Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M.; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay
The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of…
This documents contains the details from the USDA/USDOE meeting on April 11--12, 1994. Topics discussed include: genetic research, environmental research, renewable energy sources, food supply, improved fertilizers, new pesticides, research programs combining the efforts of the two agencies to develop new products for use in the agriculture industry, environmentally safe products, getting more with less money, and various other subjects dealing with how cooperation among these agencies can improve the agriculture industry.
Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.
Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114
Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.
The second full-scale field exercise of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) was held at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Zion, Illinois, in June 1987. The exercise incorporated the annual compliance exercise for the Zion plant and involved the operating utility, Commonwealth Edison Company, the states of Illinois and Wisconsin, local governments, volunteer groups, and representatives from 12 federal agencies. The 3-day exercise was played from many locations in the Zion area; Springfield, Illinois; Madison, Wisconsin; and Washington, DC. Approximately 1000 people participated in the exercise, which used a scenario in which an accident at the plant resulted in the release of radioactive material outside the plant boundary. The US Department of Energy (DOE) had major responsibilities during the planning, playing, and critiquing of the exercise; these functions are outlined in the report. This document describes the DOE participation in the planning and response during the exercise. During a radiological emergency, the FRERP gives DOE the responsibility for coordinating the federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities in support of the states and the cognizant federal agency. At Zion, a self-sufficient Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center was established by DOE at a nearby fairground in which over 200 people from DOE, the two states, and other federal agencies participated. Before the field exercise, a tabletop exercise and a dry run were held for training purposes. 5 refs., 6 figs.
Neely, J. R.
Performance portability is a phrase often used, but not well understood. The DOE is deploying systems at all of the major facilities across ASCR and ASC that are forcing application developers to confront head-on the challenges of running applications across these diverse systems. With GPU-based systems at the OLCF and LLNL, and Phi-based systems landing at NERSC, ACES (LANL/SNL), and the ALCF – the issue of performance portability is confronting the DOE mission like never before. A new best practice in the DOE is to include “Centers of Excellence” with each major procurement, with a goal of focusing efforts on preparing key applications to be ready for the systems coming to each site, and engaging the vendors directly in a “shared fate” approach to ensuring success. While each COE is necessarily focused on a particular deployment, applications almost invariably must be able to run effectively across the entire DOE HPC ecosystem. This tension between optimizing performance for a particular platform, while still being able to run with acceptable performance wherever the resources are available, is the crux of the challenge we call “performance portability”. This meeting was an opportunity to bring application developers, software providers, and vendors together to discuss this challenge and begin to chart a path forward.
Rain, Carmen; Seguel, Willy; Vergara, Luis
It has been proposed that fibromyalgia could be managed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Regular physical exercise is commonly used as a non-pharmacological intervention. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 14 systematic reviews including 25 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We conclude that regular physical exercise probably reduces pain in patients with fibromyalgia.
The EPA and the DOE met in Albuquerque, NM, on October 18, 2011, to discuss various WIPP technical issues. In addition, select staff from the EPA, the DOE and the NMED met with stakeholders in Santa Fe, NM, on October 19, 2011.
Bull Schaefer, Rebecca A.; Erskine, Laura
Students find that choosing the appropriate technology for a virtual team meeting is not as simple as it first appears. The authors describe a class exercise used to demonstrate the benefits and drawbacks of using virtual team meetings by requiring students to replace a face-to-face meeting with a virtual meeting. The exercise challenged students'…
The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.
Miller, T D; Rogers, P J; Bauer, B A; O'Brien, J F; Squires, R W; Bailey, K R; Bove, A A
Skeletal muscle biopsies from highly trained endurance athletes have been shown to contain an increased percentage of the creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme, which has been attributed to continuous regeneration of the skeletal muscle fibers in response to exercise-induced injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether myocardium undergoes a similar degenerative-regenerative process as a result of exercise training. Fifteen mongrel dogs underwent a 12-wk period of training (N = 8) or cage confinement (N = 7). The animals were then sacrificed, and samples of left and right ventricular myocardium were analyzed for total CK activity and CK-MB isoenzyme content. Percentages of CK-MB were slightly but insignificantly higher from both ventricles of exercise-trained as compared with cage-confined dogs: left ventricle, 4.6 +/- 0.6% vs 3.3 +/- 0.6%, respectively (P = 0.15); right ventricle, 4.0 +/- 0.4% vs 3.0 +/- 0.8%, respectively (P = 0.29). We conclude that chronic exercise training does not induce physiologically important degenerative changes in myocardium.
Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Sanders, Thomas A B
Postprandial lipaemia impairs endothelial function, possibly by changes in oxidative stress, but whether this affects cardiac output and/or systemic vascular resistance (SVR) at rest and in response to dynamic exercise remains uncertain. The present study set out to investigate the effects of a high-fat meal (HFM) v. a low-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HCM) on cardiac output and SVR. A HFM (50 g fat) and an isoenergetic HCM (5 g fat) were randomly fed to thirty healthy adults using a crossover design. Cardiac output, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were measured, and stroke volume and SVR were calculated over a 3 h rest following the meal, during exercise 3 h postprandially and for 45 min post-exercise. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 3 h postprandially and immediately post-exercise. Plasma TAG increased by 63.8 % 3 h following the HFM, and NEFA fell by 94.1% 3 h after the HCM. There was a 9.8% rise in plasma 8-isoprostane-F2alpha concentration following the HFM, and a 6.2% fall following the HCM. Cardiac output increased postprandially, but the difference between meals at rest or exercise was not statistically significant. The HFM resulted in a 3.2 mmHg (95% CI 0.7, 5.7) smaller increase in exercise mean arterial BP compared with the HCM due to a greater fall in exercise SVR. Postprandial lipaemia induced by a HFM does not affect cardiac output and/or SVR at rest, but it blunts the increase in BP during exercise.
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...
Hazen, Terry C.
This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.
This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia National Laboratories` Photovoltaic Technology and Photovoltaic Evaluation Departments. It contains information supplied by organizations making presentations at the meeting, which was held July 14--15, 1992 at the Sheraton Old Town Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Overview sessions covered the Department of Energy (DOE) program, including those at Sandia and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and non-DOE programs, including the EPRI concentrator collector program, The Japanese crystalline silicon program, and some concentrating photovoltaic activities in Europe. Additional sessions included papers on Sandia`s Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory`s collaborative research, cell processing research, the activities of the participants in the Concentrator Initiative Program, and photovoltaic technology evaluation at Sandia and NREL.
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...
Hazen, Terry C.
Welcome to the annual 2007 Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PIs) meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to bring together all of the lead PIs and key Co-PIs in the program to share and review the results of funded research from the past year. This meeting allows program managers from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) to gauge the progress and significance of the funded research, and it is also an important venue to showcase ERSP research to interested parties within DOE and other invited federal agency representatives. Additionally, these meetings should serve as an opportunity for funded PIs to view their research in the context of the entire ERSP portfolio. Past ERSP meetings have been very important venues for detailed discussion of research results among PIs, development of new research ideas, fostering new collaborations and discussion with ERSD program managers on future research efforts and/or initiatives within the program. In short, these meetings are an important resource for both program managers and PIs. There will be only one ERSP PI meeting for 2007. In years past, ERSD has sponsored two PI meetings, one in the spring and a separate meeting in the fall that focused primarily on field research. However, this format tends to insulate laboratory-based research from the field research sponsored in the program and is incompatible with the ERSD view that laboratory-based research should progress towards understanding the relevant processes in natural environments at the field scale. Therefore the agenda for this year's PI meeting is well integrated with both lab-based and field-based projects, to allow for detailed discussion between PIs involved in each area. In the agenda, you will notice a more relaxed format than in years past. This year's meeting spans four days, but is less heavily regimented in terms of oral presentations
Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.
The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS < 6 = 0 and =/> 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: < 1 ml/kg/min for subsamples of age, gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) <30 and >50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of
Burtin, Chris; De Boever, Patrick; Langer, Daniël; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Franssen, Frits M.E.
Key points Physiological changes are observed following a structured exercise training programme in patients with COPD, without changes in resting lung function. Exercise training is the cornerstone of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme in patients with COPD. Most comorbidities in patients referred for pulmonary rehabilitation remain undiagnosed and untreated. After careful screening, it is safe for COPD patients with comorbidities to obtain significant and clinically relevant improvements in functional exercise capacity and health status after an exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme. Educational aims To inform readers of the positive effects of exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD, even with comorbid conditions. To inform readers of the importance of physical activity in patients with COPD. Exercise training is widely regarded as the cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indeed, exercise training has been identified as the best available means of improving muscle function and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. So, exercise training truly makes a difference in the life of patients with COPD. In this review, an overview is provided on the history of exercise training (as standalone intervention or as part of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme), exercise training in comorbid patients with COPD, and the impact of physical activity counselling in a clean air environment. PMID:27408645
Background: Understanding individual-differences of those people who do and do not meet physical activity recommendations could inform targets for increasing physical activity. Exercise reinforcement may be one such individual-level determinate, but it is not yet known whether those who meet activi...
Ahlskog, J Eric
Parkinson disease (PD) is progressive, with dementia and medication-refractory motor problems common reasons for late-stage nursing-home placement. Increasing evidence suggests that ongoing vigorous exercise/physical fitness may favorably influence this progression. Parkinsonian animal models reveal exercise-related protection from dopaminergic neurotoxins, apparently mediated by brain neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity (predicted from in vitro studies). Similarly, exercise consistently improves cognition in animals, also linked to enhanced neuroplasticity and increased neurotrophic factor expression. In these animal models, immobilization has the opposite effect. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate at least some of this exercise benefit. In humans, exercise increases serum BDNF, and this is known to cross the blood-brain barrier. PD risk in humans is significantly reduced by midlife exercise, documented in large prospective studies. No studies have addressed whether exercise influences dementia risk in PD, but exercised patients with PD improve cognitive scores. Among seniors in general, exercise or physical fitness has not only been associated with better cognitive scores, but midlife exercise significantly reduces the later risk of both dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Finally, numerous studies in seniors with and without dementia have reported increased cerebral gray matter volumes associated with physical fitness or exercise. These findings have several implications for PD clinicians. (1) Ongoing vigorous exercise and physical fitness should be highly encouraged. (2) PD physical therapy programs should include structured, graduated fitness instruction and guidance for deconditioned patients with PD. (3) Levodopa and other forms of dopamine replenishment therapy should be utilized to achieve the maximum capability and motivation for patients to maintain fitness.
Camiletti-Moirón, D; Aparicio, V A; Aranda, P; Radak, Z
The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the influence of different exercise programs on brain oxidative stress. A search of the literature was conducted up to 1 December 2012 across five databases: PUBMED, SCOPUS, SPORTS DISCUS, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. The search strategy used in the electronic databases mentioned was established as: (swim* OR exercise OR training) AND ("oxidative stress" AND brain) for each database. A methodological quality assessment valuation/estimation was additionally carried out in the final sample of studies. Of 1553 potentially eligible papers, 19 were included after inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality assessment showed a total score in the Quality Index between 40% and 80%, with a mean quality of 56.8%. Overall, regular moderate aerobic exercise appears to promote antioxidant capacity on brain. In contrast, anaerobic or high-intensity exercise, aerobic-exhausted exercise, or the combination of both types of training could deteriorate the antioxidant response. Future investigations should be focused on establishing a standardized exercise protocol, depending on the exercise metabolism wanted to test, which could enhance the objective knowledge in this topic.
MacDonald, Jennifer C.
DOE's Sustainability Performance Office is working to meet sustainability goals at DOE by implementing Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) and legislation related to sustainability. Through implementation of Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the SSPP, statutory requirements and regular reporting, analysis and communication, DOE's SPO is working to maintain and expand DOE's leadership in sustainability. (authors)
Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim
Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05). Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05). These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior. PMID:27490493
Peake, Jonathan M; Markworth, James F; Nosaka, Kazunori; Raastad, Truls; Wadley, Glenn D; Coffey, Vernon G
Hormesis encompasses the notion that low levels of stress stimulate or upregulate existing cellular and molecular pathways that improve the capacity of cells and organisms to withstand greater stress. This notion underlies much of what we know about how exercise conditions the body and induces long-term adaptations. During exercise, the body is exposed to various forms of stress, including thermal, metabolic, hypoxic, oxidative, and mechanical stress. These stressors activate biochemical messengers, which in turn activate various signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and adaptive responses. Historically, antioxidant supplements, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cryotherapy have been favored to attenuate or counteract exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. However, reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators are key signaling molecules in muscle, and such strategies may mitigate adaptations to exercise. Conversely, withholding dietary carbohydrate and restricting muscle blood flow during exercise may augment adaptations to exercise. In this review article, we combine, integrate, and apply knowledge about the fundamental mechanisms of exercise adaptation. We also critically evaluate the rationale for using interventions that target these mechanisms under the overarching concept of hormesis. There is currently insufficient evidence to establish whether these treatments exert dose-dependent effects on muscle adaptation. However, there appears to be some dissociation between the biochemical/molecular effects and functional/performance outcomes of some of these treatments. Although several of these treatments influence common kinases, transcription factors, and proteins, it remains to be determined if these interventions complement or negate each other, and whether such effects are strong enough to influence adaptations to exercise.
Edwards, Kate M; Campbell, John P; Ring, Christopher; Drayson, Mark T; Bosch, Jos A; Downes, Charlotte; Long, Joanna E; Lumb, Josephine A; Merry, Alex; Paine, Nicola J; Burns, Victoria E
Acute exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody response to influenza vaccination. However, both the optimal exercise protocol and the mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise intensity influenced the efficacy of the intervention. One hundred and sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to a resting control group or one of three intervention groups, who exercised at an intensity of 60%, 85%, or 110% of their pre-determined concentric one repetition maxima. The exercise groups performed 50 repetitions of the eccentric portion of both bicep curl and lateral raise movements. All participants then immediately received a reduced dose (50% recommended dose) influenza vaccine. Antibody titres to the three viral strains contained in the vaccine were measured at baseline and at 28 days post-vaccination. Compared to the control group, exercise enhanced the antibody response to the least immunogenic of the three strains (B/Florida). In addition, the exercise groups showed an augmented response to the A/Uruguay strain compared to control; however, this effect was observed only in men. The intervention had no effect on the antibody responses to the most immunogenic strain, A/Brisbane. Finally, antibody responses were unrelated to the intensity of the exercise bout. In conclusion, our findings provide further evidence of exercise as an adjuvant to enhance vaccination responses. The results further show that responses to the low-immunogenic antigens are particularly responsive to augmentation by acute eccentric exercise.
Vieira, Stella S.; Lemes, Brunno; de T. C. de Carvalho, Paulo; N. de Lima, Rafael; S. Bocalini, Danilo; A. S. Junior, José; Arsa, Gisela; A. Casarin, Cezar; L. Andrade, Erinaldo; J. Serra, Andrey
Introduction: Cardiac output increases during incremental-load exercise to meet metabolic skeletal muscle demand. This response requires a fast adjustment in heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is well known to increase linearly with exercise load; however, data for stroke volume during incremental-load exercise are unclear. Our objectives were to (a) review studies that have investigated stroke volume on incremental load exercise and (b) summarize the findings for stroke volume, primarily at maximal-exercise load. Methods: A comprehensive review of the Cochrane Library’s, Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, PubMed, and Web of Sci-ence databases was carried out for the years 1985 to the present. The search was performed between February and June 2014 to find studies evaluating changes in stroke volume during incremental-load exercise. Controlled and uncontrolled trials were evaluated for a quality score. Results: The stroke volume data in maximal-exercise load are inconsistent. There is evidence to hypothesis that stroke volume increases during maximal-exercise load, but other lines of evidence indicate that stroke volume reaches a plateau under these circumstances, or even decreases. Conclusion: The stroke volume are unclear, include contradictory evidence. Additional studies with standardized reporting for subjects (e.g., age, gender, physical fitness, and body position), exercise test protocols, and left ventricular function are required to clarify the characteristics of stroke volume during incremental maximal-exercise load. PMID:27347221
Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian
Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost.
Smyrnis, Eleni; Ginns, Paul
Learning from complex instructional materials typically requires sustained attention, but many learners--both children and adults--may find their minds "wandering" when learning. Drama educators have argued that "mirroring" exercises, where students in pairs or groups mirror each other's movements, improve attention; but, to…
Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose
Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise.
Shankle, D.L.; Hawkins, D.M.; Love, P.M.; Wilde, G.M.
Transferring the technology and results from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored building energy research to potential users is a critical part of DOE`s successful research programs. To assist in this transfer of information and technologies, the DOE Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has established Building Technology Transfer Meetings that are held twice each year at one of the 10 DOE Regional Support Offices. Meeting participants include DOE personnel and representatives from each of the national laboratories involved in OBT buildings energy research as well as representatives from the DOE Regional Support Offices and other agencies involved in the buildings sector. Since 1991, OBT has held five meetings: Washington D.C., San Francisco, Denver, Oak Ridge, and Seattle. The purpose of these meetings is twofold: (1) for DOE to share information about such topics as new research results, new technologies, and new ways to collaborate with industry and universities to leverage resources; and (2) for the participants to use this information within their region to accelerate the transfer and deployment of new energy-efficient building technologies. The meetings include presentations, demonstrations, and tours. The meetings have provided an excellent opportunity for staff from the Regional Support Offices to learn about new technologies through their interactions with OBT and national laboratory program managers. Meeting tours and demonstrations have provided beneficial opportunities to get hands-on experience with new technologies and to see them in practice.
Thomas, R; Flindtgaard, M; Skriver, K; Geertsen, S S; Christiansen, L; Korsgaard Johnsen, L; Busk, D V P; Bojsen-Møller, E; Madsen, M J; Ritz, C; Roig, M; Lundbye-Jensen, J
A single bout of high-intensity exercise can augment off-line gains in skills acquired during motor practice. It is currently unknown if the type of physical exercise influences the effect on motor skill consolidation. This study investigated the effect of three types of high-intensity exercise following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill were performed 1 (R1h) and 24 h (R1d) post acquisition. For all exercise groups, mean motor performance scores decreased at R1h compared to post acquisition (POST) level; STR (P = 0.018), CT (P = 0.02), HOC (P = 0.014) and performance scores decreased for CT compared to CON (P = 0.049). Mean performance scores increased from POST to R1d for all exercise groups; STR (P = 0.010), CT (P = 0.020), HOC (P = 0.007) while performance scores for CON decreased (P = 0.043). Changes in motor performance were thus greater for STR (P = 0.006), CT (P < 0.001) and HOC (P < 0.001) compared to CON from POST to R1d. The results demonstrate that high-intensity, acute exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed.
Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5-min one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24 +/- 1 W, mean +/- SD) without (Con) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) to inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostanoids, respectively. Leg blood flow and leg oxygen delivery throughout exercise was 25-50% lower (P < 0.05) in DB compared with Con. Leg oxygen extraction (arteriovenous O(2) difference) was higher (P < 0.05) in DB than in Con (5 s: 127 +/- 3 vs. 56 +/- 4 ml/l), and leg oxygen uptake was not different between Con and DB during exercise. The difference between leg oxygen delivery and leg oxygen uptake was smaller (P < 0.05) during exercise in DB than in Con (5 s: 59 +/- 12 vs. 262 +/- 39 ml/min). The present data demonstrate that muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery can be markedly reduced without affecting muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of moderate-intensity exercise, suggesting that blood flow does not limit muscle oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise. Additionally, prostanoids and/or nitric oxide appear to play important roles in elevating skeletal muscle blood flow in the initial phase of exercise.
Günendi, Zafer; Sepici Dinçel, Aylin; Erdoğan, Zeynep; Aknar, Ozlem; Yanpal, Selma; Göğüş, Feride; Atalay, Fatma
We aimed to investigate the effect of regular supervised exercise program on functional status, disease activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) level in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-two patients (mean age: 44 years) with AS were included in the study and divided into two groups. Group 1, the exercise group (n = 16), attended a supervised exercise program that consisted of aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 1 h a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. Group 2, the control group, received a home exercise program (n:16). Bath AS Activity Index (BASDAI) and Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) were calculated and serum TAS levels were measured for each patient at 0 and 3 weeks. There was no significant difference in patients' baseline characteristics (age, disease duration, BASFI, and BASDAI scores) between exercise and control groups. In the exercise group, there were significant improvements between pre-exercise and post-exercise assessments in BASFI (2.8 +/- 1,8; 1.7 +/- 1,40, p = 0.004) and BASDAI scores (2.1 +/- 1.7; 1.2 +/- 1.3, p = 0.01). Mean TAS levels were significantly decreased after supervised exercise program (1.48 +/- 0.16 mmol/L; 1.36 +/- 0.20 mmol/L, p = 0.03). In the control group, BASFI score (2.4 +/- 1.7; 2.9 +/- 2.1, p = 0.19), BASDAI score (2.6 +/- 2.2; 3.1 +/- 2.6, p = 0.33), and mean TAS levels (1.38 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; 1.39 +/- 0.20 mmol/L, p = 0.66) did not differ significantly between 0 and 3 weeks. Short-term, supervised exercise program improved functional status and decreased disease activity. However, the mechanism of this beneficial clinical effect does not seem to be through antioxidant activity.
Toole, Loren G
The goals are to test and explore the DOE National Labs ability to quickly map, characterize and analyze an event involving Mexico's energy infrastructure system in the wake of a major disruption of energy supplies from Mexico to the US. Focus on the economic impacts and system interdependencies as well as analysis related to restoration and recovery issues.
This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held August 7 through 9, 1990 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator 3-5 cell research, and concentrating collector development.
Lefkowitz, Robert J.
For many academic physician-scientists, the yearly Tri-Societies meeting of the ASCI, AAP, and AFCR during the 1960s, ’70s, and ’80s was an annual rite of spring and the focal point of the academic year. In this brief essay, I set down some miscellaneous recollections of these meetings and some thoughts about why they were of such central importance in the careers of those of my generation. PMID:18382732
Silva, Luciano A; Tromm, Camila B; Da Rosa, Guilherme; Bom, Karoliny; Luciano, Thais F; Tuon, Talita; De Souza, Cláudio T; Pinho, Ricardo A
Thirty-six male rats were used; divided into 6 groups (n = 6): saline; creatine (Cr); eccentric exercise (EE) plus saline 24 h (saline + 24 h); eccentric exercise plus Cr 24 h (Cr + 24 h); eccentric exercise plus saline 48 h (saline + 48 h); and eccentric exercise plus Cr 48 h (Cr + 48 h). Cr supplementation was administered as a solution of 300 mg · kg body weight(-1) · day(-1) in 1 mL water, for two weeks, before the eccentric exercise. The animals were submitted to one downhill run session at 1.0 km · h(-1) until exhaustion. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours after the exercise, the animals were killed, and the quadriceps were removed. Creatine kinase levels, superoxide production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, carbonyl content, total thiol content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-1b (IL-1β), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kb), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were analysed. Cr supplementation neither decreases Cr kinase, superoxide production, lipoperoxidation, carbonylation, total thiol, IL-1β, NF-kb, or TNF nor alters the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxides in relation to the saline group, respectively (P < 0.05). There are positive correlations between Cr kinase and TBARS and TNF-α 48 hours after eccentric exercise. The present study suggests that Cr supplementation does not decrease oxidative stress and inflammation after eccentric contraction.
Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter
It is generally accepted that eccentric exercise, when performed by a muscle that is unaccustomed to that type of contraction, results in a delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). A prolonged exposure to eccentric exercise leads to the disappearance of the signs and symptoms associated with DOMS, which has been referred to as the repeated bout effect (RBE). Although the mechanisms underlying the RBE remain unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the serial sarcomere number addition following exercise induced muscle damage. In the traditional DOMS and RBE protocols, muscle injury has been treated as a global parameter, with muscle force and strain assumed to be uniform throughout the muscle. To assess the effects of muscle-tendon unit strain, fiber strain, torque and injury on serial sarcomere number adaptations, three groups of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were subjected to chronic repetitive eccentric exercise bouts of the ankle dorsiflexors for 6 weeks. These eccentric exercise protocols consisted of identical muscle tendon unit (MTU) strain, but other mechanical factors were systematically altered. Following chronic eccentric exercise, serial sarcomere number adaptations were not identical between the three eccentric exercise protocols, and serial sarcomere number adaptations were not uniform across all regions of the muscle. Peak torque and relaxation fiber strain were the best predictors of serial sarcomere number across all three protocols. Therefore, MTU strain does not appear to be the primary cause for sarcomerogenesis, and differential adaptations within the muscle may be explained by the nonuniform architecture of the muscle, resulting in differential local fiber strains.
Kingsley, J Derek; McMillan, Victor; Figueroa, Arturo
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) on aortic wave reflection and hemodynamics during recovery from acute resistance exercise in women with fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy women (HW). Nine women with FM (aged 42 ± 5 years; mean ± SD) and 14 HW (aged 45 ± 5 years) completed testing at baseline and after 12 weeks of whole-body RET that consisted of 3 sets of 5 exercises. Heart rate (HR), digital blood pressure (BP, plethysmography), aortic BP, and wave reflection (radial tonometry) were assessed before and 20 min after acute leg resistance exercise. Aortic and digital diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and aortic and digital pulse pressures (PP) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) after acute exercise before RET. Acute resistance exercise had no effect on HR, wave reflection (augmentation index and reflection time), digital, or aortic systolic BP. RET improved muscle strength without affecting acute DBP and PP responses. Acute resistance exercise produces postexercise diastolic hypotension without affecting systolic blood pressure, HR, and wave reflection responses in women with and without FM. RET does not alter resting and postexercise hemodynamics and aortic wave reflection in premenopausal women.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion to... Debt or the Suspension or Termination of Collection Action? § 30.70 How does the Secretary exercise... debt if— (1) The debt was incurred under a program or activity subject to section 452(f) of the...
... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...
... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands: Interior... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? (a) If a well that does not meet the productivity... production becomes a part of that participating area production even if it does not meet the...
Young, C.; Williams, G.; Goldberg, M.
Although public participation in the environmental cleanup process has been ongoing in the US Department of Energy (DOE) for some time, little if any evaluation of these efforts to include the public has taken place. This report contains the results of an evaluation of six regional workshops and meetings. These meetings and workshops focused on the implementation plan for the programmatic environmental impact statement on DOE`s environmental cleanup efforts. The formats of the workshops and meetings differed from typical public meetings by offering more opportunity for interaction between agency personnel and the public, using impartial facilitators, and including more elaborate promotional strategies than notification in the Federal Register. Questionnaires and focus groups were used to solicit participants` perspectives on the meetings.
... expectations. 9901.410 Section 9901.410 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES... that does not meet expectations. (a) If at any time during the appraisal period a supervisor determines that an employee's performance is not meeting expectations, the supervisor will— (1) Identify...
Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.
differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.
Blanchard, Chris M.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Bell, Gordon J.
This study offers novel information to the acute exercise-feeling state literature, by using a community sample of exercisers participating in a 12-week exercise program to compare feeling state changes of those who exercised at a HISD versus a LILD. Within this study, pre- and post-exercise feelings states were compared between the two different…
Clark, S A; Chen, Z-P; Murphy, K T; Aughey, R J; McKenna, M J; Kemp, B E; Hawley, J A
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade has been linked to many of the acute effects of exercise on skeletal muscle substrate metabolism, as well as to some of the chronic training-induced adaptations. We determined the effect of 3 wk of intensified training (HIT; 7 sessions of 8 x 5 min at 85% Vo2 peak) in skeletal muscle from well-trained athletes on AMPK responsiveness to exercise. Rates of whole body substrate oxidation were determined during a 90-min steady-state ride (SS) pre- and post-HIT. Muscle metabolites and AMPK signaling were determined from biopsies taken at rest and immediately after exercise during the first and seventh HIT sessions, performed at the same (absolute) pre-HIT work rate. HIT decreased rates of whole body carbohydrate oxidation (P < 0.05) and increased rates of fat oxidation (P < 0.05) during SS. Resting muscle glycogen and its utilization during intense exercise were unaffected by HIT. However, HIT induced a twofold decrease in muscle [lactate] (P < 0.05) and resulted in tighter metabolic regulation, i.e., attenuation of the decrease in the PCr/(PCr + Cr) ratio and of the increase in [AMPfree]/ATP. Resting activities of AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 were similar post-HIT, with the magnitude of the rise in response to exercise similar pre- and post-HIT. AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 on both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits increased in response to exercise, with the magnitude of this rise being similar post-HIT. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-beta phosphorylation was similar at rest and, despite HIT-induced increases in whole body rates of fat oxidation, did not increase post-HIT. Our results indicate that, in well-trained individuals, short-term HIT improves metabolic control but does not blunt AMPK signaling in response to intense exercise.
Debevec, Tadej; Simpson, Elizabeth J.; Macdonald, Ian A.; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B.
Background Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health. Methods Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139±0.003%) either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8±2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9±1.2 kg·m−2) or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8±3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3±2.5 kg·m−2). A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre) and after the confinement (Post) to quantify fasting and postprandial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests. Results While body mass decreased in both groups (−1.4 kg; p = 0.01) following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (−1.5 kg; p = 0.01). At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (−49%; p = 0.01) and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (−19%; p = 0.03). Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (−12%; p = 0.01) at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (−16%; p = 0.01). No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training
Buono, Michael J; Tabor, Brian; White, Ailish
The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of a locally administered nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist on sweat gland function during exercise. Systemically administered propranolol has been reported to increase, decrease, or not alter sweat production during exercise. To eliminate the confounding systemic effects associated with orally administered propranolol, we used iontophoresis to deliver it to the eccrine sweat glands within a localized area on one forearm prior to exercise. This allowed for determination of the direct effect of β-adrenergic receptor blockade on sweating during exercise. Subjects (n = 14) reported to the laboratory (23 ± 1°C, 35 ± 3% relative humidity) after having refrained from exercise for ≥12 h. Propranolol (1% solution) was administered to a 5-cm(2) area of the flexor surface of one forearm via iontophoresis (1.5 mA) for 5 min. A saline solution was administered to the opposing arm via iontophoresis. Each subject then exercised on a motor-driven treadmill at 75% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate for 20 min, while sweat rate was measured simultaneously in both forearms. Immediately after cessation of exercise, the number of active sweat glands was measured by application of iodine-impregnated paper to each forearm. The sweat rate for the control and propranolol-treated forearm was 0.62 ± 41 and 0.60 ± 0.44 (SD) mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), respectively (P = 0.86). The density of active sweat glands for the control and propranolol-treated forearm was 130 ± 6 and 134 ± 5 (SD) glands/cm(2), respectively, (P = 0.33). End-exercise skin temperature was 32.9 ± 0.2 and 33.1 ± 0.3°C for the control and propranolol-treated forearm, respectively (P = 0.51). Results of the current study show that when propranolol is administered locally, thus eliminating the potential confounding systemic effects of the drug, it does not directly affect sweating during the initial stages of high-intensity exercise in young, healthy
Gennetian, Lisa A.; Castells, Nina; Morris, Pamela
We review existing research and policy evidence about income as an essential component to meeting children’s basic needs—that is, income represented as the purest monetary transfer for increasing the purchasing power of low income families. Social scientists have made great methodological strides in establishing whether income has independent effects on the cognitive development of low-income children. Our review of that research suggests that a $1,000 increase in income has positive, but small, effects on children, rarely exceeding 1/10th of a standard deviation change in outcomes for children. We argue that researchers are well-positioned for more rigorous investigations about how and why income affects children, but only first with thoughtful and creative regard for conceptual clarity, and on understanding income’s potentially inter-related influences on socio-emotional development, mental, and physical health. We also argue for more focus on the effects of income transfers, including when conditional on employment, as compared to more targeted direct investments in children. We end with a description of two-generation and cafeteria-style programs as the frontiers of the next generation in income-enhancement policies, and with the promise of insights from behavioral economics. PMID:20689675
Hopker, James G.; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Azzalin, Andrea; Carpenter, Roger; Marcora, Samuele M.
The V˙O2 slow component (V˙O2sc) that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre-fatigue condition) or rest for 33 min (control condition) according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-s maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min−1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE) were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and V˙O2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03), the V˙O2sc was not significantly different between the pre-fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min−1) and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min−1) condition (P = 0.50). Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48) but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01) suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the V˙O2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the V˙O2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. PMID:27790156
This proceedings contains papers presented at the 1992 Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Information Meeting held at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 21--23, 1992. It is composed of written presentation given orally at the meeting in either large-group or break-out sessions. The proceedings is provided as a reference tool for those who attended the meeting as well as an information document for those unable to attend. The annual DOE Technical Information meeting is designed for information professionals involved in the management of the Department`s scientific and technical information (STI). Speakers include members of the OSTI staff as well as DOE and DOE contractors and other invited specialists in the field of information. The major objective of the meeting is to provide a forum within the Department for discussing current and future information policies, trends, and management techniques as well as the technologies and standards available for managing and accessing scientific and technical information.
Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N
Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05), indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.
Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.
Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05) indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during non-fatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008
Background Life expectancy at birth in the first world has increased from 35 years at the beginning of the 20th century to more than 80 years now. The increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase in age-related diseases and larger numbers of frail and dependent people. The aim of our study was to determine whether life-long spontaneous aerobic exercise affects lifespan and healthspan in mice. Results Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (n = 72) or spontaneous wheel-runners (n = 72). We evaluated longevity and several health parameters including grip strength, motor coordination, exercise capacity (VO2max) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. We also measured the cortical levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin associated with brain plasticity. In addition, we measured systemic oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl plasma levels) and the expression and activity of two genes involved in antioxidant defense in the liver (that is, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)). Genes that encode antioxidant enzymes are considered longevity genes because their over-expression may modulate lifespan. Aging was associated with an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, GPx and Mn-SOD, in the liver in mice. Life-long spontaneous exercise did not prolong longevity but prevented several signs of frailty (that is, decrease in strength, endurance and motor coordination). This improvement was accompanied by a significant increase in the mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and in the cortical BDNF levels. Conclusion Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves healthspan in mice. Exercise is an intervention that delays age-associated frailty, enhances function and can be translated into the clinic. PMID:24472376
Hart, Gus; Wilson, Benjamin; Parcell, Allen
Lower heart rates are often associated with better cardiovascular health. But there's a lot more to cardiac rhythms than just the average heart rate. Fractal analysis of inter-beat intervals shows a surprising ability to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy, young and old groups. Are the fluctuations in the heartbeat of a healthy heart random, small, periodic, or chaotic? Does exercise make a difference? We discuss our analysis of the cardiac data of two groups of individuals, those that were physically active and those that were sedentary.
... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate collection of a debt? 30.70 Section 30.70 Education Office of... Debt or the Suspension or Termination of Collection Action? § 30.70 How does the Secretary...
... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate collection of a debt? 30.70 Section 30.70 Education Office of... Debt or the Suspension or Termination of Collection Action? § 30.70 How does the Secretary...
Cabral, C A C; Natali, A J; Natali, A Y; Novaes, R D; Lavorato, V N; Drumond, L R; Carneiro Júnior, M A; Silva, M F; Quintão-Junior, J F; Gontijo, L N; Silva, C H O; Felix, L B; Silva, M E
The effect of a treadmill running program on physical performance and morphofunctional adaptations was investigated in control and malnourished rats. Male 4-week old Wistar rats were randomized in groups of 12 animals: control trained (CT), control sedentary (CS), malnourished trained (MT) and malnourished sedentary (MS). Control and malnourished animals received chow with 12% protein or 6% protein, respectively. Trained groups were subjected to a treadmill running program for 8 weeks. Physical performance, biochemical parameters, cardiomyocytes morphology and biomechanics were determined. Malnourished animals presented reduction in body mass, serum levels of total protein, albumin and hemoglobin compared to the control groups. At 1 and 3 Hz cardiomyocytes from CT and MT showed higher cell shortening, speed of contraction and relaxation compared to the other groups. At 3 Hz cardiomyocytes from MS showed reduction in cell shortening and speed of contraction compared to CS. Protein restriction does not prevent the improvement in physical performance or cardiomyocytes biomechanical efficiency and growth in response to exercise. These findings could represent a modulatory effect of exercise to maintain cardiomyocyte growth at the expense of reducing the rate of body growth in order to ensure proper cellular function in conditions of cardiovascular overload imposed by exercise.
Joffe, B I; Shires, R; Lamprey, J M; Kalk, W J; Botha, A; Haitas, B; Seftel, H C
The aim of this study was to assess whether the potent calcium antagonist nifedipine was capable of modifying the hormonal response to graded exercise in 7 healthy young men. After fasting overnight, each subject came to the laboratory on 2 consecutive mornings. On one day he was given 10 mg of nifedipine sublingually and on the other an identical placebo capsule; the order was randomised in a double-blind fashion over the 2 days. Thereafter each subject performed 2 successive short treadmill runs, equivalent to 60 and 100%, respectively, of maximal aerobic power. While significantly blunting the rise in mean systolic blood pressure and inducing a greater fall in diastolic blood pressure during and after exercise compared with the placebo, nifedipine did not impair the brisk response to pituitary-adrenal hormones (ACTH, cortisol and total catecholamines). Nifedipine also did not modify the effects of short-term exercise in raising mean plasma glucose levels, stimulating pancreatic glucagon secretion and producing a delayed increase in plasma insulin concentrations. Nor did the drug blunt the significant rise of growth hormone and prolactin levels occurring during and after the treadmill run. It was concluded that, apart from inducing significant changes in blood pressure, a single dose of nifedipine does not appear to suppress the counterregulatory hormonal responses to short-term physical activity in healthy men.
Wogensen, Elise; Gram, Marie Gajhede; Sommer, Jens Bak; Vilsen, Christina Rytter; Mogensen, Jesper; Malá, Hana
Voluntary exercise has previously been shown to enhance cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study evaluated effects of two differentially distributed protocols of delayed, voluntary exercise on cognitive recovery using an allocentric place learning task in an 8-arm radial maze. Fifty-four Wistar rats were subjected to either bilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix (FF) or to sham surgery. Twenty-one days postinjury, the animals started exercising in running wheels either for 14 consecutive days (FF/exercise daily [ExD], sham/ExD) or every other day for 14 days (FF/exercise every second day [ExS], sham/ExS). Additional groups were given no exercise treatment (FF/not exercise [NE], sham/NE). Regardless of how exercise was distributed, we found no cognitively enhancing effects of exercise in the brain injured animals. Design and protocol factors possibly affecting the efficacy of post-ABI exercise are discussed. PMID:27807517
Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis
sequence of balance and plyometric exercises does not substantially affect these training improvements. PMID:28344461
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe seek an opinion on whether its newly... tribe seek an opinion on whether its newly acquired lands meet, or will meet, one of the exceptions in... either the National Indian Gaming Commission or the Office of Indian Gaming. (b) If the tribe seeks...
Funk, Deanna R; Boulé, Normand G; Senior, Peter A; Yardley, Jane E
Islet transplantation (ITx) is effective in preventing severe hypoglycemia by restoring glucose-dependent insulin secretion in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but may not normalize glucose regulation. Studies suggest that physical activity plays a role in maintaining β-cell mass and function in individuals with type 2 diabetes and animal models of diabetes. This could indicate that physical activity plays a role in graft survival in ITx recipients. This review's objective is to assess current knowledge related to physical activity in ITx recipients. Responses to other challenges in blood glucose control (i.e., hypoglycemia) in human ITx recipients were examined to provide in-depth background information. To identify studies involving exercise in ITx recipients, a systematic search was performed using PubMed, Medline, and Embase, which revealed 277 English language publications. Publications were excluded if they did not involve ITx recipients; did not involve physical activity or hypoglycemia; or did not report on glucose, insulin, or counterregulatory hormones. During induced hypoglycemia, studies indicate normal suppression of insulin in ITx individuals compared with healthy non-T1D controls. Studies involving exercise in ITx animals have conflicting results, with time since transplantation and transplantation site (spleen, liver, kidney, peritoneal cavity) as possible confounders. No study examining blood glucose responses to physical activity in human ITx recipients was identified. A small number of induced-hypoglycemia studies in humans, and exercise studies in animals, would suggest that glucoregulation is greatly improved yet is still imperfect in this population and that ITx does not fully restore counterregulatory responses to challenges in blood glucose homeostasis.
Newsom, Sean A.; Schenk, Simon; Thomas, Kristin M.; Harber, Matthew P.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Goldenberg, Naila
The content of meals consumed after exercise can impact metabolic responses for hours and even days after the exercise session. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low dietary carbohydrate (CHO) vs. low energy intake in meals after exercise on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism the next day. Nine healthy men participated in four randomized trials. During the control trial (CON) subjects remained sedentary. During the other three trials, subjects exercised [65% peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak); cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise] until they expended ∼800 kcal. Dietary intake during CON and one exercise trial (BAL) was designed to provide sufficient energy and carbohydrate to maintain nutrient balance. In contrast, the diets after the other two exercise trials were low in either CHO (LOW-CHO) or energy (LOW-EN). The morning after exercise we obtained a muscle biopsy, assessed insulin sensitivity (Si; intravenous glucose tolerance test) and measured lipid kinetics (isotope tracers). Although subjects were in energy balance during both LOW-CHO and CON, the lower muscle glycogen concentration during LOW-CHO vs. CON (402 ± 29 vs. 540 ± 33 mmol/kg dry wt, P < 0.01) coincided with a significant increase in Si [5.2 ± 0.7 vs. 3.8 ± 0.7 (mU/l)−1·min−1; P < 0.05]. Conversely, despite ingesting several hundred fewer kilocalories after exercise during LOW-EN compared with BAL, this energy deficit did not affect Si the next day [4.9 ± 0.9, and 5.0 ± 0.8 (mU/l)−1·min−1]. Maintaining an energy deficit after exercise had the most potent effect on lipid metabolism, as measured by a higher plasma triacylglycerol concentration, and increased plasma fatty acid mobilization and oxidation compared with when in nutrient balance. Carbohydrate deficit after exercise, but not energy deficit, contributed to the insulin-sensitizing effects of acute aerobic exercise, whereas maintaining an energy deficit after exercise augmented lipid
Camera, Donny M; West, Daniel W D; Burd, Nicholas A; Phillips, Stuart M; Garnham, Andrew P; Hawley, John A; Coffey, Vernon G
We determined the effect of muscle glycogen concentration and postexercise nutrition on anabolic signaling and rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis after resistance exercise (REX). Sixteen young, healthy men matched for age, body mass, peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)) and strength (one repetition maximum; 1RM) were randomly assigned to either a nutrient or placebo group. After 48 h diet and exercise control, subjects undertook a glycogen-depletion protocol consisting of one-leg cycling to fatigue (LOW), whereas the other leg rested (NORM). The next morning following an overnight fast, a primed, constant infusion of l-[ring-(13)C(6)] phenylalanine was commenced and subjects completed 8 sets of 5 unilateral leg press repetitions at 80% 1RM. Immediately after REX and 2 h later, subjects consumed a 500 ml bolus of a protein/CHO (20 g whey + 40 g maltodextrin) or placebo beverage. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of both legs were taken at rest and 1 and 4 h after REX. Muscle glycogen concentration was higher in the NORM than LOW at all time points in both nutrient and placebo groups (P < 0.05). Postexercise Akt-p70S6K-rpS6 phosphorylation increased in both groups with no differences between legs (P < 0.05). mTOR(Ser2448) phosphorylation in placebo increased 1 h after exercise in NORM (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR increased ~4-fold in LOW (P < 0.01) and ~11 fold in NORM with nutrient (P < 0.01; different between legs P < 0.05). Post-exercise rates of MPS were not different between NORM and LOW in nutrient (0.070 ± 0.022 vs. 0.068 ± 0.018 %/h) or placebo (0.045 ± 0.021 vs. 0.049 ± 0.017 %/h). We conclude that commencing high-intensity REX with low muscle glycogen availability does not compromise the anabolic signal and subsequent rates of MPS, at least during the early (4 h) postexercise recovery period.
Nabben, Miranda; Schmitz, Joep P J; Ciapaite, Jolita; Le Clercq, Carlijn M P; van Riel, Natal A; Haak, Harm R; Nicolay, Klaas; de Coo, Irenaeus F; Smeets, Hubert J M; Praet, Stephan F; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J
Muscle weakness and exercise intolerance negatively affect the quality of life of mitochondrial myopathy patients. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We investigated if 1 week of dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation decreases the oxygen cost of exercise and improves mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients. Ten mitochondrial myopathy patients (40 ± 5 years, maximal whole-body oxygen uptake = 21.2 ± 3.2 mL/min/kg body weight, maximal workload = 122 ± 26 W) received 8.5 mg/kg body weight/day of inorganic nitrate (~7 mmol) for 8 days. Whole-body oxygen consumption at 50% of the maximal workload, in vivo skeletal muscle oxidative capacity (evaluated from post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and ex vivo mitochondrial oxidative capacity in permeabilized skinned muscle fibers (measured with high-resolution respirometry) were determined before and after nitrate supplementation. Despite a 6-fold increase in plasma nitrate levels, nitrate supplementation did not affect whole-body oxygen cost during submaximal exercise. Additionally, no beneficial effects of nitrate were found on in vivo or ex vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity. This is the first time that the therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate for mitochondrial myopathy patients was evaluated. We conclude that 1 week of dietary nitrate supplementation does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve mitochondrial function in the group of patients tested.
Cui, Sen; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Wei; Kurata, Yasutaka; Kashimura, Osamu; Miyamae, Shunichi
1. Exercise training attenuates circulatory shock due to haemorrhage, endotoxin or heatstroke. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training attenuates anaphylactic shock. Hepatic venoconstriction is involved in rat anaphylactic hypotension. In the present study, we determined the effects of exercise training on both anaphylaxis-induced segmental venoconstriction in rat perfused livers and systemic anaphylaxis in conscious rats. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effect of exercise on the venoconstriction of perfused livers was also examined. 2. Rats were subjected to running training on a motorized treadmill for 4 weeks. Two weeks prior to the anaphylaxis experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were actively sensitized with the antigen ovalbumin. In isolated livers perfused portally with blood, the portal venous pressure (P(pv)) and sinusoidal pressure were measured to determine the pre- and post-sinusoidal resistances (R(pre) and R(post), respectively). In conscious rats, systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and P(pv) were determined. 3. In the perfused livers of sedentary rats, antigen administration led to a predominant presinusoidal constriction, as evidenced by 4.6- and 1.7-fold increases in R(pre) and R(post), respectively. The anaphylaxis-induced increase in R(pre) was significantly attenuated by 24% by exercise training. Inhibition of NO synthase with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 micromol/L) 10 min prior to the injection of antigen enhanced anaphylactic venoconstriction, but did not alter the effect of exercise training on the increase in R(pre). In contrast, exercise training did not attenuate either anaphylactic hypotension or portal hypertension in conscious rats. 4. In conclusion, exercise training attenuates the anaphylaxis-induced presinusoidal constriction in rat isolated perfused livers, independent of NO production. However, this action is not evident in conscious rats and exercise training does not affect anaphylactic hypotension in
Clifford, Tom; Bell, Oliver; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Stevenson, Emma J
This study examined the effects of beetroot juice on the repeated bout effect (RBE) to eccentric exercise. Twenty-nine recreationally active males performed two bouts of 100-drop jumps, separated by 14-21 days. Using a double-blind, independent groups design, participants consumed either a higher dose beetroot juice (H-BT; 250 ml, n = 10), a lower dose beetroot juice (L-BT; 125 ml, n = 9) or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; 250 ml, n = 10) for 3 days after bout 1; no drinks were consumed after bout 2. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), countermovement jump (CMJ), pressure-pain threshold (PPT) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured pre, post, 24, 48 and 72 h following both bouts. In bout 2, CMJ and MIVC recovered quicker and CK activity was attenuated (versus bout 1) (P < 0.05) in all groups, demonstrating an RBE. At 24 h post bout 1, MIVC was 84.1 ± 16.1, 83.6 ± 11.6, 79.7 ± 15.1% relative to baseline values in the H-BT, L-BT and PLA groups, respectively; at 24 h post bout 2, MIVC recovered to 90.7 ± 13.7, 92.9 ± 6.9, 87.8 ± 6.9, in the H-BT, L-BT and PLA groups, respectively. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant-rich beetroot juice does not adversely affect acute adaptations to a bout of eccentric exercise.
... family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for priority as a low-income... eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for priority as a low-income adult? Yes, even if the family of... disability is to be considered a low-income individual if the individual's own income: (a) Meets the...
... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...
Roy, B D; Bosman, M J; Tarnopolsky, M A
This study investigated the possible influence of oral caffeine administration on endogenous glucose production and energy substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance exercise. Twelve trained endurance athletes [seven male, five female; peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) = 65.5 ml.kg-1.min-1] performed 60 min of cycle ergometry at 65% VO2peak twice, once after oral caffeine administration (6 mg.kg-1) (CAF) and once following consumption of a placebo (PLA). CAF and PLA were administered in a randomized double-blind manner 75 min prior to exercise. Plasma glucose kinetics were determined with a primed-continuous infusion of [6,6-2H]glucose. No differences in oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were observed between CAF and PLA, at rest or during exercise. Blood glucose concentrations were similar between the two conditions at rest and also during exercise. Exercise did lead to an increase in serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations for both conditions; however, no differences were observed between CAF and PLA. Both the plasma glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) increased at the onset of exercise (P < 0.05), but were not affected by CAF, as compared to PLA. CAF did lead to a higher plasma lactate concentration during exercise (P < 0.05). It was concluded that an acute oral dose of caffeine does not influence plasma glucose kinetics or energy substrate oxidation during prolonged exercise in trained endurance athletes. However, CAF did lead to elevated plasma lactate concentrations. The exact mechanism of the increase in plasma lactate concentrations remains to be determined.
Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F. Hülya
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key points Normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons. Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow. Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants. PMID:27274667
Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A
N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.
Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A
Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0 kg/m2; Age 24.3±4.6 y) participated in 3 counter-balanced study days where a standardized meal was preceded by: 1) No exercise (NoEx), 2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and 3) IntEx(4 min (80% VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280 min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (P<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (P<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (P<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response. PMID:26188172
Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A
Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0kg/m(2); Age 24.3±4.6year) participated in 3 counter- balanced study days, where a standardized meal was preceded by: (1) No exercise (NoEx), (2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and (3) IntEx (4min (80% VO2max)/3min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (p<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (p<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (p<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response.
Castellani, John W; Zambraski, Edward J; Sawka, Michael N; Urso, Maria L
Hyperthermia is suspected of accentuating skeletal muscle injury from novel exercise, but this has not been well studied. This study examined if high muscle temperatures alters skeletal muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise (ECC). Eight volunteers (age, 22.5 ± 4.1 year; height, 169.5 ± 10.8 cm; body mass, 76.2 ± 12.6 kg), serving as their own control, and who were not heat acclimatized, completed two elbow flexor ECC trials; in one trial the biceps were heated >40°C (HEAT) and in the other trial there was no heating (NON). HEAT was applied with shortwave diathermy (100 W) for 15 min immediately before the first ECC bout and for 2 min in between each bout. Individuals were followed for 10 days after each ECC session, with a 6-week washout period between arms. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased by 41 ± 17% and 46 ± 20% in the NON and HEAT trials, respectively. Bicep circumference increased by 0.07 ± 0.08 mm (4%, P = 0.04) and relaxed range of motion decreased by 11.5 ± 8.2° (30%, P < 0.001) in both trials. Serum creatine kinase peaked 72-h following ECC (NON: 6289 ± 10407; HEAT: 5486 ± 6229 IU L(-1), 38-fold increase, P < 0.01) as did serum myoglobin (NON: 362 ± 483; HEAT: 355 ± 373 μg L(-1), 13-fold increase, P < 0.03). Plasma HSP 70 was higher (P < 0.02) in HEAT after 120-h of recovery. There were no differences between treatments for plasma HSP27 and interleukins 1β, 6, and 10. The results indicate that >40°C muscle temperature does not alter skeletal muscle injury or functional impairments induced by novel ECC.
Protein metabolism in exercise has been investigated for 100 yr, yet it is still unclear if exercise induces an increased rate of protein breakdown. We have recently addressed this general question in a series of experiments in human subjects using stable isotopic tracers. In this paper, the results of those studies are reviewed. We have found that in light exercise the de-carboxylation of leucine is increased. However, urea production is not increased correspondingly, nor is the rate of incorporation into urea of nitrogen from either leucine or lysine. Further complicating the picture is the fact that lysine de-carboxylation is not markedly elevated in exercise. From these studies, we must conclude that isotopic techniques which have achieved general acceptance in other circumstances cannot reliably be used to answer the question of whether exercise stimulates protein breakdown in humans. However, these methods do provide results which enable a better understanding of the metabolism of the individual amino acids in exercise.
Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J
Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions.
Budde, Henning; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Sergio; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Wegner, Mirko
The purpose of this commentary is to discuss the different neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents and to provide additional explanations to this well written systematic review. This commentary highlights the effects of exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a crucial role in MDD. We address the questions of whether age and different exercise intensities may provide additional information on the neurobiological effects of acute or chronic exercise on MDD. Previous findings clearly suggest that the etiology of MDD is complex and multifaceted, involving numerous neurobiological systems, which are additionally influenced by these two factors.
O'Connor, T J; Fitzgerald, S G; Cooper, R A; Thorman, T A; Boninger, M L
GAME(Wheels) is an interface between a portable roller system and a computer that enables a wheelchair user to play commercially available computer video games. The subject controls the game play with the propulsion of their wheelchair's wheels on the rollers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using the GAME(Wheels) System during wheelchair propulsion exercise can help increase the individual's physiological response and aid in the motivation to exercise. Fifteen subjects participated in this study. The subjects propelled their wheelchairs on a portable roller that was equipped with the GAME(Wheels) System. There were two exercise trials consisting of 2 min of warm-up, 16 min of exercise and 2 min of cool-down. Physiological data (ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, heart rate) were collected. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found between exercise with GAME(Wheels) versus without GAME(Wheels) for average ventilation rate and average oxygen consumption. The differences were found during time periods of transition from warm-up to exercise, and before and after the midpoint of exercise. Written questionnaires showed that 87% of the individuals tested reported the system would help them work out on a regular basis. Playing the video game helped these individuals to reach their exercise training zone faster and maintain it for the entire exercise trial.
Bunpo, Piyawan; Anthony, Tracy G
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid (AA) consumption on the oxidative stress status of untrained volunteers participating in a supervised exercise program. The study included 46 young adults (average age, 23.5 ± 0.59 years; 37 females, 9 males) who remained sedentary (n = 16) or participated in 30 min of outdoor aerobic running (n = 30) at an intensity corresponding to 65%-75% of maximum heart rate for 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Exercised subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group without AA supplementation (control; n = 10) or received either 250 mg (n = 10) or 500 mg (n = 10) of AA supplementation previous to each exercise session. Blood samples were taken on day 0 and day 84 to evaluate metabolic profiles and antioxidant status. Sedentary subjects underwent in a single bout of aerobic running to determine total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondiadehyde (MDA) at pre- and postexercise with or without AA supplementation. No significant change in TAS was observed. Plasma MDA significantly increased at postexercise (P < 0.05), and AA supplementation decreased MDA level significantly (P < 0.05). After 3 months of exercise, there was no significant change in blood glucose, lipid profile, MDA, TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities amongst groups. Supplementation of AA was associated with minor and inconsistent reductions in SOD, GPx, and catalase activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that pre-exercise supplementation of ascorbic acid does not alter oxidative stress markers in the plasma and erythrocytes of young adults engaged in a supervised exercise program.
Manohar, Murli; Goetz, Thomas E; Hassan, Aslam S
The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of preexercise NaHCO(3) administration to induce metabolic alkalosis on the arterial oxygenation in racehorses performing maximal exercise. Two sets of experiments, intravenous physiological saline and NaHCO(3) (250 mg/kg i.v.), were carried out on 13 healthy, sound Thoroughbred horses in random order, 7 days apart. Blood-gas variables were examined at rest and during incremental exercise, leading to 120 s of galloping at 14 m/s on a 3.5% uphill grade, which elicited maximal heart rate and induced pulmonary hemorrhage in all horses in both treatments. NaHCO(3) administration caused alkalosis and hemodilution in standing horses, but arterial O(2) tension and hemoglobin-O(2) saturation were unaffected. Thus NaHCO(3) administration caused a reduction in arterial O(2) content at rest, although the arterial-to-mixed venous blood O(2) content gradient was unaffected. During maximal exercise in both treatments, arterial hypoxemia, desaturation, hypercapnia, acidosis, hyperthermia, and hemoconcentration developed. Although the extent of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia was similar, there was an attenuation of the desaturation of arterial hemoglobin in the NaHCO(3)-treated horses, which had higher arterial pH. Despite these observations, the arterial blood O(2) content of exercising horses was less in the NaHCO(3) experiments because of the hemodilution, and an attenuation of the exercise-induced expansion of the arterial-to-mixed venous blood O(2) content gradient was observed. It was concluded that preexercise NaHCO(3) administration does not affect the development and/or severity of arterial hypoxemia in Thoroughbreds performing short-term, high-intensity exercise.
Yamashita, Naoyuki; Ito, Ryo; Nakano, Masataka; Matsumoto, Takaaki
The level of hypohydration at which power output during intermittent exercise performance starts to decrease is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2% hypohydration without hyperthermia on intermittent exercise performance. Eight collegiate amateur boxers completed 2 exercise tests. On day 1, subjects hypohydrated by 2% of body mass by exercising in a hot environment, and on day 2, subjects performed intermittent exercise (4 × 2 minute per round [R] separated by 1-minute recovery) under a randomly assigned condition of with (HYP) or without (EUH) hypohydration. Each bout consisted of 8 × 5 seconds of maximal cycling exercise (0.05 kp × body mass) separated by 10 seconds of passive recovery. Mean power output per kilogram (MPO), total power output per kilogram (TPO), energy system relative contribution, and core rectal temperature (Tre) were measured. Changes in body mass before the exercise tests were -2.25 ± 0.18% (HYP) and -0.17 ± 0.19% (EUH) (p < 0.001). Mean power output, TPO, and each energy contribution ratio were not significantly different between the trials, and pre- and postexercise test Tre did not differ significantly between trials. Results demonstrated that approximately 2% hypohydration lies below the point at which power output during intermittent exercise starts to decline.
Vella, Luke; Markworth, James F.; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Peake, Jonathan M.; Snow, Rod J.; Cameron-Smith, David; Russell, Aaron P.
Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200mg d−1) or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO) and macrophages (CD68). Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery. PMID:27064890
Gerecke, Kim M.; Jiao, Yun; Pagala, Viswajeeth; Smeyne, Richard J.
Exercise has been demonstrated to potently protect substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity. One mechanism proposed to account for this neuroprotection is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors. Several neurotrophic factors, including Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), have been shown to upregulate in response to exercise. In order to determine if exercise-induced neuroprotection is dependent upon BDNF, we compared the neuroprotective effects of voluntary exercise in mice heterozygous for the BDNF gene (BDNF+/−) with strain-matched wild-type (WT) mice. Stereological estimates of SNpc DA neurons from WT mice allowed 90 days exercise via unrestricted running demonstrated complete protection against the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. However, BDNF+/− mice allowed 90 days of unrestricted exercise were not protected from MPTP-induced SNpc DA neuron loss. Proteomic analysis comparing SN and striatum from 90 day exercised WT and BDNF+/− mice showed differential expression of proteins related to energy regulation, intracellular signaling and trafficking. These results suggest that a full genetic complement of BDNF is critical for the exercise-induced neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons. PMID:22912838
Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark
Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…
Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil Andrew; Cittadini, Antonio; Vigorito, Carlo
Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET. These results are intriguing, mostly considering that better functional capacity translates into an improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Notably, HIIT did not reveal major safety issues; although CHF patients should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session are mandatory. The impact of HIIT on cardiac dimensions and function and on endothelial function remains uncertain. HIIT should not replace other training modalities in heart failure but should rather complement them. Combining and tailoring different ET modalities according to each patient's baseline clinical characteristics (i.e. exercise capacity, personal needs, preferences and goals) seem the most astute approach to exercise prescription.
Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Botezelli, José Diego; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre
It is well documented that exhaustive physical exercise leads to inflammation and skeletal muscle tissue damage. With this in mind, melatonin has been acutely administered before physical exercise; nevertheless, the use of melatonin as an ergogenic agent to prevent tissue inflammation and damage remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on swimming performance, muscle inflammation and damage and several physiological parameters after exhaustive exercise at anaerobic threshold intensity (iLAn) performed during light or dark circadian periods. The iLAn was individually determined and two days later, the animals performed an exhaustive exercise bout at iLAn 30 minutes after melatonin administration. The exercise promoted muscle inflammation and damage, mainly during the dark period, and the exogenous melatonin promoted a high ergogenic effect. The expressive ergogenic effect of melatonin leads to longer periods of muscle contraction, which superimposes a possible melatonin protective effect on the tissue damage and inflammation. PMID:26669455
Dragusin, Iulian B; Horswill, Craig A
Sports drinks have been implicated in contributing to obesity and chronic diseases by providing surplus calories and excess sugars. Using existing literature we compared energy intake from sports drinks consumed during exercise with the exercise-induced calorie expenditure to determine whether sports drink use might eliminate the energy deficit and jeopardize conditions for improved metabolic fitness. We identified 11 published studies that compared sport drink consumption to placebo during exercise with a primary focused on the effect of sport drinks or total carbohydrate content on enhancing physical performance. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated using VO2, RER, and exercise duration for the exercise protocol. Energy ingestion (EI) was determined using the carbohydrate dosing regimen administered before and during the exercise protocol. A two-tailed t test was used to test whether the energy balance (EI-EE) was different from zero (alpha level = 0.05). Sport drink consumption during aerobic exercise of sufficient duration (≥ 60 min) did not abolish the energy deficit (p < .001). Mean ± SD were EE, 1600 ± 639 Cal; EI, 394 ± 289 Cal; and EI-EE,-1206+594 Cal; VO2, 3.05 ± 0.55 L/min; RER, 0.91 ± 0.04; exercise duration 110 ± 42 min. Ingesting sports drinks to enhance performance did not abolish the caloric deficit of aerobic exercise. Sports drinks can be used in accordance with research protocols that typically provide 30-60 g of carbohydrate per hour when exercising at adequate durations for moderate to high intensity and still maintain a substantive caloric deficit.
King, LA; Wilhelm, J; Chen, Y; Blehm, R; Nutt, J; Chen, Z; Serdar, A; Horak, FB
Background and Purpose Comparative studies of exercise interventions for people with Parkinson Disease (PD) rarely considered how one should deliver the intervention. The objective of this study was to compare the success of exercise when administered by 1) home exercise program, 2) individualized physical therapy, or 3) a group class. We examined if common comorbidities associated with PD impacted success of each intervention. Methods Fifty-eight people (age 63.9 ± 8) with PD participated. People were randomized into: 1) home exercise program 2) individual physical therapy or 3) group class intervention. All arms were standardized and based on the Agility Boot Camp exercise program for PD, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the 7-item Physical Performance Test (PPT). Other measures of balance, gait, mobility, quality of life, balance confidence, depressions, apathy, self-efficacy and UPDRS motor and ADL scores were included. Results Only the individual group significantly improved in PPT. The individual exercise showed the most improvements in functional and balance measures, while the group class showed the most improvements in gait. The home exercise program improved the least across all outcomes. Several factors effected success, particularly for the home group. Discussion and Conclusions An unsupervised, home exercise program is the least effective way to deliver exercise to people with PD and individual and group exercises have differing benefits. Furthermore, people with PD who also have other comorbidities did better in a program directly supervised by a physical therapist. Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (See Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A112). PMID:26308937
Rietema, H; Holverda, S; Bogaard, H J; Marcus, J T; Smit, H J; Westerhof, N; Postmus, P E; Boonstra, A; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, stroke volume response to exercise is impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 3 months of sildenafil treatment improves stroke volume and, if so, whether this improvement is related to the pulmonary artery pressure and translated into an improved exercise capacity. A total of 15 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV) underwent right heart catheterisation at rest and during exercise. Stroke volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at rest and during submaximal exercise in the supine position and compared with eight age-matched controls. Additionally, a cardiopulmonary exercise test and a 6-min walking distance test were performed. Exercise tests and MRI were repeated after 12 weeks of oral therapy with 50 mg sildenafil three times daily. Stroke volume in COPD patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (62+/-12 versus 81+/-22 mL at rest and 70+/-15 versus 101+/-28 mL during exercise). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was diagnosed in nine patients and was absent in six. Treatment with sildenafil had no effect on stroke volume or exercise capacity. Although the stroke volume was lower in COPD patients with associated PH in comparison with non-PH patients, there was no difference in treatment response between both groups. In the present group of 15 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, a reduced stroke volume was found at rest and during exercise. Neither stroke volume nor exercise capacity were improved by 3 months of sildenafil therapy.
Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...
Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F Hülya
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key pointsNormal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons.Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation.Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow.Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants.
BODELL, NATHANIEL G.; GILLUM, TREVOR
To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12–16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12–16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials. PMID:27990228
Bodell, Nathaniel G; Gillum, Trevor
To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12-16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12-16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials.
Olher, Rafael dos Reis Vieira; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Bacurau, Reury Frank; Rodriguez, Daniel; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano; Navarro, Francisco; Simões, Herbert Gustavo; Araujo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Moraes, Milton Rocha
Background Arterial hypertension is a serious health problem affecting mainly the elderly population. Recent studies have considered both aerobic and resistance exercises as a non-pharmacological aid for arterial hypertension treatment. However, the cardiovascular responses of the elderly to isometric resistance exercise (eg, isometric handgrip [IHG]) have not yet been documented. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiovascular responses to different intensities of isometric exercise, as well as the occurrence of post-isometric exercise hypotension in hypertensive elderly people under antihypertensive medication treatment. Patients and methods Twelve women volunteered to participate in the study after a maximal voluntary contraction test (MVC) and standardization of the intervention workload consisting of two sessions of IHG exercise performed in four sets of five contractions of a 10-second duration. Sessions were performed both at 30% of the MVC and 50% of the MVC, using a unilateral IHG protocol. Both intensities were compared with a control session without exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at rest (R), during peak exercise (PE), and after 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes of post-exercise recovery were evaluated. Results No significant changes were observed after isometric exercise corresponding to 30% MVC for either SBP (R: 121 ± 10; PE: 127 ± 14; 5 min: 125 ± 13; 10 min: 123 ± 12; 15 min: 122 ± 11; 30 min: 124 ± 11; 45 min: 124 ± 10; 60 min: 121 ± 10 mmHg) or DBP (R: 74 ± 9; PE: 76 ± 6; 5 min: 74 ± 5; 10 min: 72 ± 8; 15 min: 72 ± 5; 30 min: 72 ± 8; 45 min: 73 ± 6; 60 min: 75 ± 7 mmHg). Similarly, the 50% MVC did not promote post-isometric exercise hypotension for either SBP (R: 120 ± 7; PE: 125 ± 11; 5 min: 120 ± 9; 10 min: 122 ± 9; 15 min: 121 ± 11; 30 min: 121 ± 9; 45 min: 121 ± 9; 60 min: 120 ± 7 mmHg) or DBP (R: 72 ± 8; PE: 78 ± 7; 5 min: 72 ± 7; 10 min: 72 ± 8; 15
Millischer, Vincent; Erhardt, Sophie; Ekblom, Örjan; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina
Background Physical exercise has well-characterized positive effects on depressive symptoms. The underlying biologic mechanisms are, however, far from established. A recently discovered mechanism has linked the enhanced conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid (KYNA) to an increased resilience toward stress-induced depression in mice. The aim of this study was to translate these findings to humans. Materials and methods Kynurenine and KYNA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples from 117 patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression before and within a week after a 12-week training period at three different intensities. The patients were part of the Regassa study. Results No differences in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA or in their ratio could be detected between before and after training. No effect of the intensity group could be observed. No correlation with the improvement in cardiovascular fitness (Åstrand score) or the improvement in mood (Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score) could be observed. Limitations As the Regassa study is based on an intention-to-treat protocol, the exact time and the exact intensity of the physical exercise are not known. Analyses of pulse data as well as personal interviews, however, were used to control the exercise protocols. Furthermore, the observations reflect chronic changes. Conclusion Physical exercise positively affects mood and cardiovascular fitness, but does not lead to long-lasting changes in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA in patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression.
BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a frequent problem after unaccustomed exercise. No universally accepted treatment exists. Massage therapy is often recommended for this condition but uncertainty exists about its effectiveness. AIM: To determine whether post-exercise massage alleviates the symptoms of DOMS after a bout of strenuous exercise. METHOD: Various computerised literature searches were carried out and located seven controlled trials. RESULTS: Most of the trials were burdened with serious methodological flaws, and their results are far from uniform. However, most suggest that post-exercise massage may alleviate symptoms of DOMS. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy may be a promising treatment for DOMS. Definitive studies are warranted. PMID:9773168
Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio
The pathophysiology of depression is related to neurobiological changes that occur in the monoamine system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurogenesis system and the neuroimmune system. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the research of the effects of exercise on brain function, with a special focus on its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortisol and other biomarkers. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a review investigating the acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and cortisol levels in individuals with depression. It was not possible to establish an interaction between aerobic exercise and concentration of BDNF and cortisol, which may actually be the result of the divergence of methods, such as type of exercises, duration of the sessions, and prescribed intensity and frequency of sessions.
Boissiere, Julien; Eder, Véronique; Machet, Marie-Christine; Courteix, Daniel; Bonnet, Pierre
Exercise training and hypertension induced cardiac hypertrophy but modulate differently left ventricle (LV) function. This study set out to evaluate cardiac adaptations induced by moderate exercise training in normotensive and untreated severe hypertensive rats. Four groups of animals were studied: normotensive (Ctl) and severe hypertensive (HT) Wistar rats were assigned to be sedentary (Sed) or perform a moderate exercise training (Ex) over a 10-wk period. Severe hypertension was induced in rat by a two-kidney, one-clip model. At the end of the training period, hemodynamic parameters and LV morphology and function were assessed using catheterism and conventional pulsed Doppler echocardiography. LV histology was performed to study fibrosis infiltrations. Severe hypertension increased systolic blood pressure to 202 +/- 9 mmHg and induced pathological hypertrophy (LV hypertrophy index was 0.34 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.02 in Ctl-Sed and HT-Sed groups, respectively) with LV relaxation alteration (early-to-atrial wave ratio = 2.02 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.63 +/- 0.12). Blood pressure was not altered by exercise training, but arterial stiffness was reduced in trained hypertensive rats (pulse pressure was 75 +/- 7 vs. 62 +/- 3 mmHg in HT-Sed and HT-Ex groups, respectively). Exercise training induced eccentric hypertrophy in both Ex groups by increasing LV cavity without alteration of LV systolic function. However, LV hypertrophy index was significantly decreased in normotensive rats only (0.34 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.02 in Ctl-Sed and Ctl-Ex groups, respectively). Moreover, exercise training improved LV passive filling in Ctl-Ex rats but not in Ht-Ex rats. In this study, exercise training did not reduce blood pressure and induced an additional physiological hypertrophy in untreated HT rats, which was slightly blunted when compared with Ctl rats. However, cardiac function was not worsened by exercise training.
exercises called Fuertes Caminos in 1993, 1994, and 1995. The author was the aviation commander of Fuertes Caminos 95-North. This paper follows a...sequence describing the background of Guatemala and Fuertes Caminos exercises, defining nation assistance policy, then flowing through the United...called Fuertes Caminos. Two key guestions result from this analysis. Is it in the United States’ best interest to perform another Fuertes Caminos
Jensky, Nicole E; Sims, Jennifer K; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Sattler, Fred R; Rice, Judd C; Schroeder, E Todd
We evaluated changes in myostatin, follistatin, and MyoD messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression using eccentric exercise (EE) and concentric exercise (CE) as probes to better understand the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy in young women. Twelve women performed single-leg maximal eccentric (n = 6, 25 +/- 1 years, 59 +/- 7 kg) or concentric (n = 6, 24 +/- 1 years, 65 +/- 7 kg) isokinetic knee extension exercise for 7 sessions. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at baseline, 8 hours after the first exercise session, and 8 hours after the seventh exercise session. In the EE group, there were no changes in myostatin and follistatin (p > or = 0.17); however, MyoD expression increased after 1 exercise bout (p = 0.02). In the CE group, there were no changes in myostatin, follistatin, or MyoD mRNA gene expression (p > or = 0.07). Differences between the EE and CE groups were not significant (p > or = 0.05). These data suggest that a single bout or multiple bouts of maximal EE or CE may not significantly alter myostatin or follistatin mRNA gene expression in young women. However, MyoD mRNA expression seems to increase only after EE.
Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik
[Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients’ fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959
Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A
This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.
Zigmond, Michael J; Smeyne, Richard J
There is clinical evidence that the symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be ameliorated by physical exercise, and we have been using animal models to explore the hypothesis that such exercise can also be neuroprotective. To do so we have focused on models of the dopamine deficiency associated with motor symptoms of parkinsonism, including mice treated systemically with MPTP and rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine. Our focus on exercise derives in part from the extensive literature on the ability of exercise to increase mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant defenses, and to stimulate neuroplasticity. Beginning with constraint therapy and then employing wheel running and environmental enrichment, we have shown that increased limb use can reduce the behavioral effects of dopamine-directed neurotoxins and reduce the loss of dopamine neurons that would otherwise occur. While the mechanism of these effects is not yet known, we suspect a central role for neurotrophic factors whose expression can be stimulated by exercise and which can act on dopamine neurons to reduce their vulnerability to toxins. We believe these data, together with observations from several other laboratories, suggest that exercise, as well as neurotrophic factors, is likely to be an effective neuroprotective strategy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon; Perez-Schindler, Joaquin; Hamilton, D Lee; Breen, Leigh; Laverone, Erin; Jeromson, Stewart; Phillips, Stuart M; Baar, Keith
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the regulation of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis following endurance exercise. Forty-two female C57BL/6 mice performed 1 h of treadmill running (18 m min−1; 5° grade), 1 h after i.p. administration of rapamycin (1.5 mg · kg−1) or vehicle. To quantify skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rates, a flooding dose (50 mg · kg−1) of l-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine was administered via i.p. injection. Blood and gastrocnemius muscle were collected in non-exercised control mice, as well as at 0.5, 3 and 6 h after completing exercise (n = 4 per time point). Skeletal muscle MyoPS and MitoPS were determined by measuring isotope incorporation in their respective protein pools. Activation of the mTORC1-signalling cascade was measured via direct kinase activity assay and immunoblotting, whereas genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis were measured via a quantitative RT-PCR. MyoPS increased rapidly in the vehicle group post-exercise and remained elevated for 6 h, whereas this response was transiently blunted (30 min post-exercise) by rapamycin. By contrast, MitoPS was unaffected by rapamycin, and was increased over the entire post-exercise recovery period in both groups (P < 0.05). Despite rapid increases in both MyoPS and MitoPS, mTORC1 activation was suppressed in both groups post-exercise for the entire 6 h recovery period. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and mitochondrial transcription factor A mRNA increased post-exercise (P < 0.05) and this response was augmented by rapamycin (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that endurance exercise stimulates MyoPS and MitoPS in skeletal muscle independently of mTORC1 activation. Key points Previous studies have shown that endurance exercise increases myofibrillar (MyoPS) and
Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P
We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.
Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ando, Soichi
It has been suggested that acute exercise improves cognitive function. However, little is known about how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypoxia alters working memory and executive function during prolonged exercise. Sixteen participants performed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise under normoxia and hypoxia [fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2)=0.15, corresponding to an altitude of approximately 2600 m]. The level of hypoxia was moderate. We used a combination of Spatial Delayed Response (Spatial DR) task and Go/No-Go (GNG) task, where spatial working memory and executive function are required. Working memory was assessed by the accuracy of the Spatial DR task, and executive function was assessed by the accuracy and reaction time in the GNG task. The participants cycled an ergometer for 30 min under normoxia and moderate hypoxia while keeping their heart rate (HR) at 140 beats/min. They performed the cognitive tasks 5 min and 23 min after their HR reached 140 beats/min. Moderate hypoxia did not alter the accuracy of the Spatial DR (P=0.38) and GNG tasks (P=0.14). In contrast, reaction time in the GNG task significantly decreased during exercise relative to rest under normoxia and moderate hypoxia (P=0.02). These results suggest that moderate hypoxia and resultant biological processes did not provide sufficient stress to impair working memory and executive function during prolonged exercise. The beneficial effects on speed of response appear to persist during prolonged exercise under moderate hypoxia.
Watson, Phillip; Enever, Sophie; Page, Andrew; Stockwell, Jenna; Maughan, Ronald J
Eight young men were recruited to a study designed to examine the effect of tyrosine (TYR) supplementation on the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in a warm environment. Subjects entered the laboratory in the morning and remained seated for 1 hr before cycling to exhaustion at 70% VO2peak. Two 250-ml aliquots of a placebo (PLA ) or a TYR solution were ingested at 30-min intervals before exercise, with an additional 150 ml consumed every 15 min throughout exercise (total TYR dose: 150 mg/kg BM). Cognitive function was assessed before drink ingestion, at the end of the rest period, and at exhaustion. TYR ingestion had no effect on exercise capacity (PLA 61.4 ± 13.7 min, TYR 60.2 ± 15.4 min; p = .505). No differences in heart rate (p = .380), core temperature (p = .554), or weighted mean skin temperature (p = .167) were apparent between trials. Ingestion of TYR produced a marked increase in serum TYR concentrations (+236 ± 46 μmol/L; p < .001), with this difference maintained throughout exercise. No change was apparent during the PLA trial (p = .924). Exercise caused an increase in error rate during the complex component of the Stroop test (p = .034), but this response was not influenced by the drink ingested. No other component of cognitive function was altered by the protocol (all p > .05). Ingestion of a TYR solution did not influence time to exhaustion or several aspects of cognitive function when exercise was undertaken in a warm environment.
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What if a Tribe does not have reasonable cause for failing to meet a requirement? 286.230 Section 286.230 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...
Prisley, Stephen P.; Luebbering, Candice
Students in natural resources programs commonly take courses in geospatial technologies. An awareness of the uncertainty of spatial data and algorithms can be an important outcome of such courses. This article describes a laboratory exercise in a graduate geographic information system (GIS) class that involves collection of data for the assessment…
Hughes, Julie M.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Barnes, Jill N.; Morgan, Barbara J.
Traditional exercise programs seem to be less osteogenic in the mature and post-mature skeleton compared to the young skeleton. This is likely because of the decline in sensitivity of bone to mechanical loading that occurs with advancing age. Another factor contributing to the apparently diminished benefit of exercise in older adults is failure of widely used measurement techniques (i.e., DXA) to identify changes in 3-dimensional bone structure, which are important determinants of bone strength. Moreover, although hormonal contributors to bone loss in the elderly are well-recognized, the influence of age-related increases in sympathetic nervous system activity, which impacts bone metabolism, is rarely considered. In this Perspective, we cite evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating anabolic effects of exercise on bone across the lifespan and we discuss theoretical considerations for designing exercise regimens to optimize bone health. We conclude with suggestions for future research that should help define the osteogenic potential of exercise in older individuals. PMID:27679578
Roberts, D.E.; Sawka, M.N.; Young, A.J.; Freund, B.J.
This study examined the effects of acute and chronic pyridostigmine bromide (PB) administration on thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to exercise in cold air (5 C). Seven healthy men completed two 7-day trials in a double-blind, crossover experimental design: during one trial they received PB (30 mg three times daily) and during the other trial they received placebo. For each trial, subjects attempted four (3 h) exercise tests: low-intensity exercise (25% Vo2max) and moderate- intensity exercise (-50% Vo2max), on days 2 and 3 and again on days 6 and 7. Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and venous blood samples were obtained before and during exercise. Red blood cell acerylcholinesterase inhibition induced by PB increased (p < 0.05) from 34% on day I to 43% on days 3-7 Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and regional heat conductance responses were not different between trials. Plasma glucose, glycerol, free fatty acid, lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations were not different between trials. In addition. differences were not found between acute and chronic experiments for any thermoregulatory or metabolic responses. These findings demonstrate that the PB dosage used by military personnel, as a pharmacological defense against nerve-agent poisoning. should not cause any adverse thermoregulatory or metabolic effects during moderate activity in cold climates.
Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Fernandes, Jorge; Kuo, Yi-Liang; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Fernandes, Orlando; Laranjo, Luís; Silva, António
A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of Pilates-based exercise on postural alignment. Seventy-four adult women (mean age ± SD, 34.9 ± 16.4 years) were randomized to a Pilates-based mat class (n = 40) or a control group (n = 34). Pilates-based exercise participants were taught the Initial Mat of Body Control Pilates for 6 months, twice a week, for 60 minutes per session; the control group received no exercise intervention. Repeated measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of the frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine, shoulder, and pelvis, and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. No differences were found in either group, over time, on frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine and pelvis. The experimental group showed significant improvements in frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis at 6 months. The Pilates-based exercise enhanced some parameters of the postural alignment of women, as measured by frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. The significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the head may imply that 6 months of Pilates-based exercise enhances sagittal alignment of the cervical or thoracic spine.
Kutzner, Ines; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N.; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg
Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36–55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in
Muller, Matthew D.; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J.; Pollock, Brandon S.; Burns, Keith J.; Glickman, Ellen L.
When exposed to a cold environment, a barehanded person experiences pain, cold sensation, and reduced manual dexterity. Both acute (e.g. exercise) and chronic (e.g. cold acclimatization or habituation) processes might lessen these negative effects. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of cold habituation on physiology, perception, and manual dexterity during rest, exercise, and recovery in 5 °C. Six cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight non habituated men (NON) volunteered to participate in a repeated measures cross-over design. The protocol was conducted in 5 °C and was 90 min of resting cold exposure, 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise (50 % VO2 peak), and 60 min of seated recovery. Core and finger skin temperature, metabolic rate, Purdue Pegboard dexterity performance, hand pain, thermal sensation, and mood were quantified. Exercise-induced finger rewarming (EIFRW) was calculated for each hand. During 90 min of resting exposure to 5 °C, the CWA had a smaller reduction in finger temperature, a lower metabolic rate, less hand pain, and less negative mood. Despite this cold habituation, dexterity performance was not different between groups. In response to cycle ergometry, EIFRW was greater in CWA (~12 versus 7 °C) and occurred at lower core temperatures (37.02 versus 37.31 °C) relative to NON but dexterity was not greater during post-exercise recovery. The current data indicate that cold habituated men (i.e., CWA) do not perform better on the Purdue Pegboard during acute cold exposure. Furthermore, despite augmented EIFRW in CWA, dexterity during post-exercise recovery was similar between groups.
Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation.
Sewell, Dean A; Robinson, Tristan M; Greenhaff, Paul L
Due to the current lack of clarity, we examined whether 5 days of dietary creatine (Cr) supplementation per se can influence the glycogen content of human skeletal muscle. Six healthy male volunteers participated in the study, reporting to the laboratory on four occasions to exercise to the point of volitional exhaustion, each after 3 days of a controlled normal habitual dietary intake. After a familiarization visit, participants cycled to exhaustion in the absence of any supplementation (N), and then 2 wk later again they cycled to exhaustion after 5 days of supplementation with simple sugars (CHO). Finally, after a further 2 wk, they again cycled to exhaustion after 5 days of Cr supplementation. Muscle samples were taken at rest before exercise, at the time point of exhaustion in visit 1, and at subsequent visit time of exhaustion. There was a treatment effect on muscle total Cr content in Cr compared with N and CHO supplementation (P < 0.01). Resting muscle glycogen content was elevated above N following CHO (P < 0.05) but not after Cr. At exhaustion following N, glycogen content was no different from CHO and Cr measured at the same time point during exercise. Cr supplementation under conditions of controlled habitual dietary intake had no effect on muscle glycogen content at rest or after exhaustive exercise. We suggest that any Cr-associated increases in muscle glycogen storage are the result of an interaction between Cr supplementation and other mediators of muscle glycogen storage.
Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J
We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise.
Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients. PMID:25946196
Purpose: This study examined how a sudden increase in exercise energy expenditure affected whole body protein turnover and nitrogen balance in people of differing aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that whole-body protein turnover would be attenuated, and nitrogen balance would be preserved, in aerobi...
Kurti, Stephanie P.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Levitt, Morton; Cull, Brooke J.; Teeman, Colby S.; Emerson, Sam R.; Harms, Craig A.
We investigated whether an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise in the postprandial period attenuates the triglyceride and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal (HFM) compared to remaining inactive in the postprandial period. Seventeen (11 M/6 F) physically active (≥150 min/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise (EX; 60% VO2peak) or sedentary (CON) condition after a HFM (10 kcal/kg, 63% fat). Blood analytes and airway inflammation via exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) were measured at baseline, and 2 and 4 hours after HFM. Airway inflammation was assessed with induced sputum and cell differentials at baseline and 4 hours after HFM. Triglycerides doubled in the postprandial period (~113 ± 18%, P < 0.05), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Percentage of neutrophils was increased 4 hours after HFM (~17%), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Exhaled nitric oxide changed nonlinearly from baseline to 2 and 4 hours after HFM (P < 0.05, η2 = 0.36). Our findings suggest that, in active individuals, an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise does not attenuate the triglyceride or airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:26000301
Płaszewski, Maciej; Cieśliński, Igor; Kowalski, Paweł; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Nowobilski, Roman
Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women) aged 30.10 (25–39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women) able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38) years, who 16.5 (12–26) years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS) were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood. PMID:25436225
McGinn, R; Carter, M R; Barrera-Ramirez, J; Sigal, R J; Flouris, A D; Kenny, G P
Recent data demonstrated that individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit impaired sweating and increased rectal temperature (i.e., heat storage) during exercise compared with healthy controls. Our purpose in this study was to investigate the consequences of T1DM on post-exercise thermal homeostasis. Sixteen participants (eight controls matched with eight T1DM) performed 90 min of cycling followed by 60 min of seated recovery. Esophageal and rectal temperatures, sweating (forearm, chest, and upper back), skin blood flow [forearm and upper back, presented as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)], and blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP)] were measured at baseline and throughout recovery. Esophageal temperature was similar during baseline and recovery between groups (P = 0.88). However, rectal temperature was elevated in our T1DM group throughout recovery (P = 0.05). Sweating and CVC were similar between groups at all sites from 10-min post-exercise until the end of recovery (P ≥ 0.16). While absolute MAP was similar between groups (P = 0.43), the overall decrease in MAP post-exercise was greater in controls from 20 min (T1DM: - 8 ± 5 vs control: - 13 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.03) until the end of recovery. We conclude that despite increased heat storage during exercise, individuals with T1DM exhibit a suppression in heat loss similar to their healthy counterparts during recovery.
Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Rech, Anderson; Minozzo, Felipe; Botton, Cintia Ehlers; Radaelli, Regis; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira
Concurrent training is an effective method for increasing skeletal muscle performance in aging individuals, but controversy exists as to whether chronic neuromuscular and functional adaptations are affected by the intra-session exercise sequence. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training exercise sequence on muscular and functional adaptations of older participants. Thirty-six healthy older men not engaged in systematic exercise training programs for at least 6 months were divided into a control group (CON; 65.8±5.3 years), or in the training groups: endurance-strength (ES; 63.2±3.3 years), or strength-endurance (SE; 67.1±6.1 years). Training groups underwent 12 weeks of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training, starting every exercise session with either endurance (in ES) or strength (in SE) exercises. Measurements included knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), knee extension power, 30 second sit-to-stand test (30SS), maximum vastus lateralis surface electromyographic activity, and rectus femoris echo intensity (RFEI). Significant increases in maximal strength (ES +18±11.3%; SE +14.2±6.0%; p≤0.05), peak power (ES +22.2±19.4%; SE +26.3±31.3%; p≤0.05), and 30SS performance (ES +15.2±7.2%; SE +13.2±11.8%; p≤0.05) were observed only in the training groups, with no differences between ES and SE. Maximum muscular activity was greater after 12weeks at training groups (p≤0.05), and reductions in RFEI were found only in ES and SE (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that concurrent strength and endurance training performed twice a week effectively increases muscular performance and functional capacity in older men, independent of the intra-session exercise sequence. Additionally, the RFEI decreases indicate an additional adaptation to concurrent training.
Our work investigates the use of "external momentum" in the context of hypertrophy-oriented training. This is momentum supplied to the load (such as a dumbbell) used in an exercise by means of action of muscles not inherently involved in the exercise. We challenge the general consensus that the use of such momentum often described as "cheating" is counterproductive. We focus on the use of external momentum in the shoulder lateral raise and adopt a framework whereby exercise execution is simulated on a computer. This is achieved using a physical model of motion which is combined with anthropomorphic measurements and empirical data of muscular recruitment from previous work. The introduction of moderate momentum (producing initial angular velocities around 57.5° s(-1)) increases the torque of the target muscles even without an increase in the load used. A moderate increase in the load and the use of momentum allows the torque to be increased even further. In contrast, excessive use of momentum results in lower demands on the target muscles, while an excessive increase of the load reduces the total hypertrophy stimulus by virtue of the decreased number of repetitions which can be performed successfully and thus the dramatically shortened time under tension. Our results disprove the conventional belief that the use of external momentum necessarily reduces the overload of the target muscles. A moderate use of external momentum increases both the per-repetition peak torque and the total hypertrophy stimulus in a set.
Petruzzello, S J; Landers, D M
Acute bouts of aerobic exercise have been consistently associated with significant reductions in anxiety, but explanations for this effect remain elusive. The cerebral lateralization hypothesis predicts that anxiety reductions would be caused by a postexercise decrease in anterior right, relative to left, hemisphere activation. A sample of 19 right-handed males ran at 75% of their VO2max for 30 min on a treadmill. Electroencephalogram (EEG; F3, F4, T3, T4) and state anxiety were collected before and following exercise. Compared with preexercise, anxiety was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at 10, 20, and 30 min postexercise. Preexercise EEG alpha asymmetry was significantly related to trait anxiety and also predicted a significant amount of variance (30%; P = 0.008) in postexercise anxiety reduction. From pre- to postexercise, the relative activation of the left frontal area increased with respect to the homologous right frontal site. Within-subject correlations for the change in anxiety with corresponding EEG changes were small but in line with theoretical predictions. It is concluded that the cerebral lateralization hypothesis remains tenable for explaining anxiety reductions associated with exercise.
Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kerksick, Chad M; Lamprecht, Manfred; McAnulty, Steven R
The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body's ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals.
Schoenfeld, Brad J
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) occurs primarily from the performance of unaccustomed exercise, and its severity is modulated by the type, intensity, and duration of training. Although concentric and isometric actions contribute to EIMD, the greatest damage to muscle tissue is seen with eccentric exercise, where muscles are forcibly lengthened. Damage can be specific to just a few macromolecules of tissue or result in large tears in the sarcolemma, basal lamina, and supportive connective tissue, and inducing injury to contractile elements and the cytoskeleton. Although EIMD can have detrimental short-term effects on markers of performance and pain, it has been hypothesized that the associated skeletal muscle inflammation and increased protein turnover are necessary for long-term hypertrophic adaptations. A theoretical basis for this belief has been proposed, whereby the structural changes associated with EIMD influence gene expression, resulting in a strengthening of the tissue and thus protection of the muscle against further injury. Other researchers, however, have questioned this hypothesis, noting that hypertrophy can occur in the relative absence of muscle damage. Therefore, the purpose of this article will be twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature and attempt to determine what, if any, role EIMD plays in promoting skeletal muscle hypertrophy and (b) to make applicable recommendations for resistance training program design.
Large, D.E.: Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R.
The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.
Aguiar, Paula Fernandes; Magalhães, Sílvia Mourão; Fonseca, Ivana Alice Teixeira; da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Matos, Mariana Aguiar; Peixoto, Marco Fabrício Dias; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Crandall, Craig; Araújo, Hygor Nunes; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; de Castro Magalhães, Flávio; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro
, HFS-1 (p = 0.007), PDK4 (p = 0.03), and Tfam (p = 0.03) mRNA were higher in CWI. NRF-1 decrease in both groups after training (p = 0.006). CaMK2 decreased with HIIT (p = 0.003) but it was not affected by CWI (p = 0.99). Cold water immersion does not alter HIIT-induced Hsp72, AMPK, p38 MAPK, and exercise performance but was able to increase some markers of cellular stress response and signaling molecules related to mitochondria biogenesis.
Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka
Maintaining postural balance, overcoming visual and motor coordination disorders and experiencing problems with low general fitness - typical of intellectually disabled individuals - adversely affect the performance quality of their activities of daily living (ADLs). Physical fitness and postural balance can be improved by taking part in special intervention programs. Our study was designed to test whether extending the dual-task intervention program (combining ADLs with balance exercises on unstable surfaces) from 12 to 24 weeks additionally improved postural balance in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). We also attempted to assess whether the effects of the above intervention program were still noticeable after 8 weeks of holidays, in which participants did not take any rehabilitation exercises. A total of 34 adolescents, aged 14-16 years (15.06±0.9), with moderate ID took part in our study. The experimental group (E) consisted of 17 individuals, who continued the intervention program originated 3 months earlier, and the control group (C) comprised the same number of participants. Postural balance was assessed on a stabilometric platform Alfa. Having extended the workout period by another 12 weeks, we noticed that the path length of the center of pressure (COP) covered by participants on tests with their eyes open and closed significantly shortened. After a lapse of 8 weeks from the completion of the program, the experimental group revealed a statistically significant decrease in the velocity along the medio-lateral (M/L) and anterior-posterior (A/P) axes. The remaining variables stayed at the same level and the control group did not demonstrate any statistically significant changes. Dual-task exercises, in which enhancing functional tasks of daily living is combined with a parallel stimulation of balance reactions, may improve static balance in persons with ID.
Graham, Terry E; Helge, Jorn W; MacLean, David A; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A
This study examined the effect of ingesting caffeine (6 mg kg−1) on muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during steady-state exercise in humans. Young male subjects (n = 10) performed 1 h of exercise (70 % maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2,max)) on two occasions (after ingestion of placebo and caffeine) and leg metabolism was quantified by the combination of direct Fick measures and muscle biopsies. Following caffeine ingestion serum fatty acid and glycerol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest, suggesting enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis. In addition circulating adrenaline concentration was increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest following caffeine ingestion and this, as well as leg noradrenaline spillover, was elevated (P ≤ 0.05) above placebo values during exercise. Caffeine resulted in a modest increase (P ≤ 0.05) in leg vascular resistance, but no difference was found in leg blood flow. Arterial lactate and glucose concentrations were increased (P ≤ 0.05) by caffeine, while the rise in plasma potassium was dampened (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio or in leg glucose uptake, net muscle glycogenolysis, leg lactate release or muscle lactate, or glucose 6-phosphate concentration. Similarly there were no differences between treatments in leg fatty acid uptake, glycerol release or muscle acetyl CoA concentration. These findings indicate that caffeine ingestion stimulated the sympathetic nervous system but did not alter the carbohydrate or fat metabolism in the monitored leg. Other tissues must have been involved in the changes in circulating potassium, fatty acids, glucose and lactate. PMID:11118510
Lamon, Séverine; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Gatta, Paul A. Della; Ghobrial, Lobna; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Garnham, Andrew; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Russell, Aaron P.
Purpose: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a renal cytokine that is primarily involved in hematopoiesis while also playing a role in non-hematopoietic tissues expressing the EPO-receptor (EPOR). The EPOR is present in human skeletal muscle. In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway. Methods: Ten young (24.2 ± 0.9 years) and 10 older (66.6 ± 1.1 years) healthy subjects received a primed, constant infusion of [ring-13C6] L-phenylalanine and a single injection of 10,000 IU epoetin-beta or placebo in a double-blind randomized, cross-over design. 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Results: Significant interaction effects in the phosphorylation levels of the members of the AKT signaling pathway indicated a differential activation of protein synthesis signaling in older subjects when compared to young subjects. However, EPO offered no synergistic effect on vastus lateralis mixed muscle protein synthesis rate in young or older subjects. Conclusions: Despite its ability to activate the AKT pathway in skeletal muscle, an acute EPO injection had no additive or synergistic effect on the exercise-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis or muscle protein synthesis signaling pathways. PMID:27458387
Barreto, Tatiane Oliveira; Cleto, Lorena Sabino; Gioda, Carolina Rosa; Silva, Renata Sabino; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; de Sousa-Franco, Junia; de Magalhães, José Carlos; Penaforte, Claudia Lopes; Pinto, Kelerson Mauro de Castro; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel
We investigated whether swim training protects skeletal muscle from oxidative damage in response to a maximum progressive exercise. First, we investigated the effect of swim training on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the gastrocnemius muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, 48 h after the last training session. Mice swam for 90 min, twice a day, for 5 weeks at 31°C (± 1°C). The activities of SOD and CAT were increased in trained mice (P < 0.05) compared to untrained group. However, no effect of training was observed in the activity of GPx. In a second experiment, trained and untrained mice were submitted to a maximum progressive swim test. Compared to control mice (untrained, not acutely exercised), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice after maximum swim. The activity of GPx was increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice, while SOD activity was increased only in trained mice after maximum swimming. CAT activity was increased only in the untrained compared to the control group. Although the trained mice showed increased activity of citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, swim performance was not different compared to untrained mice. Our results show an imbalance in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in response to swim training, which could account for the oxidative damage observed in the skeletal muscle of trained mice in response to maximum swim, resulting in the absence of improved exercise performance.
Lundby, C; Calbet, J A L; Sander, M; van Hall, G; Mazzeo, R S; Stray-Gundersen, J; Stager, J M; Chapman, R F; Saltin, B; Levine, B D
For more than 60 years, muscle mechanical efficiency has been thought to remain unchanged with acclimatization to high altitude. However, recent work has suggested that muscle mechanical efficiency may in fact be improved upon return from prolonged exposure to high altitude. The purpose of the present work is to resolve this apparent conflict in the literature. In a collaboration between four research centers, we have included data from independent high-altitude studies performed at varying altitudes and including a total of 153 subjects ranging from sea-level (SL) residents to high-altitude natives, and from sedentary to world-class athletes. In study A (n=109), living for 20-22 h/day at 2500 m combined with training between 1250 and 2800 m caused no differences in running economy at fixed speeds despite low typical error measurements. In study B, SL residents (n=8) sojourning for 8 weeks at 4100 m and residents native to this altitude (n=7) performed cycle ergometer exercise in ambient air and in acute normoxia. Muscle oxygen uptake and mechanical efficiency were unchanged between SL and acclimatization and between the two groups. In study C (n=20), during 21 days of exposure to 4300 m altitude, no changes in systemic or leg VO(2) were found during cycle ergometer exercise. However, at the substantially higher altitude of 5260 m decreases in submaximal VO(2) were found in nine subjects with acute hypoxic exposure, as well as after 9 weeks of acclimatization. As VO(2) was already reduced in acute hypoxia this suggests, at least in this condition, that the reduction is not related to anatomical or physiological adaptations to high altitude but to oxygen lack because of severe hypoxia altering substrate utilization. In conclusion, results from several, independent investigations indicate that exercise economy remains unchanged after acclimatization to high altitude.
Calbet, J A L; De Paz, J A; Garatachea, N; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Chavarren, J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of severe acute hypoxia on exercise performance and metabolism during 30-s Wingate tests. Five endurance- (E) and five sprint- (S) trained track cyclists from the Spanish National Team performed 30-s Wingate tests in normoxia and hypoxia (inspired O(2) fraction = 0.10). Oxygen deficit was estimated from submaximal cycling economy tests by use of a nonlinear model. E cyclists showed higher maximal O(2) uptake than S (72 +/- 1 and 62 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). S cyclists achieved higher peak and mean power output, and 33% larger oxygen deficit than E (P < 0.05). During the Wingate test in normoxia, S relied more on anaerobic energy sources than E (P < 0.05); however, S showed a larger fatigue index in both conditions (P < 0.05). Compared with normoxia, hypoxia lowered O(2) uptake by 16% in E and S (P < 0.05). Peak power output, fatigue index, and exercise femoral vein blood lactate concentration were not altered by hypoxia in any group. Endurance cyclists, unlike S, maintained their mean power output in hypoxia by increasing their anaerobic energy production, as shown by 7% greater oxygen deficit and 11% higher postexercise lactate concentration. In conclusion, performance during 30-s Wingate tests in severe acute hypoxia is maintained or barely reduced owing to the enhancement of the anaerobic energy release. The effect of severe acute hypoxia on supramaximal exercise performance depends on training background.
Ali, Badreldin H.; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A.; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I.; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A.; Nemmar, Abderrahim
Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine –induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380
Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.
Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R
This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.
Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; West, Daniel W. D.; Burd, Nicholas A.; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K.
We have reported that the acute postexercise increases in muscle protein synthesis rates, with differing nutritional support, are predictive of longer-term training-induced muscle hypertrophy. Here, we aimed to test whether the same was true with acute exercise-mediated changes in muscle protein synthesis. Eighteen men (21 ± 1 yr, 22.6 ± 2.1 kg/m2; means ± SE) had their legs randomly assigned to two of three training conditions that differed in contraction intensity [% of maximal strength (1 repetition maximum)] or contraction volume (1 or 3 sets of repetitions): 30%-3, 80%-1, and 80%-3. Subjects trained each leg with their assigned regime for a period of 10 wk, 3 times/wk. We made pre- and posttraining measures of strength, muscle volume by magnetic resonance (MR) scans, as well as pre- and posttraining biopsies of the vastus lateralis, and a single postexercise (1 h) biopsy following the first bout of exercise, to measure signaling proteins. Training-induced increases in MR-measured muscle volume were significant (P < 0.01), with no difference between groups: 30%-3 = 6.8 ± 1.8%, 80%-1 = 3.2 ± 0.8%, and 80%-3= 7.2 ± 1.9%, P = 0.18. Isotonic maximal strength gains were not different between 80%-1 and 80%-3, but were greater than 30%-3 (P = 0.04), whereas training-induced isometric strength gains were significant but not different between conditions (P = 0.92). Biopsies taken 1 h following the initial resistance exercise bout showed increased phosphorylation (P < 0.05) of p70S6K only in the 80%-1 and 80%-3 conditions. There was no correlation between phosphorylation of any signaling protein and hypertrophy. In accordance with our previous acute measurements of muscle protein synthetic rates a lower load lifted to failure resulted in similar hypertrophy as a heavy load lifted to failure. PMID:22518835
Vigas, M; Jezová, D
Glucose was found to exert an In vitro regulatory effect on prolactin secretion. Its role in the modulation of stimulated secretion of prolactin in man is, however, not clear. To evaluate the effect of hyperglycaemia on prolactin release, three stimulatory tests with different mechanisms of stimulation were employed. Healthy male subjects served as volunteers during submaximal exercise, TRH test (0.2 mg i.v.) and administration of haloperidol (2 mg i.v.). Glucose (100 g in 400 ml) or an equal volume of water was given 30 min before the tests. Blood for glucose and prolactin analysis was taken via an indwelling catheter. The plasma prolactin concentration increased in response to each of the stimuli applied. However, the prolactin increase during hyperglycaemia did not differ from values obtained in tests performed in normoglycaemia after water administration. These results indicate that prolactin release in healthy man is not modulated by hyperglycaemia.
Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per A
This study tested the hypothesis that chronic aerobic and resistance exercise (AE+RE) would elicit greater muscle hypertrophy than resistance exercise only (RE). Ten men (25 ± 4 yr) performed 5 wk unilateral knee extensor AE+RE. The opposing limb was subjected to RE. AE completed 6 hr prior to RE consisted of ~45 min one-legged cycle ergometry. RE comprised 4 × 7 maximal concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Various indexes of in vivo knee extensor function were measured before and after training. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessed m. quadricep femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA), volume, and signal intensity (SI). Biopsies obtained from m. vastus lateralis determined fiber CSA, enzyme levels, and gene expression of myostatin, atrogin-1, MuRF-1, PGC-1α, and VEGF. Increases (P < 0.05) in isometric strength and peak power, respectively, were comparable in AE+RE (9 and 29%) and RE (11 and 24%). AE+RE showed greater increase (14%; P < 0.05) in QF volume than RE (8%). Muscle fiber CSA increased 17% after AE+RE (P < 0.05) and 9% after RE (P > 0.05). QF SI increased (12%; P < 0.05) after AE+RE, but not RE. Neither AE+RE nor RE showed altered mRNA levels. Citrate synthase activity increased (P < 0.05) after AE+RE. The results suggest that the increased aerobic capacity shown with AE+RE was accompanied by a more robust increase in muscle size compared with RE. Although this response was not carried over to greater improvement in muscle function, it remains that intense AE can be executed prior to RE without compromising performance outcome.
Whipple, M. L.
This document serves as the proceedings for the manual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Technology Research Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held July 30 through 31, 1991 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, and concentrating collector development.
Eckman, Todd J.; Hertzel, Ali K.; Lane, James J.
In 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in Washington State, funded an update to the critical network infrastructure supporting the Hanford Federal Cloud (HFC). The project, called ET-50, was the final step in a plan that was initiated five years ago called "Hanford's IT Vision, 2015 and Beyond." The ET-50 project upgraded Hanford's core data center switches and routers along with a majority of the distribution layer switches. The upgrades allowed HFC the network intelligence to provide Hanford with a more reliable and resilient network architecture. The culmination of the five year plan improved network intelligence and high performance computing as well as helped to provide 10 Gbps capable links between core backbone devices (10 times the previous bandwidth). These improvements allow Hanford the ability to further support bandwidth intense applications, such as video teleconferencing. The ET-50 switch upgrade, along with other upgrades implemented from the five year plan, have prepared Hanford's network for the next evolution of technology in voice, video, and data. Hand-in-hand with ET-50's major data center outage, Mission Support Alliance's (MSA) Information Management (IM) organization executed a disaster recovery (DR) exercise to perform a true integration test and capability study. The DR scope was planned within the constraints of ET-50's 14 hour datacenter outage window. This DR exercise tested Hanford's Continuity of Operations (COOP) capability and failover plans for safety and business critical Hanford Federal Cloud applications. The planned suite of services to be tested was identified prior to the outage and plans were prepared to test the services ability to failover from the primary Hanford data center to the backup data center. The services tested were: Core Network (backbone, firewall, load balancers); Voicemail; Voice over IP (VoIP); Emergency Notification; Virtual desktops; and, Select set of production applications
Hageman, David; van den Houten, Marijn M; Spruijt, Steffie; Gommans, Lindy N; Scheltinga, Marc R; Teijink, Joep A
Intermittent claudication (IC) is a manifestation of peripheral arterial disease. IC has a high prevalence in the older population, is closely associated with other expressions of atherosclerotic disease and often co-exists in multimorbid patients. Treatment of IC should address reduction of cardiovascular risk and improvement of functional capacity and health-related quality of life (QoL). As recommended by contemporary international guidelines, the first-line treatment includes supervised exercise therapy (SET). In several randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews, SET is compared with usual care, placebo, walking advice and endovascular revascularization. The evidence supporting the efficacy of SET programs to alleviate claudication symptoms is robust. SET improves walking distance and health-related QoL and appears to be the most cost-effective treatment for IC. Nevertheless, only few of all newly diagnosed IC patients worldwide receive this safe, efficient and structured treatment. Worldwide implementation of structured SET programs is seriously impeded by outdated arguments favoring an invasive intervention, absence of a network of specialized physical therapists providing standardized SET and lack of awareness and/or knowledge of the importance of SET by referring physicians. Besides, misguiding financial incentives and lack of reimbursement hamper actual use of SET programs. In the Netherlands, a national integrated care network (ClaudicatioNet) was launched in 2011 to combat treatment shortcomings and stimulate cohesion and collaboration between stakeholders. This care intervention has resulted in optimized quality of care for all patients with IC.
Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s(-1) concentric and 180° · s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE.
Melton, S A; Keenan, M J; Stanciu, C E; Hegsted, M; Zablah-Pimentel, E M; O'Neil, C E; Gaynor, P; Schaffhauser, A; Owen, K; Prisby, R D; LaMotte, L L; Fernandez, J M
In this five-week study, we tested the hypotheses that free access to a maintenance diet supplemented with L-carnitine (L-C) would reduce body fat in adult, sedentary, ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and that there would be an additive effect of L-C on weight reduction in swim-trained animals. As expected, serum carnitine was higher in rats fed the L-C diet, and the OVX-induced weight gain and abdominal fat were counteracted by swimming. L-C supplementation did not reduce the weight gain or abdominal fat in these adult female rats, Moreover, though not reaching statistical significance, rats that were fed L-C demonstrated a tendency for greater weight gain than their basal-fed counterparts despite no difference in energy intake. If the results of this study on ovariectomized rats can be translated to postmenopausal women, moderate intensity exercise may be recommended, but L-C supplementation, with no energy restriction, may be contraindicated as a weight loss method in this cohort.
Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at −110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s−1 concentric and 180° · s−1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548
Simic, L; Sarabon, N; Markovic, G
We applied a meta-analytical approach to derive a robust estimate of the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching (SS) on strength, power, and explosive muscular performance. A computerized search of articles published between 1966 and December 2010 was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases. A total of 104 studies yielding 61 data points for strength, 12 data points for power, and 57 data points for explosive performance met our inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate of the acute effects of SS on strength, power, and explosive performance, expressed in standardized units as well as in percentages, were -0.10 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.15 to -0.04], -0.04 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.08), and -0.03 (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.01), or -5.4% (95% CI: -6.6% to -4.2%), -1.9% (95% CI: -4.0% to 0.2%), and -2.0% (95% CI: -2.8% to -1.3%). These effects were not related to subject's age, gender, or fitness level; however, they were more pronounced in isometric vs dynamic tests, and were related to the total duration of stretch, with the smallest negative acute effects being observed with stretch duration of ≤ 45 s. We conclude that the usage of SS as the sole activity during warm-up routine should generally be avoided.
The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)
Center-based day care, at its current level of funding, is meeting neither adult nor child needs. Parents, especially working mothers, need child care that is reliable, flexible, professional, and affordable, but day care is rarely flexible, has few accommodations for emergencies, and is often not satisfactory for the maximum development of…
Doherty, Patrick; Salman, Ahmad; Furze, Gill; Dalal, Hasnain M; Harrison, Alexander
Objective To assess the extent by which programmes meet national minimum standards for the delivery of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) as part of the National Certification Programme for Cardiovascular Rehabilitation (NCP_CR). Methods The analysis used UK National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR) data extracted and validated for the period 2013–2014 set against six NCP_CR measures deemed as important for the delivery of high-quality CR programmes. Each programme that achieved a single minimum standard was given a score of 1. The range of the scoring for meeting the minimum standards is between 1 and 6. The performance of CR programmes was categorised into three groups: high (score of 5–6), middle (scores of 3–4) and low (scores of 1–2). If a programme did not meet any of the six criteria, they were considered to have failed. Results Data from 170 CR programmes revealed statistically significant differences among UK CR programmes. The principal findings were that, based on NCP_CR criteria, 30.6% were assessed as high performance with 45.9% as mid-level performance programmes, 18.2% were in the lower-level and 5.3% failed to meet any of the minimum criteria. Conclusions This study shows that high levels of performance is achievable in the era of modern cardiology and that many CR programmes are close to meeting high performance standards. However, substantial variation, below the recommended minimum standards, exists throughout the UK. National certification should be seen as a positive step to ensure that patients, irrespective of where they live, are accessing quality services. PMID:28123763
Positron spectroscopy has advanced to the point where it is in the best interest of DOE to assess past progress and to identify research needs/opportunities that can be exploited to advance the understanding of materials problems important to DOE. Purpose of the workshop is to identify areas of materials science where positron spectroscopy can serve to advance goals of DOE in energy research: problem areas for which positron spectroscopy can serve as a unique or complementary tool for materials characterization and analysis, possible sources of positrons at high intensities and instrumentation, and possible applications (defect profiles at surfaces/interfaces, composite materials, superconductors). Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for the 23 papers.
Hurle, Belen; Citrin, Toby; Jenkins, Jean F; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Lamb, Neil; Roseman, Jo Ellen; Bonham, Vence L
Genomic discoveries will increasingly advance the science of medicine. Limited genomic literacy may adversely impact the public's understanding and use of the power of genetics and genomics in health care and public health. In November 2011, a meeting was held by the National Human Genome Research Institute to examine the challenge of achieving genomic literacy for the general public, from kindergarten to grade 12 to adult education. The role of the media in disseminating scientific messages and in perpetuating or reducing misconceptions was also discussed. Workshop participants agreed that genomic literacy will be achieved only through active engagement between genomics experts and the varied constituencies that comprise the public. This report summarizes the background, content, and outcomes from this meeting, including recommendations for a research agenda to inform decisions about how to advance genomic literacy in our society.
Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.
The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.
Sasaki, Hiroto; Morishima, Takuma; Hasegawa, Yuta; Mori, Ayaka; Ijichi, Toshiaki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Goto, Kazushige
This study determined the effects of high-intensity interval training on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) responses, whole body and regional fat content. Twenty-four sedentary males were randomized to either a high-intensity interval training (HIT) group or a low-intensity continuous training (LT) group. The HIT group performed intermittent exercises at 85% of [Formula: see text], whereas the LT group performed continuous exercise for 22 min at 45% of [Formula: see text]. Before and after 4 weeks of training, hormonal and metabolic responses to acute exercise were determined. Acute exercise significantly increased GH concentrations in both groups (p < 0.05). However, the responses did not change after training period in either group. Furthermore, the training did not significantly affect intramyocellular or intrahepatic lipid content in either group. The present study indicates that 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training does not alter the exercise-induced GH responses, whole body fat mass or intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipid content in sedentary males.
... MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.410 Addressing performance... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addressing performance that does not...
Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.
We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P < 0.05), but by 24 h plasma volume and albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P < 0.05), and showed a trend to decrease at 2 h after infusion (167.6 +/- 32.5(-1) 06.2 +/- 13.4 pg mL-1, P = 0.07). These data demonstrate that a 6.8% expansion of plasma volume and 10.5% expansion of plasma albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.
Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle
Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082
Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar
Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement.
This paper report contains topics presented at a sensor workshop group meeting. The topics describe measuring instruments of use in the pulp and paper industry. Topics include: measurement of solids fraction; process instrumentation research for the pulp paper industry; real-time non-contact optical surface motion monitor; on-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties; hierarchical intelligent control of industrial processes -- an in-parallel lime kiln application; proposal for research on lignin concentration measurement in pulping liquors; and advanced polymeric sensor materials for industrial drying.
Close, Graeme L; Ashton, Tony; Cable, Tim; Doran, Dominic; Holloway, Chris; McArdle, Frank; MacLaren, Don P M
Exercise involving lengthening muscle actions, such as downhill running, results in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which may be attributable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although exercise causes oxidative stress, any link between ROS and DOMS remains speculative. There is emerging evidence to suggest that ROS play an important physiological role, assisting in the recovery process and protecting the cell from future damage; however, this has not been fully established. Despite this uncertainty as to the precise role of ROS, attempts to prevent post-exercise ROS production through antioxidant intervention are still common. The study investigated the effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on ROS production and DOMS following downhill running. Subjects were assigned to two groups. The ascorbic acid group (group AA) received 1 g ascorbic acid 2 h pre-, and for 14 d post-downhill running, whilst the placebo group (Pl group) received a placebo. Blood samples were drawn pre-supplement, pre- and post-exercise, and then 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 14 d post-exercise for analysis of ascorbate, malonaldehyde and total glutathione. DOMS was assessed using a visual analogue scale and pressure algometry. Muscle function was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Plasma ascorbate was elevated throughout in group AA compared with the Pl group. Downhill running resulted in DOMS in both groups. Muscle function was impaired post-exercise in both groups, although a delayed recovery was noted in group AA. Malonaldehyde increased 4 d post-exercise in the Pl group only. Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates ROS production following downhill running, without affecting DOMS. Furthermore, ascorbic acid supplementation may inhibit the recovery of muscle function.
de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Rhodes, Ryan E; van Osch, Liesbeth
Both habit strength and action planning have been found to moderate the intention-exercise behaviour relationship, but no research exists that has investigated how habit strength and action planning simultaneously influence this relationship. The present study was designed to explore this issue in a prospective sample of undergraduate students (N = 415): action planning, habit strength, intention, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were assessed at baseline and exercise behaviour was assessed 2 weeks later. Both habit strength and action planning moderated the intention-exercise relationship, with stronger relationship at higher levels of planning or habit strength. Decomposing a significant action planning × habit strength × intention interaction showed that the strength of the intention-exercise relationship progressed linearly through levels of action planning and habit strength. These novel results show that action planning strengthens the intention-habit strength interaction in the exercise domain: exercise interventions should therefore focus on simultaneously bolstering action planning and habit strength.
Wilkinson, Sarah B; Kim, Paul L; Armstrong, David; Phillips, Stuart M
We examined the effect of a post-exercise oral carbohydrate (CHO, 1 g.kg(-1).h(-1)) and essential amino acid (EAA, 9.25 g) solution containing glutamine (0.3 g/kg BW; GLN trial) versus an isoenergetic CHO-EAA solution without glutamine (control, CON trial) on muscle glycogen resynthesis and whole-body protein turnover following 90 min of cycling at 65% VO2 peak. Over the course of 3 h of recovery, muscle biopsies were taken to measure glycogen resynthesis and mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS), by incorporation of [ring-2H5] phenylalanine. Infusion of [1-13C] leucine was used to measure whole-body protein turnover. Exercise resulted in a significant decrease in muscle glycogen (p < 0.05) with similar declines in each trial. Glycogen resynthesis following 3 h of recovery indicated no difference in total accumulation or rate of repletion. Leucine oxidation increased 2.5 fold (p < 0.05) during exercise, returned to resting levels immediately post-exercise,and was again elevated at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05). Leucine flux, an index of whole-body protein breakdown rate, was reduced during exercise, but increased to resting levels immediately post-exercise, and was further increased at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), but only during the CON trial. Exercise resulted in a marked suppression of whole-body protein synthesis (50% of rest; p < 0.05), which was restored post-exercise; however, the addition of glutamine did not affect whole-body protein synthesis post-exercise. The rate of MPS was not different between trials. The addition of glutamine to a CHO + EAA beverage had no effect on post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis or muscle protein synthesis, but may suppress a rise in whole-body proteolysis during the later stages of recovery.
Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M
Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution
Clarke, N D; Campbell, I T; Drust, B; Evans, L; Reilly, T; Maclaren, D P M
This study was designed to investigate the effect of ingesting a glucose plus fructose solution on the metabolic responses to soccer-specific exercise in the heat and the impact on subsequent exercise capacity. Eleven male soccer players performed a 90 min soccer-specific protocol on three occasions. Either 3 ml · kg(-1) body mass of a solution containing glucose (1 g · min(-1) glucose) (GLU), or glucose (0.66 g · min(-1)) plus fructose (0.33 g · min(-1)) (MIX) or placebo (PLA) was consumed every 15 minutes. Respiratory measures were undertaken at 15-min intervals, blood samples were drawn at rest, half-time and on completion of the protocol, and muscle glycogen concentration was assessed pre- and post-exercise. Following the soccer-specific protocol the Cunningham and Faulkner test was performed. No significant differences in post-exercise muscle glycogen concentration (PLA, 62.99 ± 8.39 mmol · kg wet weight(-1); GLU 68.62 ± 2.70; mmol · kg wet weight(-1) and MIX 76.63 ± 6.92 mmol · kg wet weight(-1)) or exercise capacity (PLA, 73.62 ± 8.61 s; GLU, 77.11 ± 7.17 s; MIX, 83.04 ± 9.65 s) were observed between treatments (P > 0.05). However, total carbohydrate oxidation was significantly increased during MIX compared with PLA (P < 0.05). These results suggest that when ingested in moderate amounts, the type of carbohydrate does not influence metabolism during soccer-specific intermittent exercise or affect performance capacity after exercise in the heat.
Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Paschalis, Vassilis; Chanou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.
Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm) and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm). After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin) were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality. PMID:26240654
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...
Impey, Samuel G; Smith, Dominic; Robinson, Amy L; Owens, Daniel J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Smith, Kenneth; Limb, Marie; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P
Given that the enhanced oxidative adaptations observed when training in carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted states is potentially regulated through free fatty acid (FFA)-mediated signalling and that leucine-rich protein elevates muscle protein synthesis, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that leucine-enriched protein feeding enhances circulating leucine concentration but does not impair FFA availability or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise. Nine males cycled for 2 h at 70% VO2peak when fasted (PLACEBO) or having consumed a whey protein solution (WHEY) or a leucine-enriched whey protein gel (GEL), administered as 22 g 1 h pre-exercise, 11 g/h during and 22 g 30 min post-exercise. Total leucine administration was 14.4 g and 6.3 in GEL and WHEY, respectively. Mean plasma leucine concentrations were elevated in GEL (P = 0.001) compared with WHEY and PLACEBO (375 ± 100, 272 ± 51, 146 ± 14 µmol L(-1), respectively). No differences (P = 0.153) in plasma FFA (WHEY 0.53 ± 0.30, GEL 0.45 ± 0.25, PLACEBO 0.65 ± 0.30, mmol L(-1)) or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise (WHEY 0.37 ± 0.26, GEL 0.36 ± 0.24, PLACEBO 0.34 ± 0.24 g/min) were apparent between trials, despite elevated (P = 0.001) insulin in WHEY and GEL compared with PLACEBO (38 ± 16, 35 ± 16, 22 ± 11 pmol L(-1), respectively). We conclude that leucine-enriched protein feeding does not impair FFA availability or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise, thus having practical applications for athletes who deliberately train in CHO-restricted states to promote skeletal muscle adaptations.
Neto, Gabriel R; Novaes, Jefferson S; Salerno, Verônica P; Gonçalves, Michel M; Batista, Gilmário R; Cirilo-Sousa, Maria S
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction (BFR) on the creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and uric acid (UA) levels in military men. The study included 10 recreationally trained men aged 19 ± 0.82 years who underwent the following experimental protocols in random order on separate days (72-96 h): 4 LLRE sessions at a 20% 1RM (one-repetition maximum [1RM]) with continuous BFR (LLRE + CBFR); 4 LLRE sessions at 20% 1RM with intermittent BFR (LLRE + IBFR) and 4 high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) sessions at 80% 1RM. The CK and LDH (markers of muscle damage) levels were measured before exercise (BE), 24 h post-exercise and 48 h post-exercise, and the PC, TBARS and UA (markers of oxidative stress) levels were measured BE and immediately after each exercise session. There was a significant increase in CK in the HIRE 24 post-exercise samples compared with the LLRE + CBFR and LLRE + IBFR (P = 0.035, P = 0.036, respectively), as well as between HIRE 48 post-exercise and LLRE + CBFR (P = 0.049). Additionally, there was a significant increase in CK in the LLRE + CBFR samples BE and immediately after each exercise (Δ = 21.9%) and in the HIRE samples BE and immediately after each exercise, BE and 24 post-exercise, and BE and 48 post-exercise (Δ values of 35%, 177.6%, and 177.6%, respectively). However, there were no significant changes in LDH, PC, TBARS, and UA between the protocols (P > 0.05). Therefore, a physical exercise session with continuous or intermittent BFR did not promote muscle damage; moreover, neither protocol seemed to affect the oxidative stress markers.
Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Barry, Daniel W.; MacLean, Paul S.; Grunwald, Gary K.; Hill, James O.
Fat oxidation during exercise is increased by endurance training, and evidence suggests that fat oxidation during exercise is impaired in obesity. Thus the primary aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of exercise on 24-h fat oxidation and fat balance in lean sedentary [LS, n = 10, body mass index (BMI) = 22.5 ± 6.5 kg/m2], lean endurance-trained (LT, n = 10, BMI = 21.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), and obese sedentary (OS, n = 7, BMI = 35.5 ± 4.4 kg/m2) men and women. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured under sedentary (control; CON) and exercise (EX) conditions while maintaining energy balance. During EX, subjects performed 1 h of stationary cycling at 55% of aerobic capacity. Twenty-four-hour fat oxidation did not differ on the CON or EX day in LS (43 ± 9 vs. 29 ± 7 g/day, respectively), LT (53 ± 8 vs. 42 ± 5 g/day), or OS (58 ± 7 vs. 80 ± 9 g/day). However, 24-h fat balance was significantly more positive on EX compared with CON (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles were similar on the EX and CON days, but after consumption of the first meal, FFA concentrations remained below fasting levels for the remainder of the day. These data suggest that when exercise is performed with energy replacement (i.e., energy balance is maintained), 24-h fat oxidation does not increase and in fact, may be slightly decreased. It appears that the state of energy balance is an underappreciated factor determining the impact of exercise on fat oxidation. PMID:19833807
Azevêdo, Luan M.; de Souza, Alice C.; Santos, Laiza Ellen S.; Miguel dos Santos, Rodrigo; de Fernandes, Manuella O. M.; Almeida, Jeeser A.; Pardono, Emerson
Hypertension is a chronic disease that affects about 30% of the world’s population, and the physical exercise plays an important role on its non-pharmacological treatment. Anywise, the dose–response of physical exercise fractionation throughout the day demands more investigation, allowing new exercise prescription possibilities. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the acute blood pressure (BP) kinetics after 1 h of exercises and the BP reactivity after different concurrent exercise (CE) sessions and its fractioning of hypertensive middle-aged women. In this way, 11 hypertensive women voluntarily underwent three experimental sessions and one control day [control session (CS)]. In the morning session (MS) and night session (NS), the exercise was fully realized in the morning and evening, respectively. For the fractionized session (FS), 50% of the volume was applied in the morning and the remaining 50% during the evening. The MS provided the greatest moments (p ≤ 0.05) of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) for systolic BP (SBP) and highest reduction of BP reactivity for SBP (~44%) and diastolic BP (DBP) (~59%) compared to CS (p ≤ 0.05). The findings of the present study have shown that MS is effective for PEH to SBP, as well as it promotes high quality of attenuation for BP reactivity, greater than the other sessions. PMID:28261583
Azevêdo, Luan M; de Souza, Alice C; Santos, Laiza Ellen S; Miguel Dos Santos, Rodrigo; de Fernandes, Manuella O M; Almeida, Jeeser A; Pardono, Emerson
Hypertension is a chronic disease that affects about 30% of the world's population, and the physical exercise plays an important role on its non-pharmacological treatment. Anywise, the dose-response of physical exercise fractionation throughout the day demands more investigation, allowing new exercise prescription possibilities. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the acute blood pressure (BP) kinetics after 1 h of exercises and the BP reactivity after different concurrent exercise (CE) sessions and its fractioning of hypertensive middle-aged women. In this way, 11 hypertensive women voluntarily underwent three experimental sessions and one control day [control session (CS)]. In the morning session (MS) and night session (NS), the exercise was fully realized in the morning and evening, respectively. For the fractionized session (FS), 50% of the volume was applied in the morning and the remaining 50% during the evening. The MS provided the greatest moments (p ≤ 0.05) of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) for systolic BP (SBP) and highest reduction of BP reactivity for SBP (~44%) and diastolic BP (DBP) (~59%) compared to CS (p ≤ 0.05). The findings of the present study have shown that MS is effective for PEH to SBP, as well as it promotes high quality of attenuation for BP reactivity, greater than the other sessions.
Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew
Rotator cuff and scapular muscle strengthening exercises are an essential part of shoulder rehabilitation and sports training. Although the effect of exercise training on pain and function have been widely investigated, few studies have focused on the changes in shoulder kinematics and muscle activity after exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises on shoulder kinematics and the activation of rotator cuff and scapular muscles in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a training or control group. Subjects in the training group were trained with rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises for four weeks. Scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity during arm elevation were measured before and after exercise training. After the four-week training protocol, there was an increase in strength and a decrease in upper trapezius activation in the training group, which is consistent with previous studies. However, no difference was found in scapular kinematics and activation of rotator cuff muscles between the control and training groups after the training protocol. Although the exercise protocol resulted in strength gains for the rotator cuff, these gains did not transfer to an increase in muscle activation during motion. These results demonstrate the difficulty in changing activation patterns of the rotator cuff muscles. PMID:26996811
Coombs, G B; Cramer, M N; Ravanelli, N M; Morris, N B; Jay, O
Acute acetaminophen (ACT) ingestion has been reported to reduce thermal strain during cycling in the heat. In this study, nine active participants ingested 20 mg of ACT per kg of total body mass (ACT) or a placebo (PLA), 60 min prior to cycling at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (ACT: 8.3 ± 0.3 W/kg; PLA: 8.5 ± 0.5 W/kg), which was equivalent to 55 ± 6% VO2max , for 60 min at 34.5 ± 0.1 °C, 52 ± 1% relative humidity. Resting rectal temperature (Tre ; ACT: 36.70 ± 0.17 °C; PLA: 36.80 ± 0.16 °C, P = 0.24), esophageal temperature (Tes ; ACT: 36.54 ± 0.22 °C; PLA: 36.61 ± 0.17 °C, P = 0.50) and mean skin temperature (Tsk ; ACT: 34.00 ± 0.14 °C; PLA: 33.96 ± 0.20 °C, P = 0.70) were all similar among conditions. At end-exercise, no differences in ΔTre (ACT: 1.12 ± 0.15 °C; PLA: 1.11 ± 0.21 °C, P = 0.92), ΔTes (ACT: 0.90 ± 0.28 °C; PLA: 0.88 ± 0.23 °C, P = 0.84), ΔTsk (ACT: 0.80 ± 0.39 °C; PLA: 0.70 ± 0.46 °C, P = 0.63), mean local sweat rate (ACT: 1.02 ± 0.15 mg/cm(2) /min; PLA: 1.02 ± 0.13 mg/cm(2) /min, P = 0.98) and whole-body sweat loss (ACT: 663 ± 83 g; PLA: 663 ± 77 g, P = 0.995) were evident. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion and thermal sensation and thermal comfort were not different between ACT and PLA conditions. In conclusion, ACT ingested 60 min prior to moderate intensity exercise in hot-humid conditions does not alter physiologic thermoregulatory control nor perceived strain.
Sturnieks, Daina L; Finch, Caroline F; Close, Jacqueline C T; Tiedemann, Anne; Lord, Stephen R; Pascoe, Deborah A
Participation in appropriate exercise can help reduce the risk of falls and falls injury in older people. Delivery of population-level exercise interventions requires an expert workforce with skills in development and delivery of group exercise programs and prescription of individually targeted exercise. This study assessed the current knowledge of university exercise science students (as future exercise professionals) across different levels of study. A structured survey designed to assess knowledge in relation to falls in older people and exercise prescription for falls prevention was administered during second, third and fourth year lectures in seven Australian universities. Students' knowledge was assessed as the percent of correct responses. Overall, 566 students completed the survey and knowledge levels increased significantly with study year. Mean knowledge levels were significantly <70%, indicating limited knowledge. They were lowest for falls risk factor questions and highest for issue/cost related questions in second and third year students. Fourth year students had best knowledge about falls interventions and this was the only group and topic with a mean score >70%. In conclusion, knowledge about falls and exercise prescription for falls prevention in current students does not meet a desired competency level of 70% and is therefore insufficient to ensure an adequately equipped future workforce in this area. There is a clear need for the development and widespread delivery of an evidence-based "exercise for falls prevention" curriculum module for exercise professionals.
Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)
Battault, Sylvain; Singh, François; Gayrard, Sandrine; Zoll, Joffrey; Reboul, Cyril; Meyer, Grégory
Exercise training is a well-recognized way to improve vascular endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. However, in hypertensive subjects, unlike low- and moderate-intensity exercise training, the beneficial effects of continuous high-intensity exercise on endothelial function are not clear, and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of high-intensity exercise on vascular function, especially on the NO pathway, in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). These effects were studied on WKY, sedentary SHR and SHR that exercised at moderate (SHR-MOD) and high intensity (SHR-HI) on a treadmill (1 h per day; 5 days per week for 6 weeks at 55% and 80% of their maximal aerobic velocity, respectively). Endothelial function and specific NO contributions to acetylcholine-mediated relaxation were evaluated by measuring the aortic ring isometric forces. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and phosphorylation (ser1177) were evaluated by western blotting. The total aortic and eNOS-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance in aortic tissue. Although the aortas of SHR-HI had increased eNOS levels without alteration of eNOS phosphorylation, high-intensity exercise had no beneficial effect on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, unlike moderate exercise. This result was associated with increased eNOS-dependent ROS production in the aortas of SHR-HI. Notably, the use of the recoupling agent BH4 or a thiol-reducing agent blunted eNOS-dependent ROS production in the aortas of SHR-HI. In conclusion, the lack of a positive effect of high-intensity exercise on endothelial function in SHR was mainly explained by redox-dependent eNOS uncoupling, resulting in a switch from NO to O2(-) generation.
Akin, Senay; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Ichinoseki-Sekine, Noriko; Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Kakigi, Ryo; Demirel, Haydar A
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting cells from a range of acute and chronic stressful conditions. Treadmill running exercise results in increased Hsp72 and Hsp25 levels in various tissues and heat production during exercise has been shown to be the main factor for the increased levels of Hsp72 in myocardium. Since the adrenal gland plays a vital role in general response to stress, regulation of Hsps in adrenal glands following stressful events seems to be critical for controlling the whole-body stress response appropriately. This study tested the hypothesis of whether elevation of temperature is solely responsible for exercise-induced adrenal Hsp72 and Hsp25 expression. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old) were randomly assigned to either a sedentary control group or one of two treadmill-running groups: a cold exercise group run in a cold room at 4 °C (CE), and a warm exercise group run at 25 °C temperature (WE). Animals were run 60 min a day at 30 m min(-1) speed for 4 consecutive days following adaptation to treadmill exercise. Exercise resulted in a significant elevation of body temperature only in the WE group (p < 0.05). Adrenal Hsp72 and Hsp25 levels were significantly higher in the WE group compare to the other groups (p < 0.05). These data demonstrated that exercise-related elevations of body temperature could be the only factor for the inductions of adrenal Hsp72 and Hsp25 expression.
Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni
Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).
Hazen Ed., T.C.
On behalf of the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program managers in the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD), Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcome to the 2011 SBR Principal Investigators meeting. Thank you in advance for your attendance and your presentations at this year's meeting. As the events in Japan continue to unfold, we are all reminded that the research we perform on radionuclide behavior in the environment has implications beyond legacy waste cleanup and in fact has its place in the discussion on the expanded use of nuclear power. As in the past, there are three broad objectives to the Principal Investigators meeting: (1) to provide opportunities to share research results and promote interactions among the SBR scientists and other invited guests; (2) to evaluate the progress of each project within the program; and (3) to showcase the scientific expertise and research progress over the past year to senior managers within the DOE Office of Science, the technology offices within DOE, and other invited attendees from other Federal Agencies. This past year has seen a few significant changes within BER and within the SBR program. In November, our Associate Director for BER, Anna Palmisano, retired from Federal service. Just this month, Dr. Sharlene Weatherwax (Division Director for Biological Systems Sciences) has been named as the new Associate Director for BER. In August, BER welcomed Dr. Gary Geernaert as the new Division Director for CESD. Gary joins the division from Los Alamos National Laboratory with a background in atmospheric science. Within the SBR program, a new Strategic Plan was completed last June (currently posted on the SBR and the Office of Science website). The new strategic plan is intended to foster integration within the Environmental Systems Science portion of the BER budget that includes both SBR and Terrestrial Ecosystem Sciences (TES). Both these programs share a goal of advancing a
Fortes, Matthew B; Whitham, Martin
Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) has been detected within saliva, and its presence may contribute to oral defence. It is currently unknown how physiological stress affects salivary Hsp72 or if salivary Hsp72 concentrations reflect plasma Hsp72 concentrations. We studied the effect of exercise upon salivary Hsp72 expression, and using caffeine administration, investigated the role of sympathetic stimulation upon salivary Hsp72 expression. Six healthy males performed two treadmill running exercise bouts in hot conditions (30°C) separated by 1 week in a randomized cross-over design, one with caffeine supplementation (CAF) the other with placebo (PLA). Plasma and saliva samples were collected prior to, during and post-exercise and assayed for Hsp72 concentration by ELISA. Exercise significantly increased plasma Hsp72, but not salivary Hsp72 concentration. Mean salivary Hsp72 concentration (5.1 ± 0.8 ng/ml) was significantly greater than plasma Hsp72 concentration (1.8 ± 0.1 ng/ml), and concentrations of salivary and plasma Hsp72 were unrelated. Caffeine supplementation and exercise increased the concentration of catecholamines, salivary α-amylase and total protein, whilst the salivary Hsp72:α-amylase ratio was lower in CAF. Salivary Hsp72 was not altered by exercise stress nor caffeine supplementation, and concentrations did not track plasma Hsp72 concentration.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What if I operate an aircraft or use a product that does not meet the requirements of an airworthiness directive? 39.9 Section 39.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...
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... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does the Local Board meet its requirement... Section 661.307 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) STATEWIDE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE...
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Duncan, Koji J; Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; Maly, Monica R
Purpose Among a variety of conservative and surgical options to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, we do not understand which options could potentially prevent knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence pertaining to exercise treatment of ACL injuries in the context of knee OA. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) databases were systematically searched using keywords encompassed within four primary key terms: knee, osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament, and exercise. Clinical studies evaluating the effect of an exercise treatment for ACL injuries on the development of knee OA in adult humans were included. The PEDro scale was used to critically assess the studies included in the review. Results Eighteen studies were included in this review, with a median PEDro score of 6/11 (range, 2/11–9/11). Three studies provided statistical evidence that exercise following ACL injury lowered the risk for knee OA development. Nine studies demonstrated no benefit of exercise in preventing knee OA incidence relative to either operative treatment or the contralateral, unaffected knee. However, exercise resulted in higher knee instability. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in subjective or objective knee outcomes for early versus late ACL reconstruction. Limitations This review was not registered through PROSPERO. Conclusion The relationship between a rehabilitative exercise for ACL injuries and long-term knee OA prevalence is inconclusive. However, research suggests initial conservative treatment with optional late ACL reconstruction because this treatment strategy may reduce the risk of knee OA. More research, ideally randomized controlled trials or comparable designs, is required prior to establishing clinical guidelines for ACL injury management. PMID:27843365
Schwarz, Neil A; Spillane, Mike; La Bounty, Paul; Grandjean, Peter W; Leutholtz, Brian; Willoughby, Darryn S
Capsaicin and evodiamine are 2 thermogenic agents recognized for their ability to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesized that both capsaicin and evodiamine would be effective at increasing thermogenesis and lipid oxidation during rest and exercise. In a randomized, cross-over design, 11 men ingested 500 mg of cayenne pepper (1.25 mg capsaicin), 500 mg evodiamine, or placebo at rest following 30 minutes of energy expenditure assessment using open-circuit spirometry. Energy expenditure was assessed again prior to commencing approximately 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 65% peak oxygen consumption. Energy expenditure was assessed for another 30 minutes of the post-exercise period. Heart rate, blood pressure, core temperature, and venous blood samples were obtained 30 minutes before supplement ingestion, 1 hour after supplement ingestion, immediately post-exercise, and 45 minutes post-exercise. Serum markers of lipid oxidation (glycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) were determined spectrophotometrically with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two-way analyses of variance with repeated measures were performed for each dependent variable (P ≤ .05) with Supplement and Test as main effects. Statistical analyses revealed significant main effects for Test for hemodynamics, energy expenditure, serum catecholamines, and markers of fat oxidation immediately post-exercise (P < .05). No significant interactions between Supplement and Test were noted for any criterion variable (P > .05). These results suggest that acute ingestion of 500 mg of cayenne (1.25 mg capsaicin) or evodiamine is not effective at inducing thermogenesis and increasing fat oxidation at rest or during exercise in men.
Hongu, N; Sachan, D S
The effect of a combination of caffeine, carnitine and choline with or without exercise on changes in body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin concentration and metabolic indices was determined in 20 male, 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats. They were given free access to a nonpurified diet without or with caffeine, carnitine and choline at concentrations of 0.1, 5 and 11.5 g/kg diet, respectively. In a 2x2 factorial design, one-half of each dietary group was exercised, and the other half was sedentary. Body weight and food intake of all rats were measured every day for 28 d. Rats were killed and blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical markers. Food intake of the groups was not different, but the body weight was significantly reduced by exercise in both dietary groups. Fat pad weights and total lipids of epididymal, inguinal and perirenal regions were significantly reduced by the supplements as well as by exercise. Regardless of exercise, supplements significantly lowered triglycerides in serum but increased levels in skeletal muscle. Serum leptin concentrations were equally lowered by supplements and exercise. Serum leptin was correlated with body weight (r = 0.55, P< or =0.01), fat pad weight (r = 0.82, P< or =0.001) and serum glucose (r = 0.51, P< or =0.05). We conclude that the indices of body fat loss due to dietary supplements were similar to those due to mild exercise, and there were no interactive effects of the two variables.
Kacerovsky-Bielesz, Gertrud; Chmelik, Marek; Ling, Charlotte; Pokan, Rochus; Szendroedi, Julia; Farukuoye, Michaela; Kacerovsky, Michaela; Schmid, Albrecht I.; Gruber, Stephan; Wolzt, Michael; Moser, Ewald; Pacini, Giovanni; Smekal, Gerhard; Groop, Leif; Roden, Michael
OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise training improves hereditary insulin resistance by stimulating ATP synthesis and investigated associations with gene polymorphisms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 24 nonobese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients and 12 control subjects at rest and 48 h after three bouts of exercise. In addition to measurements of oxygen uptake and insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test), ectopic lipids and mitochondrial ATP synthesis were assessed using1H and31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. They were genotyped for polymorphisms in genes regulating mitochondrial function, PPARGC1A (rs8192678) and NDUFB6 (rs540467). RESULTS Relatives had slightly lower (P = 0.012) insulin sensitivity than control subjects. In control subjects, ATP synthase flux rose by 18% (P = 0.0001), being 23% higher (P = 0.002) than that in relatives after exercise training. Relatives responding to exercise training with increased ATP synthesis (+19%, P = 0.009) showed improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.009) compared with those whose insulin sensitivity did not improve. A polymorphism in the NDUFB6 gene from respiratory chain complex I related to ATP synthesis (P = 0.02) and insulin sensitivity response to exercise training (P = 0.05). ATP synthase flux correlated with O2uptake and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS The ability of short-term exercise to stimulate ATP production distinguished individuals with improved insulin sensitivity from those whose insulin sensitivity did not improve. In addition, the NDUFB6 gene polymorphism appeared to modulate this adaptation. This finding suggests that genes involved in mitochondrial function contribute to the response of ATP synthesis to exercise training. PMID:19265027
Duclos, Martine; Virally, Marie-Laure; Dejager, Sylvie
In this article, we examine the results from meta-analyses of studies that have focused on the effects of supervised exercise in patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exercise has been clearly demonstrated to have benefits on blood glucose control (average reduction of glycated hemoglobin, 0.6%) and cardiovascular risk factors. These benefits are observed independently of any change in body mass index and fat mass, and are also seen in older populations. Multiple mechanisms are involved, and the improved insulin-sensitizing effect of exercise training is not restricted to muscle but extends to hepatic and adipose tissue. However, while the benefits of exercise in type 2 diabetes management are undisputable, it is not as easy to draw correlations between clinical benefit and the amount of physical activity included in daily life. Recent studies have shown encouraging results with moderate increases in physical activity, which are feasible for most patients and are sufficient to induce sustained positive changes for 2 years. Thus, the benefits of structured and supervised exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes have been consistently demonstrated. Currently, the primary challenge is to determine how long-term increased physical activity can be durably implemented in a patient's daily life.
Oliveira, Mayron F.; Zelt, Joel T. J.; Jones, Joshua H.; Hirai, Daniel M.; O'Donnell, Denis E.; Verges, Samuel; Neder, J. Alberto
Impairment in oxygen (O2) delivery to the central nervous system (“brain”) and skeletal locomotor muscle during exercise has been associated with central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue in healthy humans. From a clinical perspective, impaired tissue O2 transport is a key pathophysiological mechanism shared by cardiopulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). In addition to arterial hypoxemic conditions in COPD, there is growing evidence that cerebral and muscle blood flow and oxygenation can be reduced during exercise in both isolated COPD and CHF. Compromised cardiac output due to impaired cardiopulmonary function/interactions and blood flow redistribution to the overloaded respiratory muscles (i.e., ↑work of breathing) may underpin these abnormalities. Unfortunately, COPD and CHF coexist in almost a third of elderly patients making these mechanisms potentially more relevant to exercise intolerance. In this context, it remains unknown whether decreased O2 delivery accentuates neuromuscular manifestations of central and peripheral fatigue in coexistent COPD-CHF. If this holds true, it is conceivable that delivering a low-density gas mixture (heliox) through non-invasive positive pressure ventilation could ameliorate cardiopulmonary function/interactions and reduce the work of breathing during exercise in these patients. The major consequence would be increased O2 delivery to the brain and active muscles with potential benefits to exercise capacity (i.e., ↓central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue, respectively). We therefore hypothesize that patients with coexistent COPD-CHF stop exercising prematurely due to impaired central motor drive and muscle contractility as the cardiorespiratory system fails to deliver sufficient O2 to simultaneously attend the metabolic demands of the brain and the active limb muscles. PMID:25610401
Abdallah, Sara J; Krug, Robin; Jensen, Dennis
This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the effects of a clothing ensemble made of a synthetic fabric promoted as having superior cooling properties (COOL) on exercise performance and its physiological and perceptual determinants during cycle exercise in ambient laboratory conditions that mimic environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. Twenty athletes (15 men:5 women) aged 25.8 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SEM) with a maximal rate of O2 consumption of 63.7 ± 1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed cycle exercise testing at 85% of their maximal incremental power output to exhaustion while wearing an ensemble consisting of a fitted long-sleeved shirt and full trousers made of either COOL or a synthetic control fabric (CTRL). Exercise endurance time was not different under COOL versus CTRL conditions: 12.38 ± 0.98 versus 11.75 ± 1.10 min, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, COOL had no effect on detailed thermoregulatory (skin and esophageal temperatures), cardiometabolic, ventilatory, and perceptual responses to exercise (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, clothing made of a synthetic fabric with purported “cooling” properties did not improve high-intensity cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes under ambient laboratory conditions that mimic the environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. PMID:26290527
Hobson, Ruth; James, Lewis
The addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink has been shown to enhance post-exercise rehydration when a volume below that recommended for full fluid balance restoration is provided. We investigated if this held true when volumes sufficient to restore fluid balance were consumed and if differences might be explained by changes in plasma albumin content. Sixteen participants lost ~1.9% of their pre-exercise body mass by cycling in the heat and rehydrated with 150% of body mass lost with either a 60 g · L(-1) carbohydrate drink (CHO) or a 60 g · L(-1) carbohydrate, 20 g · L(-1) whey protein isolate drink (CHO-P). Urine and blood samples were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise, post-rehydration and every hour for 4 h post-rehydration. There was no difference between trials for total urine production (CHO 1057 ± 319 mL; CHO-P 970 ± 334 mL; P = 0.209), drink retention (CHO 51 ± 12%; CHO-P 55 ± 15%; P = 0.195) or net fluid balance (CHO -393 ± 272 mL; CHO-P -307 ± 331 mL; P = 0.284). Plasma albumin content relative to pre-exercise was increased from 2 to 4 h during CHO-P only. These results demonstrate that the addition of whey protein isolate to a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink neither enhances nor inhibits rehydration. Therefore, where post-exercise protein ingestion might benefit recovery, this can be consumed without effecting rehydration.
Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil
In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program.
Muller, Matthew D; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Pollock, Brandon S; Burns, Keith J; Glickman, Ellen L
When exposed to a cold environment, a barehanded person experiences pain, cold sensation, and reduced manual dexterity. Both acute (e.g. exercise) and chronic (e.g. cold acclimatization or habituation) processes might lessen these negative effects. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of cold habituation on physiology, perception, and manual dexterity during rest, exercise, and recovery in 5 °C. Six cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight non habituated men (NON) volunteered to participate in a repeated measures cross-over design. The protocol was conducted in 5 °C and was 90 min of resting cold exposure, 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise (50 % VO2 peak), and 60 min of seated recovery. Core and finger skin temperature, metabolic rate, Purdue Pegboard dexterity performance, hand pain, thermal sensation, and mood were quantified. Exercise-induced finger rewarming (EIFRW) was calculated for each hand. During 90 min of resting exposure to 5 °C, the CWA had a smaller reduction in finger temperature, a lower metabolic rate, less hand pain, and less negative mood. Despite this cold habituation, dexterity performance was not different between groups. In response to cycle ergometry, EIFRW was greater in CWA (~12 versus 7 °C) and occurred at lower core temperatures (37.02 versus 37.31 °C) relative to NON but dexterity was not greater during post-exercise recovery. The current data indicate that cold habituated men (i.e., CWA) do not perform better on the Purdue Pegboard during acute cold exposure. Furthermore, despite augmented EIFRW in CWA, dexterity during post-exercise recovery was similar between groups.
Midgley, Adrian W; Bentley, David J; Luttikholt, Hans; McNaughton, Lars R; Millet, Gregoire P
A widely cited recommendation is that to elicit valid maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) values, incremental exercise tests should last between 8 and 12 minutes. However, this recommendation originated from the findings of a single experimental study conducted by Buchfuhrer et al. in 1983. Although this study is an important contribution to scientific knowledge, it should not be viewed as sufficient evidence to support the recommendation for eliciting valid VO(2 max) values. At least eight studies have reported that durations as short as 5 minutes and as long as 26 minutes elicit VO(2 max) values similar to those derived from tests of 8-12 minutes' duration. Two studies reported that the shorter test protocols elicited significantly higher VO(2 max) values in untrained men and women. In three studies that reported significantly higher VO(2 max) values determined during tests of 8-12 minutes than during more prolonged tests, the prolonged tests were associated with maximal treadmill grades of 20-25%, compared with 6-10% in the shorter tests. Therefore, intolerable treadmill grades, rather than the prolonged test duration, may have limited the ability to elicit VO(2 max). In view of the available evidence, test administrators, reviewers and journal editors should not view 8-12 minutes' duration for incremental exercise tests as obligatory for valid VO(2 max) determination. Current evidence suggests that to elicit valid VO(2 max) values, cycle ergometer tests should last between 7 and 26 minutes and treadmill tests between 5 and 26 minutes. This is dependent on the qualification that short tests are preceded by an adequate warm-up and that treadmill grades do not exceed 15%. Current research is too limited to indicate appropriate test duration ranges for discontinuous test protocols, or protocols incorporating high treadmill grades.
Boulet, John R.; McKinley, Danette W.; Rebbecchi, Thomas; Whelan, Gerald P.
The ECFMG[R] Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA[R]) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The performance-based patient note exercise is specifically used to assess an examinee's ability to summarize, synthesize and interpret the data collected…
Robinson, Gene D.
Describes an exercise for a lecture class that breaks the monotony of note taking and requires active student thought and participation. Helps students grasp the idea of geologic time as it relates to the erosion of a prominent local landmark, Massanutten Mountain. (Author/SAH)
Kurti, Stephanie P; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Chapes, Stephen K; Teeman, Colby S; Cull, Brooke J; Emerson, Sam R; Levitt, Morton H; Smith, Joshua R; Harms, Craig A
Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However, exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify postprandial airway inflammation. The postprandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. This study investigated whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Thirty-nine nonasthmatic subjects (20 active, 13 males/7 females) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and 19 insufficiently active (6 males/13 females) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill for 1 h post-HFM (63% fat, 10 kcal/kg body weight). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline and 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p = 0.03). There was a time × COND interaction (p = 0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 h compared with CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 h post-HFM (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after an HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level.
Favier, F B; Prieur, F; Grataloup, O; Busso, T; Castells, J; Denis, C; Geyssant, A; Benoit, H
Few studies evidenced an enhancement in oxygen uptake (VO2) during submaximal exercise in hyperoxia. This O2 "overconsumption" seems to increase above the lactate threshold. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hyperoxia-induced enhancement in VO2 may be related to a higher metabolism of lactate. Nine healthy males (aged 23.1 years, mean VO2 max= 53.8 ml min-1 kg-1) were randomized to two series of exercise in either normoxia or hyperoxia corresponding to an inspired O2 fraction (FIO2) of 30%. Each series consisted of 6 min cycling at 50% VO2 max (Moderate1), 5 min cycling at 95%VO2 max (Near Max) and then 6 min at 50% VO2 max (Moderate2). In both series Near Max was performed in normoxia. VO2 was significantly greater under hyperoxia than in normoxia during Moderate1 (2192 +/- 189 vs. 2025 +/- 172 ml min-1) and during Moderate2 (2352 +/- 173 vs. 2180+ /- 193 ml min-1). However, the effect of the high FIO2 was not significantly different on VO2Moderate2 (+172+/-137 ml min-1 with [La] approximately 6 mmol l-1) compared to VO2Moderate1 (+166 +/- 133 ml min-1 with [La] approximately 2.4 mmol l-1). [La] at the onset of Moderate2 was not different between normoxia and hyperoxia (10.1 +/- 2.2 vs. 10.9 +/- 1.6 mmol l-1). The results show that VO2 is significantly increased during moderate exercise in hyperoxia. But this O2 overconsumption was not modified by a high [La] induced by a prior heavy exercise. It could be concluded that lactate accumulation is not directly responsible for the increase in O2 overconsumption with intensity during exercise in hyperoxia.
García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J
This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.
Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis
Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. PMID:26380361
Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Ciccolo, Joseph T.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Lehman, Erik B.; Candotti, Carolina; Ballentine, Noel H.
OBJECTIVE To determine the association between meeting strength training (ST) guidelines (≥ 2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. METHODS This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (n=6,763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. RESULTS Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting ST guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet ST recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met ST guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (p<.001). In sum, 21.7% of those with no limitations (33.7% of sample) met ST guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1–4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5–9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (p<.001). CONCLUSION Strength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for ST to improve the public’s health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from ST participate the least. PMID:24878584
Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Jakob L; Bech, Rune D; Nygaard, Tobias; Sahlin, Kent; Frandsen, Ulrik
The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1, n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ∼56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level; nevertheless, the gene expression was not different between groups. Glycogen and most gene expression levels returned to baseline by 24 h in both CHO and H2O. Baseline mRNA expression of NRF-1, COX-IV, GLUT4 and PPAR-α gene targets were higher in trained compared to untrained. Additionally, the proportion of type I muscle fibers positively correlated with baseline mRNA for PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, COX-IV, PPAR-α, and GLUT4 for both trained and untrained. CHO restriction during recovery from glycogen depleting exercise does not improve the mRNA response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, baseline gene expression of key metabolic pathways is higher in trained than untrained. PMID:25677542
Brown, M B; McCarty, N A; Millard-Stafford, M
Sweat Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) varies greatly among individuals and is particularly high in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of this study was to determine whether excess sweat [Na(+)] differentially impacts thirst drive and other physiological responses during progressive dehydration via exercise in the heat. Healthy subjects with high-sweat [Na(+)] (SS) (91.0 ± 17.3 mmol/l), Controls with average sweat [Na(+)] (43.7 ± 9.9 mmol/l), and physically active CF patients with very high sweat [Na(+)] (132.6 ± 6.4 mmol/l) cycled in the heat without drinking until 3% dehydration. Serum osmolality increased less (P < 0.05) in CF (6.1 ± 4.3 mosmol/kgH(2)O) and SS (8.4 ± 3.0 mosmol/kgH(2)O) compared with Control (14.8 ± 3.5 mosmol/kgH(2)O). Relative change in plasma volume was greater (P < 0.05) in CF (-19.3 ± 4.5%) and SS (-18.8 ± 3.1%) compared with Control (-14.3 ± 2.3%). Thirst during exercise and changes in plasma levels of vasopressin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone relative to percent dehydration were not different among groups. However, ad libitum fluid replacement was 40% less, and serum NaCl concentration was lower for CF compared with SS and Control during recovery. Despite large variability in sweat electrolyte loss, thirst appears to be appropriately maintained during exercise in the heat as a linear function of dehydration, with relative contributions from hyperosmotic and hypovolemic stimuli dependent upon the magnitude of salt lost in sweat. CF exhibit lower ad libitum fluid restoration following dehydration, which may reflect physiological cues directed at preservation of salt balance over volume restoration.
McCarty, N. A.; Millard-Stafford, M.
Sweat Na+ concentration ([Na+]) varies greatly among individuals and is particularly high in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of this study was to determine whether excess sweat [Na+] differentially impacts thirst drive and other physiological responses during progressive dehydration via exercise in the heat. Healthy subjects with high-sweat [Na+] (SS) (91.0 ± 17.3 mmol/l), Controls with average sweat [Na+] (43.7 ± 9.9 mmol/l), and physically active CF patients with very high sweat [Na+] (132.6 ± 6.4 mmol/l) cycled in the heat without drinking until 3% dehydration. Serum osmolality increased less (P < 0.05) in CF (6.1 ± 4.3 mosmol/kgH2O) and SS (8.4 ± 3.0 mosmol/kgH2O) compared with Control (14.8 ± 3.5 mosmol/kgH2O). Relative change in plasma volume was greater (P < 0.05) in CF (−19.3 ± 4.5%) and SS (−18.8 ± 3.1%) compared with Control (−14.3 ± 2.3%). Thirst during exercise and changes in plasma levels of vasopressin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone relative to percent dehydration were not different among groups. However, ad libitum fluid replacement was 40% less, and serum NaCl concentration was lower for CF compared with SS and Control during recovery. Despite large variability in sweat electrolyte loss, thirst appears to be appropriately maintained during exercise in the heat as a linear function of dehydration, with relative contributions from hyperosmotic and hypovolemic stimuli dependent upon the magnitude of salt lost in sweat. CF exhibit lower ad libitum fluid restoration following dehydration, which may reflect physiological cues directed at preservation of salt balance over volume restoration. PMID:21813870
Frankenberg, Noni T; Lamb, Graham D; Vissing, Kristian; Murphy, Robyn M
Through its upregulation and/or translocation, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is involved in protection and repair of key proteins after physiological stress. In human skeletal muscle we investigated HSP72 protein after eccentric (ECC1) and concentric (CONC) exercise and repeated eccentric exercise (ECC2; 8 wk later) and whether it translocated from its normal cytosolic location to membranes/myofibrils. HSP72 protein increased ~2-fold 24 h after ECC1, with no apparent change after CONC or ECC2. In resting (nonstressed) human skeletal muscle the total pool of HSP72 protein was present almost exclusively in the cytosolic fraction, and after each exercise protocol the distribution of HSP72 protein remained unaltered. Overall, the amount of HSP72 protein in the cytosol increased 24 h after ECC1, matching the fold increase that was measured in total HSP72 protein. To better ascertain the capabilities and limitations of HSP72, using quantitative Western blotting we determined the HSP72 protein content to be 11.4 μmol/kg wet weight in resting human vastus lateralis muscle, which is comprised of Type I (slow-twitch) and Type II (fast-twitch) fibers. HSP72 protein content was similar in individual Type I or II fiber segments. After physiological stress, HSP72 content can increase and, although the functional consequences of increased amounts of HSP72 protein are poorly understood, it has been shown to bind to and protect protein pumps like SERCA and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Given no translocation of cytosolic HSP72, these findings suggest eccentric contractions, unlike other forms of stress such as heat, do not trigger tight binding of HSP72 to its primary membrane-bound target proteins, in particular SERCA.
Background A central element in the current debate about best practice management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is the efficacy of targeted versus generic (non-targeted) treatment. Many clinicians and researchers believe that tailoring treatment to NSLBP subgroups positively impacts on patient outcomes. Despite this, there are no systematic reviews comparing the efficacy of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise. This systematic review was undertaken in order to determine the efficacy of such targeted treatment in adults with NSLBP. Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents, AMED and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were electronically searched, reference lists were examined and citation tracking performed. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of targeted manual therapy and/or exercise for NSLPB that used trial designs capable of providing robust information on targeted treatment (treatment effect modification) for the outcomes of activity limitation and pain. Included trials needed to be hypothesis-testing studies published in English, Danish or Norwegian. Method quality was assessed using the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Results Four high-quality randomized controlled trials of targeted manual therapy and/or exercise for NSLBP met the inclusion criteria. One study showed statistically significant effects for short-term outcomes using McKenzie directional preference-based exercise. Research into subgroups requires much larger sample sizes than traditional two-group trials and other included studies showed effects that might be clinically important in size but were not statistically significant with their samples sizes. Conclusions The clinical implications of these results are that they provide very cautious evidence supporting the notion that treatment targeted to subgroups of patients with NSLBP may improve patient outcomes. The results of the studies included in this review
Jodeiri Farshbaf, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Megraw, Timothy L; Curtiss, Jennifer; Shirani Faradonbeh, Mahsa; Vaziri, Pooneh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have high prevalence among the elderly. Many strategies have been established to alleviate the symptoms experienced by affected individuals. Recent studies have shown that exercise helps patients with neurological disorders to regain lost physical abilities. PGC1α/FNDC5/BDNF has emerged recently as a critical pathway for neuroprotection. PGC1α is a highly conserved co-activator of transcription factors that preserves and protects neurons against destruction. PGC1α regulates FNDC5 and its processed and secreted peptide Irisin, which has been proposed to play a critical role in energy expenditure and to promote neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. FNDC5 may also increase the expression of the neurotrophic factor BDNF, a neuroprotective agent, in the hippocampus. BDNF is secreted from hippocampus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and hypothalamus neurons and initiates intracellular signaling pathways through TrkB receptors. These pathways have positive feedback on CREB activities and lead to enhancement in PGC1α expression in neurons. Therefore, FNDC5 could behave as a key regulator in neuronal survival and development. This review presents recent findings on the PGC1α/FNDC5/BDNF pathway and its role in neuroprotection, and discusses the controversial promise of irisin as a mediator of the positive benefits of exercise.
Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire E; Seaborne, Robert A
Skeletal muscle mass, quality and adaptability are fundamental in promoting muscle performance, maintaining metabolic function and supporting longevity and healthspan. Skeletal muscle is programmable and can 'remember' early-life metabolic stimuli affecting its function in adult life. In this review, the authors pose the question as to whether skeletal muscle has an 'epi'-memory? Following an initial encounter with an environmental stimulus, we discuss the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms enabling skeletal muscle to adapt, should it re-encounter the stimulus in later life. We also define skeletal muscle memory and outline the scientific literature contributing to this field. Furthermore, we review the evidence for early-life nutrient stress and low birth weight in animals and human cohort studies, respectively, and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms culminating in skeletal muscle dysfunction, metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass across the lifespan. We also summarize and discuss studies that isolate muscle stem cells from different environmental niches in vivo (physically active, diabetic, cachectic, aged) and how they reportedly remember this environment once isolated in vitro. Finally, we will outline the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle memory and review the epigenetic regulation of exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptation, highlighting exercise interventions as suitable models to investigate skeletal muscle memory in humans. We believe that understanding the 'epi'-memory of skeletal muscle will enable the next generation of targeted therapies to promote muscle growth and reduce muscle loss to enable healthy aging.
In this project, three production home builders—K. Hovnanian Homes, David Weekley Homes, and Transformations, Inc.—partnered with Building America team Building Science Corporation to evaluate the certification of five test homes to the new DOE Challenge Home program performance standard (now DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program). The builders identified key benefits and barriers that impacted the certification of the test homes, and the likelihood of whether DOE Challenge Home certification would be pursued in future homes
Eldredge Bermingham of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute-Panama on "Genomics of climate resilience" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Jane Lau of the Joint BioEnergy Institute on "Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Rick Amasino of the University of Wisconsin on "Regulation of Flowering in Brachypodium distachyon" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Christopher Schadt of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Plant-Microbe Interactions" in the context of poplar trees at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 held in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Boulet, John R; McKinley, Danette W; Rebbecchi, Thomas; Whelan, Gerald P
The ECFMG Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The performance-based patient note exercise is specifically used to assess an examinee's ability to summarize, synthesize and interpret the data collected in a patient interview. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether choice of composition method (typing or writing) affected the psychometric properties of the scores. Using data for a 1-year period, the validity and reliability of typed and written notes was contrasted. Although the characteristics of individuals who chose whether or not to type were different, the statistical analyses indicated that, controlling for examinee ability, physician examiner ratings of the written summaries were not influenced by composition method. The results of this study suggest that the psychometric properties of the patient note scores are invariant with respect to composition method.
... further details on the partnership between the DoN, DoE, and USDA to construct or retrofit multiple... Biofuels Production Project. Questions related to the Special Notices or the pending Broad Agency... federal government to present further details on the partnership between the DoN, DoE, and USDA...
Galloway, Stuart D R; Talanian, Jason L; Shoveller, Anna K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L
This study examined 1) the plasma taurine response to acute oral taurine supplementation (T), and 2) the effects of 7 days of T on muscle amino acid content and substrate metabolism during 2 h of cycling at approximately 60% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). In the first part of the study, after an overnight fast, 7 volunteers (28+/-3 yr, 184+/-2 cm, 88.0+/-6.6 kg) ingested 1.66 g oral taurine doses with breakfast (8 AM) and lunch (12 noon), and blood samples were taken throughout the day. In the second part of the study, eight men (22+/-1 yr, 181+/-1 cm, 80.9+/-3.8 kg, 4.21+/-0.16 l/min VO2peak) cycled for 2 h after 7 days of placebo (P) ingestion (6 g glucose/day) and again following 7 days of T (5 g/day). In the first part of the study, plasma taurine was 64+/-4 microM before T and rose rapidly to 778+/-139 microM by 10 AM and remained elevated at noon (359+/-56 microM). Plasma taurine reached 973+/-181 microM at 1 PM and was 161+/-31 microM at 4 PM. In the second part of the study, seven days of T had no effect on muscle taurine content (mmol/kg dry muscle) at rest (P, 44+/-15 vs. T, 42+/-15) or after exercise (P, 43+/-12 vs. T, 43+/-11). There was no difference in muscle glycogen or other muscle metabolites between conditions, but there were notable interaction effects for muscle valine, isoleucine, leucine, cystine, glutamate, alanine, and arginine amino acid content following exercise after T. These data indicate that 1) acute T produces a 13-fold increase in plasma taurine concentration; 2) despite the ability to significantly elevate plasma taurine for extended periods throughout the day, 7 days of T does not alter skeletal muscle taurine content or carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise; and 3) T appears to have some impact on muscle amino acid response to exercise.
Benjamin, M; Toumi, H; Ralphs, J R; Bydder, G; Best, T M; Milz, S
Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure–function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the ‘enthesis organ’ concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological ‘anchorage’ sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle–tendon–bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints. PMID:16637873
Benjamin, M; Toumi, H; Ralphs, J R; Bydder, G; Best, T M; Milz, S
Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure-function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the 'enthesis organ' concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological 'anchorage' sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle-tendon-bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints.
Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar
Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night’s sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660
Nessler, Jeff A; Huynh, Hal; McDougal, Mary
Peripheral fatigue has been known to result in altered force output and muscle recruitment patterns by the CNS. These changes may affect lower extremity movement during gait, and such behavior may present implications for the interpretation of nonlinear analysis of gait in situations where a subject might become fatigued. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single bout of resistance training on lower extremity movement during treadmill walking in healthy subjects. Fifteen recreationally active subjects performed two 10min trials of treadmill walking at their preferred speed while knee and ankle kinematics of their right limb were recorded via optical motion capture. Between walking trials, subjects performed a series of lower extremity resistance exercises designed to induce moderate muscular fatigue. Detrended fluctuation analysis of stride length and stride time revealed that statistical persistence was unaffected by moderate muscle fatigue. Estimates of finite-time maximal Lyapunov exponents for ankle angle, knee angle, and vertical ankle movement over the short (0-1 stride) and long (4-10 strides) term were also unaffected by a single bout of resistance training. These results suggest that control of locomotion in healthy individuals, as measured by the nonlinear dynamics of lower extremity movement used here, is relatively robust to moderate muscle fatigue. Additional work with greater levels of fatigue will be necessary to fully characterize the effects of muscular fatigue on gait.
Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar
Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE.
The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)
Hofmann, T; Elbelt, U; Ahnis, A; Obbarius, A; Rose, M; Klapp, B F; Stengel, A
Irisin has recently been proposed to act as a myokine secreted from skeletal muscle following exercise and to exert several health-beneficial effects, although its role is far from being established. In contrast to the growing body of literature on the biological regulation and function of irisin, there is no evidence on potential associations with mental functions. Since physical activity has been reported to have favorable impact on mental functions, we investigated the association of irisin with depressiveness, perceived stress, and anxiety as well as eating disorder symptoms in obese women. We included 98 female obese inpatients (age: mean ± S.D. 43.9 ± 12.5 years; body mass index 49.2 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)) covering a broad spectrum of psychopathology. Depressiveness (PHQ-9), perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and eating disorder symptoms (EDI-2) were assessed psychometrically. Plasma irisin obtained at the same time was determined by ELISA. Irisin did not correlate with depressiveness (r = -0.03, P = 0.80), anxiety (r = 0.14, P = 0.17) and perceived stress (r = -0.14, P = 0.18) as well as eating disorder symptoms in general (r = -0.09, P = 0.39). No correlation of irisin was observed with any subscales of the PSQ-20 and EDI-2 (after Bonferroni correction). In conclusion, irisin is not associated with depressiveness, anxiety and perceived stress in female obese patients. These results do not support the assumption of irisin being involved in psychoendocrine pathways of the regulation of depression or other mental functions such as anxiety and perceived stress.
Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...
Eaton, L.; Mason, D.
A one-day meeting was held by the authors to evaluate how the strategic lab workshops would tie to this year`s tactical planning exercise. In particular, they wanted to find recent events that would support the tactical goal decisions of the Lab, and they wanted to find events that verify the Lab`s present course. The events which are each briefly discussed are: Galvin Commission recommends consolidating DOE defense labs (1995); Congressional subcommittee staff force budget cuts and consolidation (1995); 28% of DOE/DP budget held back pending completion of a clear 5-yr plan for nukes (1995); DOD and DOE focus on dual use (1995); LANL work includes weapons rebuilds (1995); LANL chosen by DOE to develop and test advanced remediation techniques (1995); AGEX/DARHT Project is stopped by suits from environmental activities (1996); Non-proliferation treaty renewed (1996); US complies with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996); Capability based deterrence policy put into place (1998); Stockpile shrinks to approximately 2000 weapons (2005); DOE weapons labs re-chartered as true national labs (1996); DOE terminates all nuclear weapons testing support (1996); Industrial projects at LANL up 20% from previous year (1997); NIST-ATP Program becomes an interagency process (1997); DOE warns that spent commercial reactor fuels is a major proliferation threat (1998); Non-lethal weapons work helps to reshape LANL image (1998); Global warning theory proven (2005); Overall US spending on science has been flat or decreasing for three years (1998); and Economic role of LANL in northern New Mexico declines (2005).
Funnell, Mark P; Dykes, Nick R; Owen, Elliot J; Mears, Stephen A; Rollo, Ian; James, Lewis J
This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg(-1)∙min(-1); soccer experience 13 ± 4 years) completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min) of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA) before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202). Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122) was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297) or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172) for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001) at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state.
Washio, Takuro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ogoh, Shigehiko
We examined whether a change in posterior cerebral artery flow velocity (PCAv) reflected the posterior cerebral blood flow, in healthy subjects, during both static and dynamic exercise. PCAv and vertebral artery (VA) blood flow, as an index of posterior blood flow, were continuously measured during an exercise trial, using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Static handgrip exercise significantly increased both PCAv and VA blood flow. Increasing intensity of dynamic exercise further increased VA blood flow from moderate exercise, while PCAv decreased to almost resting level. During both static and dynamic exercise, the PCA cerebrovascular conductance (CVC) index significantly decreased from rest (static and high intensity dynamic exercise; -11.5 ± 12.2% and -18.0 ± 16.8%; mean ± SD, respectively), despite no change in the CVC of VA. These results indicate that vasoconstriction occurred at PCA but not VA during exercise-induced hypertension. This discrepancy in vascular response to exercise between PCA and VA may be due to different cerebral arterial characteristics. Therefore, to determine the effect of exercise on posterior cerebral circulation, at least, we need to consider carefully which cerebral artery to measure, regardless of exercise mode.
Funnell, Mark P.; Dykes, Nick R.; Owen, Elliot J.; Mears, Stephen A.; Rollo, Ian; James, Lewis J.
This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg−1∙min−1; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years) completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min) of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA) before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202). Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122) was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297) or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172) for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001) at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state. PMID:28067762
Mead, Holly; Andres, Ellie; Regenstein, Marsha
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has gained significant interest as a delivery system model that can improve health care quality while reducing costs. This study uses focus groups to investigate underserved, chronically ill patients' preferences for care and develops a patient-centered framework of priorities. Seven major priorities were identified: (a) communication and partnership, (b) affordable care, (c) coordinated care, (d) personal responsibility, (e) accessible care, (f) education and support resources, and (g) the essential role of nonphysician providers in supporting their care. Using the framework, we analyzed the PCMH joint principals as developed by U.S. medical societies to identify where the PCMH model could be improved to better meet the needs of these patients. Four of the seven patient priorities were identified as not present in or supported by current PCMH joint principles. The study discusses how the PCMH model can better address the needs of low-income, disadvantaged patients.
Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth
Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vigorous exercise pregnancy were used. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: With proper attention to risk stratification and surveillance, exercise is safe for the mother and fetus. Benefits of exercise in pregnancy include reduction in Cesarean section rates, appropriate maternal and fetal weight gain, and managing gestational diabetes. Exercise as a means of preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression cannot be reliably supported. Overall, the current evidence suffers from a lack of rigorous study design and compliance with physical activity interventions. Conclusion: Research thus far has been unable to consistently demonstrate proposed benefits of exercise in pregnancy, such as preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression. However, moderate- and high-intensity exercise in normal pregnancies is safe for the developing fetus and clearly has several important benefits. Thus, exercise should be encouraged according to the woman’s preconception physical activity level. PMID:26502446
Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.
Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; Rooyackers, Olav; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva
We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids (EAAs). Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied EAAs with leucine, EAAs without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAAs and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.
Wibe, Torunn; Hellesø, Ragnhild; Varsi, Cecilie; Ruland, Cornelia; Ekstedt, Mirjam
Online communication has become a potential means of communication between patients and health care providers, but so far few studies are published about online communication as part of nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore how an online patient-nurse communication (OPNC) service meets the information needs of men with newly diagnosed testicular cancer. We applied a qualitative approach by examining the content of online messages sent by patients to nurses in a specialist cancer unit. In addition, individual interviews were conducted with patients who had used the OPNC service. Four themes became distinct through a synthesis of the material from the interviews and the messages: "a means for managing illness-related concerns at home," "a means for ensuring information flow," "a means for strategic information seeking," and "not yet available when needed most." Individualized information provided by nurses with access to their medical record was shown to be important to these patients. The findings of this study indicate that not only may access to an OPNC service help patients fulfill their otherwise unmet information needs, but also it may prevent delays and discontinuity in care due to informational gaps and lead to improved patient safety.
Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada
Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (χ2 = 7.447, P < 0.059) and serving in the same utensils (χ2 = 10.866, P < 0.012), were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (χ2 = 13.266, P < 0.004), not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (χ2 = 21.133, P < 0.00) and called with filthy nicknames (χ2 = 8.334, P < 0.040), were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (χ2 = 9.459, P < 0.024), were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (χ2 = 9.823, P < 0.044). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness. PMID:26167021
Zhao, G; Liu, H L; Zhang, H; Tong, X J
Several studies reveal that the beneficial effects of exercise interventions are dependent on the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that long-term treadmill exercise begun before the onset of β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology prevents the deficits of cognition and long-term potentiation (LTP) in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice (8 months of age) paralleled by the reduction of soluble Aβ levels and Aβ deposition in the hippocampus. In the present study, treadmill exercise was initiated at a developed Aβ deposition stage in order to further investigate whether or not treadmill exercise in this phase can delay the progression of AD in aged APP/PS1 mice (17 months of age). Our results show that 5-month treadmill exercise ameliorates the impairment of spatial learning and memory with age paralleled by synaptic plasticity enhancement in aged APP/PS1 mice. In addition, exercise-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity was accompanied by a significant reduction of soluble Aβ levels rather than Aβ plaque deposition. Therefore, the investigation demonstrates that long-term treadmill exercise has beneficial effects on cognition and synaptic plasticity even when the brain has developed Aβ deposition, and changes in soluble Aβ levels rather than Aβ plaque deposition may contribute to exercise-induced benefits.
The purpose of this project was to evaluate integrated packages of advanced measures in individual test homes to assess their performance with respect to Building America Program goals, specifically compliance with the DOE Challenge Home Program. BSC consulted on the construction of five test houses by three Cold Climate production builders in three separate US cities. BSC worked with the builders to develop a design package tailored to the cost-related impacts for each builder. Therefore, the resulting design packages do vary from builder to builder. BSC provided support through this research project on the design, construction and performance testing of the five test homes. Overall, the builders have concluded that the energy related upgrades (either through the prescriptive or performance path) represent reasonable upgrades. The builders commented that while not every improvement in specification was cost effective (as in a reasonable payback period), many were improvements that could improve the marketability of the homes and serve to attract more energy efficiency discerning prospective homeowners. However, the builders did express reservations on the associated checklists and added certifications. An increase in administrative time was observed with all builders. The checklists and certifications also inherently increase cost due to: 1. Adding services to the scope of work for various trades, such as HERS Rater, HVAC contractor. 2. Increased material costs related to the checklists, especially the EPA Indoor airPLUS and EPA WaterSense Efficient Hot Water Distribution requirement.
Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.
Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916
McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I
The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance.
Reyna, Sara M.; Tantiwong, Puntip; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas
Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. PMID:23671849
Reyna, Sara M; Tantiwong, Puntip; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Defronzo, Ralph A; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas
Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.
Hüttermann, Stefanie; Memmert, Daniel
A number of studies document that physical exercise influences cognitive performance in a variety of ways. Some of these studies present the relationship between the workload of exercise and the activation level of the central nervous system as an inverted-U relationship. Among the factors that could be responsible for diverging results are the participants' individual fitness level and the athletic status. While athletes and non-athletes do not differ in general cognitive skills, athletes are better able to maintain these during physical exercise especially under high exercise intensities. Hence, we hypothesized that the inverted-U function applies for non-athletes but disappears in team sports experts. We compared athletes' and non-athletes' cognitive performance on a measure of attentional behavior under three different physical exercise intensities. Results showed an increase of non-athletes' attentional breadth right up to a certain level of maximal aerobic power before decreasing, as expected according to an inverted-U curve. In contrast, athletes' attentional breadth continued to increase with higher physical exercise intensities. We concluded that physical exercise influences participants' attentional behavior and that individual fitness acts as a moderator of this relationship.
Pels, Fabian; Kleinert, Jens
In the present study, it was assumed that a decrease in aggressive feelings is stronger with movements that are unlike aggressive actions compared with those that are similar to aggressive actions. Furthermore, cooperative exercise tasks were expected to lead to lower aggressive feelings compared with competitive tasks. After undergoing an induction of aggressive feelings, 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatment groups, each differing in "movement type" (rowing and combat exercise) and "social task condition" (cooperation, competition, and individualization). A significant reduction of aggressive feelings was only found for participants exercising individually in the rowing condition compared with the individual combat exercise condition. There were no sole effects of "movement type" and "social task condition."
Shad, Brandon J; Thompson, Janice L; Breen, Leigh
The precise role of age-related muscle anabolic resistance in the progression of sarcopenia and functional decline in older individuals is unclear. The present aim was to assess whether the muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response to acute exercise (endurance or resistance) and/or amino acid-based nutrition is attenuated in older compared with young individuals. A systematic review was conducted on studies that directly examined the influence of age on the MPS response to exercise and/or amino acid-based nutrition. Each study arm was synthesized and reported as providing sufficient or insufficient "evidence of age-related muscle anabolic resistance". Subsequently, three models were established to compare age-related differences in the MPS response to 1) exercise alone, 2) amino acid-based nutrition alone, or 3) the combination of exercise and amino acid-based nutrition. Following exercise alone, 8 of the 17 study arms provided sufficient evidence of age-related muscle anabolic resistance, while in response to amino acid-based nutrition alone, 8 of the 21 study arms provided sufficient evidence of age-related muscle anabolic resistance. When exercise and amino acid-based nutrition were combined, only 2 of the 10 study arms provided sufficient evidence of age-related muscle anabolic resistance. Our results highlight that optimization of exercise and amino acid-based nutrition is sufficient to induce a comparable MPS response between young and older individuals. However, the exercise volume completed and/or the amino acid/protein dose and leucine content must exceed a certain threshold to stimulate equivalent MPS rates in young and older adults, below which age-related muscle anabolic resistance may become apparent.
Hawley, John A; Hargreaves, Mark; Joyner, Michael J; Zierath, Juleen R
Exercise represents a major challenge to whole-body homeostasis provoking widespread perturbations in numerous cells, tissues, and organs that are caused by or are a response to the increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscles. To meet this challenge, multiple integrated and often redundant responses operate to blunt the homeostatic threats generated by exercise-induced increases in muscle energy and oxygen demand. The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided greater understanding of the multiplicity and complexity of cellular networks involved in exercise responses, and recent discoveries offer perspectives on the mechanisms by which muscle "communicates" with other organs and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on health and performance.
Bø, Kari; Artal, Raul; Barakat, Ruben; Brown, Wendy; Dooley, Michael; Evenson, Kelly R; Haakstad, Lene A H; Larsen, Karin; Kayser, Bengt; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Mottola, Michelle F; Nygaard, Ingrid; van Poppel, Mireille; Stuge, Britt; Davies, Gregory A L
This is Part 2 of 5 in the series of evidence statements from the IOC expert committee on exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes. Part 1 focused on the effects of training during pregnancy and on the management of common pregnancy-related symptoms experienced by athletes. In Part 2, we focus on maternal and fetal perinatal outcomes.
Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn
This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…
Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L
Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation.
Kleindienst, Adrien; Battault, Sylvain; Belaidi, Elise; Tanguy, Stephane; Rosselin, Marie; Boulghobra, Doria; Meyer, Gregory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Walther, Guillaume; Geny, Bernard; Durand, Gregory; Cazorla, Olivier; Reboul, Cyril
Obesity and diabetes are associated with higher cardiac vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The cardioprotective effect of regular exercise has been attributed to β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) stimulation and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. Here, we evaluated the role of the β3AR-eNOS pathway and NOS isoforms in exercise-induced cardioprotection of C57Bl6 mice fed with high fat and sucrose diet (HFS) for 12 weeks and subjected or not to exercise training during the last 4 weeks (HFS-Ex). HFS animals were more sensitive to in vivo and ex vivo IR injuries than control (normal diet) and HFS-Ex mice. Cardioprotection in HFS-Ex mice was not associated with increased myocardial eNOS activation and NO metabolites storage, possibly due to the β3AR-eNOS pathway functional loss in their heart. Indeed, a selective β3AR agonist (BRL37344) increased eNOS activation and had a protective effect against IR in control, but not in HFS hearts. Moreover, iNOS expression, nitro-oxidative stress (protein s-nitrosylation and nitrotyrosination) and ROS production during early reperfusion were increased in HFS, but not in control mice. Exercise normalized iNOS level and reduced protein s-nitrosylation, nitrotyrosination and ROS production in HFS-Ex hearts during early reperfusion. The iNOS inhibitor 1400 W reduced in vivo infarct size in HFS mice to control levels, supporting the potential role of iNOS normalization in the cardioprotective effects of exercise training in HFS-Ex mice. Although the β3AR-eNOS pathway is defective in the heart of HFS mice, regular exercise can protect their heart against IR by reducing iNOS expression and nitro-oxidative stress.
... Exercise Initial Fundraising Plan Web site Demo Next Meetings PORTIONS TO BE OPEN TO THE PUBLIC: Approval... Fundraising Plan Web site Demo Next Meetings CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Paul Zimmerman,...
Kurti, Stephanie P.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Chapes, Stephen K.; Teeman, Colby S.; Cull, Brooke J.; Emerson, Sam R.; Levitt, Morton H.; Smith, Joshua R.; Harms, Craig A.
Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify post-prandial airway inflammation. The post-prandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. Purpose To investigate whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the post-prandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Methods Thirty-nine non-asthmatic subjects (twenty active (ACT), 13M/7F) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and (nineteen insufficiently active (IN), 6M/13F) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine VO2peak. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% VO2peak on a treadmill one-hour post-HFM (63% fat, 10kcal/kgbw). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline, 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. Results The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p=0.03). There was a time*COND interaction (p=0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 hours compared to CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 hours post-HFM (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after a HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level. PMID:28121185
Yeo, Seonae; Logan, Jeongok G
Low-income women are at risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular moderate exercise may contribute to the risk of weight gain. This study was conducted to (1) determine the rate and characteristics of low-income pregnant women who exercised regularly and met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation and (2) describe how these women spent time for other physical activities compared with those who did not exercise regularly. Medicaid-recipient or uninsured pregnant women (n = 816) were asked to complete a physical activity questionnaire at rural and urban county health departments located in North Carolina. Twenty percent of low-income women met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation for moderate exercise (≥10 METs-h/wk [metabolic equivalent task-hours per week]). The women who met the recommendation spent 3 hours 45 minutes per week walking as exercise, whereas those who did not meet the recommendation spent 1 hour per week (P < .0001). Women who exercised regularly spent longer hours at work (4.25 vs. 1.75 hours per day; P = .019) and on household tasks (5.25 vs. 4.0 hours per day; P = .002) than women who did not exercise regularly. Time spent on domestic and occupation activities does not seem to prohibit low-income women from engaging in moderate exercise on a regular basis.
Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R
Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities.
Ribisl, Paul M.
If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…
De Marchi, Thiago; Schmitt, Vinicius Mazzochi; Machado, Guilherme Pinheiro; de Sene, Juliane Souza; de Col, Camila Dallavechia; Tairova, Olga; Salvador, Mirian; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and cryotherapy, in isolated and combined forms, as muscle recovery techniques after muscle fatigue-inducing protocol. Forty volunteers were randomly divided into five groups: a placebo group (PG); a PBMT group (PBMT); a cryotherapy group (CG); a cryotherapy-PBMT group (CPG); and a PBMT-cryotherapy group (PCG). All subjects performed four sessions at 24-h intervals, during which they submitted to isometric assessment (MVC) and blood collection in the pre-exercise period, and 5 and 60 min post-exercise, while the muscle fatigue induction protocol occurred after the pre-exercise collections. In the remaining sessions performed 24, 48, and 72 h later, only blood collections and MVCs were performed. A single treatment with PBMT and/or cryotherapy was applied after only 2 min of completing the post-5-min MVC test at the first session. In the intragroup comparison, it was found that exercise led to a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the production of MVC in all groups. Comparing the results of MVCs between groups, we observed significant increases in the MVC capacity of the PBMT, CPG, and PCG volunteers in comparison with both PG and CG (p < 0.05). We observed a significant decrease in the concentrations of the biochemical markers of oxidative damage (TBARS and PC) in all groups and muscle damage (creatine kinase-CK) in the PBMT, PCG, and CPG compared with the PG (p < 0.01). The clinical impact of these findings is clear because they demonstrate that the use of phototherapy is more effective than the use of cryotherapy for muscle recovery, additionally cryotherapy decreases PBMT efficacy.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative Training and Exercise... Nontank Vessel Response Plans § 155.5061 Alternative Training and Exercise Program. (a) Owners or... exercise requirements of §§ 155.5055 and 155.5060, may meet an Alternative Training and Exercise...
Applegate, Catherine; Mueller, Mackenzie; Zuniga, Krystle E
Diet composition can affect systemic pH and acid-base regulation, which may in turn influence exercise performance. An acidic environment in the muscle impairs performance and contributes to fatigue; therefore, current trends in sports nutrition place importance on maximizing the alkalinity of the body with ergogenic aids and dietary strategies. This review examines the evidence on the effects of dietary manipulations on acid load and exercise performance. Ten studies that investigated the effect of high versus low dietary acid loads on athletic performance generally identified that low dietary acid loads increased plasma pH, but did not consistently improve exercise performance at maximal or submaximal exercise intensities. In addition, the few studies conducted have several limitations including lack of female subjects and use of exercise tests exclusive to cycling or treadmill running. Although the research does not strongly support a performance benefit from low dietary acid loads, a more alkaline dietary pattern may be beneficial for overall health, as dietary induced acidosis has been associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and bone disease. The review includes dietary recommendations for athletes to reduce dietary acid load while still meeting sports nutrition recommendations.
Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes
Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6590.
Sam Hazen of the University of Massachusetts on "Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Adam Guss of Oak Ridge National Lab on "Metabolic engineering of Clostridium thermocellum for biofuel production" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Eoin Brodie of Berkeley Lab on "Succession of phylogeny and function during plant litter decomposition" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
David Weston of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "The challenges and opportunities for extending plant genomics to climate" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Eric Allen of Scripps and UC San Diego on "Assembly-driven metagenomics of a hypersaline microbial ecosystem" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Peter Larsen of Argonne National Lab on "Delineating molecular interaction mechanisms in an in vitro microbial-plant community" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Sean Gordon of the USDA on "Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Sarah Lebeis of University of North Carolina on "Modulation of root microbiome community assembly by the plant immune response" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on "New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Tom Gilbert of the Natural History Museum of Denmark on "Biodiversity monitoring using NGS approaches on unusual substrates" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...
... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...
... To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. The part of your body including your ... bone. Kegel exercises are designed to make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These are the muscles that hold ...
... also can help prevent exercise headaches. References Cutrer FM, et al. Cough, exercise, and sex headaches. Neurology ... aspx?bookid=690. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Cutrer FM. Exertional headaches. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...
Weinheimer, Eileen M; Conley, Travis B; Kobza, Vanessa M; Sands, Laura P; Lim, Eunjung; Janle, Elsa M; Campbell, Wayne W
Little is known about the effects of different quantities of whey protein on exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults. Therefore, we examined the effects of consuming 0.8-MJ supplements with 0 (n = 126), 10 (n = 112), 20 (n = 44), or 30 (n = 45) g whey protein twice daily in conjunction with resistance (2 d/wk) and aerobic (1 d/wk) exercise training in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based 9-mo study in men (n = 117) and women (n = 210); (age: 48 ± 7.9 y; BMI: 30.0 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). Whey protein supplementation did not influence any of the following outcomes, some of which were affected by training. Among all participants, strength increased by 15 ± 12% (P < 0.001) and maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO(2)max) increased by 9 ± 15% (P < 0.001). Body weight was unchanged (0.1 ± 3.7 kg, P = 0.80), lean body mass increased by 1.9 ± 2.8% (0.95 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.001), and fat mass decreased by 2.6 ± 9.4% (-0.86 ± 3.1 kg, P = 0.001). Oral-glucose-tolerance testing showed that plasma glucose AUC was unchanged (-18.0 ± 170 mmol/L· 3 h, P = 0.16), insulin AUC decreased by 2.6 ± 32% (-7.5 ± 29 nmol/L· 3 h, P = 0.01), and HOMA-IR (0.2 ± 2.0, P = 0.81) and the insulin sensitivity index (0.3 ± 3.0, P = 0.63) were unchanged. Plasma concentrations of TG; total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; C-reactive protein; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; blood pressure; and waist circumference were unchanged. Whey protein supplementation did not affect exercise training-induced responses in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults who maintained body weight.
... minutes at a time throughout your day. Remember: exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none.How ... The cost might give you an incentive to exercise on a regular basis.Benefits of regular exerciseReduces your risk of heart disease, ...
Schmitt, Natalie Crohn
In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…
SA Edgerton; RA McCord; DP Kaiser
On October 30, 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sponsored an all-day workshop to assess the status of the ACRF Archive. Focus areas included usability of current functions, plans for revised functions, proposals for new functions, and an overarching discussion of new ideas. Although 13 scientists familiar with ACRF and the ARM Program were invited to the workshop, only 10 scientists were available to attend the workshop. ACRF consists of the infrastructure that was developed to support the ARM Program and includes the ACRF Archive (previously called the ARM Archive). The scientists who participated in the meeting ranged from those who used the Archive frequently to those who seldom or never had accessed the Archive. The group was spread across disciplines, i.e. modelers, conservationists, and others from universities and government laboratories. A few of the participants were funded by the ARM Program, but most were not funded currently by ARM. During the past year, several improvements were made to the ACRF Archive to link it with the ARM/ACRF web pages, add a shopping cart feature, and expand on search parameters. Additional modifications have been proposed and prototypes of these proposals were made available for the participants. The participants were given several exercises to do before the meeting, and their feedback was requested to help identify potential problems and shortcomings with the existing structure and to recommend improvements.
... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...
Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.
To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (−24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the
NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N
The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961
Naeije, Robert; Chesler, N
The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow and low-pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg/min/L in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg/min/L over four to six decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20 to 25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40 to 50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease.
Berk, Ronald A.
Meetings have a bad reputation with faculty. Rarely does one hear a positive word uttered about an upcoming or past meeting. That reputation has metastasized throughout higher education. The primary reason is because meetings can be major time wasters, accomplishing very little, often deteriorating into just another social event, or they may be…
... CAAHEP). High school students interested in postsecondary exercise physiology programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is ...
Heinonen, O J
Carnitine plays a central role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. It transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. Carnitine also modulates the metabolism of coenzyme-A (CoA). It is not surprising that the use of supplementary carnitine to improve physical performance has become widespread in recent years, although there is no unequivocal support to this practice. However, critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important because the implications of reduced or increased carnitine concentrations in vivo are not thoroughly understood. Several rationales have been forwarded in support of the potential ergogenic effects of oral carnitine supplementation. However, the following arguments derived from established scientific observations may be forwarded: (i) carnitine supplementation neither enhances FA oxidation in vivo or spares glycogen or postpones fatigue during exercise. Carnitine supplementation does not unequivocally improve performance of athletes; (ii) carnitine supplementation does not reduce body fat or help to lose weight; (iii) in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is fully active already after a few seconds of intense exercise. Carnitine supplementation induces no further activation of PDC in vivo; (iv) despite an increased acetyl-CoA/free CoA ratio, PDC is not depressed during exercise in vivo and therefore supplementary carnitine has no effect on lactate accumulation; (v) carnitine supplementation per se does not affect the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); (vi) during exercise there is a redistribution of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in the muscle but there is no loss of total carnitine. Athletes are not at risk for carnitine deficiency and do not have an increased need for carnitine. Although there are some theoretical points favouring potential ergogenic effects of carnitine supplementation, there is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine
Williams, M A
The prescription of exercise, either as a part of a formal exercise training program or as a means to increase physical activity in general, has been and will remain a primary component of cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programming. Wherever possible, this prescription should be based on a recent exercise test that documents the cardiac patient's functional capacity, cardiac and hemodynamic responses to exercise, and signs and symptoms associated with exertion. Clearly the prescription of exercise and suggestions for increasing levels of physical activity must be based on accepted principles of exercise physiology and expected training responses. Nonetheless, the art of exercise prescription should guarantee flexible methodologies to meet the specific needs of each individual patient. Although the patient must accept ultimate responsibility for participation, the clinician bears the burden of continually attempting to reinforce the importance of increasing caloric expenditure and motivating patients to initiate and commit to long-term participation in a safe and appropriately designed program of exercise and increasing physical activity.
... OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease...: (1) Issue a decision; or (2) Order the Superintendent to issue a decision within the time set out in... Superintendent does not issue a decision within the time set by the Regional Director under paragraph (b)(2)...
Paluska, Scott A
Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes.
Simão, Roberto; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Figueiredo, Tiago; Dias, Ingrid; Willardson, Jeffrey M
Resistance training (RT) is now an integral component of a well rounded exercise programme. For a correct training prescription, it is of the utmost importance to understand the interaction among training variables, such as the load, volume, rest interval between sets and exercises, frequency of sessions, exercise modality, repetition velocity and, finally, exercise order. Sports medicine research has indicated that exercise order is an important variable that affects both acute responses and chronic adaptations to RT programmes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to analyse and discuss exercise order with relevance to acute responses (e.g. repetition performance) and also the expression of chronic adaptable characteristics (e.g. maximal strength and hypertrophy). To accomplish this purpose, the Scielo, Science Citation Index, National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus™ and CINAHL® databases were accessed to locate previously conducted original scientific investigations. The studies reviewed examined both acute responses and chronic adaptations with exercise order as the experimental variable. Generally, with relevance to acute responses, a key finding was that exercise order affects repetition performance over multiple sets, indicating that the total repetitions, and thus the volume, is greater when an exercise is placed at the beginning of an RT session, regardless of the relative amount of muscle mass involved. The pre-exhaustion method might not be an effective technique to increase the extent of neuromuscular recruitment for larger muscle groups (e.g. pectoralis major for the bench press) when preceded by a single-joint movement (e.g. pec-deck fly). With relevance to localized muscular endurance performance, oxygen consumption and ratings of perceived exertion, the limited amount of research conducted thus far indicates that exercise order does not appear to impact the acute expression of these variables. In terms of chronic
... of a Good Thing? We all know the benefits of exercise, and it seems that everywhere we turn, we ... stress. So how can something with so many benefits have the potential to cause ... out because it's fun or it makes them feel good, but exercise can become a compulsive habit when it is ...
... eating . Compulsive exercise behavior can grow out of student athletes' demanding practice schedules and their quest to ... negative image of themselves and feel worthless. Their social and academic lives may suffer as they ... and abandons responsibilities to make more time for exercise seems to ...
Dudley, G. A.
This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.
Long, Littleton, Ed.
This collection focuses on writing exercises, both expository and creative, as well as areas of adjacent concern. The book is divided into nine major sections: prewriting; diction; theme, thesis, and paragraph; style; ideas for whole papers and special topics; description; research; the short story; and rewriting. The exercises deal with such…
This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.
... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...
Hawks, Steven R.
In terms of physical impact, recent studies suggest that many benefits previously attributed to exercise as a factor in weight loss do not exist. Researchers do seem to agree that exercise does have a positive effect on body composition during weight loss. (IAH)
... for older adults and decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and many other illnesses and disabilities. In many ways, it is the best prescription we have for healthy, successful aging. Does exercise make a difference? Yes, staying active is important ...
McGraw, R. L.; And Others
Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)
Jones, Richard M.
There has been considerable discussion in Washington science policy circles over the past few weeks about the newly established National Science Board Commission on the Future of the National Science Foundation. The commission, chaired by William Danforth, chancellor of Washington University, and Robert Galvin, former chief executive officer of Motorola, held its first meeting on September 17. Unfortunately, this meeting offered few indications of what changes might result from this exercise.
... Legal Services Committee (``Promotion & Provision Committee''). 2. Governance & Performance Review... solely of staff briefings does not fall within the Sunshine Act's definition of the term ``meeting'' and... other business. 7. Consider and act on adjournment of meeting. Governance and Performance...
Anderson, R. S.
While we subject our students to math and physics and chemistry courses to complement their geological studies, we rarely allow them to experience the joys of modeling earth systems. Given the degree to which modern earth sciences relies upon models of complex systems, it seems appropriate to allow our students to develop some experience with this activity. In addition, as modeling is an unforgivingly logical exercise, it demands the student absorb the fundamental concepts, the assumptions behind them, and the means of constraining the relevant parameters in a problem. These concepts commonly include conservation of some quantity, the fluxes of that quantity, and careful prescription of the boundary and initial conditions. I have used MATLAB as an entrance to this world, and will illustrate the products of the exercises we have worked. This software is platform-independent, and has a wonderful graphics package (including movies) that is embedded intimately as one-to-several line calls. The exercises should follow a progression from simple to complex, and serve to introduce the many discrete tasks within modeling. I advocate full immersion in the first exercise. Example exercises include: growth of spatter cones (summation of parabolic trajectories of lava bombs); response of thermal profiles in the earth to varying surface temperature (thermal conduction); hillslope or fault scarp evolution (topographic diffusion); growth and subsidence of volcanoes (flexure); and coral growth on a subsiding platform in the face of sealevel fluctuations (coral biology and light extinction). These exercises can be motivated by reading a piece in the classical or modern literature that either describes a model, or better yet serves to describe the system well, but does not present a model. I have found that the generation of movies from even the early simulation exercises serves as an additional motivator for students. We discuss the models in each class meeting, and learn that there
van Loon, Luc J C
Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strategy to enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session by extending the window of opportunity during which the muscle protein synthetic response is facilitated. Protein ingestion during exercise has also been suggested to improve performance capacity acutely. However, recent studies investigating the impact of protein ingestion during exercise on time trial performance, as opposed to time to exhaustion, do not report ergogenic benefits of protein ingestion. Therefore, it is concluded that protein ingestion with carbohydrate during exercise does not further improve exercise performance when compared with the ingestion of ample amounts of carbohydrate only.
... public meeting, the date of the deadline for requesting to speak at the public meeting, and the date of.... DOE must receive requests to speak at the meeting before 4 p.m., Wednesday, March 10, 2010. DOE...
Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting
Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting
Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki
Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals.
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... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise A A ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who ...
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... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...
... Training Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Ask a Question Find a Doctor ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...
... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...
Does continuous endurance exercise in water elicit a higher release of ANP and BNP and a higher plasma concentration of FFAs in pre-obese and obese men than high intensity intermittent endurance exercise? – Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) and Brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) stimulate fat cell plasma membrane receptors. They are potent lipolytic agents on isolated fat cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The physiological effects of continuous endurance exercise on ANP release and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations have been well described. The enhancement of fat metabolism using high intensity intermittent exercise protocols has been assessed in more recent investigations. The combined effects of endurance exercise and water immersion on ANP and FFA plasma concentration and the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) might be further enhanced by choosing the most effective exercise protocol. Exercise modalities may play a significant role in the future prevention and treatment of obesity. Methods/design The two testing trials will be performed according to a randomized and cross-over design. Twenty healthy sedentary pre-obese and obese class-1 men will be scrutinized with regard to their metabolic responses to continuous exercise in water and to high intensity endurance exercise in water. Both trials will be matched for energy expenditure. After preliminary testing, the tests will be conducted as repeated measurements. The two different exercise protocols will be compared. The aims of the study are to investigate (1) whether continuous endurance exercise or high intensity intermittent endurance exercise in water elicits both a higher release of ANP and BNP and a higher plasma concentration of glycerol and (2) to determine whether continuous endurance exercise in water or a high intensity intermittent endurance exercise in water would lead to a more pronounced short term (two hours) EPOC effect. Discussion If our hypothesis would be confirmed, the most effective exercise protocol based on the combined effects of high intensity endurance exercise and water immersion on ANP and BNP release and glycerol plasma concentrations
Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)
An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.
Kelley, M A; Owens, G R; Fishman, A P
The effect of exercise on the ventilatory response to inhaled CO2 is uncertain because previous studies using different techniques have come to different conclusions. We undertook to resolve this problem by using multiple techniques and confining our study to a uniform level of mild exercise (VO2 = 10 ml/kg min). One group of subjects exercised on a treadmill and was tested with both rebreathing and steady-state CO2 methods. A second group exercised on a bicycle while using the rebreathing method. We found that the ventilatory response to CO2 was unchanged by mild exercise, regardless of the method used for CO2 inhalation or the technique used for exercise. These results indicate that under controlled conditions mild exercise does not produce any change in ventilatory sensitivity to CO2.
This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled 'Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise'. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise.
Jaoude, Jonathan; Koh, Yunsuk
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs’ functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27471391
Jaoude, Jonathan; Koh, Yunsuk
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs' functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Esposito, Eileen M; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
Recommendations by experts have been in place for > 10 years encouraging every adult to participate in ≥ 30 min of daily moderate-intensity physical activity. Despite extensive research supporting the value of physical activity, only about one-third of all adults meet physical activity recommendations. Using Pender's Health Promotion Theory as the framework, this study was focused on the relationships between nurses' beliefs regarding the benefits of exercise, their exercise behaviour and their recommendation of exercise for health promotion or as part of a treatment plan. Results showed positive correlations between exercise benefits, physical activity and recommendation of exercise to patients. Nurses who believe in health promotion and embrace healthy behaviours are more likely to be positive role models and teach healthy behaviours to their patients. Recommendations for practice and future research are included.
US/Japan collaborative program on fusion reactor materials: Summary of the tenth DOE/JAERI Annex I technical progress meeting on neutron irradiation effects in first wall and blanket structural materials
This meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on March 17, 1989, to review the technical progress on the collaborative DOE/JAERI program on fusion reactor materials. The purpose of the program is to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical behavior and dimensional stability of US and Japanese austenitic stainless steels. Phase I of the program focused on the effects of high concentrations of helium on the tensile, fatigue, and swelling properties of both US and Japanese alloys. In Phase II of the program, spectral and isotropic tailoring techniques are fully utilized to reproduce the helium:dpa ratio typical of the fusion environment. The Phase II program hinges on a restart of the High Flux Isotope Reactor by mid-1989. Eight target position capsules and two RB* position capsules have been assembled. The target capsule experiments will address issues relating to the performance of austenitic steels at high damage levels including an assessment of the performance of a variety of weld materials. The RB* capsules will provide a unique and important set of data on the behavior of austenitic steels irradiated under conditions which reproduce the damage rate, dose, temperature, and helium generation rate expected in the first wall and blanket structure of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.
Jim Bristow, Deputy Director of Programs at the DOE Joint Genome Institute, discusses the impact of advances in sequencing technologies on large genome centers on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM
A Summary of Orientation Meetings and Planning Exercises Conducted Within the OCE Coalition, Appendix J. Vol. II, A Plan for Managing the Development, Implementation and Operation of a Model Elementary Teacher Education Program.
Oregon Coll. of Education, Monmouth.
This report summarizes the orientation meetings and the planning review sessions held with members of all the Oregon College of Education coalition constituencies. Three separate orientation meetings were held, one with staff and administrators from the public schools, one with staff and administrators from the college as a whole, and one with…
Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K
Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking.
... time or permanent part-time) for each advisory committee and its subcommittees does the following: (1... at a reasonable time and in a place reasonably accessible to the public; (c) The meeting room size is... matters to be considered at the meeting and indicates whether any part of the meeting will be closed...
... Doc No: 2011-15282] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 28, 2011, at the headquarters of the IEA in Paris, France,...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 28 and 29,...
Metzger, C.; Hunt, S.
The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.
Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.
There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.
Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa
Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…
The Cutting Edge in Physical Education and Exercise Science Research. American Academy of Physical Education Papers No. 20. Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (58th, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 7-8, 1986).
American Academy of Physical Education, Washington, DC.
Ten papers that address the theoretical advances being made in various areas of specialization in physical education and exercise science are included in this volume of American Academy of Physical Education Papers. General trends are reviewed in selected areas, including the social sciences, the biological sciences, motor learning, curriculum and…
Swimming is an exercise modality that is highly suitable for health promotion and disease prevention, and is one of the most popular, most practiced and most recommended forms of physical activity. Yet little information is available concerning the influence of regular swimming on coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise recommendations involving swimming have been generated primarily from unjustified extrapolation of the data from other modes of exercise (e.g. walking and cycling). Available evidence indicates that, similarly to other physically active adults, the CHD risk profile is more favourable in swimmers than in sedentary counterparts and that swim training results in the lowering of some CHD risk factors. However, the beneficial impact of regular swimming may be smaller than land-based exercises. In some cases, regular swimming does not appear to confer beneficial effects on some CHD risk factors. Moreover, swimming has not been associated with the reduced risks of developing CHD. Thus, extrapolation of research findings using land-based exercises into swimming cannot be justified, based on the available research. Clearly, more research is required to properly assess the effects of regular swimming on CHD risks in humans.
James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby
This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...
... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...
Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...
Gavin, Timothy P
Exercise increases heat production. During exercise in both warm and cold conditions, the major dilemma is the dissipation of the heat produced from muscular activity. The use of clothing generally represents a layer of insulation and as such imposes a barrier to heat transfer and evaporation from the skin surface. In warm environments, additional clothing increases thermal insulation causing more rapid increases in temperature during exercise and imposes a barrier to sweat evaporation. However, clothing can serve a protective function by reducing radiant heat gain and thermal stress. Recent research suggests that neither the inclusion of modest amounts of clothing nor the clothing fabric alter thermoregulation or thermal comfort during exercise in warm conditions. In the cold, most reports do not support an effect of clothing fabric on thermoregulation; however, there are reports demonstrating an effect. Clothing construction does alter thermoregulation during and following exercise in the cold, where fishnet construction offers greater heat dissipation. Future research should include conditions that more closely mimic outdoor conditions, where high work rates, large airflow and high relative humidity can significantly impact thermoregulation.
Gómez-Gómez, Eduardo; Ríos-Martínez, Martín Efrén; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena Margarita; Del-Toro-Equíhua, Mario; Ramírez-Flores, Mario; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Pérez-Huitimea, Ana Lilia; Baltazar-Rodríguez, Luz Margarita; Velasco-Pineda, Gilberto; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B) and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3) are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate) and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient). These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise. PMID:24905907
Gómez-Gómez, Eduardo; Ríos-Martínez, Martín Efrén; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena Margarita; Del-Toro-Equíhua, Mario; Ramírez-Flores, Mario; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Pérez-Huitimea, Ana Lilia; Baltazar-Rodríguez, Luz Margarita; Velasco-Pineda, Gilberto; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B) and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3) are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate) and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient). These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise.
Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul
Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.
Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney
Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…
O'Dea, N A; de Chazal, P; Saltman, D C; Kidd, M R
This paper uses a series of exercises and practical examples to assist individuals and groups of doctors in training to gain skills in a critical area of management: conducting and participating in effective meetings. Through this paper, readers will be shown how to recognise and manage situations as they occur in meetings to work towards appropriate outcomes. By understanding the elements of conducting a meeting from preparation through to follow up, doctors will be able to conduct and participate more effectively in meetings that arise in their workplaces. PMID:16822922
Snider, Brent; Southin, Nancy
Campus Club Cupcakes is an in-class "introduction to operations management" experiential learning exercise which can be used within minutes of starting the course. After reading the one-page mini case, students are encouraged to meet each other and collaborate to determine if making and selling cupcakes to fellow business students would…
Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... To build up bone density, the exercise must make your muscles pull on your bones. These are called weight-bearing exercises. Some of them are: ...
The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.
Harris, Bernard A. (Editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (Editor)
The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.
Longhurst, J. C.; Kelly, A. R.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.
Three groups of athletes including long-distance runners, competitive and amateur weight lifters, and age- and sex-matched control subjects have been studied by hemodynamic and echocardiographic methods in order to determine the effect of the training programs on the cardiovascular response to static exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and double product data at rest and at fatigue suggest that competitive endurance (dynamic exercise) training alters the cardiovascular response to static exercise. In contrast to endurance exercise, weight lifting (static exercise) training does not alter the cardiovascular response to static exercise: weight lifters responded to static exercise in a manner very similar to that of the control subjects.
Reusch, Jane E B; Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G
Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study.
Li, Jia; O'Connor, Lauren E; Zhou, Jing; Campbell, Wayne W
Ingestive and exercise behaviors are important determinants of whole body energy balance and weight control. An acute bout of exercise generates a transient energy deficit, which is only partially compensated for by food intake at the next eating occasion or within the next day (loose dietary coupling). Such an energy deficit, when repeated chronically, leads to moderate weight loss and improved body composition. For this narrative review, we assessed the effects of exercise patterns on energy intake, energy balance, and weight control in adults primarily using results from randomized acute exercise and chronic training studies. The patterns assessed were exercise mode (e.g. resistance, aerobic exercise), intensity, duration, time of day, and frequency. The body of evidence indicates that exercise training frequency and quantity are influential for weight loss. Aerobic training is superior to resistance training for weight loss, although resistance training helps preserve lean body mass better. Weight loss does not differ among different intensities when energy expenditure is matched by adjusting duration. Differing patterns of physical activity exhibited by normal weight, overweight, and obese people during weekdays and weekend days are consistent with their weight status; leaner people are more physically active. Collectively, these findings support acute and chronic exercise patterns as important modifiable behaviors to improve energy balance and weight control in adults while having minor effects on absolute energy intake.
This review seeks to synthesize data on the timing, intensity, and duration of exercise found scattered over some 39 studies spanning 3+ decades into optimal exercise conditions for controlling postmeal glucose surges. The results show that a light aerobic exercise for 60 min or moderate activity for 20–30 min starting 30 min after meal can efficiently blunt the glucose surge, with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Exercising at other times could lead to glucose elevation caused by counterregulation. Adding a short bout of resistance exercise of moderate intensity (60%–80% VO2max) to the aerobic activity, 2 or 3 times a week as recommended by the current guidelines, may also help with the lowering of glucose surges. On the other hand, high-intensity exercise (>80% VO2max) causes wide glucose fluctuations and its feasibility and efficacy for glucose regulation remain to be ascertained. Promoting the kind of physical activity that best counters postmeal hyperglycemia is crucial because hundreds of millions of diabetes patients living in developing countries and in the pockets of poverty in the West must do without medicines, supplies, and special diets. Physical activity is the one tool they may readily utilize to tame postmeal glucose surges. Exercising in this manner does not violate any of the current guidelines, which encourage exercise any time. PMID:27073714
This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.
Hearon, Bridget A; Beard, Courtney; Kopeski, Lynne M; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W; Björgvinsson, Thröstur
Despite evidence for both physical and mental health benefits achieved through regular exercise, most Americans fail to meet minimum recommendations. Altering the behavioral contingency from a focus on long-term health benefits to immediate mood benefits represents a novel method for exercise promotion. The current study examined a single-session exercise-for-mood intervention against two time-matched comparison conditions in 152 patients with serious mental illness attending a partial hospital program, a population marked by significant health disparities. This intervention was compared to a standard exercise-for-fitness intervention and a time-matched no-exercise control. Among patients with high levels of exercise prior to the partial hospital program, the exercise-for-mood intervention yielded significant increases in exercise. Implications for exercise promotion interventions among psychiatrically ill patients are discussed.
... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ... want to join a gym but want the benefits of having someone to exercise with, ask a friend to be your workout ...
Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.
Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N; Fadel, Paul J
Autonomic nervous system adjustments to the heart and blood vessels are necessary for mediating the cardiovascular responses required to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle during exercise. These demands are met by precise exercise intensity-dependent alterations in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. The purpose of this review is to examine the contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in mediating specific cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses to exercise. These changes in autonomic outflow are regulated by several neural mechanisms working in concert, including central command (a feed forward mechanism originating from higher brain centers), the exercise pressor reflex (a feed-back mechanism originating from skeletal muscle), the arterial baroreflex (a negative feed-back mechanism originating from the carotid sinus and aortic arch), and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors (a feed-back mechanism from stretch receptors located in the heart and lungs). In addition, arterial chemoreceptors and phrenic afferents from respiratory muscles (i.e., respiratory metaboreflex) are also capable of modulating the autonomic responses to exercise. Our goal is to provide a detailed review of the parasympathetic and sympathetic changes that occur with exercise distinguishing between the onset of exercise and steady-state conditions, when appropriate. In addition, studies demonstrating the contributions of each of the aforementioned neural mechanisms to the autonomic changes and ensuing cardiac and/or vascular responses will be covered.
Moyer, Carmen; Reoyo, Olga Roldan; May, Linda
Research has continued to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy is safe. Growing evidence supports that exercise during pregnancy is beneficial for mother and fetus during gestation, with benefits persisting for the child into adulthood. Regardless of income or socioeconomic status, exercise during pregnancy is associated with increased incidence of full-term delivery. Additionally, normalization of birth measures, such as birth weight, occurs when women perform regular exercise throughout gestation. Measures of growth and development further indicate that exercise during pregnancy does not harm and may stimulate healthy growth throughout childhood. Measures of cognition and intelligence demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy causes no harm and may be beneficial. Overall, the benefits of exercise during pregnancy decrease the risk of chronic disease for both mother and child. PMID:27777506
Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Ganio, Matthew S
Dietitians, exercise physiologists, athletic trainers, and other sports medicine personnel commonly recommend that exercising adults and athletes refrain from caffeine use because it is a diuretic, and it may exacerbate dehydration and hyperthermia. This review, contrary to popular beliefs, proposes that caffeine consumption does not result in the following: (a) water-electrolyte imbalances or hyperthermia and (b) reduced exercise-heat tolerance.
Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.
For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.
Hodges, Alastair N H; Mayo, John R; McKenzie, Donald C
Pulmonary physiologists have documented many transient changes in the lung and the respiratory system during and following exercise, including the incomplete oxygen saturation of arterial blood in some subjects, possibly due to transient pulmonary oedema. The large increase in pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise, leading to either increased pulmonary capillary leakage and/or pulmonary capillary stress failure, is likely to be responsible for any increase in extravascular lung water during exercise. The purpose of this article is to summarise the studies to date that have specifically examined lung water following exercise. A limited number of studies have been completed with the specific purpose of identifying pulmonary oedema following exercise or a similar intervention. Of these, approximately 50% have observed a positive change and the remaining have provided results that are either inconclusive or show no change in extravascular lung water. While it is difficult to draw a firm conclusion from these studies, we believe that pulmonary oedema does occur in some humans following exercise. As such, this is a phenomenon of significance to pulmonary and exercise physiologists. This possibility warrants further study in the area with more precise measurement tools than has previously been undertaken.
McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.
Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.
... get? Does it come with a warranty? q Price. What is included in the selling price? Assembly, shipping/delivery, adjustments? You may want to ... do the work-out regularly? q Is the price affordable? 38 Sticking with Your Exercise Program Getting ...
Eichner, Edward R.
Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)
Gordon, D; Marshall, K; Connell, A; Barnes, R J
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a reduced whole body blood volume on the kinetic response of VO(2) during moderate and heavy intensity exercise. Six males and four females (age, 21+/-2 yrs; height, 175.2+/-5.1 cm; weight, 66.4+/-2.8 kg; VO(2)max, 53.0+/-4.1 ml x kg (-1) x min(-1)), completed a square-wave cycling ramp test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO(2max). Kinetics trials were completed 24 h pre and post donation of 450 cm (3) of blood. The kinetics trials were moderate intensity (80%VT) and heavy intensity (Delta50% VT - VO(2max)). Breath-by-breath gas exchange, heart rate, blood pressure, haemoglobin O(2) saturation, and blood [lactate] were measured throughout the trials. Post-donation haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte count were all significantly reduced (p
Harris, Shericka T; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Moran, Robert; Gallagher, Alexa
We examined the association between exercise during pregnancy and meeting gestational weight gain recommendations. Data came from the 2009 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 856). Women reported their participation in exercise/sports activities before and during pregnancy, including the number of months and types of exercise. We developed an exercise index (EI), the product of the number of months spent in exercise and average metabolic equivalents for specific exercise. The 2009 Institute of Medicine's guideline was used to categorize gestational weight gain into three classes: inadequate, adequate, and excessive. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Over 46 % of women exceeded the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. Nearly one third (31.9 %) of women reported exercising ≥3 times a week at any time during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not report this level of exercise during pregnancy, exercising women were more likely to meet gestational weight gain recommendations (32.7 vs. 18.7 %) and had a lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.43, 95 % confidence interval 0.24-0.78]. Women with an EI above the median value of those women who exercised or women who exercised ≥3 times a week for 6-9 months during pregnancy had lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain (AOR for EI 0.20, 0.08-0.49; AOR for months 0.26, 0.12-0.56, respectively). Our findings support the need to promote or increase exercise during pregnancy to reduce the high proportion of women who are gaining excessive weight.
Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.
In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.
Alp, Ayse; Buyukbas, Sadik; Alp, Harun; Gergerlioglu, H. Serdar; Oz, Mehmet; Basarali, M. Kemal; Kiyici, Aysel
In order to understand whether exercise and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has an effect on obesity and weight control, we investigated the effects of CAPE, and exercise on lipid parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin in rats. 40 male rat were randomly assigned into 4 groups. It was determined that CAPE does not have any significant effect on these parameters but that lipid parameters and leptin values in exercise groups decreased considerably, while no significant change occurred in resistin levels. In order to understand whether diet has an effect on exercise, body weights of all animal groups in pre and post-exercise were compared. A significant weight gain was observed (p = 0.005) in all groups. This study concluded that exercise has a considerable effect on leptin and lipid parameters; however, exercise alone was not sufficient for weight control and could be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet. Key points Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is not effective on weight control, lipid parameters, and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin. Exercise can be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet. PMID:24149554
Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...
... third component of well-rounded exercise. Check out yoga as one way to stay flexible. You can ... Sports and Exercise Safety Stretching Dynamic Stretching (Video) Yoga Welcome Home Yoga (Video) Study Break Yoga (Video) ...
... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...
... underlying chronic asthma as the cause of symptoms. Exercise challenge tests An additional test that enables your ... to take daily for long-term control. Pre-exercise medications Your doctor may prescribe a drug that ...
... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If you have medical ... if you have been inactive and want to exercise vigorously, check with your doctor before beginning a ...
... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...
... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...
Stickland, Michael K.; Butcher, Scott J.; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Bhutani, Mohit
The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference). In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance. PMID:23213518
Duke, Charles R., Ed.
Reflecting current practices in the teaching of writing, the exercises in this compilation were drawn from the journal "Exercise Exchange." The articles are arranged into six sections: sources for writing; prewriting; modes for writing; writing and reading; language, mechanics, and style; and revising, responding, and evaluating. Among the topics…
The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.
Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.
The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.
all parties benefit from the exercise experience. Exercises are not performed to make an organization look bad; instead, they help to train and...techniques it utilized to attack a security posture. All parties benefit from an exercise that underscores the RT motto: ”we win, we lose. 23 Appendix...Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The
Bosomworth, Neil J.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine whether physical exercise constitutes a benefit or a risk in the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, ACP Journal Club, and Cochrane databases were searched from registry inception to January 2009 using MeSH headings or text words, including osteoarthritis, arthritis and knee and exercise, physical training, and run. Reference lists from retrieved articles, citation listings when available, and related articles suggested in PubMed were also evaluated. For individuals without osteoarthritis, strong level II evidence was found (limited by problems with blinding and randomization); for those with pre-existing knee osteoarthritis, robust level I evidence was available. MAIN MESSAGE Knee osteoarthritis is a major contributor to disability in seniors, and patients have expressed concern that continued exercise might lead to knee symptoms in later years. Studies done on subjects self-selected for exercise and followed for substantial periods of time show no evidence of accelerated development of osteoarthritis, provided injury is avoided. Further, there is good evidence for reduced pain and disability with exercise in this cohort compared with controls. Patients with established osteoarthritis are shown to derive uniform benefit to physical functioning, with reduction of pain and disability, using aerobic, muscle strengthening, aquatic, or physiotherapy-based exercise modalities. CONCLUSION Provided trauma is avoided, moderate exercise does not lead to acceleration of knee osteoarthritis, whether or not there is evidence of pre-existing disease. In either case there appears to be improved physical functioning and reduction of pain and disability in those who exercise. It is likely that exercise interventions are underused in the management of established knee osteoarthritis symptoms. PMID:19752252
Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)
The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.
... hand. When and what you eat can be important to how you feel when you exercise, whether it's a casual workout or training for a competition. Consider these eating and exercise tips. If you exercise in the morning, get up early enough to finish breakfast at least one hour before your workout. Be ...
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Getting Exercise in College KidsHealth > For Teens > Getting Exercise in College A A A What's in this ... energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. But with high ...
National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.
This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…
Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others
The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…
In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.
... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who are active will: have stronger muscles ... better outlook on life Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better. They' ...
Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald
This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…
Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.
This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.
Wayne Reeve of Murdoch University on "Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 16 January 2008 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERNâs activities during 2007 and to present the perspectives for 2008, the year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (PrÃ©vessin), the IT Auditorium (Bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (Bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season! Robert AYMAR
This presentation contains an outline of the US DOE`s phytoremediation program. A brief overview of the goals, infrastructure, and results of the program is presented. Environmental contaminants addressed include chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals, radionuclides, inorganic wastes, and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. Studies of soil remediation using phytoextraction and water remediation using rhizofiltration are briefly described.
The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).
Thirty years ago, the first article on exercise for patients with cancer appeared in the cancer research literature. The time from that first article to the present has included oncology nurses taking the lead in investigations related to exercise and cancer-related symptoms, most notably cancer-related fatigue (CRF). The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) has been instrumental in publishing much of the research on exercise and cancer and continues in that tradition by issuing this supplement to the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. In addition, ONS has facilitated the translation of research findings to practicing oncology nurses by convening meetings, participating in expert opinion consensus groups, and disseminating evidence through Putting Evidence Into Practice resources.
Diamond, Alex B
As our schools and children struggle to meet ever-changing and mandated academic standards, challenges in the time spent on physical activity continue to arise. On the other hand, however, we continue to face a global climate mired in the midst of an obesity epidemic. It is widely accepted that the health benefits of exercise are wide-ranging and powerful. It appears that cognitive function and academic achievement are additional realms beyond the physical where exercise is beneficial. The school setting presents a unique public health opportunity to enact change on a variety of levels. As sports medicine and exercise specialists, we need to support efforts that increase access to quality physical fitness across the board for all children.
Orfanos, Zacharias; Gödderz, Markus P O; Soroka, Ekaterina; Gödderz, Tobias; Rumyantseva, Anastasia; van der Ven, Peter F M; Hawke, Thomas J; Fürst, Dieter O
Eccentric exercise leads to focal disruptions in the myofibrils, referred to as "lesions". These structures are thought to contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, and to represent areas of mechanical damage and/or remodelling. Lesions have been investigated in human biopsies and animal samples after exercise. However, this approach does not examine the mechanisms behind lesion formation, or their behaviour during contraction. To circumvent this, we used electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to simulate exercise in C2C12 myotubes, combined with live microscopy. EPS application led to the formation of sarcomeric lesions in the myotubes, resembling those seen in exercised mice, increasing in number with the time of application or stimulation intensity. Furthermore, transfection with an EGFP-tagged version of the lesion and Z-disc marker filamin-C allowed us to observe the formation of lesions using live cell imaging. Finally, using the same technique we studied the behaviour of these structures during contraction, and observed them to be passively stretching. This passive behaviour supports the hypothesis that lesions contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, protecting against further damage. We conclude that EPS can be reliably used as a model for the induction and study of sarcomeric lesions in myotubes in vitro.
Orfanos, Zacharias; Gödderz, Markus P. O.; Soroka, Ekaterina; Gödderz, Tobias; Rumyantseva, Anastasia; van der Ven, Peter F. M.; Hawke, Thomas J.; Fürst, Dieter O.
Eccentric exercise leads to focal disruptions in the myofibrils, referred to as “lesions”. These structures are thought to contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, and to represent areas of mechanical damage and/or remodelling. Lesions have been investigated in human biopsies and animal samples after exercise. However, this approach does not examine the mechanisms behind lesion formation, or their behaviour during contraction. To circumvent this, we used electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to simulate exercise in C2C12 myotubes, combined with live microscopy. EPS application led to the formation of sarcomeric lesions in the myotubes, resembling those seen in exercised mice, increasing in number with the time of application or stimulation intensity. Furthermore, transfection with an EGFP-tagged version of the lesion and Z-disc marker filamin-C allowed us to observe the formation of lesions using live cell imaging. Finally, using the same technique we studied the behaviour of these structures during contraction, and observed them to be passively stretching. This passive behaviour supports the hypothesis that lesions contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, protecting against further damage. We conclude that EPS can be reliably used as a model for the induction and study of sarcomeric lesions in myotubes in vitro. PMID:26804343
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of...
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of...
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of...
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of...
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of...
van Loon, Luc J C
Dietary protein ingestion after exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis, inhibits protein breakdown and, as such, stimulates net muscle protein accretion following resistance as well as endurance type exercise. Protein ingestion during and/or immediately after exercise has been suggested to facilitate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session, resulting in more effective muscle reconditioning. A few basic guidelines can be defined with regard to the preferred type and amount of dietary protein and the timing by which protein should be ingested. Whey protein seems to be most effective to increase post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates. This is likely attributed to its rapid digestion and absorption kinetics and specific amino acid composition. Ingestion of approximately 20 g protein during and/or immediately after exercise is sufficient to maximize post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates. Additional ingestion of large amounts of carbohydrate does not further increase post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates when ample protein is already ingested. Dietary protein should be ingested during and/or immediately after cessation of exercise to allow muscle protein synthesis rates to reach maximal levels. Future research should focus on the impact of the timing of protein provision throughout the day on the adaptive response to more prolonged exercise training.
Oliveira, Norton L; Oliveira, Jose
The main purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after 2 exercise sessions with different exercise mode orders, resistance followed by aerobic exercise (R-A); aerobic by resistance exercise (A-R). Seven young men (19.6 ± 1.4 years) randomly underwent the 2 sessions. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill for 30 minutes (80-85% of reserve heart rate). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum on 5 exercises. Previous to the exercise sessions, V(O2), heart rate, V(CO2), and respiratory exchange rate (RER) were measured for 15 minutes and again during recovery from exercise for 60 minutes. The EPOC magnitude was not significantly different between R-A (5.17 ± 2.26 L) and A-R (5.23 ± 2.48 L). Throughout the recovery period (60 minutes), V(O2) and HR values were significantly higher than those observed in the pre-exercise period (p < 0.05) in both exercise sessions. In the first 10 minutes of recovery, V(CO2) and RER declined to pre-exercise levels. Moreover, V(CO2) and RER values in A-R were significantly lower than in R-A. In conclusion, the main result of this study suggests that exercise mode order does not affect the EPOC magnitude and duration. Therefore, it is not necessary for an individual to consider the EPOC when making the decision as to which exercise mode is better to start a training session.
Dunn, Susan L; Dunn, L Maureen; Buursma, Madison P; Clark, Jacob A; Vander Berg, Lucas; DeVon, Holli A; Tintle, Nathan L
Exercise reduces morbidity and mortality for patients with heart disease. Despite clear guidelines and known benefits, most cardiac patients do not meet current exercise recommendations. Physician endorsement positively affects patient participation in hospital-based Phase II cardiac rehabilitation programs, yet the importance of physician recommendation for home-based cardiac rehabilitation exercise is unknown. A prospective observational design was used to examine predictors of both home-based and Phase II rehabilitation exercise in a sample of 251 patients with coronary heart disease. Regression analyses were done to examine demographic and clinical characteristics, physical functioning, and patient's report of physician recommendation for exercise. Patients with a strong physician referral, who were married and older, were more likely to participate in Phase II exercise. Increased strength of physician recommendation was the unique predictor of home-based exercise. Further research is needed to examine how health professionals can motivate cardiac patients to exercise in home and outpatient settings.
Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI
The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.
Cottingham, Robert W [ORNL
The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Robert W. Cottingham of Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses the DOE KnowledgeBase at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.
... place mailed to each member who does not in writing waive such notice. On all matters of official... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Times and places of meetings. 2102.1 Section 2102... AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Commission Meetings § 2102.1 Times and places of meetings....
... place mailed to each member who does not in writing waive such notice. On all matters of official... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Times and places of meetings. 2102.1 Section 2102... AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Commission Meetings § 2102.1 Times and places of meetings....
... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Science, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory..., Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U. S. Department of...
Maynard, Mark E; Chung, Chasity; Comer, Ashley; Nelson, Katharine; Tran, Jamie; Werries, Nadja; Barton, Emily A; Spinetta, Michael; Leasure, J Leigh
Many of the neural benefits of exercise require weeks to manifest. It would be useful to accelerate onset of exercise-driven plastic changes, such as increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise represents a significant challenge to the brain because it produces heat, but brain temperature does not rise during exercise in the cold. This study tested the hypothesis that exercise in cold ambient temperature would stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis more than exercise in room or hot conditions. Adult female rats had exercise access 2h per day for 5 days at either room (20 °C), cold (4.5 °C) or hot (37.5 °C) temperature. To label dividing hippocampal precursor cells, animals received daily injections of BrdU. Brains were immunohistochemically processed for dividing cells (Ki67+), surviving cells (BrdU+) and new neurons (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Animals exercising at room temperature ran significantly farther than animals exercising in cold or hot conditions (room 1490 ± 400 m; cold 440 ± 102 m; hot 291 ± 56 m). We therefore analyzed the number of Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells normalized for shortest distance run. Contrary to our hypothesis, exercise in either cold or hot conditions generated significantly more Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells compared to exercise at room temperature. Thus, a limited amount of running in either cold or hot ambient conditions generates more new cells than a much greater distance run at room temperature. Taken together, our results suggest a simple means by which to augment exercise effects, yet minimize exercise time.
The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These
Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L
Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being.
Exercise has a beneficial effect on metabolic parameters affecting cardiovascular risk, such as lipids and blood glucose, and is a key component in both the prevention and the management of type 2 diabetes. Glycaemic control improves with both aerobic and resistance exercise in type 2 diabetes, but no glycaemic benefit is seen in type 1 diabetes. This probably results from glucose fluctuations commonly seen with exercise. Low and moderate intensity exercise are generally associated with a fall in blood glucose, and high intensity exercise can be associated with a rise in blood glucose. Trial evidence is suggestive of a reduction in cardiovascular risk with exercise, although evidence from prospective, randomised controlled trials is certainly not conclusive.
.../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC). DATES... on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda:...
Sterken, Christiaan; Aspaas, Per Pippin
On 2-3 June 2012, the University of Tromsoe hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsoe for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the scale of the solar system in the eighteenth century. The site of the conference was the Nordnorsk Vitensenter (Science Centre of Northern Norway), which is located at the campus of the University of Tromsoe. After the conference, participants were invited to either stay in Tromsoe until the midnight of 5-6 June, or take part in a Venus transit voyage in Finnmark, during which the historical sites Vardoe, Hammerfest, and the North Cape were to be visited. The post-conference program culminated with the participants observing the transit of Venus in or near Tromsoe, Vardoe and even from a plane near Alta. These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures delivered on 2-3 June 2012, and also a narrative description of the transit viewing from Tromsoe, Vardoe and Alta. The title of the book, Meeting Venus, refers the title of a play by the Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director Istvan Szabo (1938-). The autobiographical movie Meeting Venus (1991) directed by him is based on his experience directing Tannhauser at the Paris Opera in 1984. The movie brings the story of an imaginary international opera company that encounters a never ending series of difficulties and pitfalls that symbolise the challenges of any multicultural and international endeavour. As is evident from the many papers presented in this book, Meeting Venus not only contains the epic tales of the transits of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it also covers the conference
Loerch, Linda H.
This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.
Work, Janis A.
Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)
... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 150.70 Section 150.70 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY....70 Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer... before you exercise fiduciary powers. This chart does not apply to activities that are exempt...
... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 150.70 Section 150.70 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY....70 Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer... before you exercise fiduciary powers. This chart does not apply to activities that are exempt...
... before I exercise fiduciary powers? 150.70 Section 150.70 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY....70 Must I obtain OCC approval or file a notice before I exercise fiduciary powers? You should refer... before you exercise fiduciary powers. This chart does not apply to activities that are exempt...
Sakamoto, Kei; Newton, Mike; Sacco, Paul
Objective: We tested the hypothesis that altering the pre-exercise muscle temperature would influence the magnitude of muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. Subjects: Female students who had no experience in resistance training were placed into either a microwave treatment group (n = 10) or an icing treatment group (n = 10). Design and Setting: Subjects in each group performed 12 maximal eccentric actions of the forearm flexors of each arm on 2 separate occasions separated by 4 weeks. Before testing, the exercise arm was subjected to either passive warming (microwave) or control for the microwave treatment group or cooling (icing) or control for the icing treatment group. The control arm performed the same exercise protocol without treatment. Limbs were randomized for treatment or control and order of testing. Deep muscle temperature increased by approximately 3°C after the microwave treatment and decreased approximately 5°C after the icing treatment. Measurements: We evaluated changes in maximal isometric force and indirect markers of muscle damage, including range of motion, upper arm circumference, muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase activity, in the microwave and control and icing and control groups using a 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: All measures changed significantly (P < .01) after exercise, but neither of the treatments demonstrated significant effects on most of the variables compared with the control. Conclusions: These results suggest that pre-exercise cooling does not affect the magnitude of muscle damage in response to eccentric exercise. Similarly, pre-exercise passive muscle warming did not prove beneficial in attenuating indicators of muscle damage. Thus, any beneficial effects of warm-up exercise cannot be attributed to the effects of increased muscle temperature. PMID:15173863
Wagner, P. D.
In normal subjects, exercise widens the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (P[A-a]O2) despite a more uniform topographic distribution of ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) ratios. While part of the increase in P(A-a)O2 (especially during heavy exercise) is due to diffusion limitation, a considerable amount is caused by an increase in VA/Q mismatch as detected by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Why this occurs is unknown, but circumstantial evidence suggests it may be related to interstitial pulmonary edema rather than to factors dependent on ventilation, airway gas mixing, airway muscle tone, or pulmonary vascular tone. In patients with lung disease, the gas exchange consequences of exercise are variable. Thus, arterial PO2 may increase, remain the same, or fall. In general, patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or interstitial fibrosis who exercise show a fall in PO2. This is usually not due to worsening VA/Q relationships but mostly to the well-known fall in mixed venous PO2, which itself results from a relatively smaller increase in cardiac output than VO2. However, in interstitial fibrosis (but not COPD), there is good evidence that a part of the fall in PO2 on exercise is caused by alveolar-capillary diffusion limitation of O2 transport; in COPD (but not interstitial fibrosis), a frequent additional contributing factor to the hypoxemia of exercise is an inadequate ventilatory response, such that minute ventilation does not rise as much as does CO2 production or O2 uptake, causing arterial PCO2 to increase and PO2 to fall.
Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris
The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.
Khaleel, Mohammad A.
The Exascale Review Panel consists of 12 scientists and engineers with experience in various aspects of high-performance computing and its application, development, and management. The Panel hear presentations by several representatives of the workshops and town meetings convened over the past few years to examine the need for exascale computation capability and the justification for a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program to develop such capability. This report summarizes information provided by the presenters and substantial written reports to the Panel in advance of the meeting in Washington D.C. on January 19-20, 2010. The report also summarizes the Panel's conclusions with regard to the justification of a DOE-led exascale initiative.
Oliver, Peter V.; Weinswig, S. Edward
This paper describes a classroom exercise used on the first day of class to help students meet each other and to help make them feel comfortable in the class. It also helps improve students' memory and interpersonal skills such as active listening, communication and trust. Originally designed for use by college students, the exercise can easily be…
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. DO NOT hold your breath. Balance Exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...
... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...
... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...
Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R
The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.
Halliwill, J. R.; Taylor, J. A.; Eckberg, D. L.
1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena.
Halliwill, J R; Taylor, J A; Eckberg, D L
1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena. Images Figure 7 PMID:8866370
Johnson, J M
The combined metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise in the heat place an exceptional burden on the circulation, more than can be met through cardiac output and blood flow redistribution. Blood flow to muscle is not reduced by heat stress in exercise and cardiac output is insufficient to meet competing demands from skin and muscle. Skin blood flow during exercise in the heat is limited in several ways. Dynamic exercise causes a cutaneous vasoconstriction at exercise onset through increased vasoconstrictor activity, both in cool and warm conditions. As exercise continues, internal temperature reaches a threshold for increased active vasodilator activity that is elevated by exercise, but reduced by high skin temperature. Beyond that threshold, skin blood flow is limited well below what would be achieved at rest with the same thermal drive through a limit to the active vasodilator system. This combination of restraints on cutaneous vasodilator function compromises temperature regulation. Internal temperature rises to levels that limit exercise through central thermal effects, rather than loss of blood pressure or a reduction in blood flow to active muscle.
Sox, H C
The interpretation and selection of exercise tests depends on the pretest probability of CAD. Imperfect tests (like exercise tests) provide probability estimates, not definite statements (such as "the patient has CAD" or "the patient does not have CAD"). In patients with a low pretest probability of CAD (asymptomatic persons or men and women with nonanginal chest pain), abnormal exercise test results provide probability estimates that are much too low to conclude that the patient has CAD. In patients with anginal pain and normal exercise tests, the probability of CAD is too high to conclude that the patient has a normal coronary circulation. Exercise tests are not useful for trying to rule out CAD in patients with anginal pain. In patients with an intermediate pretest probability of CAD (men and women with atypical angina and women with typical angina), abnormal exercise tests (particularly the myocardial scintiscan) provide probability estimates that are high enough to justify starting treatment for CAD. Exercise tests are most useful in this group, a conclusion that has been reached by other methods of analysis. The myocardial scintiscan is much more useful than the exercise ECG in women. When CAD is strongly suspected, exercise tests have relatively little diagnostic value but may be useful for prognosis. However, clinical evidence of poor ventricular function may alone suffice to select patients with angina pectoris for coronary arteriography. Conversely, when clinical indicators of congestive heart failure are absent, the prognosis in chronic stable angina is so favorable that any further testing may be unnecessary. Screening asymptomatic persons for CAD is a very low yield practice. Patients who have no cardiac risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, family history of CAD, cigarette smoking, and hypertension) are at especially low risk of a primary cardiac event. Older men with stable typical angina are particularly likely to have left main coronary artery
Rowland, Thomas W.
This book paints a broad picture of the role of exercise in children's health and provides information for the physician and other health care providers on healthful forms of physical activity for children. The book is divided into three parts: (1) "Developmental Exercise Physiology: The Physiological Basis of Physical Fitness in Children"; (2)…
Stuhr, Robyn M.
Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…
... to make sure that the asthma unrelated to exercise is well controlled. For many children this means the regular ... for using an inhaler. If the asthma is well controlled but your child still has problems during or after exercise, let your child’s doctor know. The following are ...
Dangardt, Frida J; McKenna, William J; Lüscher, Thomas F; Deanfield, John E
Physical activity and exercise have been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality, as well as all-cause mortality, both in the general population and in patients with various forms of cardiovascular disease. Increasing amounts of exercise are associated with incremental reductions in mortality, but considerable benefits have been found even with a low level of exercise. Exercise is beneficial for most individuals, but risks exist. Exercise is associated with reduced long-term morbidity and mortality, but acute exercise can transiently increase the risk of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Although tragic, these events are very rare, and even to some extent preventable with screening programmes. Low-intensity physical activity is important and beneficial to all individuals, including those with a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. In individuals who are physically fit and who do not have genetic predisposition to, or signs of, cardiovascular disease, the greater the intensity and amount of exercise, the greater the health benefits. Nevertheless, effective strategies to encourage exercise in the population are lacking. A sustained increase in physical activity is likely to require more than individual advice, and needs to include urban planning and possibly even legislation.
... before beginning a new exercise program. Benefits of Exercise for Post-Menopausal Women Helps prevent osteoporosis by keeping bone and cartilage tissue strong and healthy. Reduces the risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases by increasing heart and respiratory rates. Keeps your ...
Mills, Brett D.; And Others
This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…
Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl
Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…
Macfarlane, Lucy; Owens, Glynn; Cruz, Borja del Pozo
Objectives There remains limited consensus regarding the definition and conceptual basis of exercise addiction. An understanding of the factors motivating maintenance of addictive exercise behavior is important for appropriately targeting intervention. The aims of this study were twofold: first, to establish consensus on features of an exercise addiction using Delphi methodology and second, to identify whether these features are congruous with a conceptual model of exercise addiction adapted from the Work Craving Model. Methods A three-round Delphi process explored the views of participants regarding the features of an exercise addiction. The participants were selected from sport and exercise relevant domains, including physicians, physiotherapists, coaches, trainers, and athletes. Suggestions meeting consensus were considered with regard to the proposed conceptual model. Results and discussion Sixty-three items reached consensus. There was concordance of opinion that exercising excessively is an addiction, and therefore it was appropriate to consider the suggestions in light of the addiction-based conceptual model. Statements reaching consensus were consistent with all three components of the model: learned (negative perfectionism), behavioral (obsessive–compulsive drive), and hedonic (self-worth compensation and reduction of negative affect and withdrawal). Conclusions Delphi methodology allowed consensus to be reached regarding the features of an exercise addiction, and these features were consistent with our hypothesized conceptual model of exercise addiction. This study is the first to have applied Delphi methodology to the exercise addiction field, and therefore introduces a novel approach to exercise addiction research that can be used as a template to stimulate future examination using this technique. PMID:27554504
Macfarlane, Lucy; Owens, Glynn; Cruz, Borja Del Pozo
Objectives There remains limited consensus regarding the definition and conceptual basis of exercise addiction. An understanding of the factors motivating maintenance of addictive exercise behavior is important for appropriately targeting intervention. The aims of this study were twofold: first, to establish consensus on features of an exercise addiction using Delphi methodology and second, to identify whether these features are congruous with a conceptual model of exercise addiction adapted from the Work Craving Model. Methods A three-round Delphi process explored the views of participants regarding the features of an exercise addiction. The participants were selected from sport and exercise relevant domains, including physicians, physiotherapists, coaches, trainers, and athletes. Suggestions meeting consensus were considered with regard to the proposed conceptual model. Results and discussion Sixty-three items reached consensus. There was concordance of opinion that exercising excessively is an addiction, and therefore it was appropriate to consider the suggestions in light of the addiction-based conceptual model. Statements reaching consensus were consistent with all three components of the model: learned (negative perfectionism), behavioral (obsessive-compulsive drive), and hedonic (self-worth compensation and reduction of negative affect and withdrawal). Conclusions Delphi methodology allowed consensus to be reached regarding the features of an exercise addiction, and these features were consistent with our hypothesized conceptual model of exercise addiction. This study is the first to have applied Delphi methodology to the exercise addiction field, and therefore introduces a novel approach to exercise addiction research that can be used as a template to stimulate future examination using this technique.
Forrest, Lauren N.; Smith, April R.; Fussner, Lauren M.; Dodd, Dorian R.; Clerkin, Elise M.
Objectives ”Fast” (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; “slow” (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. Design We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Method Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Results Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Conclusion Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence. PMID:26195916
Schuld, E.P.; Cruff, D.F.
A Broken Arrow mini exercise dubbed ''Accident Response Group Exercise - 1987'' (ARGX-87) was conducted on June 1, 1987 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL). The exercise started at 0445 PDT with a call from the Department of Energy (DOE) - EOC in Washington, DC, to the Albuquerque Operations (AL - ) - EOC. AL, in turn, called the Laboratory off-hour emergency number (Fire Dispatcher), who called the Laboratory Emergency Duty Officer (LEDO). The LEDO then contacted the Accident Response Group (ARG) Senior Scientific Advisor. Calls were placed to assemble appropriate members of the ARG in the ALERT Center. No phone number for SNLL was available at the Albuquerque Operations EOC, so a controller injected a message to SNLL to get them involved in the exercise. The messages received at the Laboratory identified the Air Force line item weapon system involved in the accident and the accident location. As people arrived at the ALERT Center they began discussing the details of the accident. They also started working the deployment logistics and other issues. Travel arrangements for the HOT SPOT equipment and ARG personnel were made for immediate deployment to the accident site in North Dakota. The exercise was terminated at 0840 as planned. While certain procedural deficiencies were noted, the exercise was considered a valuable learning experience. The results and observations from this experience will be used to refine the operating procedures and the training program.
A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.
Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique
Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30 min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20 min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals.
This document contains papers presented at the Fuel Cells `95` Review Meeting. Topics included solid oxide fuel cells; DOE`s transportation program; ARPA advanced fuel cell development; molten carbonate fuel cells; and papers presented at a poster session. Individual papers have been processed separately for the U.S. DOE databases.
Wormald, Helen; Ingle, Lee
Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore patients' perceptions of general practitioner (GP) exercise referral (ER) schemes with a view to providing a better service for future patients. Design: A qualitative focus group methodology. Setting: Meeting rooms or communal areas in leisure centres across North Yorkshire. Method: Thirty…
Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L
Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus.
Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D
Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229
Boslough, Mark; Jennings, Barbara; Carvey, Brad; Fogleman, William
We describe the computational simulations and damage assessments that we provided in support of a tabletop exercise (TTX) at the request of NASA's Near-Earth Objects Program Office. The overall purpose of the exercise was to assess leadership reactions, information requirements, and emergency management responses to a hypothetical asteroid impact with Earth. The scripted exercise consisted of discovery, tracking, and characterization of a hypothetical asteroid; inclusive of mission planning, mitigation, response, impact to population, infrastructure and GDP, and explicit quantification of uncertainty. Participants at the meeting included representatives of NASA, Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the White House. The exercise took place at FEMA headquarters. Sandia's role was to assist the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in developing the impact scenario, to predict the physical effects of the impact, and to forecast the infrastructure and economic losses. We ran simulations using Sandia's CTH hydrocode to estimate physical effects on the ground, and to produce contour maps indicating damage assessments that could be used as input for the infrastructure and economic models. We used the FASTMap tool to provide estimates of infrastructure damage over the affected area, and the REAcct tool to estimate the potential economic severity expressed as changes to GDP (by nation, region, or sector) due to damage and short-term business interruptions.
Boslough, Mark; Jennings, Barbara; Carvey, Brad; ...
We describe the computational simulations and damage assessments that we provided in support of a tabletop exercise (TTX) at the request of NASA's Near-Earth Objects Program Office. The overall purpose of the exercise was to assess leadership reactions, information requirements, and emergency management responses to a hypothetical asteroid impact with Earth. The scripted exercise consisted of discovery, tracking, and characterization of a hypothetical asteroid; inclusive of mission planning, mitigation, response, impact to population, infrastructure and GDP, and explicit quantification of uncertainty. Participants at the meeting included representatives of NASA, Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergencymore » Management Agency (FEMA), and the White House. The exercise took place at FEMA headquarters. Sandia's role was to assist the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in developing the impact scenario, to predict the physical effects of the impact, and to forecast the infrastructure and economic losses. We ran simulations using Sandia's CTH hydrocode to estimate physical effects on the ground, and to produce contour maps indicating damage assessments that could be used as input for the infrastructure and economic models. We used the FASTMap tool to provide estimates of infrastructure damage over the affected area, and the REAcct tool to estimate the potential economic severity expressed as changes to GDP (by nation, region, or sector) due to damage and short-term business interruptions.« less
Löllgen, H; Dirschedl, P; Fahrenkrog, U
Actual situation: There is a great variety of exercise programs (formerly called protocols) used in daily routine and general practice. Exercise programs vary with increments, step-duration, speed and grade, although standard recommendations have been published recently. In the USA, the Bruce program is widely accepted, although some criticism has been published. Comparing different exercise programs it is obvious, that maximal values (VO2, heart rate etc.) are only moderately affected by the program, but submaximal values are strongly influenced by the methodological procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of the different exercise testing procedures will be presented. As we need some standardized exercise programs to avoid "free-style ergometry", recommendations may be based on the following assumptions: Exercise testing should not be too short nor too long (10-12 min total test time), work rate increments should be intermediate (adapted to physical fitness), work rate steps should be about 2 min or an individualized ramp test should be used. Exercise test programs have to be selected according to the patient's fitness, to the disease or function to be studied, and to the laboratory setting. Standardization is strongly recommended.
Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix
Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981
...; ] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings...
Deighton, Kevin; Stensel, David J
Recent years have witnessed significant interest from both the scientific community and the media regarding the influence of exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake responses. This review demonstrates a consensus among the majority of scientific investigations that an acute bout of land-based endurance exercise does not stimulate any compensatory increases in appetite and energy intake on the day of exercise. Alternatively, preliminary evidence suggests that low volume, supramaximal exercise may stimulate an increase in appetite perceptions during the subsequent hours. In accordance with the apparent insensitivity of energy intake to exercise in the short term, the daily energy balance response to exercise appears to be primarily determined by the energy cost of exercise. This finding supports the conclusions of recent training studies that the energy expenditure of exercise is the strongest predictor of fat loss during an exercise programme.
Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise.
Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J
Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.
The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Tatiana Tatusova of NCBI discusses "Annotations in Refseq" at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.
The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Tatiana Tatusova of NCBI discusses "Annotations in Refseq" at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.
Gaudet, Pascal [Northwestern University
The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Pascal Gaudet of Northwestern University talks about "The Biocurator Society" at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 11, 2009
Hirayama, Masaaki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sobue, Gen
The clinical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not based on the identification of the extrapyramidal symptom such as bradykinesia, restinbg tremor, rigidity, but also other non-motor symptom (REM sleep disorder, autonomic dysfunction, hyposmia etc). According to the cardio-sympathetic dysfunction, it is well known abnormal MIBG and orthostatic hypotension finding was seen in early disease stage. Furthermore denervation supersensitivity using β1 stimulant correlates the severity of MIBG image, so that this abnormal cardiac function induces inadequate cardiac capacity for exercise. Inadequate cardiac capacity makes easy fatigability, which correlates the abnormal MIBG image and cardio-sympathetic damage. So it is difficult to prescribe a specific exercise program to meet individual PD patients needs. Music therapy and trunk exercise (for example Tai-Chi exercise) are better suited for PD patients.
Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura
The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used
Daniel, Michael; And Others
The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…
The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.
This final report summarizes the accomplished goals and provide a list of the publications and presentations made during the project. The goals of the project were accomplished through the various publications submitted to Journals and presentations done at the DOE and international meetings and conferences. The 8 journal articles related to the goals of this project were accepted or submitted. The 23 presentations related to goals of the project were presented at the meetings. There were some minor changes regarding to project goals because of issues encountered during the analysis of the data. For example, a total water probe sensor mounted on the Convair-580 that can be used for defining mixed phase conditions and parameterization, had some problems to estimate magnitude of total water mass, and this resulted in issues providing an accurate parameterization for cloud fraction. Variability related aerosol number concentrations and their composition for direct and indirect effects were studied and published. Results were given to explain aerosol and ice microphysical effects on climate change studies. It is suggested that developed parameterizations should consider the variability in aerosol and ice parameters over the Arctic regions.
... a Vestibular Disorder Family Support Network Desorden Vestibular/Vértigo - En Español הפרעות ... What is a Home VRT program? During vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT), home exercises ...
Hawley, John A; Maughan, Ronald J; Hargreaves, Mark
The past 25 years have witnessed major advances in our knowledge of how exercise activates cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways with regulatory roles in training response adaptation, and how muscle "cross-talk" with other organs is a mechanism by which physical activity exerts its beneficial effects on "whole-body" health. However, during the late 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries, scientific debate in the field of exercise metabolism centered on questions related to the sources of energy for muscular activity, diet-exercise manipulations to alter patterns of fuel utilization, as well as the factors limiting physical work capacity. Posing novel scientific questions and utilizing cutting-edge techniques, the contributions made by the great pioneers of the 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries laid the foundation on which much of our present knowledge of exercise metabolism is based and paved the way for future discoveries in the field.
... many types of exercise. Biking, running, tai chi, yoga , Pilates, dance , weight training, non-contact boxing, qi gong and more all have been shown to have positive effects on symptoms for people with Parkinson’s. Researchers in ...
... Heart disease - treadmill References Balady GJ, Morise AP. Exercise testing. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...
... do a push-up or swing across the monkey bars at the playground? Those are exercises that ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...
... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... hours of studying burn mental energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. ...
Hand and Finger Exercises Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds. Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...
Petosa, R. Lingyak; Holtz, Brian
Background: Health behavior theory generally does not include intrinsic motivation as a determinate of health practices. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the flow theory of exercise adherence. Flow theory posits that exercise can be intrinsically rewarding if the experiences of self/time transcendence and control/mastery are achieved…
me expand on this thesis just a bit. My contention is that in every exercise, even the ones like Wintex- Cimex which are supposed to test the logistics...Wintex- Cimex and Gallant Eagle, occur every other year and in the off-year there is a complimentary FTX. Addit-ionally, there is usually one big CPX...spares calculations, and other logistics concerns. 3-2 Observation and Participation The researcher observed the winter exercise known as Wintex- Cimex
Bye, P T; Farkas, G A; Roussos, C
The question of respiratory factors limiting exercise has been examined in terms of possible limitations arising from the function of gas exchange, the respiratory mechanics, the energetics of the respiratory muscles, or the development of respiratory muscle fatigue. Exercise capacity is curtailed in the presence of marked hypoxia, and this is readily observed in patients with chronic airflow limitation and interstitial lung disease and in some athletes at high intensities of exercise. In patients with interstitial lung disease, gas exchange abnormality--partly the result of diffusion disequilibrium for oxygen transfer--occurs during exercise despite abnormally high ventilations. In contrast, in certain athletes arterial hypoxemia has been documented during heavy exercise, apparently as a result of relative hypoventilation. During strenuous exercise the maximum expiratory flow volume curves are attained both by patients with chronic airflow limitation and by normal subjects, in particular when they breathe dense gas, so that a mechanical constraint is imposed on further increases in ventilation. Similarly, the force velocity characteristics of the inspiratory muscles may also impose a constraint to further increases in inspiratory flows that affects the ability to increase ventilation. In addition, the oxygen cost of maintaining high ventilations is large. Analysis of results from blood flow experiments reveal a substantial increase in blood flow to the respiratory muscles during exercise, with the result that oxygen supply to the rest of the body may be lessened. Alternatively, high exercise ventilations may not be sustained indefinitely owing to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue that results in hypoventilation and reduced arterial oxygen tension.
Barnes, Scott V.
On August 1, 2014, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in coordination with the State of Idaho, local jurisdictions, Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office, and DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ), conducted the annual emergency exercise to demonstrate the ability to implement the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System.” The INL contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), in coordination with other INL contractors, conducted operations and demonstrated appropriate response measures to mitigate an event and protect the health and safety of personnel, the environment, and property. Offsite response organizations participated to demonstrate appropriate response measures. Report data were collected from multiple sources, which included documentation generated during exercise response, player critiques conducted immediately after terminating the exercise, personnel observation sheets, and evaluation critiques. Evaluation of this exercise served as a management assessment of the performance of the INL Emergency Management Program (IAS141618).
Ravi, N; Stuart, R C; Byrne, P J; Reynolds, J V
The most common type of esophageal dysfunction associated with chest pain is gastroesophageal reflux, which may be induced by exercise. The effect of exercise on esophageal function has mainly been investigated in normal subjects or trained athletes. Few studies have investigated exercise and esophageal motility disorders. One hundred and thirty-five patients underwent ambulatory esophageal manometry and pH monitoring, before, during and immediately after moderate exercise. Patients were divided into four groups: Normal, nutcracker, diffuse spasm and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Ambulatory manometry and pH were monitored while exercising on a treadmill during which standardized boluses of water were administered. Nutcracker and diffuse spasm patients demonstrated a significant fall in esophageal wave amplitude during exercise compared to controls, which returned rapidly to pre exercise values after resting. There was no evidence of acid reflux in the non-reflux groups during exercise. Reflux was noted in 13 patients with GERD during exercise, none of whom had evidence of reflux at the onset of exercise. When these patients were classified by reflux type, the majority, 11 patients, were found to come from the combined or supine reflux group. Esophageal amplitude in nutcracker esophagus does not increase during moderate exercise. Moderate exercise provokes reflux in GERD patients with combined or supine reflux.
Earhart, Gammon M; Falvo, Michael J
Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative movement disorder. PD was originally attributed to neuronal loss within the substantia nigra pars compacta, and a concomitant loss of dopamine. PD is now thought to be a multisystem disorder that involves not only the dopaminergic system, but other neurotransmitter systems whose role may become more prominent as the disease progresses (189). PD is characterized by four cardinal symptoms, resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, all of which are motor. However, PD also may include any combination of a myriad of nonmotor symptoms (195). Both motor and nonmotor symptoms may impact the ability of those with PD to participate in exercise and/or impact the effects of that exercise on those with PD. This article provides a comprehensive overview of PD, its symptoms and progression, and current treatments for PD. Among these treatments, exercise is currently at the forefront. People with PD retain the ability to participate in many forms of exercise and generally respond to exercise interventions similarly to age-matched subjects without PD. As such, exercise is currently an area receiving substantial research attention as investigators seek interventions that may modify the progression of the disease, perhaps through neuroprotective mechanisms.
Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits, including improvement in cardiopulmonary or metabolic status, reduction of the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke, prevention of cancer, and decrease in total mortality. Exercise-related cardiac events are occasionally reported during highly competitive sports activity or vigorous exercises. However, the risk of sudden death is extremely low during vigorous exercise, and habitual vigorous exercise actually decreases the risk of sudden death during exercise. The cause of sudden death is ischemic in older subjects (≥35 years old), while cardiomyopathies or genetic ion channel diseases are important underlying pathology in younger (<35 years old) victims. The subgroup of patients who are particularly at higher risk of exercise-related sudden death may be identified in different ways, such as pre-participation history taking, physical examination and/or supplementary cardiac evaluation. Limitations exist because current diagnostic tools are not sufficient to predict a coronary artery plaque with potential risk of disruption and/or an acute thrombotic occlusion. Proper and cost-effective methods for identification of younger subjects with cardiac structural problems or genetic ion channel diseases are still controversial. PMID:21519508
Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits, including improvement in cardiopulmonary or metabolic status, reduction of the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke, prevention of cancer, and decrease in total mortality. Exercise-related cardiac events are occasionally reported during highly competitive sports activity or vigorous exercises. However, the risk of sudden death is extremely low during vigorous exercise, and habitual vigorous exercise actually decreases the risk of sudden death during exercise. The cause of sudden death is ischemic in older subjects (≥35 years old), while cardiomyopathies or genetic ion channel diseases are important underlying pathology in younger (<35 years old) victims. The subgroup of patients who are particularly at higher risk of exercise-related sudden death may be identified in different ways, such as pre-participation history taking, physical examination and/or supplementary cardiac evaluation. Limitations exist because current diagnostic tools are not sufficient to predict a coronary artery plaque with potential risk of disruption and/or an acute thrombotic occlusion. Proper and cost-effective methods for identification of younger subjects with cardiac structural problems or genetic ion channel diseases are still controversial.