only if they have no impact on disease risk, either directly or through interactions with other predictors. Hence, we obtain an omnibus approach for screening for important predictors. Computation relies on an efficient Gibbs sampler. The methods are shown to have high power and low false discovery rates in simulation studies, and we consider an application to an epidemiology study of birth defects.

  13. Mortality in schizophrenia: clinical and serological predictors.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Schroeder, Jennifer; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Persons with schizophrenia have a reduced life expectancy largely due to death from natural causes. Factors that have been previously associated with excess mortality include cigarette smoking and antipsychotic medication. The role of other environmental factors such as exposure to infectious agents has been the subject of only limited investigation. We prospectively assessed a cohort of persons with schizophrenia with a clinical evaluation and a blood sample from which antibodies to human herpes viruses and Toxoplasma gondii were measured. Mortality was determined with data from the National Death Index following a period of up to 11 years. We examined the role of demographic, serological, and clinical factors on mortality. A total of 25 (5%) of 517 persons died of natural causes. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.80 (95% CI 0.89, 6.38). After adjusting for age and gender, mortality from natural causes was predicted in separate models by cigarette smoking (relative risk [RR] = 4.66, P = .0029); lower cognitive score (RR = 0.96, P = .013); level of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (RR = 1.22, P = .0041) and to Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (RR = 1.19, P = .030); immunologic disease (RR = 3.14, P = .044); and genitourinary disease (RR = 2.70; P = .035). Because cigarette smoking confers an almost 5-fold risk of mortality, smoking cessation is an urgent priority. Having an elevated level of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus and to Herpes Simplex virus type 1 are also significant predictors of death from natural causes. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prospective Predictors of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Evangelos; Wong-Tom, Wing M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common overuse injuries. Objective: To assess the collective evidence of predisposing factors to PFPS. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1960–June 2010), EMBASE (1980–June 2010), and CINAHL (1982–June 2010). Study Selection: Studies were included if patients were asymptomatic at baseline testing (free of PFPS) and were prospectively followed for the development of the disorder. Only studies that assessed at least 1 variable that can be measured at a typical clinic were included. After duplicates were removed, 973 studies were assessed from their titles or abstracts, 20 from the full text, and from these, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Data were extracted for age, weight, height, sample size, patient type (military vs civilian), follow-up periods, diagnostic methods, and diagnostic criteria. Means and standard deviations were extracted for all outcome variables. Results: Meta-analyses were performed for height, weight, leanness, Q angle, number of sit-ups, knee extension strength, and peak knee valgus angle during landing. Lower knee extension strength was the only variable that was predictive of PFPS (P < 0.01). Other variables that were identified as predictive of PFPS by single studies were vertical jump, push-ups, knee flexion and hip abduction strength, thumb-to-forearm flexibility, quadriceps and gastrocnemius flexibility, genu varum, navicular drop, knee valgus moment at initial contact during landing, social support, and palliative reaction. Conclusions: It appears that anthropometric variables are not associated with PFPS, while knee extension strength deficits appear to be predictors of PFPS. PMID:23016077

  15. Smoke alarm use: prevalence and household predictors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1996-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of smoke alarm use among families with children and to identify household factors that predict the absence of a smoke alarm. Cross sectional analysis of data collected in the September and November 1995 Omnibus Survey, conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the UK. A random sample of British households. Interviews were completed with 4,043 householders. The response rate was 78%. 29% of British households do not have a smoke alarm and smoke alarms were absent in 20% of households with children under 15 years. A smoke alarm was absent in 41% of privately rented homes compared with 17% of owner occupied homes. Living in private rental accommodation was the strongest household predictor of the absence of a smoke alarm (odds ratio = 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.94 to 5.42). Householders who had heard of National Fire Safety Week or the TV smoke alarm advertising campaign were significantly more likely to have a smoke alarm. The apparent effect of these campaigns was greatest in families with children. Smoke alarm use has continued to increase but a substantial proportion of British homes still do not have smoke alarms. Homes at greatest risk of residential fire are the least likely to have an alarm. Health professionals may be able to increase smoke alarm use among families with children, by counselling families about the benefits of smoke alarms. They may also be effective in this regard by lobbying local councils, houseing associations, or private landlords to install alarms in all properties and by advocating for national legislation.

  16. Ayurvedic doshas as predictors of sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Pathak, Shivangi; Kumar, Ankur; Mishra, Prabhat; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2015-05-17

    The 3 Ayurvedic constitutional types or Doshas--vata, pitta, and kapha--are responsible for homeostasis and health. The doshas determine various functions, including sleep. According to the Ayurvedic texts, sleep is caused by increased kapha and insomnia by increased vata or pitta, which may follow physical or mental exertion, or disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether this relationship could be found using contemporary standardized questionnaires. In this cross-sectional single-group study, 995 persons participated (646 males; group average age ±S.D., 49.1±15.2 years). Participants were attending a 1-week residential yoga program in northern India. Participants were assessed for dosha scores using a Tridosha questionnaire and the quality of sleep in the preceding week was self-rated using a sleep rating questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine if each dosha acted as a predictor of quality and quantity of sleep. Vata scores significantly predicted the time taken to fall asleep [p<0.01], and the feeling of being rested in the morning [p<0.001]; with higher vata scores being associated with a longer time to fall asleep and a lesser feeling of being rested in the morning. Kapha scores significantly predicted day-time somnolence [p<0.05] and the duration of day-time naps in minutes [p<0.05], with higher kapha scores being associated with longer day-time naps. The results suggest that the doshas can influence the quality and quantity of sleep.

  17. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: outcome predictors

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Ávila, Paulo; Cavaco, Raquel; Germano, Nuno; Bento, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Objective The determination of coma patient prognosis after cardiac arrest has clinical, ethical and social implications. Neurological examination, imaging and biochemical markers are helpful tools accepted as reliable in predicting recovery. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, these data need to be reconfirmed. In this study, we attempted to determine the validity of different markers, which can be used in the detection of patients with poor prognosis under hypothermia. Methods Data from adult patients admitted to our intensive care unit for a hypothermia protocol after cardiac arrest were recorded prospectively to generate a descriptive and analytical study analyzing the relationship between clinical, neurophysiological, imaging and biochemical parameters with 6-month outcomes defined according to the Cerebral Performance Categories scale (good 1-2, poor 3-5). Neuron-specific enolase was collected at 72 hours. Imaging and neurophysiologic exams were carried out in the 24 hours after the rewarming period. Results Sixty-seven patients were included in the study, of which 12 had good neurological outcomes. Ventricular fibrillation and electroencephalographic theta activity were associated with increased likelihood of survival and improved neurological outcomes. Patients who had more rapid cooling (mean time of 163 versus 312 minutes), hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging or neuron-specific enolase > 58ng/mL had poor neurological outcomes (p < 0.05). Conclusion Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging and neuron-specific enolase were strong predictors of poor neurological outcomes. Although there is the belief that early achievement of target temperature improves neurological prognoses, in our study, there were increased mortality and worse neurological outcomes with earlier target-temperature achievement. PMID:26761469

  18. Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Leerkes, Esther M.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID

  19. Predictors of neonatal sepsis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martin W; Carlin, John B; Gatchalian, Salvacion; Lehmann, Deborah; Muhe, Lulu; Mulholland, E Kim

    2003-08-01

    Neonatal infections are a major cause of death worldwide. Simple procedures for identifying infants with infection that need referral for treatment are therefore of major public health importance. We investigated 3303 infants <2 months of age presenting with illness to health facilities in Ethiopia, The Gambia, Papua New Guinea and The Philippines, using a standardized approach. Historical factors and clinical signs predicting sepsis, meningitis, hypoxemia, deaths and an ordinal scale indicating severe disease were investigated by logistic regression, and the performance of simple combination rules was explored. In multivariable analysis, reduced feeding ability, no spontaneous movement, temperature >38 degrees C, being drowsy/unconscious, a history of a feeding problem, history of change in activity, being agitated, the presence of lower chest wall indrawing, respiratory rate >60 breaths/min, grunting, cyanosis, a history of convulsions, a bulging fontanel and slow digital capillary refill were independent predictors of severe disease. The presence of any 1 of these 14 signs had a sensitivity for severe disease (defined as sepsis, meningitis, hypoxemia, or radiologically proven pneumonia) of 87% and a specificity of 54%. More stringent combinations, such as demanding 2 signs from the list, resulted in a considerable loss of sensitivity. By contrast only slight loss of sensitivity and considerable gain of specificity resulted from reducing the list to 9 signs. Requiring the presence of fever and any other sign produced a diagnostic rule with extremely low sensitivity (25%). Physical signs can be used to identify young infants at risk of severe disease, however with limited specificity, resulting in large numbers of unnecessary referrals. Further studies are required to validate and refine the prediction of severe disease, especially in the first week of life, but there appear to be limits on the accuracy of prediction that is achievable.

  20. Predictors of misunderstanding pediatric liquid medication instructions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Pandit, Anjali U; Yin, Shonna; Federman, Alex; Davis, Terry C; Parker, Ruth M; Wolf, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the level of adult understanding of dosage instructions for a liquid medication commonly prescribed for children. Structured interviews were conducted with 373 adults waiting for an appointment at family medicine clinics serving low-income populations in Shreveport, La; Chicago; and Jackson, Mich, from July 2003-August 2004. Subjects were asked to read a prescription label for amoxicillin and explain how they would take the medication. Correct interpretation was determined by a panel of blinded physician reviewers who coded subjects' verbatim responses. Qualitative methods were used to determine the nature of incorrect responses. Twenty-eight percent of subjects misunderstood medication instructions. The prevalence of misinterpreting instructions among subjects with adequate, marginal, and low literacy was 18%, 34%, and 43%, respectively. Common causes for misunderstanding included problems with dosage measurement (28%; ie, tablespoon instead of teaspoon) and frequency of use (33%; ie, every 3 hours instead of every 6-8 hours). In an adjusted analysis that excluded literacy, African Americans were more likely to misunderstand instructions than Caucasians (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02-2.61). When literacy was included in the model, the effect of race on misunderstanding was reduced and nonsignificant. Inadequate and marginal literacy remained independent predictors of misunderstanding (inadequate--AOR 2.90, 95% CI= 1.41-6.00; marginal--AOR 2.20, 95% CI=1.19-3.97). Misinterpretation of pediatric liquid medication instructions is common. Limited literacy is a significant risk factor for misunderstanding and could contribute to racial disparities. Instructions should be written in a concise manner and standardized to ensure comprehension.

  1. Smoke alarm use: prevalence and household predictors.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoke alarm use among families with children and to identify household factors that predict the absence of a smoke alarm. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of data collected in the September and November 1995 Omnibus Survey, conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the UK. SUBJECTS: A random sample of British households. Interviews were completed with 4,043 householders. The response rate was 78%. RESULTS: 29% of British households do not have a smoke alarm and smoke alarms were absent in 20% of households with children under 15 years. A smoke alarm was absent in 41% of privately rented homes compared with 17% of owner occupied homes. Living in private rental accommodation was the strongest household predictor of the absence of a smoke alarm (odds ratio = 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.94 to 5.42). Householders who had heard of National Fire Safety Week or the TV smoke alarm advertising campaign were significantly more likely to have a smoke alarm. The apparent effect of these campaigns was greatest in families with children. CONCLUSIONS: Smoke alarm use has continued to increase but a substantial proportion of British homes still do not have smoke alarms. Homes at greatest risk of residential fire are the least likely to have an alarm. Health professionals may be able to increase smoke alarm use among families with children, by counselling families about the benefits of smoke alarms. They may also be effective in this regard by lobbying local councils, houseing associations, or private landlords to install alarms in all properties and by advocating for national legislation. PMID:9346105

  2. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different

  3. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  4. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. Methods: A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Results: Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Conclusion: Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings. PMID:28620490

  5. Predictors of health behaviours in college students.

    PubMed

    Von Ah, Diane; Ebert, Sheryl; Ngamvitroj, Anchalee; Park, Najin; Kang, Duck-Hee

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports a study examining the direct effects of perceived stress, perceived availability of and satisfaction with social support, and self-efficacy, and examines the intermediary roles of perceived threat (perceived susceptibility x perceived severity), benefits, and barriers on alcohol behaviour, smoking behaviour, physical activity and nutrition behaviour, general safety behaviour and sun-protective behaviour in college students. Health behaviours formed during young adulthood may have a sustaining impact on health across later life. Entering college can be an exciting, yet stressful event for many adolescents and young adults as they face trying to adapt to changes in academic workloads, support networks, and their new environment. Coupled with these changes and new-found responsibilities, they have greater freedom and control over their lifestyles than ever before. However, researchers have shown globally that many college students engage in various risky health behaviours. A cross-sectional sample of 161 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed self-report questionnaires regarding stress; social support; self-efficacy; and components of the Health Belief Model including perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers; and common health behaviours. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was conducted and significant predictors were retained as modifiers in the path analysis. Self-efficacy significantly predicted alcohol and smoking behaviour, physical activity and nutrition protective behaviour, general safety protective behaviour and sun-protective behaviour. Under high-perceived threat, self-efficacy was mediated by perceived barriers for binge drinking and moderated by perceived barriers for physical activity and nutrition behaviours. In addition, under high-perceived threat, self-efficacy was moderated by perceived threat for alcohol use at 30 days and 6 months. Under low threat, self-efficacy was mediated

  6. Psychological predictors of dietary intentions in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Croker, H; Barr, S; Briley, A; Poston, L; Wardle, J

    2012-08-01

    Consuming a healthy diet in pregnancy has the potential to improve obstetric outcome, including minimising the risk of macrosomia. Effective promotion of dietary change depends on identifying and targeting determinants of gestational diet. The present study aimed to model psychological predictors of intentions to reduce intake of high-fat and high-sugar foods, and increase fruit and vegetable consumption, among pregnant women. One hundred and three pregnant women completed questionnaire measures of intentions to modify the consumption of the target foods, current intake, perceived vulnerability to and severity of adverse outcomes of unhealthful consumption of these foods (i.e. 'threat'), benefits of dietary change to mother and baby, barriers to dietary changes, and social approval for dietary change ('subjective norms'). A cross-sectional design was used. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to model dietary change intentions. Participants who reported excessive current intake of high-fat and high-sugar foods were more likely to intend to reduce the intake of these foods. Perceived benefits for mother and baby enhanced intentions to eat more fruit and vegetables and eat less high-fat, and marginally significantly increased high-sugar reduction intentions. There were no effects of threat, barriers or subjective norms. Lack of effects for barriers, threat and subjective norms may indicate that pregnant women discount barriers to health-promoting behaviour, understand the threat posed by unhealthy eating and perceive social approval from others. Dietary change interventions for pregnant women should emphasise likely positive outcomes for both mother and child. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Ayurvedic Doshas as Predictors of Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Pathak, Shivangi; Kumar, Ankur; Mishra, Prabhat; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Background The 3 Ayurvedic constitutional types or Doshas – vata, pitta, and kapha – are responsible for homeostasis and health. The doshas determine various functions, including sleep. According to the Ayurvedic texts, sleep is caused by increased kapha and insomnia by increased vata or pitta, which may follow physical or mental exertion, or disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether this relationship could be found using contemporary standardized questionnaires. Material/Methods In this cross-sectional single-group study, 995 persons participated (646 males; group average age ±S.D., 49.1±15.2 years). Participants were attending a 1-week residential yoga program in northern India. Participants were assessed for dosha scores using a Tridosha questionnaire and the quality of sleep in the preceding week was self-rated using a sleep rating questionnaire. Results Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine if each dosha acted as a predictor of quality and quantity of sleep. Vata scores significantly predicted the time taken to fall asleep [p<0.01], and the feeling of being rested in the morning [p<0.001]; with higher vata scores being associated with a longer time to fall asleep and a lesser feeling of being rested in the morning. Kapha scores significantly predicted day-time somnolence [p<0.05] and the duration of day-time naps in minutes [p<0.05], with higher kapha scores being associated with longer day-time naps. Conclusions The results suggest that the doshas can influence the quality and quantity of sleep. PMID:25982247

  8. Predictors of future falls in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kerr, G K; Worringham, C J; Cole, M H; Lacherez, P F; Wood, J M; Silburn, P A

    2010-07-13

    Falls are a major health and injury problem for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Despite the severe consequences of falls, a major unresolved issue is the identification of factors that predict the risk of falls in individual patients with PD. The primary aim of this study was to prospectively determine an optimal combination of functional and disease-specific tests to predict falls in individuals with PD. A total of 101 people with early-stage PD undertook a battery of neurologic and functional tests in their optimally medicated state. The tests included Tinetti, Berg, Timed Up and Go, Functional Reach, and the Physiological Profile Assessment of Falls Risk; the latter assessment includes physiologic tests of visual function, proprioception, strength, cutaneous sensitivity, reaction time, and postural sway. Falls were recorded prospectively over 6 months. Forty-eight percent of participants reported a fall and 24% more than 1 fall. In the multivariate model, a combination of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total score, total freezing of gait score, occurrence of symptomatic postural orthostasis, Tinetti total score, and extent of postural sway in the anterior-posterior direction produced the best sensitivity (78%) and specificity (84%) for predicting falls. From the UPDRS items, only the rapid alternating task category was an independent predictor of falls. Reduced peripheral sensation and knee extension strength in fallers contributed to increased postural instability. Falls are a significant problem in optimally medicated early-stage PD. A combination of both disease-specific and balance- and mobility-related measures can accurately predict falls in individuals with PD.

  9. Predictors of occupancy trend across spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Patten, Michael A; Smith-Patten, Brenda D

    2011-12-01

    Many explorations of extinction probability have had a global focus, yet it is unclear whether variables that explain the probability of extinction at large spatial extents are the same as those at small spatial extents. Thus, we used nearly annual presence-absence records for the most recent 40 years of a 110-year data set from Palenque, Mexico, an area with ongoing deforestation, to explore which of >200 species of birds have probabilities of extirpation that are likely to increase. We assessed associations between long-term trends in species presence (i.e., detection in a given year) and body size, geographic range size, diet, dependence on forest cover, taxonomy, and ecological specialization. Our response variable was the estimated slope of a weighted logistic regression for each species. We assessed the relative strength of each predictor by means of a model ranking scheme. Several variables associated with high extinction probability at global extents, such as large body size or small geographic range size, were not associated with occurrence of birds over time at our site. Body size was associated with species loss at Palenque, but occurrence trends of both very large and very small species, particularly the latter, have declined, or the species have been extirpated. We found no association between declining occurrence trend and geographic range size, yet decline correlated with whether a species depends on forest (mean occupancy trend =-0.0380, 0.0263, and 0.0186 for, respectively, species with high, intermediate, or low dependence on forest) and with complex combinations of diet and foraging strata (e.g., occurrence of canopy insectivores and terrestrial omnivores has increased, whereas occurrence of mid-level frugivores and terrestrial granivores has decreased). Our findings emphasize that analyses of local areas are necessary to explicate extirpation risk at various spatial extents. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Technique for ranking potential predictor layers for use in remote sensing analysis

    Treesearch

    Andrew Lister; Mike Hoppus; Rachel Riemann

    2004-01-01

    Spatial modeling using GIS-based predictor layers often requires that extraneous predictors be culled before conducting analysis. In some cases, using extraneous predictor layers might improve model accuracy but at the expense of increasing complexity and interpretability. In other cases, using extraneous layers can dilute the relationship between predictors and target...

  11. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  12. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies

  13. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  14. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Janssen, James A; Kolacz, Jacek; Shanahan, Lilly; Gangel, Meghan J; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; Wideman, Laurie

    2017-01-05

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA) patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian). Parents reported their children's temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13) and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males' high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12). Males' surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54) and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12). No predictions from females' childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, and surgency may directly seek out pastimes that involve PA

  15. Predictors of vaginal delivery in nulliparous mothers.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Adewale Samson; Adekanle, Daniel Adebode; Afolabi, Adeola Folasade

    2014-01-01

    Nulliparity is an obstetric high-risk group whose labor, compared with multiparae, are more likely to develop labor abnormalities that requires intervention. The aim of this report is todetermine factors that influence vaginal delivery in nulliparae. A prospective cross-sectional study was done on 286 eligible booked nulliparae in labor, to determine factors associated with vaginal delivery. Information about each patient's social demographic factors, and physical characteristics such as height and weight, events in labor and mode of delivery were recorded in the data sheet. Bivariate analysis was done using Chi square, while multivariate analysis was done using logistic regression. Level of significance was put at P < 0.05. Of a total of 944 primigravidae delivered in the unit during the study period, 286 (30.3%) were eligible for the study. Vaginal delivery was achieved in 214 (74.8%) of the eligible parturient, while 72 (25.2%) had emergency caesarean delivery. Indications for the caesarean delivery were: failure to progress (46; 63.9%), fetal distress (20; 27.8%), maternal distress (5; 8.0%), and rapidly developing pre-eclampsia in labor (1, 0.3%). The birth weight of the baby ranged between 2.0 and 4.5 kg with mean weight of 3.1 ± 0.4 kg. Birth weight (odd ratio [OR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.78), fetal head engagement in early labor (OR = 10.30, 95% CI = 1.35-78.69), and maternal body mass index (BMI) (odd ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-4.20) were found to be predictors of vaginal delivery. Normal range of maternal BMI, fetal head engagement and normal range of fetal birth weight were found to be the factors associated with vaginal delivery in nulliparae. Variations in these three factors may be the underlying reason for failure to progress, which is the most common indication for caesarean section among this population of parturient.

  16. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  17. Predictors of outcomes of total knee replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Judge, Andy; Arden, Nigel K; Cooper, Cyrus; Kassim Javaid, M; Carr, Andrew J; Field, Richard E; Dieppe, Paul A

    2012-10-01

    To identify pre-operative predictors of patient-reported outcomes of primary total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. The Elective Orthopaedic Centre database is a large prospective cohort of 1991 patients receiving primary TKR in south-west London from 2005 to 2008. The primary outcome is the 6-month post-operative Oxford Knee Score (OKS). To classify whether patients had a clinically important outcome, we calculated a patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) for the 6-month OKS related to satisfaction with surgery. Potential predictor variables were pre-operative OKS, age, sex, BMI, deprivation, surgical side, diagnosis, operation type, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade and EQ5D anxiety/depression. Regression modelling was used to identify predictors of outcome. The strongest determinants of outcome include pre-operative pain/function-those with less severe pre-operative disease obtain the best outcomes; diagnosis in relation to pain outcome-patients with RA did better than those with OA; deprivation-those living in poorer areas had worse outcomes; and anxiety/depression-worse pre-operative anxiety/depression led to worse pain. Differences were observed between predictors of pain and functional outcomes. Diagnosis of RA and anxiety/depression were associated with pain, whereas age and gender were specifically associated with function. BMI was not a clinically important predictor of outcome. This study identified clinically important predictors of attained pain/function post-TKR. Predictors of pain were not necessarily the same as functional outcomes, which may be important in the context of a patient's expectations of surgery. Other predictive factors need to be identified to improve our ability to recognize patients at risk of poor TKR outcomes.

  18. Predictors of Difficult Intubation Among Malay Patients in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tantri, Aida Rosita; Firdaus, Riyadh; Salomo, Sahat Tumpal

    2016-01-01

    Background Failure to maintain an adequate airway can lead to brain damage and death. To reduce the risk of difficulty in maintaining an airway during general anesthesia, there are several known predictors of difficult intubation. People with a Malay background have different craniofacial structures in comparison with other individuals. Therefore, different predictors should be used for patients of Malay race. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx (DVL) in Malay patients based on several predictors, such as the modified Mallampati test (MMT), thyromental distance (TMD), and hyomental distance ratio (HMDR). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study included 277 consecutive patients requiring general anesthesia. All subjects were evaluated using the MMT, TMD, and HMDR, and the cut-off points for the airway predictors were Mallampati III and IV, < 6.5 cm, and < 1.2, respectively. During direct laryngoscopy, the laryngeal view was graded using the Cormack-Lehane (CL) classification. CL grades III and IV were considered difficult visualization. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for each predictor were calculated both as sole and combined predictors. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of DVL. Results Difficulty in visualizing the larynx was found in 28 (10.1%) patients. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for the three airway predictors were as follows: MMT: 0.614, 10.7%, and 99.2%; HMDR: 0.743, 64.2%, and 74%; and TMD: 0.827, 82.1%, and 64.7%. The combination providing the best prediction in our study involved the MMT, HMDR, and TMD with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.835, 60.7%, and 88.8%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the MMT, HMDR, and TMD were independent predictors of DVL. Conclusions The TMD, with a cut-off point of 65 mm, had superior diagnostic value compared with the HMDR and

  19. Introducing nonlinear, multivariate 'Predictor Surfaces' for quantitative modeling of chemical systems with higher-order, coupled predictor variables.

    PubMed

    Horton, Rebecca B; McConico, Morgan; Landry, Currie; Tran, Tho; Vogt, Frank

    2012-10-09

    Innovations in chemometrics are required for studies of chemical systems which are governed by nonlinear responses to chemical parameters and/or interdependencies (coupling) among these parameters. Conventional and linear multivariate models have limited use for quantitative and qualitative investigations of such systems because they are based on the assumption that the measured data are simple superpositions of several input parameters. 'Predictor Surfaces' were developed for studies of more chemically complex systems such as biological materials in order to ensure accurate quantitative analyses and proper chemical modeling for in-depth studies of such systems. Predictor Surfaces are based on approximating nonlinear multivariate model functions by multivariate Taylor expansions which inherently introduce the required coupled and higher-order predictor variables. As proof-of-principle for the Predictor Surfaces' capabilities, an application from environmental analytical chemistry was chosen. Microalgae cells are known to sensitively adapt to changes in environmental parameters such as pollution and/or nutrient availability and thus have potential as novel in situ sensors for environmental monitoring. These adaptations of the microalgae cells are reflected in their chemical signatures which were then acquired by means of FT-IR spectroscopy. In this study, the concentrations of three nutrients, namely inorganic carbon and two nitrogen containing ions, were chosen. Biological considerations predict that changes in nutrient availability produce a nonlinear response in the cells' biomass composition; it is also known that microalgae need certain nutrient mixes to thrive. The nonlinear Predictor Surfaces were demonstrated to be more accurate in predicting the values of these nutrients' concentrations than principal component regression. For qualitative chemical studies of biological systems, the Predictor Surfaces themselves are a novel tool as they visualize

  20. In Stent Restenosis Predictors after Carotid Artery Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Cosottini, Mirco; Michelassi, Maria Chiara; Bencivelli, Walter; Lazzarotti, Guido; Picchietti, Silvia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Parenti, Giuliano; Puglioli, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The long-term efficacy of carotid artery stenting is debated. Predictors of stent restenosis are not fully investigated. Our aim was to assess the incidence of long term restenosis after CAS and to identify some predictors of restenosis. Methods. We retrospectively selected 189 treated patients and we obtained the survival Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival, for freedom from stroke or death and from restenosis. To correlate clinical, radiological, and procedural variables to stent restenosis, an univariate analysis was performed while to determine independent predictors of restenosis, a multivariate analysis was applied. Results. At 1, 3, and 5 years, the cumulative overall survival rate was 98%, 94%, and 92% with a cumulative primary patency rate of 87%, 82.5%, and 82.5%. The percentage residual stenosis after CAS and multiple stents deployment were independent predictors of restenosis, while diabetes and tumors are suggestive but not significant predictors of restenosis. Conclusions. In our CAS experience, encouraging long-term results seem to derive from both neurological event free rate and restenosis incidence. Adequate recanalization of the treated vessel is important to limit the development of stent restenosis. Multiple stents deployment, and with less evidence, diabetes, or neoplasms has to be considered to facilitate restenosis. PMID:20798894

  1. Predictors of Physical Activity in Positive Deviant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Shelley; Bally, Jill; Trinder, Krista

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine the predictors of PA in positive deviant adolescents in comparison to average or underachieving adolescents on the same criterion. A survey of Canadian adolescents aged 13-20 (N=603), based on a multidimensional wellness model and an ecological model, provided the data for a multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of PA in positive deviant adolescents defined as having higher than average levels of PA. Significant predictors of PA for positive deviant girls were recreational time, an increased sense of wellness, age, and family support (explaining 47.7% of variance for girls). Within the positive deviant group, older girls were less active than younger girls. For positive deviant boys, use of recreational time was the only significant predictor of PA (explaining 5.9% of the variance). Wellness as a significant predictor of PA in positive deviant adolescent girls is a new and unique finding. The measurement of wellness in this study was a composite score of the physical, social, and psychological developmental dimensions of adolescent lives. Pediatric nurses may wish to consider a multidimensional wellness approach, family support, and recreation time as major foci of PA interventions in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictor symbology in computer-generated pictorial displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The display under investigation, is a tunnel display for the four-dimensional commercial aircraft approach-to-landing under instrument flight rules. It is investigated whether more complex predictive information such as a three-dimensional perspective vehicle symbol, predicting the future vehicle position as well as future vehicle attitude angles, contributes to a better system response, and suitable predictor laws for the predictor motions, are formulated. Methods for utilizing the predictor symbol in controlling the forward velocity of the aircraft in four-dimensional approaches, are investigated. The simulator tests show, that the complex perspective vehicle symbol yields improved damping in the lateral response as compared to a flat two-dimensional predictor cross, but yields generally larger vertical deviations. Methods of using the predictor symbol in controlling the forward velocity of the vehicle are shown to be effective. The tunnel display with superimposed perspective vehicle symbol yields very satisfactory results and pilot acceptance in the lateral control but is found to be unsatisfactory in the vertical control, as a result of too large vertical path-angle deviations.

  3. Radiographic predictors of neurocognitive functioning in pediatric Sickle Cell disease.

    PubMed

    Kral, Mary C; Brown, Ronald T; Connelly, Mark; Curé, Joel K; Besenski, Nada; Jackson, Sherron M; Abboud, Miguel R

    2006-01-01

    We compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography as predictors of specific neurocognitive functions in children with sickle cell disease. Participants were 27 children with sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS) who were participants in the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP) and had no documented history of stroke. Children's MRIs were classified as normal or silent infarct, and their magnetic resonance angiograms were classified as normal or abnormal. The highest time-averaged mean flow velocity on transcranial Doppler ultrasonographic examination of the major cerebral arteries was analyzed. Age and hematocrit also were analyzed as predictor variables. The battery of neurocognitive tests included measures of intellectual functioning, academic achievement, attention, memory, visual-motor integration, and executive functions. MRI, magnetic resonance angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, age, and hematocrit were analyzed as predictors of participants' performance on the various measures of neurocognitive functioning. Age and hematocrit were robust predictors of a number of global and specific neurocognitive functions. When age and hematocrit were controlled, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was a significantly unique predictor of verbal memory. We found an association between low hemoglobin and neurocognitive impairment. We also found that abnormalities on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography can herald subtle neurocognitive deficits. (J Child Neurol 2006;21:37-44).

  4. Can You Hack It? Validating Predictors for IT Boot Camps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gear, Courtney C.

    Given the large number of information technology jobs open and lack of qualified individuals to fill them, coding boot camps have sprung up in response to this skill gap by offering a specialized training program in an accelerated format. This fast growth has created a need to measure these training programs and understand their effectiveness. In the present study, a series of analyses examined whether specific or combinations of predictors were valid for training performance in this coding academy. Self-rated, daily efficacy scores were used as outcome variables of training success and correlation results showed a positive relationship with efficacy scores and the logic test score as a predictor. Exploratory analyses indicated a Dunning-Kruger effect where students with lower education levels experience higher overall mood during the training program. Limitations of the study included small sample size, severe range restriction in predictor scores, lack of variance in predictor scores, and low variability in training program success. These limitations made identifying jumps between training stages difficult to identify. By identifying which predictors matter most for each stage of skill acquisition, further research should consider more objective variables such as instructor scores which can serve as a guideline to better asses what stage learners join at and how to design curriculum and assignments accordingly (Honken, 2013).

  5. Predictors of change in unmet supportive care needs in cancer.

    PubMed

    McDowell, M E; Occhipinti, S; Ferguson, M; Dunn, J; Chambers, S K

    2010-05-01

    Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) assessments can assist health professionals to tailor their health practices to the individual needs of patients and improve patient care over time. The present study assessed prospective predictors of unmet supportive care needs in cancer patients over a six-month period. Participants were recruited from a regional cancer treatment centre in Australia and completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS) at recruitment (n=439; 61.4% response rate) and six months follow-up (n=396). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify predictors of change in unmet needs across each supportive care domain. Predictor variables were socio-demographic, treatment and psychosocial factors including depression, anxiety, social support, and patient satisfaction. Unmet needs were reported by approximately two-thirds of patients at baseline and half of patients at six months follow-up. Having unmet needs at baseline was the strongest predictor of unmet needs at six months. Longer time since diagnosis was a consistent predictor of greater unmet needs, associated with change in physical/daily living, psychological and health system and information unmet needs over time. By contrast, a complex relationship was found in that patient satisfaction, psychosocial and treatment characteristics predicted higher needs in some domains and lower needs in others. Unmet supportive care needs persist over time and psychological needs may emerge later in the illness continuum. Interventions to meet the needs of longer term cancer survivors are needed and should closely articulate with reported supportive care needs. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Predictors of Childhood Anxiety: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored predictors of early childhood anxiety. Objective To determine the prenatal, postnatal, and early life predictors of childhood anxiety by age 5. Methods Population-based, provincial administrative data (N = 19,316) from Manitoba, Canada were used to determine the association between demographic, obstetrical, psychosocial, medical, behavioral, and infant factors on childhood anxiety. Results Risk factors for childhood anxiety by age 5 included maternal psychological distress from birth to 12 months and 13 months to 5 years post-delivery and an infant 5-minute Apgar score of ≤7. Factors associated with decreased risk included maternal age < 20 years, multiparity, and preterm birth. Conclusion Identifying predictors of childhood anxiety is a key step to early detection and prevention. Maternal psychological distress is an early, modifiable risk factor. Future research should aim to disentangle early life influences on childhood anxiety occurring in the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods. PMID:26158268

  7. Predictors of prejudice against lesbians and gay men in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    West, Keon; Cowell, Noel M

    2015-01-01

    Jamaica has acquired an international reputation for strong antigay prejudice, incidents of antigay violence, and outspoken, antigay public figures. In recent years, national and international gay rights groups have attempted to improve this situation. However, these efforts have not been based on an empirical analysis of the factors underlying Jamaican antigay bias, which is essential for developing effective prejudice-reducing strategies. Using data collected in two large-scale national surveys in 2011 and 2012 (N 2011 = 997, N 2012 = 945), we investigated predictors of Jamaican antigay prejudice, including age, gender, religious affiliation, education, income, and a preference for dancehall music. We also examined changes in reported antigay bias between 2011 and 2012 after accounting for other predictors. All proposed variables predicted some aspect of antigay prejudice, though sometimes in unexpected ways. Male gender emerged as a particularly important predictor. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our design and the implications of our findings for prejudice-reduction strategies in Jamaica.

  8. Predictors of attrition among rural breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Karen; Azuero, Andres; Su, Xiaogang; Benz, Rachel; McNees, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Attrition can jeopardize both internal and external validity. The goal of this secondary analysis was to examine predictors of attrition using baseline data of 432 participants in the Rural Breast Cancer Survivors study. Attrition predictors were conceptualized based on demographic, social, cancer treatment, physical health, and mental health characteristics. Baseline measures were selected using this conceptualization. Bivariate tests of association, discrete-time Cox regression models and recursive partitioning techniques were used in analysis. Results showed that 100 participants (23%) dropped out by Month 12. Non-linear tree analyses showed that poor mental health and lack of health insurance were significant predictors of attrition. Findings contribute to future research efforts to reduce research attrition among rural underserved populations.

  9. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters.

  10. Predictors of Post-Infectious Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Katz, Ben Z; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J; Im, Young; Taylor, Renee

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on identifying risk factors for adolescent post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), utilizing a prospective, nested case-control longitudinal design in which over 300 teenagers with Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) were identified through primary care sites and followed. Baseline variables that were gathered several months following IM, included autonomic symptoms, days in bed since IM, perceived stress, stressful life events, family stress, difficulty functioning and attending school, family stress and psychiatric disorders. A number of variables were predictors of post-infectious CFS at 6 months; however, when autonomic symptoms were used as a control variable, only days spent in bed since mono was a significant predictor. Step-wise logistic regression findings indicated that baseline autonomic symptoms as well as days spent in bed since mono, which reflect the severity of illness, were the only significant predictors of those who met CFS criteria at 6 months.

  11. Predictors of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Katz, Ben Z.; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J.; Im, Young; Taylor, Renee R.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on identifying risk factors for adolescent post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), utilizing a prospective, nested case–control longitudinal design in which over 300 teenagers with infectious mononucleosis (IM) were identified through primary care sites and followed. Baseline variables that were gathered several months following IM, included autonomic symptoms, days in bed since IM, perceived stress, stressful life events, family stress, difficulty functioning and attending school, family stress, and psychiatric disorders. A number of variables were predictors of post-infectious CFS at six months; however, when autonomic symptoms were used as a control variable, only days spent in bed since mono was a significant predictor. Step-wise logistic regression findings indicated that baseline autonomic symptoms as well as days spent in bed since mono, which reflect the severity of illness, were the only significant predictors of those who met CFS criteria at six months. PMID:24660116

  12. Protective and risk predictors in the development of drug use.

    PubMed

    Gerevich, J; Bácskai, E

    1996-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of two dimensions of the theory of social development--vulnerability (predictors, risk factors) and protectivity--in two samples, schoolchildren aged ten to fifteen years and addictive drug users. On the basis of the Hirschi model of protective factors, they found that the most important protective factors (attachment, commitment, involvement, belief) act against substance use. A surprising finding was that among the predictors of the addicts some forms of escape from the family act against the development of drug use, that is, they can be regarded as a protective predictor. The findings of the study draw attention to the complexity of the vulnerability-protectivity relationship and to the need for further research.

  13. Predictors of two-year outcome among psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Harder, D W; Greenwald, D F; Strauss, J S; Kokes, R F; Ritzler, B A; Gift, T E

    1990-05-01

    This study hypothesized that social competence and clinical factors previously associated with psychiatric outcome among inpatients would be effective predictors of outcome among outpatients (N = 77) as well. Intake and 2-year outcome status were assessed multidimensionally with absolute-level and residualized indices of functioning, overall clinical status, and symptomatology. Menninger health-sickness proved to be the best single predictor, although Phillips premorbid functioning, Strauss-Carpenter prognosis, social class, and diagnostic severity also predicted well to outcome. Patterns of associated predictor/outcome variable clusters were described. Results suggest that a general social competence factor predicts to psychiatric outcome across the entire range of disorders, but that life events stress does not.

  14. Gender differences in Chinese immigrants: predictors for antihypertensive medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wen; Froelicher, Erika S

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe gender differences in predictors for antihypertensive medication adherence in Chinese immigrants. A cross-sectional design was used with recruitment with a convenience sample of 100 men and 100 women with hypertension. Measurements for demographics, cultural factors, clinical factors, and medication adherence were self-administered by the participants. Blood pressure was checked twice. A multivariate logistic regression was used to establish a parsimonious prediction model for medication adherence. It was found that in men, longer length of stay in the United States was a predictor for nonadherence. The predictor of nonadherence in women was lower perceived benefits of antihypertensive medications. To increase adherence in women, the benefits of antihypertensive medications should be emphasized. For men who have lived in the United States for 12 years or more, their adherence should be closely monitored.

  15. Slowing Down: Age-Related Neurobiological Predictors of Processing Speed

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Processing speed, or the rate at which tasks can be performed, is a robust predictor of age-related cognitive decline and an indicator of independence among older adults. This review examines evidence for neurobiological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, which is guided in part by our source based morphometry findings that unique patterns of frontal and cerebellar gray matter predict age-related variation in processing speed. These results, together with the extant literature on morphological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, suggest that specific neural systems undergo declines and as a result slow processing speed. Future studies of processing speed – dependent neural systems will be important for identifying the etiologies for processing speed change and the development of interventions that mitigate gradual age-related declines in cognitive functioning and enhance healthy cognitive aging. PMID:21441995

  16. Evaluating a CRT map predictor for airborne use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baty, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Six airline pilots participated in a fixed-base simulator experiment designed to study the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating a simple horizontal flight-path predictor on both fixed and rotating electronic CRT map displays. The pilots were asked to fly a modified 'figure eight' ground track while attempting to maintain constant altitude. All flight information was displayed on one 17-in. (43-cm) CRT monitor. The controlled variables were the map orientation, pilots, presence or absence of crosswinds, presence or absence of wind gusts, and presence or absence of predictor. Error scores were recorded as deviations from the commanded ground track and altitude. It was found that the predictor reduced deviations from the commanded ground track, narrowed performance differences among pilots, narrowed the error differences found with and without crosswinds, and decreased pilot work load.

  17. C3 Glomerulopathy: Clinicopathologic Features and Predictors of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Medjeral-Thomas, Nicholas R.; O’Shaughnessy, Michelle M.; O’Regan, John A.; Traynor, Carol; Flanagan, Michael; Wong, Limy; Teoh, Chia Wei; Awan, Atif; Waldron, Mary; Cairns, Tom; O’Kelly, Patrick; Dorman, Anthony M.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Conlon, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The term C3 glomerulopathy describes renal disorders characterized by the presence of glomerular deposits composed of C3 in the absence of significant amounts of Ig. On the basis of electron microscopy appearance, subsets of C3 glomerulopathy include dense deposit disease (DDD) and C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN). The full spectrum of histologic change observed in C3 glomerulopathy has yet to be defined and pathologic predictors of renal outcome within this patient population remain largely unknown. This study thus characterized a large C3 glomerulopathy cohort and identified clinicopathologic predictors of renal outcome. Design, setting, participants, & measurements All patients with kidney biopsies fulfilling criteria for C3 glomerulopathy from two quaternary renal centers within the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1992 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. We recorded histologic, demographic, and clinical data and determined predictors of ESRD using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Eighty patients with C3 glomerulopathy were identified: 21 with DDD and 59 with C3GN. Patients with DDD were younger, more likely to have low serum C3 levels, and more likely to have crescentic GN than patients with C3GN. Patients with C3GN were older and had more severe arteriolar sclerosis, glomerular sclerosis, and interstitial scarring than patients with DDD. Of 70 patients with available follow-up data, 20 (29%) progressed to ESRD after a median of 28 months. Age >16 years, DDD subtype, and crescentic GN were independent predictors of ESRD within the entire cohort. Renal impairment at presentation predicted ESRD only among patients with DDD. Conclusions Although detailed serologic and genetic data are lacking, this study nevertheless identifies important clinicopathologic distinctions between patients with DDD and C3GN. These include independent predictors of renal outcome. If replicated in other cohorts, these predictors could be

  18. Robust Predictors for Monthly Statistical Forecasting of Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, C. A.; Trigo, R. M.; Valente, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    A statistical forecasting model of the precipitation monthly means over homogeneous regions of Iberia and United Kingdom is devised up to 3 months leading time. For each region, a pool of potential global predictor fields are considered (e.g. SST, surface pressure, geopotential height fields, surface moisture, snow cover). A preselection of valuable predictor areas, if existing, are obtained through semi-automatic analysis of the monthly-delayed correlation maps between the predictands and spatial moving averages (with about 1000 km of radius) of the potential predictor fields. A highly conservative statistical Monte-Carlo test is performed on correlation maps in order to discard spureously high correlations, albeith being statistically significant by single t-Student tests. For that, we compare the true predictand-predictor correlation maps with those obtained by random shufling of the predictand time-series and/or substituting it by white noise. We are then able to determine a threshold of significant correlation taken from correlation maps. Then, a PCA is done over the region where that threshold is overtaken. The set of the obtained leading PCs are believed to be robust preselected predictors. This technique is able to recover some known predictable teleconnection patterns at the monthly and seasonal time scale as for example the delayed correlation between some Euro-Atlantic atmospheric flow regimes (e.g. AO, NAO Scandinavian pattern), the ElNiño area and their influence in the precipitation and temperature in Europe. These predictors work as entries for any type of statistical model (deterministic or probabilistic). Here, we test a scheme of forward stepwise multilinear regression in cross validation mode. Classical evaluation forecasting scores are then computed.

  19. Verification of eye and skin color predictors in various populations.

    PubMed

    Pneuman, Amanda; Budimlija, Zoran M; Caragine, Theresa; Prinz, Mechthild; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2012-03-01

    Validation of testing methods is an essential feature in all scientific endeavors, but it is particularly important in forensics. Due to the sensitive nature of these investigations and the limited sample size it is crucial to validate all employed procedures. This includes novel forensic phenotypic DNA tests, to learn more of their capabilities and limitations before incorporating them as routine methods. Ideally, validations are performed on large sample sets that mimic real cases. Recently, three phenotypic predictors, two for eye colors and one for skin color have been published (Spichenok et al., 2011; Walsh et al., 2011). These predictors are well-defined by a selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and unambiguous instructions on how to interpret the genotypes. These standardized approaches have the advantages that they can be applied in diverse laboratories leading to the same outcome and offer the opportunity for validation. For these tests to be used on the characterization of human remains, they should be validated on various populations to perform reliably without prior knowledge of ethnic origin. Here, in this study, these eye and skin color predictors were validated on new sample sets and it could be confirmed that they can be applied in various populations, including African-American, South Asian (dark), East Asian (light), European, and mixed populations. The outputs were either predictive or inconclusive. Predictions were then compared against the actual eye and skin colors of the tested individuals. The error-rates varied; they were low for the predictors that describe the eye and skin color exclusively (non-brown or non-blue and non-white or non-dark, respectively) and higher for the predictor that describes individual eye colors (blue, brown, and intermediate/green), because of uncertainties with the green eye color prediction. Our investigation deepens the insight for these predictors and adds new information. Copyright © 2011

  20. Organized music instruction as a predictor of nursing student success.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K; Cesario, Robert J; Cesario, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Stringent admission criteria exist for nursing programs in the United States, but better predictors of success are needed to reduce student attrition. Research indicates that organized music experiences are associated with greater academic success. This exploratory study examined the association between early music experiences and undergraduate nursing student success. Findings suggest that students with a music background were more likely to graduate, have higher grade point averages, and pass the licensure examination. Previous music education might be considered as an additional predictor of nursing student success.

  1. Predictors Related to Premature Attrition of Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-08-01

    s differentiating men on the basis of subsequent effectiveness . The costs of ’Iz 4 7 - IHoiberg, et al B premature attrition are extremely high; the...8217PREDICTORS RELATED TO PREMATURE ATTRITION OF NAVY RECRUITS C. J. HYSHAM ’- N. H. BERRY r ~ REPORT NO. 73-48 NAVAL HELTH IESARCH, CENTER, SAW ltdoý...8217%O yALORNIAo 92152, NAVAL MEWICALAREEARCH ANO DEVELPPMENT COMMAND *j&8~~D~ARLN -~10 db13Wll.mb E PREDICTORS RELATED TO PREMATURE ATTRITION OF NAVY

  2. Predictors of behavior change intention using health risk appraisal data.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Mary L; Lee, Seung Pil; Cornwell, T Bettina; Burton, Wayne N; McMullen, Judith; Edington, Dee W

    2013-07-01

    To investigate predictors of behavior change intention and discuss potential implications for practitioners. Health risk appraisal (HRA) data from 2 organizations were used to develop and confirm a path analysis model for predictors of intention to change behavior. Lower self-rated health perception and higher ratings of stress corresponded to higher behavior-change intention scores. Stress was associated with poorer health perception. Higher stress and lower perception of health status were directly associated with intention to change behavior. Incorporating stress management and awareness of health perception into health promotion strategies could enhance wellness programs by aligning programs with motivating factors.

  3. Correlates and predictors of recidivism among drinking drivers.

    PubMed

    Booth, R E; Grosswiler, R A

    1978-01-01

    Follow-up interviews on 47 formal DUI clients of an alcohol treatment program were conducted in an effort to find predictors of success. Predictors included historical factors occurring at the time of arrest, stressful events since treatment, length of treatment, time since treatment, and demographic data. Recidivism was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct through self-report measures and arrest records. Findings indicated that punitive actions fail to account for recidivism. Involvement in an accident, however, is significantly and positively related to future success in treatment. The implications of this observation are discussed.

  4. Two-level stochastic search variable selection in GLMs with missing predictors.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Robin; Dunson, David

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic search variable selection (SSVS) algorithms provide an appealing and widely used approach for searching for good subsets of predictors while simultaneously estimating posterior model probabilities and model-averaged predictive distributions. This article proposes a two-level generalization of SSVS to account for missing predictors while accommodating uncertainty in the relationships between these predictors. Bayesian approaches for allowing predictors that are missing at random require a model on the joint distribution of the predictors. We show that predictive performance can be improved by allowing uncertainty in the specification of predictor relationships in this model. The methods are illustrated through simulation studies and analysis of an epidemiologic data set.

  5. Optimising predictor domains for spatially coherent precipitation downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radanovics, S.; Vidal, J.-P.; Sauquet, E.; Ben Daoud, A.; Bontron, G.

    2012-04-01

    Relationships between local precipitation (predictands) and large-scale circulation (predictors) are used for statistical downscaling purposes in various contexts, from medium-term forecasting to climate change impact studies. For hydrological purposes like flood forecasting, the downscaled precipitation spatial fields have furthermore to be coherent over possibly large basins. This thus first requires to know what predictor domain can be associated to the precipitation over each part of the studied basin. This study addresses this issue by identifying the optimum predictor domains over the whole of France, for a specific downscaling method based on a analogue approach and developed by Ben Daoud et al. (2011). The downscaling method used here is based on analogies on different variables: temperature, relative humidity, vertical velocity and geopotentials. The optimum predictor domain has been found to consist of the nearest grid cell for all variables except geopotentials (Ben Daoud et al., 2011). Moreover, geopotential domains have been found to be sensitive to the target location by Obled et al. (2002), and the present study thus focuses on optimizing the domains of this specific predictor over France. The predictor domains for geopotential at 500 hPa and 1000 hPa are optimised for 608 climatologically homogeneous zones in France using the ERA-40 reanalysis data for the large-scale predictors and local precipitation from the Safran near-surface atmospheric reanalysis (Vidal et al., 2010). The similarity of geopotential fields is measured by the Teweles and Wobus shape criterion. The predictive skill of different predictor domains for the different regions is tested with the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) for the 25 best analogue days found with the statistical downscaling method. Rectangular predictor domains of different sizes, shapes and locations are tested, and the one that leads to the smallest CRPS for the zone in question is retained. The

  6. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  7. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  8. Early Temperamental and Family Predictors of Shyness and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volbrecht, Michele M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2010-01-01

    With a sample of 242 twins (135 girls, 107 boys) studied longitudinally, behavioral inhibition (BI) and inhibitory control (IC) measured at 3 years, as well as early and concurrent family process variables, were examined as predictors of shyness and of anxiety symptoms approximately 4 years later. Structured observational data from laboratory and…

  9. Child Maltreatment and the Justice System: Predictors of Court Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Doueck, Howard J.; Lyons, Peter; Wells, Susan J.; Schultz, Dana; Gragg, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Characteristics of the child victim, perpetrator, and maltreatment incident were used to examine predictors of court involvement in cases of serious child maltreatment. Method: Cases were drawn from those reported to: child protective services (n = 225), "sheriff's office" ( n = 225), "prosecutor's office" ( n = 60), "and dependency…

  10. The Comparison of Predictors of Death Obsession within Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Maltby, John

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare various predictors of death obsession (i.e., anxiety, optimism, pessimism), and self-ratings of religiosity, physical health, mental health, happiness, and satisfaction with life, among 2 samples of college students recruited from two different cultures: Kuwait (n = 271) and United Kingdom (n = 205). The…

  11. Some Predictors of Constructivist Teaching in Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolovcan, Tomislav; Matijevic, Milan; Dumancic, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the extent to which certain sociodemographic characteristics of students and teachers, along with computer self-efficacy, attitudes towards the new media and the frequency of using the new media in instruction, can be regarded as predictors of constructivist teaching. The research was carried out on a sample…

  12. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  13. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  14. Predictors of African American Adolescent Sexual Activity: An Ecological Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Bangi, Audrey K.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated predictors of African American adolescent sexual activity, testing an ecological model of risk factors influencing sexual activity. Data collected over three years indicated that risk factors at the personal, familial, and extrafamilial levels of adolescents' social ecology related to being a virgin or not. Males and older adolescents…

  15. The Comparison of Predictors of Death Obsession within Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Maltby, John

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare various predictors of death obsession (i.e., anxiety, optimism, pessimism), and self-ratings of religiosity, physical health, mental health, happiness, and satisfaction with life, among 2 samples of college students recruited from two different cultures: Kuwait (n = 271) and United Kingdom (n = 205). The…

  16. Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictor of Internet Addiction in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…

  17. Showing the Love: Predictors of Student Loyalty to Undergraduate Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianden, Jörg; Barlow, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the notion that undergraduates may be considered student-customers whose relationship with and loyalty to their institutions can be managed by college educators. The Student University Loyalty Instrument administered to 1,207 undergraduates at three comprehensive Midwestern institutions assessed the predictors of student…

  18. Predictors of Appraisal and Coping Dimensions in Myocardial Infarction Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyong Sil; Martin, Peter

    This study attempted to identify predictors of perception and coping after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction. Sixty males and 17 females who had suffered from a myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to the research were recruited from a hospital rehabilitation program. Subjects completed the Peri-Life Events Scale, the 16-PF…

  19. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  20. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  1. Social Cognitive Predictors of Body Image in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Gustitus, Cheryl; Leitzel-Schwalm, Jamie

    2001-01-01

    Examined predictors of body image in preschool children, including models, verbal messages, physiological factors, and experience of competence related to body image. Data from child interviews and parent and teacher questionnaires indicated that there were no gender differences in children's body image. Messages from the mother to "be bigger"…

  2. Predictors of Early Termination in a University Counseling Training Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Spengler, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of counseling dropout research, there are limited predictive data for counseling in training clinics. Potential predictor variables were investigated in this archival study of 380 client files in a university counseling training clinic. Multinomial logistic regression, predictive discriminant analysis, and classification and…

  3. Cognitive Predictors of College Success in Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outlaw, Patricia; Gunther, Virginia

    This study involved the investigation of the differential validity hypothesis as it pertained to the disadvantaged college student. It evaluated, by means of a multiple regression analysis, the use of SAT scores (Math and Verbal) and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test as predictors of college success, as measured by semester grade point average, for…

  4. Predictors of College Student Suicidal Ideation: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Hugh; Pena-Shaff, Judith; Quirk, Priscilla

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to identify students at risk for suicide. Predictors of suicidality were examined separately for men and women in a college health survey of 630 students. Women reported higher levels of suicidal ideation than men in the previous year. Separate regression analyses for men and women accounted for significant amounts of the variance…

  5. Predictors of Sexual Aggression among Male Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Lenberg, Kathryn L.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline,…

  6. Predictors of Confidence and Competence among Early Childhood Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Mary Beth; Dunst, Carl J.; Wilson, Cristina; Stayton, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The preservice and in-service predictors of 1,668 Part C early intervention and Part B(619) preschool special practitioners' perceived self-efficacy beliefs are reported. The preservice variables were type of degree (discipline), years of formal postsecondary education, licensure, and participants' judgment of how well their preservice training…

  7. Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.; Chan, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that predict life satisfaction in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Two groups of variables were studied: life skills (interpersonal, instrumental and leisure) and higher-order predictors (social support, self-determination and productivity). Method: Fifty-six participants…

  8. Predictors of Self-Assessed Health among Elderly Post Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Elinore; And Others

    Self-assessment of health incorporates both objective and subjective elements into a general state with implications for health-related behavior. To examine the predictors of self-assessed health in an elderly, post-hospitalization population, 73 adults, 65 years of age or older, were asked to assess the status of the condition for which they were…

  9. Predictors of Heterosexual College Students' Attitudes toward LGBT People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…

  10. Empirical Investigation of Predictors of Success in an MBA Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Atul; Turek, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The twofold purpose of this study was to determine if selected variables were predictors of: student performance in the MBA programme; and student performance on the MBA MFT exam. Design/methodology/approach: This study focuses on MBA graduates at a US university who have successfully completed the entire programme requirements. Real…

  11. Social Intelligence and Communication Competence: Predictors of Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosuwon, Takwa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the level of intercultural sensitivity of foreign international undergraduates and its possible predictors. Sample participants included 269 foreign international undergraduates of both government and private universities in Thailand. The research instrument was the three-page survey constructed questionnaire based on the…

  12. Predictors of Success on the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, E. A.; Homeyer, Linda E.; Walker, John L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between 403 counseling graduate students' scores on the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination (CPCE; Center for Credentialing and Education, n.d.) and 3 admissions requirements used as predictor variables: undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test Verbal…

  13. Change in Autism Classification with Early Intervention: Predictors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…

  14. Predictors of Heterosexual College Students' Attitudes toward LGBT People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…

  15. Predictors of Academic Procrastination in Asian International College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; Kuo, Ben C. H.; Song, Hyun-A.; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Kim, Eunyoung; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Chang, Catherine Y.; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among acculturative stress, coping styles, self-efficacy, English language proficiency, and various demographic characteristics as predictors of procrastination behavior in Asian International students (N = 255) studying in the United States. Results of multiple logistic regression indicated that a collective…

  16. Beyond Health and Wealth: Predictors of Women's Retirement Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christine A.; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2009-01-01

    Despite empirical support for the positive effects of health and wealth on retirement satisfaction, alternative variables also play a key role in helping to shape women's assessment of retirement. In the present study, we explore personal and psychosocial predictors of women's retirement satisfaction while controlling for financial security and…

  17. Predictors of Gender Inequalities in the Rank of Full Professor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijstra, Thamar; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether age, work-related, and family-related predictors explain differences in the academic advancement of women and men in Iceland. Survey data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. The findings put that women climb the academic career ladder at a slower pace than men. This finding puts one of the widely known…

  18. Personality Factors as Predictors of Foreign Language Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedron, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses a problem which is inadequately investigated in second language acquisition research, that is, personality predictors of foreign language aptitude. Specifically, it focuses on the Five Factor model which includes Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (Costa & McCrae, 1992) as…

  19. Early Temperamental and Family Predictors of Shyness and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volbrecht, Michele M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2010-01-01

    With a sample of 242 twins (135 girls, 107 boys) studied longitudinally, behavioral inhibition (BI) and inhibitory control (IC) measured at 3 years, as well as early and concurrent family process variables, were examined as predictors of shyness and of anxiety symptoms approximately 4 years later. Structured observational data from laboratory and…

  20. TT : a program that implements predictor sort design and analysis

    Treesearch

    S. P. Verrill; D. W. Green; V. L. Herian

    1997-01-01

    In studies on wood strength, researchers sometimes replace experimental unit allocation via random sampling with allocation via sorts based on nondestructive measurements of strength predictors such as modulus of elasticity and specific gravity. This report documents TT, a computer program that implements recently published methods to increase the sensitivity of such...

  1. Predictors of Adult Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Tourigny, Marc; Joly, Jacques; Pouliot-Lapointe, Joelle

    2007-01-01

    This study identifies predictors of favorable attitudes toward spanking. Analyses were performed with survey data collected from a representative sample of 1,000 adults from Quebec, Canada. According to this survey, a majority of respondents endorsed spanking, despite their recognition of potential harm associated with corporal punishment (CP) of…

  2. Is Motivation a Predictor of Foreign Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Kazuyo

    2006-01-01

    This article reports an investigation into the factors that facilitate language learning. The first strand examines whether motivation is a predictor of as is widely accepted. In order to confirm this, Grade 10 students' motivation level was measured using two questions. Language gains were also measured and compared with the motivation level. The…

  3. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  4. Predictors of Obesity Bias among Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Jody; Rukavina, Paul; Greenleaf, Christy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate particular psychosocial predictors of obesity bias in prehealth professionals, which include the internalization of athletic and general body ideals, perceived media pressure and information, and achievement goal orientations. Exercise science undergraduate students (n = 242) filled out a survey…

  5. Relative Strengths of Predictors of Middle School Girls' Suspendable Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Barbara Harlow

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the relative strength of predictors of school violence among a sample of 229 girls enrolled in a single middle school. The four-part questionnaire, comprising sociodemographic items, a school violence inventory, a self-esteem scale, and an attitudes toward violence scale, measured school violence in terms of suspendable…

  6. Predictors of Developmental Outcomes for Infants Who Are Medically Fragile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy B.; Boyce, Glenna C.

    This paper presents results of a preliminary study which evaluated medical birth data as potential predictors of developmental outcome, and developed and tested an instrument designed for this purpose. Forty low birthweight children, all of whom had experienced neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, were evaluated at school age (66 months) on the…

  7. Predictors of Employment and Postsecondary Education of Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Alberto; Timmons, Jaimie; Butterworth, John; Lugas, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Using logistic and multiple regressions, the authors investigated predictors of employment and postsecondary education outcomes of youth with autism in the Vocational Rehabilitation Program. Data were obtained from the RSA911 data set, fiscal year 2008. Findings showed that the odds of gaining employment were greater for youth who received job…

  8. Predictors of Early Termination in a University Counseling Training Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Spengler, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of counseling dropout research, there are limited predictive data for counseling in training clinics. Potential predictor variables were investigated in this archival study of 380 client files in a university counseling training clinic. Multinomial logistic regression, predictive discriminant analysis, and classification and…

  9. Predictors of Sexual Aggression among Male Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Lenberg, Kathryn L.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline,…

  10. Predictors of Running Away from Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Running away is a frequent but little studied phenomenon among adolescents in foster care. Repeated running from care often leads to premature discharge and homelessness for youth. This article uses cumulative risk theory in the context of normative adolescent development to investigate predictors of running away from foster care. Results indicate…

  11. Clinical predictors of therapeutic response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U.

    2014-01-01

    The search for clinical outcome predictors for schizophrenia is as old as the field of psychiatry. However, despite a wealth of large, longitudinal studies into prognostic factors, only very few clinically useful outcome predictors have been identified. The goal of future treatment is to either affect modifiable risk factors, or use nonmodifiable factors to parse patients into therapeutically meaningful subgroups. Most clinical outcome predictors are nonspecific and/or nonmodifiable. Nonmodifiable predictors for poor odds of remission include male sex, younger age at disease onset, poor premorbid adjustment, and severe baseline psychopathology. Modifiable risk factors for poor therapeutic outcomes that clinicians can act upon include longer duration of untreated illness, nonadherence to antipsychotics, comorbidities (especially substance-use disorders), lack of early antipsychotic response, and lack of improvement with non-clozapine antipsychotics, predicting clozapine response. It is hoped that this limited capacity for prediction will improve as pathophysiological understanding increases and/or new treatments for specific aspects of schizophrenia become available. PMID:25733955

  12. Predictors of Future Performance in Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The link between academic performance in secondary education and the subsequent performance of students studying architecture at university level is commonly questioned by educators and admissions tutors. This paper investigates the potential for using measures of cognitive style and spatial ability as predictors of future potential in…

  13. Socio-economic Predictors of Alienation among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Thomas J., Jr.; Christian, Ollie

    1990-01-01

    Studied level of alienation and associations between socioeconomic variables and alienation in 200 older senior center clients. Found group isolation and powerlessness were more prevalent than personal isolation or normlessness; health, race, education, and income were strongest predictors of alienation; and older Blacks and those with lower…

  14. Evaluating DLAB as a Predictor of Foreign Language Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    context. Other early indicators might include general cognitive ability (e.g., Wonderlic Personnel Test™), educational attainment, age, prior...might include general cognitive ability (e.g., Wonderlic Personnel Test™), educational attainment, age, prior language learning experience, motivation...Raleigh, NC: Surface, Ward & Associates. SWA Consulting Inc. (2008, November). Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT™) as a Predictor of Language Proficiency

  15. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-09-01

    Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women's power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  16. Predictors of Specialized Inpatient Admissions for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modi, Miti; McMorris, Carly; Palucka, Anna; Raina, Poonam; Lunsky, Yona

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have complex mental health needs and may seek specialized ID psychiatric services. This study reports on predictors of specialized inpatient admissions for 234 individuals with ID who received outpatient services at a psychiatric hospital. Overall, from 2007-2012, 55 of the 234 outpatients were triaged…

  17. Commitment as a Predictor of Participation in Premarital Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Jonathan M.; Cordova, James V.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of premarital education programs has been well established; yet few studies have attempted to identify factors that may lead to increased participation. The current study examined questionnaire data from 46 engaged couples to determine whether marital commitment is a unique predictor of both interest in premarital education and intent…

  18. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  19. Attention and Working Memory as Predictors of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports on an investigation of attention and working memory as sources of intelligence. The investigation was concentrated on the relatedness of attention and working memory as predictors of intelligence and on the structure underlying the prediction. In a sample of 120 participants, intelligence was assessed by the Advanced Progressive…

  20. Predictors of Parenting Stress for Abusive and Nonabusive Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Andrea V.; Lewis, Kristen M.; Lynn, Amy E.; Haskett, Mary E.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined a model of parenting stress for abusive mothers (n = 80) and nonabusive mothers (n = 86) using linear regression analyses. Predictors in the model included (a) the degree to which mothers were bothered by child misbehavior, (b) mothers' general psychological functioning, and (c) observed child behavior during parent-child interactions.…

  1. Social Predictors of Sunscreen and Self-Tanning Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated social predictors of sunscreen and self-tanning product use among 164 undergraduates. Immediate family members' sunscreen use predicted participants' facial sunscreen use while sunbathing but not their sunscreen use on other areas of the body. In addition, familial support of a tanned appearance was inversely associated…

  2. Predictors of Specialized Inpatient Admissions for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modi, Miti; McMorris, Carly; Palucka, Anna; Raina, Poonam; Lunsky, Yona

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have complex mental health needs and may seek specialized ID psychiatric services. This study reports on predictors of specialized inpatient admissions for 234 individuals with ID who received outpatient services at a psychiatric hospital. Overall, from 2007-2012, 55 of the 234 outpatients were triaged…

  3. Predictors of organ donation behavior among Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Eusebio M; Jones, Sara Pace; Robles, Antonio Santa Maria; Siegel, Jason T

    2005-06-01

    Hispanic Americans have a substantial need for organ transplants and are underrepresented among organ donors, yet little is known about predictors of organ donation outcomes in this population. To assess factors that may function as significant predictors of organ donation behavior among Hispanic Americans. A random-digit-dial computer-assisted telephone-interview survey. Setting-Pima and Maricopa counties in Arizona. 1200 Hispanic Americans. Family discussion of organ donation and willingness to be an organ donor. Significant predictors of family discussion of organ donation include knowing someone willing to be an organ donor and disagreeing that carrying a donor card results in inadequate medical care. Willingness to be a donor is also predictive of family discussion. Significant predictors of willingness to be an organ donor are knowing someone willing to be an organ donor, being female, and disagreeing that thoughts about donation leads to thoughts about one's own mortality. Having a family discussion about organ donation is also predictive of willingness to be an organ donor. The data provide a springboard for larger studies encompassing the diversity and geographical dispersion of Hispanic Americans. The data also highlight the importance of educational efforts to make Hispanic Americans aware of people in their community who have donated in the past or who are now potential donors.

  4. Predictors of Sense of Belonging for Students with Psychological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Michele Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a portrait of students with psychological conditions, to determine the predictors of sense of belonging for these students, and to draw comparisons between the collegiate experiences of students with, and those without, psychological conditions. Using data from the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of…

  5. Intergenerational Family Predictors of the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Varner, Fatima; Greene, Nereira; Richman, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined intergenerational family predictors of the Black-White achievement gap among 4,406 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. An intergenerational model of the process by which family factors contribute to the achievement gap was also tested. The results showed that the ethnic gaps in socioeconomic status…

  6. Level of Identification as a Predictor of Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert H.; Williams, Sharon Ann

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of conditions under which simulation games promote changes in attitudes focuses on identification theory as a predictor of attitude change. Incentive theory and cognitive dissonance theory are discussed, and a study of community college students is described that tested the role of identification in changing attitudes. (LRW)

  7. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  8. Relative Strengths of Predictors of Middle School Girls' Suspendable Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Barbara Harlow

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the relative strength of predictors of school violence among a sample of 229 girls enrolled in a single middle school. The four-part questionnaire, comprising sociodemographic items, a school violence inventory, a self-esteem scale, and an attitudes toward violence scale, measured school violence in terms of suspendable…

  9. Predictors of Satisfactory Social Adjustment of Divorced Single Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Marjorie G.

    1982-01-01

    Examined factors related to satisfactory postdivorce social adjustment of 206 randomly selected single parents. Found the strongest single predictor of adjustment was the parent's subjective feelings of well-being and absence of distress. Other significant factors included the family's current social status and relationships with significant…

  10. Evaluating Predictors of Outcome for Children in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Rita Masden; And Others

    Most research in psychotherapy has focused on adult clients, while child psychotherapy has been comparatively neglected. To identify predictors of outcome in psychotherapy for children, the relationship between several client, therapist, and economic variables was examined. Subjects were 268 children and their families who had completed treatment…

  11. Predictors of Academic Achievement and Their Possible Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockshin, Jeffrey; Zamkov, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    A significant amount of attention has been given to the predictors of academic achievement in higher education. However, the vast majority of articles have centred on entrance criteria and the learning approaches or personal habits of students. Investigations into how achievement depends on student efforts, being almost invariably based on…

  12. Global salinity predictors of western United States precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Schmitt, R. W.; Li, L.

    2016-12-01

    Moisture transport from the excess of evaporation over precipitation in the global ocean drives terrestrial precipitation patterns. Sea surface salinity (SSS) is sensitive to changes in ocean evaporation and precipitation, and therefore, to changes in the global water cycle. We use the Met Office Hadley Centre EN4.2.0 SSS dataset to search for teleconnections between autumn-lead seasonal salinity signals and winter precipitation over the western United States. NOAA CPC Unified observational US precipitation in winter months is extracted from bounding boxes over the northwest and southwest and averaged. Lead autumn SON SSS in ocean areas that are relatively highly correlated with winter DJF terrestrial precipitation are filtered by a size threshold and treated as individual predictors. After removing linear trends from the response and explanatory variables and accounting for multiple collinearity, we use best subsets regression and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) to objectively select the best model to predict terrestrial precipitation using SSS and SST predictors. The combination of autumn SSS and SST predictors can skillfully predict western US winter terrestrial precipitation (R2 = 0.51 for the US Northwest and R2 = 0.7 for the US Southwest). In both cases, SSS is a better predictor than SST. Thus, incorporating SSS can greatly enhance the accuracy of existing precipitation prediction frameworks that use SST-based climate indices and by extension improve watershed management.

  13. Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Calculation Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Early calculation abilities in preschoolers are predictive of mathematics achievement in subsequent grades (e.g., Jordan et al. 2009). Two studies were conducted to evaluate concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early calculation skills. In the first study, 102 preschoolers (57.8% female; mean age?=?60.57?±?8.66 months) were given vocabulary,…

  14. Predictors of Employment and Postsecondary Education of Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Alberto; Timmons, Jaimie; Butterworth, John; Lugas, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Using logistic and multiple regressions, the authors investigated predictors of employment and postsecondary education outcomes of youth with autism in the Vocational Rehabilitation Program. Data were obtained from the RSA911 data set, fiscal year 2008. Findings showed that the odds of gaining employment were greater for youth who received job…

  15. Exploring Psychosocial Predictors of Bullying Involvement for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Chad A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Preast, June L.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities are disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have investigated the interaction between victimization and proactive or reactive aggression, and psychosocial predictors for bullying involvement among school-aged youth with disabilities. This study used structural equation modeling to…

  16. Predictors of Depression and Anxiety among International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumer, Seda; Poyrazli, Senel; Grahame, Kamini

    2008-01-01

    The role of gender, age, race/ethnicity, length of stay, social support, and proficiency in English in the variance in depression and anxiety among international students revealed that social support was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety among international students. Age significantly contributed to the variance in anxiety, and…

  17. Ten Years down the Road: Predictors of Driving Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Bart, Edward; O'Connor, Melissa L.; Cissell, Gayla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recent prospective studies have found that cognition is a more salient predictor of driving cessation than physical performance or demographic factors among community-dwelling older adults. However, these studies have been limited to 5 years of follow-up. The current study used data from the Maryland Older Drivers Project to examine…

  18. Excessive bleeding predictors after cardiac surgery in adults: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Camila Takao; Dos Santos, Talita Raquel; Brunori, Evelise Helena Fadini Reis; Moorhead, Sue A; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de

    2015-11-01

    To integrate literature data on the predictors of excessive bleeding after cardiac surgery in adults. Perioperative nursing care requires awareness of the risk factors for excessive bleeding after cardiac surgery to assure vigilance prioritising and early correction of those that are modifiable. Integrative literature review. Articles were searched in seven databases. Seventeen studies investigating predictive factors for excessive bleeding after open-heart surgery from 2004-2014 were included. Predictors of excessive bleeding after cardiac surgery were: Patient-related: male gender, higher preoperative haemoglobin levels, lower body mass index, diabetes mellitus, impaired left ventricular function, lower amount of prebypass thrombin generation, lower preoperative platelet counts, decreased preoperative platelet aggregation, preoperative platelet inhibition level >20%, preoperative thrombocytopenia and lower preoperative fibrinogen concentration. Procedure-related: the operating surgeon, coronary artery bypass surgery with three or more bypasses, use of the internal mammary artery, duration of surgery, increased cross-clamp time, increased cardiopulmonary bypass time, lower intraoperative core body temperature and bypass-induced haemostatic disorders. Postoperative: fibrinogen levels and metabolic acidosis. Patient-related, procedure-related and postoperative predictors of excessive bleeding after cardiac surgery were identified. The predictors summarised in this review can be used for risk stratification of excessive bleeding after cardiac surgery. Assessment, documentation and case reporting can be guided by awareness of these factors, so that postoperative vigilance can be prioritised. Timely identification and correction of the modifiable factors can be facilitated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Examining the Changing Influence of Predictors on Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kim A.; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Bersani, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the influence of key characteristics on adolescent alcohol misuse (i.e., maternal binge drinking, parenting, peers, school characteristics, and the adolescent's own behavior) change over time and whether predictors of adolescent alcohol misuse vary by gender and race/ethnicity. Using prospective,…

  20. Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Calculation Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Early calculation abilities in preschoolers are predictive of mathematics achievement in subsequent grades (e.g., Jordan et al. 2009). Two studies were conducted to evaluate concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early calculation skills. In the first study, 102 preschoolers (57.8% female; mean age?=?60.57?±?8.66 months) were given vocabulary,…

  1. Predictors of College Student Suicidal Ideation: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Hugh; Pena-Shaff, Judith; Quirk, Priscilla

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to identify students at risk for suicide. Predictors of suicidality were examined separately for men and women in a college health survey of 630 students. Women reported higher levels of suicidal ideation than men in the previous year. Separate regression analyses for men and women accounted for significant amounts of the variance…

  2. Predictor Implementation School/District Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Post-School Outcomes Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The checklist provided here is intended to provide schools, districts, or other stakeholders in secondary transition with a framework for determining the degree to which their program is implementing practices that are likely to lead to more positive post-school outcomes for students with disabilities. The predictor categories listed have been…

  3. Early Predictors of Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.

    2010-01-01

    Calculation fluency weaknesses are a key characteristic of children with mathematics difficulties. The major aim of this dissertation was to uncover early predictors of calculation fluency weaknesses in second graders. Children's performance on number sense tasks in kindergarten along with general cognitive abilities, early literacy skills, and…

  4. Predictors of Gender Inequalities in the Rank of Full Professor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijstra, Thamar; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether age, work-related, and family-related predictors explain differences in the academic advancement of women and men in Iceland. Survey data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. The findings put that women climb the academic career ladder at a slower pace than men. This finding puts one of the widely known…

  5. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  6. Attention and Working Memory as Predictors of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports on an investigation of attention and working memory as sources of intelligence. The investigation was concentrated on the relatedness of attention and working memory as predictors of intelligence and on the structure underlying the prediction. In a sample of 120 participants, intelligence was assessed by the Advanced Progressive…

  7. Predictors of weight loss in Mexican American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined predictors of weight change in Mexican American adolescents. Eighty overweight Mexican American children were randomized to receive either the intensive intervention or self help program. Physiological (e.g. standardized BMI (zBMI), percent body fat, and tanner stage), psychologi...

  8. Predictors of Racial Prejudice in White American Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…

  9. Excavating Culture: Ethnicity and Context as Predictors of Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Tyson, Diana F.

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic, socioeconomic, and contextual predictors of parenting and family socialization practices were examined among African American and European American families. This is one of a set of coordinated studies presented in this special issue (Le et al.). With the goal of sampling African American and European American children and families that…

  10. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  11. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  12. Predictors of Familial Acculturative Stress in Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…

  13. Social Predictors of Sunscreen and Self-Tanning Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated social predictors of sunscreen and self-tanning product use among 164 undergraduates. Immediate family members' sunscreen use predicted participants' facial sunscreen use while sunbathing but not their sunscreen use on other areas of the body. In addition, familial support of a tanned appearance was inversely associated…

  14. Epistemological Predictors of Prospective Biology Teachers' Nature of Science Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…

  15. Counting and RAN: Predictors of Arithmetic Calculation and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Tuire; Salmi, Paula; Eklund, Kenneth; Aro, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether counting and rapid automatized naming (RAN) could operate as significant predictors of both later arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. The authors also took an important step to clarify the cognitive mechanisms underlying these predictive relationships by controlling for the effect of phonological awareness and…

  16. Predictors of Burnout in Community College Faculty: A Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phronebarger, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in an effort to develop a model to predict "burnout" in community college faculty members using the demographic predictors of employment status, teaching load, age, teaching experience and gender. Originally termed by Herbert Freudenberger in 1974, burnout is a phenomenon that has been investigated in a…

  17. Predictors of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianakos, Irene

    2001-01-01

    College students (n=209) completed the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) Scale, Self-Reliance Inventory, and Work Preferences Scale. Counterdependence (distancing) was negatively related to CDMSE. Self-reliance, work preference, and gender variables were significant predictors of CDMSE. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

  18. Empirical Investigation of Predictors of Success in an MBA Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Atul; Turek, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The twofold purpose of this study was to determine if selected variables were predictors of: student performance in the MBA programme; and student performance on the MBA MFT exam. Design/methodology/approach: This study focuses on MBA graduates at a US university who have successfully completed the entire programme requirements. Real…

  19. Trajectory Predictor by Using Recurrent Neural Networks in Visual Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lituan; Zhang, Lei; Yi, Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Motion models have been proved to be a crucial part in the visual tracking process. In recent trackers, particle filter and sliding windows-based motion models have been widely used. Treating motion models as a sequence prediction problem, we can estimate the motion of objects using their trajectories. Moreover, it is possible to transfer the learned knowledge from annotated trajectories to new objects. Inspired by recent advance in deep learning for visual feature extraction and sequence prediction, we propose a trajectory predictor to learn prior knowledge from annotated trajectories and transfer it to predict the motion of target objects. In this predictor, convolutional neural networks extract the visual features of target objects. Long short-term memory model leverages the annotated trajectory priors as well as sequential visual information, which includes the tracked features and center locations of the target object, to predict the motion. Furthermore, to extend this method to videos in which it is difficult to obtain annotated trajectories, a dynamic weighted motion model that combines the proposed trajectory predictor with a random sampler is proposed. To evaluate the transfer performance of the proposed trajectory predictor, we annotated a real-world vehicle dataset. Experiment results on both this real-world vehicle dataset and an online tracker benchmark dataset indicate that the proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art trackers.

  20. Predictors of Sexual Offence Recidivism in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Elliot, Susanne F.; Astell, Arlene

    2004-01-01

    Background: The extensive research on prediction of risk in offenders has developed a number of reliable static risk predictors. There is also a developing body of work on proximal, dynamic risk factors and their importance in predicting violent and sexual offending. Although this work has not been done specifically on offenders with intellectual…

  1. Epistemological Predictors of Prospective Biology Teachers' Nature of Science Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…

  2. Extending Protein Domain Boundary Predictors to Detect Discontinuous Domains

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zhidong; Jang, Richard; Govindarajoo, Brandon; Huang, Yichu; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A variety of protein domain predictors were developed to predict protein domain boundaries in recent years, but most of them cannot predict discontinuous domains. Considering nearly 40% of multidomain proteins contain one or more discontinuous domains, we have developed DomEx to enable domain boundary predictors to detect discontinuous domains by assembling the continuous domain segments. Discontinuous domains are predicted by matching the sequence profile of concatenated continuous domain segments with the profiles from a single-domain library derived from SCOP and CATH, and Pfam. Then the matches are filtered by similarity to library templates, a symmetric index score and a profile-profile alignment score. DomEx recalled 32.3% discontinuous domains with 86.5% precision when tested on 97 non-homologous protein chains containing 58 continuous and 99 discontinuous domains, in which the predicted domain segments are within ±20 residues of the boundary definitions in CATH 3.5. Compared with our recently developed predictor, ThreaDom, which is the state-of-the-art tool to detect discontinuous-domains, DomEx recalled 26.7% discontinuous domains with 72.7% precision in a benchmark with 29 discontinuous-domain chains, where ThreaDom failed to predict any discontinuous domains. Furthermore, combined with ThreaDom, the method ranked number one among 10 predictors. The source code and datasets are available at https://github.com/xuezhidong/DomEx. PMID:26502173

  3. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  4. Returning Home in Systems of Care: Rates, Predictors, and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Southerland, Dannia; Mustillo, Sarah A.; Burns, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work suggests that out-of-home placements continue to be relatively common for youth with mental health problems, even within systems of care. The current work examines rates and predictors of movement back home and stability of reunifications. During the focal period, 1,778 youths experienced out-of-home placements; 61% moved back home,…

  5. Individual, Family, and Peer predictors of Violence among Samoan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Devan L.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored individual, family, and peer predictors of involvement and psychological investment in fights among Samoan youth. Participants were 310 adolescents ages 13 through 19 living in Samoa. MANCOVAs compared those involved in fights with those not, and those more investing in fighting with those less invested. In terms of individual…

  6. Individual and School Predictors of Middle School Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Trockel, Mickey; Mulhall, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Hierarchical linear modeling is used to assess individual student, family, and school predictors of aggression in 111,662 students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Nine measures of problem-solving strategies, quality of family and peer interaction, and perceptions of school climate are analyzed at the individual student level. Eight measures…

  7. Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.; Chan, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that predict life satisfaction in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Two groups of variables were studied: life skills (interpersonal, instrumental and leisure) and higher-order predictors (social support, self-determination and productivity). Method: Fifty-six participants…

  8. Individual, Family, and Peer predictors of Violence among Samoan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Devan L.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored individual, family, and peer predictors of involvement and psychological investment in fights among Samoan youth. Participants were 310 adolescents ages 13 through 19 living in Samoa. MANCOVAs compared those involved in fights with those not, and those more investing in fighting with those less invested. In terms of individual…

  9. Cross-Cultural Similarities in the Predictors of Reading Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Kail, Robert V.

    2002-01-01

    Compared reading development among kindergartners in Hong Kong and the United States using measures of word recognition, phonological awareness, speeded naming, visual spatial skill, and processing speed. Found that models of early reading development were similar across cultures. The strongest predictor of reading was phonological awareness.…

  10. Predictors of Appraisal and Coping Dimensions in Myocardial Infarction Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyong Sil; Martin, Peter

    This study attempted to identify predictors of perception and coping after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction. Sixty males and 17 females who had suffered from a myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to the research were recruited from a hospital rehabilitation program. Subjects completed the Peri-Life Events Scale, the 16-PF…

  11. Attitudes, Values and Moral Reasoning as Predictors of Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarry, Hammond; Emler, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes to institutional authority, strength of support for moral values and maturity of socio-moral reasoning have all been identified as potential predictors of adolescent delinquency. In a sample of 12-15-year-old boys (N = 789), after checking for effects of age, IQ, social background and ethnicity, self-reported delinquency was…

  12. Executive Functions as Predictors of Math Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, an increasing number of studies have investigated executive functions as predictors of individual differences in mathematical abilities. The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether the executive functions shifting, inhibition, and working memory differ between low achieving and typically achieving children…

  13. Inadequate Response to Therapy as a Predictor of Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlsgaard, Katherine K.; Beck, Aaron T.; Brown, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    The role of response to cognitive therapy as a predictor of suicide was investigated by comparing 17 outpatients with mood disorders who committed suicide with 17 matched patients who did not commit suicide. Significant differences were found on several variables including higher levels of hopelessness at termination of therapy. (Author/EMK)

  14. Video Game Strategies as Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between strategies students use to overcome challenges in both video games and homework assignments, and whether or not these are predictors of academic performance in school. Data were collected through an online survey of students, primarily in middle and high school, assessing both…

  15. Children's Rorschach Scores as Predictors of Later Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuber, Steven B.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that Rorschach measures of object relations and thought organization could help predict later adjustment. Former patients (N=70) at a child residential treatment center were followed up as adults. Object relations measures were found to be effective discriminators and predictors of later rehospitalization for boys. (JAC)

  16. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  17. Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

  18. Predictors of Parenting Stress for Abusive and Nonabusive Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Andrea V.; Lewis, Kristen M.; Lynn, Amy E.; Haskett, Mary E.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined a model of parenting stress for abusive mothers (n = 80) and nonabusive mothers (n = 86) using linear regression analyses. Predictors in the model included (a) the degree to which mothers were bothered by child misbehavior, (b) mothers' general psychological functioning, and (c) observed child behavior during parent-child interactions.…

  19. Using Dominance Analysis to Determine Predictor Importance in Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azen, Razia; Traxel, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes an extension of dominance analysis that allows researchers to determine the relative importance of predictors in logistic regression models. Criteria for choosing logistic regression R[superscript 2] analogues were determined and measures were selected that can be used to perform dominance analysis in logistic regression. A…

  20. Predictors of Academic Procrastination in Asian International College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; Kuo, Ben C. H.; Song, Hyun-A.; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Kim, Eunyoung; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Chang, Catherine Y.; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among acculturative stress, coping styles, self-efficacy, English language proficiency, and various demographic characteristics as predictors of procrastination behavior in Asian International students (N = 255) studying in the United States. Results of multiple logistic regression indicated that a collective…

  1. Confidence: The Best Non-Cognitive Predictor of Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Morony, Suzanne; Lee, Yim Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify non-cognitive predictors of academic achievement and school success have largely focused on self-constructs such as self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety that are measured with respect to a specific domain (e.g. mathematics). We extend the measurement of the non-cognitive realm in education to incorporate both social…

  2. Clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors of Bordetella pertussis infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Bellettini, Camila Vieira; de Oliveira, Andressa Welter; Tusset, Cintia; Baethgen, Ludmila Fiorenzano; Amantéa, Sérgio Luís; Motta, Fabrizio; Gasparotto, Aline; Andreolla, Huander Felipe; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors for Bordetella pertussis infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which analyzed medical records of all patients submitted to a molecular dignosis (qPCR) for B. pertussis from September 2011 to January 2013. Clinical and laboratorial data were reviewed, including information about age, sex, signs/symptoms, length of hospitalization, blood cell counts, imaging findings, coinfection with other respiratory pathogens and clinical outcome. RESULTS: 222 cases were revised. Of these, 72.5% had proven pertussis, and 60.9% were under 1 year old. In patients aging up to six months, independent predictors for B. pertussis infection were (OR 8.0, CI 95% 1.8-36.3; p=0.007) and lymphocyte count >104/µL (OR 10.0, CI 95% 1.8-54.5; p=0.008). No independent predictors of B. pertussis infection could be determined for patients older than six months. Co-infection was found in 21.4% of patients, of which 72.7% were up to six months of age. Adenovirus was the most common agent (40.9%). In these patients, we were not able to identify any clinical features to detect patients presenting with a respiratory co-infection, even though longer hospital stay was observed in patients with co-infections (12 vs. 6 days; p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Cyanosis and lymphocytosis are independent predictors for pertussis in children up to 6 months old. PMID:25510991

  3. Comparison of Four Methods for Weighting Multiple Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aamodt, Michael G.; Kimbrough, Wilson W.

    1985-01-01

    Four methods were used to weight predictors associated with a Resident Assistant job: (1) rank order weights; (2) unit weights; (3) critical incident weights; and (4) regression weights. A cross-validation was also done. Most weighting methods were highly related. No method was superior in terms of protection from validity shrinkage. (GDC)

  4. Executive Functions as Predictors of Math Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, an increasing number of studies have investigated executive functions as predictors of individual differences in mathematical abilities. The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether the executive functions shifting, inhibition, and working memory differ between low achieving and typically achieving children…

  5. Predictors of Nonmedical ADHD Medication Use by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of nonmedical ADHD medication use by college students. Participants: A total of 843 undergraduates attending one public or one private university in southeastern United States. Method: Students completed a Web-based survey inquiring about ADHD medication use during the first semester freshman of their year and…

  6. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  7. Change in Autism Classification with Early Intervention: Predictors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…

  8. Predictors for the development of temporomandibular disorders in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; van Wijk, A J; Klingler, M C; Ruiz Vicente, E; van Dijk, C J; Eijkman, M A J

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to determine predictors for the development of complaints of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a large sample of Dutch scuba divers who were free of any TMD complaints before they started diving actively. Five-hundred and thirty-six scuba divers (mean ± SD age = 40.4 ± 11.9 years; 34.1% women) completed a specifically developed questionnaire, either online or on paper. Stepwise forward logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the presence of TMD pain, with several potential risk factors as predictors. Four hundred and eighty-five of the 536 respondents were free of any TMD pain before they started diving actively. In this sample, TMD pain was present in 214 persons (44.1%). Four predictors contributed significantly to the presence of TMD pain, viz., clenching (OR = 2.466), warm water (OR = 1.685), biting on the mouthpiece (OR = 1.598), and the quality rating of the mouthpiece (OR = 0.887, that is, a higher rating means a smaller odds of having TMD pain). TMD pain is a common complaint among scuba divers who were free of such complaints before they started diving actively. Clenching, biting on the mouthpiece, and a low rating of the mouthpiece are predictors for the presence of TMD pain in scuba divers, while diving in cold water serves as a protective factor for TMD pain.

  9. Protective and Risk Predictors in the Development of Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerevich, Jozsef; Bacskai, Erika

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of 2 dimensions of the theory of social development--vulnerability and protectivity--in 2 samples, schoolchildren aged 10 to 15 (n=1,454) and addictive drug users (n=170). Finds that the most important protective factors act against substance use. Finds that among the predictors of the addicts some forms of escape from…

  10. Using Dominance Analysis to Determine Predictor Importance in Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azen, Razia; Traxel, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes an extension of dominance analysis that allows researchers to determine the relative importance of predictors in logistic regression models. Criteria for choosing logistic regression R[superscript 2] analogues were determined and measures were selected that can be used to perform dominance analysis in logistic regression. A…

  11. Predictors of Organizational Commitment: Variations across Career Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jan Leeman; Seers, Anson

    1991-01-01

    The matching of 5 predictors of organizational commitment with 5 career stages was investigated with a sample of 1,536 Air Force employees. Between- and within-stage analysis showed that team cohesion was stronger during second stage, job challenge during third, supervisor behavior during fourth, and organizational climate during fifth.…

  12. Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

  13. Showing the Love: Predictors of Student Loyalty to Undergraduate Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianden, Jörg; Barlow, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the notion that undergraduates may be considered student-customers whose relationship with and loyalty to their institutions can be managed by college educators. The Student University Loyalty Instrument administered to 1,207 undergraduates at three comprehensive Midwestern institutions assessed the predictors of student…

  14. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  15. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  16. Examining the Changing Influence of Predictors on Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kim A.; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Bersani, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the influence of key characteristics on adolescent alcohol misuse (i.e., maternal binge drinking, parenting, peers, school characteristics, and the adolescent's own behavior) change over time and whether predictors of adolescent alcohol misuse vary by gender and race/ethnicity. Using prospective,…

  17. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  18. Predictors of Obesity Bias among Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Jody; Rukavina, Paul; Greenleaf, Christy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate particular psychosocial predictors of obesity bias in prehealth professionals, which include the internalization of athletic and general body ideals, perceived media pressure and information, and achievement goal orientations. Exercise science undergraduate students (n = 242) filled out a survey…

  19. Early Predictors of School Performance Declines at School Transition Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaspina, Diane; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed students (n = 265) from kindergarten through seventh grade and examined early social and academic predictors of school performance at two normative school transitions. Questions addressed include: (a) are there changes in students' school performance over time, especially at school transition points; (b) are…

  20. Predictors of Sense of Belonging for Students with Psychological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Michele Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a portrait of students with psychological conditions, to determine the predictors of sense of belonging for these students, and to draw comparisons between the collegiate experiences of students with, and those without, psychological conditions. Using data from the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of…

  1. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  2. Predictors of Familial Acculturative Stress in Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…

  3. Paradigmatic Responding as a Predictor of First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceprano, Maria A.

    To ascertain whether paradigmatic performance on a word association test administered at the end of kindergarten is an effective predictor of reading achievement, 37 children were tested on the Syntagmatic-Paradigmatic Assessment (SPA) at the end of their kindergarten year. At the end of their first grade year, the children were administered a…

  4. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  5. Neurophysiological predictor of SMR-based BCI performance.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Sannelli, Claudia; Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva M; Kübler, Andrea; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Curio, Gabriel; Dickhaus, Thorsten

    2010-07-15

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow a user to control a computer application by brain activity as measured, e.g., by electroencephalography (EEG). After about 30years of BCI research, the success of control that is achieved by means of a BCI system still greatly varies between subjects. For about 20% of potential users the obtained accuracy does not reach the level criterion, meaning that BCI control is not accurate enough to control an application. The determination of factors that may serve to predict BCI performance, and the development of methods to quantify a predictor value from psychological and/or physiological data serve two purposes: a better understanding of the 'BCI-illiteracy phenomenon', and avoidance of a costly and eventually frustrating training procedure for participants who might not obtain BCI control. Furthermore, such predictors may lead to approaches to antagonize BCI illiteracy. Here, we propose a neurophysiological predictor of BCI performance which can be determined from a two minute recording of a 'relax with eyes open' condition using two Laplacian EEG channels. A correlation of r=0.53 between the proposed predictor and BCI feedback performance was obtained on a large data base with N=80 BCI-naive participants in their first session with the Berlin brain-computer interface (BBCI) system which operates on modulations of sensory motor rhythms (SMRs). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Confidence: The Best Non-Cognitive Predictor of Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Morony, Suzanne; Lee, Yim Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify non-cognitive predictors of academic achievement and school success have largely focused on self-constructs such as self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety that are measured with respect to a specific domain (e.g. mathematics). We extend the measurement of the non-cognitive realm in education to incorporate both social…

  7. Anxiety, Stress and Social Support: Prenatal Predictors of Obstetrical Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethercut, Gail; Adler, Nancy

    The role of anxiety, stress, and social support in predicting negative obstetrical outcomes was examined in a high-risk group of pregnant women. The predictor variables were assessed with separate self-report scales, including The Sarason Life Experience Survey, the Spielberger State/Trait Inventory, and a modified version of the Lazarus and Cohen…

  8. Predictors of Depression and Anxiety among International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumer, Seda; Poyrazli, Senel; Grahame, Kamini

    2008-01-01

    The role of gender, age, race/ethnicity, length of stay, social support, and proficiency in English in the variance in depression and anxiety among international students revealed that social support was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety among international students. Age significantly contributed to the variance in anxiety, and…

  9. Educational Research in Educational Practice: Predictors of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysenko, Larysa V.; Abrami, Philip C.; Dagenais, Christian; Janosz, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the predictors of school practitioners' (N = 2,425) use of educational research. The suggested model explained significantly but modestly the infrequent use of educational research by practitioners. Of the four factors in the study, "opinions about research" had the most explanatory power. The results are…

  10. Moderation Analysis With Missing Data in the Predictors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-11-07

    The most widely used statistical model for conducting moderation analysis is the moderated multiple regression (MMR) model. In MMR modeling, missing data could pose a challenge, mainly because the interaction term is a product of two or more variables and thus is a nonlinear function of the involved variables. In this study, we consider a simple MMR model, where the effect of the focal predictor X on the outcome Y is moderated by a moderator U. The primary interest is to find ways of estimating and testing the moderation effect with the existence of missing data in X. We mainly focus on cases when X is missing completely at random (MCAR) and missing at random (MAR). Three methods are compared: (a) Normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood estimation (NML); (b) Normal-distribution-based multiple imputation (NMI); and (c) Bayesian estimation (BE). Via simulations, we found that NML and NMI could lead to biased estimates of moderation effects under MAR missingness mechanism. The BE method outperformed NMI and NML for MMR modeling with missing data in the focal predictor, missingness depending on the moderator and/or auxiliary variables, and correctly specified distributions for the focal predictor. In addition, more robust BE methods are needed in terms of the distribution mis-specification problem of the focal predictor. An empirical example was used to illustrate the applications of the methods with a simple sensitivity analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Predictors of Confidence and Competence among Early Childhood Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Mary Beth; Dunst, Carl J.; Wilson, Cristina; Stayton, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The preservice and in-service predictors of 1,668 Part C early intervention and Part B(619) preschool special practitioners' perceived self-efficacy beliefs are reported. The preservice variables were type of degree (discipline), years of formal postsecondary education, licensure, and participants' judgment of how well their preservice training…

  12. Video Game Strategies as Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between strategies students use to overcome challenges in both video games and homework assignments, and whether or not these are predictors of academic performance in school. Data were collected through an online survey of students, primarily in middle and high school, assessing both…

  13. Predictors of Developmental Outcome in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.; Younginer, Erik; Katikaneni, Lakshmi D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined predictors of development in very low birth weight infants from diverse backgrounds. Found that low income and greater frequency of medical problems predicted developmental risk on the Bayley Scales. In two-parent households, paternal education predicted developmental scores. Several individual biomedical factors predicted…

  14. Predictors of Autism Enrollment in Public School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Katelyn; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Smith, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    With a number of disparities present in the diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders, the education system plays a crucial role in the provision of both these service elements. Based on school and federal census data, this article examines one state's public school autism enrollment and possible predictors of enrollment…

  15. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  16. Predictors of Adult Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Tourigny, Marc; Joly, Jacques; Pouliot-Lapointe, Joelle

    2007-01-01

    This study identifies predictors of favorable attitudes toward spanking. Analyses were performed with survey data collected from a representative sample of 1,000 adults from Quebec, Canada. According to this survey, a majority of respondents endorsed spanking, despite their recognition of potential harm associated with corporal punishment (CP) of…

  17. Counting and RAN: Predictors of Arithmetic Calculation and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Tuire; Salmi, Paula; Eklund, Kenneth; Aro, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether counting and rapid automatized naming (RAN) could operate as significant predictors of both later arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. The authors also took an important step to clarify the cognitive mechanisms underlying these predictive relationships by controlling for the effect of phonological awareness and…

  18. Early Predictors of Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.

    2010-01-01

    Calculation fluency weaknesses are a key characteristic of children with mathematics difficulties. The major aim of this dissertation was to uncover early predictors of calculation fluency weaknesses in second graders. Children's performance on number sense tasks in kindergarten along with general cognitive abilities, early literacy skills, and…

  19. Predictors of Success for Academically Dismissed Students Following Readmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kathleen M.; Gahn, Wiley

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated the validity of six predictors of academic success after dismissal and reentry: grade point average (GPA) at dismissal, GPA at another school in the interim, composite college entrance examination score, semesters between dismissal and readmission, credits earned elsewhere after dismissal, and instructional level at dismissal.…

  20. Predictors of Clinical Outcome After Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Nicklas; Petzold, Max; Brorsson, Annelie; Karlsson, Jón; Eriksson, Bengt I; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2014-06-01

    In patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture, it has not been possible to determine the superiority of a single specific treatment modality over other treatments with respect to symptoms and function. When several pertinent treatment protocols are available for an injury, it is of interest to understand how other variables, such as age, sex, or physical activity level, affect outcome to better individualize the treatment. To investigate predictors of both symptomatic and functional outcomes after an acute Achilles tendon rupture. Cohort study (Prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Ninety-three patients (79 men and 14 women; mean age, 40 years) were evaluated prospectively at 3, 6, and 12 months. The main outcome measures in this study were the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) for symptoms and maximum heel-rise height for function. The independent variables evaluated as possible predictors of outcome included treatment, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity level, symptoms, and quality of life. Treatment, age, BMI, physical activity level, heel-rise height at 6 months, and the ATRS at 3 months were eligible for further analysis. Only male sex was included for the prediction models. The 4 different multiple linear regression models (predicting the ATRS at 6 and 12 months and heel-rise height at 6 and 12 months) were significant (P < .001-.002), and the R (2) values for the models were 0.222 to 0.409. Surgical or nonsurgical treatment is a moderate predictor of symptoms and a weak predictor of heel-rise height after an acute Achilles tendon rupture. At the 6-month follow-up, surgical treatment was associated with a larger heel-rise height, but the opposite was seen at 12 months. Surgical treatment resulted in a lower degree of symptoms. Increasing age was a strong predictor of reduced heel-rise height, and an increase in age of 10 years reduced the expected heel-rise height by approximately 8%. A higher BMI was also a strong predictor of a

  1. Predictors of sexual dysfunction incidence and remission in men.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sean A; Atlantis, Evan; Lange, Kylie; Taylor, Anne W; O'Loughlin, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-05-01

    The progress and determinants of sexual dysfunction in middle-aged and elderly men remain unclear. To describe the incidence or remission and biopsychosocial predictors of erectile dysfunction (ED) and low sexual desire (SD). Erectile function (International Index of Erectile Function) and sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory 2) were assessed at follow-up. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors were examined in multivariate models of ED and low SD. Data were collected from 810 randomly selected men residing in northern and western Adelaide, Australia, and aged 35-80 years at baseline, who made clinic visits 5 years apart. At baseline, 23.2% (n = 123) of men had ED. ED incidence and remission were observed in 31.7% (n = 179) and 29.0% (n = 71) of eligible men, respectively. At baseline, 19.2% (n = 165) had low solitary sexual desire, and 6.0% (n = 50) had low dyadic sexual desire; incidence of low sexual desire occurred in 17.6% (n = 83) (solitary) and 8.3% (n = 51) (dyadic), while remission occurred in 15.4% (n = 68) (solitary) and 22.6% (n = 40) (dyadic) of men. In the final regression models, predictors of incident ED were higher age, lower income, higher abdominal fat mass, low alcohol intake, higher risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk, voiding lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), depression, and diabetes. Predictors of ED remission were lower age, current employment, and absence of voiding LUTS, angina, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Predictors of low dyadic SD incidence included higher age, never having been married, widowhood, being unemployed, being retired, insufficient physical activity, and low alcohol intake. Predictors of low dyadic SD remission were being married, not being widowed, higher income, lower abdominal fat mass, lower OSA risk, and higher plasma testosterone. Predictors of low solitary SD included never having been married, being unemployed, low alcohol intake, lower testosterone

  2. Differences in Psychosocial Predictors of Obesity Among LGBT Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the overall presence of and differences in rates of overweight/obesity among a large, nationally diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-identified individuals (i.e., cisgender lesbians, cisgender gay men, cisgender bisexual women, cisgender bisexual men, transgender women, and transgender men) and to identify specific psychosocial predictors of obesity within each of the six LGBT subgroups. A total of 2702 LGBT-identified participants participated in the online study. Participants completed a series of demographic questions (including weight and height) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21. The percentage of participants who were overweight/obese did not differ significantly across LGBT subgroups, with 61.1% of the total sample being overweight/obese. However, the percentage of participants who self-reported body mass indexes in the obese range differed significantly across the six LGBT subgroups, with the highest prevalence in transgender men (46.0%). In addition, the predictors of obesity varied by subgroup, with age a significant predictor for cisgender lesbians, cisgender gay men, and cisgender bisexual women, relationship status for cisgender bisexual women, employment status for both cisgender gay men and cisgender bisexual women, education level for cisgender lesbians, and depression, anxiety, and stress for cisgender gay men. None of the examined psychosocial factors emerged as predictors of obesity for cisgender bisexual men, transgender women, or transgender men. These findings suggest that there are substantial variations in the presence and predictors of obesity across LGBT subgroups that support the need for culturally tailored healthy weight promotion efforts within the LGBT community.

  3. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nina S N; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  4. Calibration of Predictor Models Using Multiple Validation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for calibrating computational models using data from several and possibly dissimilar validation experiments. The offset between model predictions and observations, which might be caused by measurement noise, model-form uncertainty, and numerical error, drives the process by which uncertainty in the models parameters is characterized. The resulting description of uncertainty along with the computational model constitute a predictor model. Two types of predictor models are studied: Interval Predictor Models (IPMs) and Random Predictor Models (RPMs). IPMs use sets to characterize uncertainty, whereas RPMs use random vectors. The propagation of a set through a model makes the response an interval valued function of the state, whereas the propagation of a random vector yields a random process. Optimization-based strategies for calculating both types of predictor models are proposed. Whereas the formulations used to calculate IPMs target solutions leading to the interval value function of minimal spread containing all observations, those for RPMs seek to maximize the models' ability to reproduce the distribution of observations. Regarding RPMs, we choose a structure for the random vector (i.e., the assignment of probability to points in the parameter space) solely dependent on the prediction error. As such, the probabilistic description of uncertainty is not a subjective assignment of belief, nor is it expected to asymptotically converge to a fixed value, but instead it casts the model's ability to reproduce the experimental data. This framework enables evaluating the spread and distribution of the predicted response of target applications depending on the same parameters beyond the validation domain.

  5. Noncognitive predictors of academic performance. Going beyond the traditional measures.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine comparatively the use of an atypical, noncognitive predictor of academic achievement, the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), with the traditional cognitive measures of American College Testing (ACT) score and grade point average (CPA). A review of relevant literature on noncognitive variables as predictors of academic success is provided, followed by a general overview of the PSI and pertinent literature. In this study, the PSI was administered to 28 dental hygiene students, and a series of models were tested. The first model examined the relationship between the traditional cognitive predictors of academic success (ACT score and entering GPA) on academic outcomes (National Board Dental Hygiene Examination score and exit CPA). A second model examined the influence of the PSI composite score when added to the cognitive predictors. A third model examined the addition of the three PSI factor scores to the cognitive predictors. The addition of PSI scores in the second and third models increased the predictive capacity of the respective model. Bivariate correlations indicated a significant inverse relationship (p < 0.05) between the admissions variables of ACT score and entering OPA with PSI composite and factor scores. The PSI personal control factor score showed a significant (p < 0.05) inverse relationship with the outcome measures. Preliminary findings indicate that the PSI adds slightly to the predictive capacity of ACT score and entering GPA, although its usefulness in augmenting these traditional measures used in the student selection process requires further investigation. The PSI factor score of personal control may provide insight into a student's coping skills, potentially having implications on academic achievement.

  6. Predictors of intention to use condoms among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruiling; McAleese, Willis J; Appleby, Karen M; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yi; Peterson, Teri

    2014-08-01

    China is experiencing one of the fastest growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in the world. Condom use is consistently low among Chinese college students. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors that determine the intention to use condoms among Chinese college students applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A non-probability convenience sample of 433 participants was drawn from three universities in Central, Eastern, and Southwestern China, respectively. An anonymous written questionnaire was self-administered. Data were collected and analyzed descriptively and statistically using Predictive Analytical Software 19.0. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the predictors among 402 participants with non-missing data. Eighteen percent (78/433) of the participants reported being sexually active in the past 6 months. The percentage of times these individuals reported using condoms during intercourse was 38.19%. Intention to use condoms was statistically significantly (R(2) = 50.4%) predicted by attitudes (β = 0.213), subjective norms (β = 0.259), and perceived behavior control (PBC) (β = 0.332). All predictors were statistically significant at the 0.001 level (p < 0.001). PBC was the strongest predictor of intention to use condoms. The study findings indicated that the TPB could be used as a framework to determine the predictors of intention to use condoms among the Chinese college students. It is recommended that the HIV education programs should increase the intention to use condoms through promoting positive attitudes, subjective norms and PBC of condom use in Chinese college students.

  7. Predictors of Business Return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Nina S. N.; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster. PMID:23133530

  8. Predictors of Longitudinal Quality of Life in Juvenile Localized Scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Kaveh; Zigler, Christina K; Torok, Kathryn S

    2017-07-01

    Localized scleroderma can negatively affect children's quality of life (QoL), but predictors of impact have not been well described. We sought to identify predictors of QoL impact in juvenile localized scleroderma patients. We analyzed longitudinal data from a single-center cohort of juvenile localized scleroderma patients, using hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) to identify predictors of QoL impact. HGLM is useful for nested data and allows for evaluation of both time-variant and time-invariant predictors. The number of extracutaneous manifestations (ECMs; e.g., joint contracture and hemifacial atrophy) and female sex predicted negative QoL impact, defined as a Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index score >1 (P = 0.019 for ECMs and P = 0.002 for female sex). As the time since the initial visit increased, the odds of reporting a negative QoL impact decreased (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that ECMs, sex, and time since initial visit are more predictive of QoL impact in localized scleroderma than cutaneous features. Further study is required to determine which ECMs have the most impact on QoL, which factors underlie sex differences in QoL in localized scleroderma, and why increasing the time since the initial visit appears to be protective. An improved understanding of predictors of QoL impact may allow for the identification of patients at risk of poorer outcomes and for the tailoring of treatment and psychosocial support. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Predictors of tracheostomy in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yaghi, Shadi; Moore, Page; Ray, Bappaditya; Keyrouz, Salah G

    2013-06-01

    One third of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) require mechanical ventilation; in most, tracheostomy may be necessary. Limited data exist about predictors of tracheostomy in ICH. The aim of our study is to identify predictors of tracheostomy in ICH. We reviewed medical records of patients seen in our institution between 2005 and 2009, using ICD-9 codes for ICH, for admission clinical and radiological parameters. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to identify tracheostomy predictors. Ninety patients with ICH were included in the analysis, eleven of which required tracheostomy. Patients requiring a tracheostomy were more likely to have a large hematoma volume (≥30mL) (63.4% vs. 29.1%, p=0.037), intraventricular hemorrhage (81.8% vs. 27.8%, p<0.0001), hydrocephalus (81.8% vs. 8.8%, p<0.0001), admission GCS<8 (81.8% vs. 5.1%, p<0.0001), intubation≥14 days (54.5% vs. 1.27%, p<0.0001) and pneumonia (63.6% vs. 17.7%, p=0.003). Stepwise logistic regression yielded admission GCS (OR=80.55, p=0.0003) and intubation days (OR=87.49, p<0.006) as most important predictors. We could potentially predict the need for tracheostomy early in the course of ICH based on the admission GCS score; duration of intubation is another predictor for tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy could decrease the time, and therefore risks of prolonged endotracheal intubation and length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. REASSESSING MECHANISM AS A PREDICTOR OF PEDIATRIC INJURY MORTALITY

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Haley; Mittal, Sushil; Madigan, David; Burd, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of mechanism of injury as a predictor of injury outcome presents practical challenges because this variable may be missing or inaccurate in many databases. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of mechanism of injury as a predictor of mortality among injured children. Methods The records of children (<15 years old) sustaining a blunt injury were obtained from the National Trauma Data Bank. Models predicting injury mortality were developed using mechanism of injury and injury coding using either Abbreviated Injury Scale post-dot values (low-dimensional injury coding) or injury ICD-9 codes and their two-way interactions (high-dimensional injury coding). Model performance with and without inclusion of mechanism of injury was compared for both coding schemes, and the relative importance of mechanism of injury as a variable in each model type was evaluated. Results Among 62,569 records, a mortality rate of 0.9% was observed. Inclusion of mechanism of injury improved model performance when using low-dimensional injury coding but was associated with no improvement when using high-dimensional injury coding. Mechanism of injury contributed to 28% of model variance when using low-dimensional injury coding and <1% when high-dimensional injury coding was used. Conclusions Although mechanism of injury may be an important predictor of injury mortality among children sustaining blunt trauma, its importance as a predictor of mortality depends on approach used for injury coding. Mechanism of injury is not an essential predictor of outcome after injury when coding schemes are used that better characterize injuries sustained after blunt pediatric trauma. PMID:26197948

  11. Predictors of Endotoxin Levels in U.S. Housing

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Mav, Deepak; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Background The relationship of domestic endotoxin exposure to allergy and asthma has been widely investigated. However, few studies have evaluated predictors of household endotoxin, and none have done so for multiple locations within homes and on a national scale. Objectives We assayed 2,552 house dust samples in a nationwide study to understand the predictors of household endotoxin in bedroom floors, family room floors, beds, kitchen floors, and family room sofas. Methods Reservoir house dust from five locations within homes was assayed for endotoxin and demographic and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and onsite evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent national demographics. We performed repeated-measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) for 37 candidate variables to identify independent predictors of endotoxin. Meteorologic data were obtained for each primary sampling unit and tested as predictors of indoor endotoxin to determine if wetter or warmer microclimates were associated with higher endotoxin levels. Results Weighted geometric mean endotoxin concentration ranged from 18.7 to 80.5 endotoxin units (EU)/mg for the five sampling locations, and endotoxin load ranged from 4,160 to 19,500 EU/m2. Bivariate analyses and rANOVA demonstrated that major predictors of endotoxin concentration were sampling location in the home, census division, educational attainment, presence of children, current dog ownership, resident-described problems with cockroaches, food debris, cockroach stains, and evidence of smoking observed by field staff. Low household income entered the model if educational attainment was removed. Conclusion Increased endotoxin in household reservoir dust is principally associated with poverty, people, pets, household cleanliness, and geography. PMID:19479019

  12. Reassessing mechanism as a predictor of pediatric injury mortality.

    PubMed

    Beck, Haley E; Mittal, Sushil; Madigan, David; Burd, Randall S

    2015-12-01

    The use of mechanism of injury as a predictor of injury outcome presents practical challenges because this variable may be missing or inaccurate in many databases. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of mechanism of injury as a predictor of mortality among injured children. The records of children (<15-y-old) sustaining a blunt injury were obtained from the National Trauma Data Bank. Models predicting injury mortality were developed using mechanism of injury and injury coding using either abbreviated injury scale post-dot values (low-dimensional injury coding) or injury International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and their two-way interactions (high-dimensional injury coding). Model performance with and without inclusion of mechanism of injury was compared for both coding schemes, and the relative importance of mechanism of injury as a variable in each model type was evaluated. Among 62,569 records, a mortality rate of 0.9% was observed. Inclusion of mechanism of injury improved model performance when using low-dimensional injury coding but was associated with no improvement when using high-dimensional injury coding. Mechanism of injury contributed to 28% of model variance when using low-dimensional injury coding and <1% when high-dimensional injury coding was used. Although mechanism of injury may be an important predictor of injury mortality among children sustaining blunt trauma, its importance as a predictor of mortality depends on the approach used for injury coding. Mechanism of injury is not an essential predictor of outcome after injury when coding schemes are used that better characterize injuries sustained after blunt pediatric trauma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A New Perspective for the Calibration of Computational Predictor Models.

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, Luis Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a framework for calibrating computational models using data from sev- eral and possibly dissimilar validation experiments. The offset between model predictions and observations, which might be caused by measurement noise, model-form uncertainty, and numerical error, drives the process by which uncertainty in the models parameters is characterized. The resulting description of uncertainty along with the computational model constitute a predictor model. Two types of predictor models are studied: Interval Predictor Models (IPMs) and Random Predictor Models (RPMs). IPMs use sets to characterize uncer- tainty, whereas RPMs use random vectors. The propagation of a set through a model makes the response an interval valued function of the state, whereas the propagation of a random vector yields a random process. Optimization-based strategies for calculating both types of predictor models are proposed. Whereas the formulations used to calculate IPMs target solutions leading to the interval value function of minimal spread containing all observations, those for RPMs seek to maximize the models' ability to reproduce the distribution of obser- vations. Regarding RPMs, we choose a structure for the random vector (i.e., the assignment of probability to points in the parameter space) solely dependent on the prediction error. As such, the probabilistic description of uncertainty is not a subjective assignment of belief, nor is it expected to asymptotically converge to a fixed value, but instead it is a description of the model's ability to reproduce the experimental data. This framework enables evaluating the spread and distribution of the predicted response of target applications depending on the same parameters beyond the validation domain (i.e., roll-up and extrapolation).

  14. Identifying predictors of success for an objects-first CS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Philip R.

    2005-09-01

    The paper reports on an examination of predictors of success for an objects-first course. The predictors considered included prior programming experience, mathematical ability, academic and psychological variables, gender, and measures of student effort. Cognitive and academic factors such as SAT scores and critical thinking ability offered little predictive value when compared to the other predictors of success. Student effort and comfort level were found to be the strongest predictors of success.

  15. Selection of Large-scale Predictors for Downscaling Precipitation over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, J.; Das, L.

    2016-12-01

    In last few decades several statistical downscaling techniques have been emerged to provide climate change information at regional or local scale from the simulations of the Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Perfect prognosis (PP) downscaling is one of the widely used techniques, which establish statistical relationships between large-scale predictor variables and predictands at local scale through transfer functions. As there is no general consensus to select the potential predictors for downscaling, the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a range of suitable predictor(s) for Indian domain along with different homogeneous sub-regions of India using different regression techniques namely Stepwise forward (SWFR) and backward regression (SWBR), Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Ridge Regression and Elastic NET regression from wide range of predictors available in NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Instead of using raw variables, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis have been used to decompose the predictor fields into modes of variability to provide independent, orthogonal basis vectors called principal components (PCs). PCs from each large-scale predictor are fed into the above-stated regression equations as the predictors. The co-efficient of determination (R2) and p-values (only in case of SWFR and SWBR) have been used as an indicator of better agreement between predictor and predictands. Predictors with larger R2 and smaller p-values have been selected as suitable predictors for downscaling. Whether the selected predictors are able to reproduce better-downscaled precipitation have been further verified through leave p-out cross-validation. It is observed that predictors are highly sensitive to size of the study domain and accuracy of the downscaled precipitation varies from region to region. However, some predictors are identified as potential predictors for multiple regions. The outputs of this study will provide a general

  16. Situational and Intrapersonal Predictors of School and Life Satisfaction of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Amy Linden

    2012-01-01

    This study examined predictors of school and life satisfaction of fifth-grade students. Two situational predictor variables (school climate and school stress) and two intrapersonal predictor variables (locus of control and academic self-concept) were examined. It was hypothesized that positive school climate, low levels of school stress, internal…

  17. Situational and Intrapersonal Predictors of School and Life Satisfaction of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Amy Linden

    2012-01-01

    This study examined predictors of school and life satisfaction of fifth-grade students. Two situational predictor variables (school climate and school stress) and two intrapersonal predictor variables (locus of control and academic self-concept) were examined. It was hypothesized that positive school climate, low levels of school stress, internal…

  18. Transformation of Both Predictor and Criterion Variables to a Simplified Regression Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ping, Chieh-min; Tucker, Ledyard R.

    Prediction for a number of criteria from a set of predictor variables in a system of regression equations is studied with the possibilities of linear transformations applied to both the criterion and predictor variables. Predictive composites representing a battery of predictor variables provide identical estimates of criterion scores as do the…

  19. Predictors of Revision Surgery After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yabroudi, Mohammad A.; Björnsson, Haukur; Lynch, Andrew D.; Muller, Bart; Samuelsson, Kristian; Tarabichi, Majd; Karlsson, Jón; Fu, Freddie H.; Harner, Christopher D.; Irrgang, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery occurs in 5% to 15% of individuals undergoing ACL reconstruction. Identifying predictors for revision ACL surgery is of essence in the pursuit of creating adequate prevention programs and to identify individuals at risk for reinjury and revision. Purpose: To determine predictors of revision ACL surgery after failed primary ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 251 participants (mean age ± SD, 26.1 ± 9.9 years) who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction 1 to 5 years earlier completed a comprehensive survey to determine predictors of revision ACL surgery at a mean 3.4 ± 1.3 years after the primary ACL reconstruction. Potential predictors that were assessed included subject characteristics (age at the time of surgery, time from injury to surgery, sex, body mass index, preinjury activity level, return to sport status), details of the initial injury (mechanism; concomitant injury to other ligaments, menisci, and cartilage), surgical details of the primary reconstruction (Lachman and pivot shift tests under anesthesia, graft type, femoral drilling technique, reconstruction technique), and postoperative course (length of rehabilitation, complications). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that predicted the need for revision ACL surgery. Results: Overall, 21 (8.4%) subjects underwent revision ACL surgery. Univariate analysis showed that younger age at the time of surgery (P = .003), participation in sports at a competitive level (P = .023), and double-bundle ACL reconstruction (P = .024) predicted increased risk of revision ACL surgery. Allograft reconstructions also demonstrated a trend toward greater risk of revision ACL surgery (P = .076). No other variables were significantly associated with revision ACL surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed that revision ACL surgery was

  20. Exploring self-efficacy as a predictor of disease management.

    PubMed

    Clark, N M; Dodge, J A

    1999-02-01

    Self-efficacy is posited in social cognitive theory as fundamental to behavior change. Few health behavior studies have examined self-efficacy prospectively, viewed it as part of a reciprocal behavioral process, or compared self-efficacy beliefs in the same population across different behaviors. This article first discusses self-efficacy in its theoretical context and reviews the available prospective studies. Second, it explores self-efficacy as a predictor of disease management behaviors in 570 older women with heart disease. Although the R2 statistics in each case were modest, the construct is shown to be a statistically significant (p<.05) predictor at both 4 and 12 months postbaseline of several disease management behaviors: using medicine as prescribed, getting adequate exercise, managing stress, and following a recommended diet. Building self-efficacy is likely a reasonable starting point for interventions aiming to enhance heart disease management behaviors of mature female patients.

  1. An estimator-predictor approach to PLL loop filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Hurd, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to the design of digital phase locked loops (DPLLs), using estimation theory concepts in the selection of a loop filter, is presented. The key concept is that the DPLL closed-loop transfer function is decomposed into an estimator and a predictor. The estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher order derivatives, while the predictor compensates for the transport lag inherent in the loop. This decomposition results in a straightforward loop filter design procedure, enabling use of techniques from optimal and sub-optimal estimation theory. A design example for a particular choice of estimator is presented, followed by analysis of the associated bandwidth, gain margin, and steady state errors caused by unmodeled dynamics. This approach is under consideration for the design of the Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver Carrier DPLL.

  2. Personality as a predictor of hooking up among college students.

    PubMed

    Gute, Gary; Eshbaugh, Elaine M

    2008-01-01

    Hookups--casual sexual encounters that may or may not include intercourse - are common on college campuses. Previous research has suggested that these casual sexual encounters may have serious health-related consequences. Understanding the relationships among multiple predictors of hooking up is important if high-risk prevention programming among college students is to be effective. This study considers each of the Big Five personality traits as predictors of hooking-up behaviors in a sample of Midwestern undergraduates (N = 247). Fifty-six percent of women and 63% of men reported engaging in a hookup. In general, Extraversion was positively associated with hooking up behaviors; Conscientiousness was negatively associated with hooking up. Relationships between personality and hooking up were significant while controlling for alcohol use. Implications for prevention programming on college campuses are discussed.

  3. Body Mass Index as a Predictor of Injuries in Athletics.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Adae O; Nassim, Ariel; Keller, Cory

    The quest to identify injury risk factors in sports has been an ongoing and well-researched field in the world of sports medicine. Knowing some of these factors helps keep sports participation safe. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been studied. Body mass index (BMI) is widely known to contribute to several medical conditions. Its association with some sports injuries has been established but the information is vast, with few studies that are randomized controlled trials. It is important to analyze these studies and confirm whether BMI is a predictor of lower-extremity injuries. Such knowledge allows for better effective treatment and prevention strategies. This article will summarize current evidence of association between BMI and lower-extremity injuries in athletes and whether BMI is a predictor of lower-extremity injuries.

  4. Placebo and nocebo effects on itch: effects, mechanisms, and predictors.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Danielle J P; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-01-01

    Placebo and nocebo effects have been extensively studied in the field of pain and more recently also on itch. In accordance with placebo research on pain, expectancy learning via verbal suggestion or conditioning has shown to induce placebo and nocebo effects on itch, in which the combination of both procedures seems most promising. Moreover, itch can also be transferred 'contagiously' in which suggestion and social behavioural learning seem to play a role. With regard to predictors of placebo and nocebo responding on itch and contagious itch, preliminary evidence suggests a role for individual psychological characteristics and personality traits regarding negative outcome expectancies. Although findings on placebo and nocebo effects on itch seem comparable to pain, we have only just begun to understand the underlying mechanisms and predictors of placebo and nocebo effects on itch.

  5. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-01

    Our study examines whether defense styles and separate defenses in depressed adolescent outpatients predict adult personality disorders (PDs). We obtained data from consecutive adolescent outpatients who participated in the Adolescent Depression Study at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up (N = 140). Defense styles were divided into mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature and a secondary set of analyses were made with separate defenses as predictors of a PD diagnosis. Neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles in adolescence were associated with adulthood PDs. Neurotic defense style associated with cluster B diagnosis and image-distorting defense style associated with cluster A diagnosis. Separate defenses of displacement, isolation, and reaction formation were independent predictors of adult PD diagnosis even after adjusting for PD diagnosis in adolescence. Defense styles and separate defenses predict later PDs and could be used in the focusing of treatment interventions for adolescents.

  6. Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Dwight A; Schwartz, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Parents from two baseball leagues completed questionnaires regarding their likelihood of engaging in various aggressive behaviors (yelling, swearing, shoving, fighting, humiliating) toward targets at youth baseball games (other spectators, umpires, coaches, other players, their child). Overall, the likelihood of all forms of aggression was very low, particularly physical aggression and swearing. Hierarchical entry stepwise regressions were calculated to determine predictors of yelling and humiliating using demographics, trait aggression, anger, hostility, and vengeance as predictors. Parents with greater hostility reported a greater likelihood of humiliating a child's teammate, while those with elevated trait anger reported a greater likelihood of yelling at other spectators. Finally, parents with a more vengeful attitude reported a greater likelihood of humiliating umpires.

  7. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    PubMed

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Lossless Compression of Medical Images Using 3D Predictors.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Luis; Rodrigues, Nuno; Cruz, Luis; Faria, Sergio

    2017-06-09

    This paper describes a highly efficient method for lossless compression of volumetric sets of medical images, such as CTs or MRIs. The proposed method, referred to as 3D-MRP, is based on the principle of minimum rate predictors (MRP), which is one of the state-of-the-art lossless compression technologies, presented in the data compression literature. The main features of the proposed method include the use of 3D predictors, 3D-block octree partitioning and classification, volume-based optimisation and support for 16 bit-depth images. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the 3D-MRP algorithm for the compression of volumetric sets of medical images, achieving gains above 15% and 12% for 8 bit and 16 bit-depth contents, respectively, when compared to JPEG-LS, JPEG2000, CALIC, HEVC, as well as other proposals based on MRP algorithm.

  9. Hierarchical Adaptive Regression Kernels for Regression with Functional Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Dawn B.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Ruppert, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new method for regression using a parsimonious and scientifically interpretable representation of functional predictors. Our approach is designed for data that exhibit features such as spikes, dips, and plateaus whose frequency, location, size, and shape varies stochastically across subjects. We propose Bayesian inference of the joint functional and exposure models, and give a method for efficient computation. We contrast our approach with existing state-of-the-art methods for regression with functional predictors, and show that our method is more effective and efficient for data that include features occurring at varying locations. We apply our methodology to a large and complex dataset from the Sleep Heart Health Study, to quantify the association between sleep characteristics and health outcomes. Software and technical appendices are provided in online supplemental materials. PMID:24293988

  10. Accuracy of the Third Molar Eruption Predictor in predicting eruption.

    PubMed

    Ventä, I; Schou, S

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate the possibility of applying the Third Molar Eruption Predictor to all panoramic radiographs. Panoramic radiographs were retrospectively analyzed from a 4-year follow-up study of third molars carried out at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. The radiographs, taken at a mean age of 20.6 years, included 45 unerupted or partially erupted mandibular third molars in 28 subjects. Because the device was calibrated both with simple proportions and by use of the methods of Bayes' Decision Theory, the separation point of the device was therefore adjusted at 12 mm from the distal surface of the second molar. The predictions of future eruption or impaction made with the calibrated device and the actual clinical outcome 4 years later were in conformity for 80% of the mandibular third molars. The Third Molar Eruption Predictor may be applied to all panoramic radiographs, but it seems to require calibration before use.

  11. Predictors of adult attitudes toward corporal punishment of children.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Tourigny, Marc; Joly, Jacques; Pouliot-Lapointe, Joëlle

    2007-10-01

    This study identifies predictors of favorable attitudes toward spanking. Analyses were performed with survey data collected from a representative sample of 1,000 adults from Quebec, Canada. According to this survey, a majority of respondents endorsed spanking, despite their recognition of potential harm associated with corporal punishment (CP) of children. The prediction model of attitudes toward spanking included demographics, experiencing or witnessing various forms of family violence and abuse in childhood, and perceived frequency of physical injuries resulting from CP. Spanking was the most reported childhood experience (66.4%), and most violence and abuse predictors were significantly and positively correlated. Older respondents who were spanked in childhood and who believed that spanking never or seldom results in physical injuries were the most in favor of spanking. On the other hand, respondents who reported more severe physical violence or psychological abuse in childhood were less in favor of spanking. Findings are discussed in terms of prevention of CP and family coercion cycle.

  12. Spatial patterns and predictors of trophic control in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Daniel G; Frank, Kenneth T; Worm, Boris; Leggett, William C

    2015-10-01

    A key question in ecology is under which conditions ecosystem structure tends to be controlled by resource availability vs. consumer pressure. Several hypotheses derived from theory, experiments and observational field studies have been advanced, yet a unified explanation remains elusive. Here, we identify common predictors of trophic control in a synthetic analysis of 52 observational field studies conducted within marine ecosystems across the Northern Hemisphere and published between 1951 and 2014. Spatial regression analysis of 45 candidate variables revealed temperature to be the dominant predictor, with unimodal effects on trophic control operating both directly (r(2) = 0.32; P < 0.0001) and indirectly through influences on turnover rate and quality of primary production, biodiversity and omnivory. These findings indicate that temperature is an overarching determinant of the trophic dynamics of marine ecosystems, and that variation in ocean temperature will affect the trophic structure of marine ecosystems through both direct and indirect mechanisms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. A Two-Step Penalized Regression Method with Networked Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chong; Pan, Wei; Shen, Xiaotong

    2011-01-01

    Penalized regression incorporating prior dependency structure of predictors can be effective in high-dimensional data analysis (Li and Li 2008). Pan, Xie and Shen (2010) proposed a penalized regression method for better outcome prediction and variable selection by smoothing parameters over a given predictor network, which can be applied to analysis of microarray data with a given gene network. In this paper, we develop two modifications to their method for further performance enhancement. First, we employ convex programming and show its improved performance over an approximate optimization algorithm implemented in their original proposal. Second, we perform bias reduction after initial variable selection through a new penalty, leading to better parameter estimates and outcome prediction. Simulations have demonstrated substantial performance improvement of the proposed modifications over the original method. PMID:23795219

  14. Finger gnosia: a predictor of numerical abilities in children?

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2005-10-01

    This paper aimed to test the specificity of predicting power of finger gnosia on later numerical abilities in school-age children and to contribute to the understanding of this effect. Forty-one children were tested in the beginning of Grade 1 on finger gnosia, left-right orientation (another sign of the Gerstmann "syndrome"), and global development. Fifteen months later, numerical and reading abilities were assessed. Analyses of the results indicated that, contrary to the general measures of cognitive development, performance in the finger gnosia test was a good predictor of numerical skills 1 year later but not of reading skills, which proves the specificity of that predictor. The same conclusion was also true for the left-right orientation. However, finger gnosia could equally predict performance in numerical tasks that do or do not rely heavily on finger representation or on magnitude representation. Results are discussed in terms of the localizationist and the functional hypotheses.

  15. Encke-Beta Predictor for Orion Burn Targeting and Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Shane; Scarritt, Sara; Goodman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The state vector prediction algorithm selected for Orion on-board targeting and guidance is known as the Encke-Beta method. Encke-Beta uses a universal anomaly (beta) as the independent variable, valid for circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits. The variable, related to the change in eccentric anomaly, results in integration steps that cover smaller arcs of the trajectory at or near perigee, when velocity is higher. Some burns in the EM-1 and EM-2 mission plans are much longer than burns executed with the Apollo and Space Shuttle vehicles. Burn length, as well as hyperbolic trajectories, has driven the use of the Encke-Beta numerical predictor by the predictor/corrector guidance algorithm in place of legacy analytic thrust and gravity integrals.

  16. Predictors of body dissatisfaction in a Hispanic college student sample.

    PubMed

    Blow, Julie; Cooper, Theodore V

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of demographic, mood, acculturation, weight, and accurate weight feedback on body dissatisfaction and satisfaction. One hundred and sixty Hispanic college students completed measures assessing depressive symptoms, acculturation, affect, and body image. Participants were randomized to receive immediate or delayed weight feedback. Three multiple regression analyses assessed predictors of body dissatisfaction, body weight and fitness happiness, and perceived attractiveness. A hierarchical regression model assessed body dissatisfaction after receiving feedback. Results indicate that greater body dissatisfaction was associated with females, greater depressive symptomatology, and higher weight. Body weight and fitness happiness was associated with males and greater positive affect. Perceived attractiveness was related to smoking, greater positive affect, and greater importance placed on weight. Body dissatisfaction was not impacted by accurate weight feedback. Studies assessing the impact of these predictors in weight loss and/or body acceptance interventions are warranted, particularly in Hispanic college students. © 2013.

  17. Predictors of emotional numbing, revisited: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Flack, W F; Litz, B T; Hsieh, F Y; Kaloupek, D G; Keane, T M

    2000-10-01

    Litz et al. (1997), theorizing that emotional numbing (EN) is the result of emotional depletion caused by chronic hyperarousal, demonstrated that a cluster of hyperarousal symptoms was a robust predictor of EN symptoms. In the present study, these findings were replicated and extended in two multiple regression analyses of data from a large, multisite investigation (T. M. Keane et al., 1998) of psychophysiological responding by male combat veterans. The arousal (D) cluster of symptoms was again the most robust predictor of EN symptoms, whereas physiological indices of arousal and reactivity accounted for negligible amounts of variance in both regression equations. These findings underscore the possible link between disturbances related to arousal and the capacity of traumatized individuals to express and experience pleasant feelings.

  18. [Predictors of choledocholithiasis in patients sustaining acute biliary pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Parreira, José Gustavo; Rego, Ronaldo Elias Carnut; Campos, Tercio de; Moreno, Cristina Hachul; Pacheco, Adhemar Monteiro; Rasslan, Samir

    2004-01-01

    To assess the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamil-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) and abdominal ultrasound (US) as predictors of choledocholithiasis in patients sustaining acute biliary pancreatitis. Data was prospectively collected during a period of 31 months. Forty patients were included, 30 were female and the mean age was 49 +/- 16. All patients sustaining acute biliary pancreatitis were enrolled. Patients with clinical jaundice and severe pancreatitis were excluded. Serum content of AP and gGT as well as US were assessed at admission and 48 hours before cholecistectomy. All patients underwent intra-operative cholangiography (IOC) or pre-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), which was indicated based on the odds of choledocholithiasis. In order to identify the predictors of choledocholithiasis, variables were compared between patients sustaining or not such alteration in cholangiography. Student t, Fisher and chi square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05 as significant. Positive (PPV) and negative predictor values (NPV) were calculated for each variable. Upon admission, 15 (37%) patients sustained biliary tract dilatation and 5 (12%) choledocholithiasis at the US. Forty eight hours before the operation, 34 (85%) patients had altered levels of gGT and 16 (40%) of AP. Pre-operative US showed biliary tract dilatation in nine patients and choledocholithiasis in three. ERCP was performed in 15 (37%) cases. Higher PPV (55%) was attributed to pre-operative US, which had also a NPV of 96%. The best predictor of choledocholithiasis in patients sustaining mild acute pancreatitis was the biliary tract dilatation in pre-operative US.

  19. Predictors of successful self control during brain-computer communication

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, N; Birbaumer, N

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Direct brain-computer communication uses self regulation of brain potentials to select letters, words, or symbols from a computer menu to re-establish communication in severely paralysed patients. However, not all healthy subjects, or all paralysed patients acquire the skill to self regulate their brain potentials, and predictors of successful learning have not been found yet. Predictors are particularly important, because only successful self regulation will in the end lead to efficient brain-computer communication. This study investigates the question whether initial performance in the self regulation of slow cortical potentials of the brain (SCPs) may be positively correlated to later performance and could thus be used as a predictor. Methods: Five severely paralysed patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were trained to produce SCP amplitudes of negative and positive polarity by means of visual feedback and operant conditioning strategies. Performance was measured as percentage of correct SCP amplitude shifts. To determine the relation between initial and later performance in SCP self regulation, Spearman's rank correlations were calculated between maximum and mean performance at the beginning of training (runs 1–30) and mean performance at two later time points (runs 64–93 and 162–191). Results: Spearman's rank correlations revealed a significant relation between maximum and mean performance in runs 1–30 and mean performance in runs 64–93 (r= 0.9 and 1.0) and maximum and mean performance in runs 1–30 and mean performance in runs 162–191 (r=1.0 and 1.0). Conclusions: Initial performance in the self regulation of SCP is positively correlated with later performance in severely paralysed patients, and thus represents a useful predictor for efficient brain-computer communication. PMID:12876247

  20. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials.