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Sample records for doe exercises meet

  1. Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. ); Rowland, R.A. . Chemical Preparedness Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

  2. Youth Exercise Intention and Past Exercise Behavior: Examining the Moderating Influences of Sex and Meeting Exercise Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M.; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay

    2006-01-01

    The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of…

  3. Youth exercise intention and past exercise behavior: examining the moderating influences of sex and meeting exercise recommendations.

    PubMed

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay

    2006-03-01

    The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of their exercise attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), intention, and PEB. We found that attitude, subjective norm, and PBC explained 55% of the variance in intention, and intention and PBC explained 51% of the variance in PEB. While we found sex and exercise group differences across the study measures, we did not find evidence of significant moderation. Thus, the theory constructs predicted intention and PEB similarly across sex and exercise groups.

  4. Joint USDA/DOE meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This documents contains the details from the USDA/USDOE meeting on April 11--12, 1994. Topics discussed include: genetic research, environmental research, renewable energy sources, food supply, improved fertilizers, new pesticides, research programs combining the efforts of the two agencies to develop new products for use in the agriculture industry, environmentally safe products, getting more with less money, and various other subjects dealing with how cooperation among these agencies can improve the agriculture industry.

  5. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  6. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  7. The 1987 Federal field exercise: The DOE experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.

    1989-06-01

    The second full-scale field exercise of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) was held at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Zion, Illinois, in June 1987. The exercise incorporated the annual compliance exercise for the Zion plant and involved the operating utility, Commonwealth Edison Company, the states of Illinois and Wisconsin, local governments, volunteer groups, and representatives from 12 federal agencies. The 3-day exercise was played from many locations in the Zion area; Springfield, Illinois; Madison, Wisconsin; and Washington, DC. Approximately 1000 people participated in the exercise, which used a scenario in which an accident at the plant resulted in the release of radioactive material outside the plant boundary. The US Department of Energy (DOE) had major responsibilities during the planning, playing, and critiquing of the exercise; these functions are outlined in the report. This document describes the DOE participation in the planning and response during the exercise. During a radiological emergency, the FRERP gives DOE the responsibility for coordinating the federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities in support of the states and the cognizant federal agency. At Zion, a self-sufficient Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center was established by DOE at a nearby fairground in which over 200 people from DOE, the two states, and other federal agencies participated. Before the field exercise, a tabletop exercise and a dry run were held for training purposes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Recommendations for exercise adherence measures in musculoskeletal settings: a systematic review and consensus meeting (protocol)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programmes are frequently advocated for the management of musculoskeletal disorders; however, adherence is an important pre-requisite for their success. The assessment of exercise adherence requires the use of relevant and appropriate measures, but guidance for appropriate assessment does not exist. This research will identify and evaluate the quality and acceptability of all measures used to assess exercise adherence within a musculoskeletal setting, seeking to reach consensus for the most relevant and appropriate measures for application in research and/or clinical practice settings. Methods/design There are two key stages to the proposed research. First, a systematic review of the quality and acceptability of measures used to assess exercise adherence in musculoskeletal disorders; second, a consensus meeting. The systematic review will be conducted in two phases and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to ensure a robust methodology. Phase one will identify all measures that have been used to assess exercise adherence in a musculoskeletal setting. Phase two will seek to identify published and unpublished evidence of the measurement and practical properties of identified measures. Study quality will be assessed against the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines. A shortlist of best quality measures will be produced for consideration during stage two: a meeting of relevant stakeholders in the United Kingdom during which consensus on the most relevant and appropriate measures of exercise adherence for application in research and/or clinical practice settings will be sought. Discussion This study will benefit clinicians who seek to evaluate patients’ levels of exercise adherence and those intending to undertake research, service evaluation, or audit relating to exercise adherence in the musculoskeletal

  9. Does exercise improve symptoms in fibromyalgia?

    PubMed

    Rain, Carmen; Seguel, Willy; Vergara, Luis

    2015-12-14

    It has been proposed that fibromyalgia could be managed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Regular physical exercise is commonly used as a non-pharmacological intervention. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 14 systematic reviews including 25 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We conclude that regular physical exercise probably reduces pain in patients with fibromyalgia.

  10. Does exercise improve symptoms in fibromyalgia?

    PubMed

    Rain, Carmen; Seguel, Willy; Vergara, Luis

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that fibromyalgia could be managed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Regular physical exercise is commonly used as a non-pharmacological intervention. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 14 systematic reviews including 25 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We conclude that regular physical exercise probably reduces pain in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:26730713

  11. Virtual Team Meetings: Reflections on a Class Exercise Exploring Technology Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull Schaefer, Rebecca A.; Erskine, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Students find that choosing the appropriate technology for a virtual team meeting is not as simple as it first appears. The authors describe a class exercise used to demonstrate the benefits and drawbacks of using virtual team meetings by requiring students to replace a face-to-face meeting with a virtual meeting. The exercise challenged students'…

  12. The acute immune response to exercise: what does it mean?

    PubMed

    Gabriel, H; Kindermann, W

    1997-03-01

    -term aerobic exercise, whereas mature monocyte cell counts (premacrophages) increase most with highly intensive (an)aerobic exercise above the IAT. Infections induced a maturation from regular to mature monocytes as a response to the infectious antigenic stimulus, whereas exercise does not, indicating the diversity between change of cell counts and function. (e) Long-term endurance diverse meaning leads to increases of activated CD45RO+ T cells (memory cell phenotype) but compared to the incline of cell concentrations and activation levels (% HLA-DR+ T cells) during infections like infectious mononucleosis this effect is small indicating only minor effects on T cell function by exercise. The effect of single bouts of exercise on immune cell counts is large but the effects on the cell function is - i.e. compared to bacterial URTI - relatively small.

  13. Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise does not delay the onset of fatigue during submaximal cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ana Cristina R; Alecrim, Polyana; Damasceno, Willian C; Gripp, Fernando; Pinto, Kelerson Mc; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO, in the form of maltodextrin) or placebo (PLAC, in the form of gelatin) on the physical performance of cyclists during submaximal exercise until fatigue on an ergometric cycle. Nine volunteers exercised on 2 separate occasions at least 2 days apart. On each occasion, after 48 hours of a balanced diet, they pedaled at approximately 66% Vo2peak until fatigue. Every 15 minutes, 150 mL of water and 18 capsules, containing either 0.5 g of CHO or PLAC (approximately 0.13 g x kg(-1) of body weight), were ingested in accordance with a double-blind, randomized protocol. The results show that after 40% of total exercise time, blood glucose levels in the CHO test returned to baseline levels. However, in the PLAC trial these levels failed to return to baseline levels, remaining lower than levels recorded in the CHO test after 60% of total exercise time. Despite these results, CHO ingestion failed to delay the onset of fatigue (CHO: 91.8 +/- 10.1 minutes vs. PLAC: 93.3 +/- 16.1 minutes; p = 0.87). In practical terms, coaches and trainers should consider that CHO ingestion in previously fed users does not delay the onset of fatigue during submaximal cycle exercise.

  14. 40 CFR 197.4 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Health and Environmental Standards for Storage § 197.4 What standard must DOE meet? The DOE must ensure... storage (as defined in 40 CFR 191.2) of radioactive material that: (1) Is subject to 40 CFR 191.3(a);...

  15. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS < 6 = 0 and =/> 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: < 1 ml/kg/min for subsamples of age, gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) <30 and >50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of

  16. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  17. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  18. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  19. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  20. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  1. DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

  2. Does exercise motivation predict engagement in objectively assessed bouts of moderate-intensity exercise? A self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Standage, Martyn; Sebire, Simon J; Loney, Tom

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the utility of motivation as advanced by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) in predicting objectively assessed bouts of moderate intensity exercise behavior. Participants provided data pertaining to their exercise motivation. One week later, participants wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart; Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd) and 24-hr energy expenditure was estimated for 7 days. After controlling for gender and a combined marker of BMI and waist circumference, results showed autonomous motivation to positively predict moderate-intensity exercise bouts of >or=10 min, or=20 min, and an accumulation needed to meet public health recommendations for moderate intensity activity (i.e., ACSM/AHA guidelines). The present findings add bouts of objectively assessed exercise behavior to the growing body of literature that documents the adaptive consequences of engaging in exercise for autonomous reasons. Implications for practice and future work are discussed.

  3. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  4. COPD and exercise: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Burtin, Chris; De Boever, Patrick; Langer, Daniël; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Franssen, Frits M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physiological changes are observed following a structured exercise training programme in patients with COPD, without changes in resting lung function. Exercise training is the cornerstone of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme in patients with COPD. Most comorbidities in patients referred for pulmonary rehabilitation remain undiagnosed and untreated. After careful screening, it is safe for COPD patients with comorbidities to obtain significant and clinically relevant improvements in functional exercise capacity and health status after an exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme. Educational aims To inform readers of the positive effects of exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD, even with comorbid conditions. To inform readers of the importance of physical activity in patients with COPD. Exercise training is widely regarded as the cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indeed, exercise training has been identified as the best available means of improving muscle function and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. So, exercise training truly makes a difference in the life of patients with COPD. In this review, an overview is provided on the history of exercise training (as standalone intervention or as part of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme), exercise training in comorbid patients with COPD, and the impact of physical activity counselling in a clean air environment. PMID:27408645

  5. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-03-01

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  6. Clinical Inquiries: Does exercise alleviate symptoms of depression?

    PubMed

    Gill, Alan; Womack, Rosalind; Safranek, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Yes. Exercise reduces patient-perceived symptoms of depression when used as monotherapy (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [RCTs] with significant heterogeneity). It relieves symptoms as effectively as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or pharmacologic anti-depressant therapy (SOR: B, meta-analysis) and more effectively than bright light therapy (SOR: B, meta-analysis). Resistance exercise and mixed exercise (resistance and aerobic) work better than aerobic exercise alone (SOR: B, meta-analysis). High-frequency exercise is more effective than low-frequency exercise (SOR: B, small RCT). "Mindful" exercise, which has a meditative focus, such as tai chi and yoga, also reduces symptoms of depression (SOR: B, systematic review of RCTs).

  7. 1992 DOE/Sandia crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.

    1992-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia National Laboratories` Photovoltaic Technology and Photovoltaic Evaluation Departments. It contains information supplied by organizations making presentations at the meeting, which was held July 14--15, 1992 at the Sheraton Old Town Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Overview sessions covered the Department of Energy (DOE) program, including those at Sandia and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and non-DOE programs, including the EPRI concentrator collector program, The Japanese crystalline silicon program, and some concentrating photovoltaic activities in Europe. Additional sessions included papers on Sandia`s Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory`s collaborative research, cell processing research, the activities of the participants in the Concentrator Initiative Program, and photovoltaic technology evaluation at Sandia and NREL.

  8. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05). Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05). These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior. PMID:27490493

  9. 2nd Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2007-03-14

    Welcome to the annual 2007 Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PIs) meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to bring together all of the lead PIs and key Co-PIs in the program to share and review the results of funded research from the past year. This meeting allows program managers from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) to gauge the progress and significance of the funded research, and it is also an important venue to showcase ERSP research to interested parties within DOE and other invited federal agency representatives. Additionally, these meetings should serve as an opportunity for funded PIs to view their research in the context of the entire ERSP portfolio. Past ERSP meetings have been very important venues for detailed discussion of research results among PIs, development of new research ideas, fostering new collaborations and discussion with ERSD program managers on future research efforts and/or initiatives within the program. In short, these meetings are an important resource for both program managers and PIs. There will be only one ERSP PI meeting for 2007. In years past, ERSD has sponsored two PI meetings, one in the spring and a separate meeting in the fall that focused primarily on field research. However, this format tends to insulate laboratory-based research from the field research sponsored in the program and is incompatible with the ERSD view that laboratory-based research should progress towards understanding the relevant processes in natural environments at the field scale. Therefore the agenda for this year's PI meeting is well integrated with both lab-based and field-based projects, to allow for detailed discussion between PIs involved in each area. In the agenda, you will notice a more relaxed format than in years past. This year's meeting spans four days, but is less heavily regimented in terms of oral presentations

  10. Does exercise reduce brain oxidative stress? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Camiletti-Moirón, D; Aparicio, V A; Aranda, P; Radak, Z

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the influence of different exercise programs on brain oxidative stress. A search of the literature was conducted up to 1 December 2012 across five databases: PUBMED, SCOPUS, SPORTS DISCUS, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. The search strategy used in the electronic databases mentioned was established as: (swim* OR exercise OR training) AND ("oxidative stress" AND brain) for each database. A methodological quality assessment valuation/estimation was additionally carried out in the final sample of studies. Of 1553 potentially eligible papers, 19 were included after inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality assessment showed a total score in the Quality Index between 40% and 80%, with a mean quality of 56.8%. Overall, regular moderate aerobic exercise appears to promote antioxidant capacity on brain. In contrast, anaerobic or high-intensity exercise, aerobic-exhausted exercise, or the combination of both types of training could deteriorate the antioxidant response. Future investigations should be focused on establishing a standardized exercise protocol, depending on the exercise metabolism wanted to test, which could enhance the objective knowledge in this topic.

  11. Personality Does not Influence Exercise-Induced Mood Enhancement Among Female Exercisers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrew M; Milton, Karen E; Terry, Peter C

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a) exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b) extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c) personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr) who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25), stable extroverts (n = 20), neurotic introverts (n = 26), and neurotic extroverts (n = 19). Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood. Key PointsResearch in general psychology has found that stable personality trait are associated changes in mood states. Ninety females exercisers completed a personality test and mood scales before and after exercise. Results indicated mood changes were not associated with personality, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood.

  12. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training?

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise. PMID:25889822

  13. Does nebulized fentanyl relieve dyspnea during exercise in healthy man?

    PubMed

    Kotrach, Houssam G; Bourbeau, Jean; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-06-01

    Few therapies exist for the relief of dyspnea in restrictive lung disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that nebulized opioids selective for the mu-receptor subtype may relieve dyspnea by modulating intrapulmonary opioid receptor activity. Our respective primary and secondary objectives were to test the hypothesis that nebulized fentanyl (a mu-opioid receptor agonist) relieves dyspnea during exercise in the presence of abnormal restrictive ventilatory constraints and to identify the physiological mechanisms of this improvement. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of 250 μg nebulized fentanyl, chest wall strapping (CWS), and their interaction on detailed physiological and perceptual responses to constant work rate cycle exercise (85% of maximum incremental work rate) in 14 healthy, fit young men. By design, CWS decreased vital capacity by ∼20% and mimicked the negative consequences of a mild restrictive lung disorder on exercise endurance time and on dyspnea, breathing pattern, dynamic operating lung volumes, and diaphragmatic electromyographic and respiratory muscle function during exercise. Compared with placebo under both unrestricted control and CWS conditions, nebulized fentanyl had no effect on exercise endurance time, integrated physiological response to exercise, sensory intensity, unpleasantness ratings of exertional dyspnea. Our results do not support a role for intrapulmonary opioids in the neuromodulation of exertional dyspnea in health nor do they provide a physiological rationale for the use of nebulized fentanyl in the management of dyspnea due to mild restrictive lung disorders, specifically those arising from abnormalities of the chest wall and not affiliated with airway inflammation.

  14. Does nebulized fentanyl relieve dyspnea during exercise in healthy man?

    PubMed Central

    Kotrach, Houssam G.; Bourbeau, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Few therapies exist for the relief of dyspnea in restrictive lung disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that nebulized opioids selective for the mu-receptor subtype may relieve dyspnea by modulating intrapulmonary opioid receptor activity. Our respective primary and secondary objectives were to test the hypothesis that nebulized fentanyl (a mu-opioid receptor agonist) relieves dyspnea during exercise in the presence of abnormal restrictive ventilatory constraints and to identify the physiological mechanisms of this improvement. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of 250 μg nebulized fentanyl, chest wall strapping (CWS), and their interaction on detailed physiological and perceptual responses to constant work rate cycle exercise (85% of maximum incremental work rate) in 14 healthy, fit young men. By design, CWS decreased vital capacity by ∼20% and mimicked the negative consequences of a mild restrictive lung disorder on exercise endurance time and on dyspnea, breathing pattern, dynamic operating lung volumes, and diaphragmatic electromyographic and respiratory muscle function during exercise. Compared with placebo under both unrestricted control and CWS conditions, nebulized fentanyl had no effect on exercise endurance time, integrated physiological response to exercise, sensory intensity, unpleasantness ratings of exertional dyspnea. Our results do not support a role for intrapulmonary opioids in the neuromodulation of exertional dyspnea in health nor do they provide a physiological rationale for the use of nebulized fentanyl in the management of dyspnea due to mild restrictive lung disorders, specifically those arising from abnormalities of the chest wall and not affiliated with airway inflammation. PMID:26031762

  15. Exercise-induced increase in core temperature does not disrupt a behavioral measure of sleep.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P J; Breus, M J; Youngstedt, S D

    1998-06-01

    On separate nights 90 to 30 min before typical bedtime, eight physically active men completed three conditions: seated rest, low-intensity and moderate-intensity cycle exercise. Low-and moderate-intensity exercise had no significant effect on sleep onset latency, the number of awakenings, total sleep time or sleep efficiency as measured by the Sleep Assessment Device. Mean core body temperature was higher during sleep after moderate intensity (36.80+/-0.02 degrees C) exercise compared to both the low-intensity exercise (36.67+/-0.02 degrees C) and rest (36.51+/-0.02 degrees C) conditions. It is concluded that a 1-h bout of moderate-intensity exercise performed shortly before bed elevates core body temperature before and during sleep; however, this elevated temperature does not disrupt behavioral measures of sleep obtained in the home environment in physically active male college students who were somewhat sleep deprived. PMID:9748085

  16. Policy Perspective: Meeting the Challenge of the DOE Order 436.1 Departmental Sustainability - 12527

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Jennifer C.

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Sustainability Performance Office is working to meet sustainability goals at DOE by implementing Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) and legislation related to sustainability. Through implementation of Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the SSPP, statutory requirements and regular reporting, analysis and communication, DOE's SPO is working to maintain and expand DOE's leadership in sustainability. (authors)

  17. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  18. Sildenafil does not Improve Exercise Capacity under Acute Hypoxia Exposure.

    PubMed

    Toro-Salinas, A H; Fort, N; Torrella, J R; Pagès, T; Javierre, C; Viscor, G

    2016-09-01

    The increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) due to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) could be a limiting factor for physical performance during hypoxic exposure. Sildenafil has been shown to reduce PAP in situations of moderate or severe hypoxia, and consequently its role as an ergogenic aid and even a possible doping substance must be considered. We performed a double-blind crossover study to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic parameters in normoxia and during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (4 000 m) at rest and during maximal and submaximal (60% VO2 max) exercise tests. One hour before testing started, sildenafil (100 mg) or a placebo was orally administered to 11 volunteers. In normoxic conditions, sildenafil did not affect performance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in cardiovascular and respiratory parameters in hypoxic conditions at rest or during exercise. The use of sildenafil to improve physical performance in non-acclimatized subjects is not supported by our data. PMID:27414159

  19. The magnitude of muscle strain does not influence serial sarcomere number adaptations following eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-02-01

    It is generally accepted that eccentric exercise, when performed by a muscle that is unaccustomed to that type of contraction, results in a delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). A prolonged exposure to eccentric exercise leads to the disappearance of the signs and symptoms associated with DOMS, which has been referred to as the repeated bout effect (RBE). Although the mechanisms underlying the RBE remain unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the serial sarcomere number addition following exercise induced muscle damage. In the traditional DOMS and RBE protocols, muscle injury has been treated as a global parameter, with muscle force and strain assumed to be uniform throughout the muscle. To assess the effects of muscle-tendon unit strain, fiber strain, torque and injury on serial sarcomere number adaptations, three groups of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were subjected to chronic repetitive eccentric exercise bouts of the ankle dorsiflexors for 6 weeks. These eccentric exercise protocols consisted of identical muscle tendon unit (MTU) strain, but other mechanical factors were systematically altered. Following chronic eccentric exercise, serial sarcomere number adaptations were not identical between the three eccentric exercise protocols, and serial sarcomere number adaptations were not uniform across all regions of the muscle. Peak torque and relaxation fiber strain were the best predictors of serial sarcomere number across all three protocols. Therefore, MTU strain does not appear to be the primary cause for sarcomerogenesis, and differential adaptations within the muscle may be explained by the nonuniform architecture of the muscle, resulting in differential local fiber strains.

  20. DOE-EDER international energy exercise March, 2009 event outline

    SciTech Connect

    Toole, Loren G

    2009-01-01

    The goals are to test and explore the DOE National Labs ability to quickly map, characterize and analyze an event involving Mexico's energy infrastructure system in the wake of a major disruption of energy supplies from Mexico to the US. Focus on the economic impacts and system interdependencies as well as analysis related to restoration and recovery issues.

  1. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.

  2. Building technology transfer meetings: A collaborative model for transferring DOE research results to potential users

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.; Hawkins, D.M.; Love, P.M.; Wilde, G.M.

    1994-08-01

    Transferring the technology and results from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored building energy research to potential users is a critical part of DOE`s successful research programs. To assist in this transfer of information and technologies, the DOE Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has established Building Technology Transfer Meetings that are held twice each year at one of the 10 DOE Regional Support Offices. Meeting participants include DOE personnel and representatives from each of the national laboratories involved in OBT buildings energy research as well as representatives from the DOE Regional Support Offices and other agencies involved in the buildings sector. Since 1991, OBT has held five meetings: Washington D.C., San Francisco, Denver, Oak Ridge, and Seattle. The purpose of these meetings is twofold: (1) for DOE to share information about such topics as new research results, new technologies, and new ways to collaborate with industry and universities to leverage resources; and (2) for the participants to use this information within their region to accelerate the transfer and deployment of new energy-efficient building technologies. The meetings include presentations, demonstrations, and tours. The meetings have provided an excellent opportunity for staff from the Regional Support Offices to learn about new technologies through their interactions with OBT and national laboratory program managers. Meeting tours and demonstrations have provided beneficial opportunities to get hands-on experience with new technologies and to see them in practice.

  3. Acute, Low-dose CO Inhalation does not Alter Energy Expenditure during Submaximal Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kane, L A; Ryan, B J; Schmidt, W; Byrnes, W C

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas known most widely for its toxic effects at high doses, is receiving increased attention for its role as a physiological signaling molecule and potential therapeutic agent when administered in low doses. We sought to quantify any changes to oxygen consumption and energy expenditure during submaximal exercise after low-dose CO inhalation. 9 active individuals completed 4 graded submaximal exercise tests, with each test occurring during a separate visit. For their first exercise test, subjects inhaled CO or room air (1.2 mL·kg(-1) body mass) in a randomized, subject-blind fashion. A second test was repeated 24 h later when the inhaled gas should have cleared the system. Subjects repeated study procedures with the alternate dose after a washout period of at least 2 days. Low-dose CO administration did not affect oxygen consumption or energy expenditure during submaximal exercise immediately or 24 h following its administration. Increases in heart rate, blood [lactate], and perceived exertion were observed following acute CO inhalation but these effects were absent after 24 h. The results of this study suggest that low-dose CO administration does not influence the energetics of submaximal exercise, but it acutely increases the relative intensity associated with absolute workloads below the lactate threshold.

  4. 1990 DOE/SANDIA crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, D.S.

    1990-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held August 7 through 9, 1990 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator 3-5 cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  5. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  6. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  7. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  8. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  9. Exercise Training during Normobaric Hypoxic Confinement Does Not Alter Hormonal Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Debevec, Tadej; Simpson, Elizabeth J.; Macdonald, Ian A.; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health. Methods Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139±0.003%) either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8±2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9±1.2 kg·m−2) or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8±3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3±2.5 kg·m−2). A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre) and after the confinement (Post) to quantify fasting and postprandial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests. Results While body mass decreased in both groups (−1.4 kg; p = 0.01) following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (−1.5 kg; p = 0.01). At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (−49%; p = 0.01) and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (−19%; p = 0.03). Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (−12%; p = 0.01) at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (−16%; p = 0.01). No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of public meetings and workshops: A new approach for improving DOE public involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.; Williams, G.; Goldberg, M.

    1993-07-01

    Although public participation in the environmental cleanup process has been ongoing in the US Department of Energy (DOE) for some time, little if any evaluation of these efforts to include the public has taken place. This report contains the results of an evaluation of six regional workshops and meetings. These meetings and workshops focused on the implementation plan for the programmatic environmental impact statement on DOE`s environmental cleanup efforts. The formats of the workshops and meetings differed from typical public meetings by offering more opportunity for interaction between agency personnel and the public, using impartial facilitators, and including more elaborate promotional strategies than notification in the Federal Register. Questionnaires and focus groups were used to solicit participants` perspectives on the meetings.

  11. Locomotor Muscle Fatigue Does Not Alter Oxygen Uptake Kinetics during High-Intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hopker, James G.; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Azzalin, Andrea; Carpenter, Roger; Marcora, Samuele M.

    2016-01-01

    The V˙O2 slow component (V˙O2sc) that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre-fatigue condition) or rest for 33 min (control condition) according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-s maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min−1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE) were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and V˙O2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03), the V˙O2sc was not significantly different between the pre-fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min−1) and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min−1) condition (P = 0.50). Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48) but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01) suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the V˙O2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the V˙O2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. PMID:27790156

  12. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.25 What standard must DOE... sufficiently that a human intrusion (see § 197.26) could occur without recognition by the drillers. (b) The DOE... individual will receive an annual committed effective dose equivalent, as a result of the human intrusion,...

  13. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.25 What standard must DOE... sufficiently that a human intrusion (see § 197.26) could occur without recognition by the drillers. (b) The DOE... individual will receive an annual committed effective dose equivalent, as a result of the human intrusion,...

  14. 41 CFR 102-3.20 - How does this part meet the needs of its audience?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...? § 102-3.20 How does this part meet the needs of its audience? This Federal Advisory Committee Management part meets the general and specific needs of its audience by addressing the following issues and... the needs of its audience? 102-3.20 Section 102-3.20 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  15. 41 CFR 102-3.20 - How does this part meet the needs of its audience?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the needs of its audience? 102-3.20 Section 102-3.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.20 How does this part meet the needs of its audience? This Federal Advisory Committee Management part meets the general and specific needs of its audience by addressing the following issues...

  16. 1989 DOE/Sandia crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1989-06-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held 11-13 July 1989 at the Marriott Hotel in Albuquerque, NM. Information supplied by other Sandia contractor and single-page data sheets generated by the cognizant Sandia Technical Liasion for each contract are also included. Sessions were held to discuss national and international photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator III-V cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  17. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  18. Does it matter if I exercise? What can ``cardiophysics" tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus; Wilson, Benjamin; Parcell, Allen

    2007-10-01

    Lower heart rates are often associated with better cardiovascular health. But there's a lot more to cardiac rhythms than just the average heart rate. Fractal analysis of inter-beat intervals shows a surprising ability to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy, young and old groups. Are the fluctuations in the heartbeat of a healthy heart random, small, periodic, or chaotic? Does exercise make a difference? We discuss our analysis of the cardiac data of two groups of individuals, those that were physically active and those that were sedentary.

  19. Delayed voluntary exercise does not enhance cognitive performance after hippocampal injury: an investigation of differentially distributed exercise protocols

    PubMed Central

    Wogensen, Elise; Gram, Marie Gajhede; Sommer, Jens Bak; Vilsen, Christina Rytter; Mogensen, Jesper; Malá, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary exercise has previously been shown to enhance cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study evaluated effects of two differentially distributed protocols of delayed, voluntary exercise on cognitive recovery using an allocentric place learning task in an 8-arm radial maze. Fifty-four Wistar rats were subjected to either bilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix (FF) or to sham surgery. Twenty-one days postinjury, the animals started exercising in running wheels either for 14 consecutive days (FF/exercise daily [ExD], sham/ExD) or every other day for 14 days (FF/exercise every second day [ExS], sham/ExS). Additional groups were given no exercise treatment (FF/not exercise [NE], sham/NE). Regardless of how exercise was distributed, we found no cognitively enhancing effects of exercise in the brain injured animals. Design and protocol factors possibly affecting the efficacy of post-ABI exercise are discussed. PMID:27807517

  20. Does degree of alteration in effort sense caused by eccentric exercise significantly affect initial exercise hyperpnea in humans?

    PubMed

    Hotta, Norio; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Ogata, Hisayoshi; Maher, Patrick; Okumura, Naoya; Ishida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2). Relative exercise intensity at Pre was 5 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of Pre, whereas that at D2 was 9 % MVC of D2 because of decline in muscle strength. Ventilatory responses were significantly exaggerated at D2 with a significant increase in effort sense. Although effort sense was significantly reduced during exercise at D2 when wrist weight was subtracted to match relative exercise intensity at Pre (5 % MVC of D2), ventilatory responses were still significantly higher than those of Pre. After the disappearance of post-ECC muscle damage, subjects performed the same exercise with weight added (9 % MVC of Pre) so that effort was equalized to match that of D2; however, no significant increase in ventilatory response was detected. The fact that the extent of change in effort sense caused by ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction did not affect ventilatory response at the onset of exercise after ECC may suggest that the exaggeration of ventilatory response after ECC is caused by mechanisms other than alteration of the central command. PMID:27558395

  1. Meeting the Basic Needs of Children: Does Income Matter?

    PubMed

    Gennetian, Lisa A; Castells, Nina; Morris, Pamela

    2010-09-01

    We review existing research and policy evidence about income as an essential component to meeting children's basic needs-that is, income represented as the purest monetary transfer for increasing the purchasing power of low income families. Social scientists have made great methodological strides in establishing whether income has independent effects on the cognitive development of low-income children. Our review of that research suggests that a $1,000 increase in income has positive, but small, effects on children, rarely exceeding 1/10(th) of a standard deviation change in outcomes for children. We argue that researchers are well-positioned for more rigorous investigations about how and why income affects children, but only first with thoughtful and creative regard for conceptual clarity, and on understanding income's potentially inter-related influences on socio-emotional development, mental, and physical health. We also argue for more focus on the effects of income transfers, including when conditional on employment, as compared to more targeted direct investments in children. We end with a description of two-generation and cafeteria-style programs as the frontiers of the next generation in income-enhancement policies, and with the promise of insights from behavioral economics. PMID:20689675

  2. Meeting the Basic Needs of Children: Does Income Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gennetian, Lisa A.; Castells, Nina; Morris, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    We review existing research and policy evidence about income as an essential component to meeting children’s basic needs—that is, income represented as the purest monetary transfer for increasing the purchasing power of low income families. Social scientists have made great methodological strides in establishing whether income has independent effects on the cognitive development of low-income children. Our review of that research suggests that a $1,000 increase in income has positive, but small, effects on children, rarely exceeding 1/10th of a standard deviation change in outcomes for children. We argue that researchers are well-positioned for more rigorous investigations about how and why income affects children, but only first with thoughtful and creative regard for conceptual clarity, and on understanding income’s potentially inter-related influences on socio-emotional development, mental, and physical health. We also argue for more focus on the effects of income transfers, including when conditional on employment, as compared to more targeted direct investments in children. We end with a description of two-generation and cafeteria-style programs as the frontiers of the next generation in income-enhancement policies, and with the promise of insights from behavioral economics. PMID:20689675

  3. INFOTECH `92: DOE Technical Information (TI) Meeting, October 21--23, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This proceedings contains papers presented at the 1992 Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Information Meeting held at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 21--23, 1992. It is composed of written presentation given orally at the meeting in either large-group or break-out sessions. The proceedings is provided as a reference tool for those who attended the meeting as well as an information document for those unable to attend. The annual DOE Technical Information meeting is designed for information professionals involved in the management of the Department`s scientific and technical information (STI). Speakers include members of the OSTI staff as well as DOE and DOE contractors and other invited specialists in the field of information. The major objective of the meeting is to provide a forum within the Department for discussing current and future information policies, trends, and management techniques as well as the technologies and standards available for managing and accessing scientific and technical information.

  4. Core outcome measures for exercise studies in people with multiple sclerosis: recommendations from a multidisciplinary consensus meeting.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lorna; Coote, Susan; Crosbie, Jean; Dixon, Diane; Hale, Leigh; Holloway, Ed; McCrone, Paul; Miller, Linda; Saxton, John; Sincock, Caroline; White, Lesley

    2014-10-01

    Evidence shows that exercise is beneficial for people with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, statistical pooling of data is difficult because of the diversity of outcome measures used. The objective of this review is to report the recommendations of an International Consensus Meeting for a core set of outcome measures for use in exercise studies in MS. From the 100 categories of the International Classification of Function Core Sets for MS, 57 categories were considered as likely/potentially likely to be affected by exercise and were clustered into seven core groups. Outcome measures to address each group were evaluated regarding, for example, psychometric properties. The following are recommended: Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) or Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) for energy and drive, 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) for exercise tolerance, Timed Up and Go (TUG) for muscle function and moving around, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) or Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL54) for quality of life and body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) for the health risks associated with excess body fat. A cost effectiveness analysis and qualitative evaluation should be included where possible. Using these core measures ensures that future meta-analyses of exercise studies in MS are more robust and thus more effectively inform practice.

  5. 5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addressing performance that does not meet... MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.410 Addressing...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addressing performance that does not meet expectations. 9901.410 Section 9901.410 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES... range of options available to address the performance deficiency, including remedial...

  7. Does exercise training during pregnancy influence fetal cardiovascular responses to an exercise stimulus? Insights from a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barakat, R; Ruiz, J R; Rodríguez-Romo, G; Montejo-Rodríguez, R; Lucia, A

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the effects of maternal physical activity level on several fetal haemodynamic parameters such as pulsatility index of the fetal middle cerebral and umbilical arteries and cerebral-to-fetal ratio, as well as on fetal heart rate responses to one bout of moderate exercise (20 min cycle-ergometry at approximately 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate) during the third pregnancy trimester were assessed. 26 Sedentary and 26 physically active gravidae aged 29 (3) and 30 (2) years, respectively, were studied. Maternal exercise did not have a deleterious effect on fetal haemodynamics (particularly, cerebral-to-fetal ratio remained within normal limits with exercise). Overall, maternal training status did not influence the fetal cardiovascular variables studied.

  8. 34 CFR 30.70 - How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards in the FCCS, 4 CFR part 103, to determine whether compromise of a debt is appropriate if— (1) The... standards in the FCCS, 4 CFR part 104, to determine whether suspension or termination of collection action... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion...

  9. 34 CFR 30.70 - How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards in the FCCS, 4 CFR part 103, to determine whether compromise of a debt is appropriate if— (1) The... standards in the FCCS, 4 CFR part 104, to determine whether suspension or termination of collection action... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion...

  10. 34 CFR 30.70 - How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards in the FCCS, 4 CFR part 103, to determine whether compromise of a debt is appropriate if— (1) The... standards in the FCCS, 4 CFR part 104, to determine whether suspension or termination of collection action... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion...

  11. 34 CFR 30.70 - How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards in the FCCS, 4 CFR part 103, to determine whether compromise of a debt is appropriate if— (1) The... standards in the FCCS, 4 CFR part 104, to determine whether suspension or termination of collection action... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion...

  12. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  13. Does low serum carnosinase activity favor high-intensity exercise capacity?

    PubMed

    Baguet, Audrey; Everaert, Inge; Yard, Benito; Peters, Verena; Zschocke, Johannes; Zutinic, Ana; De Heer, Emile; Podgórski, Tomasz; Domaszewska, Katarzyna; Derave, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Given the ergogenic properties of β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) in skeletal muscle, it can be hypothesized that elevated levels of circulating carnosine could equally be advantageous for high-intensity exercises. Serum carnosinase (CN1), the enzyme hydrolyzing the dipeptide, is highly active in the human circulation. Consequently, dietary intake of carnosine usually results in rapid degradation upon absorption, yet this is less pronounced in subjects with low CN1 activity. Therefore, acute carnosine supplementation before high-intensity exercise could be ergogenic in these subjects. In a cross-sectional study, we determined plasma CN1 activity and content in 235 subjects, including 154 untrained controls and 45 explosive and 36 middle- to long-distance elite athletes. In a subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 12 men performed a cycling capacity test at 110% maximal power output (CCT 110%) following acute carnosine (20 mg/kg body wt) or placebo supplementation. Blood samples were collected to measure CN1 content, carnosine, and acid-base balance. Both male and female explosive athletes had significantly lower CN1 activity (14% and 21% lower, respectively) and content (30% and 33% lower, respectively) than controls. Acute carnosine supplementation resulted only in three subjects in carnosinemia. The CCT 110% performance was not improved after carnosine supplementation, even when accounting for low/high CN1 content. No differences were found in acid-base balance, except for elevated resting bicarbonate following carnosine supplementation and in low CN1 subjects. In conclusion, explosive athletes have lower serum CN1 activity and content compared with untrained controls, possibly resulting from genetic selection. Acute carnosine supplementation does not improve high-intensity performance.

  14. Proceedings of the DOE/Industry Advanced Research and Development Sensor Working Group meeting, Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, D.B.

    1987-11-13

    This document includes the minutes and presentation aids of this meeting and covers: In-Situ Combustion Control; Consistency Meter; Lignin Mass Spectrometer; NBS Consistency Meter and JPL Lignin Mass Spectrometer Testing; On-Machine Sensors to Measure Paper Mechanical Properties; Modelling, Optimization and Control of Complex Physical Systems; Real Time, Non-Contract Optical Surface Motion Monitor; and DOE/Industry Sensor Working Group Caucus Report.

  15. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F. Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key points Normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons. Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow. Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants. PMID:27274667

  16. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men. PMID:27044854

  17. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  18. The equilibrium CO2 rebreathing method does not affect resting or exercise blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Turner, M J; Tanaka, H; Bassett, D R; Fitton, T R

    1996-07-01

    The equilibrium CO2 rebreathing technique has been widely used for the noninvasive determination of cardiac output. Recently, several investigators have used this technique in conjunction with auscultatory blood pressure measurements to calculate total peripheral resistance. To examine the validity of this approach, we attempted to determine whether the CO2 rebreathing procedure has a significant effect on blood pressure. The participants in the present study were 10 male subjects, 24 +/- 1 yr of age (mean +/- SE). Each subject performed two trials-one with CO2 rebreathing and one without. Both trials consisted of three stages (rest, 25%, and 50% VO2peak), each stage lasting 15 min. During the rebreathing trial, the CO2 rebreathing technique was administered at 10 min into each stage. There were no statistically significant differences in the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure responses between the two trials. These results indicate that the equilibrium CO2 rebreathing technique does not alter auscultatory blood pressures at rest and during exercise up to intensities of 50% VO2peak. PMID:8832548

  19. Uncertainty Exposed: A Field Lab Exercise Where GIS Meets the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisley, Stephen P.; Luebbering, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Students in natural resources programs commonly take courses in geospatial technologies. An awareness of the uncertainty of spatial data and algorithms can be an important outcome of such courses. This article describes a laboratory exercise in a graduate geographic information system (GIS) class that involves collection of data for the assessment…

  20. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0 kg/m2; Age 24.3±4.6 y) participated in 3 counter-balanced study days where a standardized meal was preceded by: 1) No exercise (NoEx), 2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and 3) IntEx(4 min (80% VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280 min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (P<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (P<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (P<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response. PMID:26188172

  1. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women.

    PubMed

    Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0kg/m(2); Age 24.3±4.6year) participated in 3 counter- balanced study days, where a standardized meal was preceded by: (1) No exercise (NoEx), (2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and (3) IntEx (4min (80% VO2max)/3min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (p<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (p<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (p<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response.

  2. Expiratory muscle fatigue does not regulate operating lung volumes during high-intensity exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bryan J; How, Stephen C; Romer, Lee M

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether expiratory muscle fatigue (EMF) is involved in regulating operating lung volumes during exercise, nine recreationally active subjects cycled at 90% of peak work rate to the limit of tolerance with prior induction of EMF (EMF-ex) and for a time equal to that achieved in EMF-ex without prior induction of EMF (ISO-ex). EMF was assessed by measuring changes in magnetically evoked gastric twitch pressure. Changes in end-expiratory and end-inspiratory lung volume (EELV and EILV) and the degree of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) were quantified using maximal expiratory flow-volume curves and inspiratory capacity maneuvers. Resistive breathing reduced gastric twitch pressure (-24 ± 14%, P = 0.004). During EMF-ex, EELV decreased from rest to the 3rd min of exercise [39 ± 8 vs. 27 ± 7% of forced vital capacity (FVC), P = 0.001] before increasing toward baseline (34 ± 8% of FVC end exercise, P = 0.073 vs. rest). EILV increased from rest to the 3rd min of exercise (54 ± 8 vs. 84 ± 9% of FVC, P = 0.006) and remained elevated to end exercise (88 ± 9% of FVC). Neither EELV (P = 0.18) nor EILV (P = 0.26) was different at any time point during EMF-ex vs. ISO-ex. Four subjects became expiratory flow limited during the final minute of EMF-ex and ISO-ex; the degree of EFL was not different between trials (37 ± 18 vs. 35 ± 16% of tidal volume, P = 0.38). At end exercise in both trials, EELV was greater in subjects without vs. subjects with EFL. These findings suggest that 1) contractile fatigue of the expiratory muscles in healthy humans does not regulate operating lung volumes during high-intensity sustained cycle exercise; and 2) factors other than "frank" EFL cause the terminal increase in EELV.

  3. Expiratory muscle fatigue does not regulate operating lung volumes during high-intensity exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bryan J; How, Stephen C; Romer, Lee M

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether expiratory muscle fatigue (EMF) is involved in regulating operating lung volumes during exercise, nine recreationally active subjects cycled at 90% of peak work rate to the limit of tolerance with prior induction of EMF (EMF-ex) and for a time equal to that achieved in EMF-ex without prior induction of EMF (ISO-ex). EMF was assessed by measuring changes in magnetically evoked gastric twitch pressure. Changes in end-expiratory and end-inspiratory lung volume (EELV and EILV) and the degree of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) were quantified using maximal expiratory flow-volume curves and inspiratory capacity maneuvers. Resistive breathing reduced gastric twitch pressure (-24 ± 14%, P = 0.004). During EMF-ex, EELV decreased from rest to the 3rd min of exercise [39 ± 8 vs. 27 ± 7% of forced vital capacity (FVC), P = 0.001] before increasing toward baseline (34 ± 8% of FVC end exercise, P = 0.073 vs. rest). EILV increased from rest to the 3rd min of exercise (54 ± 8 vs. 84 ± 9% of FVC, P = 0.006) and remained elevated to end exercise (88 ± 9% of FVC). Neither EELV (P = 0.18) nor EILV (P = 0.26) was different at any time point during EMF-ex vs. ISO-ex. Four subjects became expiratory flow limited during the final minute of EMF-ex and ISO-ex; the degree of EFL was not different between trials (37 ± 18 vs. 35 ± 16% of tidal volume, P = 0.38). At end exercise in both trials, EELV was greater in subjects without vs. subjects with EFL. These findings suggest that 1) contractile fatigue of the expiratory muscles in healthy humans does not regulate operating lung volumes during high-intensity sustained cycle exercise; and 2) factors other than "frank" EFL cause the terminal increase in EELV. PMID:23558390

  4. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not alter oxidative stress markers in healthy volunteers engaged in a supervised exercise program.

    PubMed

    Bunpo, Piyawan; Anthony, Tracy G

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid (AA) consumption on the oxidative stress status of untrained volunteers participating in a supervised exercise program. The study included 46 young adults (average age, 23.5 ± 0.59 years; 37 females, 9 males) who remained sedentary (n = 16) or participated in 30 min of outdoor aerobic running (n = 30) at an intensity corresponding to 65%-75% of maximum heart rate for 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Exercised subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group without AA supplementation (control; n = 10) or received either 250 mg (n = 10) or 500 mg (n = 10) of AA supplementation previous to each exercise session. Blood samples were taken on day 0 and day 84 to evaluate metabolic profiles and antioxidant status. Sedentary subjects underwent in a single bout of aerobic running to determine total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondiadehyde (MDA) at pre- and postexercise with or without AA supplementation. No significant change in TAS was observed. Plasma MDA significantly increased at postexercise (P < 0.05), and AA supplementation decreased MDA level significantly (P < 0.05). After 3 months of exercise, there was no significant change in blood glucose, lipid profile, MDA, TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities amongst groups. Supplementation of AA was associated with minor and inconsistent reductions in SOD, GPx, and catalase activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that pre-exercise supplementation of ascorbic acid does not alter oxidative stress markers in the plasma and erythrocytes of young adults engaged in a supervised exercise program. PMID:26789096

  5. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  6. Why Does Exercise “Trigger” Adaptive Protective Responses in the Heart?

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, Rick J.; Stewart, Luke M.; Tsang, Alvin M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that individuals who exercise have decreased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Pre-clinical studies in animal models also find clear cardioprotective phenotypes in animals that exercise, specifically characterized by lower myocardial infarction and arrhythmia. Despite the clear benefits, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for exercise preconditioning are not fully understood. In particular, the adaptive signaling events that occur during exercise to “trigger” cardioprotection represent emerging paradigms. In this review, we discuss recent studies that have identified several different factors that appear to initiate exercise preconditioning. We summarize the evidence for and against specific cellular factors in triggering exercise adaptations and identify areas for future study. PMID:26674259

  7. Does exercise stimulate protein breakdown in humans. Isotopic approaches to the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    Protein metabolism in exercise has been investigated for 100 yr, yet it is still unclear if exercise induces an increased rate of protein breakdown. We have recently addressed this general question in a series of experiments in human subjects using stable isotopic tracers. In this paper, the results of those studies are reviewed. We have found that in light exercise the de-carboxylation of leucine is increased. However, urea production is not increased correspondingly, nor is the rate of incorporation into urea of nitrogen from either leucine or lysine. Further complicating the picture is the fact that lysine de-carboxylation is not markedly elevated in exercise. From these studies, we must conclude that isotopic techniques which have achieved general acceptance in other circumstances cannot reliably be used to answer the question of whether exercise stimulates protein breakdown in humans. However, these methods do provide results which enable a better understanding of the metabolism of the individual amino acids in exercise.

  8. Does lung diffusion impairment affect exercise capacity in patients with heart failure?

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, P G; Bussotti, M; Palermo, P; Guazzi, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is a relation between impairment of lung diffusion and reduced exercise capacity in chronic heart failure. Design: 40 patients with heart failure in stable clinical condition and 40 controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent standard pulmonary function tests plus measurements of resting lung diffusion (carbon monoxide transfer, Tlco), pulmonary capillary volume (Vc), and membrane resistance (Dm), and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In 20 patients and controls, the following investigations were also done: (1) resting and constant work rate Tlco; (2) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing with inspiratory O2 fractions of 0.21 and 0.16; and (3) rest and peak exercise blood gases. The other subjects underwent Tlco, Dm, and Vc measurements during constant work rate exercise. Results: In normoxia, exercise induced reductions of haemoglobin O2 saturation never occurred. With hypoxia, peak exercise uptake (peak V̇o2) decreased from (mean (SD)) 1285 (395) to 1081 (396) ml/min (p < 0.01) in patients, and from 1861 (563) to 1771 (457) ml/min (p < 0.05) in controls. Resting Tlco correlated with peak V̇o2 in heart failure (normoxia < hypoxia). In heart failure patients and normal subjects, Tlco and peak V̇o2 correlated with O2 arterial content at rest and during peak exercise in both normoxia and hypoxia. Tlco, Vc, and Dm increased during exercise. The increase in Tlco was greater in patients who had a smaller reduction of exercise capacity with hypoxia. Alveolar–arterial O2 gradient at peak correlated with exercise capacity in heart failure during normoxia and, to a greater extent, during hypoxia. Conclusions: Lung diffusion impairment is related to exercise capacity in heart failure. PMID:12381630

  9. Does high muscle temperature accentuate skeletal muscle injury from eccentric exercise?

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Zambraski, Edward J; Sawka, Michael N; Urso, Maria L

    2016-05-01

    Hyperthermia is suspected of accentuating skeletal muscle injury from novel exercise, but this has not been well studied. This study examined if high muscle temperatures alters skeletal muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise (ECC). Eight volunteers (age, 22.5 ± 4.1 year; height, 169.5 ± 10.8 cm; body mass, 76.2 ± 12.6 kg), serving as their own control, and who were not heat acclimatized, completed two elbow flexor ECC trials; in one trial the biceps were heated >40°C (HEAT) and in the other trial there was no heating (NON). HEAT was applied with shortwave diathermy (100 W) for 15 min immediately before the first ECC bout and for 2 min in between each bout. Individuals were followed for 10 days after each ECC session, with a 6-week washout period between arms. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased by 41 ± 17% and 46 ± 20% in the NON and HEAT trials, respectively. Bicep circumference increased by 0.07 ± 0.08 mm (4%, P = 0.04) and relaxed range of motion decreased by 11.5 ± 8.2° (30%, P < 0.001) in both trials. Serum creatine kinase peaked 72-h following ECC (NON: 6289 ± 10407; HEAT: 5486 ± 6229 IU L(-1), 38-fold increase, P < 0.01) as did serum myoglobin (NON: 362 ± 483; HEAT: 355 ± 373 μg L(-1), 13-fold increase, P < 0.03). Plasma HSP 70 was higher (P < 0.02) in HEAT after 120-h of recovery. There were no differences between treatments for plasma HSP27 and interleukins 1β, 6, and 10. The results indicate that >40°C muscle temperature does not alter skeletal muscle injury or functional impairments induced by novel ECC.

  10. Erythropoietin does not reduce plasma lactate, H⁺, and K⁺ during intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, N B; Robach, P; Boushel, R; Calbet, J A L; Lundby, C

    2015-12-01

    It is investigated if recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment for 15 weeks (n = 8) reduces extracellular accumulation of metabolic stress markers such as lactate, H(+) , and K(+) during incremental exhaustive exercise. After rHuEPO treatment, normalization of blood volume and composition by hemodilution preceded an additional incremental test. Group averages were calculated for an exercise intensity ∼80% of pre-rHuEPO peak power output. After rHuEPO treatment, leg lactate release to the plasma compartment was similar to before (4.3 ± 1.6 vs 3.9 ± 2.5 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Venous lactate concentration was higher (P < 0.05) after rHuEPO treatment (7.1 ± 1.6 vs 5.2 ± 2.1 mM). Leg H(+) release to the plasma compartment after rHuEPO was similar to before (19.6 ± 5.4 vs 17.6 ± 6.0 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Nevertheless, venous pH was lower (P < 0.05) after rHuEPO treatment (7.18 ± 0.04 vs 7.22 ± 0.05). Leg K(+) release to the plasma compartment after rHuEPO treatment was similar to before (0.8 ± 0.5 vs 0.7 ± 0.7 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Additionally, venous K(+) concentrations were similar after vs before rHuEPO (5.3 ± 0.3 vs 5.1 ± 0.4 mM). In conclusion, rHuEPO does not reduce plasma accumulation of lactate, H(+) , and K(+) at work rates corresponding to ∼80% of peak power output. PMID:25556620

  11. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  12. Ibuprofen Ingestion Does Not Affect Markers of Post-exercise Muscle Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Luke; Markworth, James F.; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Peake, Jonathan M.; Snow, Rod J.; Cameron-Smith, David; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200mg d−1) or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO) and macrophages (CD68). Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery. PMID:27064890

  13. Maximal exercise does not increase ventilation heterogeneity in healthy trained adults.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Jeremy P; Ellis, Matthew J; Kee, Kirk; Stuart-Andrews, Christopher R; Thompson, Bruce R

    2016-04-01

    The effect of exercise on ventilation heterogeneity has not been investigated. We hypothesized that a maximal exercise bout would increase ventilation heterogeneity. We also hypothesized that increased ventilation heterogeneity would be associated with exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). Healthy trained adult males were prospectively assessed for ventilation heterogeneity using lung clearance index (LCI), Scond, and Sacinat baseline, postexercise and at recovery, using the multiple breath nitrogen washout technique. The maximal exercise bout consisted of a maximal, incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test at 25 watt increments. Eighteen subjects were recruited with mean ± SDage of 35 ± 9 years. There were no significant changes inLCI, Scond, or Sacinfollowing exercise or at recovery. While there was an overall reduction in SpO2with exercise (99.3 ± 1 to 93.7 ± 3%,P < 0.0001), the reduction in SpO2was not associated with changes inLCI, Scondor Sacin Ventilation heterogeneity is not increased following a maximal exercise bout in healthy trained adults. Furthermore,EIAHis not associated with changes in ventilation heterogeneity in healthy trained adults.

  14. Two percent hypohydration does not impair self-selected high-intensity intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Naoyuki; Ito, Ryo; Nakano, Masataka; Matsumoto, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The level of hypohydration at which power output during intermittent exercise performance starts to decrease is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2% hypohydration without hyperthermia on intermittent exercise performance. Eight collegiate amateur boxers completed 2 exercise tests. On day 1, subjects hypohydrated by 2% of body mass by exercising in a hot environment, and on day 2, subjects performed intermittent exercise (4 × 2 minute per round [R] separated by 1-minute recovery) under a randomly assigned condition of with (HYP) or without (EUH) hypohydration. Each bout consisted of 8 × 5 seconds of maximal cycling exercise (0.05 kp × body mass) separated by 10 seconds of passive recovery. Mean power output per kilogram (MPO), total power output per kilogram (TPO), energy system relative contribution, and core rectal temperature (Tre) were measured. Changes in body mass before the exercise tests were -2.25 ± 0.18% (HYP) and -0.17 ± 0.19% (EUH) (p < 0.001). Mean power output, TPO, and each energy contribution ratio were not significantly different between the trials, and pre- and postexercise test Tre did not differ significantly between trials. Results demonstrated that approximately 2% hypohydration lies below the point at which power output during intermittent exercise starts to decline.

  15. Melatonin Has An Ergogenic Effect But Does Not Prevent Inflammation and Damage In Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Botezelli, José Diego; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that exhaustive physical exercise leads to inflammation and skeletal muscle tissue damage. With this in mind, melatonin has been acutely administered before physical exercise; nevertheless, the use of melatonin as an ergogenic agent to prevent tissue inflammation and damage remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on swimming performance, muscle inflammation and damage and several physiological parameters after exhaustive exercise at anaerobic threshold intensity (iLAn) performed during light or dark circadian periods. The iLAn was individually determined and two days later, the animals performed an exhaustive exercise bout at iLAn 30 minutes after melatonin administration. The exercise promoted muscle inflammation and damage, mainly during the dark period, and the exogenous melatonin promoted a high ergogenic effect. The expressive ergogenic effect of melatonin leads to longer periods of muscle contraction, which superimposes a possible melatonin protective effect on the tissue damage and inflammation. PMID:26669455

  16. An exercise performance test does not measure physical fitness for the average person.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W G; Robinson, S M

    1988-08-10

    One hundred and thirty five members of the public who attended a medical school open day and who volunteered for a physical fitness assessment were asked to rate their own physical fitness and to give a reason for their rating; subjects then performed a submaximal exercise test for an estimation of maximum oxygen uptake. More than two-thirds of the reasons given for self-rating of fitness were related to level of regular exercise, while physical exercise performance, health or obesity each accounted for 10% or less of the reasons given. There was no significant correlation between self-rating of fitness and maximum oxygen uptake. It is concluded that for the average person an estimate of the level of regular exercise is likely to be a more appropriate measure of physical fitness than performance in an exercise test.

  17. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue -17 ± 15%, control -15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, p < 0.001) in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception of effort

  18. 43 CFR 3137.89 - How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... well not meeting the productivity criteria is outside a participating area, the production is allocated... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands:...

  19. 43 CFR 3137.89 - How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... well not meeting the productivity criteria is outside a participating area, the production is allocated... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands:...

  20. 43 CFR 3137.89 - How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... well not meeting the productivity criteria is outside a participating area, the production is allocated... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands:...

  1. 43 CFR 3137.89 - How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... well not meeting the productivity criteria is outside a participating area, the production is allocated... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands:...

  2. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F Hülya

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key pointsNormal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons.Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation.Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow.Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants. PMID:27274667

  3. Lessons learned during the training exercise for the entry into force of the U.S. additional protocol in the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 in anticipation of the United States bringing into force the Additional Protocol in early 2009 DOE/NNSA planned and executed training exercises in the conduct of Additional Protocol complementary access activities. Brookhaven National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory together produced the exercises designed to prepare the following types of DOE laboratories for complementary access - weapons laboratories, nuclear engineering laboratories, and science laboratories. This panel provides a forum to discuss and summarize the results and lessons learned from the 2008 exercise.

  4. Aerobic Exercise Does Not Predict Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Cortisol Alterations in Depressed Patients.

    PubMed

    Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression is related to neurobiological changes that occur in the monoamine system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurogenesis system and the neuroimmune system. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the research of the effects of exercise on brain function, with a special focus on its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortisol and other biomarkers. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a review investigating the acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and cortisol levels in individuals with depression. It was not possible to establish an interaction between aerobic exercise and concentration of BDNF and cortisol, which may actually be the result of the divergence of methods, such as type of exercises, duration of the sessions, and prescribed intensity and frequency of sessions.

  5. Beta-endorphin infusion during exercise in rats does not alter hepatic or muscle glycogen.

    PubMed

    Jamurtas, A Z; Goldfarb, A H; Chung, S C; Hegde, S; Marino, C; Fatouros, I G

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-endorphin infusion influences liver or muscle glycogen concentration during exercise. Thirty-two rats (Harlan Co., IN, USA) with a body mass of 265-290 g were assigned at random to four groups, each of eight rats: (1) beta-endorphin infusion for 90 min at rest; (2) beta-endorphin infusion for 90 min while running on a rodent treadmill at 22 m x min(-1) and 0% grade; (3) saline infusion (0.9% NaCl) for 90 min at rest; and (4) saline infusion for 90 min while running on a rodent treadmill at 22 m x min(-1) and 0% grade. Beta-endorphin infusion elevated plasma beta-endorphin concentration by 2.5-fold at rest compared with saline infusion at rest, and by two-fold after exercise compared with saline infusion after exercise. Beta-endorphin infusion attenuated exercise-induced glucose concentration but did not alter the fasting hepatic glycogen concentration at rest or after exercise compared with saline infusion. Fasting hepatic glycogen decreased significantly as a result of 90 min of exercise independent of treatment. Deep intermedius muscle glycogen concentration at rest was similar after 90 min of both beta-endorphin and saline infusion and decreased significantly as a result of 90 min of exercise independent of treatment. Our results suggest that liver and muscle glycogenolysis is not responsible for the differences in plasma glucose with beta-endorphin infusion during exercise. PMID:11820687

  6. Exercise for workers with musculoskeletal pain: Does enhancing compliance decrease pain?

    PubMed

    Linton, S J; Hellsing, A L; Bergström, G

    1996-09-01

    A low rate of compliance for exercise regimens is a difficult problem for programs aimed at treating or preventing musculoskeletal pain. In fact, the utility of exercise for common pain problems has been debated since poor compliance confounds proper program evaluation. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a compliance enhancement measure and subsequently to assess the effects of physical activity on pain perception. Forty-eight employees (mean age=42, 20 females) currently working at two companies and who reported musculoskeletal pain, but noexercise habit voluntarily served as subjects. The Comparison Group was provided with information and free membership at a health center. The Exercise Compliance Enhancement Group met individually with a behavioral psychologist, who employed cognitive-behavioral techniques, to plan their activity program. Results showed that the Compliance Enhancement Group had a higher rate of adherence and participated in significantly more exercises over the course of 6 months than did the Comparison Group. However, analyses based on pre- and posttest gain scores showed that the differences between the groups for aerobic capacity and pain intensity were not significant. However, when compilers were compared with noncompliers, those complying with the activity program were found to have improved their aerobic capacity more than noncompliers. Yet for overall pain intensity ratings, the difference between compilers and noncompliers was still not significant. Intensity ratings made immediately before and after exercising indicated that exercise activities were related to a significant increase in pain intensity. These results indicate that compliance for exercise may be significantly improved, but the effect of exercise activities on overall pain intensity was not significant relative to the comparison group. PMID:24234978

  7. Does aerobic exercise affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal response in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients’ fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959

  8. Tyrosine supplementation does not influence the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Phillip; Enever, Sophie; Page, Andrew; Stockwell, Jenna; Maughan, Ronald J

    2012-10-01

    Eight young men were recruited to a study designed to examine the effect of tyrosine (TYR) supplementation on the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in a warm environment. Subjects entered the laboratory in the morning and remained seated for 1 hr before cycling to exhaustion at 70% VO2peak. Two 250-ml aliquots of a placebo (PLA ) or a TYR solution were ingested at 30-min intervals before exercise, with an additional 150 ml consumed every 15 min throughout exercise (total TYR dose: 150 mg/kg BM). Cognitive function was assessed before drink ingestion, at the end of the rest period, and at exhaustion. TYR ingestion had no effect on exercise capacity (PLA 61.4 ± 13.7 min, TYR 60.2 ± 15.4 min; p = .505). No differences in heart rate (p = .380), core temperature (p = .554), or weighted mean skin temperature (p = .167) were apparent between trials. Ingestion of TYR produced a marked increase in serum TYR concentrations (+236 ± 46 μmol/L; p < .001), with this difference maintained throughout exercise. No change was apparent during the PLA trial (p = .924). Exercise caused an increase in error rate during the complex component of the Stroop test (p = .034), but this response was not influenced by the drink ingested. No other component of cognitive function was altered by the protocol (all p > .05). Ingestion of a TYR solution did not influence time to exhaustion or several aspects of cognitive function when exercise was undertaken in a warm environment. PMID:23011654

  9. Revisiting the Debate: Does Exercise Build Strong Bones in the Mature and Senescent Skeleton?

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Julie M.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Barnes, Jill N.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional exercise programs seem to be less osteogenic in the mature and post-mature skeleton compared to the young skeleton. This is likely because of the decline in sensitivity of bone to mechanical loading that occurs with advancing age. Another factor contributing to the apparently diminished benefit of exercise in older adults is failure of widely used measurement techniques (i.e., DXA) to identify changes in 3-dimensional bone structure, which are important determinants of bone strength. Moreover, although hormonal contributors to bone loss in the elderly are well-recognized, the influence of age-related increases in sympathetic nervous system activity, which impacts bone metabolism, is rarely considered. In this Perspective, we cite evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating anabolic effects of exercise on bone across the lifespan and we discuss theoretical considerations for designing exercise regimens to optimize bone health. We conclude with suggestions for future research that should help define the osteogenic potential of exercise in older individuals. PMID:27679578

  10. Prolonged swimming exercise does not affect contents and fatty acids composition of rat muscle triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether or not muscle triacylglycerol (MTG) contributed as a main energy source and MTG level and utilized fatty acid (FA) composition decreased during a 4-hour swimming exercise in rats fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). Sixty male Wistar rats aged 5 weeks were fed a normal diet (CE-2, n = 25, experiment A) or HFD (n = 35, experiment B) for 22 days. On the final day, rats in both experiments were killed either without exercise or 1, 2, 3, or 4 hours after beginning the swimming exercise. MTG accumulation was higher in rats fed the HFD than those fed the CE-2 in both slow- and fast-typed muscles. Serum concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose were increased and muscle glycogen contents were decreased with the continuance of swimming exercise, especially in rats fed the CE-2. The prolonged swimming did not influence MTG contents and FA compositions of MTG in either the experiment. These results might indicate that specific FA of MTG was not oxidized and MTG did not contribute as a main energy source during the prolonged swimming exercise in rats; instead, serum FFA, glucose, and muscle glycogen were mainly used.

  11. Pyridostigmine bromide does not alter thermoregulation during exercise in cold air

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.E.; Sawka, M.N.; Young, A.J.; Freund, B.J.

    1994-12-31

    This study examined the effects of acute and chronic pyridostigmine bromide (PB) administration on thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to exercise in cold air (5 C). Seven healthy men completed two 7-day trials in a double-blind, crossover experimental design: during one trial they received PB (30 mg three times daily) and during the other trial they received placebo. For each trial, subjects attempted four (3 h) exercise tests: low-intensity exercise (25% Vo2max) and moderate- intensity exercise (-50% Vo2max), on days 2 and 3 and again on days 6 and 7. Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and venous blood samples were obtained before and during exercise. Red blood cell acerylcholinesterase inhibition induced by PB increased (p < 0.05) from 34% on day I to 43% on days 3-7 Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and regional heat conductance responses were not different between trials. Plasma glucose, glycerol, free fatty acid, lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations were not different between trials. In addition. differences were not found between acute and chronic experiments for any thermoregulatory or metabolic responses. These findings demonstrate that the PB dosage used by military personnel, as a pharmacological defense against nerve-agent poisoning. should not cause any adverse thermoregulatory or metabolic effects during moderate activity in cold climates.

  12. Revisiting the Debate: Does Exercise Build Strong Bones in the Mature and Senescent Skeleton?

    PubMed

    Hughes, Julie M; Charkoudian, Nisha; Barnes, Jill N; Morgan, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Traditional exercise programs seem to be less osteogenic in the mature and post-mature skeleton compared to the young skeleton. This is likely because of the decline in sensitivity of bone to mechanical loading that occurs with advancing age. Another factor contributing to the apparently diminished benefit of exercise in older adults is failure of widely used measurement techniques (i.e., DXA) to identify changes in 3-dimensional bone structure, which are important determinants of bone strength. Moreover, although hormonal contributors to bone loss in the elderly are well-recognized, the influence of age-related increases in sympathetic nervous system activity, which impacts bone metabolism, is rarely considered. In this Perspective, we cite evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating anabolic effects of exercise on bone across the lifespan and we discuss theoretical considerations for designing exercise regimens to optimize bone health. We conclude with suggestions for future research that should help define the osteogenic potential of exercise in older individuals.

  13. Quercetin supplementation does not enhance cerebellar mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative status in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Casuso, Rafael A; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aranda, Pilar; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that quercetin may inhibit the mitochondrial and antioxidant adaptations induced by exercise in cerebellar tissue. Thirty-five 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly allocated into the following groups: quercetin, exercised (Q-Ex; n = 9); quercetin, sedentary (Q-Sed; n = 9); no quercetin, exercised (NQ-Ex; n = 9); and no quercetin, sedentary (NQ-Sed; n = 8). After 6 weeks of quercetin supplementation and/or exercise training, cerebellums were collected. Protein carbonyl content (PCC), sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), messenger RNA levels, citrate synthase (CS), and mitochondrial DNA were measured. When Q-Sed was compared with NQ-Sed, PCC (P < .005) showed decreased levels, whereas PGC-1α, sirtuin 1 (both, P < .01), mitochondrial DNA (P < .001), and CS (P < .01) increased. However, when Q-Ex was compared with Q-Sed, PCC showed increased levels (P < .001), whereas CS decreased (P < .01). Furthermore, the NQ-Ex group experienced an increase in PGC-1α messenger RNA levels in comparison with NQ-Sed (P > .01). This effect, however, did not appear in Q-Ex (P < .05). Therefore, we must hypothesize that either the dose (25 mg/kg) or the length of the quercetin supplementation period that was used in the present study (or perhaps both) may impair exercise-induced adaptations in cerebellar tissue. PMID:26032482

  14. 20 CFR 661.207 - How does the State Board meet its requirement to conduct business in an open manner under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the State Board meet its requirement... State Governance Provisions § 661.207 How does the State Board meet its requirement to conduct business..., on a regular basis through open meetings, information about the activities of the State Board....

  15. Does Exercise Improve Cognitive Performance? A Conservative Message from Lord's Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sicong; Lebeau, Jean-Charles; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2016-01-01

    Although extant meta-analyses support the notion that exercise results in cognitive performance enhancement, methodology shortcomings are noted among primary evidence. The present study examined relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 20 years (1996–2015) for methodological concerns arise from Lord's paradox. Our analysis revealed that RCTs supporting the positive effect of exercise on cognition are likely to include Type I Error(s). This result can be attributed to the use of gain score analysis on pretest-posttest data as well as the presence of control group superiority over the exercise group on baseline cognitive measures. To improve accuracy of causal inferences in this area, analysis of covariance on pretest-posttest data is recommended under the assumption of group equivalence. Important experimental procedures are discussed to maintain group equivalence. PMID:27493637

  16. Voluntary exercise does not enhance long-term potentiation in the adolescent female dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Titterness, A K; Wiebe, E; Kwasnica, A; Keyes, G; Christie, B R

    2011-06-01

    The hippocampus is a dynamic brain structure involved with learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a neuronal model of learning and memory and, in adult rodents, is enhanced by voluntary exercise (VEx). The current study sought to elucidate whether synaptic plasticity in the male and female adolescent hippocampus is augmented by VEx. Consistent with previous studies, VEx significantly enhanced LTP in adolescent males following weak and strong theta-burst stimulation. Despite running the same amount as males, however, VEx did not enhance LTP in females above non-runner females. Surprisingly, the exercise-induced enhancement to LTP in males was seen in the absence of a change in brain derived neurotrophic factor in the dentate gyrus (DG). These findings indicate that adolescent males and females are differentially sensitive to the potentiating effect of exercise on hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  17. Does Exercise Improve Cognitive Performance? A Conservative Message from Lord's Paradox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sicong; Lebeau, Jean-Charles; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2016-01-01

    Although extant meta-analyses support the notion that exercise results in cognitive performance enhancement, methodology shortcomings are noted among primary evidence. The present study examined relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 20 years (1996-2015) for methodological concerns arise from Lord's paradox. Our analysis revealed that RCTs supporting the positive effect of exercise on cognition are likely to include Type I Error(s). This result can be attributed to the use of gain score analysis on pretest-posttest data as well as the presence of control group superiority over the exercise group on baseline cognitive measures. To improve accuracy of causal inferences in this area, analysis of covariance on pretest-posttest data is recommended under the assumption of group equivalence. Important experimental procedures are discussed to maintain group equivalence. PMID:27493637

  18. Cold habituation does not improve manual dexterity during rest and exercise in 5 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew D.; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J.; Pollock, Brandon S.; Burns, Keith J.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2014-04-01

    When exposed to a cold environment, a barehanded person experiences pain, cold sensation, and reduced manual dexterity. Both acute (e.g. exercise) and chronic (e.g. cold acclimatization or habituation) processes might lessen these negative effects. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of cold habituation on physiology, perception, and manual dexterity during rest, exercise, and recovery in 5 °C. Six cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight non habituated men (NON) volunteered to participate in a repeated measures cross-over design. The protocol was conducted in 5 °C and was 90 min of resting cold exposure, 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise (50 % VO2 peak), and 60 min of seated recovery. Core and finger skin temperature, metabolic rate, Purdue Pegboard dexterity performance, hand pain, thermal sensation, and mood were quantified. Exercise-induced finger rewarming (EIFRW) was calculated for each hand. During 90 min of resting exposure to 5 °C, the CWA had a smaller reduction in finger temperature, a lower metabolic rate, less hand pain, and less negative mood. Despite this cold habituation, dexterity performance was not different between groups. In response to cycle ergometry, EIFRW was greater in CWA (~12 versus 7 °C) and occurred at lower core temperatures (37.02 versus 37.31 °C) relative to NON but dexterity was not greater during post-exercise recovery. The current data indicate that cold habituated men (i.e., CWA) do not perform better on the Purdue Pegboard during acute cold exposure. Furthermore, despite augmented EIFRW in CWA, dexterity during post-exercise recovery was similar between groups.

  19. Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As the first Meeting Chairman for the Spring and Fall meetings, Martin Walt has achieved notable success in realizing the many goals set forth by the Union for its annual meetings. Under his guidance, the Meeting Program Committee has been able to reduce the number of conflicting sessions and provide for the presentation of well-organized and effectively displayed poster sessions. The early planning of Union sessions and the introduction of ‘mini-frontiers,’ along with careful scheduling, has provided an increased opportunity for participation. A record high of 2785 registrants was recorded during the 1981 Fall Meeting, topping very slightly the old record of 2775 for the 1974 Spring Meeting.

  20. Does Moderate Intensity Exercise Attenuate the Postprandial Lipemic and Airway Inflammatory Response to a High-Fat Meal?

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Stephanie P.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Levitt, Morton; Cull, Brooke J.; Teeman, Colby S.; Emerson, Sam R.; Harms, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise in the postprandial period attenuates the triglyceride and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal (HFM) compared to remaining inactive in the postprandial period. Seventeen (11 M/6 F) physically active (≥150 min/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise (EX; 60% VO2peak) or sedentary (CON) condition after a HFM (10 kcal/kg, 63% fat). Blood analytes and airway inflammation via exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) were measured at baseline, and 2 and 4 hours after HFM. Airway inflammation was assessed with induced sputum and cell differentials at baseline and 4 hours after HFM. Triglycerides doubled in the postprandial period (~113 ± 18%, P < 0.05), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Percentage of neutrophils was increased 4 hours after HFM (~17%), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Exhaled nitric oxide changed nonlinearly from baseline to 2 and 4 hours after HFM (P < 0.05,  η2 = 0.36). Our findings suggest that, in active individuals, an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise does not attenuate the triglyceride or airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:26000301

  1. Does moderate intensity exercise attenuate the postprandial lipemic and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal?

    PubMed

    Kurti, Stephanie P; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Levitt, Morton; Cull, Brooke J; Teeman, Colby S; Emerson, Sam R; Harms, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise in the postprandial period attenuates the triglyceride and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal (HFM) compared to remaining inactive in the postprandial period. Seventeen (11 M/6 F) physically active (≥ 150 min/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise (EX; 60% VO 2peak) or sedentary (CON) condition after a HFM (10 kcal/kg, 63% fat). Blood analytes and airway inflammation via exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) were measured at baseline, and 2 and 4 hours after HFM. Airway inflammation was assessed with induced sputum and cell differentials at baseline and 4 hours after HFM. Triglycerides doubled in the postprandial period (~113 ± 18%, P < 0.05), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Percentage of neutrophils was increased 4 hours after HFM (~17%), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Exhaled nitric oxide changed nonlinearly from baseline to 2 and 4 hours after HFM (P < 0.05, η (2) = 0.36). Our findings suggest that, in active individuals, an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise does not attenuate the triglyceride or airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:26000301

  2. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue –17 ± 15%, control –15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue –6 ± 9%, control –6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue –30 ± 14%, control –32 ± 10%, p < 0.001) in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher

  3. Caffeine does not alter RPE or pain perception during intense exercise in active women.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Roupoli, Lindsay R; Valdivieso, Britten R

    2012-10-01

    Attenuated perceptions of exertion and leg pain are typically reported during exercise with caffeine ingestion, yet these responses are relatively unexplored in women. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain perception during a simulated time trial. Ten active women (age=22.1±1.9yr) completed an 8.2km "all out" time trial on each of 3days separated by at least 48h. Initially, a practice trial was completed, and participants refrained from products containing caffeine and lower-body exercise for 24h prior to subsequent trials. During exercise, heart rate (HR), RPE, and leg pain were recorded. Using a double-blind, randomized crossover design, participants ingested anhydrous caffeine and glucose (each 6mg/kg bw+each 6mg/kg bw glucose) or placebo (each 6mg/kg bw of glucose) 1h pre-exercise. Despite not altering (P>0.05) RPE, HR, or leg pain, caffeine improved (P<0.05) cycling performance (17.7±1.0min versus 18.2±1.1min) and power output (121.6±17.5W versus 114.9±17.9W) versus placebo. Caffeine's ergogenic effects may be independent of changes in RPE or leg pain in active women performing a simulated time trial.

  4. Joint Cooling does not Hinder Athletic Performance during High-intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise. PMID:27119166

  5. Does Lower Limb Exercise Worsen Renal Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients. PMID:25946196

  6. Joint Cooling does not Hinder Athletic Performance during High-intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise.

  7. Post-exercise cold water immersion does not alter high intensity interval training-induced exercise performance and Hsp72 responses, but enhances mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Paula Fernandes; Magalhães, Sílvia Mourão; Fonseca, Ivana Alice Teixeira; da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Matos, Mariana Aguiar; Peixoto, Marco Fabrício Dias; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Crandall, Craig; Araújo, Hygor Nunes; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; de Castro Magalhães, Flávio; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro

    2016-09-01

    , HFS-1 (p = 0.007), PDK4 (p = 0.03), and Tfam (p = 0.03) mRNA were higher in CWI. NRF-1 decrease in both groups after training (p = 0.006). CaMK2 decreased with HIIT (p = 0.003) but it was not affected by CWI (p = 0.99). Cold water immersion does not alter HIIT-induced Hsp72, AMPK, p38 MAPK, and exercise performance but was able to increase some markers of cellular stress response and signaling molecules related to mitochondria biogenesis. PMID:27278803

  8. Post-exercise cold water immersion does not alter high intensity interval training-induced exercise performance and Hsp72 responses, but enhances mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Paula Fernandes; Magalhães, Sílvia Mourão; Fonseca, Ivana Alice Teixeira; da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Matos, Mariana Aguiar; Peixoto, Marco Fabrício Dias; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Crandall, Craig; Araújo, Hygor Nunes; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; de Castro Magalhães, Flávio; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro

    2016-09-01

    , HFS-1 (p = 0.007), PDK4 (p = 0.03), and Tfam (p = 0.03) mRNA were higher in CWI. NRF-1 decrease in both groups after training (p = 0.006). CaMK2 decreased with HIIT (p = 0.003) but it was not affected by CWI (p = 0.99). Cold water immersion does not alter HIIT-induced Hsp72, AMPK, p38 MAPK, and exercise performance but was able to increase some markers of cellular stress response and signaling molecules related to mitochondria biogenesis.

  9. Concurrent strength and endurance training exercise sequence does not affect neuromuscular adaptations in older men.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Rech, Anderson; Minozzo, Felipe; Botton, Cintia Ehlers; Radaelli, Regis; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Concurrent training is an effective method for increasing skeletal muscle performance in aging individuals, but controversy exists as to whether chronic neuromuscular and functional adaptations are affected by the intra-session exercise sequence. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training exercise sequence on muscular and functional adaptations of older participants. Thirty-six healthy older men not engaged in systematic exercise training programs for at least 6 months were divided into a control group (CON; 65.8±5.3 years), or in the training groups: endurance-strength (ES; 63.2±3.3 years), or strength-endurance (SE; 67.1±6.1 years). Training groups underwent 12 weeks of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training, starting every exercise session with either endurance (in ES) or strength (in SE) exercises. Measurements included knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), knee extension power, 30 second sit-to-stand test (30SS), maximum vastus lateralis surface electromyographic activity, and rectus femoris echo intensity (RFEI). Significant increases in maximal strength (ES +18±11.3%; SE +14.2±6.0%; p≤0.05), peak power (ES +22.2±19.4%; SE +26.3±31.3%; p≤0.05), and 30SS performance (ES +15.2±7.2%; SE +13.2±11.8%; p≤0.05) were observed only in the training groups, with no differences between ES and SE. Maximum muscular activity was greater after 12weeks at training groups (p≤0.05), and reductions in RFEI were found only in ES and SE (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that concurrent strength and endurance training performed twice a week effectively increases muscular performance and functional capacity in older men, independent of the intra-session exercise sequence. Additionally, the RFEI decreases indicate an additional adaptation to concurrent training.

  10. Does cheating pay: the role of externally supplied momentum on muscular force in resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2013-01-01

    Our work investigates the use of "external momentum" in the context of hypertrophy-oriented training. This is momentum supplied to the load (such as a dumbbell) used in an exercise by means of action of muscles not inherently involved in the exercise. We challenge the general consensus that the use of such momentum often described as "cheating" is counterproductive. We focus on the use of external momentum in the shoulder lateral raise and adopt a framework whereby exercise execution is simulated on a computer. This is achieved using a physical model of motion which is combined with anthropomorphic measurements and empirical data of muscular recruitment from previous work. The introduction of moderate momentum (producing initial angular velocities around 57.5° s(-1)) increases the torque of the target muscles even without an increase in the load used. A moderate increase in the load and the use of momentum allows the torque to be increased even further. In contrast, excessive use of momentum results in lower demands on the target muscles, while an excessive increase of the load reduces the total hypertrophy stimulus by virtue of the decreased number of repetitions which can be performed successfully and thus the dramatically shortened time under tension. Our results disprove the conventional belief that the use of external momentum necessarily reduces the overload of the target muscles. A moderate use of external momentum increases both the per-repetition peak torque and the total hypertrophy stimulus in a set.

  11. Does Vitamin C and E Supplementation Impair the Favorable Adaptations of Regular Exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Kerksick, Chad M.; Lamprecht, Manfred; McAnulty, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body's ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals. PMID:22928084

  12. Exercise training does not improve myocardial diastolic tissue velocities in Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Loimaala, Antti; Groundstroem, Kaj; Rinne, Marjo; Nenonen, Arja; Huhtala, Heini; Vuori, Ilkka

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial diastolic tissue velocities are reduced already in newly onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Poor disease control may lead to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exercise training on myocardial diastolic function in T2D patients without ischemic heart disease. Methods 48 men (52.3 ± 5.6 yrs) with T2D were randomized to supervised training four times a week and standard therapy (E), or standard treatment alone (C) for 12 months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), oxygen consumption (VO2max), and muscle strength (Sit-up) were measured. Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) was used to determine the average maximal mitral annular early (Ea) and late (Aa) diastolic as well as systolic (Sa) velocities, systolic strain (ε) and strain rate (έ) from the septum, and an estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure (E/Ea). Results Exercise capacity (VO2max, E 32.0 to 34.7 vs. C 32.6 to 31.5 ml/kg/min, p = .001), muscle strength (E 12.7 to 18.3 times vs. C 14.6 to 14.7 times, p < .001), and HbA1c (E 8.2 to 7.5% vs. C 8.0 to 8.4%, p = .006) improved significantly in the exercise group compared to the controls (ANOVA). Systolic blood pressure decreased in the E group (E 144 to 138 mmHg vs. C 146 to 144 mmHg, p = .04). Contrary to risk factor changes diastolic long axis relaxation did not improve significantly, early diastolic velocity Ea from 8.1 to 7.9 cm/s for the E group vs. C 7.4 to 7.8 cm/s (p = .85, ANOVA). Likewise, after 12 months the mitral annular systolic velocity, systolic strain and strain rate, as well as E/Ea were unchanged. Conclusion Exercise training improves endurance and muscle fitness in T2D, resulting in better glycemic control and reduced blood pressure. However, myocardial diastolic tissue velocities did not change significantly. Our data suggest that a much longer exercise intervention may be needed in order to reverse diastolic impairment in diabetics, if

  13. 20 CFR 404.1650 - Action we will take if a State agency does not meet the standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action we will take if a State agency does not meet the standards. 404.1650 Section 404.1650 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability...

  14. Does extending the dual-task functional exercises workout improve postural balance in individuals with ID?

    PubMed

    Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining postural balance, overcoming visual and motor coordination disorders and experiencing problems with low general fitness - typical of intellectually disabled individuals - adversely affect the performance quality of their activities of daily living (ADLs). Physical fitness and postural balance can be improved by taking part in special intervention programs. Our study was designed to test whether extending the dual-task intervention program (combining ADLs with balance exercises on unstable surfaces) from 12 to 24 weeks additionally improved postural balance in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). We also attempted to assess whether the effects of the above intervention program were still noticeable after 8 weeks of holidays, in which participants did not take any rehabilitation exercises. A total of 34 adolescents, aged 14-16 years (15.06±0.9), with moderate ID took part in our study. The experimental group (E) consisted of 17 individuals, who continued the intervention program originated 3 months earlier, and the control group (C) comprised the same number of participants. Postural balance was assessed on a stabilometric platform Alfa. Having extended the workout period by another 12 weeks, we noticed that the path length of the center of pressure (COP) covered by participants on tests with their eyes open and closed significantly shortened. After a lapse of 8 weeks from the completion of the program, the experimental group revealed a statistically significant decrease in the velocity along the medio-lateral (M/L) and anterior-posterior (A/P) axes. The remaining variables stayed at the same level and the control group did not demonstrate any statistically significant changes. Dual-task exercises, in which enhancing functional tasks of daily living is combined with a parallel stimulation of balance reactions, may improve static balance in persons with ID.

  15. Does Swimming Exercise Affect Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats Treated with Gum Acacia?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H.; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A.; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I.; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A.; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine –induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380

  16. Caffeine ingestion does not alter carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Terry E; Helge, Jorn W; MacLean, David A; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effect of ingesting caffeine (6 mg kg−1) on muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during steady-state exercise in humans. Young male subjects (n = 10) performed 1 h of exercise (70 % maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2,max)) on two occasions (after ingestion of placebo and caffeine) and leg metabolism was quantified by the combination of direct Fick measures and muscle biopsies. Following caffeine ingestion serum fatty acid and glycerol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest, suggesting enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis. In addition circulating adrenaline concentration was increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest following caffeine ingestion and this, as well as leg noradrenaline spillover, was elevated (P ≤ 0.05) above placebo values during exercise. Caffeine resulted in a modest increase (P ≤ 0.05) in leg vascular resistance, but no difference was found in leg blood flow. Arterial lactate and glucose concentrations were increased (P ≤ 0.05) by caffeine, while the rise in plasma potassium was dampened (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio or in leg glucose uptake, net muscle glycogenolysis, leg lactate release or muscle lactate, or glucose 6-phosphate concentration. Similarly there were no differences between treatments in leg fatty acid uptake, glycerol release or muscle acetyl CoA concentration. These findings indicate that caffeine ingestion stimulated the sympathetic nervous system but did not alter the carbohydrate or fat metabolism in the monitored leg. Other tissues must have been involved in the changes in circulating potassium, fatty acids, glucose and lactate. PMID:11118510

  17. Erythropoietin Does Not Enhance Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis Following Exercise in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lamon, Séverine; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Gatta, Paul A. Della; Ghobrial, Lobna; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Garnham, Andrew; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a renal cytokine that is primarily involved in hematopoiesis while also playing a role in non-hematopoietic tissues expressing the EPO-receptor (EPOR). The EPOR is present in human skeletal muscle. In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway. Methods: Ten young (24.2 ± 0.9 years) and 10 older (66.6 ± 1.1 years) healthy subjects received a primed, constant infusion of [ring-13C6] L-phenylalanine and a single injection of 10,000 IU epoetin-beta or placebo in a double-blind randomized, cross-over design. 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Results: Significant interaction effects in the phosphorylation levels of the members of the AKT signaling pathway indicated a differential activation of protein synthesis signaling in older subjects when compared to young subjects. However, EPO offered no synergistic effect on vastus lateralis mixed muscle protein synthesis rate in young or older subjects. Conclusions: Despite its ability to activate the AKT pathway in skeletal muscle, an acute EPO injection had no additive or synergistic effect on the exercise-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis or muscle protein synthesis signaling pathways. PMID:27458387

  18. Swim training does not protect mice from skeletal muscle oxidative damage following a maximum exercise test.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Tatiane Oliveira; Cleto, Lorena Sabino; Gioda, Carolina Rosa; Silva, Renata Sabino; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; de Sousa-Franco, Junia; de Magalhães, José Carlos; Penaforte, Claudia Lopes; Pinto, Kelerson Mauro de Castro; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2012-07-01

    We investigated whether swim training protects skeletal muscle from oxidative damage in response to a maximum progressive exercise. First, we investigated the effect of swim training on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the gastrocnemius muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, 48 h after the last training session. Mice swam for 90 min, twice a day, for 5 weeks at 31°C (± 1°C). The activities of SOD and CAT were increased in trained mice (P < 0.05) compared to untrained group. However, no effect of training was observed in the activity of GPx. In a second experiment, trained and untrained mice were submitted to a maximum progressive swim test. Compared to control mice (untrained, not acutely exercised), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice after maximum swim. The activity of GPx was increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice, while SOD activity was increased only in trained mice after maximum swimming. CAT activity was increased only in the untrained compared to the control group. Although the trained mice showed increased activity of citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, swim performance was not different compared to untrained mice. Our results show an imbalance in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in response to swim training, which could account for the oxidative damage observed in the skeletal muscle of trained mice in response to maximum swim, resulting in the absence of improved exercise performance.

  19. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  20. DOE Hanford Network Upgrades and Disaster Recovery Exercise Support the Cleanup Mission Now and into the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Eckman, Todd J.; Hertzel, Ali K.; Lane, James J.

    2013-11-07

    In 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in Washington State, funded an update to the critical network infrastructure supporting the Hanford Federal Cloud (HFC). The project, called ET-50, was the final step in a plan that was initiated five years ago called "Hanford's IT Vision, 2015 and Beyond." The ET-50 project upgraded Hanford's core data center switches and routers along with a majority of the distribution layer switches. The upgrades allowed HFC the network intelligence to provide Hanford with a more reliable and resilient network architecture. The culmination of the five year plan improved network intelligence and high performance computing as well as helped to provide 10 Gbps capable links between core backbone devices (10 times the previous bandwidth). These improvements allow Hanford the ability to further support bandwidth intense applications, such as video teleconferencing. The ET-50 switch upgrade, along with other upgrades implemented from the five year plan, have prepared Hanford's network for the next evolution of technology in voice, video, and data. Hand-in-hand with ET-50's major data center outage, Mission Support Alliance's (MSA) Information Management (IM) organization executed a disaster recovery (DR) exercise to perform a true integration test and capability study. The DR scope was planned within the constraints of ET-50's 14 hour datacenter outage window. This DR exercise tested Hanford's Continuity of Operations (COOP) capability and failover plans for safety and business critical Hanford Federal Cloud applications. The planned suite of services to be tested was identified prior to the outage and plans were prepared to test the services ability to failover from the primary Hanford data center to the backup data center. The services tested were: Core Network (backbone, firewall, load balancers); Voicemail; Voice over IP (VoIP); Emergency Notification; Virtual desktops; and, Select set of production applications

  1. Glucose administration does not modulate prolactin response to exercise, TRH or haloperidol injection.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Jezová, D

    1994-01-01

    Glucose was found to exert an In vitro regulatory effect on prolactin secretion. Its role in the modulation of stimulated secretion of prolactin in man is, however, not clear. To evaluate the effect of hyperglycaemia on prolactin release, three stimulatory tests with different mechanisms of stimulation were employed. Healthy male subjects served as volunteers during submaximal exercise, TRH test (0.2 mg i.v.) and administration of haloperidol (2 mg i.v.). Glucose (100 g in 400 ml) or an equal volume of water was given 30 min before the tests. Blood for glucose and prolactin analysis was taken via an indwelling catheter. The plasma prolactin concentration increased in response to each of the stimuli applied. However, the prolactin increase during hyperglycaemia did not differ from values obtained in tests performed in normoglycaemia after water administration. These results indicate that prolactin release in healthy man is not modulated by hyperglycaemia. PMID:7711007

  2. The need for salt: does a relationship exist between cystic fibrosis and exercise-associated hyponatremia?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Douglas P; Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Owen, Bethan E; Rogers, Ian R; Verbalis, Joseph G; Hew-Butler, Tamara D

    2014-03-01

    Salt replacement is often recommended to prevent exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) despite a lack of evidence to support such practice. Exercise-associated hyponatremia is known to be a complex process resulting from the interplay of hydration, arginine vasopressin, and sodium balance. Although evidence suggests overhydration is the dominant pathophysiologic factor in most cases, the contributions of sweat sodium losses remain unclear. A theoretical genetic mechanism producing exuberant sweat sodium loss in athletes is the presence of cystic fibrosis (CF) gene. Individuals with CF develop hypovolemic hyponatremia by sodium loss via sweat through a defective chloride ion transport channel, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Elevated sweat sodium concentrations in CF single heterozygotes suggest that athletes developing EAH may be CFTR carriers. We targeted the 2010 and 2011 Western States Endurance Run ultramarathon, an event where athletes with EAH regularly present in a hypovolemic state, for a cohort maximizing the potential to document such a relationship. A total of 798 runners started the 2010 (n = 423) and 2011 (n = 375) races. Of the 638 finishers, 373 were screened for EAH by blood draw, 60 (16%) were found to have EAH, and 31 (alpha = 0.05 for n = 9) reported their CF result from a saliva-based genetic testing kit. Neither the 31 EAH-positive athletes nor the 25 EAH-negative comparison cohort athletes tested positive for a CF mutation. This null relationship suggests that CFTR mutations are not associated with the development of EAH and that salt supplementation is unnecessary for such a reason.

  3. The need for salt: does a relationship exist between cystic fibrosis and exercise-associated hyponatremia?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Douglas P; Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Owen, Bethan E; Rogers, Ian R; Verbalis, Joseph G; Hew-Butler, Tamara D

    2014-03-01

    Salt replacement is often recommended to prevent exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) despite a lack of evidence to support such practice. Exercise-associated hyponatremia is known to be a complex process resulting from the interplay of hydration, arginine vasopressin, and sodium balance. Although evidence suggests overhydration is the dominant pathophysiologic factor in most cases, the contributions of sweat sodium losses remain unclear. A theoretical genetic mechanism producing exuberant sweat sodium loss in athletes is the presence of cystic fibrosis (CF) gene. Individuals with CF develop hypovolemic hyponatremia by sodium loss via sweat through a defective chloride ion transport channel, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Elevated sweat sodium concentrations in CF single heterozygotes suggest that athletes developing EAH may be CFTR carriers. We targeted the 2010 and 2011 Western States Endurance Run ultramarathon, an event where athletes with EAH regularly present in a hypovolemic state, for a cohort maximizing the potential to document such a relationship. A total of 798 runners started the 2010 (n = 423) and 2011 (n = 375) races. Of the 638 finishers, 373 were screened for EAH by blood draw, 60 (16%) were found to have EAH, and 31 (alpha = 0.05 for n = 9) reported their CF result from a saliva-based genetic testing kit. Neither the 31 EAH-positive athletes nor the 25 EAH-negative comparison cohort athletes tested positive for a CF mutation. This null relationship suggests that CFTR mutations are not associated with the development of EAH and that salt supplementation is unnecessary for such a reason. PMID:23897018

  4. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate with leucine-enriched essential amino acids does not augment acute postexercise muscle protein synthesis in a strenuous exercise-induced hypoinsulinemic state.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Strenuous exercise following overnight fasting increases fat oxidation during exercise, which can modulate training adaptation. However, such exercise induces muscle protein catabolism by decreasing blood insulin concentrations and increasing amino acid oxidation during the exercise. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance muscle protein synthesis (MPS) at rest and after exercise. However, it remains to be clarified if the co-ingestion of carbohydrate with LEAAs induces an additional increase in MPS, particularly in a hypoinsulinemic state induced by strenuous exercise. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were made to perform strenuous jump exercise (height 35 cm, 200 jumps, 3-s intervals), after which they ingested distilled water and 1 g/kg LEAAs with or without 1 g/kg of glucose. The fractional synthesis rate was determined by measuring the incorporation of l-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine into skeletal muscle protein. Immediately after the exercise, plasma insulin concentration was significantly lower than that at the basal level. Co-ingestion of glucose with LEAAs alleviated the reduction in plasma insulin concentration, while LEAA ingestion alone did not. LEAA administration with or without glucose led to a higher MPS compared with water administration (P < 0.05). However, the co-ingestion of glucose with LEAAs did not induce further increases in MPS compared with LEAA ingestion alone. Thus, the co-ingestion of glucose with LEAAs does not additionally increase MPS under a strenuous exercise-induced hypoinsulinemic state when glucose is co-ingested with a dose of LEAAs that maximally stimulates MPS. PMID:27547673

  5. Exercise-induced dehydration does not alter time trial or neuromuscular performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C J; Whyte, D G; Cannon, J; Wickham, J; Marino, F E

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effect of exercise-induced dehydration by ~4% body mass loss on 5-km cycling time trial (TT) performance and neuromuscular drive, independent of hyperthermia. 7 active males were dehydrated on 2 occasions, separated by 7 d. Participants remained dehydrated (DEH, -3.8±0.5%) or were rehydrated (REH, 0.2±0.6%) over 2 h before completing the TT at 18-25 °C, 20-30% relative humidity. Neuromuscular function was determined before dehydration and immediately prior the TT. The TT started at the same core temperature (DEH, 37.3±0.3°C; REH, 37.0±0.2 °C (P>0.05). Neither TT performance (DEH, 7.31±1.5 min; REH, 7.10±1.3 min (P>0.05)) or % voluntary activation were affected by dehydration (DEH, 88.7±6.4%; REH, 90.6±6.1% (P>0.05)). Quadriceps peak torque was significantly elevated in both trials prior to the TT (P<0.05), while a 19% increase in the rate of potentiated peak twitch torque development (P<0.05) was observed in the DEH trial only. All other neuromuscular measures were similar between trials. Short duration TT performance and neuromuscular function are not reduced by dehydration, independent of hyperthermia.

  6. Does acute side-alternating vibration exercise enhance ballistic upper-body power?

    PubMed

    Cochrane, D J; Black, M J; Barnes, M J

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute vibration exercise, at 2 different frequencies, on upper body power output. Muscle activity (EMG) and upper-body peak power was measured in 12 healthy males during ballistic bench press throws at 30% of 1-repetition maximum on a Smith machine. Measures were made prior to, 30 s and 5 min after one of 3 conditions performed for 30 s in a press-up position: side-alternating vibration at 20 Hz, 26 Hz and no vibration. EMG was recorded in the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii and pectoralis major during ballistic bench press throws as well as during application of each condition. While peak power output was higher at 5 min post condition across all conditions, compared to baseline measures (P<0.05), only 20 Hz vibration resulted in a significant increase in peak power output (P<0.05) compared to no vibration. EMG was greater during both vibration conditions, compared to no vibration (P<0.001). However, this difference was not evident during bench press throws when no difference was seen in muscle activity between conditions. These findings suggest that 20 Hz vibration has an ergogenic effect on upper-body power that may be due to peripheral, rather than central, mediated mechanisms.

  7. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Large, D.E.: Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  8. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  9. 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training does not alter the exercise-induced growth hormone response in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Morishima, Takuma; Hasegawa, Yuta; Mori, Ayaka; Ijichi, Toshiaki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of high-intensity interval training on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) responses, whole body and regional fat content. Twenty-four sedentary males were randomized to either a high-intensity interval training (HIT) group or a low-intensity continuous training (LT) group. The HIT group performed intermittent exercises at 85% of [Formula: see text], whereas the LT group performed continuous exercise for 22 min at 45% of [Formula: see text]. Before and after 4 weeks of training, hormonal and metabolic responses to acute exercise were determined. Acute exercise significantly increased GH concentrations in both groups (p < 0.05). However, the responses did not change after training period in either group. Furthermore, the training did not significantly affect intramyocellular or intrahepatic lipid content in either group. The present study indicates that 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training does not alter the exercise-induced GH responses, whole body fat mass or intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipid content in sedentary males.

  10. Increased Resistance during Jump Exercise Does Not Enhance Cortical Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Boudreaux, Ramon D.; Swift, Joshua M.; Gasier, Heath G.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Hogan, Harry A.; Fluckey, James D.; Bloomfield, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study sought to elucidate the effects of a low- and high-load jump resistance exercise (RE) training protocol on cortical bone of the tibia and femur mid-diaphyses. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6-mos-old) were randomly assigned to high-load RE (HRE; n = 16), low-load RE (LRE; n = 15) or cage control (CC; n = 11) groups. Animals in the HRE and LRE groups performed 15 sessions of jump RE for 5 weeks. Load in the HRE group was progressively increased from 80g added to a weighted vest (50 repetitions) to 410g (16 repetitions). The LRE rats completed the same protocol as the HRE group (same number of repetitions) with only a 30g vest applied. RESULTS Low- and high-load jump RE resulted in 6–11% higher cortical bone mineral content (BMC) and cortical bone area compared to controls as determined by in vivo pQCT measurements. In the femur, however, only LRE demonstrated improvements in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD; +11%) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; +20%) versus CC group. Three-point bending to failure revealed a marked increase in tibial max force (25–29%), stiffness (19–22%), and energy to max force (35–55%), and a reduction in elastic modulus (−11–14%) in both LRE and HRE compared to controls. Dynamic histomorphometry assessed at the tibia mid-diaphysis determined that both LRE and HRE resulted in 20–30% higher periosteal mineralizing surface versus CC group. Mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR) were significantly greater in LRE animals (27%, 39%) than in the HRE group. CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that jump training with minimal loading is equally, and sometimes more, effective at augmenting cortical bone integrity compared to overload training in skeletally mature rats. PMID:24743108

  11. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  12. Exercise and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  13. Exercise for falls prevention in older people: assessing the knowledge of exercise science students.

    PubMed

    Sturnieks, Daina L; Finch, Caroline F; Close, Jacqueline C T; Tiedemann, Anne; Lord, Stephen R; Pascoe, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Participation in appropriate exercise can help reduce the risk of falls and falls injury in older people. Delivery of population-level exercise interventions requires an expert workforce with skills in development and delivery of group exercise programs and prescription of individually targeted exercise. This study assessed the current knowledge of university exercise science students (as future exercise professionals) across different levels of study. A structured survey designed to assess knowledge in relation to falls in older people and exercise prescription for falls prevention was administered during second, third and fourth year lectures in seven Australian universities. Students' knowledge was assessed as the percent of correct responses. Overall, 566 students completed the survey and knowledge levels increased significantly with study year. Mean knowledge levels were significantly <70%, indicating limited knowledge. They were lowest for falls risk factor questions and highest for issue/cost related questions in second and third year students. Fourth year students had best knowledge about falls interventions and this was the only group and topic with a mean score >70%. In conclusion, knowledge about falls and exercise prescription for falls prevention in current students does not meet a desired competency level of 70% and is therefore insufficient to ensure an adequately equipped future workforce in this area. There is a clear need for the development and widespread delivery of an evidence-based "exercise for falls prevention" curriculum module for exercise professionals.

  14. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082

  15. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not attenuate post-exercise muscle soreness following muscle-damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Close, Graeme L; Ashton, Tony; Cable, Tim; Doran, Dominic; Holloway, Chris; McArdle, Frank; MacLaren, Don P M

    2006-05-01

    Exercise involving lengthening muscle actions, such as downhill running, results in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which may be attributable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although exercise causes oxidative stress, any link between ROS and DOMS remains speculative. There is emerging evidence to suggest that ROS play an important physiological role, assisting in the recovery process and protecting the cell from future damage; however, this has not been fully established. Despite this uncertainty as to the precise role of ROS, attempts to prevent post-exercise ROS production through antioxidant intervention are still common. The study investigated the effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on ROS production and DOMS following downhill running. Subjects were assigned to two groups. The ascorbic acid group (group AA) received 1 g ascorbic acid 2 h pre-, and for 14 d post-downhill running, whilst the placebo group (Pl group) received a placebo. Blood samples were drawn pre-supplement, pre- and post-exercise, and then 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 14 d post-exercise for analysis of ascorbate, malonaldehyde and total glutathione. DOMS was assessed using a visual analogue scale and pressure algometry. Muscle function was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Plasma ascorbate was elevated throughout in group AA compared with the Pl group. Downhill running resulted in DOMS in both groups. Muscle function was impaired post-exercise in both groups, although a delayed recovery was noted in group AA. Malonaldehyde increased 4 d post-exercise in the Pl group only. Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates ROS production following downhill running, without affecting DOMS. Furthermore, ascorbic acid supplementation may inhibit the recovery of muscle function.

  16. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement.

  17. The 1991 DOE/Sandia Crystalline Photovoltaic Technology Project Review Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, M. L.

    1991-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the manual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Technology Research Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held July 30 through 31, 1991 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  18. Albumin infusion in humans does not model exercise induced hypervolaemia after 24 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P < 0.05), but by 24 h plasma volume and albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P < 0.05), and showed a trend to decrease at 2 h after infusion (167.6 +/- 32.5(-1) 06.2 +/- 13.4 pg mL-1, P = 0.07). These data demonstrate that a 6.8% expansion of plasma volume and 10.5% expansion of plasma albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.

  19. The ingestion of combined carbohydrates does not alter metabolic responses or performance capacity during soccer-specific exercise in the heat compared to ingestion of a single carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N D; Campbell, I T; Drust, B; Evans, L; Reilly, T; Maclaren, D P M

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of ingesting a glucose plus fructose solution on the metabolic responses to soccer-specific exercise in the heat and the impact on subsequent exercise capacity. Eleven male soccer players performed a 90 min soccer-specific protocol on three occasions. Either 3 ml · kg(-1) body mass of a solution containing glucose (1 g · min(-1) glucose) (GLU), or glucose (0.66 g · min(-1)) plus fructose (0.33 g · min(-1)) (MIX) or placebo (PLA) was consumed every 15 minutes. Respiratory measures were undertaken at 15-min intervals, blood samples were drawn at rest, half-time and on completion of the protocol, and muscle glycogen concentration was assessed pre- and post-exercise. Following the soccer-specific protocol the Cunningham and Faulkner test was performed. No significant differences in post-exercise muscle glycogen concentration (PLA, 62.99 ± 8.39 mmol · kg wet weight(-1); GLU 68.62 ± 2.70; mmol · kg wet weight(-1) and MIX 76.63 ± 6.92 mmol · kg wet weight(-1)) or exercise capacity (PLA, 73.62 ± 8.61 s; GLU, 77.11 ± 7.17 s; MIX, 83.04 ± 9.65 s) were observed between treatments (P > 0.05). However, total carbohydrate oxidation was significantly increased during MIX compared with PLA (P < 0.05). These results suggest that when ingested in moderate amounts, the type of carbohydrate does not influence metabolism during soccer-specific intermittent exercise or affect performance capacity after exercise in the heat.

  20. Addition of glutamine to essential amino acids and carbohydrate does not enhance anabolism in young human males following exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah B; Kim, Paul L; Armstrong, David; Phillips, Stuart M

    2006-10-01

    We examined the effect of a post-exercise oral carbohydrate (CHO, 1 g.kg(-1).h(-1)) and essential amino acid (EAA, 9.25 g) solution containing glutamine (0.3 g/kg BW; GLN trial) versus an isoenergetic CHO-EAA solution without glutamine (control, CON trial) on muscle glycogen resynthesis and whole-body protein turnover following 90 min of cycling at 65% VO2 peak. Over the course of 3 h of recovery, muscle biopsies were taken to measure glycogen resynthesis and mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS), by incorporation of [ring-2H5] phenylalanine. Infusion of [1-13C] leucine was used to measure whole-body protein turnover. Exercise resulted in a significant decrease in muscle glycogen (p < 0.05) with similar declines in each trial. Glycogen resynthesis following 3 h of recovery indicated no difference in total accumulation or rate of repletion. Leucine oxidation increased 2.5 fold (p < 0.05) during exercise, returned to resting levels immediately post-exercise,and was again elevated at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05). Leucine flux, an index of whole-body protein breakdown rate, was reduced during exercise, but increased to resting levels immediately post-exercise, and was further increased at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), but only during the CON trial. Exercise resulted in a marked suppression of whole-body protein synthesis (50% of rest; p < 0.05), which was restored post-exercise; however, the addition of glutamine did not affect whole-body protein synthesis post-exercise. The rate of MPS was not different between trials. The addition of glutamine to a CHO + EAA beverage had no effect on post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis or muscle protein synthesis, but may suppress a rise in whole-body proteolysis during the later stages of recovery. PMID:17111006

  1. Does exercise protect from cognitive decline by altering brain cytokine and apoptotic protein levels? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Packer, N; Pervaiz, N; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2010-01-01

    Regular exercise is thought to provide protection against age-related cognitive decline and possibly reduce risk of dementias. The mechanisms for the exercise protective effects are not known although changes in inflammatory cytokine levels may be involved. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to assess (1) the effects of exercise on cytokines in the brain, (2) the methodological rigour of studies which have examined these exercise effects and (3) the potential role of regular exercise in reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu that may contribute to dementia. We also reviewed the effects of exercise on concurrent pro and anti-apoptotic protein expression in the brain as related to cytokine changes. Five databases were searched until January 2010 with an initial 630 articles identified; 61 articles were retrieved of which 10 met study inclusion criteria. Investigations of both acute and chronic (training) exercise were assessed for methodological quality using a modified PEDro scale. Two studies were carried out with human participants and eight with mouse or rat models; studies differed markedly in design and methodological rigour; the types, intensities and durations of exercise, the cytokine and apoptotic proteins measured, and the regions of the brain (or proxy compartments) sampled. Despite variations in design, specific cytokine outcomes, and exercise type, the 10 studies provide limited evidence that acute strenuous exercise increases and exercise training decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines centrally. Two animal studies relate training associated decreases in pro-inflammatory cytokines with improved cognitive function using behavioural assessments such as the Morris maze. Recommendations for the design of future research on exercise, central cytokines, and cognition are offered.

  2. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  3. 25 CFR 162.588 - What happens if BIA does not meet a deadline for issuing a decision on a lease document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Director does not meet the deadline in paragraph (d) or (e) of this section. (g) The provisions of 25 CFR 2... OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr...

  4. 25 CFR 162.588 - What happens if BIA does not meet a deadline for issuing a decision on a lease document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Director does not meet the deadline in paragraph (d) or (e) of this section. (g) The provisions of 25 CFR 2... OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr...

  5. Sustained submaximal exercise does not alter the integrity of the lung blood-gas barrier in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, S R; Schoene, R B; Henderson, W R; Spragg, R G; West, J B

    1998-04-01

    The extreme thinness of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier results in high mechanical stresses in the capillary wall when the capillary pressure rises during exercise. We have previously shown that, in elite cyclists, 6-8 min of maximal exercise increase blood-gas barrier permeability and result in higher concentrations of red blood cells, total protein, and leukotriene B4 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid compared with results in sedentary controls. To test the hypothesis that stress failure of the barrier only occurs at the highest level of exercise, we performed BAL in six healthy athletes after 1 h of exercise at 77% of maximal O2 consumption. Controls were eight normal nonathletes who did not exercise before BAL. In contrast with our previous study, we did not find higher concentrations of red blood cells, total protein, and leukotriene B4 in the exercising athletes compared with control subjects. However, higher concentrations of surfactant apoprotein A and a higher surfactant apoprotein A-to-phospholipid ratio were observed in the athletes performing prolonged exercise, compared with both the controls and the athletes from our previous study. These results suggest that, in elite athletes, the integrity of the blood-gas barrier is altered only at extreme levels of exercise. PMID:9516183

  6. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  7. Contemporary Day Care: Does It Meet Either Educational or Family Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Marian

    Center-based day care, at its current level of funding, is meeting neither adult nor child needs. Parents, especially working mothers, need child care that is reliable, flexible, professional, and affordable, but day care is rarely flexible, has few accommodations for emergencies, and is often not satisfactory for the maximum development of…

  8. Exercise-induced intrapulmonary shunting of venous gas emboli does not occur after open-sea diving.

    PubMed

    Dujić, Zeljko; Palada, Ivan; Obad, Ante; Duplancić, Darko; Brubakk, Alf O; Valic, Zoran

    2005-09-01

    Paradoxical arterializations of venous gas emboli can lead to neurological damage after diving with compressed air. Recently, significant exercise-induced intrapulmonary anatomical shunts have been reported in healthy humans that result in widening of alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient. The aim of this study was to examine whether intrapulmonary shunts can be found following strenuous exercise after diving and, if so, whether exercise should be avoided during that period. Eleven healthy, military male divers performed an open-sea dive to 30 m breathing air, remaining at pressure for 30 min. During the bottom phase of the dive, subjects performed mild exercise at approximately 30% of their maximal oxygen uptake. The ascent rate was 9 m/min. Each diver performed graded upright cycle ergometry up to 80% of the maximal oxygen uptake 40 min after the dive. Monitoring of venous gas emboli was performed in both the right and left heart with an ultrasonic scanner every 20 min for 60 min after reaching the surface pressure during supine rest and following two coughs. The diving profile used in this study produced significant amounts of venous bubbles. No evidence of intrapulmonary shunting was found in any subject during either supine resting posture or any exercise grade. Also, short strenuous exercise after the dive did not result in delayed-onset decompression sickness in any subject, but studies with a greater number of participants are needed to confirm whether divers should be allowed to exercise after diving.

  9. DOE workshop meeting on the application of positron spectroscopy to materials sciences: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, C.H.

    1993-04-01

    Positron spectroscopy has advanced to the point where it is in the best interest of DOE to assess past progress and to identify research needs/opportunities that can be exploited to advance the understanding of materials problems important to DOE. Purpose of the workshop is to identify areas of materials science where positron spectroscopy can serve to advance goals of DOE in energy research: problem areas for which positron spectroscopy can serve as a unique or complementary tool for materials characterization and analysis, possible sources of positrons at high intensities and instrumentation, and possible applications (defect profiles at surfaces/interfaces, composite materials, superconductors). Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for the 23 papers.

  10. Does 20-min arm crank ergometer exercise increase plasma interleukin-6 in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury?

    PubMed

    Kouda, Ken; Furusawa, Kazunari; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Sumiya, Tadashi; Ito, Tomoyuki; Tajima, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2012-02-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by contracting skeletal muscles and then released into the circulation and considered to mediate the health benefits of exercise against chronic diseases. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are reported to be at higher risk of developing metabolic diseases. We investigated the IL-6 responses to 20-min arm crank ergometer exercise at 60% of maximum oxygen consumption in eight trained individuals with cervical SCI (CSCI) between C6 and C7, and eight able-bodied trained healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of IL-6, adrenaline, prostaglandin E(2) and cortisol were measured before, immediately after the exercise, 1 and 2 h after exercise. At rest, the plasma adrenaline concentration was significantly lower in individuals with CSCI than in able-bodied subjects (P < 0.01). On the other hand, the concentration of IL-6 was significantly higher at rest in individuals with CSCI (2.18 ± 0.44 pg/ml, mean ± SEM) than the control (1.02 ± 0.22 pg/ml, P < 0.05). In able-bodied subjects, the plasma adrenaline concentration increased significantly immediately after the exercise (P < 0.01) and returned to the baseline level at 1 h after exercise, and the plasma IL-6 level increased significantly at 1 h after exercise (1.91 ± 0.28 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and returned to the baseline level at 2 h after exercise. In contrast, adrenaline and IL-6 levels were steady throughout the study in individuals with CSCI. The lack of exercise-related IL-6 response in individuals with CSCI could be due to muscle atrophy and sympathetic nervous system dysfunction.

  11. Protein supplementation does not alter intramuscular anabolic signaling or endocrine response after resistance exercise in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Boone, Carleigh H; Beyer, Kyle S; Baker, Kayla M; Wells, Adam J; Church, David D; Mangine, Gerald T; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Moon, Jordan R; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway appears to be the primary regulator of muscle protein synthesis. A variety of stimuli including resistance exercise, amino acids, and hormonal signals activate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a protein supplement on mTORC1 signaling following a resistance exercise protocol designed to promote elevations in circulating hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that the protein supplement would augment the intramuscular anabolic signaling response. Ten resistance-trained men (age, 24.7 ± 3.4 years; weight, 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; height, 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) received either a placebo or a supplement containing 20 g protein, 6 g carbohydrates, and 1 g fat after high-volume, short-rest lower-body resistance exercise. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, immediately, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours after exercise. Fine-needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline, 1 hour, and 5 hours after exercise. Myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after resistance exercise (P < .0001); however, no differences were observed between trials. Resistance exercise also elicited a significant insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol response (P < .01); however, no differences were observed between trials for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, testosterone, growth hormone, or cortisol. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed significant elevations in RPS6 phosphorylation after resistance exercise (P = .001); however, no differences were observed between trials for signaling proteins including Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6. The endocrine response and phosphorylation status of signaling proteins within the mTORC1 pathway did not appear to be altered by ingestion of supplement after resistance exercise in resistance-trained men. PMID:26428621

  12. Protein supplementation does not alter intramuscular anabolic signaling or endocrine response after resistance exercise in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Boone, Carleigh H; Beyer, Kyle S; Baker, Kayla M; Wells, Adam J; Church, David D; Mangine, Gerald T; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Moon, Jordan R; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway appears to be the primary regulator of muscle protein synthesis. A variety of stimuli including resistance exercise, amino acids, and hormonal signals activate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a protein supplement on mTORC1 signaling following a resistance exercise protocol designed to promote elevations in circulating hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that the protein supplement would augment the intramuscular anabolic signaling response. Ten resistance-trained men (age, 24.7 ± 3.4 years; weight, 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; height, 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) received either a placebo or a supplement containing 20 g protein, 6 g carbohydrates, and 1 g fat after high-volume, short-rest lower-body resistance exercise. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, immediately, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours after exercise. Fine-needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline, 1 hour, and 5 hours after exercise. Myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after resistance exercise (P < .0001); however, no differences were observed between trials. Resistance exercise also elicited a significant insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol response (P < .01); however, no differences were observed between trials for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, testosterone, growth hormone, or cortisol. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed significant elevations in RPS6 phosphorylation after resistance exercise (P = .001); however, no differences were observed between trials for signaling proteins including Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6. The endocrine response and phosphorylation status of signaling proteins within the mTORC1 pathway did not appear to be altered by ingestion of supplement after resistance exercise in resistance-trained men.

  13. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  15. Acute acetaminophen ingestion does not alter core temperature or sweating during exercise in hot-humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Coombs, G B; Cramer, M N; Ravanelli, N M; Morris, N B; Jay, O

    2015-06-01

    Acute acetaminophen (ACT) ingestion has been reported to reduce thermal strain during cycling in the heat. In this study, nine active participants ingested 20 mg of ACT per kg of total body mass (ACT) or a placebo (PLA), 60 min prior to cycling at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (ACT: 8.3 ± 0.3 W/kg; PLA: 8.5 ± 0.5 W/kg), which was equivalent to 55 ± 6% VO2max , for 60 min at 34.5 ± 0.1 °C, 52 ± 1% relative humidity. Resting rectal temperature (Tre ; ACT: 36.70 ± 0.17 °C; PLA: 36.80 ± 0.16 °C, P = 0.24), esophageal temperature (Tes ; ACT: 36.54 ± 0.22 °C; PLA: 36.61 ± 0.17 °C, P = 0.50) and mean skin temperature (Tsk ; ACT: 34.00 ± 0.14 °C; PLA: 33.96 ± 0.20 °C, P = 0.70) were all similar among conditions. At end-exercise, no differences in ΔTre (ACT: 1.12 ± 0.15 °C; PLA: 1.11 ± 0.21 °C, P = 0.92), ΔTes (ACT: 0.90 ± 0.28 °C; PLA: 0.88 ± 0.23 °C, P = 0.84), ΔTsk (ACT: 0.80 ± 0.39 °C; PLA: 0.70 ± 0.46 °C, P = 0.63), mean local sweat rate (ACT: 1.02 ± 0.15 mg/cm(2) /min; PLA: 1.02 ± 0.13 mg/cm(2) /min, P = 0.98) and whole-body sweat loss (ACT: 663 ± 83 g; PLA: 663 ± 77 g, P = 0.995) were evident. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion and thermal sensation and thermal comfort were not different between ACT and PLA conditions. In conclusion, ACT ingested 60 min prior to moderate intensity exercise in hot-humid conditions does not alter physiologic thermoregulatory control nor perceived strain.

  16. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  17. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  18. A low dose of alcohol does not impact skeletal muscle performance after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Moderate, acute alcohol consumption after eccentric exercise has been shown to magnify the muscular weakness that is typically associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). As it is not known whether this effect is dose-dependent, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a low dose of alcohol on EIMD-related losses in muscular performance. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed either a beverage containing 0.5 g of alcohol per kg bodyweight (as vodka and orange juice) or an isocaloric, isovolumetric non-alcoholic beverage. At least 2 weeks later, they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed the other beverage. Measurement of peak and average peak isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced by the quadriceps was made before and 36 and 60 h post-exercise. Significant decreases in all measures of muscular performance were observed over time under both conditions (all P < 0.05); however, no difference between treatments was evident at any of the measured time points (all P > 0.05). Therefore, consumption of a low dose of alcohol after damaging exercise appears to have no effect on the loss of force associated with strenuous eccentric exercise. PMID:20878178

  19. A low dose of alcohol does not impact skeletal muscle performance after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Moderate, acute alcohol consumption after eccentric exercise has been shown to magnify the muscular weakness that is typically associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). As it is not known whether this effect is dose-dependent, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a low dose of alcohol on EIMD-related losses in muscular performance. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed either a beverage containing 0.5 g of alcohol per kg bodyweight (as vodka and orange juice) or an isocaloric, isovolumetric non-alcoholic beverage. At least 2 weeks later, they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed the other beverage. Measurement of peak and average peak isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced by the quadriceps was made before and 36 and 60 h post-exercise. Significant decreases in all measures of muscular performance were observed over time under both conditions (all P < 0.05); however, no difference between treatments was evident at any of the measured time points (all P > 0.05). Therefore, consumption of a low dose of alcohol after damaging exercise appears to have no effect on the loss of force associated with strenuous eccentric exercise.

  20. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. PMID:26380361

  1. Proceedings of the DOE/Industry Sensor Working Group meeting, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This paper report contains topics presented at a sensor workshop group meeting. The topics describe measuring instruments of use in the pulp and paper industry. Topics include: measurement of solids fraction; process instrumentation research for the pulp paper industry; real-time non-contact optical surface motion monitor; on-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties; hierarchical intelligent control of industrial processes -- an in-parallel lime kiln application; proposal for research on lignin concentration measurement in pulping liquors; and advanced polymeric sensor materials for industrial drying.

  2. Does prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation influence the oxygen uptake at rest and post-exercise?

    PubMed

    Montenegro, R; Okano, A H; Cunha, F A; Fontes, E B; Farinatti, P

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over prefrontal cortex on the oxygen uptake (V˙ O2) at rest and during post-exercise recovery. The V˙ O2 was assessed in eleven healthy subjects before, during tDCS (sham or anodal tDCS, 2 mA, 20 min), and 30-min following isocaloric aerobic exercise (~200 kcal). During tDCS, no changes were observed on V˙ O2 compared to baseline (P=0.95) and sham condition (P=0.85). The association between isocaloric exercise and anodal tDCS increased the V˙ O2 throughout 30-min recovery compared to sham condition (P<0.001). Therefore, the energy expenditure within the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) period, after anodal tDCS was approximately 19% higher compared to the sham condition (P<0.05). In conclusion, anodal tDCS applied on the prefrontal cortex combined with submaximal aerobic exercise increased the EPOC, enhancing the V˙ O2 and energy expenditure at least for 30-min of recovery.

  3. Does impaired O2 delivery during exercise accentuate central and peripheral fatigue in patients with coexistent COPD-CHF?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Mayron F.; Zelt, Joel T. J.; Jones, Joshua H.; Hirai, Daniel M.; O'Donnell, Denis E.; Verges, Samuel; Neder, J. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in oxygen (O2) delivery to the central nervous system (“brain”) and skeletal locomotor muscle during exercise has been associated with central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue in healthy humans. From a clinical perspective, impaired tissue O2 transport is a key pathophysiological mechanism shared by cardiopulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). In addition to arterial hypoxemic conditions in COPD, there is growing evidence that cerebral and muscle blood flow and oxygenation can be reduced during exercise in both isolated COPD and CHF. Compromised cardiac output due to impaired cardiopulmonary function/interactions and blood flow redistribution to the overloaded respiratory muscles (i.e., ↑work of breathing) may underpin these abnormalities. Unfortunately, COPD and CHF coexist in almost a third of elderly patients making these mechanisms potentially more relevant to exercise intolerance. In this context, it remains unknown whether decreased O2 delivery accentuates neuromuscular manifestations of central and peripheral fatigue in coexistent COPD-CHF. If this holds true, it is conceivable that delivering a low-density gas mixture (heliox) through non-invasive positive pressure ventilation could ameliorate cardiopulmonary function/interactions and reduce the work of breathing during exercise in these patients. The major consequence would be increased O2 delivery to the brain and active muscles with potential benefits to exercise capacity (i.e., ↓central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue, respectively). We therefore hypothesize that patients with coexistent COPD-CHF stop exercising prematurely due to impaired central motor drive and muscle contractility as the cardiorespiratory system fails to deliver sufficient O2 to simultaneously attend the metabolic demands of the brain and the active limb muscles. PMID:25610401

  4. Comparison of Different Forms of Exercise Training in Patients With Cardiac Disease: Where Does High-Intensity Interval Training Fit?

    PubMed

    Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program.

  5. Does impaired O2 delivery during exercise accentuate central and peripheral fatigue in patients with coexistent COPD-CHF?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mayron F; Zelt, Joel T J; Jones, Joshua H; Hirai, Daniel M; O'Donnell, Denis E; Verges, Samuel; Neder, J Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in oxygen (O2) delivery to the central nervous system ("brain") and skeletal locomotor muscle during exercise has been associated with central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue in healthy humans. From a clinical perspective, impaired tissue O2 transport is a key pathophysiological mechanism shared by cardiopulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). In addition to arterial hypoxemic conditions in COPD, there is growing evidence that cerebral and muscle blood flow and oxygenation can be reduced during exercise in both isolated COPD and CHF. Compromised cardiac output due to impaired cardiopulmonary function/interactions and blood flow redistribution to the overloaded respiratory muscles (i.e., ↑work of breathing) may underpin these abnormalities. Unfortunately, COPD and CHF coexist in almost a third of elderly patients making these mechanisms potentially more relevant to exercise intolerance. In this context, it remains unknown whether decreased O2 delivery accentuates neuromuscular manifestations of central and peripheral fatigue in coexistent COPD-CHF. If this holds true, it is conceivable that delivering a low-density gas mixture (heliox) through non-invasive positive pressure ventilation could ameliorate cardiopulmonary function/interactions and reduce the work of breathing during exercise in these patients. The major consequence would be increased O2 delivery to the brain and active muscles with potential benefits to exercise capacity (i.e., ↓central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue, respectively). We therefore hypothesize that patients with coexistent COPD-CHF stop exercising prematurely due to impaired central motor drive and muscle contractility as the cardiorespiratory system fails to deliver sufficient O2 to simultaneously attend the metabolic demands of the brain and the active limb muscles. PMID:25610401

  6. Does wearing clothing made of a synthetic “cooling” fabric improve indoor cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sara J; Krug, Robin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the effects of a clothing ensemble made of a synthetic fabric promoted as having superior cooling properties (COOL) on exercise performance and its physiological and perceptual determinants during cycle exercise in ambient laboratory conditions that mimic environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. Twenty athletes (15 men:5 women) aged 25.8 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SEM) with a maximal rate of O2 consumption of 63.7 ± 1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed cycle exercise testing at 85% of their maximal incremental power output to exhaustion while wearing an ensemble consisting of a fitted long-sleeved shirt and full trousers made of either COOL or a synthetic control fabric (CTRL). Exercise endurance time was not different under COOL versus CTRL conditions: 12.38 ± 0.98 versus 11.75 ± 1.10 min, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, COOL had no effect on detailed thermoregulatory (skin and esophageal temperatures), cardiometabolic, ventilatory, and perceptual responses to exercise (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, clothing made of a synthetic fabric with purported “cooling” properties did not improve high-intensity cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes under ambient laboratory conditions that mimic the environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. PMID:26290527

  7. Comparison of Different Forms of Exercise Training in Patients With Cardiac Disease: Where Does High-Intensity Interval Training Fit?

    PubMed

    Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program. PMID:26927863

  8. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans: insight from right atrial pacing during maximal exercise

    PubMed Central

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R; Secher, N H; González-Alonso, J; Mortensen, S P

    2014-01-01

    In humans, maximal aerobic power () is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax) and remained unchanged until exhaustion. SV initially increased, plateaued and then decreased before exhaustion (P < 0.05) despite an increase in right atrial pressure (RAP) and a tendency (P = 0.056) for a reduction in left ventricular transmural filling pressure (LVFP). Atrial pacing increased HRmax from 184 ± 2 to 206 ± 3 beats min−1 (P < 0.05), but remained similar to the control condition at all intensities because of a lower SV and LVFP (P < 0.05). No differences in arterial pressure, peripheral haemodynamics, catecholamines or were observed, but pacing increased the rate pressure product and RAP (P < 0.05). Atrial pacing had a similar effect on haemodynamics during KEE, except that pacing decreased RAP. In conclusion, the human heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit in healthy individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict close to . Key points During high intensity whole-body exercise, systemic and contracting skeletal muscle O2 delivery and uptake (>) are compromised, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We evaluated the effect of a ∼20 beats min−1 increase in heart rate (HR) by right atrial pacing during incremental cycling and knee

  9. Level of dietary protein does not impact whole body protein turnover during an exercise induced energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: This study examined the effect of a high protein diet on whole body protein turnover during an exercise-induced energy deficit. A sustained energy deficit induced by energy intake restriction increases protein catabolism which can cause lean-body mass loss. A high-protein diet has be...

  10. How Does an Activity Theory Model Help to Know Better about Teaching with Electronic-Exercise-Bases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboud-Blanchard, Maha; Cazes, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this paper relies on Activity Theory and particularly on Engestrom's model, to better understand the use of Electronic-Exercise-Bases (EEB) by mathematics teachers. This theory provides a holistic approach to illustrate the complexity of the EEB integration. The results highlight reasons and ways of using EEB and show…

  11. Does functional alteration of the gonadotropic axis occur in endurance trained athletes during and after exercise? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Duclos, M; Corcuff, J B; Rashedi, M; Fougere, V; Manier, G

    1996-01-01

    In men, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis controls the secretion of testosterone which, in this sex, is a major anabolic hormone. Physical exercise modulates testosterone concentration, affecting the whole axis by poorly understood mechanisms. We have reported in this preliminary study the short and long-term effects of exercise on the function of the gonadotropic axis in trained compared to untrained subjects. Environmental factors known to interfere with pituitary function were minimized. Four marathon and four sedentary men, were studied during 5 days successively using different combinations of two factors: duration and intensity of running tests. Day 0 (D0) was a rest day, and the exercises were: D1 and D2 brief (20 min), light (50% maximal heart rate, HRmax, D1) or intense (80% HRmax, D2), D3 and D4 prolonged (120 min) and light (50% HRmax, D3) or intense (80% HRmax, D4). Testosterone (free and total) and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations were measured before, during and after exercise. The baseline concentrations of plasma testosterone were lower in the long distance runners than in the sedentary group [41.8 (SEM 5.5) vs 64.5 (SEM 7.9) pmol.l-1, respectively; P < 0.05]. This phenomenon was centrally mediated as LH concentration was apparently inappropriately low [3.4 (SEM 0.4) vs 4.3 (SEM 1.0) UI.l-1; P > 0.05]. Light to moderate exercise did not modify testosterone and LH concentrations. Conversely, intense and prolonged exercise increased testosterone concentration [73.2 (SEM 9.0) vs 92 (SEM 11.0) pmol.l-1 in the long distance runners and sedentary group, respectively; P < 0.05] and lowered LH concentrations [2.1 (SEM 0.3) vs 3.4 (SEM 0.3) UI.l-1 in the long distance runners and sedentary group, respectively; P < 0.05 compared to D0, at the same time]. In our conditions of exercise, negative feedback of testosterone upon LH persisted, as positive feedback of low testosterone concentrations was apparently lacking (inappropriately low LH

  12. Exercise training from late middle age until senescence does not attenuate the declines in skeletal muscle aerobic function.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Thomas, Melissa M; Wright, Kathryn J; Riel, Caitlin D; Hepple, Russell T

    2009-09-01

    We previously showed that 7 wk of treadmill exercise training in late-middle-aged rats can reverse the modest reductions in skeletal muscle aerobic function and enzyme activity relative to values in young adult rats (Exp Physiol 93: 863-871, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether extending this training program into senescence would attenuate the accelerated decline in the muscle aerobic machinery normally seen at this advanced age. For this purpose, 29-mo-old Fisher 344 Brown-Norway rats underwent 5 or 7 mo of treadmill exercise training. Training resulted in greater exercise capacity during an incremental treadmill exercise test and reduced percent body fat in 34- and 36-mo-old rats and improved survival. Despite these benefits at the whole body level, in situ muscle aerobic capacity and muscle mass were not greater in the trained groups at 34 mo or 36 mo of age. Similarly, the trained groups did not have higher activities of citrate synthase (CS) or Complex IV in homogenates of either the plantaris (fast twitch) or the soleus (slow twitch) muscles at either age. Finally, protein expression of CS (a marker of mitochondrial content) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (relating to the drive on mitochondrial biogenesis) were not higher in the trained groups. Therefore, although treadmill training from late middle age into senescence had significant benefits on running capacity, survival, and body fat, it did not prevent the declines in muscle mass, muscle aerobic capacity, or mitochondrial enzyme activities normally seen across this age, revealing a markedly diminished plasticity of the aerobic machinery in response to endurance exercise at advanced age.

  13. Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites ('entheses') in relation to exercise and/or mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M; Toumi, H; Ralphs, J R; Bydder, G; Best, T M; Milz, S

    2006-04-01

    Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure-function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the 'enthesis organ' concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological 'anchorage' sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle-tendon-bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints. PMID:16637873

  14. Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites (‘entheses’) in relation to exercise and/or mechanical load

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Toumi, H; Ralphs, J R; Bydder, G; Best, T M; Milz, S

    2006-01-01

    Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure–function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the ‘enthesis organ’ concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological ‘anchorage’ sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle–tendon–bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints. PMID:16637873

  15. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  16. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--Surface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) 6th Annual PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen Ed., T.C.

    2011-04-11

    On behalf of the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program managers in the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD), Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcome to the 2011 SBR Principal Investigators meeting. Thank you in advance for your attendance and your presentations at this year's meeting. As the events in Japan continue to unfold, we are all reminded that the research we perform on radionuclide behavior in the environment has implications beyond legacy waste cleanup and in fact has its place in the discussion on the expanded use of nuclear power. As in the past, there are three broad objectives to the Principal Investigators meeting: (1) to provide opportunities to share research results and promote interactions among the SBR scientists and other invited guests; (2) to evaluate the progress of each project within the program; and (3) to showcase the scientific expertise and research progress over the past year to senior managers within the DOE Office of Science, the technology offices within DOE, and other invited attendees from other Federal Agencies. This past year has seen a few significant changes within BER and within the SBR program. In November, our Associate Director for BER, Anna Palmisano, retired from Federal service. Just this month, Dr. Sharlene Weatherwax (Division Director for Biological Systems Sciences) has been named as the new Associate Director for BER. In August, BER welcomed Dr. Gary Geernaert as the new Division Director for CESD. Gary joins the division from Los Alamos National Laboratory with a background in atmospheric science. Within the SBR program, a new Strategic Plan was completed last June (currently posted on the SBR and the Office of Science website). The new strategic plan is intended to foster integration within the Environmental Systems Science portion of the BER budget that includes both SBR and Terrestrial Ecosystem Sciences (TES). Both these programs share a goal of advancing a

  18. Does Creatine Supplementation Hinder Exercise Heat Tolerance or Hydration Status? A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To critically assess original research addressing the effect of creatine supplementation on exercise heat tolerance and hydration status. Data Sources: We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine, without date limitations, for the following key words: creatine, exercise, thermoregulation, dehydration, hyperthermia, heat tolerance, exertional heat illnesses, and renal function. Our goal was to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of creatine supplementation on hydration status and thermoregulation. Citations from related articles also were identified and retrieved. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. One author initially screened all articles. Fifteen of 95 articles examined the effects of creatine on thermoregulation or hydration status (or both). Two independent reviewers then reviewed these articles. Ten studies were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PEDro scores for the 10 studies ranged from 7 to 10 points (maximum possible score  =  10 points). Conclusions: No evidence supports the concept that creatine supplementation either hinders the body's ability to dissipate heat or negatively affects the athlete's body fluid balance. Controlled experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation at recommended dosages. PMID:19295968

  19. 36 CFR 51.33 - What if a preferred offeror does not timely amend its proposal to meet the terms and conditions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... does not timely amend its proposal to meet the terms and conditions of the best proposal? 51.33 Section 51.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS Right of Preference to a New Concession Contract § 51.33 What if a preferred...

  20. 20 CFR 661.307 - How does the Local Board meet its requirement to conduct business in an open manner under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to conduct business in an open manner under the âsunshine provisionâ of WIA section 117(e)? 661.307... its business in an open manner as required by WIA section 117(e), by making available to the public... Local Governance Provisions § 661.307 How does the Local Board meet its requirement to conduct...

  1. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  2. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  3. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  4. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER...

  5. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER...

  6. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    PubMed Central

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary. PMID:25068141

  7. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Jakob L; Bech, Rune D; Nygaard, Tobias; Sahlin, Kent; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1, n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ∼56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level; nevertheless, the gene expression was not different between groups. Glycogen and most gene expression levels returned to baseline by 24 h in both CHO and H2O. Baseline mRNA expression of NRF-1, COX-IV, GLUT4 and PPAR-α gene targets were higher in trained compared to untrained. Additionally, the proportion of type I muscle fibers positively correlated with baseline mRNA for PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, COX-IV, PPAR-α, and GLUT4 for both trained and untrained. CHO restriction during recovery from glycogen depleting exercise does not improve the mRNA response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, baseline gene expression of key metabolic pathways is higher in trained than untrained. PMID:25677542

  8. Does targeting manual therapy and/or exercise improve patient outcomes in nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A central element in the current debate about best practice management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is the efficacy of targeted versus generic (non-targeted) treatment. Many clinicians and researchers believe that tailoring treatment to NSLBP subgroups positively impacts on patient outcomes. Despite this, there are no systematic reviews comparing the efficacy of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise. This systematic review was undertaken in order to determine the efficacy of such targeted treatment in adults with NSLBP. Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents, AMED and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were electronically searched, reference lists were examined and citation tracking performed. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of targeted manual therapy and/or exercise for NSLPB that used trial designs capable of providing robust information on targeted treatment (treatment effect modification) for the outcomes of activity limitation and pain. Included trials needed to be hypothesis-testing studies published in English, Danish or Norwegian. Method quality was assessed using the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Results Four high-quality randomized controlled trials of targeted manual therapy and/or exercise for NSLBP met the inclusion criteria. One study showed statistically significant effects for short-term outcomes using McKenzie directional preference-based exercise. Research into subgroups requires much larger sample sizes than traditional two-group trials and other included studies showed effects that might be clinically important in size but were not statistically significant with their samples sizes. Conclusions The clinical implications of these results are that they provide very cautious evidence supporting the notion that treatment targeted to subgroups of patients with NSLBP may improve patient outcomes. The results of the studies included in this review

  9. A school-curriculum-based exercise intervention program for two years in pre-pubertal girls does not influence hip structure

    PubMed Central

    Alwis, Gayani; Linden, Christian; Stenevi-Lundgren, Susanna; Ahlborg, Henrik G; Dencker, Magnus; Besjakov, Jack; Gardsell, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2008-01-01

    Background It is known that physical activity during growth has a positive influence on bone mineral accrual, and is thus possibly one strategy to prevent osteoporosis. However, as bone geometry, independent of areal bone mineral density (aBMD), influences fracture risk, this study aimed to evaluate whether hip structure in pre-pubertal girls is also affected by a two-year exercise intervention program. Methods Forty-two girls aged 7–9 years in a school-curriculum-based exercise intervention program comprising 40 minutes of general physical activity per school day (200 minutes per week) were compared with 43 age-matched girls who participated in the general Swedish physical education curriculum comprising a mean of 60 minutes per week. The hip was scanned by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the hip structural analysis (HSA) software was applied to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC, g), areal bone mineral density (aBMD, g/cm2), periosteal diameter, cross-sectional area (CSA, cm2), section modulus (Z, cm3) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI, cm4) of the femoral neck (FN). Annual changes were compared. Subjective duration of physical activity was estimated by questionnaire and objective level of everyday physical activity at follow-up by means of accelerometers worn for four consecutive days. All children remained at Tanner stage 1 throughout the study. Group comparisons were made by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA). Results At baseline, the two groups did not differ with regard to age, anthropometrics or bone parameters. No between-group differences were observed for annual changes in the FN variables measured. Conclusion A two-year school-based moderately intense general exercise program for 7–9-year-old pre-pubertal girls does not influence structural changes in the FN. PMID:18442381

  10. Does skeletal muscle have an 'epi'-memory? The role of epigenetics in nutritional programming, metabolic disease, aging and exercise.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire E; Seaborne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass, quality and adaptability are fundamental in promoting muscle performance, maintaining metabolic function and supporting longevity and healthspan. Skeletal muscle is programmable and can 'remember' early-life metabolic stimuli affecting its function in adult life. In this review, the authors pose the question as to whether skeletal muscle has an 'epi'-memory? Following an initial encounter with an environmental stimulus, we discuss the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms enabling skeletal muscle to adapt, should it re-encounter the stimulus in later life. We also define skeletal muscle memory and outline the scientific literature contributing to this field. Furthermore, we review the evidence for early-life nutrient stress and low birth weight in animals and human cohort studies, respectively, and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms culminating in skeletal muscle dysfunction, metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass across the lifespan. We also summarize and discuss studies that isolate muscle stem cells from different environmental niches in vivo (physically active, diabetic, cachectic, aged) and how they reportedly remember this environment once isolated in vitro. Finally, we will outline the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle memory and review the epigenetic regulation of exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptation, highlighting exercise interventions as suitable models to investigate skeletal muscle memory in humans. We believe that understanding the 'epi'-memory of skeletal muscle will enable the next generation of targeted therapies to promote muscle growth and reduce muscle loss to enable healthy aging.

  11. Exercise and Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... supporting your weight against gravity. This promotes bone density and protects against osteoporosis. What does cardiovascular exercise ... doing different activities, such as tennis and swimming. Water-based activities, such as swimming or water aerobics, ...

  12. Citrulline does not enhance blood flow, microvascular circulation, or myofibrillar protein synthesis in elderly men at rest or following exercise.

    PubMed

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Cotie, Lisa M; MacDonald, Maureen J; Mitchell, Cameron J; Prior, Todd; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-07-01

    Aging is associated with anabolic resistance, a reduced sensitivity of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to postprandial hyperaminoacidemia, particularly with low protein doses. Impairments in postprandial skeletal muscle blood flow and/or microvascular perfusion with hyperaminoacidemia and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to anabolic resistance. We examined whether providing citrulline, a precursor for arginine and nitric oxide synthesis, would increase arterial blood flow, skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion, MPS, and signaling through mTORC1. Twenty-one elderly males (65-80 yr) completed acute unilateral resistance exercise prior to being assigned to ingest a high dose (45 g) of whey protein (WHEY) or a low dose (15 g) of whey protein with 10 g of citrulline (WHEY + CIT) or with 10 g of nonessential amino acids (WHEY + NEAA). A primed, continuous infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine with serial muscle biopsies was used to measure MPS and protein phosphorylation, whereas ultrasound was used to measure microvascular circulation under basal and postprandial conditions in both a rested (FED) and exercised (EX-FED) leg. Argininemia was greater in WHEY + CIT vs. WHEY and WHEY + NEAA from 30 to 300 min postexercise (P < 0.001), but there were no treatment differences in blood flow or microvascular perfusion (all P > 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6K-Thr(389) was greater in WHEY vs. WHEY + NEAA (P = 0.02). Postprandial MPS was greater in WHEY vs. WHEY + CIT and WHEY + NEAA under both FED (WHEY: ~128%; WHEY + CIT: ~56%; WHEY + NEAA: ~38%) and EX-FED (WHEY: ~251%; WHEY + CIT: ~124%; WHEY + NEAA: ~108%) conditions (P = 0.003). Citrulline coingestion with a low quantity of protein was ineffective in augmenting the anabolic properties of protein compared with nonessential amino acids.

  13. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control Usual care. Measurements Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies. PMID:24591821

  14. 77 FR 23673 - Notice of Stakeholder Meeting: Industry Roundtable-DON/USDA/DOE/DOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... biofuels supply chain. The purpose of the roundtable meeting is for the federal government to present... Chain: (feedstock provider, bio-refiner, finished products distributor, integrated effort,...

  15. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-02-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE.

  16. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed Central

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night’s sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660

  17. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-02-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660

  18. Muscle-Specific Overexpression of PGC-1α Does Not Augment Metabolic Improvements in Response to Exercise and Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kari E.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Slentz, Dorothy H.; Seiler, Sarah E.; DeBalsi, Karen L.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Crain, Karen I.; Kinter, Michael T.; Kien, C. Lawrence; Stevens, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    This study used mice with muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator that promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, to determine whether increased oxidative potential facilitates metabolic improvements in response to lifestyle modification. MCK-PGC1α mice and nontransgenic (NT) littermates were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks, followed by stepwise exposures to voluntary wheel running (HFD+Ex) and then 25% caloric restriction with exercise (Ex/CR), each for an additional 10 weeks with continued HFD. Running and CR improved weight and glucose control similarly in MCK-PGC1α and NT mice. Sedentary MCK-PGC1α mice were more susceptible to diet-induced glucose intolerance, and insulin action measured in isolated skeletal muscles remained lower in the transgenic compared with the NT group, even after Ex/CR. Comprehensive profiling of >200 metabolites and lipid intermediates revealed dramatic group-specific responses to the intervention but did not produce a lead candidate that tracked with changes in glucose tolerance irrespective of genotype. Instead, principal components analysis identified a chemically diverse metabolite cluster that correlated with multiple measures of insulin responsiveness. These findings challenge the notion that increased oxidative capacity defends whole-body energy homeostasis and suggest that the interplay between mitochondrial performance, lipotoxicity, and insulin action is more complex than previously proposed. PMID:25422105

  19. The exercise-induced myokine irisin does not show an association with depressiveness, anxiety and perceived stress in obese women.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, T; Elbelt, U; Ahnis, A; Obbarius, A; Rose, M; Klapp, B F; Stengel, A

    2016-04-01

    Irisin has recently been proposed to act as a myokine secreted from skeletal muscle following exercise and to exert several health-beneficial effects, although its role is far from being established. In contrast to the growing body of literature on the biological regulation and function of irisin, there is no evidence on potential associations with mental functions. Since physical activity has been reported to have favorable impact on mental functions, we investigated the association of irisin with depressiveness, perceived stress, and anxiety as well as eating disorder symptoms in obese women. We included 98 female obese inpatients (age: mean ± S.D. 43.9 ± 12.5 years; body mass index 49.2 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)) covering a broad spectrum of psychopathology. Depressiveness (PHQ-9), perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and eating disorder symptoms (EDI-2) were assessed psychometrically. Plasma irisin obtained at the same time was determined by ELISA. Irisin did not correlate with depressiveness (r = -0.03, P = 0.80), anxiety (r = 0.14, P = 0.17) and perceived stress (r = -0.14, P = 0.18) as well as eating disorder symptoms in general (r = -0.09, P = 0.39). No correlation of irisin was observed with any subscales of the PSQ-20 and EDI-2 (after Bonferroni correction). In conclusion, irisin is not associated with depressiveness, anxiety and perceived stress in female obese patients. These results do not support the assumption of irisin being involved in psychoendocrine pathways of the regulation of depression or other mental functions such as anxiety and perceived stress. PMID:27226179

  20. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  1. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  2. Event mapping meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, L.; Mason, D.

    1997-02-20

    A one-day meeting was held by the authors to evaluate how the strategic lab workshops would tie to this year`s tactical planning exercise. In particular, they wanted to find recent events that would support the tactical goal decisions of the Lab, and they wanted to find events that verify the Lab`s present course. The events which are each briefly discussed are: Galvin Commission recommends consolidating DOE defense labs (1995); Congressional subcommittee staff force budget cuts and consolidation (1995); 28% of DOE/DP budget held back pending completion of a clear 5-yr plan for nukes (1995); DOD and DOE focus on dual use (1995); LANL work includes weapons rebuilds (1995); LANL chosen by DOE to develop and test advanced remediation techniques (1995); AGEX/DARHT Project is stopped by suits from environmental activities (1996); Non-proliferation treaty renewed (1996); US complies with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996); Capability based deterrence policy put into place (1998); Stockpile shrinks to approximately 2000 weapons (2005); DOE weapons labs re-chartered as true national labs (1996); DOE terminates all nuclear weapons testing support (1996); Industrial projects at LANL up 20% from previous year (1997); NIST-ATP Program becomes an interagency process (1997); DOE warns that spent commercial reactor fuels is a major proliferation threat (1998); Non-lethal weapons work helps to reshape LANL image (1998); Global warning theory proven (2005); Overall US spending on science has been flat or decreasing for three years (1998); and Economic role of LANL in northern New Mexico declines (2005).

  3. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  4. Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Jane Lau of the Joint BioEnergy Institute on "Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  5. Regulation of Flowering in Brachypodium distachyon (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Amasino, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Rick Amasino of the University of Wisconsin on "Regulation of Flowering in Brachypodium distachyon" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  6. PMI: Plant-Microbe Interfaces (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Schadt, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Christopher Schadt of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Plant-Microbe Interactions" in the context of poplar trees at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 held in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  7. Genomics of Climate Resilience (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-03-27

    Eldredge Bermingham of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute-Panama on "Genomics of climate resilience" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  8. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Meeting DOE Challenge Home Program Certification - Chicago, IL; Denver, CO; Devens, MA

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-01

    In this project, three production home builders—K. Hovnanian Homes, David Weekley Homes, and Transformations, Inc.—partnered with Building America team Building Science Corporation to evaluate the certification of five test homes to the new DOE Challenge Home program performance standard (now DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program). The builders identified key benefits and barriers that impacted the certification of the test homes, and the likelihood of whether DOE Challenge Home certification would be pursued in future homes

  9. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; Rooyackers, Olav; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids (EAAs). Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied EAAs with leucine, EAAs without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAAs and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.

  10. The order of exercise during concurrent training for rehabilitation does not alter acute genetic expression, mitochondrial enzyme activity or improvements in muscle function.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Lauren G; Glover, Elisa; Bergstra, T Graham; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent exercise combines different modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic and resistance) into one training protocol, providing stimuli meant to increase muscle strength, aerobic capacity and mass. As disuse is associated with decrements in strength, aerobic capacity and muscle size concurrent training is an attractive modality for rehabilitation. However, interference between the signaling pathways may result in preferential improvements for one of the exercise modes. We recruited 18 young adults (10 ♂, 8 ♀) to determine if order of exercise mode during concurrent training would differentially affect gene expression, protein content and measures of strength and aerobic capacity after 2 weeks of knee-brace induced disuse. Concurrent exercise sessions were performed 3x/week for 6 weeks at gradually increasing intensities either with endurance exercise preceding (END>RES) or following (RES>END) resistance exercise. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 3 h after the first exercise bout and 48 h after the end of training. Concurrent exercise altered the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC, PPARγ), hypertrophy (PGC-1α4, REDD2, Rheb) and atrophy (MuRF-1, Runx1), increased electron transport chain complex protein content, citrate synthase and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity, muscle mass, maximum isometric strength and VO 2peak. However, the order in which exercise was completed (END>RES or RES>END) only affected the protein content of mitochondrial complex II subunit. In conclusion, concurrent exercise training is an effective modality for the rehabilitation of the loss of skeletal muscle mass, maximum strength, and peak aerobic capacity resulting from disuse, regardless of the order in which the modes of exercise are performed.

  11. Exercise physiology of the older horse.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Kenneth Harrington

    2002-12-01

    Surveys indicate that up to 15% of the equine population in the United States is older than 20 years of age, with many of these animals performing various athletic activities well into their 20s. As is the case with their human counterparts, these geriatric equine athletes have the ability to continue to perform in athletic events. Unfortunately, many horse owners continue to train their active older animals using exercise training protocols that, although appropriate for a younger animal, may not be appropriate for the older equine athlete. Studies in aged human beings have led to a fine-tuning of exercise prescription for the older human athlete so as to prevent the adverse and potentially dangerous effects of excessive work. Published results have led to new and improved programs to promote fitness for the growing population of older adults. Unfortunately, limited data exist regarding the exercise capacity of the aged horse. Future studies on the effects of aging on exercise capacity in equine athletes need to take a few major directions. One question to be answered is at what age does physiologic function first begin to decline in the horse? In human beings, this age varies with training, but noticeable changes in aerobic capacity are first seen in 40- to 50-year-olds. Second, data are needed to determine what levels of exercise enhance the health and well-being of the older horse without harm. Lastly, studies are needed to determine the physiologic mechanisms associated with the onset of aging-induced decreases in physiologic function in the horse. The ultimate goal of all these studies should be to adjust exercise levels to meet the needs of the growing population of athletically active older equine athletes.

  12. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. 20 CFR 404.1650 - Action we will take if a State agency does not meet the standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not meet the standards. 404.1650 Section 404.1650 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... performance support described in §§ 404.1660, 404.1661 and 404.1662 for a period of up to 12 months. Performance Monitoring and Support...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1050 - Action we will take if a State agency does not meet the standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not meet the standards. 416.1050 Section 416.1050 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... performance support described in §§ 416.1060, 416.1061 and 416.1062 for a period of up to 12 months. Performance Monitoring and Support...

  15. Aerobic exercise training increases circulating IGFBP-1 concentration, but does not attenuate the reduction in circulating IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Steven J.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Brandauer, Josef; Weiss, Edward P.; Hagberg, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) has metabolic effects throughout the body and its expression is regulated in part by insulin. Circulating IGFBP-1 predicts development of cardiometabolic diseases in longitudinal studies and low IGFBP-1 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and consumption of a high-fat diet. Because of the favorable metabolic effects of regular aerobic exercise, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would increase plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations and attenuate the reduction in IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal. Methods Ten overweight (BMI=28.7±0.9kg/m2), older (61±2yr) men and women underwent high-fat feeding and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) at baseline and after 6 months of aerobic exercise training. Results In response to aerobic exercise training, subjects increased cardiorespiratory fitness 13% (p<0.05) and insulin sensitivity index 28% (p<0.05). Basal plasma concentrations of IGFBP-1 increased 41% after aerobic exercise training (p<0.05). The insulin response to an OGTT was a significant predictor of fasting plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (p=0.02). In response to the high-fat meal at baseline, plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations decreased 58% (p<0.001); a 61% decrease to similar postprandial concentrations was observed after exercise training (p<0.001). Plasma insulin response to the high-fat meal was inversely associated with postprandial IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (p=0.06 and p<0.05, respectively). Conclusion While aerobic exercise training did not attenuate the response to a high-fat meal, the increase in IGFBP-1 concentrations after exercise training may be one mechanism by which exercise reduces risk for cardiometabolic diseases in older adults. PMID:21872284

  16. Mitochondrial impairment induced by postnatal ActRIIB blockade does not alter function and energy status in exercising mouse glycolytic muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Béchir, Nelly; Pecchi, Émilie; Relizani, Karima; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Amthor, Helge; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    Because it leads to a rapid and massive muscle hypertrophy, postnatal blockade of the activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) is a promising therapeutic strategy for counteracting muscle wasting. However, the functional consequences remain very poorly documented in vivo. Here, we have investigated the impact of 8-wk ActRIIB blockade with soluble receptor (sActRIIB-Fc) on gastrocnemius muscle anatomy, energy metabolism, and force-generating capacity in wild-type mice, using totally noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic(31)P-MRS. Compared with vehicle (PBS) control, sActRIIB-Fc treatment resulted in a dramatic increase in body weight (+29%) and muscle volume (+58%) calculated from hindlimb MR imaging, but did not alter fiber type distribution determined via myosin heavy chain isoform analysis. In resting muscle, sActRIIB-Fc treatment induced acidosis and PCr depletion, thereby suggesting reduced tissue oxygenation. During an in vivo fatiguing exercise (6-min repeated maximal isometric contraction electrically induced at 1.7 Hz), maximal and total absolute forces were larger in sActRIIB-Fc treated animals (+26 and +12%, respectively), whereas specific force and fatigue resistance were lower (-30 and -37%, respectively). Treatment with sActRIIB-Fc further decreased the maximal rate of oxidative ATP synthesis (-42%) and the oxidative capacity (-34%), but did not alter the bioenergetics status in contracting muscle. Our findings demonstrate in vivo that sActRIIB-Fc treatment increases absolute force-generating capacity and reduces mitochondrial function in glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, but this reduction does not compromise energy status during sustained activity. Overall, these data support the clinical interest of postnatal ActRIIB blockade.

  17. Short-term supplementation with alpha-ketoglutaric acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural does not prevent the hypoxia induced decrease of exercise performance despite attenuation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gatterer, H; Greilberger, J; Philippe, M; Faulhaber, M; Djukic, R; Burtscher, M

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are thought to partly be responsible for the hypoxia induced performance decrease. The present study evaluated the effects of a broad based antioxidant supplementation or the combined intake of alpha-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) on the performance decrease at altitude. 18 healthy, well-trained males (age: 25±3 years; height: 179±6 cm; weight: 76.4±6.8 kg) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to a placebo group (PL), a α-KG and 5-HMF supplementation group (AO1) or a broad based antioxidant supplementation group (AO2). Participants performed 2 incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer; the first test under normoxia and the second under hypoxia conditions (simulated altitude, FiO2=13% ~ 4 300 m). Supplementation started 48 h before the hypoxia test. Maximal oxygen uptake, maximal power output, power output at the ventilatory and lactate threshold and the tissue oxygenation index (NIRS) were measured under both conditions. Oxidative stress markers were measured before the supplementation and after the hypoxia test. Under hypoxia conditions all performance parameters decreased in the range of 19-39% with no differences between groups. A significant change from normoxia to hypoxia (p<0.001) and between groups (p=0.038) were found for the tissue oxygenation index. Post hoc test revealed significant differences between the PL and both, the AO1 and the AO2 group. The oxidative stress parameter carbonyl protein changed from normoxia to hypoxia in all participants and 4-hydroxynonenal decreased in the AO1 group only. In conclusion the results suggest that short-term supplementation with an antioxidant does not prevent the performance decrease at altitude. However, positive effects on muscle oxygen extraction, as indicated by the tissue oxygenation index, might indicate that mitochondrial functioning was actually influenced by the supplementation. PMID:22893323

  18. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise ECG; ECG - exercise treadmill; EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill; CAD - treadmill; Coronary artery disease - treadmill; Chest pain - treadmill; Angina - treadmill; ...

  19. Does acute exercise affect the performance of whole-body, psychomotor skills in an inverted-U fashion? A meta-analytic investigation.

    PubMed

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I

    2015-03-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance.

  20. Does acute exercise affect the performance of whole-body, psychomotor skills in an inverted-U fashion? A meta-analytic investigation.

    PubMed

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I

    2015-03-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance. PMID:25582516

  1. Low-intensity, range-of-motion exercise: invaluable nursing care for elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Dawe, D; Moore-Orr, R

    1995-04-01

    This study looked at the effect of a single session of mild exercise in a group of cognitively unimpaired institutionalized elderly patients, aged 70+, on tests of cognitive performance. Results indicate that mild exercise, such as range-of-motion, does improve the ability to recall and that the effect lasts for at least half an hour. Mild exercise programmes appear to be a practical, low-cost nursing intervention that can enhance memory and independence. Programmes that are designed to meet individual needs and that are incorporated into daily routine and activities without imposing extra effort or inconvenience are more appealing to elderly patients. Exercise can be easily learned and implemented by nurses, personal care attendants or nurse aides. This is an extremely important consideration in a health care system that demands low-cost quality care.

  2. Does the theory of planned behavior mediate the effects of an oncologist's recommendation to exercise in newly diagnosed breast cancer survivors? Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lee W; Courneya, Kerry S; Fairey, Adrian S; Mackey, John R

    2005-03-01

    This randomized trial examined the effects of 2 oncologist-based exercise interventions--recommendation only (RO) and recommendation plus referral (RR)--versus usual care (UC) on social-cognitive constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The authors also examined whether the TPB mediated the significant effect of the RO intervention on exercise and explained the null effect of the RR intervention. Independent t tests revealed that both interventions had significant effects on TPB constructs; however, only the RO intervention impacted perceived behavioral control (PBC). Path analyses indicated that PBC was the only construct with a direct effect on exercise and that it mediated the effect of the RO intervention on exercise and explained the null effect of the RR intervention.

  3. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... of power to help them cope with low self-esteem. Although compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany ... a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...

  4. Underserved patients' perspectives on patient-centered primary care: does the patient-centered medical home model meet their needs?

    PubMed

    Mead, Holly; Andres, Ellie; Regenstein, Marsha

    2014-02-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has gained significant interest as a delivery system model that can improve health care quality while reducing costs. This study uses focus groups to investigate underserved, chronically ill patients' preferences for care and develops a patient-centered framework of priorities. Seven major priorities were identified: (a) communication and partnership, (b) affordable care, (c) coordinated care, (d) personal responsibility, (e) accessible care, (f) education and support resources, and (g) the essential role of nonphysician providers in supporting their care. Using the framework, we analyzed the PCMH joint principals as developed by U.S. medical societies to identify where the PCMH model could be improved to better meet the needs of these patients. Four of the seven patient priorities were identified as not present in or supported by current PCMH joint principles. The study discusses how the PCMH model can better address the needs of low-income, disadvantaged patients.

  5. Home-Based Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... do when I don't have access to physical therapy? While VEDA does not recommend doing vestibular exercises ... already existing ringing Fluid discharge from your ears Pain and ... try a general low-impact and balance-strengthening fitness program. The more ...

  6. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  7. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  8. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Romer, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities. PMID:26834642

  9. Does exercise therapy improve the health-related quality of life of people with knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ryo; Ozawa, Junya; Kito, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise therapy on the health-related QOL of people with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects] Four databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise therapy on health-related QOL assessed by the SF-36 for inclusion in our systematic review. The methodological qualities of the trials were assessed independently by two reviewers using the PEDro scale. Pooled analyses with a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model were used in the meta-analyses to calculate the standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. [Results] Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis provides high-quality evidence that exercise therapy increases the summary score, physical functioning score, and role-physical score of knee osteoarthritis sufferers. Our meta-analysis also provides moderate-quality evidence that the physical component summary and mental component summary scores were improved to a greater extent by exercise therapy than by control interventions. [Conclusion] Exercise therapy can improve health-related QOL, as assessed by the SF-36, of knee osteoarthritis sufferers. PMID:26644699

  10. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R.; Leicht, Christof A.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Romer, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities. PMID:26834642

  11. How Does an Online Patient-Nurse Communication Service Meet the Information Needs of Men with Recently Diagnosed Testicular Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Wibe, Torunn; Hellesø, Ragnhild; Varsi, Cecilie; Ruland, Cornelia; Ekstedt, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    Online communication has become a potential means of communication between patients and health care providers, but so far few studies are published about online communication as part of nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore how an online patient-nurse communication (OPNC) service meets the information needs of men with newly diagnosed testicular cancer. We applied a qualitative approach by examining the content of online messages sent by patients to nurses in a specialist cancer unit. In addition, individual interviews were conducted with patients who had used the OPNC service. Four themes became distinct through a synthesis of the material from the interviews and the messages: “a means for managing illness-related concerns at home,” “a means for ensuring information flow,” “a means for strategic information seeking,” and “not yet available when needed most.” Individualized information provided by nurses with access to their medical record was shown to be important to these patients. The findings of this study indicate that not only may access to an OPNC service help patients fulfill their otherwise unmet information needs, but also it may prevent delays and discontinuity in care due to informational gaps and lead to improved patient safety. PMID:23251816

  12. Validation of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory for Axis II disorders: does it meet the Daubert standard?

    PubMed

    Rogers, R; Salekin, R T; Sewell, K W

    1999-08-01

    Relevant to forensic practice, the Supreme Court in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1993) established the boundaries for the admissibility of scientific evidence that take into account its trustworthiness as assessed via evidentiary reliability. In conducting forensic evaluations, psychologists and other mental health professionals must be able to offer valid diagnoses, including Axis II disorders. The most widely available measure of personality disorders is the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) and its subsequent revisions (MCMI-II and MCMI-III). We address the critical question, "Do the MCMI-II and MCMI-III meet the requirements of Daubert?" Fundamental problems in the scientific validity and error rates for MCMI-III appear to preclude its admissibility under Daubert for the assessment of Axis II disorders. We address the construct validity for the MCMI and MCMI-II via a meta-analysis of 33 studies. The resulting multitrait-multimethod approach allowed us to address their convergent and discriminant validity through method effects (Marsh, 1990). With reference to Daubert, the results suggest a circumscribed use for the MCMI-II with good evidence of construct validity for Avoidant, Schizotypal, and Borderline personality disorders. PMID:10439726

  13. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  14. Exercise does not activate the β3 adrenergic receptor-eNOS pathway, but reduces inducible NOS expression to protect the heart of obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, Adrien; Battault, Sylvain; Belaidi, Elise; Tanguy, Stephane; Rosselin, Marie; Boulghobra, Doria; Meyer, Gregory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Walther, Guillaume; Geny, Bernard; Durand, Gregory; Cazorla, Olivier; Reboul, Cyril

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with higher cardiac vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The cardioprotective effect of regular exercise has been attributed to β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) stimulation and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. Here, we evaluated the role of the β3AR-eNOS pathway and NOS isoforms in exercise-induced cardioprotection of C57Bl6 mice fed with high fat and sucrose diet (HFS) for 12 weeks and subjected or not to exercise training during the last 4 weeks (HFS-Ex). HFS animals were more sensitive to in vivo and ex vivo IR injuries than control (normal diet) and HFS-Ex mice. Cardioprotection in HFS-Ex mice was not associated with increased myocardial eNOS activation and NO metabolites storage, possibly due to the β3AR-eNOS pathway functional loss in their heart. Indeed, a selective β3AR agonist (BRL37344) increased eNOS activation and had a protective effect against IR in control, but not in HFS hearts. Moreover, iNOS expression, nitro-oxidative stress (protein s-nitrosylation and nitrotyrosination) and ROS production during early reperfusion were increased in HFS, but not in control mice. Exercise normalized iNOS level and reduced protein s-nitrosylation, nitrotyrosination and ROS production in HFS-Ex hearts during early reperfusion. The iNOS inhibitor 1400 W reduced in vivo infarct size in HFS mice to control levels, supporting the potential role of iNOS normalization in the cardioprotective effects of exercise training in HFS-Ex mice. Although the β3AR-eNOS pathway is defective in the heart of HFS mice, regular exercise can protect their heart against IR by reducing iNOS expression and nitro-oxidative stress. PMID:27164904

  15. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation.

  16. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (χ2 = 7.447, P < 0.059) and serving in the same utensils (χ2 = 10.866, P < 0.012), were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (χ2 = 13.266, P < 0.004), not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (χ2 = 21.133, P < 0.00) and called with filthy nicknames (χ2 = 8.334, P < 0.040), were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (χ2 = 9.459, P < 0.024), were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (χ2 = 9.823, P < 0.044). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness. PMID:26167021

  17. Building America Case Study: Meeting DOE Challenge Home Program Certification, Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate integrated packages of advanced measures in individual test homes to assess their performance with respect to Building America Program goals, specifically compliance with the DOE Challenge Home Program. BSC consulted on the construction of five test houses by three Cold Climate production builders in three separate US cities. BSC worked with the builders to develop a design package tailored to the cost-related impacts for each builder. Therefore, the resulting design packages do vary from builder to builder. BSC provided support through this research project on the design, construction and performance testing of the five test homes. Overall, the builders have concluded that the energy related upgrades (either through the prescriptive or performance path) represent reasonable upgrades. The builders commented that while not every improvement in specification was cost effective (as in a reasonable payback period), many were improvements that could improve the marketability of the homes and serve to attract more energy efficiency discerning prospective homeowners. However, the builders did express reservations on the associated checklists and added certifications. An increase in administrative time was observed with all builders. The checklists and certifications also inherently increase cost due to: 1. Adding services to the scope of work for various trades, such as HERS Rater, HVAC contractor. 2. Increased material costs related to the checklists, especially the EPA Indoor airPLUS and EPA WaterSense Efficient Hot Water Distribution requirement.

  18. SnapShot: Exercise Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brendan; Hawley, John A; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-08-01

    Exercise represents a major challenge to whole-body homeostasis. To meet this challenge, myriad acute and adaptive responses take place at multiple cellular and systemic levels. The molecular bases of skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise are mediated by an array of signaling events, pre- and post-transcriptional processes, regulation of translation, and ultimately the increased abundance and/or maximal activity of key proteins with roles in energy provision. PMID:27508878

  19. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  20. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation. PMID:25837301

  1. Nutrition and exercise--a consensus view.

    PubMed

    Ron, M

    1995-11-01

    The ability to perform exercise is impaired if the diet is inadequate. Conversely, performance may be improved by appropriate dietary manipulation. The primary need for the diet of athletes in training is to meet additional nutrient requirements imposed by the training load. Many athletes consider that a high protein diet is essential to stimulate muscle growth and promote repair. Evidence shows that hard exercise increases the protein requirement, but athletes eating a varied diet in sufficient quantity to meet their energy demands will obtain adequate protein. Carbohydrate is the main fuel used by the muscle in hard exercise, and carbohydrate intake must be sufficient to enable the training load to be sustained. During each strenuous training session, depletion of the glycogen stores in the exercising muscles and in the liver takes place. If this carbohydrate reserve is not replenished before the next training session, training intensity must be reduced, leading to corresponding decrements in the training response. It is recommended for athletes in training that carbohydrate should account for 60-70% of total energy intake, but the type of carbohydrate consumed is not crucial. With regular training, there must be an increased total energy intake to balance the increased energy expenditure. Provided that a reasonably normal diet is consumed this will supply more than adequate amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins and other micronutrients. Possible exceptions are iron and calcium, especially when energy intake is restricted to control body weight. There is no good evidence to suggest that specific supplementation with any of these dietary components is necessary or that it will improve performance. Attention must be paid, however, to ensure an adequate water intake during training: dehydration will reduce performance. The body does not adapt to dehydration. Consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet for the few days before competition with a reduction in the training

  2. The Magnitude of Peripheral Muscle Fatigue Induced by High and Low Intensity Single-Joint Exercise Does Not Lead to Central Motor Output Reductions in Resistance Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Paul W. M.; Finn, Harrison T.; Siegler, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine quadriceps muscle fatigue and central motor output during fatiguing single joint exercise at 40% and 80% maximal torque output in resistance trained men. Method Ten resistance trained men performed fatiguing isometric knee extensor exercise at 40% and 80% of maximal torque output. Maximal torque, rate of torque development, and measures of central motor output and peripheral muscle fatigue were recorded at two matched volumes of exercise, and after a final contraction performed to exhaustion. Central motor output was quantified from changes in voluntary activation, normalized surface electromyograms (EMG), and V-waves. Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting potentiated twitch (Q.pot.tw). Central motor output during the exercise protocols was estimated from EMG and interpolated twitches applied during the task (VAsub). Results Greater reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development were observed during the 40% protocol (p<0.05). Maximal central motor output did not change for either protocol. For the 40% protocol reductions from pre-exercise in rate and amplitude variables calculated from the Q.pot.tw between 66.2 to 70.8% (p<0.001) exceeded those observed during the 80% protocol (p<0.01). V-waves only declined during the 80% protocol between 56.8 ± 35.8% to 53.6 ± 37.4% (p<0.05). At the end of the final 80% contraction VAsub had increased from 91.2 ± 6.2% to 94.9 ± 4.7% (p = 0.005), but a greater increase was observed during the 40% contraction where VAsub had increased from 67.1 ± 6.1% to 88.9 ± 9.6% (p<0.001). Conclusion Maximal central motor output in resistance trained men is well preserved despite varying levels of peripheral muscle fatigue. Upregulated central motor output during the 40% contraction protocol appeared to elicit greater peripheral fatigue. V-waves declines during the 80% protocol suggest intensity dependent modulation of the Ia afferent pathway. PMID:26439261

  3. Caffeine and exercise.

    PubMed

    Paluska, Scott A

    2003-08-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes. PMID:12834577

  4. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you have never exercised, ... things you enjoy and stay independent as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also ...

  5. The effect of body cooling on oxygen transport during exercise.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, D R

    1988-10-01

    The capability to transport oxygen to muscle limits the ability to exercise. The purpose of this review is to consider the effects of body cooling on the oxygen transport and therefore exercise capacity. Body cooling results in an increase in resting metabolism that is proportional to the decrease in core temperature (Tc). Furthermore, the energy cost of exercise is increased (10-40%) by a 0.5-1.5 degrees C decrease in Tc. The capability to supply oxygen to meet the increased cost of activity is also reduced by 10-40% for a decrease in Tc of 0.5-1.5 degrees C. The reduced oxygen delivery is a result of a combination of decreased respiratory effectiveness, cardiac function, and muscle blood flow. Other than at rest, cardiac output in air or water with and without body cooling increases similarly with oxygen consumption (6 1/1 O2). Body cooling does result in a reduction of maximal heart rate and cardiac output. We postulate that the primary limitation to oxygen transport is a persistent vasoconstriction mediated by the sympathetic system, to increase body insulation, that blunts the local metabolically mediated exercise hyperemia.

  6. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6590.

  7. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016

  8. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. Many teens who play sports have higher self-esteem than their less active pals, and exercise can ... may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  9. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, hiking, running, aerobic dance, biking, rowing, swimming, and cross-country ... Brisk walking can burn as many calories as running, but it is less likely to cause injuries ...

  10. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  11. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  12. ACRF Archive User Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    SA Edgerton; RA McCord; DP Kaiser

    2007-10-30

    On October 30, 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sponsored an all-day workshop to assess the status of the ACRF Archive. Focus areas included usability of current functions, plans for revised functions, proposals for new functions, and an overarching discussion of new ideas. Although 13 scientists familiar with ACRF and the ARM Program were invited to the workshop, only 10 scientists were available to attend the workshop. ACRF consists of the infrastructure that was developed to support the ARM Program and includes the ACRF Archive (previously called the ARM Archive). The scientists who participated in the meeting ranged from those who used the Archive frequently to those who seldom or never had accessed the Archive. The group was spread across disciplines, i.e. modelers, conservationists, and others from universities and government laboratories. A few of the participants were funded by the ARM Program, but most were not funded currently by ARM. During the past year, several improvements were made to the ACRF Archive to link it with the ARM/ACRF web pages, add a shopping cart feature, and expand on search parameters. Additional modifications have been proposed and prototypes of these proposals were made available for the participants. The participants were given several exercises to do before the meeting, and their feedback was requested to help identify potential problems and shortcomings with the existing structure and to recommend improvements.

  13. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise.

    PubMed

    Dudley, G A

    1988-10-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  14. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  15. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging during maximal and submaximal exercise: comparison of submaximal exercise with propranolol

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, P.; Sklar, J.; Kirch, D.; Vogel, R.; Rhodes, C.A.

    1983-12-01

    Propranolol is an effective drug for patients with angina and has been shown to favorably alter exercise ejection fraction and myocardial perfusion images in patients with coronary disease. A characteristic effect of propranolol is reduction in exercise heart rate (HR). Twenty men with coronary disease (10 with prior infarction), angina-limited exercise tests, abnormal myocardial blood flow distribution images (MBFDI) (201thallium) during exercise, and normal resting ejection fractions underwent treadmill exercise testing with imaging on three occasions. Control maximal exercise was performed initially with measurement of MBFDI. Propranolol, 40 mg by mouth four times a day, was administered for a week with exercise repeated to the same workload. A third study, with men off propranolol, was undertaken with exercise continued only to the HR obtained while the men were taking propranolol (submaximal exercise). All men had improvement in MBFDI while receiving propranolol (men without infarction +780 +/- 88 (average +/- SEM) normalized count rate difference between control and propranolol; men with infarction +724 +/- 73 normalized counts). Greater count differences were noted when control exercise and HR-controlled, submaximal exercise MBFDI were compared with a greater difference in men with infarction (+1094 +/- 89 normalized counts) than for men without infarction (+896 +/- 88 normalized counts). Results suggest that propranolol improves MBFDI during exercise in men with angina, but that submaximal exercise results in more normal MBFDI than does propranolol for exercise to the same HR.

  16. Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Schumacher, Vera; Angst, Marius; Theill, Nathan; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Methods Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive–physical programs were found in two dimensions of executive function. “Shifting attention” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE/MEMORY versus PHYS (F[2, 68] =1.95, trend P=0.075, r=0.17); and “working memory” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE versus MEMORY (F[1, 136] =2.71, trend P=0.051, R2=0.006). Performance improvements in executive functions, long-term visual memory (episodic memory), and processing speed were maintained at follow-up in all groups. Conclusion Particular executive functions benefit from simultaneous cognitive–physical training compared to exclusively physical multicomponent training. Cognitive–physical training programs

  17. Post-prandial carbohydrate ingestion during 1-h of moderate-intensity, intermittent cycling does not improve mood, perceived exertion, or subsequent power output in recreationally-active exercisers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion consumed by recreational exercisers during a 1–h, moderate-intensity aerobic workout did not alter mood or perceived exertion, nor did it affect subsequent anaerobic performance under the conditions of this study. Drinking caloric sport beverages does not benefit recreational exercisers in a non-fasted state. PMID:23347391

  18. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  19. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A L

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the

  20. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (−24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the

  1. Is there a need for protein ingestion during exercise?

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-05-01

    Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strategy to enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session by extending the window of opportunity during which the muscle protein synthetic response is facilitated. Protein ingestion during exercise has also been suggested to improve performance capacity acutely. However, recent studies investigating the impact of protein ingestion during exercise on time trial performance, as opposed to time to exhaustion, do not report ergogenic benefits of protein ingestion. Therefore, it is concluded that protein ingestion with carbohydrate during exercise does not further improve exercise performance when compared with the ingestion of ample amounts of carbohydrate only.

  2. Exercise and Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Shop Exercise & Posture About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For The ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  3. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  4. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Divisions Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  5. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  6. Introducing Earth Sciences Students to Modeling Using MATLAB Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    While we subject our students to math and physics and chemistry courses to complement their geological studies, we rarely allow them to experience the joys of modeling earth systems. Given the degree to which modern earth sciences relies upon models of complex systems, it seems appropriate to allow our students to develop some experience with this activity. In addition, as modeling is an unforgivingly logical exercise, it demands the student absorb the fundamental concepts, the assumptions behind them, and the means of constraining the relevant parameters in a problem. These concepts commonly include conservation of some quantity, the fluxes of that quantity, and careful prescription of the boundary and initial conditions. I have used MATLAB as an entrance to this world, and will illustrate the products of the exercises we have worked. This software is platform-independent, and has a wonderful graphics package (including movies) that is embedded intimately as one-to-several line calls. The exercises should follow a progression from simple to complex, and serve to introduce the many discrete tasks within modeling. I advocate full immersion in the first exercise. Example exercises include: growth of spatter cones (summation of parabolic trajectories of lava bombs); response of thermal profiles in the earth to varying surface temperature (thermal conduction); hillslope or fault scarp evolution (topographic diffusion); growth and subsidence of volcanoes (flexure); and coral growth on a subsiding platform in the face of sealevel fluctuations (coral biology and light extinction). These exercises can be motivated by reading a piece in the classical or modern literature that either describes a model, or better yet serves to describe the system well, but does not present a model. I have found that the generation of movies from even the early simulation exercises serves as an additional motivator for students. We discuss the models in each class meeting, and learn that there

  7. Everyday Exercise for Healthy Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sull, Theresa M.

    2005-01-01

    Caring for young children is physically and emotionally demanding, but both parents and teachers experience great satisfaction when they help children develop in healthy ways. Wise caregivers know that they must keep themselves healthy as well, by including exercise in their daily routine. A trip to the gym does not always fit into a schedule…

  8. Regular physical exercise: way to healthy life.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, N I; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A

    2010-01-01

    Any bodily activity or movement that enhances and maintains overall health and physical fitness is called physical exercise. Habit of regular physical exercise has got numerous benefits. Exercise is of various types such as aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and flexibility exercise. Aerobic exercise moves the large muscle groups with alternate contraction and relaxation, forces to deep breath, heart to pump more blood with adequate tissue oxygenation. It is also called cardiovascular exercise. Examples of aerobic exercise are walking, running, jogging, swimming etc. In anaerobic exercise, there is forceful contraction of muscle with stretching, usually mechanically aided and help to build up muscle strength and muscle bulk. Examples are weight lifting, pulling, pushing, sprinting etc. Flexibility exercise is one type of stretching exercise to improve the movements of muscles, joints and ligaments. Walking is a good example of aerobic exercise, easy to perform, safe, effective, does not require any training or equipment and less chance of injury. Regular 30 minutes brisk walking in the morning with 150 minutes per week is a good exercise. Regular exercise improves the cardiovascular status, reduces the risk of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and cerebrovascular disease. It reduces body weight, improves insulin sensitivity, helps in glycemic control, prevents obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is helpful for relieving anxiety, stress, brings a sense of well being and overall physical fitness. Global trend is mechanization, labor savings and leading to epidemic of long term chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases etc. All efforts should be made to create public awareness promoting physical activity, physically demanding recreational pursuits and providing adequate facilities. PMID:20046192

  9. Budget Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel A.

    Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise…

  10. [Exercise addiction].

    PubMed

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  11. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  12. Meetings in Academe: It's Time for an "EXTREME MEETING MAKEOVER!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    Meetings have a bad reputation with faculty. Rarely does one hear a positive word uttered about an upcoming or past meeting. That reputation has metastasized throughout higher education. The primary reason is because meetings can be major time wasters, accomplishing very little, often deteriorating into just another social event, or they may be…

  13. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals.

  14. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with asthma who report symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Benny L; Fiorino, Elizabeth K; Matta-Arroyo, Esther; Needleman, Joshua P

    2006-11-01

    Patients with asthma often report symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. We performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to establish the cause of exercise limitation in patients with asthma, under treatment, who reported symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Ten of the 42 patients meeting criteria for inclusion in our study (24%) developed exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Exercise limitation without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was found in both obese and non-obese patients, suggesting that poor fitness is a problem independent of body habitus. Including cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the management of children with suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction would provide a better understanding of the etiology of their symptoms and facilitate more appropriate treatment.

  15. Assembly-driven metagenomics of a hypersaline microbial ecosystem (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Eric Allen of Scripps and UC San Diego on "Assembly-driven metagenomics of a hypersaline microbial ecosystem" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  16. TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Karsenti, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  17. New Approaches and Technologies to Sequence de novo Plant reference Genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmutz, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on "New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  18. The Challenges and Opportunities for Extending Plant Genomics to Climate (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, David

    2013-03-01

    David Weston of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "The challenges and opportunities for extending plant genomics to climate" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  19. Succession of Phylogeny and Function During Plant Litter Decomposition (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Eoin

    2013-03-01

    Eoin Brodie of Berkeley Lab on "Succession of phylogeny and function during plant litter decomposition" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  20. Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Sean

    2013-03-01

    Sean Gordon of the USDA on "Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  1. Delineating Molecular Interaction Mechanisms in an In Vitro Microbial-Plant Community (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Peter Larsen of Argonne National Lab on "Delineating molecular interaction mechanisms in an in vitro microbial-plant community" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  2. Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium thermocellum for Biofuel Production (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Adam Guss of Oak Ridge National Lab on "Metabolic engineering of Clostridium thermocellum for biofuel production" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  3. Modulation of Root Microbiome Community Assembly by the Plant Immune Response (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Lebeis, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    Sarah Lebeis of University of North Carolina on "Modulation of root microbiome community assembly by the plant immune response" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  4. Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Sam

    2013-03-01

    Sam Hazen of the University of Massachusetts on "Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  5. Biodiversity Monitoring Using NGS Approaches on Unusual Substrates (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Tom Gilbert of the Natural History Museum of Denmark on "Biodiversity monitoring using NGS approaches on unusual substrates" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  6. Regulation of cerebral blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Querido, Jordan S; Sheel, A William

    2007-01-01

    Constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital to human survival. Originally thought to receive steady blood flow, the brain has shown to experience increases in blood flow during exercise. Although increases have not consistently been documented, the overwhelming evidence supporting an increase may be a result of an increase in brain metabolism. While an increase in metabolism may be the underlying causative factor for the increase in CBF during exercise, there are many modulating variables. Arterial blood gas tensions, most specifically the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strongly regulate CBF by affecting cerebral vessel diameter through changes in pH, while carbon dioxide reactivity increases from rest to exercise. Muscle mechanoreceptors may contribute to the initial increase in CBF at the onset of exercise, after which exercise-induced hyperventilation tends to decrease flow by pial vessel vasoconstriction. Although elite athletes may benefit from hyperoxia during intense exercise, cerebral tissue is well protected during exercise, and cerebral oxygenation does not appear to pose a limiting factor to exercise performance. The role of arterial blood pressure is important to the increase in CBF during exercise; however, during times of acute hypotension such as during diastole at high-intensity exercise or post-exercise hypotension, cerebral autoregulation may be impaired. The impairment of an increase in cardiac output during exercise with a large muscle mass similarly impairs the increase in CBF velocity, suggesting that cardiac output may play a key role in the CBF response to exercise. Glucose uptake and CBF do not appear to be related; however, there is growing evidence to suggest that lactate is used as a substrate when glucose levels are low. Traditionally thought to have no influence, neural innervation appears to be a protective mechanism to large increases in cardiac output. Changes in middle cerebral arterial velocity are independent of changes in

  7. The fast exercise drive to breathe.

    PubMed

    Duffin, James

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled 'Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise'. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise. PMID:23940383

  8. The fast exercise drive to breathe.

    PubMed

    Duffin, James

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled 'Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise'. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinases in exercise and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jaoude, Jonathan; Koh, Yunsuk

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs’ functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27471391

  10. Co-ingestion of leucine with protein does not further augment post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Koopman, René; Verdijk, Lex B; Beelen, Milou; Gorselink, Marchel; Kruseman, Arie Nieuwenhuijzen; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Kuipers, Harm; van Loon, Luc J C

    2008-03-01

    Leucine has been suggested to have the potential to modulate muscle protein metabolism by increasing muscle protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the surplus value of the co-ingestion of free leucine with protein hydrolysate and carbohydrate following physical activity in elderly men. Eight elderly men (mean age 73 +/- 1 years) were randomly assigned to two cross-over treatments consuming either carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate (CHO+PRO) or carbohydrate, protein hydrolysate with additional leucine (CHO+PRO+leu) after performing 30 min of standardized physical activity. Primed, continuous infusions with L-[ring-(13)C(6)]phenylalanine and L-[ring-(2)H(2)]tyrosine were applied, and blood and muscle samples were collected to assess whole-body protein turnover as well as protein fractional synthetic rate in the vastus lateralis muscle over a 6 h period. Whole-body protein breakdown and synthesis rates were not different between treatments. Phenylalanine oxidation rates were significantly lower in the CHO+PRO+leu v. CHO+PRO treatment. As a result, whole-body protein balance was significantly greater in the CHO+PRO+leu compared to the CHO+PRO treatment (23.8 (SEM 0.3) v. 23.2 (SEM 0.3) micromol/kg per h, respectively; P < 0.05). Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate averaged 0.081 (SEM 0.003) and 0.082 (SEM 0.006) %/h in the CHO+PRO+leu and CHO+PRO treatment, respectively (NS). Co-ingestion of leucine with carbohydrate and protein following physical activity does not further elevate muscle protein fractional synthetic rate in elderly men when ample protein is ingested. PMID:17697406

  11. Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

  12. NSF commission holds first meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    There has been considerable discussion in Washington science policy circles over the past few weeks about the newly established National Science Board Commission on the Future of the National Science Foundation. The commission, chaired by William Danforth, chancellor of Washington University, and Robert Galvin, former chief executive officer of Motorola, held its first meeting on September 17. Unfortunately, this meeting offered few indications of what changes might result from this exercise.

  13. Appendices to report on DOE analytical laboratory capacity available to meet EM environmental sampling and analysis needs for FY 93-99

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-30

    The DOE Analytical Laboratory Capacity Study was conducted to give EM-263 current information about existing and future analytical capacities and capabilities of site laboratories within the DOE Complex. Each DOE site may have one or more analytical laboratories in operation. These facilities were established to support site missions such as production, research and development, and personnel and environmental monitoring. With changing site missions and the DOE directives for environmental monitoring and cleanup, these laboratories are either devoting or planning to devote resources to support EM activities. The DOE site laboratories represent a considerable amount of capital investment and analytical capability, capacity, and expertise that can be applied to support the EM mission. They not only provide cost-effective high-volume analytical laboratory services, but are also highly recognized analytical research and development centers. Several sites have already transferred their analytical capability from traditional production support to environmental monitoring and waste management support. A model was developed to determine the analytical capacity of all laboratories in the DOE Complex. The model was applied at nearly all the major laboratories and the results collected from these studies are summarized in this report.

  14. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  15. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking. PMID:14971437

  16. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking.

  17. The Cardiovascular Physiology of Sports and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Opondo, Mildred A; Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities. This article reviews the basic principles of exercise physiology, cardiovascular adaptations unique to the "athlete's heart," and the utility of exercise testing in athletes.

  18. The fast exercise drive to breathe

    PubMed Central

    Duffin, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled ‘Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise’. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise. PMID:23940383

  19. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  20. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  1. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  2. Aerobic exercise training increases circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentration, but does not attenuate the reduction in circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 after a high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Prior, Steven J; Jenkins, Nathan T; Brandauer, Josef; Weiss, Edward P; Hagberg, James M

    2012-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) has metabolic effects throughout the body, and its expression is regulated in part by insulin. Circulating IGFBP-1 predicts development of cardiometabolic diseases in longitudinal studies, and low IGFBP-1 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and consumption of a high-fat diet. Because of the favorable metabolic effects of regular aerobic exercise, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would increase plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations and attenuate the reduction in IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal. Ten overweight (body mass index = 28.7 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)), older (61 ± 2 years) men and women underwent high-fat feeding and oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and after 6 months of aerobic exercise training. In response to aerobic exercise training, subjects increased cardiorespiratory fitness by 13% (P < .05) and insulin sensitivity index by 28% (P < .05). Basal plasma concentrations of IGFBP-1 increased by 41% after aerobic exercise training (P < .05). The insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test was a significant predictor of fasting plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (P = .02). In response to the high-fat meal at baseline, plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations decreased by 58% (P < .001); a 61% decrease to similar postprandial concentrations was observed after exercise training (P < .001). Plasma insulin response to the high-fat meal was inversely associated with postprandial IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (P = .06 and P < .05, respectively). Although aerobic exercise training did not attenuate the response to a high-fat meal, the increase in IGFBP-1 concentrations after exercise training may be one mechanism by which exercise reduces risk for cardiometabolic diseases in older adults.

  3. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  4. Exercise by prescription.

    PubMed

    Browne, D

    1997-02-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) see over 90% of their practice population in three years. Over 50% of the adult population is below the perceived level of physical activity as recognised by the Allied Dunbar Physical Activity score (Allied Dunbar, Health Education Authority and Sports Council, 1992). Physical fitness levels in adolescents and children are declining, while the incidence of obesity is increasing. GPs, with their Primary Health Care Team, are in a unique position to be able to discuss the health benefits of regular physical activity with their patients during the consultation and offer, if appropriate, a prescription for a course of physical activity to a local leisure centre or community activity centre. Many communities have facilities for physical activity. These include leisure centres, schools, village and church halls, the home and the general practice surgery. A directory of resources for physical activity for all age groups should be available in the surgery waiting room area. A community co-ordinator can network community facilities and resources to meet individual need. The co-ordinator can be funded by the general practice surgery, Health Authority, Local Authority, Parish or District Council. An agreed protocol for exercise prescription referrals to suitable community facilities can benefit patient health care for a variety of medical, surgical, social and mental conditions. Auditing exercise prescriptions shows a health benefit, with improved quality of living and reduced prescription medicines.

  5. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  6. What Does Washington State Get for Its Investment in Bonuses for Board Certified Teachers? Schools in Crisis: Making Ends Meet. Rapid Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Washington State is set to spend nearly $100 million in the next two years on pay bonuses for teachers who receive national board certification. This investment is supposed to improve the state's teaching force and encourage the most capable teachers to work in high-poverty schools. Does it accomplish those goals? Governor Christine Gregoire's…

  7. 33 CFR 155.4052 - Drills and exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with an alternate program that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 155.1060(a), and has been approved under 33 CFR 155.1065 will also satisfy the vessel response plan exercise requirements. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drills and exercises....

  8. 33 CFR 155.4052 - Drills and exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with an alternate program that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 155.1060(a), and has been approved under 33 CFR 155.1065 will also satisfy the vessel response plan exercise requirements. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drills and exercises....

  9. 33 CFR 155.4052 - Drills and exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with an alternate program that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 155.1060(a), and has been approved under 33 CFR 155.1065 will also satisfy the vessel response plan exercise requirements. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drills and exercises....

  10. 33 CFR 155.4052 - Drills and exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with an alternate program that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 155.1060(a), and has been approved under 33 CFR 155.1065 will also satisfy the vessel response plan exercise requirements. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drills and exercises....

  11. A Summary of Orientation Meetings and Planning Exercises Conducted Within the OCE Coalition, Appendix J. Vol. II, A Plan for Managing the Development, Implementation and Operation of a Model Elementary Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Coll. of Education, Monmouth.

    This report summarizes the orientation meetings and the planning review sessions held with members of all the Oregon College of Education coalition constituencies. Three separate orientation meetings were held, one with staff and administrators from the public schools, one with staff and administrators from the college as a whole, and one with…

  12. Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

  13. Exercise Improves Cognitive Impairment and Dopamine Metabolism in MPTP-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Aderbal S; Lopes, Samantha C; Tristão, Fabrine S M; Rial, Daniel; de Oliveira, Gisele; da Cunha, Cláudio; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Prediger, Rui D

    2016-01-01

    The classical motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are preceded by non-motor symptoms in preclinical stages, including cognition impairment. The current drug treatment for PD is palliative and does not meet the clinical challenges of the disease, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia, non-motor symptoms, and neuroprotection. We investigated the neuroprotective and disease-modifying potential of physical exercise in a preclinical animal model of PD. C57BL/6 mice (adult males) ran on a horizontal treadmill for 6 weeks (moderate intensity, 5 times/week) and were treated intranasally with 65 mg/kg of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Exercise did not protect against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration or frontostriatal dopamine depletion but decreased striatal dopamine turnover. Exercise also attenuated procedural and working memory impairment and D2 receptor hypersensitivity in MPTP-treated mice. In summary, exercise improved dopaminergic neurotransmission and enhanced cognition in a preclinical animal model of PD.

  14. The Cutting Edge in Physical Education and Exercise Science Research. American Academy of Physical Education Papers No. 20. Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (58th, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 7-8, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Physical Education, Washington, DC.

    Ten papers that address the theoretical advances being made in various areas of specialization in physical education and exercise science are included in this volume of American Academy of Physical Education Papers. General trends are reviewed in selected areas, including the social sciences, the biological sciences, motor learning, curriculum and…

  15. Headaches and exercise.

    PubMed

    McCrory, P

    2000-09-01

    Exercise-related headache is one of the most common medical problems affecting the modern-day athlete. Despite the high prevalence of headache in community populations, the epidemiology of sports-related headache is unclear. In certain collision sports, up to 50% of athletes report regular headaches as a consequence of their athletic participation. The classification of the different types of sport-related headache by the International Headache Society (IHS) and in previously published articles does not adequately encompass the clinical problem faced by team physicians. Confusion exists where terms such as 'effort headache' and 'exertional headache' may be used to describe similar entities. In this review, the specific headache entities discussed include benign exertional headache, effort headache, acute post-traumatic headache and cervicogenic headache. For the sports physician, an understanding of the variety of specific headache syndromes that occur with particular sports is necessary for everyday clinical practice. This article reviews the common exercise-related headache syndromes and attempts to provide a framework for their overall management. Team physicians also need to be cognisant that many of the standard preparations used to treat headaches may be banned drugs under International Olympic Committee (IOC) rules. PMID:10999425

  16. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2016-07-12

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  17. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  18. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  19. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  20. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  1. Operations Course Icebreaker: Campus Club Cupcakes Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Brent; Southin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Campus Club Cupcakes is an in-class "introduction to operations management" experiential learning exercise which can be used within minutes of starting the course. After reading the one-page mini case, students are encouraged to meet each other and collaborate to determine if making and selling cupcakes to fellow business students would…

  2. [Diabetes mellitus and exercise].

    PubMed

    Yoh, Kousei

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important life-style related diseases. As for the type 2 diabetes mellitus in particular, lack of exercise has a large influence on the onset and disease progress. We can improve glucose tolerance by exercising. Exercise is the most important fundamental treatment in diabetes mellitus. Continuation and safety become important to let exercise therapy succeed. It is important with a diabetic that a lot of patients without exercise habit should start to gain exercise habit. When we expect an exercise effect, we should take consideration of intensity and volume in exercise for performing. We should consider each contraindication matter even if we put it to have many complications with a diabetic when we perform exercise therapy. A case-by-case exercise treatment in diabetic patient is required.

  3. Exercising Tactically for Taming Postmeal Glucose Surges.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Elsamma

    2016-01-01

    This review seeks to synthesize data on the timing, intensity, and duration of exercise found scattered over some 39 studies spanning 3+ decades into optimal exercise conditions for controlling postmeal glucose surges. The results show that a light aerobic exercise for 60 min or moderate activity for 20-30 min starting 30 min after meal can efficiently blunt the glucose surge, with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Exercising at other times could lead to glucose elevation caused by counterregulation. Adding a short bout of resistance exercise of moderate intensity (60%-80%  VO2max) to the aerobic activity, 2 or 3 times a week as recommended by the current guidelines, may also help with the lowering of glucose surges. On the other hand, high-intensity exercise (>80%  VO2max) causes wide glucose fluctuations and its feasibility and efficacy for glucose regulation remain to be ascertained. Promoting the kind of physical activity that best counters postmeal hyperglycemia is crucial because hundreds of millions of diabetes patients living in developing countries and in the pockets of poverty in the West must do without medicines, supplies, and special diets. Physical activity is the one tool they may readily utilize to tame postmeal glucose surges. Exercising in this manner does not violate any of the current guidelines, which encourage exercise any time.

  4. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in distance runners and weight lifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Kelly, A. R.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of athletes including long-distance runners, competitive and amateur weight lifters, and age- and sex-matched control subjects have been studied by hemodynamic and echocardiographic methods in order to determine the effect of the training programs on the cardiovascular response to static exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and double product data at rest and at fatigue suggest that competitive endurance (dynamic exercise) training alters the cardiovascular response to static exercise. In contrast to endurance exercise, weight lifting (static exercise) training does not alter the cardiovascular response to static exercise: weight lifters responded to static exercise in a manner very similar to that of the control subjects.

  5. Pediatric exercise: truth and/or consequences.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Heather; Sprogis, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Pediatric exercise recommendations are becoming increasingly more important. The recommendation for physical activity in children and adolescents is 60 min/d of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The United States Department of Health and Human Services recommends that vigorous physical activity be included a minimum of 3 d/wk. In addition, strength training, for both the muscle and bone should be included 3 d/wk. As the incidence of childhood obesity increases and the implications towards chronic disease, musculoskeletal issues, and self-esteem issues continue to rise, it is clear that many children do not meet these guidelines. Despite the childhood obesity epidemic, an estimated 38 million children and adolescents participate in organized sports. Both active and inactive children need to be educated on the benefits of exercise, exercise safety, and appropriate exercise recommendations specific to this specialized population. PMID:21293241

  6. Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A. (Editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

  7. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-01

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. PMID:25450369

  8. Managing Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Meetings are a means of giving people a chance to contribute. Meetings are also the nursery where the people's skills of listening, speaking, and building good working relationships are honed. They are where people practice being courteously challenging and confident, and they are where people are fascinated and fascinating. Meetings are where…

  9. Autonomic adjustments to exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Autonomic nervous system adjustments to the heart and blood vessels are necessary for mediating the cardiovascular responses required to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle during exercise. These demands are met by precise exercise intensity-dependent alterations in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. The purpose of this review is to examine the contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in mediating specific cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses to exercise. These changes in autonomic outflow are regulated by several neural mechanisms working in concert, including central command (a feed forward mechanism originating from higher brain centers), the exercise pressor reflex (a feed-back mechanism originating from skeletal muscle), the arterial baroreflex (a negative feed-back mechanism originating from the carotid sinus and aortic arch), and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors (a feed-back mechanism from stretch receptors located in the heart and lungs). In addition, arterial chemoreceptors and phrenic afferents from respiratory muscles (i.e., respiratory metaboreflex) are also capable of modulating the autonomic responses to exercise. Our goal is to provide a detailed review of the parasympathetic and sympathetic changes that occur with exercise distinguishing between the onset of exercise and steady-state conditions, when appropriate. In addition, studies demonstrating the contributions of each of the aforementioned neural mechanisms to the autonomic changes and ensuing cardiac and/or vascular responses will be covered.

  10. Exercise training in asthma.

    PubMed

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  11. The Influence of Prenatal Exercise on Offspring Health: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Carmen; Reoyo, Olga Roldan; May, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Research has continued to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy is safe. Growing evidence supports that exercise during pregnancy is beneficial for mother and fetus during gestation, with benefits persisting for the child into adulthood. Regardless of income or socioeconomic status, exercise during pregnancy is associated with increased incidence of full-term delivery. Additionally, normalization of birth measures, such as birth weight, occurs when women perform regular exercise throughout gestation. Measures of growth and development further indicate that exercise during pregnancy does not harm and may stimulate healthy growth throughout childhood. Measures of cognition and intelligence demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy causes no harm and may be beneficial. Overall, the benefits of exercise during pregnancy decrease the risk of chronic disease for both mother and child. PMID:27777506

  12. 78 FR 64965 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ..., 78 FR 55753. The meeting will be held at the Virginian Suites Arlington, 1500 Arlington Blvd... Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Skeletal Muscle and Exercise Physiology...

  13. The immune response to resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Simonson, S R

    2001-08-01

    The immune response to exercise has received increased attention in the last decade. Most of this attention has focused on aerobic exercise (AEX), whereas the effect of resistance exercise (REX) has received comparatively little notice. Resistance exercise and AEX have different physiologic impacts; perhaps this also applies to the immune system. The purpose of this review was to determine a consensus from the REX immune studies that have been completed. This is complicated by the multitude of immune parameters, the varying methods used to assess them, and the paucity of studies performed. Thus, it is difficult to make a blanket statement. There is a REX-induced leukocytosis. Resistance conditioning (RCO) does not alter this response or affect the resting immune system. From these data, it appears that neither REX nor RCO demonstrates a significant impact on peripheral immunosurveillance. PMID:11710669

  14. Impact of Physical Exercise on Endocrine Aging.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Joseph A M J L

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise may be vital to the maintenance of the endocrine system with aging and its helps to restore loss of activity of the endocrine system with aging. There is evidence that physical exercise induces activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and so produces anabolic effects in skeletal muscles. Mechano growth factor (MGF), a locally produced isoform of IGF-1, has been hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of skeletal muscles with aging. Short-term high-resistance exercise results in an increase of MGF mRNA in young but not in elderly subjects. Reported changes in levels of circulating sex steroid hormones in men after different types of (acute and chronic) physical exercise are mixed and not consistent. In addition, physical exercise may increase local effects of sex steroid hormones, and this may be more important than levels of circulating sex steroids for the maintenance and function of skeletal muscles. In elderly women, both increased physical exercise and reduced body fat may decrease levels of circulating sex hormones. Aging is further associated with changes in the dynamic functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but these changes may be attenuated/modified by aerobic training. Chronic exercise does not alter circulating cortisol levels in elderly subjects. PMID:27348867

  15. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  16. Resistance exercise training and the orthostatic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.

  17. Exercises Abroad: How Differing National Experiences are Reflected in Emergency Response Planning and Exercises

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno

    2007-04-30

    Recently a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Consequence Management Response Team took part in outreaches and an exercise in different foreign countries. In Brazil and South Korea, the outreaches revolved around a nuclear power plant exercise. In Canada, participation was limited to a table top Consequence Management exercise. This talk will briefly discuss each event and resulting pertinent observations. In each case, it became evident that governments respond to disasters very differently, and that these differences are not only culturally based, but also influenced by each government’s respective experience in dealing with natural disasters.

  18. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  19. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family How Can Families Be ... a Fit Kid Why Exercise Is Cool Cold-Weather Sports Strength Training Weight Management: Strength Training Exercises ( ...

  20. Exercise during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Exercise During Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  1. Exercise After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Exercise After Pregnancy FAQ131, June 2015 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  2. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  3. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunity. Heavy, long-term exercise (such as marathon running and intense gym training) could actually cause harm. Studies have shown that people who follow a moderately energetic lifestyle, benefit most from starting (and sticking to) an exercise ...

  4. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...

  5. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  6. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  7. Writing Exercises from "Exercise Exchange." Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    Reflecting current practices in the teaching of writing, the exercises in this compilation were drawn from the journal "Exercise Exchange." The articles are arranged into six sections: sources for writing; prewriting; modes for writing; writing and reading; language, mechanics, and style; and revising, responding, and evaluating. Among the topics…

  8. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, C.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  9. 76 FR 35869 - International Energy Agency meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 28, 2011, at...

  10. 77 FR 16826 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 28 and 29,...

  11. Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

  12. An Exercise in Data Collection and Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawcroft, David

    2007-01-01

    It is common to find students believing that they have a high skill level in computer use yet this does not normally include proficiency in the use of computer packages for data presentation. This exercise develops team work in data collection, requires the production of a simple spreadsheet, and the exporting of the data from that into one or…

  13. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  14. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  15. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  16. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  17. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  18. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  19. Exercise, Aging and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Cundiff, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether or not a lifelong program of exercise actually has a bearing on longevity is discussed. The effects of exercise on the aging process, and the longevity-exercise relationship are reviewed. The conflicting evidence on the subject is presented. (JL)

  20. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  1. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  2. Development of the discipline of exercise immunology.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the influence of exercise upon the human white cell population dates back more than a 100 years. Thus, when introducing the third meeting of the International Society of Exercise Immunology in Brussels, Dr. Bente Klarlund-Pedersen noted that Schulte had already described an exercise-induced leukocytosis as early as 1893. However, for much of the following century interest remained strictly clinical, with physicians assessing the possible changes in vulnerability to bacterial and viral diseases that were induced by various forms of physical activity. In the absence of specific remedies, bed rest was a common medical recommendation for infectious disease, and if the patient recovered from the immediate infection there was often a substantial residual loss of physical condition. Army hospitals in particular were thus anxious to know whether recovery would be compromised if physical activity were to be encouraged during convalescence. Prominent concerns of this era were the influence of exercise upon anterior poliomyelitis and viral hepatitis. The paralysis resulting from the anterior poliomyelitis virus was generally localized to body parts that had been active, and it seemed most likely to develop in those who continued to engage in vigorous exercise in the face of early symptoms (46, 57, 119, 120). Data on viral hepatitis also suggested a need for rest in the acute phase of the disease (1, 65, 115, 128), although most authors concluded that in this condition exercise could be resumed during convalescence, provided that the patient was no longer severely jaundiced (5, 32, 136). PMID:20839500

  3. Exercise in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Clyman, B

    2001-12-01

    Few medical professionals would dispute the obvious health benefits afforded by regular exercise if pursued judiciously and in moderation. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, diabetes, depression, and fibromyalgia are a few of the many disorders in which exercise plays a key role in management. Less well-appreciated until recently is the beneficial effect exercise may have in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Previously, rest and inactivity seemed to be the prevailing treatment strategy until it was recognized that this approach was ineffective and contributed further to the patient's disability and loss of function. New trial data support the value of physical exercise whether it involves aerobic or resistance-type training. The studies are not without statistical and methodologic imperfections. Still, the evidence favoring an exercise intervention as part of the OA treatment plan is impressive. It remains for the clinician to select an appropriate exercise routine that meets the strength, balance, flexibility, and aerobic needs of the patient. The clinician then monitors and evaluates the patient's response to this activity with the same exactness used in following pharmacologic therapy.

  4. Exercise during pregnancy: safe and beneficial for most.

    PubMed

    Artal, R; Sherman, C

    1999-08-01

    Regular, moderate exercise does not significantly affect length of gestation or birth weight, and it may ease pregnancy and labor. Active pregnant women should maintain adequate hydration and nutrition, avoid hyperthermia, and take precautions if obstetric or medical complications are present. Supine exercise, contact sports, high-altitude exertion, and scuba diving should be avoided, and some women, including those who lift weights or do high-impact exercise, may need to modify their routines. Most women can begin or continue to exercise during pregnancy.

  5. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B 531K allele carriers sustain a higher respiratory quotient after aerobic exercise, but β3-adrenoceptor 64R allele does not affect lipolysis: a human model.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, Eduardo; Ríos-Martínez, Martín Efrén; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena Margarita; Del-Toro-Equíhua, Mario; Ramírez-Flores, Mario; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Pérez-Huitimea, Ana Lilia; Baltazar-Rodríguez, Luz Margarita; Velasco-Pineda, Gilberto; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B) and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3) are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate) and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient). These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise. PMID:24905907

  6. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1B 531K Allele Carriers Sustain a Higher Respiratory Quotient after Aerobic Exercise, but β3-Adrenoceptor 64R Allele Does Not Affect Lipolysis: A Human Model

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gómez, Eduardo; Ríos-Martínez, Martín Efrén; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena Margarita; Del-Toro-Equíhua, Mario; Ramírez-Flores, Mario; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Pérez-Huitimea, Ana Lilia; Baltazar-Rodríguez, Luz Margarita; Velasco-Pineda, Gilberto; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B) and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3) are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate) and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient). These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise. PMID:24905907

  7. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B 531K allele carriers sustain a higher respiratory quotient after aerobic exercise, but β3-adrenoceptor 64R allele does not affect lipolysis: a human model.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, Eduardo; Ríos-Martínez, Martín Efrén; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena Margarita; Del-Toro-Equíhua, Mario; Ramírez-Flores, Mario; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Pérez-Huitimea, Ana Lilia; Baltazar-Rodríguez, Luz Margarita; Velasco-Pineda, Gilberto; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B) and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3) are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate) and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient). These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise.

  8. Exercise and the microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Orla; Cronin, Owen; Clarke, Siobhan F; Murphy, Eileen F; Molloy, Micheal G; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is linked with poor health, most commonly obesity and associated disorders, the corollary being that exercise offers a preventive strategy. However, the scope of exercise biology extends well beyond energy expenditure and has emerged as a great ‘polypill’, which is safe, reliable and cost-effective not only in disease prevention but also treatment. Biological mechanisms by which exercise influences homeostasis are becoming clearer and involve multi-organ systemic adaptations. Most of the elements of a modern lifestyle influence the indigenous microbiota but few studies have explored the effect of increased physical activity. While dietary responses to exercise obscure the influence of exercise alone on gut microbiota, professional athletes operating at the extremes of performance provide informative data. We assessed the relationship between extreme levels of exercise, associated dietary habits and gut microbiota composition, and discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise may exert a direct or indirect influence on gut microbiota. PMID:25800089

  9. The Cognitive Benefits of Exercise in Youth.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Alex B

    2015-01-01

    As our schools and children struggle to meet ever-changing and mandated academic standards, challenges in the time spent on physical activity continue to arise. On the other hand, however, we continue to face a global climate mired in the midst of an obesity epidemic. It is widely accepted that the health benefits of exercise are wide-ranging and powerful. It appears that cognitive function and academic achievement are additional realms beyond the physical where exercise is beneficial. The school setting presents a unique public health opportunity to enact change on a variety of levels. As sports medicine and exercise specialists, we need to support efforts that increase access to quality physical fitness across the board for all children.

  10. Breaking sarcomeres by in vitro exercise

    PubMed Central

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Gödderz, Markus P. O.; Soroka, Ekaterina; Gödderz, Tobias; Rumyantseva, Anastasia; van der Ven, Peter F. M.; Hawke, Thomas J.; Fürst, Dieter O.

    2016-01-01

    Eccentric exercise leads to focal disruptions in the myofibrils, referred to as “lesions”. These structures are thought to contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, and to represent areas of mechanical damage and/or remodelling. Lesions have been investigated in human biopsies and animal samples after exercise. However, this approach does not examine the mechanisms behind lesion formation, or their behaviour during contraction. To circumvent this, we used electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to simulate exercise in C2C12 myotubes, combined with live microscopy. EPS application led to the formation of sarcomeric lesions in the myotubes, resembling those seen in exercised mice, increasing in number with the time of application or stimulation intensity. Furthermore, transfection with an EGFP-tagged version of the lesion and Z-disc marker filamin-C allowed us to observe the formation of lesions using live cell imaging. Finally, using the same technique we studied the behaviour of these structures during contraction, and observed them to be passively stretching. This passive behaviour supports the hypothesis that lesions contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, protecting against further damage. We conclude that EPS can be reliably used as a model for the induction and study of sarcomeric lesions in myotubes in vitro. PMID:26804343

  11. Exercise and osteoarthritis: cause and effects.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V; Creaby, Mark W; Hodges, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic joint condition predominantly affecting the knee, hip, and hand joints. Exercise plays a role in the development and treatment of OA but most of the literature in this area relates to knee OA. While studies indicate that exercise and physical activity have a generally positive effect on healthy cartilage metrics, depending upon the type of the activity and its intensity, the risk of OA development does appear to be moderately increased with sporting participation. In particular, joint injury associated with sports participation may be largely responsible for this increased risk of OA with sport. Various repetitive occupational tasks are also linked to greater likelihood of OA development. There are a number of physical impairments associated with OA including pain, muscle weakness and altered muscle function, reduced proprioception and postural control, joint instability, restricted range of motion, and lower aerobic fitness. These can result directly from the OA pathological process and/or indirectly as a result of factors such as pain, effusion, and reduced activity levels. These impairments and their underlying physiology are often targeted by exercise interventions and evidence generally shows that many of these can be modified by specific exercise. There is currently little clinical trial evidence to show that exercise can alter mechanical load and structural disease progression in those with established OA, although a number of impairments, that are amenable to change with exercise, appears to be associated with increased mechanical load and/or disease progression in longitudinal studies.

  12. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Tim

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  13. Don't neglect routine staff meetings.

    PubMed

    Board, H K

    1982-03-01

    Staff meetings are essential to good staff communication. Meetings help keep the grapevine from growing so big that it strangles the group with its rumors. By holding regular meetings with your staff, you create a consistency in your communications that helps prevent problems that you don't even suspect from cropping up. All personnel should attend the meetings. This way everyone hears news at the same time. Be consistent in your use of meetings. Meetings are more effective if you have a planned agenda and a firm time schedule. Encourage your staff to use meetings to talk out problems that affect the group. Once the meeting is over, encourage them to leave their feelings in the room. Many leaders are reluctant, for a variety of reasons, to hold meetings with their staffs. But it's like dieting and exercise; the more you do it, the easier it becomes. This type of meeting will pay rich dividends in staff personal and professional growth and in improved communication. The sense of participation that can be gained by the effective use of staff meetings can lead to high morale and effective staff performance. As you begin to see the results of a cohesive staff functioning together well, you will realize the routine staff meeting is a management tool that should not be overlooked or underused.

  14. Australian association for exercise and sports science position statement on exercise and asthma.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alan R; Fitch, Kenneth D

    2011-07-01

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways is associated with variable obstruction to the airways and is provoked by many triggers including exercise. The management of asthma is primarily pharmacological, but exercise, despite causing bronchoconstriction in almost all asthmatics, is an important adjunct to treatment. With adequate control of the hyperresponsive airways obtained with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and inhaled beta 2 agonists (IBA), used as both a pre-exercise preventive agent and a reliever if necessary, all asthmatics should benefit from an exercise program. Some have realised this benefit with such success as to become Olympic and world champions in many sports. Exercise programs should be individually tailored, follow established guidelines and result in similar benefits to those obtained by non-asthmatics. However asthmatics must try to avoid or minimise triggers whenever possible. A specific benefit of a physical training program is that it allows asthmatics to exercise with less bronchoconstriction at the same exercise stress, although it does not abolish or reduce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). PMID:21440499

  15. Australian association for exercise and sports science position statement on exercise and asthma.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alan R; Fitch, Kenneth D

    2011-07-01

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways is associated with variable obstruction to the airways and is provoked by many triggers including exercise. The management of asthma is primarily pharmacological, but exercise, despite causing bronchoconstriction in almost all asthmatics, is an important adjunct to treatment. With adequate control of the hyperresponsive airways obtained with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and inhaled beta 2 agonists (IBA), used as both a pre-exercise preventive agent and a reliever if necessary, all asthmatics should benefit from an exercise program. Some have realised this benefit with such success as to become Olympic and world champions in many sports. Exercise programs should be individually tailored, follow established guidelines and result in similar benefits to those obtained by non-asthmatics. However asthmatics must try to avoid or minimise triggers whenever possible. A specific benefit of a physical training program is that it allows asthmatics to exercise with less bronchoconstriction at the same exercise stress, although it does not abolish or reduce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR).

  16. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  17. Sixth annual DOE LLWMP Participants' Information Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Papers were presented at the following sessions: Improved Shallow Land Burial; Greater Confinement Disposal; Corrective Measures Technology; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; and Environmental Aspects and Performance Prediction. Three workshops were held: Predicting Source Terms for Low-Level Waste; Performance Assessment for Low-Level Disposal Facilities; and Approaches to Low-Level Disposal Facility Siting and Characterization.

  18. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  19. Exercise for the Overweight Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

  20. BLOOD DESTRUCTION DURING EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    Broun, G. O.

    1922-01-01

    The following changes have been demonstrated to take place in the blood of dogs during exercise. 1. An increase in the per cent of cells and hemoglobin in the blood of the jugular vein occurs early in the course of exercise. It probably results from a redistribution of red corpuscles, with an increase in their proportion in the peripheral blood. 2. As exercise is continued, there is a definite increase in plasma volume. 3. A coincident decrease both in the total cell volume and the pigment volume during prolonged exercise suggests that blood destruction then occurs. PMID:19868689

  1. EVA Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights, at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California

  2. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  3. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Joseph; Wellington, Daniel; Miller, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 34 year-old man who developed exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis after unaccustomed high-intensity exercise. Subclinical rhabdomyolysis is common after heavy exercise, yet it is uncommon for patients to seek medical advice. The presentation is variable and despite potentially life-threatening complications the diagnosis may be easily missed by patients and healthcare professionals. A high-index of suspicion is critical to avoid missing the diagnosis. We summarise the current knowledge, clinical course, complications and management of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27657164

  4. 29 CFR 1612.3 - Open meeting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meeting policy. 1612.3 Section 1612.3 Labor... ACT REGULATIONS § 1612.3 Open meeting policy. (a) All meetings of the Commission shall be conducted in... every meeting shall be open to public observation. Public observation does not include participation...

  5. Ambient temperature influences the neural benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Mark E; Chung, Chasity; Comer, Ashley; Nelson, Katharine; Tran, Jamie; Werries, Nadja; Barton, Emily A; Spinetta, Michael; Leasure, J Leigh

    2016-02-15

    Many of the neural benefits of exercise require weeks to manifest. It would be useful to accelerate onset of exercise-driven plastic changes, such as increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise represents a significant challenge to the brain because it produces heat, but brain temperature does not rise during exercise in the cold. This study tested the hypothesis that exercise in cold ambient temperature would stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis more than exercise in room or hot conditions. Adult female rats had exercise access 2h per day for 5 days at either room (20 °C), cold (4.5 °C) or hot (37.5 °C) temperature. To label dividing hippocampal precursor cells, animals received daily injections of BrdU. Brains were immunohistochemically processed for dividing cells (Ki67+), surviving cells (BrdU+) and new neurons (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Animals exercising at room temperature ran significantly farther than animals exercising in cold or hot conditions (room 1490 ± 400 m; cold 440 ± 102 m; hot 291 ± 56 m). We therefore analyzed the number of Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells normalized for shortest distance run. Contrary to our hypothesis, exercise in either cold or hot conditions generated significantly more Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells compared to exercise at room temperature. Thus, a limited amount of running in either cold or hot ambient conditions generates more new cells than a much greater distance run at room temperature. Taken together, our results suggest a simple means by which to augment exercise effects, yet minimize exercise time. PMID:26608539

  6. Ambient temperature influences the neural benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Mark E; Chung, Chasity; Comer, Ashley; Nelson, Katharine; Tran, Jamie; Werries, Nadja; Barton, Emily A; Spinetta, Michael; Leasure, J Leigh

    2016-02-15

    Many of the neural benefits of exercise require weeks to manifest. It would be useful to accelerate onset of exercise-driven plastic changes, such as increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise represents a significant challenge to the brain because it produces heat, but brain temperature does not rise during exercise in the cold. This study tested the hypothesis that exercise in cold ambient temperature would stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis more than exercise in room or hot conditions. Adult female rats had exercise access 2h per day for 5 days at either room (20 °C), cold (4.5 °C) or hot (37.5 °C) temperature. To label dividing hippocampal precursor cells, animals received daily injections of BrdU. Brains were immunohistochemically processed for dividing cells (Ki67+), surviving cells (BrdU+) and new neurons (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Animals exercising at room temperature ran significantly farther than animals exercising in cold or hot conditions (room 1490 ± 400 m; cold 440 ± 102 m; hot 291 ± 56 m). We therefore analyzed the number of Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells normalized for shortest distance run. Contrary to our hypothesis, exercise in either cold or hot conditions generated significantly more Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells compared to exercise at room temperature. Thus, a limited amount of running in either cold or hot ambient conditions generates more new cells than a much greater distance run at room temperature. Taken together, our results suggest a simple means by which to augment exercise effects, yet minimize exercise time.

  7. Exercise and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chipkin, S R; Klugh, S A; Chasan-Taber, L

    2001-08-01

    As rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity continue to increase, physical activity continues to be a fundamental form of therapy. Exercise influences several aspects of diabetes, including blood glucose concentrations, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors. Blood glucose concentrations reflect the balance between skeletal muscle uptake and ambient concentrations of both insulin and counterinsulin hormones. Difficulties in predicting the relative impact of these factors can result in either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Despite the variable impact of exercise on blood glucose, exercise consistently improves insulin action and several cardiovascular risk factors. Beyond the acute impact of physical activity, long-term exercise behaviors have been repeatedly associated with decreased rates of type 2 diabetes. While exercise produces many benefits, it is not without risks for patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to hyperglycemia, from increased hepatic glucose production, insufficient insulin levels can foster ketogenesis from excess concentrations of fatty acids. At the opposite end of the glucose spectrum, hypoglycemia can result from excess glucose uptake due to either increased insulin concentrations, enhanced insulin action or impaired carbohydrate absorption. To decrease the risk for hypoglycemia, insulin doses should be reduced prior to exercise, although some insulin is typically still needed. Although precise risks of exercise on existing diabetic complications have not been well studied, it seems prudent to consider the potential to worsen nephropathy or retinopathy, or to precipitate musculoskeletal injuries. There is more substantive evidence that autonomic neuropathy may predispose patients to arrhythmias. Of clear concern, increased physical activity can precipitate a cardiac event in those with underlying CAD. Recognizing these risks can prompt actions to minimize their impact. Positive actions that are part of exercise programs for

  8. 76 FR 9780 - Consumer Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Consumer Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting The Consumer Advisory Council will meet on Thursday, March 10... the Board on the exercise of the Board's responsibilities under various consumer financial services... new Regulation II, which would establish debit card interchange fee standards and prohibit...

  9. Review of Tai Chi as an effective exercise on falls prevention in elderly.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Molly M; Wedam, Lauren; Wu, Ge

    2012-01-01

    The risk of accidental falls and fall-related injuries increases with age. Regular physical exercises can delay the age-related changes affecting postural balance and reduce the risk of falls. Although Tai Chi (TC) has become a popular exercise among the elderly, does regular TC exercise lead to fewer falls and fall-related injuries? Who would receive the most benefit from TC exercise? What style of TC is best for fall risk reductions? What is the minimum amount of TC exercise needed before its positive effect is observed? How does the effect of TC exercise compare to other physical exercises? The goal of this study is to conduct a systematic review of recent literature on TC's effectiveness for reducing fall risks in elders. A summary and analysis is provided for the following variables: targeted subject population, TC curriculum, comparative effect, and outcome measures.

  10. Influence of Pre-Exercise Muscle Temperature on Responses to Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kei; Newton, Mike; Sacco, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that altering the pre-exercise muscle temperature would influence the magnitude of muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. Subjects: Female students who had no experience in resistance training were placed into either a microwave treatment group (n = 10) or an icing treatment group (n = 10). Design and Setting: Subjects in each group performed 12 maximal eccentric actions of the forearm flexors of each arm on 2 separate occasions separated by 4 weeks. Before testing, the exercise arm was subjected to either passive warming (microwave) or control for the microwave treatment group or cooling (icing) or control for the icing treatment group. The control arm performed the same exercise protocol without treatment. Limbs were randomized for treatment or control and order of testing. Deep muscle temperature increased by approximately 3°C after the microwave treatment and decreased approximately 5°C after the icing treatment. Measurements: We evaluated changes in maximal isometric force and indirect markers of muscle damage, including range of motion, upper arm circumference, muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase activity, in the microwave and control and icing and control groups using a 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: All measures changed significantly (P < .01) after exercise, but neither of the treatments demonstrated significant effects on most of the variables compared with the control. Conclusions: These results suggest that pre-exercise cooling does not affect the magnitude of muscle damage in response to eccentric exercise. Similarly, pre-exercise passive muscle warming did not prove beneficial in attenuating indicators of muscle damage. Thus, any beneficial effects of warm-up exercise cannot be attributed to the effects of increased muscle temperature. PMID:15173863

  11. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  12. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  13. Insulin therapy and exercise.

    PubMed

    Kourtoglou, Georgios I

    2011-08-01

    Medical nutrition therapy and physical exercise are the cornerstones of the diabetes management. Patients with type 1 DM always need exogenous insulin administration, recently available in the form of insulin analogs. In type 2 DM, characterized by increased insulin resistance and progressive decline of the beta-cell function, various antidiabetic medications are used. Most of the subjects with type 2 DM will finally need insulin. The main site of insulin action is the skeletal muscle, while the liver is the main site of glucose storage in the form of glycogen. With the modern diabetes therapies it is possible to rapidly reach and maintain normoglycemia in both types of DM but with the cost of higher incidence of hypoglycemia, especially related to exercise. Regular physical exercise causes a lot of beneficial effects in healthy as well as diabetic subjects of all age groups. In type 1 DM physical exercise is a fundamental element for both physical and mental development. In type 2 DM it has a main role in diabetes control. The increased hepatic glucose production and the increased muscular glucose uptake during exercise are closely interrelated in all exercise intensities. In diabetes mellitus there is a disturbed energy substrate use during exercise leading to either hypo- or hyperglycemia. The influence of low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise on diabetes control has been well studied. The inappropriately high insulinemia combined with the low glucose levels can lead to severe hypoglycemia if proper measures are not taken. Prolonged exercise can also predispose to decreased glucose counter regulation. It is better for the type 1 diabetic subject to postpone the exercise session in very high (>300 mg/dl) or very low (<70 mg/dl) BG levels. Every insulin treated subject is recommended to be checked for any existing diabetic complication before the start of every exercise program. Glucose measurement with glucose meters or sometimes with Continuous Glucose

  14. Ventilation-perfusion matching during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    In normal subjects, exercise widens the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (P[A-a]O2) despite a more uniform topographic distribution of ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) ratios. While part of the increase in P(A-a)O2 (especially during heavy exercise) is due to diffusion limitation, a considerable amount is caused by an increase in VA/Q mismatch as detected by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Why this occurs is unknown, but circumstantial evidence suggests it may be related to interstitial pulmonary edema rather than to factors dependent on ventilation, airway gas mixing, airway muscle tone, or pulmonary vascular tone. In patients with lung disease, the gas exchange consequences of exercise are variable. Thus, arterial PO2 may increase, remain the same, or fall. In general, patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or interstitial fibrosis who exercise show a fall in PO2. This is usually not due to worsening VA/Q relationships but mostly to the well-known fall in mixed venous PO2, which itself results from a relatively smaller increase in cardiac output than VO2. However, in interstitial fibrosis (but not COPD), there is good evidence that a part of the fall in PO2 on exercise is caused by alveolar-capillary diffusion limitation of O2 transport; in COPD (but not interstitial fibrosis), a frequent additional contributing factor to the hypoxemia of exercise is an inadequate ventilatory response, such that minute ventilation does not rise as much as does CO2 production or O2 uptake, causing arterial PCO2 to increase and PO2 to fall.

  15. DOE JGI Welcome Remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, Jim

    2010-06-03

    Jim Bristow, Deputy Director of Programs at the DOE Joint Genome Institute, discusses the impact of advances in sequencing technologies on large genome centers on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  16. Water Exercise Causes Ripples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Water exercise provides benefits independently of participants' skill levels, and reduces the likelihood of injury from overuse syndromes and heat-related problems. The advantages of water resistance exercises for athletes and for elderly, overweight, or physically disabled people are discussed. (MT)

  17. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... you finish doing all 4 exercises, put an ice pack on your shoulder for 20 minutes. It's best to use a plastic bag with ice cubes in it or a bag of frozen peas, not gel packs. If you do all 4 exercises 3 to ...

  18. Exercise and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    This book paints a broad picture of the role of exercise in children's health and provides information for the physician and other health care providers on healthful forms of physical activity for children. The book is divided into three parts: (1) "Developmental Exercise Physiology: The Physiological Basis of Physical Fitness in Children"; (2)…

  19. Exercise for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents can set a good example by being active themselves. Exercising together can be fun for everyone. Competitive sports can help kids stay fit. Walking or biking to school, dancing, bowling and yoga are some other ways for kids to get exercise.

  20. Exercise through Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  1. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  2. Exercise and weight control.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, M L

    1993-01-01

    Several important questions need to be answered to increase the likelihood that exercise will be accepted by the millions in the population who are obese. What is the minimum exercise "dose" (intensity, duration, frequency) and what is the optimal mode to bring about substantial fat weight loss, with minimal loss of lean mass? What is the best nutritional plan to optimize fat utilization during exercise, without impairing performance or loss of lean mass? Which diet and exercise programs maximally increase utilization of centrally deposited fat and how can hyperplastic obesity best be treated? Also of interest is the potential role of resistance exercise for weight loss, and the predictors of weight loss success. For instance, do individuals with gynoid obesity really differ from individuals with android obesity in their utilization and loss of body fat during exercise? The potential advantages of exercise include: stimulation of fat as opposed to carbohydrate oxidation; increased energy use during the exercise itself and in the postexercise period; protection of lean body mass; possible reversal of the diet-induced suppression of BMR; and other health benefits. Among other parameters, the effectiveness of exercise on weight loss may be influenced by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise bouts and the duration of the training program, the nature of the excess fat stores, i.e., whether the person has obesity characterized by hyperplastic or hypertrophic adipose tissue or central (with large-intra-abdominal depot) or peripheral obesity, the composition and caloric content of the diet, and behavioral aspects that affect adherence to the program. With respect to this latter concern, even if a person has been very successful at weight loss in a metabolic ward or intensive program, he/she must eventually return to the outside world and figure out for himself/herself how to eat real food and/or maintain an activity level that promotes weight maintenance

  3. Exercise and "the pill": putting a rumor to rest.

    PubMed

    Schelkun, P H

    1991-03-01

    Every once in a while, female athletes hear the rumor that oral contraceptives (OCs) keep them from performing their best. Yet, studies that have tried to evaluate the effects of OCs on physically active women have not been conclusive. This rumor probably started with the initial, higher-dose formulations instead of with the current biphasic or triphasic OCs. Side effects of the higher-dose OCs included weight gain, nausea, fatigue, headaches, and increased risks of hypertension, thromboembolism, and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Current OCs minimize these side effects and the risk of complications. In fact, the aerobic exercise female athletes undergo most likely neutralizes the negative effects of OCs on coagulation and lipid metabolism. Further, OCs may even improve athletic performance because they can decrease bleeding, the risk of iron deficiency, and frequency of cramps. Moreover, athletes can use OCs to orchestrate their menstrual cycles around competitive meets. Some studies with small sample sizes show that athletes on OCs experience a slight reduction in functional aerobic capacity and endurance capability. A Swedish study of female soccer players reported that OC users suffer fewer traumatic injuries than nonusers. It is difficult to attribute this to OCs, because there is considerable psychological control over sports performance. A sports physician in Hawaii is aware of rumors that OCs induce sluggishness or fatigue during certain days of the month, but he does not know a female athlete who believes this. The head trainer of the US Olympic Committee says that many female Olympic athletes use OCs. Strenuous exercise, considerable weight loss, and possibly other stress factors induce athletic amenorrhea, especially in adolescent females. In many cases, OCs can treat it. They are especially needed to minimize the risk of reduced bone density and musculoskeletal injury.

  4. Exercise and cancer recovery.

    PubMed

    Visovsky, Constance; Dvorak, Colleen

    2005-05-01

    Disease and cancer treatment-related side effects such as decreased energy level, muscle weakness, and declines in functional status and body mass have been well documented. There is evidence that exercise, such as low intensity aerobics walking, Tai Chi, or cycling, results in an overall decrease in fatigue levels over the course of cancer treatment. Additionally, there is evidence that regular physical activity or exercise can decrease emotional stress, blood pressure, the duration of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pain. Exercise also has been shown to increase quality of life and improve the maximal oxygen uptake during exertion, sleep patterns, and cognition. However, the majority of studies of exercise and cancer have been conducted with women with early stage breast cancer, limiting the generalizability of these studies to other cancer populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of the extant research evidence about th e benefits of exercise related to cancer recovery. PMID:15977980

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Kegel exercises ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women with urinary stress incontinence Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery People who have fecal ...

  6. Meeting Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneman, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Addresses how a school district can use temporary classroom space to meet increasing student enrollment while additional space is being built. Provides examples of using portable facilities to supplement educational sites, including how to protect students who are in portable classrooms when tornadoes appear. (GR)

  7. 12 CFR 150.70 - Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 150.70 Section 150.70 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY....70 Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer... before you exercise fiduciary powers. This chart does not apply to activities that are exempt...

  8. 12 CFR 150.70 - Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 150.70 Section 150.70 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY....70 Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer... before you exercise fiduciary powers. This chart does not apply to activities that are exempt...

  9. 12 CFR 150.70 - Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 150.70 Section 150.70 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY....70 Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer... before you exercise fiduciary powers. This chart does not apply to activities that are exempt...

  10. Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation. PMID:26477919

  11. Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Halliwill, J R; Taylor, J A; Eckberg, D L

    1996-01-01

    1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena. Images Figure 7 PMID:8866370

  12. Exercise delays the hypoxic thermal response in rats.

    PubMed

    Ray, A D; Roberts, A J; Lee, S D; Farkas, G A; Michlin, C; Rifkin, D I; Ostrow, P T; Krasney, J A

    2003-07-01

    Exercise exacerbates acute mountain sickness. In infants and small mammals, hypoxia elicits a decrease in body temperature (Tb) [hypoxic thermal response (HTR)], which may protect against hypoxic tissue damage. We postulated that exercise would counteract the HTR and promote hypoxic tissue damage. Tb was measured by telemetry in rats (n = 28) exercising or sedentary in either normoxia or hypoxia (10% O2, 24 h) at 25 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). After 24 h of normoxia, rats walked at 10 m/min on a treadmill (30 min exercise, 30 min rest) for 6 h followed by 18 h of rest in either hypoxia or normoxia. Exercising normoxic rats increased Tb ( degrees C) vs. baseline (39.68 +/- 0.99 vs. 38.90 +/- 0.95, mean +/- SD, P < 0.05) and vs. sedentary normoxic rats (38.0 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05). Sedentary hypoxic rats decreased Tb (36.15 +/- 0.97 vs. 38.0 +/- 0.36, P < 0.05) whereas Tb was maintained in the exercising hypoxic rats during the initial 6 h of exercise (37.61 +/- 0.55 vs. 37.72 +/- 1.25, not significant). After exercise, Tb in hypoxic rats reached a nadir similar to that in sedentary hypoxic rats (35.05 +/- 1.69 vs. 35.03 +/- 1.32, respectively). Tb reached its nadir significantly later in exercising hypoxic vs. sedentary hypoxic rats (10.51 +/- 1.61 vs. 5.36 +/- 1.83 h, respectively; P = 0.002). Significantly greater histopathological damage and water contents were observed in brain and lungs in the exercising hypoxic vs. sedentary hypoxic and normoxic rats. Thus exercise early in hypoxia delays but does not prevent the HTR. Counteracting the HTR early in hypoxia by exercise exacerbates brain and lung damage and edema in the absence of ischemia.

  13. Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwill, J. R.; Taylor, J. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena.

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  15. 77 FR 10542 - Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public meeting: After considering public comments and developing a revised... SECURITY Coast Guard Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines... Response Exercise Program (PREP) is designed to facilitate the periodic testing of oil spill response...

  16. The Human Scavenger Hunt: A Unique Classroom Ice-Breaker Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Peter V.; Weinswig, S. Edward

    This paper describes a classroom exercise used on the first day of class to help students meet each other and to help make them feel comfortable in the class. It also helps improve students' memory and interpersonal skills such as active listening, communication and trust. Originally designed for use by college students, the exercise can easily be…

  17. The effect of loratadine in exercise-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Baki, A; Orhan, F

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effect of loratadine in exercise induced asthma. Methods: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of 10 mg oral loratadine, once daily for three days in 11 children. At the end of the treatment period FEV1 was measured, and patients were exercised on a treadmill. FEV1 measurements were repeated at intervals after exercise. Results: Loratadine significantly reduced the decrease in FEV1 after exercise at two, five, 10, 15, and 30 minutes, compared with placebo (p < 0.05). However, the mean decrease in FEV1 at five minutes was more than 15% of baseline in the loratadine group. Conclusions: Loratadine reduces, but does not prevent, exercise induced asthma in children. PMID:11806881

  18. Identifying the features of an exercise addiction: A Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Lucy; Owens, Glynn; Cruz, Borja Del Pozo

    2016-09-01

    Objectives There remains limited consensus regarding the definition and conceptual basis of exercise addiction. An understanding of the factors motivating maintenance of addictive exercise behavior is important for appropriately targeting intervention. The aims of this study were twofold: first, to establish consensus on features of an exercise addiction using Delphi methodology and second, to identify whether these features are congruous with a conceptual model of exercise addiction adapted from the Work Craving Model. Methods A three-round Delphi process explored the views of participants regarding the features of an exercise addiction. The participants were selected from sport and exercise relevant domains, including physicians, physiotherapists, coaches, trainers, and athletes. Suggestions meeting consensus were considered with regard to the proposed conceptual model. Results and discussion Sixty-three items reached consensus. There was concordance of opinion that exercising excessively is an addiction, and therefore it was appropriate to consider the suggestions in light of the addiction-based conceptual model. Statements reaching consensus were consistent with all three components of the model: learned (negative perfectionism), behavioral (obsessive-compulsive drive), and hedonic (self-worth compensation and reduction of negative affect and withdrawal). Conclusions Delphi methodology allowed consensus to be reached regarding the features of an exercise addiction, and these features were consistent with our hypothesized conceptual model of exercise addiction. This study is the first to have applied Delphi methodology to the exercise addiction field, and therefore introduces a novel approach to exercise addiction research that can be used as a template to stimulate future examination using this technique.

  19. ARGX-87: Accident Response Group Exercise, 1987: A Broken Arrow mini exercise. [Training

    SciTech Connect

    Schuld, E.P.; Cruff, D.F.

    1987-07-01

    A Broken Arrow mini exercise dubbed ''Accident Response Group Exercise - 1987'' (ARGX-87) was conducted on June 1, 1987 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL). The exercise started at 0445 PDT with a call from the Department of Energy (DOE) - EOC in Washington, DC, to the Albuquerque Operations (AL - ) - EOC. AL, in turn, called the Laboratory off-hour emergency number (Fire Dispatcher), who called the Laboratory Emergency Duty Officer (LEDO). The LEDO then contacted the Accident Response Group (ARG) Senior Scientific Advisor. Calls were placed to assemble appropriate members of the ARG in the ALERT Center. No phone number for SNLL was available at the Albuquerque Operations EOC, so a controller injected a message to SNLL to get them involved in the exercise. The messages received at the Laboratory identified the Air Force line item weapon system involved in the accident and the accident location. As people arrived at the ALERT Center they began discussing the details of the accident. They also started working the deployment logistics and other issues. Travel arrangements for the HOT SPOT equipment and ARG personnel were made for immediate deployment to the accident site in North Dakota. The exercise was terminated at 0840 as planned. While certain procedural deficiencies were noted, the exercise was considered a valuable learning experience. The results and observations from this experience will be used to refine the operating procedures and the training program.

  20. [Exercise-induced asthma].

    PubMed

    Dinh Xuan, A T; Marsac, J; Lockhart, A

    1988-12-10

    Exercise-induced asthma only differs from common asthma in its causative factor. It is a typical asthmatic attack which follows a strenuous and continuous physical exercise lasting 5 to 10 minutes, most often in cold and dry weather. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma has not yet been firmly established; its pathophysiological mechanisms are still debated, and the respective roles of heat and water losses by the airways are not clearly defined. However, the influence of the type of exercise as a precipitating factor of exercise-induced asthma is now well-known. All things being equal, swimming generates less asthma than running and cycling. This enables the subjects to be directed towards the most suitable sports and encouraged to improve their physical fitness. Drug treatment of exercise-induced asthma must preferentially be preventive; it relies on cromoglycate and beta-2 adrenergic agonists, the latter being also capable of treating acute exercise-induced bronchial obstruction. Education of the patients and their family is also important.

  1. Exercise and Inherited Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise.

  2. [Asthma and exercise].

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J

    2002-09-01

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is defined as the clinical occurrence of shortness of breath, cough or wheeze that occurs typically 5-15 minutes after the cessation of the exercise. In most patients with EIA, bronchoconstriction is followed by a refractory period, during which repeated exertion causes less bronchoconstriction. The occurrence of this type of asthma is influenced by the intensity and the duration of exercise. It is now generally believed that EIA affects all patients with asthma if challenged with exercise of sufficient intensity. The estimate prevalence varies from 7 to 15% in the general population. EIA appears also to affect 3-14% of athletes. It is now clear that hyperventilation and hypertonicity of airway-lining fluid provide the stimulus for EIA with release of constrictor mediators. Recently, incidence of new diagnoses of asthma is associated with heavy exercise in communities with high concentrations of ozone, thus, air pollution and outdoor exercise could contribute to the development of asthma in children. Beta-agonists and/or disodium cromoglycate remain the preferred first-line therapy for EIA but now antileukotrienes provide an attractive therapeutic alternative. General recommendations can help reduce its severity: warm-up; breath through mask when exercising in cold, dry conditions; in recent years some reports have suggested that training and conditioning may help athletes and non-athletes with asthma have fewer symptoms after exercise, increase the threshold of exercise necessary to induce airway obstruction and finally improve their well-being. Scuba diving stays an absolute contra-indication if asthma.

  3. Exercise and Inherited Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise. PMID:26927864

  4. Exercise physiology in COPD.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, R; Berton, E; Huertas, A; Laveneziana, P; Palange, P

    2003-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ability to increase ventilation during exercise is reduced; the more advanced the disease, the more impaired the exercise tolerance is. However, factors other than ventilatory limitation play an important role in reducing the exercise capacity in COPD. Data implicating peripheral muscle atrophy and muscle weakness as cofactors have been reported in individuals with advanced disease. At this stage daily activities are curtailed to avoid exertional respiratory discomfort. Recent studies have demonstrated that the muscle aerobic capacity of stable hypoxemic COPD patients is impaired; oxygen uptake (V'O2) kinetics and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have shown that these patients rely heavily on non-aerobic energy sources even during moderate, sustained workloads. Finally, early occurrence of metabolic acidosis has been demonstrated in patients with mild to severe COPD during exercise. Inadequate tissue oxygenation appears to result from a defect in peripheral oxygen utilization rather than from a reduction in O2 bulk flow. Peripheral factors may include: a) impaired diffusive conductance for O2 between red cells and mitochondria; b) heterogeneous distribution of O2 bulk flow within the exercising muscle fibers; c) inertia of the oxidative processes at the cellular level; d) changes in distribution of muscle fibers, e) reduction in muscle aerobic enzymes; and f) poor nutritional status. Since muscle dysfunction has an important role in the development of exercise intolerance, physical rehabilitation is more and more used as part of the treatment of COPD. The aim of this review is to briefly discuss current views on the mechanisms responsible for the reduced ability to exercise and the rationale for exercise rehabilitation in COPD patients. PMID:14635502

  5. Staff meeting

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 16 January 2008 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN’s activities during 2007 and to present the perspectives for 2008, the year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (Bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (Bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season! Robert AYMAR

  6. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  7. A Meeting Perspective and Advances in Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Chain, Patrick

    2010-06-04

    Patrick Chain, a DOE JGI scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, looks back on previous SFAF meetings and gives an update on the genome standards first publicly proposed in 2009 on June 4, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  8. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with acute flushing, pruritus and warmth followed by collapse after vigorous exercise in a gymnasium. After resting for 30 min and receiving a rapid infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride, he was finally stable. He admitted that he had a similar experience 5 years earlier during exercise. Based on the patient's history, his symptoms were attributed to exercise-induced anaphylaxis. None of his episodes was associated with any suspicious co-triggers of anaphylaxis. He was successfully discharged from hospital without any complications after receiving guidance on how to prevent this condition. PMID:22669856

  9. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  10. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with acute flushing, pruritus and warmth followed by collapse after vigorous exercise in a gymnasium. After resting for 30 min and receiving a rapid infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride, he was finally stable. He admitted that he had a similar experience 5 years earlier during exercise. Based on the patient's history, his symptoms were attributed to exercise-induced anaphylaxis. None of his episodes was associated with any suspicious co-triggers of anaphylaxis. He was successfully discharged from hospital without any complications after receiving guidance on how to prevent this condition.

  11. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  12. 75 FR 26285 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... public interest does not require that the meeting be open to public observation. The Board also... meeting be called without seven days' public notice of the meeting. In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552b(f)(1... properly be closed to public observation pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(2) and Sec. 102.139(c)(2) of...

  13. Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2014-10-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20 minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity.

  14. Hydration during intense exercise training.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L

    2013-01-01

    Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus. PMID:23899752

  15. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  16. FEMA Asteroid Impact Tabletop Exercise Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark; Jennings, Barbara; Carvey, Brad; Fogleman, William

    2015-05-19

    We describe the computational simulations and damage assessments that we provided in support of a tabletop exercise (TTX) at the request of NASA's Near-Earth Objects Program Office. The overall purpose of the exercise was to assess leadership reactions, information requirements, and emergency management responses to a hypothetical asteroid impact with Earth. The scripted exercise consisted of discovery, tracking, and characterization of a hypothetical asteroid; inclusive of mission planning, mitigation, response, impact to population, infrastructure and GDP, and explicit quantification of uncertainty. Participants at the meeting included representatives of NASA, Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the White House. The exercise took place at FEMA headquarters. Sandia's role was to assist the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in developing the impact scenario, to predict the physical effects of the impact, and to forecast the infrastructure and economic losses. We ran simulations using Sandia's CTH hydrocode to estimate physical effects on the ground, and to produce contour maps indicating damage assessments that could be used as input for the infrastructure and economic models. We used the FASTMap tool to provide estimates of infrastructure damage over the affected area, and the REAcct tool to estimate the potential economic severity expressed as changes to GDP (by nation, region, or sector) due to damage and short-term business interruptions.

  17. FEMA Asteroid Impact Tabletop Exercise Simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boslough, Mark; Jennings, Barbara; Carvey, Brad; Fogleman, William

    2015-05-19

    We describe the computational simulations and damage assessments that we provided in support of a tabletop exercise (TTX) at the request of NASA's Near-Earth Objects Program Office. The overall purpose of the exercise was to assess leadership reactions, information requirements, and emergency management responses to a hypothetical asteroid impact with Earth. The scripted exercise consisted of discovery, tracking, and characterization of a hypothetical asteroid; inclusive of mission planning, mitigation, response, impact to population, infrastructure and GDP, and explicit quantification of uncertainty. Participants at the meeting included representatives of NASA, Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergencymore » Management Agency (FEMA), and the White House. The exercise took place at FEMA headquarters. Sandia's role was to assist the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in developing the impact scenario, to predict the physical effects of the impact, and to forecast the infrastructure and economic losses. We ran simulations using Sandia's CTH hydrocode to estimate physical effects on the ground, and to produce contour maps indicating damage assessments that could be used as input for the infrastructure and economic models. We used the FASTMap tool to provide estimates of infrastructure damage over the affected area, and the REAcct tool to estimate the potential economic severity expressed as changes to GDP (by nation, region, or sector) due to damage and short-term business interruptions.« less

  18. Reflex control of the circulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Fadel, P J

    2015-12-01

    Appropriate cardiovascular and hemodynamic adjustments are necessary to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle during exercise. Alterations in the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system are fundamental in ensuring these adjustments are adequately made. Several neural mechanisms are responsible for the changes in autonomic activity with exercise and through complex interactions, contribute to the cardiovascular and hemodynamic changes in an intensity-dependent manner. This short review is from a presentation made at the Saltin Symposium June 2-4, 2015 in Copenhagen, Denmark. As such, the focus will be on reflex control of the circulation with an emphasis on the work of the late Dr. Bengt Saltin. Moreover, a concerted effort is made to highlight the novel and insightful concepts put forth by Dr. Saltin in his last published review article on the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. Thus, the multiple roles played by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) including its ability to induce vasodilatation, override sympathetic vasoconstriction and stimulate skeletal muscle afferents (exercise pressor reflex) are discussed and a conceptual framework is set suggesting a major role of ATP in blood flow regulation during exercise.

  19. 33 CFR 155.4052 - Drills and exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Guidelines”. Compliance with an alternate program that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 155.1060(a) and 155.5061, and has been approved under 33 CFR 155.1065 and 155.5065 will also satisfy the vessel response... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drills and exercises....

  20. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    SciTech Connect

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.

  1. A disaster relief exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  2. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... basketball and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with ... biking. Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise ...

  3. Diabetes and exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... function throughout the day. By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person with type 2 diabetes may be able to keep their blood sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medicine.

  4. [Diabetes, sport and exercise].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Hermann

    2011-05-01

    Physical activity is an essential element in the therapy of type 2 Diabetes mellitus. For physicians and therapists, it is of vital importance to motivate each patient to include exercise into routine daily life. Individual therapy plans are, thus, required.

  5. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... hours of studying burn mental energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. ...

  6. Exercise clothing and shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a reflective belt or vest. Protect yourself from Lyme disease if you exercise in wooded areas. Wear long sleeves and pants and tuck your pants into your socks. Or, use an insect repellant containing DEET or permethrin.

  7. Exercises in Applied Geochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackleton, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews exercises in the analysis of samples and interpretations of results from the geochemical survey portion of a three year teacher education program in geology presented at Salisbury College of Advanced Education. (SL)

  8. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  9. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of EIB. Avoid exercising in extremely cold temperatures or when you have a respiratory infection, such ... by T Sinha, MD; AK David, MD (American Family Physician February 15, 2003, http://www.aafp.org/ ...

  10. Exercise-induced purpura.

    PubMed

    Leung, A K; Grant, R M; Truscott, R

    1990-09-01

    A 11-year-old boy developed purpura on the back and chest on more than 5 occasions following vigorous exercise. This eruption should be added to the list of differential diagnosis of the dermatosis experienced by athletes.

  11. Exercise for falls prevention in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen R.; Close, Jacqueline C.T.; Heritier, Stephane; Heller, Gillian Z.; Howard, Kirsten; Allen, Natalie E.; Latt, Mark D.; Murray, Susan M.; O'Rourke, Sandra D.; Paul, Serene S.; Song, Jooeun; Fung, Victor S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease. Methods: Two hundred thirty-one people with Parkinson disease were randomized into exercise or usual-care control groups. Exercises were practiced for 40 to 60 minutes, 3 times weekly for 6 months. Primary outcomes were fall rates and proportion of fallers during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes were physical (balance, mobility, freezing of gait, habitual physical activity), psychological (fear of falling, affect), and quality-of-life measures. Results: There was no significant difference between groups in the rate of falls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–1.17, p = 0.18) or proportion of fallers (p = 0.45). Preplanned subgroup analysis revealed a significant interaction for disease severity (p < 0.001). In the lower disease severity subgroup, there were fewer falls in the exercise group compared with controls (IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.62, p < 0.001), while in the higher disease severity subgroup, there was a trend toward more falls in the exercise group (IRR = 1.61, 95% CI 0.86–3.03, p = 0.13). Postintervention, the exercise group scored significantly (p < 0.05) better than controls on the Short Physical Performance Battery, sit-to-stand, fear of falling, affect, and quality of life, after adjusting for baseline performance. Conclusions: An exercise program targeting balance, leg strength, and freezing of gait did not reduce falls but improved physical and psychological health. Falls were reduced in people with milder disease but not in those with more severe Parkinson disease. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with Parkinson disease, a minimally supervised exercise program does not reduce fall risk. This study lacked

  12. Atrial natriuretic factor during hypoxia and mild exercise.

    PubMed

    Story, D A; Miller, B R; Shield, C M; Bowes, G

    1991-04-01

    The effect of hypoxia on plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was evaluated during 2 h of treadmill exercise at 2 km/h, 0 grade at sea level. Six male subjects exercised on 2 separate days during normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (13.3 +/- 0.3% O2). No significant changes in ANF or PRA occurred during either normoxic or hypoxic exercise. However, PAC fell significantly during normoxic exercise (17.5 +/- 3.6 vs. 12.7 +/- 2.6 ng/dl, p less than 0.05) but not during hypoxic exercise. Serum potassium concentration fell during hypoxic exercise (5.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, p less than 0.05) along with bicarbonate (27.8 +/- 0.7 vs. 25.8 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, p less than 0.01). Between normoxic and hypoxic studies there was a significantly higher heart rate during hypoxic exercise (78 +/- 5 vs. 90 +/- 6 b/min, p less than 0.01). The major conclusion of this study is that hypoxia resulting in arterial oxygen saturations of 81 +/- 0.7% does not affect plasma atrial natriuretic factor levels during mild exercise in normal male subjects.

  13. Troponin and exercise.

    PubMed

    Gresslien, T; Agewall, S

    2016-10-15

    Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers in diagnostic of myocardial infarction, but these markers also can rise in response to exercise. Multiple studies have assessed troponins post-exercise, but the results have varied and there have been disagreements about the mechanism of troponin release. The aim of this paper was to review the literature, and to consider factors and mechanisms regarding exercise-induced increase of troponin. 145 studies were found after a search in pubmed and inclusion of additional articles found in the reference list of the first articles. Results showed that troponin rises in 0-100% of subjects after prolonged heavy exercise like marathon, but also after short-term and intermittent exercise like 30min of running and basketball. The variation can be due to factors like intensity, age, training experience, variation in sample size, blood sample timing and troponin assay. The pattern of troponin level post-exercise corresponds to release from the cytosolic compartment of cardiomyocytes. Increased membrane permeability might be caused by production of reactive oxygen species or alterations in calcium, pH, glucose/fat metabolism or in communication between integrins. Other suggested mechanisms are increased cardiovascular stress, inflammation, vasculitis, release of troponin degradation products in "blebs", dehydration, impaired renal clearance and expression of cardiac troponin in skeletal muscle. It can be concluded that both heavy and light exercise may cause elevated troponin, which have to be considered when patient are suspected to have a myocardial infarction. Several factors probably influence post-exercise levels of troponin, but the mechanism of release is most likely physiologic.

  14. Troponin and exercise.

    PubMed

    Gresslien, T; Agewall, S

    2016-10-15

    Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers in diagnostic of myocardial infarction, but these markers also can rise in response to exercise. Multiple studies have assessed troponins post-exercise, but the results have varied and there have been disagreements about the mechanism of troponin release. The aim of this paper was to review the literature, and to consider factors and mechanisms regarding exercise-induced increase of troponin. 145 studies were found after a search in pubmed and inclusion of additional articles found in the reference list of the first articles. Results showed that troponin rises in 0-100% of subjects after prolonged heavy exercise like marathon, but also after short-term and intermittent exercise like 30min of running and basketball. The variation can be due to factors like intensity, age, training experience, variation in sample size, blood sample timing and troponin assay. The pattern of troponin level post-exercise corresponds to release from the cytosolic compartment of cardiomyocytes. Increased membrane permeability might be caused by production of reactive oxygen species or alterations in calcium, pH, glucose/fat metabolism or in communication between integrins. Other suggested mechanisms are increased cardiovascular stress, inflammation, vasculitis, release of troponin degradation products in "blebs", dehydration, impaired renal clearance and expression of cardiac troponin in skeletal muscle. It can be concluded that both heavy and light exercise may cause elevated troponin, which have to be considered when patient are suspected to have a myocardial infarction. Several factors probably influence post-exercise levels of troponin, but the mechanism of release is most likely physiologic. PMID:27420587

  15. Exercise and cancer.

    PubMed

    Knobf, M Tish; Winters-Stone, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 13.7 million cancer survivors in the United States. Persistent and late effects of cancer therapy have contributed to an increased risk for co-morbid illness and higher all-cause mortality. Physical exercise is a targeted rehabilitative intervention following cancer therapy and a health promotion risk reduction intervention for patients as they transition into survivorship. This chapter provides a brief overview of the research on exercise and cancer survivor outcomes with a specific focus on randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of exercise on body composition and bone health. There were 17 RCT trials that were identified with body composition outcomes. There was no change in weight in 16/17 trials, 4 reported decreases in percent fat mass and 2 reported increases in lean mass. Eight exercise trials were identified with bone outcomes, two of which had pharmacologic comparison arms. These trials demonstrated preservation of bone in the intervention group compared with loss in the usual care or placebo control group. The majority of trials were with breast cancer survivors, the largest survivor group. Many are overweight or obese at diagnosis; weight gain continues to increase after therapy; and treatment is associated with bone loss. The findings of the 25 trials reviewed suggest that exercise maintains weight and bone mass in a high risk population. However, differences in design, measurement of body composition and bone mass and lack of targeted exercise to the specific outcomes warrants additional research to improve the quality of life for survivors.

  16. [Cardiac reserve in Parkinson's disease and exercise therapy].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Masaaki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sobue, Gen

    2013-01-01

    The clinical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not based on the identification of the extrapyramidal symptom such as bradykinesia, restinbg tremor, rigidity, but also other non-motor symptom (REM sleep disorder, autonomic dysfunction, hyposmia etc). According to the cardio-sympathetic dysfunction, it is well known abnormal MIBG and orthostatic hypotension finding was seen in early disease stage. Furthermore denervation supersensitivity using β1 stimulant correlates the severity of MIBG image, so that this abnormal cardiac function induces inadequate cardiac capacity for exercise. Inadequate cardiac capacity makes easy fatigability, which correlates the abnormal MIBG image and cardio-sympathetic damage. So it is difficult to prescribe a specific exercise program to meet individual PD patients needs. Music therapy and trunk exercise (for example Tai-Chi exercise) are better suited for PD patients. PMID:24291996

  17. Exercise awareness and barriers after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2014-07-18

    Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program as well as the factors that may mask the outcomes of regular exercise regimen need to be continuously addressed as a part of patients' rehabilitation care. The focus of this editorial is to encourage the medical community to consider routine physical activity as one of the necessary vital signs that needs to be routinely checked in patients with SCI. Providing education tips, nutritional counseling and engaging in recreational programs may provide motivational route to the community of SCI. This may result in reinforcing active lifestyle in survivors with SCI as well as to reduce the impact of chronic life threatening medical disorders.

  18. Exercise awareness and barriers after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program as well as the factors that may mask the outcomes of regular exercise regimen need to be continuously addressed as a part of patients’ rehabilitation care. The focus of this editorial is to encourage the medical community to consider routine physical activity as one of the necessary vital signs that needs to be routinely checked in patients with SCI. Providing education tips, nutritional counseling and engaging in recreational programs may provide motivational route to the community of SCI. This may result in reinforcing active lifestyle in survivors with SCI as well as to reduce the impact of chronic life threatening medical disorders. PMID:25035817

  19. An Introductory Laboratory Exercise on Solution Preparation: A Rewarding Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. Rachel

    2000-02-01

    This exercise provides beginning students a firsthand experience in solution preparation. It can be completed within two hours. The format of the student handout promotes active learning in the laboratory by having text and questions interspersed among laboratory procedures. This exercise has been used successfully in various introductory courses I have taught for more than 14 years. Factors contributing to its effectiveness include (i) students are motivated to prepare solutions for the fascinating Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillation reaction; (ii) the exercise involves a variety of situations commonly encountered in solution preparation; (iii) the challenge of demonstrating the BR reaction seems to be at the appropriate level for beginning students, and meeting the challenge is a rewarding experience and serves as a measure of success in solution preparation; (iv) the exercise lends itself to further take-home studies suitable for different types of introductory chemistry courses.

  20. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

  1. Systems Biology Knowledgebase (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Cottingham, Robert W [ORNL

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Robert W. Cottingham of Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses the DOE KnowledgeBase at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

  2. Influence of exercise on serum levels of myoglobin measured by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Sabriá, M; Ruibal, A; Rey, C; Foz, M; Domenech, F M

    1983-01-01

    To determine the influence of exercise on serum levels of myoglobin, serum levels of this protein were determined by RIA in 90 healthy men, divided as follows: (1) Basal control (no exercise) 25 cases; (2) Moderate exercise (after subject had been working for 12 h in Medicine Emergency Service) 19 cases, and (3) Intensive exercise: (a) football professional (45-min match) 10 cases; (b) football amateur (45-min match) 10 cases; (c) basketball professional (45-min match) 10 cases, and (d) basketball professional (90-min training) 16 cases. Our results led us to the following conclusions. (1) Moderate exercise, such as the usual daily work, does not modify myoglobin levels; (2) Myoglobin serum levels after exercise increase in nearly all individuals. They are higher in untrained people; (3) There seems to be a correlation between exercise intensity and increase of myoglobin serum levels, and (4) The detection of serum myoglobin by RIA may have a wide field of application for sport medicine.

  3. DOE standard: Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  4. Meeting Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-06-01

    On 2-3 June 2012, the University of Tromsoe hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsoe for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the scale of the solar system in the eighteenth century. The site of the conference was the Nordnorsk Vitensenter (Science Centre of Northern Norway), which is located at the campus of the University of Tromsoe. After the conference, participants were invited to either stay in Tromsoe until the midnight of 5-6 June, or take part in a Venus transit voyage in Finnmark, during which the historical sites Vardoe, Hammerfest, and the North Cape were to be visited. The post-conference program culminated with the participants observing the transit of Venus in or near Tromsoe, Vardoe and even from a plane near Alta. These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures delivered on 2-3 June 2012, and also a narrative description of the transit viewing from Tromsoe, Vardoe and Alta. The title of the book, Meeting Venus, refers the title of a play by the Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director Istvan Szabo (1938-). The autobiographical movie Meeting Venus (1991) directed by him is based on his experience directing Tannhauser at the Paris Opera in 1984. The movie brings the story of an imaginary international opera company that encounters a never ending series of difficulties and pitfalls that symbolise the challenges of any multicultural and international endeavour. As is evident from the many papers presented in this book, Meeting Venus not only contains the epic tales of the transits of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it also covers the conference

  5. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  6. Diabetes and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Peirce, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significant worldwide burden of this type of diabetes. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the acute and long term physiological benefits of physical activity, although the precise duration, intensity, and type of exercise have yet to be fully elucidated. However, in type 1 diabetes, the expected improvements in glycaemic control with exercise have not been clearly established. Instead significant physical and psychological benefits of exercise can be achieved while careful education, screening, and planning allow the metabolic, microvascular, and macrovascular risks to be predicted and diminished. 


 PMID:10378067

  7. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

  8. Exercise and gonadal function.

    PubMed

    Elias, A N; Wilson, A F

    1993-10-01

    Exercise is associated with release of a number of pituitary and hypothalamic hormones and a decline in the concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is generally not influenced by exercise. Serum inhibin concentrations, which are reciprocally influenced by serum FSH concentrations, are increased in some animals but are unchanged after acute exercise in human males. Teleologically, the decline in gonadotrophic hormone (LH) secretion after exercise may be geared to enhance individual survival over species propagation in times of stress, analogous to the postulated 'fight or flight' reaction. The decrease in gonadotrophic hormone (LH) secretion is believed to be due to changes in gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse frequency and amplitude, particularly in women, who often develop amenorrhoea. Males have less dramatic changes in their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, although a significant decrease in serum testosterone in physically conditioned males can usually be demonstrated. In this update possible mechanisms for the decline in gonadotrophin secretion with exercise are briefly discussed.

  9. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities.

  10. Exercise and Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Phu, Steven; Boersma, Derek; Duque, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a major component of the frailty syndrome and is also a strong predictor of disability, morbidity, and mortality in older persons. Without any available pharmacological intervention to sarcopenia, non-pharmacological interventions are the only option to prevent these poor outcomes in sarcopenic patients. Among those interventions, physical activity with or without protein supplementation has demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle mass and function and in preventing disability and frailty in older persons. Additionally, to the beneficial effect of physical activity on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, a regular exercise program (3 times/wk) that includes resistance and endurance exercise training would have a major positive effect on sarcopenic muscle through improving muscle mass, strength, and function. In this review, we looked at the effect of exercise on sarcopenic frail older persons from the biological aspects of the response of the muscle to exercise to some practical aspects of exercise prescription in this high-risk population. We conclude that, although challenging, older persons should be encouraged to participate in this type of programs, which would improve not only their function and independence but also their quality of life. PMID:26071171

  11. Exercise for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Baker, K; McAlindon, T

    2000-09-01

    Adverse outcomes in knee osteoarthritis include pain, loss of function, and disability. These outcomes can have devastating effects on the quality of life of those suffering from the disease. Treatments have generally targeted pain, assuming that disability would improve as a direct result of improvements in pain. However, there is evidence to suggest that determinants of pain and disability differ. In general, treatments have been more successful at decreasing pain rather than disability. Many of the factors that lead to disability can be improved with exercise. Exercise, both aerobic and strength training, have been examined as treatments for knee osteoarthritis, with considerable variability in the results. The variability between studies may be due to differences in study design, exercise protocols, and participants in the studies. Although there is variability among studies, it is notable that a majority of the studies had a positive effect on pain and or disability. The mechanism of exercise remains unclear and merits future studies to better define a concise, clear exercise protocol that may have the potential for a public health intervention.

  12. 75 FR 43518 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Science, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory..., Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U. S. Department of...

  13. Flow for Exercise Adherence: Testing an Intrinsic Model of Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petosa, R. Lingyak; Holtz, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health behavior theory generally does not include intrinsic motivation as a determinate of health practices. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the flow theory of exercise adherence. Flow theory posits that exercise can be intrinsically rewarding if the experiences of self/time transcendence and control/mastery are achieved…

  14. Milk protein and the restoration of fluid balance after exercise.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Sweat is produced during exercise to help dissipate some of the extra heat produced due to an increase in metabolic rate. Inadequate drink ingestion during exercise means athletes finish exercise hypohydrated and when the time between exercise bouts is short, effective rehydration strategies will be necessary to prevent subsequent performance impairment. For complete rehydration, drink volume must be sufficient to replace sweat losses as well as the additional water losses during recovery. Once a sufficient volume of drink is ingested it is the drink composition that dictates the rehydration success of the drink. It is well known that addition of sodium and some other nutrients to rehydration drinks enhances fluid balance restoration after exercise, but the effects of milk proteins have been less well documented. Skimmed milk is an effective post-exercise rehydration solution and enhances the restoration of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration to a greater extent than a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink. Whilst there are a number of factors in skimmed milk that might be responsible for this enhancement of rehydration, it appears that some of the effect is due to the milk protein, as milk protein has been shown to be more effective for post-exercise rehydration than an isoenergetic amount of carbohydrate. Whilst the effects of whey protein on post-exercise rehydration are equivocal, whey protein addition to a carbohydrate-electrolyte rehydration solution certainly does not impair rehydration. Therefore, in situations where protein ingestion after exercise might be advantageous for the athlete, this protein might also enhance restoration of fluid balance.

  15. Effects of dietary Acid load on exercise metabolism and anaerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Caciano, Susan L; Inman, Cynthia L; Gockel-Blessing, Elizabeth E; Weiss, Edward P

    2015-06-01

    the acid or alkaline promoting qualities of the diet, quantified as potential renal acid load (PRAL), alter systemic pH, as evidenced in the present study by changes in fasted morning urine pH. Low-PRAL (alkaline promoting) diets are characterized by high intakes of vegetables and fruits with limited consumption of meats, cheeses, and grains while high-PRAL diets are characterized by the opposite dietary pattern.An alkaline promoting (low-PRAL) diet increases anaerobic exercise performance, as evidenced by greater time-to-exhaustion during high-intensity treadmill running.Preliminary evidence suggests that an alkaline promoting (low-PRAL) diet increases lipid oxidation and may have a carbohydrate-sparing effect during submaximal endurance exercise, although further studies are needed.In contrast to what has been observed in response to habitual/long-term dietary patterns, a short-term low-PRAL diet does not increase maximal exercise respiratory exchange ratio and even appears to lower it. This suggests that short-term and long-term alterations in PRAL have different physiologic effects on this parameter. PMID:25983586

  16. Effects of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Metabolism and Anaerobic Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Caciano, Susan L.; Inman, Cynthia L.; Gockel-Blessing, Elizabeth E.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    the acid or alkaline promoting qualities of the diet, quantified as potential renal acid load (PRAL), alter systemic pH, as evidenced in the present study by changes in fasted morning urine pH. Low-PRAL (alkaline promoting) diets are characterized by high intakes of vegetables and fruits with limited consumption of meats, cheeses, and grains while high-PRAL diets are characterized by the opposite dietary pattern. An alkaline promoting (low-PRAL) diet increases anaerobic exercise performance, as evidenced by greater time-to-exhaustion during high-intensity treadmill running. Preliminary evidence suggests that an alkaline promoting (low-PRAL) diet increases lipid oxidation and may have a carbohydrate-sparing effect during submaximal endurance exercise, although further studies are needed. In contrast to what has been observed in response to habitual/long-term dietary patterns, a short-term low-PRAL diet does not increase maximal exercise respiratory exchange ratio and even appears to lower it. This suggests that short-term and long-term alterations in PRAL have different physiologic effects on this parameter. PMID:25983586

  17. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  18. Exercise in Pregnancy: Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Artal, Raul

    2016-09-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that in all phases of life, including pregnancy, physical activity promotes health benefits and precludes comorbidities, the scientific evidence is indisputable. Several organizations around the world have updated in recent years the guidelines and recommendations for exercise in pregnancy. The December 2015, updated guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists emphasize that physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risk. Although recommending exercise in pregnancy, the anatomic/physiological changes, absolute and relative contraindications should be considered. Women who exercised regularly before pregnancy, in the absence of contraindications, can continue and engage in moderate to strenuous activities, although information on strenuous activities in pregnancy is still limited. This review summarizes the most recent published and recommended guidelines. PMID:27398880

  19. Locomotor exercise in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

  20. Temperature regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M

    1998-06-01

    During strenuous exercise the body's heat production may exceed 1000 W. Some of the heat produced is stored, raising body core temperature by a few degrees. Rises in body temperature are sensed by central and skin thermoreceptors and this sensory information is processed by the hypothalamus to trigger appropriate effector responses. Other sensory inputs from baroreceptors and osmoreceptors can modify these responses. Evaporation of sweat and increased skin blood flow are effective mechanisms for the dissipation of heat from the body but dehydration impairs the capacity to sweat and lose body heat. Hot, humid environments or inappropriate clothing may compromise the ability to lose heat from the body. Exercise training improves tolerance to exercise in the heat by increasing the sensitivity of the sweat rate/core temperature relationship, decreasing the core temperature threshold for sweating and increasing total blood volume.