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Sample records for doe exercises meet

  1. Joint USDA/DOE meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This documents contains the details from the USDA/USDOE meeting on April 11--12, 1994. Topics discussed include: genetic research, environmental research, renewable energy sources, food supply, improved fertilizers, new pesticides, research programs combining the efforts of the two agencies to develop new products for use in the agriculture industry, environmentally safe products, getting more with less money, and various other subjects dealing with how cooperation among these agencies can improve the agriculture industry.

  2. Youth Exercise Intention and Past Exercise Behavior: Examining the Moderating Influences of Sex and Meeting Exercise Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M.; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay

    2006-01-01

    The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of…

  3. DOE Centers of Excellence Performance Portability Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, J. R.

    2016-04-21

    Performance portability is a phrase often used, but not well understood. The DOE is deploying systems at all of the major facilities across ASCR and ASC that are forcing application developers to confront head-on the challenges of running applications across these diverse systems. With GPU-based systems at the OLCF and LLNL, and Phi-based systems landing at NERSC, ACES (LANL/SNL), and the ALCF – the issue of performance portability is confronting the DOE mission like never before. A new best practice in the DOE is to include “Centers of Excellence” with each major procurement, with a goal of focusing efforts on preparing key applications to be ready for the systems coming to each site, and engaging the vendors directly in a “shared fate” approach to ensuring success. While each COE is necessarily focused on a particular deployment, applications almost invariably must be able to run effectively across the entire DOE HPC ecosystem. This tension between optimizing performance for a particular platform, while still being able to run with acceptable performance wherever the resources are available, is the crux of the challenge we call “performance portability”. This meeting was an opportunity to bring application developers, software providers, and vendors together to discuss this challenge and begin to chart a path forward.

  4. Correlates of meeting the combined and independent aerobic and strength exercise guidelines in hematologic cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Vallerand, James R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Walker, Gordon J; Courneya, Kerry S

    2017-03-28

    Most previous research on the correlates of physical activity has examined the aerobic or strength exercise guidelines separately. Such an approach does not allow an examination of the correlates of meeting the combined guidelines versus a single guideline, or one guideline versus the other. Here, we report the prevalence and correlates of meeting the combined and independent exercise guidelines in hematologic cancer survivors (HCS). In a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 606 HCS from Alberta, Canada using a mailed questionnaire, we obtained separate assessments of aerobic and strength exercise behaviors, as well as separate assessments for motivations, regulations, and reflective processes using the multi-process action control framework (M-PAC). Overall, 22% of HCS met the combined exercise guideline, 22% met aerobic-only, 10% met strength-only, and 46% met neither exercise guideline. HCS were more likely to meet the combined guideline over the aerobic-only guideline if they had no children living at home, and over both the aerobic and strength-only guidelines if they had completed university. As hypothesized, those meeting the combined guideline also had a more favorable strength-specific M-PAC profile (i.e., motivations, regulations, and reflective processes) than those meeting the aerobic-only guideline, and a more favorable aerobic-specific M-PAC profile than those meeting the strength-only guideline. Interestingly and unexpectedly, HCS meeting the combined guidelines also reported significantly greater aerobic-specific perceived control, planning, and obligation/regret than those meeting the aerobic-only guideline, and greater strength-specific perceived control, planning, and obligation/regret than those meeting the strength-only guideline. Few HCS are meeting the combined exercise guidelines. M-PAC based variables are strong correlates of meeting the combined guidelines compared to aerobic or strength only guidelines. Strategies to help HCS meet

  5. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  6. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  7. The 1987 Federal field exercise: The DOE experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.

    1989-06-01

    The second full-scale field exercise of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) was held at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Zion, Illinois, in June 1987. The exercise incorporated the annual compliance exercise for the Zion plant and involved the operating utility, Commonwealth Edison Company, the states of Illinois and Wisconsin, local governments, volunteer groups, and representatives from 12 federal agencies. The 3-day exercise was played from many locations in the Zion area; Springfield, Illinois; Madison, Wisconsin; and Washington, DC. Approximately 1000 people participated in the exercise, which used a scenario in which an accident at the plant resulted in the release of radioactive material outside the plant boundary. The US Department of Energy (DOE) had major responsibilities during the planning, playing, and critiquing of the exercise; these functions are outlined in the report. This document describes the DOE participation in the planning and response during the exercise. During a radiological emergency, the FRERP gives DOE the responsibility for coordinating the federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities in support of the states and the cognizant federal agency. At Zion, a self-sufficient Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center was established by DOE at a nearby fairground in which over 200 people from DOE, the two states, and other federal agencies participated. Before the field exercise, a tabletop exercise and a dry run were held for training purposes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  8. EPA-DOE Technical Meeting & Informal Stakeholder Meeting (October 2011)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA and the DOE met in Albuquerque, NM, on October 18, 2011, to discuss various WIPP technical issues. In addition, select staff from the EPA, the DOE and the NMED met with stakeholders in Santa Fe, NM, on October 19, 2011.

  9. Does exercise improve symptoms in fibromyalgia?

    PubMed

    Rain, Carmen; Seguel, Willy; Vergara, Luis

    2015-12-14

    It has been proposed that fibromyalgia could be managed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Regular physical exercise is commonly used as a non-pharmacological intervention. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 14 systematic reviews including 25 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We conclude that regular physical exercise probably reduces pain in patients with fibromyalgia.

  10. Virtual Team Meetings: Reflections on a Class Exercise Exploring Technology Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull Schaefer, Rebecca A.; Erskine, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Students find that choosing the appropriate technology for a virtual team meeting is not as simple as it first appears. The authors describe a class exercise used to demonstrate the benefits and drawbacks of using virtual team meetings by requiring students to replace a face-to-face meeting with a virtual meeting. The exercise challenged students'…

  11. Virtual Team Meetings: Reflections on a Class Exercise Exploring Technology Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull Schaefer, Rebecca A.; Erskine, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Students find that choosing the appropriate technology for a virtual team meeting is not as simple as it first appears. The authors describe a class exercise used to demonstrate the benefits and drawbacks of using virtual team meetings by requiring students to replace a face-to-face meeting with a virtual meeting. The exercise challenged students'…

  12. DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

  13. Does exercise duration affect Fatmax in overweight boys?

    PubMed

    Crisp, Nicole A; Guelfi, Kym J; Licari, Melissa K; Braham, Rebecca; Fournier, Paul A

    2012-07-01

    To compare the assessment of Fat(max) using a single graded exercise test with 3 min stages against 30 min prolonged exercise bouts in overweight boys. Ten overweight boys (8-12 years) attended the laboratory on seven separate occasions. On the first visit, body anthropometrics and peak aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text]O(2peak)) were assessed. Following this, each participant attended the laboratory after an overnight fast for six morning cycling sessions. During the first session, participants completed a continuous, submaximal graded exercise protocol with seven 3 min stages (GRAD) at 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). The final five visits consisted of a 30 min bout of prolonged exercise (PROL) performed in a counterbalanced order at 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). There was no effect of exercise duration on Fat(max) or the absolute rate of fat oxidation during PROL (p > 0.05). At the group level, GRAD and PROL provided similar estimates of Fat(max) (GRAD: 53 ± 10% [Formula: see text]O(2peak); PROL: 53 ± 10% [Formula: see text]O(2peak); p = 0.995); however, individual variation between the two protocols is shown by a systematic bias and residual error of 0 ± 11% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). Fat oxidation rates remained stable across 30 min of steady-state exercise in overweight boys. Furthermore, Fat(max) was similar at 3, 10, 20 and 30 min of exercise, suggesting that for exercise lasting ≤ 30 min, exercise duration does not affect Fat(max). However, Fat(max) determined with GRAD may need to be interpreted with caution at the individual level given the variation in Fat(max) between protocols.

  14. Pure eccentric exercise does not activate blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Hilberg, Thomas; Gläser, Doreen; Prasa, Dagmar; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Gabriel, Holger H W

    2005-08-01

    Eccentric exercise can cause skeletal muscle damage with ultrastructural disruption, inflammation and increased proteolytic enzyme activity. It may be possible that these changes are able to trigger blood coagulation in vivo. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in blood coagulation via the measurement of aPTT, the thrombin potential (total [TTP] and endogenous [ETP], both intrinsic [in] and extrinsic [ex]) and the thrombin generation (prothrombinfragment 1 + 2 [F1 + 2] and thrombin-antithrombin complex [TAT]) after pure eccentric exercise. Seventeen healthy non-smokers (28 +/- 6 years, VO2-peak 59 +/- 7 ml/min/kg) underwent pure eccentric down jumps (9 x 28 isolated down jumps in 90 min, drop from a height of 55 cm), a cycle exercise (90% of the individual anaerobic threshold for 60-90 min) and a control experiment on different days. Blood samples were drawn after a 30-min rest, immediately, and 2 h after exercise. After the cycle exercise, a clear shortening by 12% (P<0.001) in aPTT and an increase in TTPin (13%; P<0.05) and TAT (33%; P<0.05) in comparison to the control experiment were seen, while after eccentric exercise only minimal changes in aPTT and thrombin potential (TTPin, ETPin) and no thrombin generation (F1 + 2 and TAT) were found. In contrast to concentric dynamic exercise, e.g. cycle ergometry, only insignificant changes in thrombin potential and no thrombin generation could be observed after skeletal muscle damage induced by pure eccentric exercise. It can be concluded that the mechanical impact associated with eccentric exercise does not activate blood coagulation.

  15. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  16. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  17. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  18. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  19. 40 CFR 197.25 - What standard must DOE meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standard must DOE meet? 197.25 Section 197.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA...

  20. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-03-01

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  1. Exercise does not increase salivary lymphocytes, monocytes, or granulocytes, but does increase salivary lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-07-01

    An increase in salivary leukocytes may contribute to the exercise-induced increase in salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). However, exercise-induced changes in salivary leukocytes have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to describe salivary leukocyte changes with exercise. Participants (n = 11, 20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1) peak oxygen uptake ((VO) ̇2peak), 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO2peak. Stimulated saliva (12 mL) was collected pre- and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30 µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45(+)), granulocytes (CD45(+)CD15(+)), monocytes (CD45(+)CD14(+)), T-cells (CD45(+)CD3(+)), and B-cells (CD45(+)CD20(+)) using flow cytometry. Saliva was analysed for Lysozyme (Lys) using ELISA. Exercise did not alter any leukocyte subset. The major constituent of leukocytes pre-exercise were granulocytes (57.9 ± 30.3% compared with monocytes: 5.1 ± 2.7%, T-cells: 17.1 ± 8.9%, B-cells: 12.1 ± 10.2%) (P < 0.05). In a subset of n = 6, Lys secretion rate increased after exercise (pre: 5,170 ± 5,215 ng/min; post: 7,639 ± 4,140 ng/min) (P < 0.05). Exercise does not result in increased granulocytes, but does increase Lys. Further, these data suggest that an increase in salivary leukocytes is not needed to increase Lys.

  2. 1992 DOE/Sandia crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.

    1992-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia National Laboratories` Photovoltaic Technology and Photovoltaic Evaluation Departments. It contains information supplied by organizations making presentations at the meeting, which was held July 14--15, 1992 at the Sheraton Old Town Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Overview sessions covered the Department of Energy (DOE) program, including those at Sandia and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and non-DOE programs, including the EPRI concentrator collector program, The Japanese crystalline silicon program, and some concentrating photovoltaic activities in Europe. Additional sessions included papers on Sandia`s Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory`s collaborative research, cell processing research, the activities of the participants in the Concentrator Initiative Program, and photovoltaic technology evaluation at Sandia and NREL.

  3. Does exercise training alter myocardial creatine kinase MB isoenzyme content?

    PubMed

    Miller, T D; Rogers, P J; Bauer, B A; O'Brien, J F; Squires, R W; Bailey, K R; Bove, A A

    1989-08-01

    Skeletal muscle biopsies from highly trained endurance athletes have been shown to contain an increased percentage of the creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme, which has been attributed to continuous regeneration of the skeletal muscle fibers in response to exercise-induced injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether myocardium undergoes a similar degenerative-regenerative process as a result of exercise training. Fifteen mongrel dogs underwent a 12-wk period of training (N = 8) or cage confinement (N = 7). The animals were then sacrificed, and samples of left and right ventricular myocardium were analyzed for total CK activity and CK-MB isoenzyme content. Percentages of CK-MB were slightly but insignificantly higher from both ventricles of exercise-trained as compared with cage-confined dogs: left ventricle, 4.6 +/- 0.6% vs 3.3 +/- 0.6%, respectively (P = 0.15); right ventricle, 4.0 +/- 0.4% vs 3.0 +/- 0.8%, respectively (P = 0.29). We conclude that chronic exercise training does not induce physiologically important degenerative changes in myocardium.

  4. 2nd Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2007-03-14

    Welcome to the annual 2007 Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PIs) meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to bring together all of the lead PIs and key Co-PIs in the program to share and review the results of funded research from the past year. This meeting allows program managers from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) to gauge the progress and significance of the funded research, and it is also an important venue to showcase ERSP research to interested parties within DOE and other invited federal agency representatives. Additionally, these meetings should serve as an opportunity for funded PIs to view their research in the context of the entire ERSP portfolio. Past ERSP meetings have been very important venues for detailed discussion of research results among PIs, development of new research ideas, fostering new collaborations and discussion with ERSD program managers on future research efforts and/or initiatives within the program. In short, these meetings are an important resource for both program managers and PIs. There will be only one ERSP PI meeting for 2007. In years past, ERSD has sponsored two PI meetings, one in the spring and a separate meeting in the fall that focused primarily on field research. However, this format tends to insulate laboratory-based research from the field research sponsored in the program and is incompatible with the ERSD view that laboratory-based research should progress towards understanding the relevant processes in natural environments at the field scale. Therefore the agenda for this year's PI meeting is well integrated with both lab-based and field-based projects, to allow for detailed discussion between PIs involved in each area. In the agenda, you will notice a more relaxed format than in years past. This year's meeting spans four days, but is less heavily regimented in terms of oral presentations

  5. Hypohydration Does Not Impair Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis After Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    AD-A262 085 9 3 -0 6 4 1 1 Hypohydration does not impair skeletal muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise P. DARRELL NEUFER , MICHAEL N. SAWKA...5007 NEUFER , P. DARRELL, MICHAEL N. SAWKA, ANDREW J. for the restoration of preexercise glycogen levels, More- YOUNG, MARK D. QUIGLEY, WILLIAM A...Scand. S. Clin. Lab. Invest. 38:5.57 -560. 1978. tory Integratiue (’omp. Physiol. 14l: R25--R31, 198.3.19. NEUFER . P. D., A. J. YOUNG, AND M. N. SAWKA

  6. Postprandial lipaemia does not affect resting haemodynamic responses but does influence cardiovascular reactivity to dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2010-09-01

    Postprandial lipaemia impairs endothelial function, possibly by changes in oxidative stress, but whether this affects cardiac output and/or systemic vascular resistance (SVR) at rest and in response to dynamic exercise remains uncertain. The present study set out to investigate the effects of a high-fat meal (HFM) v. a low-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HCM) on cardiac output and SVR. A HFM (50 g fat) and an isoenergetic HCM (5 g fat) were randomly fed to thirty healthy adults using a crossover design. Cardiac output, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were measured, and stroke volume and SVR were calculated over a 3 h rest following the meal, during exercise 3 h postprandially and for 45 min post-exercise. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 3 h postprandially and immediately post-exercise. Plasma TAG increased by 63.8 % 3 h following the HFM, and NEFA fell by 94.1% 3 h after the HCM. There was a 9.8% rise in plasma 8-isoprostane-F2alpha concentration following the HFM, and a 6.2% fall following the HCM. Cardiac output increased postprandially, but the difference between meals at rest or exercise was not statistically significant. The HFM resulted in a 3.2 mmHg (95% CI 0.7, 5.7) smaller increase in exercise mean arterial BP compared with the HCM due to a greater fall in exercise SVR. Postprandial lipaemia induced by a HFM does not affect cardiac output and/or SVR at rest, but it blunts the increase in BP during exercise.

  7. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS < 6 = 0 and =/> 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: < 1 ml/kg/min for subsamples of age, gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) <30 and >50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of

  8. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS < 6 = 0 and =/> 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: < 1 ml/kg/min for subsamples of age, gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) <30 and >50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of

  9. Does Obstructive Sleep Apnea Impair the Cardiopulmonary Response to Exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Camila F.; Cintra, Fatima; Mello-Fujita, Luciane; Rios, Lais F.; Mendonca, Elisangela T.; Feres, Marcia C.; Tufik, Sergio; Poyares, Dalva

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiopulmonary exercise performance in lean and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared with controls. Design: Case-control study. Setting: The study was carried out in Sao Paulo Sleep Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Patients and Participants: Individuals with similar ages were allocated into groups: 22 to the lean OSA group, 36 to the lean control group, 31 to the obese OSA group, and 26 to the obese control group. Interventions: The participants underwent a clinical evaluation, polysomnography, a maximum limited symptom cardiopulmonary exercise test, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, and spirometry. Measurements and Results: The apnea-hypopnea index, arousal index, lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and time of SaO2 < 90% were different among the groups. There were differences in functional capacity based on the following variables: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), P < 0.01 and maximal carbon dioxide production (VCO2max), P < 0.01. The obese patients with OSA and obese controls presented significantly lower VO2max and VCO2max values. However, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and anaerobic threshold (AT) did not differ between groups. Peak diastolic blood pressure (BP) was higher among the obese patients with OSA but was not accompanied by changes in peak systolic BP and heart rate (HR). When multiple regression was performed, body mass index (P < 0.001) and male sex in conjunction with diabetes (P < 0.001) independently predicted VO2max (mL/kg/min). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that obesity alone and sex, when associated with diabetes but not OSA, influenced exercise cardiorespiratory function. Citation: Rizzi CF; Cintra F; Mello-Fujita L; Rios LF; Mendonca ET; Feres MC; Tufik S; Poyares D. Does obstructive sleep apnea impair the cardiopulmonary response to exercise? SLEEP 2013;36(4):547-553. PMID:23565000

  10. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  11. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  12. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  13. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  14. 43 CFR 30.261 - How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How does a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? 30.261 Section 30.261 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... a tribe exercise its statutory option to purchase? (a) To exercise its option to purchase, the...

  15. Aerobic and resistance exercise reinforcement and discomfort tolerance predict meeting activity guidelines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Understanding individual-differences of those people who do and do not meet physical activity recommendations could inform targets for increasing physical activity. Exercise reinforcement may be one such individual-level determinate, but it is not yet known whether those who meet activi...

  16. Policy Perspective: Meeting the Challenge of the DOE Order 436.1 Departmental Sustainability - 12527

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Jennifer C.

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Sustainability Performance Office is working to meet sustainability goals at DOE by implementing Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) and legislation related to sustainability. Through implementation of Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the SSPP, statutory requirements and regular reporting, analysis and communication, DOE's SPO is working to maintain and expand DOE's leadership in sustainability. (authors)

  17. Resistance exercise order does not affect the magnitude and duration of post-exercise blood pressure in older women.

    PubMed

    Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Nunes, João Pedro; Souza, Mariana F; Gerage, Aline; Marcori, Alexandre; Iarosz, Kessi Cassiane; Cardoso-Júnior, Crivaldo Gomes; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two resistance exercise order on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in trained, non-hypertensive older women. Sixteen women (68.3 ± 3.3 years, 63.5 ± 11.6 kg, 157.5 ± 5.1 cm) performed two sessions witheight exercises (3 sets of 8-12 repetitions) in distinct orders (from multi- to single-joint exercises [MS] or from single- to multi-joint exercises [SM]) and a control session, without exercise. Blood pressure and heart rate were obtained pre and post-sessions (60 min). Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic and mean BP in both the MS session (systolic BP: -6.9 mmHg, mean BP: -3.3 mmHg, P< 0.05) and SM session (systolic BP: -4.6 mmHg; mean BP: -1.1 mmHg). Post-exercise heart rate was higher than pre-session values until 30 min of recovery in both training sessions. Furthermore, systolic and mean blood pressure, and heart rate were lower than the values obtained in the control session (30 to 60 min and 0 min, respectively; P<0.05). There were no differences between the SM and MS sessions in any variable or at any moment. In conclusion, resistance exercise order does not interfere in the magnitude and duration of post-exercise hypotension in trained, non-hypertensive older women.

  18. COPD and exercise: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Burtin, Chris; De Boever, Patrick; Langer, Daniël; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Franssen, Frits M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physiological changes are observed following a structured exercise training programme in patients with COPD, without changes in resting lung function. Exercise training is the cornerstone of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme in patients with COPD. Most comorbidities in patients referred for pulmonary rehabilitation remain undiagnosed and untreated. After careful screening, it is safe for COPD patients with comorbidities to obtain significant and clinically relevant improvements in functional exercise capacity and health status after an exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme. Educational aims To inform readers of the positive effects of exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD, even with comorbid conditions. To inform readers of the importance of physical activity in patients with COPD. Exercise training is widely regarded as the cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indeed, exercise training has been identified as the best available means of improving muscle function and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. So, exercise training truly makes a difference in the life of patients with COPD. In this review, an overview is provided on the history of exercise training (as standalone intervention or as part of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme), exercise training in comorbid patients with COPD, and the impact of physical activity counselling in a clean air environment. PMID:27408645

  19. Regular moist snuff dipping does not affect endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Frida; Edin, Fredrik; Mattsson, C Mikael; Larsen, Filip; Ekblom, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1.4 ± 1.7 kg. Total cholesterol increased from 4.12 ± 0.54 (95% CI 3.89-4.35) to 4.46 ± 0.70 (95% CI 4.16-4.75) mM L-1 in SCG, due to increased LDL, and this change was significantly different from CO. Resting values of HDL, C-reactive protein, and free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged in both groups. In SCG group, both HR and BP were reduced during a four-stage incremental cycling test (from 50 to 80% of VO2max) and a prolonged cycling test (60 min at 50% of VO2max). Oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate (bLa) and blood glucose (bGlu) concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were unchanged. In CO group, all measurements were unchanged. During the prolonged cycling test, FFA was reduced, but with no significant difference between groups. During the maximal treadmill running test peak values of VO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE), time to exhaustion and bLa were unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, endurance exercise performance (VO2max and maximal endurance time) does not seem to be affected by prolonged snuff use, while effects on cardiovascular risk factors are contradictory. HR and BP during rest and submaximal exercise are reduced after cessation of regular use of snuff. Evidently, the long-time adrenergic stress on circulation is reversible.

  20. Does vigorous exercise have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson disease?

    PubMed

    Ahlskog, J Eric

    2011-07-19

    Parkinson disease (PD) is progressive, with dementia and medication-refractory motor problems common reasons for late-stage nursing-home placement. Increasing evidence suggests that ongoing vigorous exercise/physical fitness may favorably influence this progression. Parkinsonian animal models reveal exercise-related protection from dopaminergic neurotoxins, apparently mediated by brain neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity (predicted from in vitro studies). Similarly, exercise consistently improves cognition in animals, also linked to enhanced neuroplasticity and increased neurotrophic factor expression. In these animal models, immobilization has the opposite effect. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate at least some of this exercise benefit. In humans, exercise increases serum BDNF, and this is known to cross the blood-brain barrier. PD risk in humans is significantly reduced by midlife exercise, documented in large prospective studies. No studies have addressed whether exercise influences dementia risk in PD, but exercised patients with PD improve cognitive scores. Among seniors in general, exercise or physical fitness has not only been associated with better cognitive scores, but midlife exercise significantly reduces the later risk of both dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Finally, numerous studies in seniors with and without dementia have reported increased cerebral gray matter volumes associated with physical fitness or exercise. These findings have several implications for PD clinicians. (1) Ongoing vigorous exercise and physical fitness should be highly encouraged. (2) PD physical therapy programs should include structured, graduated fitness instruction and guidance for deconditioned patients with PD. (3) Levodopa and other forms of dopamine replenishment therapy should be utilized to achieve the maximum capability and motivation for patients to maintain fitness.

  1. Building technology transfer meetings: A collaborative model for transferring DOE research results to potential users

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.; Hawkins, D.M.; Love, P.M.; Wilde, G.M.

    1994-08-01

    Transferring the technology and results from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored building energy research to potential users is a critical part of DOE`s successful research programs. To assist in this transfer of information and technologies, the DOE Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has established Building Technology Transfer Meetings that are held twice each year at one of the 10 DOE Regional Support Offices. Meeting participants include DOE personnel and representatives from each of the national laboratories involved in OBT buildings energy research as well as representatives from the DOE Regional Support Offices and other agencies involved in the buildings sector. Since 1991, OBT has held five meetings: Washington D.C., San Francisco, Denver, Oak Ridge, and Seattle. The purpose of these meetings is twofold: (1) for DOE to share information about such topics as new research results, new technologies, and new ways to collaborate with industry and universities to leverage resources; and (2) for the participants to use this information within their region to accelerate the transfer and deployment of new energy-efficient building technologies. The meetings include presentations, demonstrations, and tours. The meetings have provided an excellent opportunity for staff from the Regional Support Offices to learn about new technologies through their interactions with OBT and national laboratory program managers. Meeting tours and demonstrations have provided beneficial opportunities to get hands-on experience with new technologies and to see them in practice.

  2. Does Exercise Decrease Pain Via Conditioned Pain Modulation in Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Stolzman, Stacy; Bement, Marie Hoeger

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pain relief after exercise, exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), is established across the lifespan. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM: pain inhibits pain) may be a mechanism for EIH. Methods In 55 adolescents, pressure pain thresholds were measured before and after exercise (deltoid, quadriceps, and nail bed) and during CPM at the nail bed and deltoid test stimulus sites. The relation between EIH and CPM was explored. Results EIH occurred at deltoid and quadriceps; CPM occurred at nail bed and deltoid. CPM and EIH correlated at deltoid; adolescents with greater CPM experienced greater pain relief after exercise. At this site, CPM predicted 5.4% of EIH. Arm lean mass did not add a significant effect. Peak exercise pain did not influence EIH. Adolescents with none, minimal, moderate, or severe peak exercise pain experienced similar EIH. Conclusions A potential relation exists between CPM and EIH in adolescents. Pediatric physical therapists should consider the CPM response when prescribing exercise as a pain management tool. PMID:27661245

  3. Age does not affect exercise intensity progression among women.

    PubMed

    Ciolac, Emmanuel G; Brech, Guilherme C; Greve, Júlia M D

    2010-11-01

    It has been recommended that the intensity of exercise training (ET) should progress slowly with lower increments in older than in young people. However, scientific evidence supporting this recommendation is lacking. Our aim was to examine possible influences of age on exercise intensity progression in healthy women. Seventeen young (29.1 ± 5.7 years) and 16 older women (64.5 ± 4.5 years) underwent 13 weeks of ET consisting of cycle ergometry (CE, 65-75% of reserve heart rate), whole-body resistance exercise (RE, 60% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and stretching. Muscle strength was assessed before and after ET by the 1RM. Cycle ergometry and RE workloads were recorded for each exercise session, and increases of 5-10% were made whenever adaptation occurred. Absolute muscle strength after ET improved (p < 0.001) in both groups, and there were no significant differences between groups. Relative exercise intensity progression was not significantly different between groups for RE (Pearson's correlation = 0.98 ± 0.01), but it was greater in older women for CE (p = 0.047). The ET was safe because no injuries or major muscle pain was observed in either group. These results suggest that healthy older women are capable of exercising and increasing exercise intensity in the same way as young women.

  4. Does exercise reduce brain oxidative stress? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Camiletti-Moirón, D; Aparicio, V A; Aranda, P; Radak, Z

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the influence of different exercise programs on brain oxidative stress. A search of the literature was conducted up to 1 December 2012 across five databases: PUBMED, SCOPUS, SPORTS DISCUS, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. The search strategy used in the electronic databases mentioned was established as: (swim* OR exercise OR training) AND ("oxidative stress" AND brain) for each database. A methodological quality assessment valuation/estimation was additionally carried out in the final sample of studies. Of 1553 potentially eligible papers, 19 were included after inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality assessment showed a total score in the Quality Index between 40% and 80%, with a mean quality of 56.8%. Overall, regular moderate aerobic exercise appears to promote antioxidant capacity on brain. In contrast, anaerobic or high-intensity exercise, aerobic-exhausted exercise, or the combination of both types of training could deteriorate the antioxidant response. Future investigations should be focused on establishing a standardized exercise protocol, depending on the exercise metabolism wanted to test, which could enhance the objective knowledge in this topic.

  5. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05). Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05). These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior. PMID:27490493

  6. Hypohydration does not impair skeletal muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P D; Sawka, M N; Young, A J; Quigley, M D; Latzka, W A; Levine, L

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of moderate hypohydration (HY) on skeletal muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise. On two occasions, eight males completed 2 h of intermittent cycle ergometer exercise (4 bouts of 17 min at 60% and 3 min at 80% of maximal O2 consumption/10 min rest) to reduce muscle glycogen concentrations (control values 711 +/- 41 mumol/g dry wt). During one trial, cycle exercise was followed by several hours of light upper body exercise in the heat without fluid replacement to induce HY (-5% body wt); in the second trial, sufficient water was ingested during the upper body exercise and heat exposure to maintain euhydration (EU). In both trials, 400 g of carbohydrate were ingested at the completion of exercise and followed by 15 h of rest while the desired hydration level was maintained. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis immediately after intermittent cycle exercise (T1) and after 15 h of rest (T2). During the HY trial, the muscle water content was lower (P less than 0.05) at T1 and T2 (288 +/- 9 and 265 +/- 5 ml/100 g dry wt, respectively; NS) than during EU (313 +/- 8 and 301 +/- 4 ml/100 g dry wt, respectively; NS). Muscle glycogen concentration was not significantly different during EU and HY at T1 (200 +/- 35 vs. 251 +/- 50 mumol/g dry wt) or T2 (452 +/- 34 vs. 491 +/- 35 mumol/g dry wt). These data indicate that, despite reduced water content during the first 15 h after heavy exercise, skeletal muscle glycogen resynthesis is not impaired.

  7. Modulating exercise-induced hormesis: Does less equal more?

    PubMed

    Peake, Jonathan M; Markworth, James F; Nosaka, Kazunori; Raastad, Truls; Wadley, Glenn D; Coffey, Vernon G

    2015-08-01

    Hormesis encompasses the notion that low levels of stress stimulate or upregulate existing cellular and molecular pathways that improve the capacity of cells and organisms to withstand greater stress. This notion underlies much of what we know about how exercise conditions the body and induces long-term adaptations. During exercise, the body is exposed to various forms of stress, including thermal, metabolic, hypoxic, oxidative, and mechanical stress. These stressors activate biochemical messengers, which in turn activate various signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and adaptive responses. Historically, antioxidant supplements, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cryotherapy have been favored to attenuate or counteract exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. However, reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators are key signaling molecules in muscle, and such strategies may mitigate adaptations to exercise. Conversely, withholding dietary carbohydrate and restricting muscle blood flow during exercise may augment adaptations to exercise. In this review article, we combine, integrate, and apply knowledge about the fundamental mechanisms of exercise adaptation. We also critically evaluate the rationale for using interventions that target these mechanisms under the overarching concept of hormesis. There is currently insufficient evidence to establish whether these treatments exert dose-dependent effects on muscle adaptation. However, there appears to be some dissociation between the biochemical/molecular effects and functional/performance outcomes of some of these treatments. Although several of these treatments influence common kinases, transcription factors, and proteins, it remains to be determined if these interventions complement or negate each other, and whether such effects are strong enough to influence adaptations to exercise.

  8. Personality does not influence exercise-induced mood enhancement among female exercisers.

    PubMed

    Milton, K E; Lane, A M; Terry, P C

    2005-06-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that a) exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, b) extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and c) personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M=25.8 y, SD=9.0 y) who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory once and the Brunel Mood Scale before and after a 60-min exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into 4 personality types: stable introverts (n=25), stable extroverts (n=20), neurotic introverts (n=26), and neurotic extroverts (n=19). Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. Findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood.

  9. Does Stroke Volume Increase During an Incremental Exercise? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Stella S.; Lemes, Brunno; de T. C. de Carvalho, Paulo; N. de Lima, Rafael; S. Bocalini, Danilo; A. S. Junior, José; Arsa, Gisela; A. Casarin, Cezar; L. Andrade, Erinaldo; J. Serra, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac output increases during incremental-load exercise to meet metabolic skeletal muscle demand. This response requires a fast adjustment in heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is well known to increase linearly with exercise load; however, data for stroke volume during incremental-load exercise are unclear. Our objectives were to (a) review studies that have investigated stroke volume on incremental load exercise and (b) summarize the findings for stroke volume, primarily at maximal-exercise load. Methods: A comprehensive review of the Cochrane Library’s, Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, PubMed, and Web of Sci-ence databases was carried out for the years 1985 to the present. The search was performed between February and June 2014 to find studies evaluating changes in stroke volume during incremental-load exercise. Controlled and uncontrolled trials were evaluated for a quality score. Results: The stroke volume data in maximal-exercise load are inconsistent. There is evidence to hypothesis that stroke volume increases during maximal-exercise load, but other lines of evidence indicate that stroke volume reaches a plateau under these circumstances, or even decreases. Conclusion: The stroke volume are unclear, include contradictory evidence. Additional studies with standardized reporting for subjects (e.g., age, gender, physical fitness, and body position), exercise test protocols, and left ventricular function are required to clarify the characteristics of stroke volume during incremental maximal-exercise load. PMID:27347221

  10. Does Stroke Volume Increase During an Incremental Exercise? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Stella S; Lemes, Brunno; de T C de Carvalho, Paulo; N de Lima, Rafael; S Bocalini, Danilo; A S Junior, José; Arsa, Gisela; A Casarin, Cezar; L Andrade, Erinaldo; J Serra, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac output increases during incremental-load exercise to meet metabolic skeletal muscle demand. This response requires a fast adjustment in heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is well known to increase linearly with exercise load; however, data for stroke volume during incremental-load exercise are unclear. Our objectives were to (a) review studies that have investigated stroke volume on incremental load exercise and (b) summarize the findings for stroke volume, primarily at maximal-exercise load. A comprehensive review of the Cochrane Library's, Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, PubMed, and Web of Sci-ence databases was carried out for the years 1985 to the present. The search was performed between February and June 2014 to find studies evaluating changes in stroke volume during incremental-load exercise. Controlled and uncontrolled trials were evaluated for a quality score. The stroke volume data in maximal-exercise load are inconsistent. There is evidence to hypothesis that stroke volume increases during maximal-exercise load, but other lines of evidence indicate that stroke volume reaches a plateau under these circumstances, or even decreases. The stroke volume are unclear, include contradictory evidence. Additional studies with standardized reporting for subjects (e.g., age, gender, physical fitness, and body position), exercise test protocols, and left ventricular function are required to clarify the characteristics of stroke volume during incremental maximal-exercise load.

  11. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost.

  12. Personality Does not Influence Exercise-Induced Mood Enhancement Among Female Exercisers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrew M; Milton, Karen E; Terry, Peter C

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a) exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b) extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c) personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr) who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25), stable extroverts (n = 20), neurotic introverts (n = 26), and neurotic extroverts (n = 19). Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood. Key PointsResearch in general psychology has found that stable personality trait are associated changes in mood states. Ninety females exercisers completed a personality test and mood scales before and after exercise. Results indicated mood changes were not associated with personality, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood.

  13. Personality Does not Influence Exercise-Induced Mood Enhancement Among Female Exercisers

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew M.; Milton, Karen E.; Terry, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a) exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b) extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c) personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr) who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25), stable extroverts (n = 20), neurotic introverts (n = 26), and neurotic extroverts (n = 19). Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood. Key Points Research in general psychology has found that stable personality trait are associated changes in mood states. Ninety females exercisers completed a personality test and mood scales before and after exercise. Results indicated mood changes were not associated with personality, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood. PMID:24453525

  14. The annual ASCI meeting: does nostalgia have a future?

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2008-04-01

    For many academic physician-scientists, the yearly Tri-Societies meeting of the ASCI, AAP, and AFCR during the 1960s, '70s, and '80s was an annual rite of spring and the focal point of the academic year. In this brief essay, I set down some miscellaneous recollections of these meetings and some thoughts about why they were of such central importance in the careers of those of my generation.

  15. 1990 DOE/SANDIA crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, D.S.

    1990-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held August 7 through 9, 1990 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator 3-5 cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  16. The annual ASCI meeting: does nostalgia have a future?

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    For many academic physician-scientists, the yearly Tri-Societies meeting of the ASCI, AAP, and AFCR during the 1960s, ’70s, and ’80s was an annual rite of spring and the focal point of the academic year. In this brief essay, I set down some miscellaneous recollections of these meetings and some thoughts about why they were of such central importance in the careers of those of my generation. PMID:18382732

  17. 43 CFR 3137.89 - How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands: Interior... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? (a) If a well that does not meet the productivity... production becomes a part of that participating area production even if it does not meet the productivity...

  18. 43 CFR 3137.89 - How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands: Interior... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? (a) If a well that does not meet the productivity... production becomes a part of that participating area production even if it does not meet the productivity...

  19. 43 CFR 3137.89 - How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands: Interior... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? (a) If a well that does not meet the productivity... production becomes a part of that participating area production even if it does not meet the productivity...

  20. 43 CFR 3137.89 - How does production allocation occur from wells that do not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.89 Section 3137.89 Public Lands: Interior... wells that do not meet the productivity criteria? (a) If a well that does not meet the productivity... production becomes a part of that participating area production even if it does not meet the...

  1. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are non-unit...

  2. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are non-unit...

  3. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are non-unit...

  4. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of public meetings and workshops: A new approach for improving DOE public involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.; Williams, G.; Goldberg, M.

    1993-07-01

    Although public participation in the environmental cleanup process has been ongoing in the US Department of Energy (DOE) for some time, little if any evaluation of these efforts to include the public has taken place. This report contains the results of an evaluation of six regional workshops and meetings. These meetings and workshops focused on the implementation plan for the programmatic environmental impact statement on DOE`s environmental cleanup efforts. The formats of the workshops and meetings differed from typical public meetings by offering more opportunity for interaction between agency personnel and the public, using impartial facilitators, and including more elaborate promotional strategies than notification in the Federal Register. Questionnaires and focus groups were used to solicit participants` perspectives on the meetings.

  6. Does a Drama-Inspired "Mirroring" Exercise Enhance Mathematical Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyrnis, Eleni; Ginns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning from complex instructional materials typically requires sustained attention, but many learners--both children and adults--may find their minds "wandering" when learning. Drama educators have argued that "mirroring" exercises, where students in pairs or groups mirror each other's movements, improve attention; but, to…

  7. Does a Drama-Inspired "Mirroring" Exercise Enhance Mathematical Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyrnis, Eleni; Ginns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning from complex instructional materials typically requires sustained attention, but many learners--both children and adults--may find their minds "wandering" when learning. Drama educators have argued that "mirroring" exercises, where students in pairs or groups mirror each other's movements, improve attention; but, to…

  8. Does correction of exercise-induced desaturation by O(2) always improve exercise tolerance in COPD? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Héraud, Nelly; Préfaut, Christian; Durand, Fabienne; Varray, Alain

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to investigate whether correction of exercise-induced desaturation by oxygen supply (O(2)) systematically improves exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory adaptations in COPD patients. Twenty-five COPD patients [FEV(1)=52+/-2.5% pred] exhibiting exercise-induced desaturation performed cyclo-ergometer endurance exercise at 60%of their maximal workload in two randomized conditions: air vs. O(2). O(2) was adjusted to ensure 90 < or = SpO(2) < or = 95%. Endurance time (Tlim), dyspnoea, ventilation (V (E)), breathing frequency (fb), tidal volume (V(T)), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR) and arterio-venous difference in oxygen (AVD) were compared between conditions. The comparison of whole group performance between conditions revealed no differences, but individual analysis showed that O(2) increased Tlim for 14 patients [+68%; p<0.01; (positive responders)], decreased it for seven [-36%; p<0.05; (negative responders)] and induced no change for four (non-responders). For positive responders, improved performance was supported by reduced dyspnoea, V (E), fb, HR and CO and increased AVD. For negative responders, hyperoxia resulted in increased dyspnoea and fb without change in V (E) or cardiovascular parameters. For comparable correction of exercise desaturation, O(2) does not induce similar effects on exercise responses in all patients. These results were confirmed in complementary study with 11 consecutives patients at higher exercise intensity. For R+, we recorded the classic and expected O(2) effects on cardiorespiratory adaptations (i.e. reduced ventilatory demand and cardiac output). In the other group, exercise breathing frequency and dyspnoea were paradoxically increased despite desaturation correction. However, this study must be considered as pilot study, which will need to be confirmed in future studies conducted on a larger case series.

  9. Chronotropic Incompetence Does Not Limit Exercise Capacity in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Haqeel A; Gierula, John; Paton, Maria F; Byrom, Roo; Lowry, Judith E; Cubbon, Richard M; Cairns, David A; Kearney, Mark T; Witte, Klaus K

    2016-04-26

    Limited heart rate (HR) rise (HRR) during exercise, known as chronotropic incompetence (CI), is commonly observed in chronic heart failure (CHF). HRR is closely related to workload, the limitation of which is characteristic of CHF. Whether CI is a causal factor for exercise intolerance, or simply an associated feature remains unknown. This study sought to clarify the role of the HR on exercise capacity in CHF. This series of investigations consisted of a retrospective cohort study and 2 interventional randomized crossover studies to assess: 1) the relationship between HRR and exercise capacity in CHF; and 2) the effect of increasing and lowering HR on exercise capacity in CHF as assessed by symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and measurement of peak oxygen consumption in patients with CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The 3 key findings were: 1) the association of exercise capacity and HRR is much weaker in severe CHF compared to normal left ventricular function; 2) increasing HRR using rate-adaptive pacing (versus fixed-rate pacing) in unselected patients with CHF does not improve peak exercise capacity; and 3) acutely lowering baseline and peak HR by adjusting pacemaker variables in conjunction with a single dose of ivabradine does not adversely affect exercise capacity in unselected CHF patients. The data refute the contention that CI contributes to impaired exercise capacity in CHF. This finding has widespread implications for pacemaker programming and the use of heart-rate lowering agents. (The Influence of Heart Rate Limitation on Exercise Tolerance in Pacemaker Patients [TREPPE]; NCT02247245). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training?

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise.

  11. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:20799963

  12. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Flindtgaard, M; Skriver, K; Geertsen, S S; Christiansen, L; Korsgaard Johnsen, L; Busk, D V P; Bojsen-Møller, E; Madsen, M J; Ritz, C; Roig, M; Lundbye-Jensen, J

    2016-10-27

    A single bout of high-intensity exercise can augment off-line gains in skills acquired during motor practice. It is currently unknown if the type of physical exercise influences the effect on motor skill consolidation. This study investigated the effect of three types of high-intensity exercise following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill were performed 1 (R1h) and 24 h (R1d) post acquisition. For all exercise groups, mean motor performance scores decreased at R1h compared to post acquisition (POST) level; STR (P = 0.018), CT (P = 0.02), HOC (P = 0.014) and performance scores decreased for CT compared to CON (P = 0.049). Mean performance scores increased from POST to R1d for all exercise groups; STR (P = 0.010), CT (P = 0.020), HOC (P = 0.007) while performance scores for CON decreased (P = 0.043). Changes in motor performance were thus greater for STR (P = 0.006), CT (P < 0.001) and HOC (P < 0.001) compared to CON from POST to R1d. The results demonstrate that high-intensity, acute exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed.

  13. Low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise does not limit muscle oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-03-01

    The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5-min one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24 +/- 1 W, mean +/- SD) without (Con) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) to inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostanoids, respectively. Leg blood flow and leg oxygen delivery throughout exercise was 25-50% lower (P < 0.05) in DB compared with Con. Leg oxygen extraction (arteriovenous O(2) difference) was higher (P < 0.05) in DB than in Con (5 s: 127 +/- 3 vs. 56 +/- 4 ml/l), and leg oxygen uptake was not different between Con and DB during exercise. The difference between leg oxygen delivery and leg oxygen uptake was smaller (P < 0.05) during exercise in DB than in Con (5 s: 59 +/- 12 vs. 262 +/- 39 ml/min). The present data demonstrate that muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery can be markedly reduced without affecting muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of moderate-intensity exercise, suggesting that blood flow does not limit muscle oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise. Additionally, prostanoids and/or nitric oxide appear to play important roles in elevating skeletal muscle blood flow in the initial phase of exercise.

  14. Sildenafil does not Improve Exercise Capacity under Acute Hypoxia Exposure.

    PubMed

    Toro-Salinas, A H; Fort, N; Torrella, J R; Pagès, T; Javierre, C; Viscor, G

    2016-09-01

    The increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) due to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) could be a limiting factor for physical performance during hypoxic exposure. Sildenafil has been shown to reduce PAP in situations of moderate or severe hypoxia, and consequently its role as an ergogenic aid and even a possible doping substance must be considered. We performed a double-blind crossover study to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic parameters in normoxia and during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (4 000 m) at rest and during maximal and submaximal (60% VO2 max) exercise tests. One hour before testing started, sildenafil (100 mg) or a placebo was orally administered to 11 volunteers. In normoxic conditions, sildenafil did not affect performance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in cardiovascular and respiratory parameters in hypoxic conditions at rest or during exercise. The use of sildenafil to improve physical performance in non-acclimatized subjects is not supported by our data. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Does exercise affect the antioxidant system in patients with ankylosing spondylitis?

    PubMed

    Günendi, Zafer; Sepici Dinçel, Aylin; Erdoğan, Zeynep; Aknar, Ozlem; Yanpal, Selma; Göğüş, Feride; Atalay, Fatma

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of regular supervised exercise program on functional status, disease activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) level in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-two patients (mean age: 44 years) with AS were included in the study and divided into two groups. Group 1, the exercise group (n = 16), attended a supervised exercise program that consisted of aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 1 h a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. Group 2, the control group, received a home exercise program (n:16). Bath AS Activity Index (BASDAI) and Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) were calculated and serum TAS levels were measured for each patient at 0 and 3 weeks. There was no significant difference in patients' baseline characteristics (age, disease duration, BASFI, and BASDAI scores) between exercise and control groups. In the exercise group, there were significant improvements between pre-exercise and post-exercise assessments in BASFI (2.8 +/- 1,8; 1.7 +/- 1,40, p = 0.004) and BASDAI scores (2.1 +/- 1.7; 1.2 +/- 1.3, p = 0.01). Mean TAS levels were significantly decreased after supervised exercise program (1.48 +/- 0.16 mmol/L; 1.36 +/- 0.20 mmol/L, p = 0.03). In the control group, BASFI score (2.4 +/- 1.7; 2.9 +/- 2.1, p = 0.19), BASDAI score (2.6 +/- 2.2; 3.1 +/- 2.6, p = 0.33), and mean TAS levels (1.38 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; 1.39 +/- 0.20 mmol/L, p = 0.66) did not differ significantly between 0 and 3 weeks. Short-term, supervised exercise program improved functional status and decreased disease activity. However, the mechanism of this beneficial clinical effect does not seem to be through antioxidant activity.

  16. Acute exercise does not decrease liver fat in men with overweight or NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Bilet, L.; Brouwers, B.; van Ewijk, P. A.; Hesselink, M. K. C.; Kooi, M. E.; Schrauwen, P.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V. B.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated hepatic lipid content (IntraHepatic Lipid, IHL) increases the risk of metabolic complications. Although prolonged exercise training lowers IHL, it is unknown if acute exercise has the same effect. Furthermore, hepatic ATP content may be related to insulin resistance and IHL. We aimed to investigate if acute exercise leads to changes in IHL and whether this is accompanied by changes in hepatic ATP. Twenty-one men (age 54.8 ± 7.2 years, BMI 29.7 ± 2.2 kg/m2) performed a 2 h cycling protocol, once while staying fasted and once while ingesting glucose. IHL was determined at baseline, 30 min post-exercise and 4 h post-exercise. Additionally ATP/Total P ratio was measured at baseline and 4 h post-exercise. Compared with baseline values we did not observe any statistically significant changes in IHL within 30 min post-exercise in neither the fasted nor the glucose-supplemented condition. However, IHL was elevated 4 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the fasted condition (from 8.3 ± 1.8 to 8.7 ± 1.8%, p = 0.010), an effect that was blunted by glucose supplementation (from 8.3 ± 1.9 to 8.3 ± 1.9%, p = 0.789). Acute exercise does not decrease liver fat in overweight middle-aged men. Moreover, IHL increased 4 h post-exercise in the fasted condition, an increase that was absent in the glucose-supplemented condition. These data suggest that a single bout of exercise may not be able to lower IHL. PMID:25866366

  17. DOE-EDER international energy exercise March, 2009 event outline

    SciTech Connect

    Toole, Loren G

    2009-01-01

    The goals are to test and explore the DOE National Labs ability to quickly map, characterize and analyze an event involving Mexico's energy infrastructure system in the wake of a major disruption of energy supplies from Mexico to the US. Focus on the economic impacts and system interdependencies as well as analysis related to restoration and recovery issues.

  18. Does electrical stimulation enhance post-exercise performance recovery?

    PubMed

    Babault, Nicolas; Cometti, Carole; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Deley, Gaëlle

    2011-10-01

    Elite sport requires high-volume and high-intensity training that inevitably induces neuromuscular fatigue detrimental for physical performance. Improving recovery processes is, therefore, fundamental and to this, a wide variety of recovery modalities could be proposed. Among them, neuromuscular electrical stimulation is largely adopted particularly by endurance-type and team sport athletes. This type of solicitation, when used with low stimulation frequencies, induces contractions of short duration and low intensity comparable to active recovery. This might be of interest to favour muscle blood flow and therefore metabolites washout to accelerate recovery kinetics during and after fatiguing exercises, training sessions or competition. However, although electrical stimulation is often used for recovery, limited evidence exists regarding its effects for an improvement of most physiological variables or reduced subjective rating of muscle soreness. Therefore, the main aim of this brief review is to present recent results from the literature to clarify the effectiveness of electrical stimulation as a recovery modality.

  19. Exercise intensity does not affect the composition of diet- and exercise-induced body mass loss.

    PubMed

    Ballor, D L; McCarthy, J P; Wilterdink, E J

    1990-02-01

    The effect of caloric restriction (1200 kcal/d intake) in combination with high (High) (80-90% of peak VO2) or low (Low) (40-50% of peak VO2) exercise work rates on the composition of lost body mass was determined in 27 obese women (percent fat, 36.7 +/- 4.2%; mean +/- SD). All subjects trained 3 d/wk for 8 wk, with the High (n = 14) and Low (n = 13) groups exercising for 25 and 50 min/d, respectively. After posttesting there were no differences between the groups with respect to pre- to posttest changes (mean of combined groups) in body mass (-7%), fat-free mass (-10%), fat mass (-16%), percent fat (-10%), and sum of five skinfold-thickness measurements (-16%). This study suggests that with regard to conservation of fat-free mass, the selection of an exercise intensity for a diet and exercise regimen may be left to the preference of the clinician and/or dieter.

  20. Moderate exercise-induced energy expenditure does not alter leptin levels in sedentary obese men.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, George A; Caplan, Jonathan D; Lowndes, Joshua; Carpenter, Richard L; Dennis, Karen E; Sivo, Stephen A; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether exercise-induced increases in energy expenditure (EE) alter circulating leptin levels in obese individuals. Participants were randomized to an exercise intervention group (n = 8) or nonexercising control (n = 7). All data were collected on an outpatient basis at the exercise physiology laboratory at the University of Central Florida. Fifteen healthy obese males (24.9 +/- 1.4 years old, body mass index 33.4 +/- 0.7 kg . m). Members of the intervention group underwent a single exercise session of moderate intensity (58.4 +/- 1.3% of VO2max) for 60 minutes. Postexercise, 24 hour postexercise, and 48 hour postexercise levels of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin. The exercise session elicited an EE of 567 +/- 25 Kcal. No significant main effect or time-by-group interactions for leptin or ghrelin were observed immediately after the exercise bout or in the days following the intervention. These preliminary data suggest that a bout of acute exercise of moderate intensity and duration does not affect leptin concentration. It is possible that a higher level of EE is required to elicit substantial changes.

  1. The magnitude of muscle strain does not influence serial sarcomere number adaptations following eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-02-01

    It is generally accepted that eccentric exercise, when performed by a muscle that is unaccustomed to that type of contraction, results in a delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). A prolonged exposure to eccentric exercise leads to the disappearance of the signs and symptoms associated with DOMS, which has been referred to as the repeated bout effect (RBE). Although the mechanisms underlying the RBE remain unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the serial sarcomere number addition following exercise induced muscle damage. In the traditional DOMS and RBE protocols, muscle injury has been treated as a global parameter, with muscle force and strain assumed to be uniform throughout the muscle. To assess the effects of muscle-tendon unit strain, fiber strain, torque and injury on serial sarcomere number adaptations, three groups of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were subjected to chronic repetitive eccentric exercise bouts of the ankle dorsiflexors for 6 weeks. These eccentric exercise protocols consisted of identical muscle tendon unit (MTU) strain, but other mechanical factors were systematically altered. Following chronic eccentric exercise, serial sarcomere number adaptations were not identical between the three eccentric exercise protocols, and serial sarcomere number adaptations were not uniform across all regions of the muscle. Peak torque and relaxation fiber strain were the best predictors of serial sarcomere number across all three protocols. Therefore, MTU strain does not appear to be the primary cause for sarcomerogenesis, and differential adaptations within the muscle may be explained by the nonuniform architecture of the muscle, resulting in differential local fiber strains.

  2. Creatine supplementation does not decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciano A; Tromm, Camila B; Da Rosa, Guilherme; Bom, Karoliny; Luciano, Thais F; Tuon, Talita; De Souza, Cláudio T; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six male rats were used; divided into 6 groups (n = 6): saline; creatine (Cr); eccentric exercise (EE) plus saline 24 h (saline + 24 h); eccentric exercise plus Cr 24 h (Cr + 24 h); eccentric exercise plus saline 48 h (saline + 48 h); and eccentric exercise plus Cr 48 h (Cr + 48 h). Cr supplementation was administered as a solution of 300 mg · kg body weight(-1) · day(-1) in 1 mL water, for two weeks, before the eccentric exercise. The animals were submitted to one downhill run session at 1.0 km · h(-1) until exhaustion. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours after the exercise, the animals were killed, and the quadriceps were removed. Creatine kinase levels, superoxide production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, carbonyl content, total thiol content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-1b (IL-1β), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kb), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were analysed. Cr supplementation neither decreases Cr kinase, superoxide production, lipoperoxidation, carbonylation, total thiol, IL-1β, NF-kb, or TNF nor alters the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxides in relation to the saline group, respectively (P < 0.05). There are positive correlations between Cr kinase and TBARS and TNF-α 48 hours after eccentric exercise. The present study suggests that Cr supplementation does not decrease oxidative stress and inflammation after eccentric contraction.

  3. Resistance exercise training does not affect postexercise hypotension and wave reflection in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, J Derek; McMillan, Victor; Figueroa, Arturo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) on aortic wave reflection and hemodynamics during recovery from acute resistance exercise in women with fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy women (HW). Nine women with FM (aged 42 ± 5 years; mean ± SD) and 14 HW (aged 45 ± 5 years) completed testing at baseline and after 12 weeks of whole-body RET that consisted of 3 sets of 5 exercises. Heart rate (HR), digital blood pressure (BP, plethysmography), aortic BP, and wave reflection (radial tonometry) were assessed before and 20 min after acute leg resistance exercise. Aortic and digital diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and aortic and digital pulse pressures (PP) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) after acute exercise before RET. Acute resistance exercise had no effect on HR, wave reflection (augmentation index and reflection time), digital, or aortic systolic BP. RET improved muscle strength without affecting acute DBP and PP responses. Acute resistance exercise produces postexercise diastolic hypotension without affecting systolic blood pressure, HR, and wave reflection responses in women with and without FM. RET does not alter resting and postexercise hemodynamics and aortic wave reflection in premenopausal women.

  4. Meeting the Basic Needs of Children: Does Income Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gennetian, Lisa A.; Castells, Nina; Morris, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    We review existing research and policy evidence about income as an essential component to meeting children’s basic needs—that is, income represented as the purest monetary transfer for increasing the purchasing power of low income families. Social scientists have made great methodological strides in establishing whether income has independent effects on the cognitive development of low-income children. Our review of that research suggests that a $1,000 increase in income has positive, but small, effects on children, rarely exceeding 1/10th of a standard deviation change in outcomes for children. We argue that researchers are well-positioned for more rigorous investigations about how and why income affects children, but only first with thoughtful and creative regard for conceptual clarity, and on understanding income’s potentially inter-related influences on socio-emotional development, mental, and physical health. We also argue for more focus on the effects of income transfers, including when conditional on employment, as compared to more targeted direct investments in children. We end with a description of two-generation and cafeteria-style programs as the frontiers of the next generation in income-enhancement policies, and with the promise of insights from behavioral economics. PMID:20689675

  5. Creatine supplementation does not alter neuromuscular recovery after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Boychuk, Kellie E; Lanovaz, Joel L; Krentz, Joel R; Lishchynsky, Justin T; Candow, Darren G; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine (CR) supplementation on recovery after eccentric exercise (ECC). Fourteen men were assigned randomly to ingest 0.3 g/kg of CR or placebo (PL) before and during recovery (48 hours) from 6 sets of 8 repetitions of ECC. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), muscle thickness (MT), electromyography (EMG), contractile properties, and soreness were assessed. MVC, evoked twitch torque, and rate of torque development decreased for both groups immediately after ECC and recovered at 48 hours. MT increased and remained elevated at 48 hours for both groups. Soreness increased similarly for both groups. EMG activation was higher for CR versus PL only at 48 hours. There were no group differences for torque, total work, or fatigue index during ECC. CR supplementation before and during recovery from ECC had no effect on strength, voluntary activation, or indicators of muscle damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 487-495, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. INFOTECH `92: DOE Technical Information (TI) Meeting, October 21--23, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This proceedings contains papers presented at the 1992 Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Information Meeting held at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 21--23, 1992. It is composed of written presentation given orally at the meeting in either large-group or break-out sessions. The proceedings is provided as a reference tool for those who attended the meeting as well as an information document for those unable to attend. The annual DOE Technical Information meeting is designed for information professionals involved in the management of the Department`s scientific and technical information (STI). Speakers include members of the OSTI staff as well as DOE and DOE contractors and other invited specialists in the field of information. The major objective of the meeting is to provide a forum within the Department for discussing current and future information policies, trends, and management techniques as well as the technologies and standards available for managing and accessing scientific and technical information.

  7. Exercise training does not increase muscle FNDC5 protein or mRNA expression in pigs.

    PubMed

    Fain, John N; Company, Joseph M; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Bahouth, Suleiman W; Sacks, Harold S

    2013-10-01

    Exercise training elevates circulating irisin and induces the expression of the FNDC5 gene in skeletal muscles of mice. Our objective was to determine whether exercise training also increases FNDC5 protein or mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of pigs as well as plasma irisin. Castrated male pigs of the Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FHM) strain and normal (Yucatan miniature) pigs were sacrificed after 16-20 weeks of exercise training. Samples of cardiac muscle, deltoid and triceps brachii muscle, subcutaneous and epicardial fat were obtained and FNDC5 mRNA, along with that of 6 other genes, was measured in all tissues of FHM pigs by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. FNDC protein in deltoid and triceps brachii was determined by Western blotting in both FHM and normal pigs. Citrate synthase activity was measured in the muscle samples of all pigs as an index of exercise training. Irisin was measured by an ELISA assay. There was no statistically significant effect of exercise training on FNDC5 gene expression in epicardial or subcutaneous fat, deltoid muscle, triceps brachii muscle or heart muscle. Exercise-training elevated circulating levels of irisin in the FHM pigs and citrate synthase activity in deltoid and triceps brachii muscle. A similar increase in citrate synthase activity was seen in muscle extracts of exercise-trained normal pigs but there was no alteration in circulating irisin. Exercise training in pigs does not increase FNDC5 mRNA or protein in the deltoid or triceps brachii of FHM or normal pigs while increasing circulating irisin only in the FHM pigs. These data indicate that the response to exercise training in normal pigs is not comparable to that seen in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise training does not increase muscle FNDC5 protein or mRNA expression in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fain, John N.; Company, Joseph M.; Booth, Frank W.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Bahouth, Suleiman W.; Sacks, Harold S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise training elevates circulating irisin and induces the expression of the FNDC5 gene in skeletal muscles of mice. Our objective was to determine whether exercise training also increases FNDC5 protein or mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of pigs as well as plasma irisin. Methods Castrated male pigs of the Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FHM) strain and normal (Yucatan miniature) pigs were sacrificed after 16–20 weeks of exercise training. Samples of cardiac muscle, deltoid and triceps brachii muscle, subcutaneous and epicardial fat were obtained and FNDC5 mRNA, along with that of 6 other genes, was measured in all tissues of FHM pigs by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. FNDC protein in deltoid and triceps brachii was determined by Western blotting in both FHM and normal pigs. Citrate synthase activity was measured in the muscle samples of all pigs as an index of exercise training. Irisin was measured by an ELISA assay. Results There was no statistically significant effect of exercise training on FNDC5 gene expression in epicardial or subcutaneous fat, deltoid muscle, triceps brachii muscle or heart muscle. Exercise-training elevated circulating levels of irisin in the FHM pigs and citrate synthase activity in deltoid and triceps brachii muscle. A similar increase in citrate synthase activity was seen in muscle extracts of exercise-trained normal pigs but there was no alteration in circulating irisin. Conclusion Exercise training in pigs does not increase FNDC5 mRNA or protein in the deltoid or triceps brachii of FHM or normal pigs while increasing circulating irisin only in the FHM pigs. These data indicate that the response to exercise training in normal pigs is not comparable to that seen in mice. PMID:23831442

  9. Does exercise intensity or diet influence lactic acid accumulation in breast milk?

    PubMed

    Quinn, T J; Carey, G B

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among diet, exercise intensity, and breast milk composition in lactating women. Twelve lactating women were randomly assigned to either a high (N = 6; 5.03 g carbohydrate (CHO) x kg body mass (BM)(-1)) or moderate (N = 6; 3.89 g CHO x kg BM(-1)) carbohydrate diet. Milk and blood samples were collected before and after a nonexercise session (control) and maximal, lactic acid-threshold (LAT), and 20% below the LAT (LAT-20) intensities. The 30-min exercise LAT bout was more stressful than the 30-min LAT-20 bout (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) = 15 vs 12, respectively, P < 0.05). Milk LA was significantly higher at 0 min following maximal exercise in the high and moderate CHO groups (1.27+/-0.56 and 1.52+/-0.49 mM, respectively) and following LAT exercise (0.19+/-0.16 and 0.25+/-0.12 mM, respectively), when compared with the control session (0.08+/-0.03 and 0.09+/-0.05 mM, respectively). This was not observed following the LAT-20 exercise in the high and moderate CHO groups (0.11+/-0.04 and 0.12+/-0.08 mM, respectively). Elevated milk LA persisted in the 30-min collection point after maximal exercise only. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on milk or blood LA at any of the collection points. In lactating women whose caloric needs are being met: 1) dietary CHO intake, within a practical range, does not influence LA levels in breast milk at rest or after exercise; 2) LA appearance in the milk is a function of exercise intensity; and 3) moderate intensity exercise (RPE = 12) will not increase breast milk LA levels.

  10. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin; Nyberg, Lars; Boraxbekk, C J

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL). Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak) over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD) in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA), as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness and intrinsic

  11. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.

  12. Exercise for fitness does not decrease the muscular inactivity time during normal daily life.

    PubMed

    Finni, T; Haakana, P; Pesola, A J; Pullinen, T

    2014-02-01

    The time spent in sedentary behaviors has been shown to be independent of exercise in epidemiological studies. We examined within an individual whether exercise alters the time of muscular inactivity within his/her normal daily life. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic activities and heart rate were measured during 1 to 6 days of normal daily living of ordinary people. Of 84 volunteers measured, 27 (15 men, 12 women, 40.7 years ± 16.5 years) fulfilled the criteria of having at least 1 day with and 1 day without exercise for fitness (total of 87 days analyzed, 13.0 h ± 2.5 h/day). Reported exercises varied from Nordic walking to strength training and ball games lasting 30 min-150 min (mean 83 min ± 30 min). Exercise increased the time spent at moderate-to-vigorous muscle activity (6% ± 4% to 9% ± 6%, P < 0.01) and energy expenditure (13% ± 22%, P < 0.05). Muscular inactivity, defined individually below that measured during standing, comprised 72% ± 12% of day without and 68% ± 13% of day with exercise (not significant). Duration of exercise correlated positively to the increase in moderate-to-vigorous muscle activity time (r = 0.312, P < 0.05) but not with inactivity time. In conclusion, exercise for fitness, regardless of its duration, does not decrease the inactivity time during normal daily life. This is possible by slight modifications in daily nonexercise activities. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Creatine supplementation does not reduce muscle damage or enhance recovery from resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Eric S; Conti, Michael P; Miles, Mary P

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that creatine supplementation reduces muscle damage and inflammation following running but not following high-force, eccentric exercise. Although the mechanical strain placed on muscle fibers during high-force, eccentric exercise may be too overwhelming for creatine to exert any protective effect, creatine supplementation may protect skeletal muscle stressed by a resistance training challenge that is more hypoxic in nature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation on markers of muscle damage (i.e., strength, range of motion, muscle soreness, muscle serum protein activity, C-reactive protein) to determine whether creatine supplementation offers protective effects on skeletal muscle following a hypoxic resistance exercise test. Twenty-two healthy, weight-trained men (19-27 years) ingested either creatine or a placebo for 10 days. Following 5 days of supplementation, subjects performed a squat exercise protocol (5 sets of 15-20 repetitions at 50% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). Assessments of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase activity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, maximal strength, range of motion (ROM), and muscle soreness (SOR) with movement and palpation were conducted pre-exercise and during a 5-day follow up. Following the exercise test, maximal strength and ROM decreased, whereas SOR and CK increased. Creatine and placebo-supplemented subjects experienced significant decreases in maximal strength (creatine: 13.4 kg, placebo: 17.5 kg) and ROM (creatine: 2.4 degrees , placebo: 3.0 degrees ) immediately postexercise, with no difference between groups. Following the exercise test, there were significant increases in SOR with movement and palpation (p < 0.05 at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise), and CK activity (p < 0.05 at 24 and 48 hours postexercise), with no differences between groups at any time. These data suggest that oral creatine supplementation does not

  14. 5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.410 Addressing performance... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addressing performance that does not meet...

  15. Does Equating Total Volume of Work between Two Different Exercise Conditions Matter when Examining Exercise-Induced Feeling States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris M.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Bell, Gordon J.

    2004-01-01

    This study offers novel information to the acute exercise-feeling state literature, by using a community sample of exercisers participating in a 12-week exercise program to compare feeling state changes of those who exercised at a HISD versus a LILD. Within this study, pre- and post-exercise feelings states were compared between the two different…

  16. Does Equating Total Volume of Work between Two Different Exercise Conditions Matter when Examining Exercise-Induced Feeling States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris M.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Bell, Gordon J.

    2004-01-01

    This study offers novel information to the acute exercise-feeling state literature, by using a community sample of exercisers participating in a 12-week exercise program to compare feeling state changes of those who exercised at a HISD versus a LILD. Within this study, pre- and post-exercise feelings states were compared between the two different…

  17. Acute, Low-dose CO Inhalation does not Alter Energy Expenditure during Submaximal Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kane, L A; Ryan, B J; Schmidt, W; Byrnes, W C

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas known most widely for its toxic effects at high doses, is receiving increased attention for its role as a physiological signaling molecule and potential therapeutic agent when administered in low doses. We sought to quantify any changes to oxygen consumption and energy expenditure during submaximal exercise after low-dose CO inhalation. 9 active individuals completed 4 graded submaximal exercise tests, with each test occurring during a separate visit. For their first exercise test, subjects inhaled CO or room air (1.2 mL·kg(-1) body mass) in a randomized, subject-blind fashion. A second test was repeated 24 h later when the inhaled gas should have cleared the system. Subjects repeated study procedures with the alternate dose after a washout period of at least 2 days. Low-dose CO administration did not affect oxygen consumption or energy expenditure during submaximal exercise immediately or 24 h following its administration. Increases in heart rate, blood [lactate], and perceived exertion were observed following acute CO inhalation but these effects were absent after 24 h. The results of this study suggest that low-dose CO administration does not influence the energetics of submaximal exercise, but it acutely increases the relative intensity associated with absolute workloads below the lactate threshold. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Intensified exercise training does not alter AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Clark, S A; Chen, Z-P; Murphy, K T; Aughey, R J; McKenna, M J; Kemp, B E; Hawley, J A

    2004-05-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade has been linked to many of the acute effects of exercise on skeletal muscle substrate metabolism, as well as to some of the chronic training-induced adaptations. We determined the effect of 3 wk of intensified training (HIT; 7 sessions of 8 x 5 min at 85% Vo2 peak) in skeletal muscle from well-trained athletes on AMPK responsiveness to exercise. Rates of whole body substrate oxidation were determined during a 90-min steady-state ride (SS) pre- and post-HIT. Muscle metabolites and AMPK signaling were determined from biopsies taken at rest and immediately after exercise during the first and seventh HIT sessions, performed at the same (absolute) pre-HIT work rate. HIT decreased rates of whole body carbohydrate oxidation (P < 0.05) and increased rates of fat oxidation (P < 0.05) during SS. Resting muscle glycogen and its utilization during intense exercise were unaffected by HIT. However, HIT induced a twofold decrease in muscle [lactate] (P < 0.05) and resulted in tighter metabolic regulation, i.e., attenuation of the decrease in the PCr/(PCr + Cr) ratio and of the increase in [AMPfree]/ATP. Resting activities of AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 were similar post-HIT, with the magnitude of the rise in response to exercise similar pre- and post-HIT. AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 on both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits increased in response to exercise, with the magnitude of this rise being similar post-HIT. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-beta phosphorylation was similar at rest and, despite HIT-induced increases in whole body rates of fat oxidation, did not increase post-HIT. Our results indicate that, in well-trained individuals, short-term HIT improves metabolic control but does not blunt AMPK signaling in response to intense exercise.

  19. A Catecholamine Precursor Does Not Influence Exercise Performance in Warm Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cordery, Philip; James, Lewis J; Peirce, Nick; Maughan, Ronald J; Watson, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    Acute doses of Sinemet® (L-DOPA combined with carbidopa) previously failed to influence prolonged exercise performance in a temperate environment, but it is not known whether acute doses of L-DOPA timed to reach maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) during exercise will improve prolonged cycling performance in warm conditions (30.2°C ± 0.2°C, 50% ± 1%). Ten physically active men (age, 26 ± 4 yr; height, 1.76 ± 0.08 m; body mass, 76.3 ± 10.6 kg; V˙O2peak, 57 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were recruited for this study. Participants cycled for 1 h at 60% V˙O2peak followed by a 30-min exercise test, during which they were instructed to complete as much work as possible. Heart rate, skin and core temperatures, as well as RPE and thermal stress were recorded throughout the exercise, and blood samples were collected at rest, at 15-min intervals during the first hour of exercise, and at the end of the exercise test. Finger tapping tests at the beginning and end of the exercise were conducted to examine fine motor control. There was no significant difference in the work done on the placebo (314 ± 43 kJ) and L-DOPA trials (326 ± 48 kJ, P = 0.276). Prolactin concentrations were increased at the end of the exercise in all trials (P < 0.001), but this response was attenuated at the end of the exercise for the L-DOPA trial (11.4 ± 5.5 ng·mL(-1)) and placebo trials (20.8 ± 3.3 ng·mL(-1), P = 0.003). No differences between trials were found for any other measure. The results suggest that increasing central catecholamine availability inhibits the normal prolactin response to exercise in the heat but does not alter performance, thermoregulation, or sympathetic outflow.

  20. 45 CFR 286.230 - What if a Tribe does not have reasonable cause for failing to meet a requirement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... failing to meet a requirement? 286.230 Section 286.230 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... a Tribe does not have reasonable cause for failing to meet a requirement? (a) To avoid the... not claim reasonable cause for failing to meet a requirement; or (2) If we found that a Tribe did not...

  1. Prediction of adaptive self-regulatory responses to arthritis pain anxiety in exercising adults: Does pain acceptance matter?

    PubMed Central

    Cary, Miranda A; Gyurcsik, Nancy C; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercising for ≥150 min/week is a recommended strategy for self-managing arthritis. However, exercise nonadherence is a problem. Arthritis pain anxiety may interfere with regular exercise. According to the fear-avoidance model, individuals may confront their pain anxiety by using adaptive self-regulatory responses (eg, changing exercise type or duration). Furthermore, the anxiety-self-regulatory responses relationship may vary as a function of individuals’ pain acceptance levels. OBJECTIVES: To investigate pain acceptance as a moderator of the pain anxiety-adaptive self-regulatory responses relationship. The secondary objective was to examine whether groups of patients who differed in meeting exercise recommendations also differed in pain-related and self-regulatory responses. METHODS: Adults (mean [± SD] age 49.75±13.88 years) with medically diagnosed arthritis completed online measures of arthritis pain-related variables and self-regulatory responses at baseline, and exercise participation two weeks later. Individuals meeting (n=87) and not meeting (n=49) exercise recommendations were identified. RESULTS: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that pain acceptance moderated the anxiety-adaptive self-regulatory responses relationship. When pain anxiety was lower, greater pain acceptance was associated with less frequent use of adaptive responses. When anxiety was higher, adaptive responses were used regardless of pain acceptance level. MANOVA findings revealed that participants meeting the recommended exercise dose reported significantly lower pain and pain anxiety, and greater pain acceptance (P<0.05) than those not meeting the dose. CONCLUSIONS: Greater pain acceptance may help individuals to focus their efforts to adapt to their pain anxiety only when it is higher, leaving self-regulatory capacity to cope with additional challenges to exercise adherence (eg, busy schedule). PMID:25621990

  2. Exercise Training during Normobaric Hypoxic Confinement Does Not Alter Hormonal Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Debevec, Tadej; Simpson, Elizabeth J.; Macdonald, Ian A.; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health. Methods Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139±0.003%) either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8±2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9±1.2 kg·m−2) or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8±3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3±2.5 kg·m−2). A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre) and after the confinement (Post) to quantify fasting and postprandial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests. Results While body mass decreased in both groups (−1.4 kg; p = 0.01) following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (−1.5 kg; p = 0.01). At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (−49%; p = 0.01) and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (−19%; p = 0.03). Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (−12%; p = 0.01) at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (−16%; p = 0.01). No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training

  3. Localized β-adrenergic receptor blockade does not affect sweating during exercise.

    PubMed

    Buono, Michael J; Tabor, Brian; White, Ailish

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of a locally administered nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist on sweat gland function during exercise. Systemically administered propranolol has been reported to increase, decrease, or not alter sweat production during exercise. To eliminate the confounding systemic effects associated with orally administered propranolol, we used iontophoresis to deliver it to the eccrine sweat glands within a localized area on one forearm prior to exercise. This allowed for determination of the direct effect of β-adrenergic receptor blockade on sweating during exercise. Subjects (n = 14) reported to the laboratory (23 ± 1°C, 35 ± 3% relative humidity) after having refrained from exercise for ≥12 h. Propranolol (1% solution) was administered to a 5-cm(2) area of the flexor surface of one forearm via iontophoresis (1.5 mA) for 5 min. A saline solution was administered to the opposing arm via iontophoresis. Each subject then exercised on a motor-driven treadmill at 75% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate for 20 min, while sweat rate was measured simultaneously in both forearms. Immediately after cessation of exercise, the number of active sweat glands was measured by application of iodine-impregnated paper to each forearm. The sweat rate for the control and propranolol-treated forearm was 0.62 ± 41 and 0.60 ± 0.44 (SD) mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), respectively (P = 0.86). The density of active sweat glands for the control and propranolol-treated forearm was 130 ± 6 and 134 ± 5 (SD) glands/cm(2), respectively, (P = 0.33). End-exercise skin temperature was 32.9 ± 0.2 and 33.1 ± 0.3°C for the control and propranolol-treated forearm, respectively (P = 0.51). Results of the current study show that when propranolol is administered locally, thus eliminating the potential confounding systemic effects of the drug, it does not directly affect sweating during the initial stages of high-intensity exercise in young, healthy

  4. 25 CFR 292.3 - How does a tribe seek an opinion on whether its newly acquired lands meet, or will meet, one of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe seek an opinion on whether its newly... tribe seek an opinion on whether its newly acquired lands meet, or will meet, one of the exceptions in... either the National Indian Gaming Commission or the Office of Indian Gaming. (b) If the tribe seeks...

  5. Locomotor Muscle Fatigue Does Not Alter Oxygen Uptake Kinetics during High-Intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hopker, James G.; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Azzalin, Andrea; Carpenter, Roger; Marcora, Samuele M.

    2016-01-01

    The V˙O2 slow component (V˙O2sc) that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre-fatigue condition) or rest for 33 min (control condition) according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-s maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min−1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE) were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and V˙O2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03), the V˙O2sc was not significantly different between the pre-fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min−1) and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min−1) condition (P = 0.50). Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48) but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01) suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the V˙O2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the V˙O2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. PMID:27790156

  6. Carbohydrate supplementation during prolonged cycling exercise spares muscle glycogen but does not affect intramyocellular lipid use.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Boon, Hanneke; Gijsen, Annemie P; Stegen, Jos H C H; Kuipers, Harm; van Loon, Luc J C

    2007-07-01

    Using contemporary stable-isotope methodology and fluorescence microscopy, we assessed the impact of carbohydrate supplementation on whole-body and fiber-type-specific intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) and glycogen use during prolonged endurance exercise. Ten endurance-trained male subjects were studied twice during 3 h of cycling at 63 +/- 4% of maximal O(2) uptake with either glucose ingestion (CHO trial; 0.7 g CHO kg(-1) h(-1)) or without (CON placebo trial; water only). Continuous infusions with [U-(13)C] palmitate and [6,6-(2)H(2)] glucose were applied to quantify plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose oxidation rates and to estimate intramyocellular lipid and glycogen use. Before and after exercise, muscle biopsy samples were taken to quantify fiber-type-specific IMTG and glycogen content. Plasma glucose rate of appearance (R (a)) and carbohydrate oxidation rates were substantially greater in the CHO vs CON trial. Carbohydrate supplementation resulted in a lower muscle glycogen use during the first hour of exercise in the CHO vs CON trial, resulting in a 38 +/- 19 and 57 +/- 22% decreased utilization in type I and II muscle-fiber glycogen content, respectively. In the CHO trial, both plasma FFA R (a) and subsequent plasma FFA concentrations were lower, resulting in a 34 +/- 12% reduction in plasma FFA oxidation rates during exercise (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate intake did not augment IMTG utilization, as fluorescence microscopy revealed a 76 +/- 21 and 78 +/- 22% reduction in type I muscle-fiber lipid content in the CHO and CON trial, respectively. We conclude that carbohydrate supplementation during prolonged cycling exercise does not modulate IMTG use but spares muscle glycogen use during the initial stages of exercise in endurance-trained men.

  7. Carbohydrate supplementation does not blunt the prolonged exercise-induced reduction of in vivo immunity.

    PubMed

    Davison, Glen; Kehaya, Corinna; Diment, Bethany C; Walsh, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during prolonged exercise is widely acknowledged to blunt in vitro immunoendocrine responses, but no study has investigated in vivo immunity. To determine the effect of CHO supplementation during prolonged exercise on in vivo immune induction using experimental contact hypersensitivity with the novel antigen diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a double-blind design, 32 subjects were randomly assigned to 120 min of treadmill exercise at 60 % [Formula: see text] with CHO (Ex-CHO) or placebo (Ex-PLA) supplementation. Responses were also compared to 16 resting control (CON) subjects from a previous study (for additional comparison with a resting non-exercise condition). Standardised diets (24 h pre-trial) and breakfasts (3.5 h pre-trial) were provided. Subjects received a primary DPCP exposure (sensitisation) 20 min after trial completion, and exactly 28 days later the strength of immune reactivity was quantified by magnitude of the cutaneous response (skin-fold thickness and erythema) to a low dose-series DPCP challenge. Stress hormones and leucocyte trafficking were also monitored. CHO supplementation blunted the cortisol and leucocyte trafficking responses, but there was no difference (P > 0.05) between Ex-CHO and Ex-PLA in the in vivo immune responses (e.g. both ~46 % lower than CON for skin-fold response). CHO supplementation does not influence the decrease in in vivo immunity seen after prolonged exercise. The effects with more stressful (or fasted) exercise remain to be determined. However, there appears to be no benefit under the conditions of the present study, which have practical relevance to what many athletes do in training or competition.

  8. Exercise in personal protective equipment in a hot, humid environment does not affect risk propensity

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Hostler, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We tested the hypothesis that heat stress created by light exertion in encapsulating personal protective equipment (PPE) in a hot, humid environment increases risk propensity. Ten healthy subjects (29 ± 7 y) completed 2 trials presented in a counter-balanced manner. Subjects donned encapsulating PPE, and in one trial they wore a tube-lined shirt underneath that was perfused with 5°C water. Subjects completed 2 15 min bouts of walking exercise on a treadmill at ˜50% maximal heart rate in a 32°C, 81% RH environment. Subjects completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), an objective measure of risk-taking, before, between the 2 exercise bouts, and following the final exercise bout. Personal cooling lowered (P < 0.01) mean skin temperature by 8.0 ± 1.6°C. Intestinal temperature rose (P < 0.01) in both trials, but was lower (P < 0.01) at the end of exercise in the cooling trial (38.0 ± 0.3°C vs. 37.6 ± 0.3°C). BART derived indices of risk propensity were not affected by trial or time (trial × time interaction: P ≥ 0.33). These data indicate that 60 min of exposure to mild heat stress created by light exertion in encapsulating PPE does not affect risk-taking behavior. PMID:27857956

  9. CanWell: meeting the psychosocial and exercise needs of cancer survivors by translating evidence into practice.

    PubMed

    Cheifetz, Oren; Park Dorsay, Jan; Hladysh, Genevieve; Macdermid, Joy; Serediuk, Fidelma; Woodhouse, Linda J

    2014-02-01

    As more evidence emerges to support the incorporation of exercise for cancer survivors to positively affect physical, emotional, and social health, it is imperative that health-care providers use current knowledge to develop evidence-based exercise programs for these patients. Our purpose is to describe the development, implementation, and effectiveness of the CanWell program, an evidence-based, community and partnership-based, exercise, and education program for all people with cancer. Exercise and cancer research was reviewed, summarized, and utilized to develop CanWell. A 12-week, supervised, community-based, exercise, and education program established in collaboration between an acute care hospital, academic center, and a not-for-profit YMCA facility. CanWell participants completed physical and health-related quality of life measures prior to initiating the program and repeated them at 6 and 12 weeks. Following the exercise program, participants reported significant improvements in health-related quality of life, recorded distance ambulated during a 6-min walk test, and total minutes on a treadmill recorded using the standardized exponential exercise protocol treadmill test. Furthermore, no increases in disease burden were identified using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System. In addition, no exercise related injuries were reported by CanWell participants. As the body of evidence supporting the incorporation of exercise as a standard of care for cancer survivors, it is imperative that care providers use current knowledge to provide opportunities for their patients to exercise in effective exercise programs. CanWell is an example on how collaboration between hospital, university, and community institutions can be used to move research into practice and meet the needs of cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Exercise makes you feel good, but does feeling good make you exercise?: an examination of obese dieters.

    PubMed

    Carels, Robert A; Coit, Carissa; Young, Kathleen; Berger, Bonnie

    2007-12-01

    Whereas exercise-induced mood enhancement has been well documented, the relationship between mood and exercise participation is less well understood. Mood states influence evaluative judgments that could plausibly influence a decision to exercise. Further, most exercise-mood research is limited to normal weight adults in response to a single exercise session. The current investigation examines the influence of (a) morning mood on exercise, (b) exercise intensity/duration on mood enhancement, and (c) daily change in mood on exercise days compared with nonexercise days in obese behavioral weight loss program (BWLP) participants. Participants (N = 36) recorded morning, evening, and pre-and postexercise mood, as well as the type, duration, and intensity of exercise. Within-person analyses indicated that (a) morning mood was associated with an increased likelihood of exercising, (b) mood ratings were higher following exercise of greater intensity and duration, and (c) daily mood enhancement was associated with greater exercise initiation and greater exercise intensity. Measuring mood before and after exercise may yield important clinical information that can be used to promote physical activity in obese adults.

  11. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  12. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  13. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05) indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during non-fatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008

  14. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05), indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.

  15. Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves health span in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life expectancy at birth in the first world has increased from 35 years at the beginning of the 20th century to more than 80 years now. The increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase in age-related diseases and larger numbers of frail and dependent people. The aim of our study was to determine whether life-long spontaneous aerobic exercise affects lifespan and healthspan in mice. Results Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (n = 72) or spontaneous wheel-runners (n = 72). We evaluated longevity and several health parameters including grip strength, motor coordination, exercise capacity (VO2max) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. We also measured the cortical levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin associated with brain plasticity. In addition, we measured systemic oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl plasma levels) and the expression and activity of two genes involved in antioxidant defense in the liver (that is, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)). Genes that encode antioxidant enzymes are considered longevity genes because their over-expression may modulate lifespan. Aging was associated with an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, GPx and Mn-SOD, in the liver in mice. Life-long spontaneous exercise did not prolong longevity but prevented several signs of frailty (that is, decrease in strength, endurance and motor coordination). This improvement was accompanied by a significant increase in the mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and in the cortical BDNF levels. Conclusion Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves healthspan in mice. Exercise is an intervention that delays age-associated frailty, enhances function and can be translated into the clinic. PMID:24472376

  16. 34 CFR 30.70 - How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate collection of a debt? 30.70 Section 30.70 Education Office of... Debt or the Suspension or Termination of Collection Action? § 30.70 How does the Secretary...

  17. 34 CFR 30.70 - How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate collection of a debt? 30.70 Section 30.70 Education Office of... Debt or the Suspension or Termination of Collection Action? § 30.70 How does the Secretary...

  18. 34 CFR 30.70 - How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does the Secretary exercise discretion to compromise a debt or to suspend or terminate collection of a debt? 30.70 Section 30.70 Education Office of... Debt or the Suspension or Termination of Collection Action? § 30.70 How does the Secretary...

  19. Does it matter if I exercise? What can ``cardiophysics" tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus; Wilson, Benjamin; Parcell, Allen

    2007-10-01

    Lower heart rates are often associated with better cardiovascular health. But there's a lot more to cardiac rhythms than just the average heart rate. Fractal analysis of inter-beat intervals shows a surprising ability to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy, young and old groups. Are the fluctuations in the heartbeat of a healthy heart random, small, periodic, or chaotic? Does exercise make a difference? We discuss our analysis of the cardiac data of two groups of individuals, those that were physically active and those that were sedentary.

  20. Prior exercise training does not prevent acute cardiac alterations after myocardial infarction in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Eduardo C A; Antonio, Ednei L; Bocalini, Danilo S; Murad, Neif; Abreu, Luiz C; Tucci, Paulo J F; Sato, Monica A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether previous exercise training could prevent or attenuate acute cardiac alterations after myocardial infarction. METHODS: Female rats were submitted to swim training (1 h/day; 5 days/week) or allowed to remain sedentary for 8 weeks. Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to left coronary artery occlusion or sham surgery. After this procedure, the rats remained sedentary for one week until euthanasia. Cardiac structural and functional analyses were performed using Doppler echocardiography. The rats that had a moderate or large infarct size were included in the evaluations. The data (mean ± SEM) were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA model followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. RESULTS: After the surgery, no significant difference between the exercise and sedentary groups was observed in the left ventricular infarct sizes (34.58±3.04 vs. 37.59±3.07). In another group of rats evaluated with Evans blue 1 h after myocardial infarction, no siginificant difference in the area at risk was observed between the exercised and sedentary rats (49.73±1.52 vs. 45.48±3.49). The changes in the left ventricular fractional areas for the exercised and sedentary myocardial infarction groups (36±2% and 39±3%, respectively) were smaller than those for the exercise sham surgery (ES, 67±1%) and sedentary sham surgery (SS, 69±2%) groups. The E/A was higher in the sedentary myocardial infarction (4.4±0.3) and exercised myocardial infarction (5.5±0.3) rats than in the SS (2.4±0.1) and ES (2.2±0.1) rats. CONCLUSION: Previous swim training of female rats does not attenuate systolic and diastolic function alterations after myocardial infarction induced by left coronary artery occlusion, suggesting that cardioprotection cannot be provided by exercise training in this experimental model. PMID:21789396

  1. Nifedipine does not impair the hormonal responses to graded exercise in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Joffe, B I; Shires, R; Lamprey, J M; Kalk, W J; Botha, A; Haitas, B; Seftel, H C

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the potent calcium antagonist nifedipine was capable of modifying the hormonal response to graded exercise in 7 healthy young men. After fasting overnight, each subject came to the laboratory on 2 consecutive mornings. On one day he was given 10 mg of nifedipine sublingually and on the other an identical placebo capsule; the order was randomised in a double-blind fashion over the 2 days. Thereafter each subject performed 2 successive short treadmill runs, equivalent to 60 and 100%, respectively, of maximal aerobic power. While significantly blunting the rise in mean systolic blood pressure and inducing a greater fall in diastolic blood pressure during and after exercise compared with the placebo, nifedipine did not impair the brisk response to pituitary-adrenal hormones (ACTH, cortisol and total catecholamines). Nifedipine also did not modify the effects of short-term exercise in raising mean plasma glucose levels, stimulating pancreatic glucagon secretion and producing a delayed increase in plasma insulin concentrations. Nor did the drug blunt the significant rise of growth hormone and prolactin levels occurring during and after the treadmill run. It was concluded that, apart from inducing significant changes in blood pressure, a single dose of nifedipine does not appear to suppress the counterregulatory hormonal responses to short-term physical activity in healthy men.

  2. Astaxanthin supplementation does not attenuate muscle injury following eccentric exercise in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Fry, Andrew; Schilling, Brian; Chiu, Loren; Hori, Naruhiro; Weiss, Lawrence

    2005-08-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the effects of astaxanthin on markers of skeletal muscle injury. Twenty resistance trained men (mean +/- standard error of the mean : age , 25.1 +/- 1.6 y; height, 1.79 +/- 0.02 m; weight, 86.8 +/- 4.4 kg) were assigned to either a placebo (1732 mg safflower oil, n =10) or astaxanthin (BioAstin; 1732 mg safflower oil; haematococcus algae extract [contains 4 mg astaxanthin and 480 mg lutein]n = 10). Subjects consumed their assigned treatment for 3 wk prior to eccentric exercise (10 sets of 10 repetitions at 85% of one repetition maximum) and through 96 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness, creatine kinase (CK), and muscle performance was measured before and through 96 h post-exercise. A similar response was observed for both treatment groups for all dependent variables, indicating that in resistance trained men, astaxanthin supplementation does not favorably affect indirect markers of skeletal muscle injury following eccentric loading.

  3. Protein restriction does not impair adaptations induced in cardiomyocytes by exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C A C; Natali, A J; Natali, A Y; Novaes, R D; Lavorato, V N; Drumond, L R; Carneiro Júnior, M A; Silva, M F; Quintão-Junior, J F; Gontijo, L N; Silva, C H O; Felix, L B; Silva, M E

    2013-11-01

    The effect of a treadmill running program on physical performance and morphofunctional adaptations was investigated in control and malnourished rats. Male 4-week old Wistar rats were randomized in groups of 12 animals: control trained (CT), control sedentary (CS), malnourished trained (MT) and malnourished sedentary (MS). Control and malnourished animals received chow with 12% protein or 6% protein, respectively. Trained groups were subjected to a treadmill running program for 8 weeks. Physical performance, biochemical parameters, cardiomyocytes morphology and biomechanics were determined. Malnourished animals presented reduction in body mass, serum levels of total protein, albumin and hemoglobin compared to the control groups. At 1 and 3 Hz cardiomyocytes from CT and MT showed higher cell shortening, speed of contraction and relaxation compared to the other groups. At 3 Hz cardiomyocytes from MS showed reduction in cell shortening and speed of contraction compared to CS. Protein restriction does not prevent the improvement in physical performance or cardiomyocytes biomechanical efficiency and growth in response to exercise. These findings could represent a modulatory effect of exercise to maintain cardiomyocyte growth at the expense of reducing the rate of body growth in order to ensure proper cellular function in conditions of cardiovascular overload imposed by exercise.

  4. 20 CFR 663.640 - May an individual with a disability whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for priority as a low-income... eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for priority as a low-income adult? Yes, even if the family of... disability is to be considered a low-income individual if the individual's own income: (a) Meets the...

  5. Delayed voluntary exercise does not enhance cognitive performance after hippocampal injury: an investigation of differentially distributed exercise protocols

    PubMed Central

    Wogensen, Elise; Gram, Marie Gajhede; Sommer, Jens Bak; Vilsen, Christina Rytter; Mogensen, Jesper; Malá, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary exercise has previously been shown to enhance cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study evaluated effects of two differentially distributed protocols of delayed, voluntary exercise on cognitive recovery using an allocentric place learning task in an 8-arm radial maze. Fifty-four Wistar rats were subjected to either bilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix (FF) or to sham surgery. Twenty-one days postinjury, the animals started exercising in running wheels either for 14 consecutive days (FF/exercise daily [ExD], sham/ExD) or every other day for 14 days (FF/exercise every second day [ExS], sham/ExS). Additional groups were given no exercise treatment (FF/not exercise [NE], sham/NE). Regardless of how exercise was distributed, we found no cognitively enhancing effects of exercise in the brain injured animals. Design and protocol factors possibly affecting the efficacy of post-ABI exercise are discussed. PMID:27807517

  6. Does increased prescribed exercise alter non-exercise physical activity/energy expenditure in healthy adults? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Washburn, R A; Lambourne, K; Szabo, A N; Herrmann, S D; Honas, J J; Donnelly, J E

    2014-02-01

    Prescribed physical activity/exercise training may reduce non-exercise physical activity resulting in no change in total daily energy expenditure and no or minimal exercise-induced weight loss. This systematic review evaluated cross-sectional, short-term (2-14 d), randomized and non-randomized trials which reported on the effect of prescribed physical activity/exercise on non-exercise physical activity/energy expenditure in healthy adults. PubMed and Embase were searched (from January 1990 to March 2013) for articles that presented data on the change in non-exercise physical activity/energy expenditure in response to prescribed physical activity/exercise training. Thirty-one articles were included in this review. One-hundred per cent of cross-sectional studies (n = 4), 90% of short-term studies (n = 10), 50% of non-randomized trials (n = 10) and 100% of randomized trials (n = 7) reported no reductions in non-exercise physical activity/energy expenditure in response to prescribed physical activity/exercise training. We found minimal evidence to support the hypothesis that prescribed physical activity/exercise training results in decreased non-exercise physical activity/energy expenditure in healthy adults. However, this literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials designed specifically to evaluate this hypothesis which have included assessments of both the energy expenditure of prescribed exercise and non-exercise energy expenditure using state-of-the-art techniques, i.e. indirect calorimetry and doubly labelled water, respectively. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-01-01

    sequence of balance and plyometric exercises does not substantially affect these training improvements. PMID:28344461

  8. Temperature of Ingested Water during Exercise Does Not Affect Body Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Dallon T; Meade, Robert D; McGinn, Ryan; Poirier, Martin P; Friesen, Brian J; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ingested water temperature on heat balance during exercise as assessed by direct calorimetry. Ten healthy males (25 ± 4 yr) cycled at 50% V˙O2peak (equivalent rate of metabolic heat production (M-W) of 523 ± 84 W) for 75 min under thermocomfortable conditions (25°C, 25% relative humidity) while consuming either hot (50°C) or cold (1.5°C) water. Four 3.2 mL·kg⁻¹ boluses of hot or cold water were consumed 5 min before and at 15, 30, and 45 min after the onset of exercise. Total heat loss (HL = evaporative heat loss (HE) ± dry heat exchange (HD)) and M-W were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Change in body heat content (ΔHb) was calculated as the temporal summation of M-W and HL and adjusted for changes in heat transfer from the ingested fluid (Hfluid). The absolute difference for HL (209 ± 81 kJ) was similar to the absolute difference of Hfluid (204 ± 36 kJ) between conditions (P = 0.785). Furthermore, the difference in HL was primarily explained by the corresponding changes in HE (hot: 1538 ± 393 kJ; cold: 1358 ± 330 kJ) because HD was found to be similar between conditions (P = 0.220). Consequently, no difference in ΔHb was observed between the hot (364 ± 152 kJ) and cold (363 ± 134 kJ) conditions (P = 0.971) during exercise. We show that ingestion of hot water elicits a greater HL relative to cold water ingestion during exercise. However, this response was only compensated for the heat of the ingested fluid as evidenced by similar ΔHb between conditions. Therefore, our findings indicate that relative to cold water ingestion, consuming hot water does not provide a thermoregulatory advantage. Both hot and cold water ingestion results in the same amount of heat stored during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise.

  9. Cold Acclimation Does Not Alter Physiological or Perceptual Responses During Subsequent Exercise in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas M; Rostomily, Kaitlyn A; Pautz, Carina M; Ito, Danica W; Bailey, Stephen P; Roelands, Bart; Buono, Michael J; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-09-01

    between trials for all measurements, suggesting that cold acclimation did not influence physiological or perceptual responses during exercise in the heat. Our findings indicate that military divers or trainees that are frequently exposed to cold water, and hence have the ability to experience cold acclimatization, will likely not be at greater risk of increased thermal strain when subsequently exposed to physical activity in hot environments. In this study, no physiological or perceptual differences were observed between trials before and after cold acclimation, suggesting that cold acclimation does not present a greater hyperthermia risk during subsequent exercise in the heat. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Does exercise pose a challenge to glucoregulation after clinical islet transplantation?

    PubMed

    Funk, Deanna R; Boulé, Normand G; Senior, Peter A; Yardley, Jane E

    2017-01-01

    Islet transplantation (ITx) is effective in preventing severe hypoglycemia by restoring glucose-dependent insulin secretion in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but may not normalize glucose regulation. Studies suggest that physical activity plays a role in maintaining β-cell mass and function in individuals with type 2 diabetes and animal models of diabetes. This could indicate that physical activity plays a role in graft survival in ITx recipients. This review's objective is to assess current knowledge related to physical activity in ITx recipients. Responses to other challenges in blood glucose control (i.e., hypoglycemia) in human ITx recipients were examined to provide in-depth background information. To identify studies involving exercise in ITx recipients, a systematic search was performed using PubMed, Medline, and Embase, which revealed 277 English language publications. Publications were excluded if they did not involve ITx recipients; did not involve physical activity or hypoglycemia; or did not report on glucose, insulin, or counterregulatory hormones. During induced hypoglycemia, studies indicate normal suppression of insulin in ITx individuals compared with healthy non-T1D controls. Studies involving exercise in ITx animals have conflicting results, with time since transplantation and transplantation site (spleen, liver, kidney, peritoneal cavity) as possible confounders. No study examining blood glucose responses to physical activity in human ITx recipients was identified. A small number of induced-hypoglycemia studies in humans, and exercise studies in animals, would suggest that glucoregulation is greatly improved yet is still imperfect in this population and that ITx does not fully restore counterregulatory responses to challenges in blood glucose homeostasis.

  11. Does degree of alteration in effort sense caused by eccentric exercise significantly affect initial exercise hyperpnea in humans?

    PubMed

    Hotta, Norio; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Ogata, Hisayoshi; Maher, Patrick; Okumura, Naoya; Ishida, Koji

    2016-08-24

    Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2). Relative exercise intensity at Pre was 5 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of Pre, whereas that at D2 was 9 % MVC of D2 because of decline in muscle strength. Ventilatory responses were significantly exaggerated at D2 with a significant increase in effort sense. Although effort sense was significantly reduced during exercise at D2 when wrist weight was subtracted to match relative exercise intensity at Pre (5 % MVC of D2), ventilatory responses were still significantly higher than those of Pre. After the disappearance of post-ECC muscle damage, subjects performed the same exercise with weight added (9 % MVC of Pre) so that effort was equalized to match that of D2; however, no significant increase in ventilatory response was detected. The fact that the extent of change in effort sense caused by ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction did not affect ventilatory response at the onset of exercise after ECC may suggest that the exaggeration of ventilatory response after ECC is caused by mechanisms other than alteration of the central command.

  12. Core outcome measures for exercise studies in people with multiple sclerosis: recommendations from a multidisciplinary consensus meeting.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lorna; Coote, Susan; Crosbie, Jean; Dixon, Diane; Hale, Leigh; Holloway, Ed; McCrone, Paul; Miller, Linda; Saxton, John; Sincock, Caroline; White, Lesley

    2014-10-01

    Evidence shows that exercise is beneficial for people with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, statistical pooling of data is difficult because of the diversity of outcome measures used. The objective of this review is to report the recommendations of an International Consensus Meeting for a core set of outcome measures for use in exercise studies in MS. From the 100 categories of the International Classification of Function Core Sets for MS, 57 categories were considered as likely/potentially likely to be affected by exercise and were clustered into seven core groups. Outcome measures to address each group were evaluated regarding, for example, psychometric properties. The following are recommended: Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) or Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) for energy and drive, 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) for exercise tolerance, Timed Up and Go (TUG) for muscle function and moving around, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) or Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL54) for quality of life and body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) for the health risks associated with excess body fat. A cost effectiveness analysis and qualitative evaluation should be included where possible. Using these core measures ensures that future meta-analyses of exercise studies in MS are more robust and thus more effectively inform practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Energy deficit after exercise augments lipid mobilization but does not contribute to the exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Newsom, Sean A.; Schenk, Simon; Thomas, Kristin M.; Harber, Matthew P.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Goldenberg, Naila

    2010-01-01

    The content of meals consumed after exercise can impact metabolic responses for hours and even days after the exercise session. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low dietary carbohydrate (CHO) vs. low energy intake in meals after exercise on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism the next day. Nine healthy men participated in four randomized trials. During the control trial (CON) subjects remained sedentary. During the other three trials, subjects exercised [65% peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak); cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise] until they expended ∼800 kcal. Dietary intake during CON and one exercise trial (BAL) was designed to provide sufficient energy and carbohydrate to maintain nutrient balance. In contrast, the diets after the other two exercise trials were low in either CHO (LOW-CHO) or energy (LOW-EN). The morning after exercise we obtained a muscle biopsy, assessed insulin sensitivity (Si; intravenous glucose tolerance test) and measured lipid kinetics (isotope tracers). Although subjects were in energy balance during both LOW-CHO and CON, the lower muscle glycogen concentration during LOW-CHO vs. CON (402 ± 29 vs. 540 ± 33 mmol/kg dry wt, P < 0.01) coincided with a significant increase in Si [5.2 ± 0.7 vs. 3.8 ± 0.7 (mU/l)−1·min−1; P < 0.05]. Conversely, despite ingesting several hundred fewer kilocalories after exercise during LOW-EN compared with BAL, this energy deficit did not affect Si the next day [4.9 ± 0.9, and 5.0 ± 0.8 (mU/l)−1·min−1]. Maintaining an energy deficit after exercise had the most potent effect on lipid metabolism, as measured by a higher plasma triacylglycerol concentration, and increased plasma fatty acid mobilization and oxidation compared with when in nutrient balance. Carbohydrate deficit after exercise, but not energy deficit, contributed to the insulin-sensitizing effects of acute aerobic exercise, whereas maintaining an energy deficit after exercise augmented lipid

  14. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    PubMed

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  15. Low muscle glycogen concentration does not suppress the anabolic response to resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Camera, Donny M; West, Daniel W D; Burd, Nicholas A; Phillips, Stuart M; Garnham, Andrew P; Hawley, John A; Coffey, Vernon G

    2012-07-01

    We determined the effect of muscle glycogen concentration and postexercise nutrition on anabolic signaling and rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis after resistance exercise (REX). Sixteen young, healthy men matched for age, body mass, peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)) and strength (one repetition maximum; 1RM) were randomly assigned to either a nutrient or placebo group. After 48 h diet and exercise control, subjects undertook a glycogen-depletion protocol consisting of one-leg cycling to fatigue (LOW), whereas the other leg rested (NORM). The next morning following an overnight fast, a primed, constant infusion of l-[ring-(13)C(6)] phenylalanine was commenced and subjects completed 8 sets of 5 unilateral leg press repetitions at 80% 1RM. Immediately after REX and 2 h later, subjects consumed a 500 ml bolus of a protein/CHO (20 g whey + 40 g maltodextrin) or placebo beverage. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of both legs were taken at rest and 1 and 4 h after REX. Muscle glycogen concentration was higher in the NORM than LOW at all time points in both nutrient and placebo groups (P < 0.05). Postexercise Akt-p70S6K-rpS6 phosphorylation increased in both groups with no differences between legs (P < 0.05). mTOR(Ser2448) phosphorylation in placebo increased 1 h after exercise in NORM (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR increased ~4-fold in LOW (P < 0.01) and ~11 fold in NORM with nutrient (P < 0.01; different between legs P < 0.05). Post-exercise rates of MPS were not different between NORM and LOW in nutrient (0.070 ± 0.022 vs. 0.068 ± 0.018 %/h) or placebo (0.045 ± 0.021 vs. 0.049 ± 0.017 %/h). We conclude that commencing high-intensity REX with low muscle glycogen availability does not compromise the anabolic signal and subsequent rates of MPS, at least during the early (4 h) postexercise recovery period.

  16. Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Nabben, Miranda; Schmitz, Joep P J; Ciapaite, Jolita; Le Clercq, Carlijn M P; van Riel, Natal A; Haak, Harm R; Nicolay, Klaas; de Coo, Irenaeus F; Smeets, Hubert J M; Praet, Stephan F; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2017-02-08

    Muscle weakness and exercise intolerance negatively affect the quality of life of mitochondrial myopathy patients. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We investigated if 1 week of dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation decreases the oxygen cost of exercise and improves mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients. Ten mitochondrial myopathy patients (40 ± 5 years, maximal whole-body oxygen uptake = 21.2 ± 3.2 mL/min/kg body weight, maximal workload = 122 ± 26 W) received 8.5 mg/kg body weight/day of inorganic nitrate (~7 mmol) for 8 days. Whole-body oxygen consumption at 50% of the maximal workload, in vivo skeletal muscle oxidative capacity (evaluated from post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and ex vivo mitochondrial oxidative capacity in permeabilized skinned muscle fibers (measured with high-resolution respirometry) were determined before and after nitrate supplementation. Despite a 6-fold increase in plasma nitrate levels, nitrate supplementation did not affect whole-body oxygen cost during submaximal exercise. Additionally, no beneficial effects of nitrate were found on in vivo or ex vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity. This is the first time that the therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate for mitochondrial myopathy patients was evaluated. We conclude that 1 week of dietary nitrate supplementation does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve mitochondrial function in the group of patients tested.

  17. Antioxidant-rich beetroot juice does not adversely affect acute neuromuscular adaptation following eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Tom; Bell, Oliver; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Stevenson, Emma J

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of beetroot juice on the repeated bout effect (RBE) to eccentric exercise. Twenty-nine recreationally active males performed two bouts of 100-drop jumps, separated by 14-21 days. Using a double-blind, independent groups design, participants consumed either a higher dose beetroot juice (H-BT; 250 ml, n = 10), a lower dose beetroot juice (L-BT; 125 ml, n = 9) or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; 250 ml, n = 10) for 3 days after bout 1; no drinks were consumed after bout 2. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), countermovement jump (CMJ), pressure-pain threshold (PPT) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured pre, post, 24, 48 and 72 h following both bouts. In bout 2, CMJ and MIVC recovered quicker and CK activity was attenuated (versus bout 1) (P < 0.05) in all groups, demonstrating an RBE. At 24 h post bout 1, MIVC was 84.1 ± 16.1, 83.6 ± 11.6, 79.7 ± 15.1% relative to baseline values in the H-BT, L-BT and PLA groups, respectively; at 24 h post bout 2, MIVC recovered to 90.7 ± 13.7, 92.9 ± 6.9, 87.8 ± 6.9, in the H-BT, L-BT and PLA groups, respectively. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant-rich beetroot juice does not adversely affect acute adaptations to a bout of eccentric exercise.

  18. Exercise training attenuates anaphylactic venoconstriction in rat perfused liver, but does not affect anaphylactic hypotension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sen; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Wei; Kurata, Yasutaka; Kashimura, Osamu; Miyamae, Shunichi

    2010-09-01

    1. Exercise training attenuates circulatory shock due to haemorrhage, endotoxin or heatstroke. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training attenuates anaphylactic shock. Hepatic venoconstriction is involved in rat anaphylactic hypotension. In the present study, we determined the effects of exercise training on both anaphylaxis-induced segmental venoconstriction in rat perfused livers and systemic anaphylaxis in conscious rats. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effect of exercise on the venoconstriction of perfused livers was also examined. 2. Rats were subjected to running training on a motorized treadmill for 4 weeks. Two weeks prior to the anaphylaxis experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were actively sensitized with the antigen ovalbumin. In isolated livers perfused portally with blood, the portal venous pressure (P(pv)) and sinusoidal pressure were measured to determine the pre- and post-sinusoidal resistances (R(pre) and R(post), respectively). In conscious rats, systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and P(pv) were determined. 3. In the perfused livers of sedentary rats, antigen administration led to a predominant presinusoidal constriction, as evidenced by 4.6- and 1.7-fold increases in R(pre) and R(post), respectively. The anaphylaxis-induced increase in R(pre) was significantly attenuated by 24% by exercise training. Inhibition of NO synthase with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 micromol/L) 10 min prior to the injection of antigen enhanced anaphylactic venoconstriction, but did not alter the effect of exercise training on the increase in R(pre). In contrast, exercise training did not attenuate either anaphylactic hypotension or portal hypertension in conscious rats. 4. In conclusion, exercise training attenuates the anaphylaxis-induced presinusoidal constriction in rat isolated perfused livers, independent of NO production. However, this action is not evident in conscious rats and exercise training does not affect anaphylactic hypotension in

  19. Continuous endurance-type exercise training does not modulate satellite cell content in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Verdijk, Lex B; Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; van Loon, Luc J C

    2011-03-01

    Endurance-type exercise training represents a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the effects of prolonged continuous, endurance-type exercise on muscle fiber characteristics remain equivocal. Fifteen obese male type 2 diabetes patients (61 ± 6 years) participated in a 6-month continuous, endurance-type exercise program. Muscle biopsies were collected before, and after 2 and 6 months of intervention. Muscle fiber type-specific composition, size, and satellite cell (SC) and myonuclear content were determined by immunohistochemistry. Although continuous endurance-type exercise training lowered total body weight and reduced fat mass, no changes were observed in leg lean mass. At baseline, SC content was significantly lower in type II compared with type I muscle fibers. No change in SC content was observed after exercise training. Continuous endurance-type exercise training lowers fat mass, but it does not increase leg lean mass and/or modulate muscle fiber characteristics in type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exercise training does not enhance hypothalamic responsiveness to leptin or ghrelin in male mice.

    PubMed

    Borg, M L; Andrews, Z B; Watt, M J

    2014-02-01

    The detection of hormone and nutrient signals by the hypothalamus is blunted in obesity and contributes to dysregulated energy homeostasis. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training would improve long-term hypothalamic sensitivity to both leptin and ghrelin, independent of acute exercise-induced signalling. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet for 6 weeks, then remained sedentary on their respective diet, or completed 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training with a progressive increase in exercise volume and intensity. Food intake and hypothalamic signalling were assessed in mice injected with leptin or ghrelin at least 24 h after the last exercise bout. Exercise training reduced body mass, increased daily food intake and improved glucose tolerance. Intraperitoneal leptin administration reduced food intake in lean and obese mice, and this was not enhanced after exercise training. Leptin-mediated activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus was not enhanced with exercise training. Ghrelin increased food intake and c-Fos positive neurones in the hypothalamus in lean and obese mice, and these physiological and molecular responses were not enhanced with exercise training. This suggests that the previously reported exercise effects on sensitising hypothalamic signalling and food intake responses may be limited to the period immediately after an exercise bout, and are not a result of stable structural or molecular changes that occur with exercise training. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. How does heart rate recovery after sub-maximal exercise correlate with maximal exercise testing in children with CF?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah P; Orenstein, David M

    2014-12-01

    Disease progression in cystic fibrosis (CF) is marked by worsening exercise tolerance. Further, maximal exercise capacity (VO2 peak) correlates with survival in CF, but maximal tests are uncomfortable and resource-intensive. A three-minute step test (STEP) has been validated in CF. Heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise correlates with all-cause mortality in adult non-CF populations. We compared HR recovery after the three-minute step test with VO2 peak in children with CF. Twenty-four children with CF performed STEP and a maximal exercise test. Correlation between the tests was assessed. Maximum HR on STEP was lower than on the maximal test (140 vs. 190, p<0.01). Peak HR during STEP correlated inversely with VO2 peak. In subjects with mild lung disease, faster HR recovery after STEP correlated with higher VO2 peak. The three-minute step test is a feasible submaximal test in this patient population. HR during and after a three-minute step test may reflect VO2 peak in children with CF. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An acute oral dose of caffeine does not alter glucose kinetics during prolonged dynamic exercise in trained endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Roy, B D; Bosman, M J; Tarnopolsky, M A

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the possible influence of oral caffeine administration on endogenous glucose production and energy substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance exercise. Twelve trained endurance athletes [seven male, five female; peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) = 65.5 ml.kg-1.min-1] performed 60 min of cycle ergometry at 65% VO2peak twice, once after oral caffeine administration (6 mg.kg-1) (CAF) and once following consumption of a placebo (PLA). CAF and PLA were administered in a randomized double-blind manner 75 min prior to exercise. Plasma glucose kinetics were determined with a primed-continuous infusion of [6,6-2H]glucose. No differences in oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were observed between CAF and PLA, at rest or during exercise. Blood glucose concentrations were similar between the two conditions at rest and also during exercise. Exercise did lead to an increase in serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations for both conditions; however, no differences were observed between CAF and PLA. Both the plasma glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) increased at the onset of exercise (P < 0.05), but were not affected by CAF, as compared to PLA. CAF did lead to a higher plasma lactate concentration during exercise (P < 0.05). It was concluded that an acute oral dose of caffeine does not influence plasma glucose kinetics or energy substrate oxidation during prolonged exercise in trained endurance athletes. However, CAF did lead to elevated plasma lactate concentrations. The exact mechanism of the increase in plasma lactate concentrations remains to be determined.

  3. Prior Exercise Does Not Reduce Postprandial Lipemia Following a Mixed Glucose Meal When Compared with a Mixed Fructose Meal.

    PubMed

    Rowe, James R; Biggerstaff, Kyle D; Ben-Ezra, Vic; Nichols, David L; DiMarco, Nancy

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia (PPL) concentration following a mixed meal (MM) made with either glucose or fructose. Sedentary women completed four trials in random order: 1) Rest-Fructose: RF, 2) Rest-Glucose: RG, 3) Exercise-Fructose: EF, 4) Exercise-Glucose: EG. Exercise expended 500 kcal while walking at 70%VO2max. Rest was 60 min of sitting. The morning after each trial, a fasting (12 hr) blood sample was collected followed by consumption of the MM. The MM was blended with whole milk and ice cream plus a glucose or fructose powder. Glucose and fructose powder accounted for 30% of the total kcal within the MM. Blood was collected periodically for 6 hr post-MM and analyzed for PPL. Magnitude of PPL over the 6 hr postmeal was quantified using the triglyceride incremental area under the curve (TG AUCI). Significant differences (p < .05) between trials were determined using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. There was no significant difference in the TG AUCI between the four trials (p > .05). A significant trial by time interaction for TG concentration was reported (p < .05). Despite lack of change in the AUCI with prior exercise, the lower TG concentration at multiple time points in the EG trial does indicate that prior exercise has some desirable effect on PPL. This study suggests that replacing fructose with glucose sugars and incorporating exercise may minimize PPL following a mixed meal but exercise will need to elicit greater energy expenditure.

  4. 45 CFR 286.230 - What if a Tribe does not have reasonable cause for failing to meet a requirement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What if a Tribe does not have reasonable cause for failing to meet a requirement? 286.230 Section 286.230 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  5. 77 FR 23673 - Notice of Stakeholder Meeting: Industry Roundtable-DON/USDA/DOE/DOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Stakeholder Meeting: Industry Roundtable--DON/USDA/DOE/ DOT-FAA Advanced.... Federal government representatives will also be able to hear from stakeholders as to their abilities...

  6. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F. Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key points Normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons. Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow. Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants. PMID:27274667

  7. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  8. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0 kg/m2; Age 24.3±4.6 y) participated in 3 counter-balanced study days where a standardized meal was preceded by: 1) No exercise (NoEx), 2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and 3) IntEx(4 min (80% VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280 min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (P<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (P<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (P<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response. PMID:26188172

  9. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women.

    PubMed

    Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0kg/m(2); Age 24.3±4.6year) participated in 3 counter- balanced study days, where a standardized meal was preceded by: (1) No exercise (NoEx), (2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and (3) IntEx (4min (80% VO2max)/3min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (p<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (p<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (p<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response.

  10. Does high muscle temperature accentuate skeletal muscle injury from eccentric exercise?

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Zambraski, Edward J; Sawka, Michael N; Urso, Maria L

    2016-05-01

    Hyperthermia is suspected of accentuating skeletal muscle injury from novel exercise, but this has not been well studied. This study examined if high muscle temperatures alters skeletal muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise (ECC). Eight volunteers (age, 22.5 ± 4.1 year; height, 169.5 ± 10.8 cm; body mass, 76.2 ± 12.6 kg), serving as their own control, and who were not heat acclimatized, completed two elbow flexor ECC trials; in one trial the biceps were heated >40°C (HEAT) and in the other trial there was no heating (NON). HEAT was applied with shortwave diathermy (100 W) for 15 min immediately before the first ECC bout and for 2 min in between each bout. Individuals were followed for 10 days after each ECC session, with a 6-week washout period between arms. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased by 41 ± 17% and 46 ± 20% in the NON and HEAT trials, respectively. Bicep circumference increased by 0.07 ± 0.08 mm (4%, P = 0.04) and relaxed range of motion decreased by 11.5 ± 8.2° (30%, P < 0.001) in both trials. Serum creatine kinase peaked 72-h following ECC (NON: 6289 ± 10407; HEAT: 5486 ± 6229 IU L(-1), 38-fold increase, P < 0.01) as did serum myoglobin (NON: 362 ± 483; HEAT: 355 ± 373 μg L(-1), 13-fold increase, P < 0.03). Plasma HSP 70 was higher (P < 0.02) in HEAT after 120-h of recovery. There were no differences between treatments for plasma HSP27 and interleukins 1β, 6, and 10. The results indicate that >40°C muscle temperature does not alter skeletal muscle injury or functional impairments induced by novel ECC.

  11. Why Does Exercise “Trigger” Adaptive Protective Responses in the Heart?

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, Rick J.; Stewart, Luke M.; Tsang, Alvin M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that individuals who exercise have decreased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Pre-clinical studies in animal models also find clear cardioprotective phenotypes in animals that exercise, specifically characterized by lower myocardial infarction and arrhythmia. Despite the clear benefits, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for exercise preconditioning are not fully understood. In particular, the adaptive signaling events that occur during exercise to “trigger” cardioprotection represent emerging paradigms. In this review, we discuss recent studies that have identified several different factors that appear to initiate exercise preconditioning. We summarize the evidence for and against specific cellular factors in triggering exercise adaptations and identify areas for future study. PMID:26674259

  12. Does exercise stimulate protein breakdown in humans. Isotopic approaches to the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    Protein metabolism in exercise has been investigated for 100 yr, yet it is still unclear if exercise induces an increased rate of protein breakdown. We have recently addressed this general question in a series of experiments in human subjects using stable isotopic tracers. In this paper, the results of those studies are reviewed. We have found that in light exercise the de-carboxylation of leucine is increased. However, urea production is not increased correspondingly, nor is the rate of incorporation into urea of nitrogen from either leucine or lysine. Further complicating the picture is the fact that lysine de-carboxylation is not markedly elevated in exercise. From these studies, we must conclude that isotopic techniques which have achieved general acceptance in other circumstances cannot reliably be used to answer the question of whether exercise stimulates protein breakdown in humans. However, these methods do provide results which enable a better understanding of the metabolism of the individual amino acids in exercise.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) does not affect ventilatory and perceptual responses to exercise in morbidly obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Innocenti Bruni, Giulia; Gigliotti, Francesco; Scano, Giorgio

    2012-09-30

    We have tested the hypothesis that high mass loading effects and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) constrain the ventilatory response to exercise in morbidly obese subjects as compared to their counterparts without OSA. Fifteen obese patients with (8) and without OSA and 12 lean healthy subjects performed incremental cycle exercise. The functional evaluation included ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, end-expiratory-lung-volumes (EELV), inspiratory capacity, heart rate, dyspnea and leg effort (by a modified Borg scale). Changes in ventilation and dyspnea per unit changes in work rate and metabolic variables were similar in the three groups. Breathing pattern and heart rate increased from rest to peak exercise similarly in the three groups. Leg effort was the prevailing symptom for stopping exercise in most subjects. In conclusion, OSA does not limit exercise capacity in morbidly obese subjects. Ventilation contributes to exertional dyspnea similarly as in lean subjects and in obese patients regardless of OSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

    PubMed

    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Does dose matter in reducing gestational weight gain in exercise interventions? A systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Samantha M.; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Lau, Erica Y.; Archer, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Objective This purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between exercise dose and reductions in weight gain during pregnancy in exercise interventions. Design and Methods Four electronic research databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere) were used to identify exercise interventions conducted with pregnant women. Eligible articles must have satisfied the following criteria: inclusion of a control condition, exercise as a major intervention component, weight gain measured and reported for each experimental condition, description of exercise dose (frequency, intensity and duration), and utilized an adequate number of control conditions to assess independent effects of exercise on weight gain. Results The literature search identified 4837 articles, of these, 174 abstracts were screened and 21 intervention studies (18 exercise-only, 3 exercise/diet) were eligible for review. Only 38% of the interventions achieved statistically significant reductions in weight gain during pregnancy. Successful interventions possessed higher adherence and lower attrition rates and were predominantly conducted among normal weight populations. No clear patterns or consistencies of exercise dose and weight gain were evident. Conclusions Adherence and retention rates were strong contributors to the success of exercise interventions on weight gain during pregnancy. However, an exercise dose associated with reductions in weight gain was unquantifiable among these interventions. It is strongly suggested that future researchers investigate methods to increase adherence and compliance, especially among overweight and obese women, and utilize objective measurement tools to accurately evaluate exercise dose performed by the participants and the impact on both body composition and weight gain. PMID:25846125

  16. One session of exercise or endurance training does not influence serum levels of irisin in rats.

    PubMed

    Czarkowska-Paczek, B; Zendzian-Piotrowska, M; Gala, K; Sobol, M; Paczek, L

    2014-06-01

    Irisin induces the browning of adipose tissue. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of acute exercise in untrained and trained rats and endurance training on FNDC5 mRNA and irisin levels in white and red skeletal muscle and serum. Rats (n=60) were randomly divided into two groups: untrained and trained (subjected to 6-week endurance training with increasing load). Subgroups of rats from each group were sacrificed before (controls), immediately after, or 3 hours following acute exercise with the same work load. Muscle samples (red and white) and serum were collected. FNDC5 mRNA was evaluated using RT-PCR. Irisin levels were measured using an immunoenzymatic method. Muscle FNDC5 mRNA decreased immediately after acute exercise compared with baseline levels, but not in red muscle in trained rats. Atrend toward a return to baseline appeared 3 hours after the exercise, but only in white muscle in untrained group. Irisin protein levels increased after acute exercise in red muscle 3 hours post-exercise compared with samples taken immediately after exercise, and decreased 3 hours post-exercise compared to pre-exercise level in white muscles. FNDC5 mRNA did not change following training, whereas irisin protein levels increased in red muscle and decreased in white muscle. Serum irisin levels remained unchanged following acute exercise and training. We concluded that changes in irisin mRNA and protein levels in rat muscle after acute exercise are limited and depend on training status and the muscle type. Irisin serum levels remained stable after acute exercise or endurance training.

  17. Does aerobic exercise reduce postpartum depressive symptoms? a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Ruth Victoria; Daley, Amanda J; Jolly, Kate

    2017-10-01

    There is currently no specific guidance on the role of exercise in managing postpartum depression in the UK and US, and international guidance is inconsistent. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic exercise on postpartum depressive symptoms. Systematic review and meta-analysis. There was no restriction to study site or setting. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched. Titles and abstracts, then full-text articles, were screened against inclusion criteria: RCTs measuring depressive symptoms in mothers ≤1 year postpartum; and interventions designed to increase aerobic exercise compared with usual care or other comparators. Included studies were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted. Pre-planned subgroup analyses explored heterogeneity. Thirteen RCTs were included, with 1734 eligible participants. Exercise significantly reduced depressive symptoms when all trials were combined (standardised mean difference -0.44; 95% confidence interval = -0.75 to -0.12). Exploration of heterogeneity did not find significant differences in effect size between women with possible depression and in general postpartum populations; exercise only and exercise with co-interventions; and group exercise and exercise counselling. This systematic review provides support for the effectiveness of exercise in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms. Group exercise, participant-chosen exercise, and exercise with co-interventions all may be effective interventions. These results should be interpreted with caution because of substantial heterogeneity and risk of bias. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  18. NaHCO(3) does not affect arterial O(2) tension but attenuates desaturation of hemoglobin in maximally exercising Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Murli; Goetz, Thomas E; Hassan, Aslam S

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of preexercise NaHCO(3) administration to induce metabolic alkalosis on the arterial oxygenation in racehorses performing maximal exercise. Two sets of experiments, intravenous physiological saline and NaHCO(3) (250 mg/kg i.v.), were carried out on 13 healthy, sound Thoroughbred horses in random order, 7 days apart. Blood-gas variables were examined at rest and during incremental exercise, leading to 120 s of galloping at 14 m/s on a 3.5% uphill grade, which elicited maximal heart rate and induced pulmonary hemorrhage in all horses in both treatments. NaHCO(3) administration caused alkalosis and hemodilution in standing horses, but arterial O(2) tension and hemoglobin-O(2) saturation were unaffected. Thus NaHCO(3) administration caused a reduction in arterial O(2) content at rest, although the arterial-to-mixed venous blood O(2) content gradient was unaffected. During maximal exercise in both treatments, arterial hypoxemia, desaturation, hypercapnia, acidosis, hyperthermia, and hemoconcentration developed. Although the extent of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia was similar, there was an attenuation of the desaturation of arterial hemoglobin in the NaHCO(3)-treated horses, which had higher arterial pH. Despite these observations, the arterial blood O(2) content of exercising horses was less in the NaHCO(3) experiments because of the hemodilution, and an attenuation of the exercise-induced expansion of the arterial-to-mixed venous blood O(2) content gradient was observed. It was concluded that preexercise NaHCO(3) administration does not affect the development and/or severity of arterial hypoxemia in Thoroughbreds performing short-term, high-intensity exercise.

  19. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not alter oxidative stress markers in healthy volunteers engaged in a supervised exercise program.

    PubMed

    Bunpo, Piyawan; Anthony, Tracy G

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid (AA) consumption on the oxidative stress status of untrained volunteers participating in a supervised exercise program. The study included 46 young adults (average age, 23.5 ± 0.59 years; 37 females, 9 males) who remained sedentary (n = 16) or participated in 30 min of outdoor aerobic running (n = 30) at an intensity corresponding to 65%-75% of maximum heart rate for 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Exercised subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group without AA supplementation (control; n = 10) or received either 250 mg (n = 10) or 500 mg (n = 10) of AA supplementation previous to each exercise session. Blood samples were taken on day 0 and day 84 to evaluate metabolic profiles and antioxidant status. Sedentary subjects underwent in a single bout of aerobic running to determine total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondiadehyde (MDA) at pre- and postexercise with or without AA supplementation. No significant change in TAS was observed. Plasma MDA significantly increased at postexercise (P < 0.05), and AA supplementation decreased MDA level significantly (P < 0.05). After 3 months of exercise, there was no significant change in blood glucose, lipid profile, MDA, TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities amongst groups. Supplementation of AA was associated with minor and inconsistent reductions in SOD, GPx, and catalase activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that pre-exercise supplementation of ascorbic acid does not alter oxidative stress markers in the plasma and erythrocytes of young adults engaged in a supervised exercise program.

  20. Does protection motivation theory explain exercise intentions and behavior during home-based cardiac rehabilitation?

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Chris M; Reid, Robert D; Morrin, Louise I; McDonnell, Lisa; McGannon, Kerry; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Edwards, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs have been shown to be effective in increasing exercise capacity, which is a significant predictor of longevity for patients with heart disease. However, adherence to these programs has been problematic. Therefore, it is important to identify key theoretical correlates of exercise for these patients that can be used to inform the development of behavioral interventions to help tackle the adherence problem. The purpose of this study was to determine whether protection motivation theory (PMT) explained significant variation in exercise intentions and behavior in patients receiving home-based CR. Patients (N = 76) completed a questionnaire that included PMT constructs at the beginning and midpoint (ie, 3 months) of the program and an exercise scale at 3 and 6 months (ie, at the end of the CR program). Path analyses showed that response efficacy was the sole predictor of 3-month (beta = .53) and 6-month (beta = .32) intentions. However, the indirect effect of baseline response efficacy on 3-month exercise behavior through intention was nonsignificant (beta = -.01), whereas it was significant (beta = .11) for 3-month response efficacy on 6-month exercise behavior. Self-efficacy significantly predicted 3-month (beta = .36) and 6-month (beta = .32) exercise behaviors, whereas 3-month intention significantly predicted 6-month exercise behavior (beta = .23). Coping appraisal variables (ie, response efficacy and self-efficacy) are potentially useful in explaining exercise behavior during home-based CR.

  1. Does intensity or youth affect the neurobiological effect of exercise on major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Budde, Henning; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Sergio; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Wegner, Mirko

    2016-09-28

    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss the different neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents and to provide additional explanations to this well written systematic review. This commentary highlights the effects of exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a crucial role in MDD. We address the questions of whether age and different exercise intensities may provide additional information on the neurobiological effects of acute or chronic exercise on MDD. Previous findings clearly suggest that the etiology of MDD is complex and multifaceted, involving numerous neurobiological systems, which are additionally influenced by these two factors.

  2. Does computer game play aid in motivation of exercise and increase metabolic activity during wheelchair ergometry?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, T J; Fitzgerald, S G; Cooper, R A; Thorman, T A; Boninger, M L

    2001-05-01

    GAME(Wheels) is an interface between a portable roller system and a computer that enables a wheelchair user to play commercially available computer video games. The subject controls the game play with the propulsion of their wheelchair's wheels on the rollers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using the GAME(Wheels) System during wheelchair propulsion exercise can help increase the individual's physiological response and aid in the motivation to exercise. Fifteen subjects participated in this study. The subjects propelled their wheelchairs on a portable roller that was equipped with the GAME(Wheels) System. There were two exercise trials consisting of 2 min of warm-up, 16 min of exercise and 2 min of cool-down. Physiological data (ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, heart rate) were collected. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found between exercise with GAME(Wheels) versus without GAME(Wheels) for average ventilation rate and average oxygen consumption. The differences were found during time periods of transition from warm-up to exercise, and before and after the midpoint of exercise. Written questionnaires showed that 87% of the individuals tested reported the system would help them work out on a regular basis. Playing the video game helped these individuals to reach their exercise training zone faster and maintain it for the entire exercise trial.

  3. Uncertainty Exposed: A Field Lab Exercise Where GIS Meets the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisley, Stephen P.; Luebbering, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Students in natural resources programs commonly take courses in geospatial technologies. An awareness of the uncertainty of spatial data and algorithms can be an important outcome of such courses. This article describes a laboratory exercise in a graduate geographic information system (GIS) class that involves collection of data for the assessment…

  4. Uncertainty Exposed: A Field Lab Exercise Where GIS Meets the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisley, Stephen P.; Luebbering, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Students in natural resources programs commonly take courses in geospatial technologies. An awareness of the uncertainty of spatial data and algorithms can be an important outcome of such courses. This article describes a laboratory exercise in a graduate geographic information system (GIS) class that involves collection of data for the assessment…

  5. Affect-regulated exercise intensity: does training at an intensity that feels 'good' improve physical health?

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Gaynor; Alrumh, Amnah; Rowlands, Alex V

    2012-11-01

    Affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' can be used to control exercise intensity amongst both active and sedentary individuals and should support exercise adherence. It is not known, however, whether affect-regulated exercise training can lead to physical health gains. The aim of this study was to examine if affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' leads to improved fitness over the course of an 8-week training programme. A repeated measures design (pretest-posttest) with independent groups (training and control). 20 sedentary females completed a submaximal graded exercise test and were then allocated to either a training group or control group. The training group completed two supervised sessions and one unsupervised session per week for 8 weeks. Exercise intensity was affect-regulated to feel 'good'. Following the 8 weeks of training, both groups completed a second submaximal graded exercise test. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant increase in the time to reach ventilatory threshold in the training group (318 ± 23.7s) compared to control (248 ± 16.9s). Overall compliance to training was high (>92%). Participants in the training group exercised at intensities that would be classified as being in the lower range of the recommended guidelines (≈ 50% V˙O(2) max) for cardiovascular health. Affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' can be used in a training programme to regulate exercise intensity. This approach led to a 19% increase in time to reach ventilatory threshold, which is indicative of improved fitness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two percent hypohydration does not impair self-selected high-intensity intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Naoyuki; Ito, Ryo; Nakano, Masataka; Matsumoto, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The level of hypohydration at which power output during intermittent exercise performance starts to decrease is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2% hypohydration without hyperthermia on intermittent exercise performance. Eight collegiate amateur boxers completed 2 exercise tests. On day 1, subjects hypohydrated by 2% of body mass by exercising in a hot environment, and on day 2, subjects performed intermittent exercise (4 × 2 minute per round [R] separated by 1-minute recovery) under a randomly assigned condition of with (HYP) or without (EUH) hypohydration. Each bout consisted of 8 × 5 seconds of maximal cycling exercise (0.05 kp × body mass) separated by 10 seconds of passive recovery. Mean power output per kilogram (MPO), total power output per kilogram (TPO), energy system relative contribution, and core rectal temperature (Tre) were measured. Changes in body mass before the exercise tests were -2.25 ± 0.18% (HYP) and -0.17 ± 0.19% (EUH) (p < 0.001). Mean power output, TPO, and each energy contribution ratio were not significantly different between the trials, and pre- and postexercise test Tre did not differ significantly between trials. Results demonstrated that approximately 2% hypohydration lies below the point at which power output during intermittent exercise starts to decline.

  7. Exercise Does Not Protect against MPTP-Induced Neurotoxicity in BDNF Happloinsufficent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gerecke, Kim M.; Jiao, Yun; Pagala, Viswajeeth; Smeyne, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to potently protect substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity. One mechanism proposed to account for this neuroprotection is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors. Several neurotrophic factors, including Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), have been shown to upregulate in response to exercise. In order to determine if exercise-induced neuroprotection is dependent upon BDNF, we compared the neuroprotective effects of voluntary exercise in mice heterozygous for the BDNF gene (BDNF+/−) with strain-matched wild-type (WT) mice. Stereological estimates of SNpc DA neurons from WT mice allowed 90 days exercise via unrestricted running demonstrated complete protection against the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. However, BDNF+/− mice allowed 90 days of unrestricted exercise were not protected from MPTP-induced SNpc DA neuron loss. Proteomic analysis comparing SN and striatum from 90 day exercised WT and BDNF+/− mice showed differential expression of proteins related to energy regulation, intracellular signaling and trafficking. These results suggest that a full genetic complement of BDNF is critical for the exercise-induced neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons. PMID:22912838

  8. Ibuprofen Ingestion Does Not Affect Markers of Post-exercise Muscle Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Luke; Markworth, James F.; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Peake, Jonathan M.; Snow, Rod J.; Cameron-Smith, David; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200mg d−1) or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO) and macrophages (CD68). Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery. PMID:27064890

  9. Ibuprofen Ingestion Does Not Affect Markers of Post-exercise Muscle Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vella, Luke; Markworth, James F; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Peake, Jonathan M; Snow, Rod J; Cameron-Smith, David; Russell, Aaron P

    2016-01-01

    We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200mg d(-1)) or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO) and macrophages (CD68). Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b(+) and MPO(+) cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery.

  10. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  11. Exercise training modalities in chronic heart failure: does high intensity aerobic interval training make the difference?

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil Andrew; Cittadini, Antonio; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-10-14

    Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET. These results are intriguing, mostly considering that better functional capacity translates into an improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Notably, HIIT did not reveal major safety issues; although CHF patients should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session are mandatory. The impact of HIIT on cardiac dimensions and function and on endothelial function remains uncertain. HIIT should not replace other training modalities in heart failure but should rather complement them. Combining and tailoring different ET modalities according to each patient's baseline clinical characteristics (i.e. exercise capacity, personal needs, preferences and goals) seem the most astute approach to exercise prescription.

  12. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  13. Does Aerobic Exercise and the FITT Principle Fit into Stroke Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Boyne, Pierce; Coughenour, Eileen; Dunning, Kari; Mattlage, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle after stroke is common which results in poor cardiovascular health. Aerobic exercise has the potential to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and improve functional capacity and quality of life in people after stroke. However, aerobic exercise is a therapeutic intervention that is underutilized by healthcare professionals after stroke. The purpose of this review paper is to provide information on exercise prescription using the FITT principle (frequency, intensity, time, type) for people after stroke and to guide healthcare professionals to incorporate aerobic exercise into the plan of care. This article discusses the current literature outlining the evidence base for incorporating aerobic exercise into stroke rehabilitation. Recently, high-intensity interval training has been used with people following stroke. Information is provided regarding the early but promising results for reaching higher target heart rates. PMID:25475494

  14. Melatonin Has An Ergogenic Effect But Does Not Prevent Inflammation and Damage In Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Botezelli, José Diego; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that exhaustive physical exercise leads to inflammation and skeletal muscle tissue damage. With this in mind, melatonin has been acutely administered before physical exercise; nevertheless, the use of melatonin as an ergogenic agent to prevent tissue inflammation and damage remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on swimming performance, muscle inflammation and damage and several physiological parameters after exhaustive exercise at anaerobic threshold intensity (iLAn) performed during light or dark circadian periods. The iLAn was individually determined and two days later, the animals performed an exhaustive exercise bout at iLAn 30 minutes after melatonin administration. The exercise promoted muscle inflammation and damage, mainly during the dark period, and the exogenous melatonin promoted a high ergogenic effect. The expressive ergogenic effect of melatonin leads to longer periods of muscle contraction, which superimposes a possible melatonin protective effect on the tissue damage and inflammation. PMID:26669455

  15. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with MS about their perspectives on aquatics exercise. Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Discover More Here are a few related topics that may interest you Accessible Nature Trails Learn More Finding Another Sport To Love Learn More Accessible Bicycling Learn More ...

  16. Current organisation of follow-up does not meet cancer patients' needs.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Cecilie; Sandager, Mette; Jensen, Henry; Knudsen, Janne Lehmann

    2014-06-01

    For cancer patients, traditional follow-up care is considered unsuitable and unsustainable. The patient perspective seems often to be absent in the ongoing debate about alternative strategies for follow-up care. Based on a national survey from 2012, the objective of this study was to examine cancer patients' support needs regarding physiological and emotional problems during follow-up and to identify factors associated with their needs and any unmet needs. Patients diagnosed with cancer in the period from April to September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 4,401 patients responded (response rate = 64%). The risks in terms of prevalence rate ratios of having needs and unmet needs for both physiological and emotional problems were estimated using the Poisson regression. The study showed that 60% of the patients had needs for support regarding physiological and emotional problems, and half of the patients reported unmet needs. Younger patients and patients with co-morbidity were more likely to report needs and unmet needs for physiological and emotional support. Treatment complexity and setting of follow-up were not associated with unmet needs. The study underlines that the current organisation of follow-up does not meet cancer patients' needs. Several factors are associated with both needs and unmet needs. Hence, a more sustainable approach for follow-up care may consist in stratification tailored to the patients' different needs. In such an approach, more focus should be on age-specific needs and the impact of co-morbidity. The study is funded by the Danish Cancer Society. The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (J. no. 2010-41-4694). According to the Danish Act on Research Ethics Review of Health Research Projects (S. 8(3) of Act No. 402 of 28 May 2003), no ethical approval was needed.

  17. Virtual reality does not meet expectations in a pilot study on multimodal laparoscopic surgery training.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Felix; Bintintan, Vasile V; Gehrig, Tobias; Kenngott, Hannes G; Fischer, Lars; Gutt, Carsten N; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the value of virtual reality (VR) training for a multimodality training program of basic laparoscopic surgery. Participants in a two-day multimodality training for laparoscopic surgery used box trainers, live animal training, and cadaveric training on the pulsating organ perfusion (POP) trainer in a structured and standardized training program. The participants were divided into two groups. The VR group (n = 13) also practiced with VR training during the program, whereas the control group (n = 14) did not use VR training. The training modalities were assessed using questionnaires with a five-point Likert scale after the program. Concerning VR training, members of the control group assessed their expectations, whereas the VR group assessed the actual experience of using it. Skills performance was evaluated with five standardized test tasks in a live porcine model before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the training program. Laparoscopic skills were measured by task completion time and a general performance score for each task. Baseline tests were compared with laparoscopic experience of all participants for construct validity of the skills test. The expected benefit from VR training of the control group was higher than the experienced benefit of the VR group. Box and POP training received better ratings from the VR group than from the control group for some purposes. Both groups improved their skill parameters significantly from pre-training to post-training tests [score +17 % (P < 0.01), time -29 % (P < 0.01)]. No significant difference was found between the two groups for laparoscopic skills improvement except for the score in the instrument coordination task. Construct validity of the skills test was significant for both time and score. At its current level of performance, VR training does not meet expectations. No additional benefit was observed from VR training in our multimodality training program.

  18. The perspective of patients with congenital heart disease: does health care meet their needs?

    PubMed

    Schoormans, Dounya; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Pieper, Petronella G; van Melle, Joost P; van Dijk, Arie P J; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Hulsbergen-Zwarts, Mariët S; Plokker, Thijs H W M; Brunninkhuis, Leo G H; Vliegen, Hubert W; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2011-01-01

    A first step in the delivery of tailored care is answering the following question: does health care meet the needs of patients? Therefore patients' perspective on health care use and their needs was examined. The design used was cross-sectional questionnaire study. A total of 1109 adult congenital heart defect (CHD) patients attending one of eight Dutch hospitals were randomly selected from a national database (10% of all registered patients). Patient reported questionnaires on in- and outpatient health care use during the past year and need for additional care. A total of 66% and 40% of patients had contact with their cardiologist and general practitioner, respectively. Six to 10 percent were hospitalized, operated upon, or visited the emergency room. For the majority, the amount of contact was sufficient. Most patients indicated that the communication skills and expertise of the cardiologist and general practitioner were sufficient, and health care improvements were not necessary. Frequent health care users had a poor functional status and frequent contact with their cardiologist and general practitioner. Patients who want more contact with their cardiologist rated the communication skills of the cardiologist as insufficient. For most patients, the amount and quality of care are both sufficient. Patients who rate the communication skills of the cardiologist as insufficient have need more contact. In addition to the recommended training program as described in the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines, we recommend the incorporation of communication training. This is the first study to provide insight into health care use and needs of CHD patients in countries with a compulsory health insurance system from the patient perspective. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Congenital Heart Disease © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Does Sport-Drink Use During Exercise Promote an Acute Positive Energy Balance?

    PubMed

    Dragusin, Iulian B; Horswill, Craig A

    2016-10-01

    Sports drinks have been implicated in contributing to obesity and chronic diseases by providing surplus calories and excess sugars. Using existing literature we compared energy intake from sports drinks consumed during exercise with the exercise-induced calorie expenditure to determine whether sports drink use might eliminate the energy deficit and jeopardize conditions for improved metabolic fitness. We identified 11 published studies that compared sport drink consumption to placebo during exercise with a primary focused on the effect of sport drinks or total carbohydrate content on enhancing physical performance. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated using VO2, RER, and exercise duration for the exercise protocol. Energy ingestion (EI) was determined using the carbohydrate dosing regimen administered before and during the exercise protocol. A two-tailed t test was used to test whether the energy balance (EI-EE) was different from zero (alpha level = 0.05). Sport drink consumption during aerobic exercise of sufficient duration (≥ 60 min) did not abolish the energy deficit (p < .001). Mean ± SD were EE, 1600 ± 639 Cal; EI, 394 ± 289 Cal; and EI-EE,-1206+594 Cal; VO2, 3.05 ± 0.55 L/min; RER, 0.91 ± 0.04; exercise duration 110 ± 42 min. Ingesting sports drinks to enhance performance did not abolish the caloric deficit of aerobic exercise. Sports drinks can be used in accordance with research protocols that typically provide 30-60 g of carbohydrate per hour when exercising at adequate durations for moderate to high intensity and still maintain a substantive caloric deficit.

  20. Does Group, Individual or Home Exercise Best Improve Mobility for People With Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    King, LA; Wilhelm, J; Chen, Y; Blehm, R; Nutt, J; Chen, Z; Serdar, A; Horak, FB

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Comparative studies of exercise interventions for people with Parkinson Disease (PD) rarely considered how one should deliver the intervention. The objective of this study was to compare the success of exercise when administered by 1) home exercise program, 2) individualized physical therapy, or 3) a group class. We examined if common comorbidities associated with PD impacted success of each intervention. Methods Fifty-eight people (age 63.9 ± 8) with PD participated. People were randomized into: 1) home exercise program 2) individual physical therapy or 3) group class intervention. All arms were standardized and based on the Agility Boot Camp exercise program for PD, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the 7-item Physical Performance Test (PPT). Other measures of balance, gait, mobility, quality of life, balance confidence, depressions, apathy, self-efficacy and UPDRS motor and ADL scores were included. Results Only the individual group significantly improved in PPT. The individual exercise showed the most improvements in functional and balance measures, while the group class showed the most improvements in gait. The home exercise program improved the least across all outcomes. Several factors effected success, particularly for the home group. Discussion and Conclusions An unsupervised, home exercise program is the least effective way to deliver exercise to people with PD and individual and group exercises have differing benefits. Furthermore, people with PD who also have other comorbidities did better in a program directly supervised by a physical therapist. Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (See Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A112). PMID:26308937

  1. Sildenafil treatment in COPD does not affect stroke volume or exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Rietema, H; Holverda, S; Bogaard, H J; Marcus, J T; Smit, H J; Westerhof, N; Postmus, P E; Boonstra, A; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2008-04-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, stroke volume response to exercise is impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 3 months of sildenafil treatment improves stroke volume and, if so, whether this improvement is related to the pulmonary artery pressure and translated into an improved exercise capacity. A total of 15 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV) underwent right heart catheterisation at rest and during exercise. Stroke volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at rest and during submaximal exercise in the supine position and compared with eight age-matched controls. Additionally, a cardiopulmonary exercise test and a 6-min walking distance test were performed. Exercise tests and MRI were repeated after 12 weeks of oral therapy with 50 mg sildenafil three times daily. Stroke volume in COPD patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (62+/-12 versus 81+/-22 mL at rest and 70+/-15 versus 101+/-28 mL during exercise). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was diagnosed in nine patients and was absent in six. Treatment with sildenafil had no effect on stroke volume or exercise capacity. Although the stroke volume was lower in COPD patients with associated PH in comparison with non-PH patients, there was no difference in treatment response between both groups. In the present group of 15 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, a reduced stroke volume was found at rest and during exercise. Neither stroke volume nor exercise capacity were improved by 3 months of sildenafil therapy.

  2. Exercise does not counteract the effects of a "westernized" diet on prostate cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Vandersluis, Avi D; Venier, Natalie A; Colquhoun, Alexandra J; Sugar, Linda; Pollak, Michael; Kiss, Alex; Fleshner, Neil E; Klotz, Laurence H; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2013-08-01

    The relationships between diet, exercise, and prostate cancer (PCa) remain unclear. We have previously reported that a "Western" diet promotes PCa tumor growth in vivo. Presently, we report the effects of sustained aerobic exercise on PCa progression in animals fed a high-fat diet versus a standard diet. Athymic mice (n = 43) were inoculated subcutaneously with human PCa (LNCaP) cells, fed ad libitum with either a high-fat or a standard diet, and randomized into forced exercising and non-exercising groups. Body weight, tumor volume, and food consumption were recorded tri-weekly. Terminal serum samples and tumor biopsies were obtained for analysis. Body weight differences were not observed between the groups over time. The high-fat diet with exercise (HF-Ex) group showed significantly increased tumor growth rate compared to all other groups (P < 0.0007). Tumor growth rate of the standard diet with exercise (Std-Ex) group was reduced significantly compared to the high-fat diet without exercise (HF-No Ex) group (P = 0.0008). Significant differences (P ≤ 0.012) were observed in energy consumption (kcal) between the groups over time. Exercising mice consumed significantly more kcal than non-exercising mice, and the HF-Ex group consumed significantly more than each of the other three groups (P < 0.0007). The expression levels of p27 and p21 were increased in exercising animals, while AR expression was elevated in the HF-Ex group versus the Std-Ex and HF-No Ex groups. Sustained aerobic exercise did not counteract the tumor-promotional effect of increased consumption of a high-fat diet, suggesting that diet is more influential in PCa progression than exercise. Combining exercise with a healthy diet reduced the rate of PCa progression in this model. This study may have implications for PCa risk reduction in humans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Large, D.E.: Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  4. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F Hülya

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key pointsNormal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons.Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation.Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow.Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants.

  5. Examining the exercise-affect dose-response relationship: does duration influence frontal EEG asymmetry?

    PubMed

    Woo, Minjung; Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu; Petruzzello, Steven J; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2009-05-01

    The "feel better" effect of exercise has been well established, but the specific influence of exercise duration on affect has not been systematically studied from a multi-level measurement approach. Such an approach offers the opportunity to assess psychophysiological responses that relate to psychological state. One relevant response is the change in frontal brain processes indexed by anterior EEG asymmetry, which is related to approach-withdrawal orientation and affective state [Davidson, R.J., 1993. Cerebral asymmetry and emotion: conceptual and methodological conundrums. Cogn. Emot. 7, 138; Davidson, R.J., 1998. Anterior electrophysiological asymmetries, emotion, and depression: Conceptual and methodological conundrums. Psychophysiology 35(5), 607-614.]. To examine the relationship between exercise duration and affective response, as well as the role of frontal brain processes in this relationship, female undergraduate students (N=16, VO(2) max=35.93 ml kg(-1) min(-1), aged 19-23 yrs) were assessed for frontal EEG and self-reported affective responses, as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS), following rest and three different durations of exercise (15, 30 and 45 min) performed at a standardized intensity (i.e., just below the ventilatory threshold (VT)). Psychological vigor and frontal EEG asymmetry following exercise of 30 min were elevated compared to that observed following rest and other exercise durations (i.e., 15, 45 min). The results support a dose-response relationship between exercise duration and affect characterized by an inverted-U. Furthermore, the covariance analysis, conducted to assess the role of cortical activation at the homologous sites in the post-exercise affective response, suggests that the enhanced vigor observed after 30 min of exercise results from the reduction of withdrawal-oriented processes rather than the facilitation of approach-oriented processes.

  6. 90 Minutes of Moderate-Intensity Exercise does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bodell, Nathaniel G; Gillum, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12-16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12-16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials.

  7. 90 Minutes of Moderate-Intensity Exercise does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    BODELL, NATHANIEL G.; GILLUM, TREVOR

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12–16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12–16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials. PMID:27990228

  8. Isometric handgrip does not elicit cardiovascular overload or post-exercise hypotension in hypertensive older women

    PubMed Central

    Olher, Rafael dos Reis Vieira; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Bacurau, Reury Frank; Rodriguez, Daniel; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano; Navarro, Francisco; Simões, Herbert Gustavo; Araujo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Moraes, Milton Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Background Arterial hypertension is a serious health problem affecting mainly the elderly population. Recent studies have considered both aerobic and resistance exercises as a non-pharmacological aid for arterial hypertension treatment. However, the cardiovascular responses of the elderly to isometric resistance exercise (eg, isometric handgrip [IHG]) have not yet been documented. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiovascular responses to different intensities of isometric exercise, as well as the occurrence of post-isometric exercise hypotension in hypertensive elderly people under antihypertensive medication treatment. Patients and methods Twelve women volunteered to participate in the study after a maximal voluntary contraction test (MVC) and standardization of the intervention workload consisting of two sessions of IHG exercise performed in four sets of five contractions of a 10-second duration. Sessions were performed both at 30% of the MVC and 50% of the MVC, using a unilateral IHG protocol. Both intensities were compared with a control session without exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at rest (R), during peak exercise (PE), and after 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes of post-exercise recovery were evaluated. Results No significant changes were observed after isometric exercise corresponding to 30% MVC for either SBP (R: 121 ± 10; PE: 127 ± 14; 5 min: 125 ± 13; 10 min: 123 ± 12; 15 min: 122 ± 11; 30 min: 124 ± 11; 45 min: 124 ± 10; 60 min: 121 ± 10 mmHg) or DBP (R: 74 ± 9; PE: 76 ± 6; 5 min: 74 ± 5; 10 min: 72 ± 8; 15 min: 72 ± 5; 30 min: 72 ± 8; 45 min: 73 ± 6; 60 min: 75 ± 7 mmHg). Similarly, the 50% MVC did not promote post-isometric exercise hypotension for either SBP (R: 120 ± 7; PE: 125 ± 11; 5 min: 120 ± 9; 10 min: 122 ± 9; 15 min: 121 ± 11; 30 min: 121 ± 9; 45 min: 121 ± 9; 60 min: 120 ± 7 mmHg) or DBP (R: 72 ± 8; PE: 78 ± 7; 5 min: 72 ± 7; 10 min: 72 ± 8; 15

  9. Twelve-week physical exercise does not have a long-lasting effect on kynurenines in plasma of depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    Millischer, Vincent; Erhardt, Sophie; Ekblom, Örjan; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical exercise has well-characterized positive effects on depressive symptoms. The underlying biologic mechanisms are, however, far from established. A recently discovered mechanism has linked the enhanced conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid (KYNA) to an increased resilience toward stress-induced depression in mice. The aim of this study was to translate these findings to humans. Materials and methods Kynurenine and KYNA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples from 117 patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression before and within a week after a 12-week training period at three different intensities. The patients were part of the Regassa study. Results No differences in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA or in their ratio could be detected between before and after training. No effect of the intensity group could be observed. No correlation with the improvement in cardiovascular fitness (Åstrand score) or the improvement in mood (Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score) could be observed. Limitations As the Regassa study is based on an intention-to-treat protocol, the exact time and the exact intensity of the physical exercise are not known. Analyses of pulse data as well as personal interviews, however, were used to control the exercise protocols. Furthermore, the observations reflect chronic changes. Conclusion Physical exercise positively affects mood and cardiovascular fitness, but does not lead to long-lasting changes in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA in patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression. PMID:28408830

  10. Physical activity in England: who is meeting the recommended level of participation through sports and exercise?

    PubMed

    Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash; Buxton, Martin; Fox-Rushby, Julia

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the correlates of meeting recommended levels of participation in physical activity (PA) and how this understanding informs public health policies on behaviour change. To analyse who meets the recommended level of participation in PA in males and females separately by applying 'process' modelling frameworks (single vs. sequential 2-step process). Using the Health Survey for England 2006, (n = 14 142; ≥ 16 years), gender-specific regression models were estimated using bivariate probit with selectivity correction and single probit models. A 'sequential, 2-step process' modelled participation and meeting the recommended level separately, whereas the 'single process' considered both participation and level together. In females, meeting the recommended level was associated with degree holders [Marginal effect (ME) = 0.013] and age (ME = -0.001), whereas in males, age was a significant correlate (ME = -0.003 to -0.004). The order of importance of correlates was similar across genders, with ethnicity being the most important correlate in both males (ME = -0.060) and females (ME = -0.133). In females, the 'sequential, 2-step process' performed better (ρ = -0.364, P < 0.001) than that in males (ρ = 0.154). The degree to which people undertake the recommended level of PA through vigorous activity varies between males and females, and the process that best predicts such decisions, i.e. whether it is a sequential, 2-step process or a single-step choice, is also different for males and females. Understanding this should help to identify subgroups that are less likely to meet the recommended level of PA (and hence more likely to benefit from any PA promotion intervention).

  11. Does Stress Result in You Exercising Less? Or Does Exercising Result in You Being Less Stressed? Or Is It Both? Testing the Bi-directional Stress-Exercise Association at the Group and Person (N of 1) Level.

    PubMed

    Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Kronish, Ian M; Diaz, Keith M; Alcantara, Carmela; Duer-Hefele, Joan; Davidson, Karina W

    2017-03-13

    Psychosocial stress contributes to heart disease in part by adversely affecting maintenance of health behaviors, while exercise can reduce stress. Assessing the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise has been limited by lack of real-time data and theoretical and statistical models. This lack may hinder efforts to promote exercise maintenance. We test the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise using real-time data for the average person and the variability-individual differences-in this relationship. An observational study was conducted within a single cohort randomized controlled experiment. Healthy young adults, (n = 79) who reported only intermittent exercise, completed 12 months of stress monitoring by ecological momentary assessment (at the beginning of, end of, and during the day) and continuous activity monitoring by Fitbit. A random coefficients linear mixed model was used to predict end-of-day stress from the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise that day; a logistic mixed model was used to predict the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise from ratings of anticipated stress. Separate regression analyses were also performed for each participant. Sensitivity analysis tested all models, restricted to the first 180 days of observation (prior to randomization). We found a significant average inverse (i.e., negative) effect of exercise on stress and of stress on exercise. There was significant between-person variability. Of N = 69, exercise was associated with a stress reduction for 15, a stress increase for 2, and no change for the remainder. We also found that an increase in anticipated stress reported the previous night or that morning was associated with a significant 20-22% decrease (OR = 0.78-0.80) in the odds of exercising that day. Of N = 69, this increase in stress reduced the likelihood of exercise for 17, increased the odds for 1, and had no effect for the remainder. We were unable to identify psychosocial

  12. Does Exercise Training Improve Coronary Collateralization? A New Look at an Old Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Terence

    1989-01-01

    Debate continues as to whether exercise training accelerates the growth of coronary collateral vessels. Animal research has produced positive results, but human studies have been disappointing, largely because of problems in experimental design and methodology. (IAH)

  13. Does post-exercise massage treatment reduce delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a frequent problem after unaccustomed exercise. No universally accepted treatment exists. Massage therapy is often recommended for this condition but uncertainty exists about its effectiveness. AIM: To determine whether post-exercise massage alleviates the symptoms of DOMS after a bout of strenuous exercise. METHOD: Various computerised literature searches were carried out and located seven controlled trials. RESULTS: Most of the trials were burdened with serious methodological flaws, and their results are far from uniform. However, most suggest that post-exercise massage may alleviate symptoms of DOMS. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy may be a promising treatment for DOMS. Definitive studies are warranted. 


 PMID:9773168

  14. Aerobic Exercise Does Not Predict Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Cortisol Alterations in Depressed Patients.

    PubMed

    Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression is related to neurobiological changes that occur in the monoamine system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurogenesis system and the neuroimmune system. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the research of the effects of exercise on brain function, with a special focus on its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortisol and other biomarkers. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a review investigating the acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and cortisol levels in individuals with depression. It was not possible to establish an interaction between aerobic exercise and concentration of BDNF and cortisol, which may actually be the result of the divergence of methods, such as type of exercises, duration of the sessions, and prescribed intensity and frequency of sessions.

  15. Moderate exercise training does not worsen left ventricle remodeling and function in untreated severe hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Boissiere, Julien; Eder, Véronique; Machet, Marie-Christine; Courteix, Daniel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2008-02-01

    Exercise training and hypertension induced cardiac hypertrophy but modulate differently left ventricle (LV) function. This study set out to evaluate cardiac adaptations induced by moderate exercise training in normotensive and untreated severe hypertensive rats. Four groups of animals were studied: normotensive (Ctl) and severe hypertensive (HT) Wistar rats were assigned to be sedentary (Sed) or perform a moderate exercise training (Ex) over a 10-wk period. Severe hypertension was induced in rat by a two-kidney, one-clip model. At the end of the training period, hemodynamic parameters and LV morphology and function were assessed using catheterism and conventional pulsed Doppler echocardiography. LV histology was performed to study fibrosis infiltrations. Severe hypertension increased systolic blood pressure to 202 +/- 9 mmHg and induced pathological hypertrophy (LV hypertrophy index was 0.34 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.02 in Ctl-Sed and HT-Sed groups, respectively) with LV relaxation alteration (early-to-atrial wave ratio = 2.02 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.63 +/- 0.12). Blood pressure was not altered by exercise training, but arterial stiffness was reduced in trained hypertensive rats (pulse pressure was 75 +/- 7 vs. 62 +/- 3 mmHg in HT-Sed and HT-Ex groups, respectively). Exercise training induced eccentric hypertrophy in both Ex groups by increasing LV cavity without alteration of LV systolic function. However, LV hypertrophy index was significantly decreased in normotensive rats only (0.34 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.02 in Ctl-Sed and Ctl-Ex groups, respectively). Moreover, exercise training improved LV passive filling in Ctl-Ex rats but not in Ht-Ex rats. In this study, exercise training did not reduce blood pressure and induced an additional physiological hypertrophy in untreated HT rats, which was slightly blunted when compared with Ctl rats. However, cardiac function was not worsened by exercise training.

  16. Nation Assistance: Does an Exercise in Guatemala by Reserve Components Support United States National Security Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    exercises called Fuertes Caminos in 1993, 1994, and 1995. The author was the aviation commander of Fuertes Caminos 95-North. This paper follows a...sequence describing the background of Guatemala and Fuertes Caminos exercises, defining nation assistance policy, then flowing through the United...called Fuertes Caminos. Two key guestions result from this analysis. Is it in the United States’ best interest to perform another Fuertes Caminos

  17. Isokinetic eccentric exercise of quadriceps femoris does not affect running economy.

    PubMed

    Vassilis, Paschalis; Vassilios, Baltzopoulos; Vassilis, Mougios; Athanasios, Jamurtas Z; Vassilis, Theoharis; Christina, Karatzaferi; Yiannis, Koutedakis

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy is affected by isokinetic eccentric exercise designed to cause muscle damage. Twenty-four young healthy men performed 120 maximal voluntary eccentric actions at each thigh's quadriceps muscle at an angular velocity of 60 degrees .s. The participants were then randomly divided into 2 equal groups, 1 of which exercised 24 hours later, while the other group rested. Muscle damage indicators (i.e., serum creatine kinase, delayed onset muscle soreness, and eccentric, concentric, and isometric peak torque) and running economy indicators (i.e., oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, respiratory rate, and heart rate during treadmill running at 2.2 and 3.3 m.s) were assessed prior to and 48 hours following the eccentric exercise. All muscle damage indicators changed significantly in both groups (p < 0.05) in a way suggestive of considerable muscle damage. Running economy indicators of the exercise group demonstrated only an elevation of respiratory rate at 48 hours (p < 0.05) and a tendency to lower economy compared to the resting group. It can be concluded that isokinetic eccentric exercise applied to the quadriceps femoris muscles did not affect running economy 48 hours later and that resting during this period tended to result in more economical running compared to exercising at 24 hours.

  18. Does eccentric-exercise-induced jaw muscle soreness influence brainstem reflexes?

    PubMed

    Torisu, Tetsurou; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter; Laat, Antoon De; Yamabe, Yoshihisa; Murata, Hiroshi; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the effects of soreness evoked by eccentric jaw exercises on two types of brainstem reflexes: the short-latency stretch reflex and the longer-latency exteroceptive suppression (ES), and to test for possible relationships between magnitude of soreness and reflex responses. The brainstem reflexes of jaw-closing muscles were recorded before (Baseline), immediately after (Post-task), and 1 day after (1-day-after) a 30-min eccentric exercise in 15 healthy men. All subjects participated in a control session without exercise. Soreness sensations at rest and during maximum biting were significantly elevated until 1-day-after the eccentric exercise (P<0.014). The ES responses tended to be increased (more inhibition) at Post-task and 1-day-after. There was a significant correlation between the ES response and the soreness sensation during maximum biting (P<0.04). The jaw-stretch reflex did not show significant change after the eccentric exercise. Muscle soreness associated with eccentric jaw exercises has a differential impact on the jaw-stretch reflex and the ES response. Experimentally induced acute muscle pain has previously been shown to influence both the ES and the jaw-stretch reflex, thus, different types of muscle pain and symptoms can be speculated to have different effects on a variety of brainstem reflexes.

  19. Exercise does not influence myostatin and follistatin messenger RNA expression in young women.

    PubMed

    Jensky, Nicole E; Sims, Jennifer K; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Sattler, Fred R; Rice, Judd C; Schroeder, E Todd

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated changes in myostatin, follistatin, and MyoD messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression using eccentric exercise (EE) and concentric exercise (CE) as probes to better understand the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy in young women. Twelve women performed single-leg maximal eccentric (n = 6, 25 +/- 1 years, 59 +/- 7 kg) or concentric (n = 6, 24 +/- 1 years, 65 +/- 7 kg) isokinetic knee extension exercise for 7 sessions. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at baseline, 8 hours after the first exercise session, and 8 hours after the seventh exercise session. In the EE group, there were no changes in myostatin and follistatin (p > or = 0.17); however, MyoD expression increased after 1 exercise bout (p = 0.02). In the CE group, there were no changes in myostatin, follistatin, or MyoD mRNA gene expression (p > or = 0.07). Differences between the EE and CE groups were not significant (p > or = 0.05). These data suggest that a single bout or multiple bouts of maximal EE or CE may not significantly alter myostatin or follistatin mRNA gene expression in young women. However, MyoD mRNA expression seems to increase only after EE.

  20. Acid reflux into the oesophagus does not influence exercise-induced airway narrowing in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Bonella, F; Benini, L; Ferrari, P; De Iorio, F; Testi, R; Lo Cascio, V

    2008-10-01

    A few studies on small patient series have investigated the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and bronchial responsiveness as expressed by exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), with non-conclusive results. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of acid in the oesophagus may influence EIB. 45 patients with bronchial asthma underwent spirometry, exercise challenge on bicycle ergometer and 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring. Subjects with EIB (Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)) percentage decrease after exercise (DeltaFEV1) > or =15%, n = 28) were retested after a 2 week treatment course with omeprazole 40 mg/daily. Exercise at baseline was performed at the same time as oesophageal pH monitoring. In basal condition, there was no difference in FEV1, acid exposure time or number of refluxes measured during 24 h pH monitoring between patients with and without EIB. There was no relationship between spirometry results and DeltaFEV1 on one hand, and parameters of gastroesophageal reflux on the other. Nine patients with EIB (31.0%) and six patients without EIB (37.5%) had one or more episodes of GER during exercise challenge, without significant differences between the two groups. After gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole, DeltaFEV1 did not change significantly. The results indicate that acid in the oesophagus, or its short-term inhibition by proton pump inhibitors, has no influence on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

  1. Does aerobic exercise affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal response in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients’ fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959

  2. Exercise: is it a neuroprotective and if so, how does it work?

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Michael J; Smeyne, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    There is clinical evidence that the symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be ameliorated by physical exercise, and we have been using animal models to explore the hypothesis that such exercise can also be neuroprotective. To do so we have focused on models of the dopamine deficiency associated with motor symptoms of parkinsonism, including mice treated systemically with MPTP and rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine. Our focus on exercise derives in part from the extensive literature on the ability of exercise to increase mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant defenses, and to stimulate neuroplasticity. Beginning with constraint therapy and then employing wheel running and environmental enrichment, we have shown that increased limb use can reduce the behavioral effects of dopamine-directed neurotoxins and reduce the loss of dopamine neurons that would otherwise occur. While the mechanism of these effects is not yet known, we suspect a central role for neurotrophic factors whose expression can be stimulated by exercise and which can act on dopamine neurons to reduce their vulnerability to toxins. We believe these data, together with observations from several other laboratories, suggest that exercise, as well as neurotrophic factors, is likely to be an effective neuroprotective strategy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.

  4. Rapamycin does not prevent increases in myofibrillar or mitochondrial protein synthesis following endurance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon; Perez-Schindler, Joaquin; Hamilton, D Lee; Breen, Leigh; Laverone, Erin; Jeromson, Stewart; Phillips, Stuart M; Baar, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the regulation of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis following endurance exercise. Forty-two female C57BL/6 mice performed 1 h of treadmill running (18 m min−1; 5° grade), 1 h after i.p. administration of rapamycin (1.5 mg · kg−1) or vehicle. To quantify skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rates, a flooding dose (50 mg · kg−1) of l-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine was administered via i.p. injection. Blood and gastrocnemius muscle were collected in non-exercised control mice, as well as at 0.5, 3 and 6 h after completing exercise (n = 4 per time point). Skeletal muscle MyoPS and MitoPS were determined by measuring isotope incorporation in their respective protein pools. Activation of the mTORC1-signalling cascade was measured via direct kinase activity assay and immunoblotting, whereas genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis were measured via a quantitative RT-PCR. MyoPS increased rapidly in the vehicle group post-exercise and remained elevated for 6 h, whereas this response was transiently blunted (30 min post-exercise) by rapamycin. By contrast, MitoPS was unaffected by rapamycin, and was increased over the entire post-exercise recovery period in both groups (P < 0.05). Despite rapid increases in both MyoPS and MitoPS, mTORC1 activation was suppressed in both groups post-exercise for the entire 6 h recovery period. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and mitochondrial transcription factor A mRNA increased post-exercise (P < 0.05) and this response was augmented by rapamycin (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that endurance exercise stimulates MyoPS and MitoPS in skeletal muscle independently of mTORC1 activation. Key points Previous studies have shown that endurance exercise increases myofibrillar (MyoPS) and

  5. Does moderate hypoxia alter working memory and executive function during prolonged exercise?

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ando, Soichi

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that acute exercise improves cognitive function. However, little is known about how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypoxia alters working memory and executive function during prolonged exercise. Sixteen participants performed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise under normoxia and hypoxia [fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2)=0.15, corresponding to an altitude of approximately 2600 m]. The level of hypoxia was moderate. We used a combination of Spatial Delayed Response (Spatial DR) task and Go/No-Go (GNG) task, where spatial working memory and executive function are required. Working memory was assessed by the accuracy of the Spatial DR task, and executive function was assessed by the accuracy and reaction time in the GNG task. The participants cycled an ergometer for 30 min under normoxia and moderate hypoxia while keeping their heart rate (HR) at 140 beats/min. They performed the cognitive tasks 5 min and 23 min after their HR reached 140 beats/min. Moderate hypoxia did not alter the accuracy of the Spatial DR (P=0.38) and GNG tasks (P=0.14). In contrast, reaction time in the GNG task significantly decreased during exercise relative to rest under normoxia and moderate hypoxia (P=0.02). These results suggest that moderate hypoxia and resultant biological processes did not provide sufficient stress to impair working memory and executive function during prolonged exercise. The beneficial effects on speed of response appear to persist during prolonged exercise under moderate hypoxia.

  6. Tyrosine supplementation does not influence the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Phillip; Enever, Sophie; Page, Andrew; Stockwell, Jenna; Maughan, Ronald J

    2012-10-01

    Eight young men were recruited to a study designed to examine the effect of tyrosine (TYR) supplementation on the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in a warm environment. Subjects entered the laboratory in the morning and remained seated for 1 hr before cycling to exhaustion at 70% VO2peak. Two 250-ml aliquots of a placebo (PLA ) or a TYR solution were ingested at 30-min intervals before exercise, with an additional 150 ml consumed every 15 min throughout exercise (total TYR dose: 150 mg/kg BM). Cognitive function was assessed before drink ingestion, at the end of the rest period, and at exhaustion. TYR ingestion had no effect on exercise capacity (PLA 61.4 ± 13.7 min, TYR 60.2 ± 15.4 min; p = .505). No differences in heart rate (p = .380), core temperature (p = .554), or weighted mean skin temperature (p = .167) were apparent between trials. Ingestion of TYR produced a marked increase in serum TYR concentrations (+236 ± 46 μmol/L; p < .001), with this difference maintained throughout exercise. No change was apparent during the PLA trial (p = .924). Exercise caused an increase in error rate during the complex component of the Stroop test (p = .034), but this response was not influenced by the drink ingested. No other component of cognitive function was altered by the protocol (all p > .05). Ingestion of a TYR solution did not influence time to exhaustion or several aspects of cognitive function when exercise was undertaken in a warm environment.

  7. Does exercise training prior to ovariectomy protect against liver and adipocyte fat accumulation in rats?

    PubMed

    Pighon, A; Barsalani, R; Yasari, S; Prud'homme, D; Lavoie, J-M

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether a training state protects against the metabolically deleterious effects of ovariectomy on liver and adipocyte fat accumulation in rats. Female rats were randomly assigned to each group (n = 8 rats/group). The animals were first either exercise-trained (Tr) for 6 weeks or kept sedentary (Sed) before being sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized (Ovx), or ovariectomized with 17beta-estradiol supplementation (OvxE2). Following surgery, sedentary rats either remained sedentary (Sed-Sed) or undertook exercise training for 6 weeks (Sed-Tr) while exercise-trained rats either became sedentary (Tr-Sed) or resumed exercise training (Tr-Tr). Body weight and energy intake along with intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat pad weights and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly (p < 0.01) increased in the Ovx group compared to the Sham and OvxE2 groups. Rats kept in a sedentary state after surgery showed the higher (p < 0.05) values for all of these variables whether they were trained or not before surgery (Sed-Sed and Tr-Sed), indicating no protective effect of a previous exercise-trained state. On the other hand, training conducted after surgery resulted in a lowering of fat mass and HOMA-IR whether rats had been trained or not before surgery (Sed-Tr and Tr-Tr), indicating the effectiveness of exercise training even initiated after surgery. These responses were independent of surgery. Interestingly, liver triacylglycerol concentrations followed a pattern of responses identical to fat mass with the exception that all of the responses were observed only in the Ovx group (p < 0.05). There is no protective effect of a previous exercise-training state on ovariectomy-induced liver and adipocyte fat accumulation if rats remain sedentary after ovariectomy. However, training conducted concurrently with estrogen withdrawal has protective effects, especially on liver fat accumulation, whether or not rats were previously trained.

  8. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  9. Rapamycin does not prevent increases in myofibrillar or mitochondrial protein synthesis following endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon; Perez-Schindler, Joaquin; Hamilton, D Lee; Breen, Leigh; Laverone, Erin; Jeromson, Stewart; Phillips, Stuart M; Baar, Keith

    2015-09-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the regulation of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis following endurance exercise. Forty-two female C57BL/6 mice performed 1 h of treadmill running (18 m min(-1) ; 5° grade), 1 h after i.p. administration of rapamycin (1.5 mg · kg(-1) ) or vehicle. To quantify skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rates, a flooding dose (50 mg · kg(-1) ) of l-[ring-(13) C6 ]phenylalanine was administered via i.p. injection. Blood and gastrocnemius muscle were collected in non-exercised control mice, as well as at 0.5, 3 and 6 h after completing exercise (n = 4 per time point). Skeletal muscle MyoPS and MitoPS were determined by measuring isotope incorporation in their respective protein pools. Activation of the mTORC1-signalling cascade was measured via direct kinase activity assay and immunoblotting, whereas genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis were measured via a quantitative RT-PCR. MyoPS increased rapidly in the vehicle group post-exercise and remained elevated for 6 h, whereas this response was transiently blunted (30 min post-exercise) by rapamycin. By contrast, MitoPS was unaffected by rapamycin, and was increased over the entire post-exercise recovery period in both groups (P < 0.05). Despite rapid increases in both MyoPS and MitoPS, mTORC1 activation was suppressed in both groups post-exercise for the entire 6 h recovery period. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and mitochondrial transcription factor A mRNA increased post-exercise (P < 0.05) and this response was augmented by rapamycin (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that endurance exercise stimulates MyoPS and MitoPS in skeletal muscle independently of mTORC1 activation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  10. Does pilates-based exercise improve postural alignment in adult women?

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Fernandes, Jorge; Kuo, Yi-Liang; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Fernandes, Orlando; Laranjo, Luís; Silva, António

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of Pilates-based exercise on postural alignment. Seventy-four adult women (mean age ± SD, 34.9 ± 16.4 years) were randomized to a Pilates-based mat class (n = 40) or a control group (n = 34). Pilates-based exercise participants were taught the Initial Mat of Body Control Pilates for 6 months, twice a week, for 60 minutes per session; the control group received no exercise intervention. Repeated measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of the frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine, shoulder, and pelvis, and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. No differences were found in either group, over time, on frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine and pelvis. The experimental group showed significant improvements in frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis at 6 months. The Pilates-based exercise enhanced some parameters of the postural alignment of women, as measured by frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. The significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the head may imply that 6 months of Pilates-based exercise enhances sagittal alignment of the cervical or thoracic spine.

  11. Does scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alter adult quality of life?

    PubMed

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Cieśliński, Igor; Kowalski, Paweł; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Nowobilski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women) aged 30.10 (25-39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women) able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24-38) years, who 16.5 (12-26) years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS) were applied. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood.

  12. Pyridostigmine bromide does not alter thermoregulation during exercise in cold air

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.E.; Sawka, M.N.; Young, A.J.; Freund, B.J.

    1994-12-31

    This study examined the effects of acute and chronic pyridostigmine bromide (PB) administration on thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to exercise in cold air (5 C). Seven healthy men completed two 7-day trials in a double-blind, crossover experimental design: during one trial they received PB (30 mg three times daily) and during the other trial they received placebo. For each trial, subjects attempted four (3 h) exercise tests: low-intensity exercise (25% Vo2max) and moderate- intensity exercise (-50% Vo2max), on days 2 and 3 and again on days 6 and 7. Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and venous blood samples were obtained before and during exercise. Red blood cell acerylcholinesterase inhibition induced by PB increased (p < 0.05) from 34% on day I to 43% on days 3-7 Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and regional heat conductance responses were not different between trials. Plasma glucose, glycerol, free fatty acid, lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations were not different between trials. In addition. differences were not found between acute and chronic experiments for any thermoregulatory or metabolic responses. These findings demonstrate that the PB dosage used by military personnel, as a pharmacological defense against nerve-agent poisoning. should not cause any adverse thermoregulatory or metabolic effects during moderate activity in cold climates.

  13. Revisiting the Debate: Does Exercise Build Strong Bones in the Mature and Senescent Skeleton?

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Julie M.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Barnes, Jill N.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional exercise programs seem to be less osteogenic in the mature and post-mature skeleton compared to the young skeleton. This is likely because of the decline in sensitivity of bone to mechanical loading that occurs with advancing age. Another factor contributing to the apparently diminished benefit of exercise in older adults is failure of widely used measurement techniques (i.e., DXA) to identify changes in 3-dimensional bone structure, which are important determinants of bone strength. Moreover, although hormonal contributors to bone loss in the elderly are well-recognized, the influence of age-related increases in sympathetic nervous system activity, which impacts bone metabolism, is rarely considered. In this Perspective, we cite evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating anabolic effects of exercise on bone across the lifespan and we discuss theoretical considerations for designing exercise regimens to optimize bone health. We conclude with suggestions for future research that should help define the osteogenic potential of exercise in older individuals. PMID:27679578

  14. Osteoarthritis of the knee: why does exercise work? A qualitative study of the literature.

    PubMed

    Beckwée, David; Vaes, Peter; Cnudde, Maarten; Swinnen, Eva; Bautmans, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of exercise to reduce pain and improve functioning in osteoarthritis of the knee (OAk) is well substantiated. Underlying mechanisms are still under debate and better understanding of the pathways involved may contribute to more targeted treatment strategies. The present qualitative analysis of the literature aims to provide an overview of theoretical models that are put forward to explain the beneficial treatment effects of exercise in OAk. An inductive qualitative approach, based on the 'grounded theory' of Glaser and Straus, was used. Twenty-two studies emphasizing on exercise therapy for OAk, collected from three Cochrane reviews and nine guidelines of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDRO) published between 2000 and 2012, were included. The introduction and discussion parts of these papers were screened for explanations of exercise-induced benefits in OAk patients. Seventy-three key points were identified which were subdivided into 16 core theoretical concepts. Finally, 5 categories were formed: neuromuscular, peri-articular, intra-articular, psychosocial components, and general fitness and health. We referred to scientific evidence that was used in the included studies to describe and categorize the concepts. Future research on exercise in OAk should allow distinguishing the contribution of different potential pathways to the treatment effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quercetin supplementation does not enhance cerebellar mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative status in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Casuso, Rafael A; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aranda, Pilar; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that quercetin may inhibit the mitochondrial and antioxidant adaptations induced by exercise in cerebellar tissue. Thirty-five 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly allocated into the following groups: quercetin, exercised (Q-Ex; n = 9); quercetin, sedentary (Q-Sed; n = 9); no quercetin, exercised (NQ-Ex; n = 9); and no quercetin, sedentary (NQ-Sed; n = 8). After 6 weeks of quercetin supplementation and/or exercise training, cerebellums were collected. Protein carbonyl content (PCC), sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), messenger RNA levels, citrate synthase (CS), and mitochondrial DNA were measured. When Q-Sed was compared with NQ-Sed, PCC (P < .005) showed decreased levels, whereas PGC-1α, sirtuin 1 (both, P < .01), mitochondrial DNA (P < .001), and CS (P < .01) increased. However, when Q-Ex was compared with Q-Sed, PCC showed increased levels (P < .001), whereas CS decreased (P < .01). Furthermore, the NQ-Ex group experienced an increase in PGC-1α messenger RNA levels in comparison with NQ-Sed (P > .01). This effect, however, did not appear in Q-Ex (P < .05). Therefore, we must hypothesize that either the dose (25 mg/kg) or the length of the quercetin supplementation period that was used in the present study (or perhaps both) may impair exercise-induced adaptations in cerebellar tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The 1991 DOE/Sandia Crystalline Photovoltaic Technology Project Review Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, M. L.

    1991-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the manual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Technology Research Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held July 30 through 31, 1991 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  17. Does physical exercise improve quality of life of advanced cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Navigante, Alfredo; Morgado, Pablo Cresta

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the principal issues about physical activity in advanced cancer patients through the analyses of the last articles and our experience in this field. The efficacy of exercise training intervention could improve quality of life (QOL), fatigue and well being in advanced cancer patients. Several published studies have included, nevertheless, patients with early stage of disease and more recently, populations of patients with local advanced tumors of the breast, rectum and lung, who are undergoing neoadjuvant therapy. Despite the insufficient sample of patients in these studies, physical exercise is considered to improve both cardiopulmonary function and physical muscle fitness. Cancer-related fatigue is a devastating symptom in advanced cancer patients that implies loss of mobility and independence. Physical exercise could be a treatment to increase skeletal muscle endurance and improve well being. In palliative medicine, physical activity could be applied to medical assistance or to design prospective and controlled trials so as to evaluate possible usefulness.

  18. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants

    PubMed Central

    Kutzner, Ines; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N.; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36–55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in

  19. Cold habituation does not improve manual dexterity during rest and exercise in 5 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew D.; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J.; Pollock, Brandon S.; Burns, Keith J.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2014-04-01

    When exposed to a cold environment, a barehanded person experiences pain, cold sensation, and reduced manual dexterity. Both acute (e.g. exercise) and chronic (e.g. cold acclimatization or habituation) processes might lessen these negative effects. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of cold habituation on physiology, perception, and manual dexterity during rest, exercise, and recovery in 5 °C. Six cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight non habituated men (NON) volunteered to participate in a repeated measures cross-over design. The protocol was conducted in 5 °C and was 90 min of resting cold exposure, 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise (50 % VO2 peak), and 60 min of seated recovery. Core and finger skin temperature, metabolic rate, Purdue Pegboard dexterity performance, hand pain, thermal sensation, and mood were quantified. Exercise-induced finger rewarming (EIFRW) was calculated for each hand. During 90 min of resting exposure to 5 °C, the CWA had a smaller reduction in finger temperature, a lower metabolic rate, less hand pain, and less negative mood. Despite this cold habituation, dexterity performance was not different between groups. In response to cycle ergometry, EIFRW was greater in CWA (~12 versus 7 °C) and occurred at lower core temperatures (37.02 versus 37.31 °C) relative to NON but dexterity was not greater during post-exercise recovery. The current data indicate that cold habituated men (i.e., CWA) do not perform better on the Purdue Pegboard during acute cold exposure. Furthermore, despite augmented EIFRW in CWA, dexterity during post-exercise recovery was similar between groups.

  20. The Simon task and aging: does acute moderate exercise influence cognitive control?

    PubMed

    Joyce, Jennifer; Smyth, Patrick J; Donnelly, Alan E; Davranche, Karen

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of an acute bout of moderate exercise and examine the potential lasting improvements over time in young and old adults within the same experimental paradigm over a 2-h testing period. The study was designed to assess the efficiency of selective control and the propensity to make fast impulsive reactions through the analyses of the percentage of correct responses (CAF) and the magnitude of the interference effect (delta curve) as a function of the latency of the response. Twelve young (23 ± 2 yr) and 12 old (63 ± 2 yr) volunteers performed the Simon task while cycling (30 min of cycling at 65% of age-predicted HRmax) and after exercise cessation (post 5 min, post 35 min, and post 65 min). Results showed that exercise did not alter cognitive control. The benefit on reaction time performance was evident for both age groups and persisted after cessation for 15-20 min. Distributional analyses showed that younger people have a higher propensity to commit impulsive errors during exercise, which was not evident in older adults. Older adults adopted more cautious strategies, especially when the risk to commit an error was elevated. Despite the larger mean interference effect compared to younger adults, the pattern of the delta curves attests to the existence of an efficient cognitive control in older people. This study illustrates the effectiveness of distributional analyses and supports the idea that exercise-induced facilitation on cognitive performance can be realized across the lifespan. Future investigations should explore whether accumulated bouts of acute exercise could display an aggregate cognitive benefit, which may significantly affect independent functioning in older adults.

  1. Coinciding exercise with peak serum caffeine does not improve cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Tina L; Jenkins, David G; Taaffe, Dennis R; Leveritt, Michael D; Coombes, Jeff S

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether coinciding peak serum caffeine concentration with the onset of exercise enhances subsequent endurance performance. Randomised, double-blind, crossover. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 14 male trained cyclists and triathletes (age 31±5year, body mass 75.4±5.7 kg, VO₂max 69.5±6.1 mL kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ and peak power output 417±35W, mean±SD) consumed 6 mg kg(-1) caffeine or a placebo either 1h (C(1h)) prior to completing a 40 km time trial or when the start of exercise coincided with individual peak serum caffeine concentrations (C(peak)). C(peak) was determined from a separate 'caffeine profiling' session that involved monitoring caffeine concentrations in the blood every 30 min over a 4h period. Following caffeine ingestion, peak serum caffeine occurred 120 min in 12 participants and 150 min in 2 participants. Time to complete the 40 km time trial was significantly faster (2.0%; p=0.002) in C(1h) compared to placebo. No statistically significant improvement in performance was noted in the C(peak) trial versus placebo (1.1%; p=0.240). Whilst no differences in metabolic markers were found between C(peak) and placebo conditions, plasma concentrations of glucose (p=0.005), norepinephrine and epinephrine (p≤0.002) were higher in the C(1h) trial 6 min post-exercise versus placebo. In contrast to coinciding peak serum caffeine concentration with exercise onset, caffeine consumed 60 min prior to exercise resulted in significant improvements in 40 km time trial performance. The ergogenic effect of caffeine was not found to be related to peak caffeine concentration in the blood at the onset of endurance exercise. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Ines; Richter, Anja; Gordt, Katharina; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in the

  3. Does exercise improve self-reported sleep quality in non-remitted major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Rethorst, C D; Sunderajan, P; Greer, T L; Grannemann, B D; Nakonezny, P A; Carmody, T J; Trivedi, M H

    2013-04-01

    Sleep disturbances are persistent residual symptoms following remission of major depressive disorder (MDD) and are associated with an increased risk of MDD recurrence. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of exercise augmentation on self-reported sleep quality in participants with non-remitted MDD. Method Participants were randomized to receive selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) augmentation with one of two doses of exercise: 16 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per week (KKW) or 4 KKW for 12 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the clinician-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C). The four sleep-related items on the IDS-C (Sleep Onset Insomnia, Mid-Nocturnal Insomnia, Early Morning Insomnia, and Hypersomnia) were used to assess self-reported sleep quality. Significant decreases in total insomnia (p < 0.0001) were observed, along with decreases in sleep onset, mid-nocturnal and early-morning insomnia (p's <0.002). Hypersomnia did not change significantly (p = 0.38). Changes in total, mid-nocturnal and early-morning insomnia were independent of changes in depressive symptoms. Higher baseline hypersomnia predicted a greater decrease in depression severity following exercise treatment (p = 0.0057). No significant moderating effect of any baseline sleep on change in depression severity was observed. There were no significant differences between exercise treatment groups on total insomnia or any individual sleep item. Exercise augmentation resulted in improvements in self-reported sleep quality in patients with non-remitted MDD. Given the prevalence of insomnia as a residual symptom following MDD treatment and the associated risk of MDD recurrence, exercise augmentation may have an important role in the treatment of MDD.

  4. Exercise training reduces alcohol consumption but does not affect HPA-axis activity in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Manthou, Eirini; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Ziaka, Anastasia; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Mastorakos, Georgios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Theodorakis, Yannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-10-01

    It has been suggested that physical exercise could have potential beneficial effects in substance abusers, which are based on both physiological and psychological theories. Although a few studies have examined the effect of exercise on alcohol intake and fitness in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), there is a gap in the literature concerning the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that could be affected by physical exercise in this population. The purpose of the present study was to examine physiological and biochemical responses to exercise after an 8-week supervised exercise training (ET) intervention in heavy drinkers. The investigation was mainly focused on the relationship among exercise, opioids, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity and heavy alcohol drinking. Eleven (Age: 30.3±3.5yrs; Body Mass Index: 28.4±0.86kg/m(2)) male heavy drinkers volunteered to participated in an 8-week supervised intervention of moderate intensity exercise (50-60% of Heart Rate Reserve). All participants were exhibiting low physical activity and used to drink heavily. Before intervention, the participants were asked to record their daily alcohol intake without changing their physical activity levels for 4weeks (control condition). During the 8-week supervised ET intervention, participants were recording their daily alcohol intake and were motivated to increase gradually the duration and frequency of ET. Blood samples were collected prior to and after 4weeks of the control condition, the day before the beginning of the ET intervention, and at the end of the 4th and 8th week of ET intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for β-E, epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. Physiological and alcohol-related indices were also examined. The 8-week supervised ET intervention resulted in reduced alcohol consumption, reduced γ-GT levels, and fitness

  5. Sinusoidal high-intensity exercise does not elicit ventilatory limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Porszasz, Janos; Rambod, Mehdi; van der Vaart, Hester; Rossiter, Harry B; Ma, Shuyi; Kiledjian, Rafi; Casaburi, Richard

    2013-06-01

    During exercise at critical power (CP) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, ventilation approaches its maximum. As a result of the slow ventilatory dynamics in COPD, ventilatory limitation during supramaximal exercise might be escaped using rapid sinusoidal forcing. Nine COPD patients [age, 60.2 ± 6.9 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)), 42 ± 17% of predicted; and FEV(1)/FVC, 39 ± 12%] underwent an incremental cycle ergometer test and then four constant work rate cycle ergometer tests; tolerable duration (t(lim)) was recorded. Critical power was determined from constant work rate testing by linear regression of work rate versus 1/t(lim). Patients then completed fast (FS; 60 s period) and slow (SS; 360 s period) sinusoidally fluctuating exercise tests with mean work rate at CP and peak at 120% of peak incremental test work rate, and one additional test at CP; each for a 20 min target. The value of t(lim) did not differ between CP (19.8 ± 0.6 min) and FS (19.0 ± 2.5 min), but was shorter in SS (13.2 ± 4.2 min; P < 0.05). The sinusoidal ventilatory amplitude was minimal (37.4 ± 34.9 ml min(-1) W(-1)) during FS but much larger during SS (189.6 ± 120.4 ml min(-1) W(-1)). The total ventilatory response in SS reached 110 ± 8.0% of the incremental test peak, suggesting ventilatory limitation. Slow components in ventilation during constant work rate and FS exercises were detected in most subjects and contributed appreciably to the total response asymptote. The SS exercise was associated with higher mid-exercise lactate concentrations (5.2 ± 1.7, 7.6 ± 1.7 and 4.5 ± 1.3 mmol l(-1) in FS, SS and CP). Large-amplitude, rapid sinusoidal fluctuation in work rate yields little fluctuation in ventilation despite reaching 120% of the incremental test peak work rate. This high-intensity exercise strategy might be suitable for programmes of rehabilitative exercise training in COPD.

  6. Does Moderate Intensity Exercise Attenuate the Postprandial Lipemic and Airway Inflammatory Response to a High-Fat Meal?

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Stephanie P.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Levitt, Morton; Cull, Brooke J.; Teeman, Colby S.; Emerson, Sam R.; Harms, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise in the postprandial period attenuates the triglyceride and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal (HFM) compared to remaining inactive in the postprandial period. Seventeen (11 M/6 F) physically active (≥150 min/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise (EX; 60% VO2peak) or sedentary (CON) condition after a HFM (10 kcal/kg, 63% fat). Blood analytes and airway inflammation via exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) were measured at baseline, and 2 and 4 hours after HFM. Airway inflammation was assessed with induced sputum and cell differentials at baseline and 4 hours after HFM. Triglycerides doubled in the postprandial period (~113 ± 18%, P < 0.05), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Percentage of neutrophils was increased 4 hours after HFM (~17%), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Exhaled nitric oxide changed nonlinearly from baseline to 2 and 4 hours after HFM (P < 0.05,  η2 = 0.36). Our findings suggest that, in active individuals, an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise does not attenuate the triglyceride or airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:26000301

  7. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue –17 ± 15%, control –15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue –6 ± 9%, control –6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue –30 ± 14%, control –32 ± 10%, p < 0.001) in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher

  8. Joint Cooling does not Hinder Athletic Performance during High-intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise.

  9. Does Regular Post-exercise Cold Application Attenuate Trained Muscle Adaptation?

    PubMed

    Yamane, M; Ohnishi, N; Matsumoto, T

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of regular post-exercise cold application on muscular and vascular adaptations induced by moderate-intensity resistance training. 14 male subjects participated in resistance training: 5 sets of 8 wrist-flexion exercises at workload of 70-80% of the single repetition maximum, 3 times a week for 6 weeks. 7 subjects immersed their experimental forearms in cold water (10±1°C) for 20 min after wrist-flexion exercises (cooled group), and the other 7 served as control subjects (noncooled group). Measurements were taken before and after the training period; wrist-flexor thickness, brachial-artery diameter, maximal muscle strength, and local muscle endurance were measured in upper extremities. Wrist-flexor thicknesses of the experimental arms increased after training in both groups, but the extent of each increase was significantly less in the cooled group compared with the noncooled group. Maximal muscle strength and brachial-artery diameter did not increase in the cooled group, while they increased in the noncooled group. Local muscle endurance increased in both groups, but the increase in the cooled group tended to be lower compared to the noncooled group. Regular post-exercise cold application to muscles might attenuate muscular and vascular adaptations to resistance training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Does hyperbaric oxygen exposure affect high-intensity, short-duration exercise performance?

    PubMed

    Rozenek, Ralph; Fobel, Brennan F; Banks, Jerry C; Russo, Albert C; Lacourse, Michael G; Strauss, Michael B

    2007-11-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure involves the breathing of 100% oxygen under conditions of elevated atmospheric pressure and is used to increase the oxygen content of the plasma fraction of arterial blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute HBO exposure on selected physiological responses and performance in response to maximal lower extremity or upper extremity short-term, high-intensity exercise. The study was performed with 2 separate experiments incorporating double-blinded and randomized protocols. In experiment 1, 9 subjects ran on a treadmill at a speed of 268 m x min(-1) with a predetermined grade. In experiment 2, 9 different subjects performed a repetitive bench press exercise. Both exercise protocols were designed to induce fatigue within 1-2 minutes. Within each experiment, subjects received either a 1-hour HBO exposure inspiring 100% O2 at 202.6 kPa (2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure [ATA]) or a 1-hour sham exposure inspiring ambient air at 121.5 kPa (1.2 ATA) before exercise. No significant differences (p > or = 0.05) were observed in postexercise blood lactate concentrations, peak heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, or performance as determined by treadmill running time or number of completed lifts. Unlike other methods that elevate oxygen content of the blood, acute HBO exposure appears to have no significant effect on subsequent high-intensity running or lifting performance.

  11. Does Lower Limb Exercise Worsen Renal Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients. PMID:25946196

  12. Caffeine does not alter RPE or pain perception during intense exercise in active women.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Roupoli, Lindsay R; Valdivieso, Britten R

    2012-10-01

    Attenuated perceptions of exertion and leg pain are typically reported during exercise with caffeine ingestion, yet these responses are relatively unexplored in women. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain perception during a simulated time trial. Ten active women (age=22.1±1.9yr) completed an 8.2km "all out" time trial on each of 3days separated by at least 48h. Initially, a practice trial was completed, and participants refrained from products containing caffeine and lower-body exercise for 24h prior to subsequent trials. During exercise, heart rate (HR), RPE, and leg pain were recorded. Using a double-blind, randomized crossover design, participants ingested anhydrous caffeine and glucose (each 6mg/kg bw+each 6mg/kg bw glucose) or placebo (each 6mg/kg bw of glucose) 1h pre-exercise. Despite not altering (P>0.05) RPE, HR, or leg pain, caffeine improved (P<0.05) cycling performance (17.7±1.0min versus 18.2±1.1min) and power output (121.6±17.5W versus 114.9±17.9W) versus placebo. Caffeine's ergogenic effects may be independent of changes in RPE or leg pain in active women performing a simulated time trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation.

  14. Quercetin supplementation does not attenuate exercise performance and body composition in young female swimmers.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Leila; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra; Askari, Gholamreza; Rezai, Pejman; Aghaie, Mahmoud; Iraj, Bijan; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri

    2013-04-01

    Quercetin is a health-enhancing antioxidant bioflavonoid (1-3). This flavonoid occurs in variety of natural fruits and vegetables such as apple, cranberry, onion, broccoli, and teas. Many studies have shown that quercetin has possible positive effects on exercise performance. The aim of this study is the evaluation of effects of quercetin supplementation on VO2max and exercise performance in female athletes. This study was done on 26 young female swimmers. Participants were assigned in to groups and supplemented orally for 8 weeks with either Quercetin (Solaray(®), USA, Inc) or placebo (dextrose). Before and after intervention, athletes performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) on an electronically braked cycle ergometer (Lode, The Netherlands) to determine VO2max and time to exhaustion (TTE). Participants in the quercetin group consumed higher energy and protein and lower carbohydrates and fats. There was no significant differences in VO2max, TTE, lactate, and body fat between pre- and post-supplementation neither in the placebo group nor in the quercetin group. It is concluded that quercetin supplementation (1000 g/day) for 8 weeks in female athletes didn't show any significant association with exercise performance.

  15. Creatine supplementation does not affect human skeletal muscle glycogen content in the absence of prior exercise.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Dean A; Robinson, Tristan M; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2008-02-01

    Due to the current lack of clarity, we examined whether 5 days of dietary creatine (Cr) supplementation per se can influence the glycogen content of human skeletal muscle. Six healthy male volunteers participated in the study, reporting to the laboratory on four occasions to exercise to the point of volitional exhaustion, each after 3 days of a controlled normal habitual dietary intake. After a familiarization visit, participants cycled to exhaustion in the absence of any supplementation (N), and then 2 wk later again they cycled to exhaustion after 5 days of supplementation with simple sugars (CHO). Finally, after a further 2 wk, they again cycled to exhaustion after 5 days of Cr supplementation. Muscle samples were taken at rest before exercise, at the time point of exhaustion in visit 1, and at subsequent visit time of exhaustion. There was a treatment effect on muscle total Cr content in Cr compared with N and CHO supplementation (P < 0.01). Resting muscle glycogen content was elevated above N following CHO (P < 0.05) but not after Cr. At exhaustion following N, glycogen content was no different from CHO and Cr measured at the same time point during exercise. Cr supplementation under conditions of controlled habitual dietary intake had no effect on muscle glycogen content at rest or after exhaustive exercise. We suggest that any Cr-associated increases in muscle glycogen storage are the result of an interaction between Cr supplementation and other mediators of muscle glycogen storage.

  16. Does physical exercise improve obstacle negotiation in the elderly? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guadagnin, Eliane C; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise improves walking in the elderly but much less is known about its effect on more challenged gait, such as obstacle negotiation. We conducted a systematic review to discuss the effects of regular physical exercise on kinematics and kinetics of obstacle negotiation in the elderly. A comprehensive literature search revealed 859 citations for review, whereof 206 studies entered the full-text analysis. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 studies were included in this systematic review. Most of them presented a reasonable quality (average 0.68) but none of them reached the level of a randomized control trial. Interventions were heterogeneous, with training periods lasting from 5 days to 10 months. Studies assessed obstacle negotiation basically considering 3 types of testing paradigm, namely a walkway with either a single obstacle crossing, or with multiple obstacles, or else a treadmill with an obstacle avoidance task under time pressure. In general, longer training programs had better results and very short ones were not effective. A weekly frequency of 2-3 times was the most common among the studies showing positive effects. Regardless of exercises types performed, most of them were effective and so far, there is no consensus about the best exercise for improving obstacle negotiation. A lack of studies on this topic still is evident. Including a record of fall score can further help in deciding which programs are to be preferred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerobic fitness does not modulate protein metabolism in response to increased exercise: a controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: This study examined how a sudden increase in exercise energy expenditure affected whole body protein turnover and nitrogen balance in people of differing aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that whole-body protein turnover would be attenuated, and nitrogen balance would be preserved, in aerobi...

  18. Cancer type does not affect exercise-mediated improvements in cardiorespiratory function and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Repka, Chris P; Peterson, Brent M; Brown, Jessica M; Lalonde, Trent L; Schneider, Carole M; Hayward, Reid

    2014-11-01

    Despite mounting evidence indicating that exercise training has a positive effect on cancer recovery, the influence of cancer type on the response to exercise training remains uncharacterized. Therefore, the adaptations to exercise training were compared between groups composed of 7 different forms of cancer. A total of 319 cancer survivors completed fatigue inventories and participated in assessments of cardiorespiratory function, which encompassed aerobic capacity (VO2 peak), pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]), and resting blood pressure and heart rate. Participants were divided into 7 groups based on cancer type, including breast cancer (BC, n = 170), prostate cancer and other male urogenital neoplasia (PC, n = 38), hematological malignancies (HM, n = 34), colorectal cancer (CC, n = 25), gynecological cancers (GC, n = 20), glandular and epithelial neoplasms (GEN, n = 20), and lung cancer (LC, n = 12). All participants completed an individualized, multimodal exercise intervention consisting of cardiorespiratory, flexibility, balance, and muscular strength training 3 days per week for 3 months. Following the intervention, all subjects were reassessed. Generalized Estimating Equations with exchangeable working correlation structure was used to model each response; the group by time interaction effect represented the effect of cancer type on exercise-associated improvements. No significant (P > .05) group by time interaction effects were observed between different types of cancer for any parameter. Pre- to postexercise contrasts revealed significant improvements in VO2 peak in BC, PC, HM, and GEN at the Bonferroni adjusted significance level (.00714). Heart rate was significantly lowered in the BC and CC groups. Mean fatigue indices decreased by at least 17% in all groups, but these changes were only significant in the BC, HM, CC, and GC groups. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in BC and GC

  19. Serum IGF-I-deficiency does not prevent compensatory skeletal muscle hypertrophy in resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Ronald W; Matheny, Wayne; Merritt, Edward; Zannikos, Symeon V; Farrar, Roger P; Adamo, Martin L

    2009-02-01

    The involvement of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the skeletal muscle response to resistance exercise is currently unclear. To address this, we utilized the liver IGF-I-deficient (LID) mouse model, in which the igf1 gene has been disrupted in the hepatocytes, resulting in ~80% reduction in serum IGF-I. Twelve- to 13-month-old male LID and control (L/L) mice were subjected to 16 weeks of resistance training. Resistance exercise resulted in equal strength gains in both L/L and LID mice. Basal IGF-I mRNA levels were greater in LID muscles than in L/L, and exercise increased IGF-I mRNA in quadriceps, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles. LID mice had elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-IR and Stat5b, the latter possibly reflective of increased serum GH. Tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-IR was increased, while phospho-Stat5b was reduced after resistance training of both wild-type and LID mice. These data suggest that: 1) performance and recovery in response to resistance training is normal even when there is severe deficiency of circulating IGF-I; and 2) upregulation of local IGF-I may be involved in the compensatory growth of muscle that occurs in response to resistance training. Decreased levels of p-Stat5b in exercised mice suggests that the upregulation of local IGF-I gene expression in response to exercise may be GH-independent.

  20. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    PubMed Central

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Cieśliński, Igor; Kowalski, Paweł; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Nowobilski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women) aged 30.10 (25–39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women) able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38) years, who 16.5 (12–26) years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS) were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood. PMID:25436225

  1. Resistance exercise training does not affect plasma irisin levels of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moraes, C; Leal, V O; Marinho, S M; Barroso, S G; Rocha, G S; Boaventura, G T; Mafra, D

    2013-11-01

    Irisin, a hormone secreted by myocytes induced in exercise, acts as a muscle-derived energy-expenditure signal that binds to undetermined receptors on the white adipose tissue surface, stimulating its browning and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an intradialytic resistance exercise training program (RETP) on plasma irisin levels of hemodialysis (HD) patients and compare the baseline plasma irisin levels of HD patients to healthy subjects. This longitudinal study enrolled 26 patients undergoing HD (50% men, 44.8±14.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 23.5±3.9 kg/m²). The healthy subjects group consisted of 11 women and 7 men with mean age of 50.9±6.6 years and BMI, 24.2±2.7 kg/m². Anthropometric and biochemistry parameters (Irisin by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) were measured at the baseline and after 6 months of RETP (in both lower limbs). There was no difference regarding gender, age, and BMI between HD patients and healthy subjects. Plasma irisin levels in HD patients were lower than in healthy subjects (71.0±41.6 vs. 101.3±12.5 ng/ml, p<0.05). Although the muscle mass increased in consequence of exercise [evaluated by arm muscle area from 27.9 (24.1) to 33.1 (19.0) cm²], plasma irisin did not differ significantly after exercises (71.0±41.6 vs. 73.3±36.0 ng/ml). HD patients seem to have lower plasma irisin when compared to healthy subjects. Moreover, a resistance exercise training program was unable to augment plasma irisin despite increasing muscle mass. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Does type 1 diabetes alter post-exercise thermoregulatory and cardiovascular function in young adults?

    PubMed

    McGinn, R; Carter, M R; Barrera-Ramirez, J; Sigal, R J; Flouris, A D; Kenny, G P

    2015-10-01

    Recent data demonstrated that individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit impaired sweating and increased rectal temperature (i.e., heat storage) during exercise compared with healthy controls. Our purpose in this study was to investigate the consequences of T1DM on post-exercise thermal homeostasis. Sixteen participants (eight controls matched with eight T1DM) performed 90 min of cycling followed by 60 min of seated recovery. Esophageal and rectal temperatures, sweating (forearm, chest, and upper back), skin blood flow [forearm and upper back, presented as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)], and blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP)] were measured at baseline and throughout recovery. Esophageal temperature was similar during baseline and recovery between groups (P = 0.88). However, rectal temperature was elevated in our T1DM group throughout recovery (P = 0.05). Sweating and CVC were similar between groups at all sites from 10-min post-exercise until the end of recovery (P ≥ 0.16). While absolute MAP was similar between groups (P = 0.43), the overall decrease in MAP post-exercise was greater in controls from 20 min (T1DM: - 8 ± 5 vs control: - 13 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.03) until the end of recovery. We conclude that despite increased heat storage during exercise, individuals with T1DM exhibit a suppression in heat loss similar to their healthy counterparts during recovery.

  3. Physical activity: does long-term, high-intensity exercise in horses result in tendon degeneration?

    PubMed

    Birch, Helen L; Wilson, Alan M; Goodship, Allen E

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise induces degenerative changes in the injury-prone equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), but not in the rarely injured common digital extensor tendon (CDET). The horse represents a large-animal model that is applicable to human tendon and ligament physiology and pathology. Twelve age-matched female horses undertook galloping exercise three times a week with trotting exercise on alternative days (high-intensity group, n = 6) or only walking exercise (low-intensity group, n = 6) for 18 mo. The SDFT, suspensory ligament, deep digital flexor tendon, and CDET were harvested from the forelimb. Tissue from the mid-metacarpal region of the right limb tendons was analyzed for water, DNA, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and collagen content, collagen type III-to-I ratios, collagen cross-links, and tissue fluorescence. Left limb tendons were mechanically tested to failure. The analyses showed matrix composition to have considerable diversity between the functionally different structures. In addition, the specific structures responded differently to the imposed exercise. High-intensity training resulted in a significant decrease in the GAG content in the SDFT, but no change in collagen content, despite a decrease in collagen fibril diameters. There were no signs of degeneration or change in mechanical properties of the SDFT. The CDET had a lower water content following high-intensity training and a higher elastic modulus. Long-term, high-intensity training in skeletally mature individuals results in changes that suggest accelerated aging in the injury-prone SDFT and adaptation in the CDET.

  4. Does air-breathing meet metabolic demands of the juvenile snakehead, Channa argus, in multiple conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongli; Lv, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Chenchen; Duan, Ting

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine how the respiratory metabolism of the snakehead Channa argus changed when it shifted from breathing water to breathing air, and how increased metabolic demands caused by temperature, feeding, and exhaustive exercise affect its survival in air. The results demonstrated that the oxygen consumption rate (MO2) of the snakehead was lower for aerial respiration than aquatic respiration by 12.1, 24.5 and 20.4% at 20, 25, and 30°C, respectively. Survival time was significantly shortened with increasing temperature and was negatively correlated with the resting MO2 in air (MO2Air). No obvious feeding metabolic response was observed in the snakeheads fed at 1% and 3% body mass levels while breathing air. The maximum MO2Air of the snakehead after exhaustive exercise was significantly higher than the resting MO2Air of the control group. The results suggest that the snakehead could survive out of water by breathing air for varying lengths of time, depending on ambient temperature and metabolic demand. Additionally, some degree of metabolic depression occurs in the snakehead when breathing air. The metabolic demand associated with exercise in the snakehead, but not that associated with feeding, can be supported by its capacity for breathing air to some extent. PMID:28396489

  5. Impact of nutritional support that does and does not meet guideline standards on clinical outcome in surgical patients at nutritional risk: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Lin, Yue-Ying; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2016-08-19

    To investigate the impact of nutritional support on clinical outcomes in patients at nutritional risk who receive nutritional support that meets guideline standards and those who do not. This prospective cohort study enrolled hospitalized patients from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from February 2010 to June 2012. The research protocols were approved by the university's ethics committee, and the patients signed informed consent forms. The clinical data were collected based on nutritional risk screening, administration of enteral and parenteral nutrition, surgical information, complications, and length of hospital stay. During the study period, 525 patients at nutritional risk were enrolled in the cohorts. Among patients who received nutritional support that met the guideline standards (Cohort 1), the incidence of infectious complications was lower than that in patients who did not meet guideline standards (Cohort 2) (17.1 % vs. 26.9 %, P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that individuals who received a combination of parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) for 7 or more days had a significantly lower incidence of infectious complications (P = 0.001) than those who received only PN for 7 or more days or those who received nutritional support for less than 7 days or at less than 10 kcal/kg/d. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for confounding factors, nutritional support that met guideline standards for patients with nutritional risk was a protective factor for complications (OR: 0.870, P < 0.002). In patients at nutritional risk after abdominal surgery, nutritional support that meets recommended nutrient guidelines (especially regimens involving PN + EN ≥ 7 days) might decrease the incidence of infectious complications and is worth recommending; however, well-designed trials are needed to confirm our findings. Nutritional support that does not meet the guideline standards is considered

  6. Mitral valve repair by Alfieri's technique does not limit exercise tolerance more than Carpentier's correction.

    PubMed

    Frapier, Jean-Marc; Sportouch, Catherine; Rauzy, Valerie; Rouviere, Philippe; Cade, Stéphane; Demaria, Rolland G; Davy, Jean-Marc; Albat, Bernard

    2006-06-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate if the edge-to-edge mitral repair could be a limiting factor for exercise tolerance and to compare these results to those of classical techniques. Between 2000 and 2002, 54 consecutive patients were operated on for mitral valve regurgitation (MR). Twenty-five patients were operated with Alfieri's technique (group A) and 29 patients with Carpentier's technique (group C). The mean age was 63.9 years in group A and 63.8 years in group C (p = 0.98). After a mean follow-up of 16.2+/-12 months, survivor patients were seen at the outpatient clinic, by the same physician for a clinical evaluation, an echocardiogram at rest and at peak exercise, and received a cardiorespiratory exercise testing with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) recording. Clinical status improved with 0% of the patients in class NYHA III or IV in either group postoperatively versus 77% preoperatively. There was no significant MR in 80% of cases in group A versus 89.6% in group C (p = 0.54). The mean mitral valve area was 2.5 and 2.9 cm2 in groups A and C, respectively (p = 0.018). The mitral gradient at rest was 3.8 and 3.3 mmHg (p = 0.31) and the mitral gradient at peak exercise was 8.5 and 9.7 mmHg (p = 0.22) in groups A and C, respectively. Cardiorespiratory exercise testing showed a mean VO2 max of 73.7+/-15% of normal value in group A versus 79.6+/-13.1% in group C (p = 0.18). Alfieri's technique has the same efficiency on improvement of MR and clinical status than classical repair. Despite a higher restriction of mitral valve area at rest in group A, gradient and mean VO2 max at peak exercise were similar in both groups.

  7. Concurrent strength and endurance training exercise sequence does not affect neuromuscular adaptations in older men.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Rech, Anderson; Minozzo, Felipe; Botton, Cintia Ehlers; Radaelli, Regis; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Concurrent training is an effective method for increasing skeletal muscle performance in aging individuals, but controversy exists as to whether chronic neuromuscular and functional adaptations are affected by the intra-session exercise sequence. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training exercise sequence on muscular and functional adaptations of older participants. Thirty-six healthy older men not engaged in systematic exercise training programs for at least 6 months were divided into a control group (CON; 65.8±5.3 years), or in the training groups: endurance-strength (ES; 63.2±3.3 years), or strength-endurance (SE; 67.1±6.1 years). Training groups underwent 12 weeks of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training, starting every exercise session with either endurance (in ES) or strength (in SE) exercises. Measurements included knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), knee extension power, 30 second sit-to-stand test (30SS), maximum vastus lateralis surface electromyographic activity, and rectus femoris echo intensity (RFEI). Significant increases in maximal strength (ES +18±11.3%; SE +14.2±6.0%; p≤0.05), peak power (ES +22.2±19.4%; SE +26.3±31.3%; p≤0.05), and 30SS performance (ES +15.2±7.2%; SE +13.2±11.8%; p≤0.05) were observed only in the training groups, with no differences between ES and SE. Maximum muscular activity was greater after 12weeks at training groups (p≤0.05), and reductions in RFEI were found only in ES and SE (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that concurrent strength and endurance training performed twice a week effectively increases muscular performance and functional capacity in older men, independent of the intra-session exercise sequence. Additionally, the RFEI decreases indicate an additional adaptation to concurrent training.

  8. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  9. Contemporary Day Care: Does It Meet Either Educational or Family Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Marian

    Center-based day care, at its current level of funding, is meeting neither adult nor child needs. Parents, especially working mothers, need child care that is reliable, flexible, professional, and affordable, but day care is rarely flexible, has few accommodations for emergencies, and is often not satisfactory for the maximum development of…

  10. Does cardiac rehabilitation meet minimum standards: an observational study using UK national audit?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Patrick; Salman, Ahmad; Furze, Gill; Dalal, Hasnain M; Harrison, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent by which programmes meet national minimum standards for the delivery of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) as part of the National Certification Programme for Cardiovascular Rehabilitation (NCP_CR). Methods The analysis used UK National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR) data extracted and validated for the period 2013–2014 set against six NCP_CR measures deemed as important for the delivery of high-quality CR programmes. Each programme that achieved a single minimum standard was given a score of 1. The range of the scoring for meeting the minimum standards is between 1 and 6. The performance of CR programmes was categorised into three groups: high (score of 5–6), middle (scores of 3–4) and low (scores of 1–2). If a programme did not meet any of the six criteria, they were considered to have failed. Results Data from 170 CR programmes revealed statistically significant differences among UK CR programmes. The principal findings were that, based on NCP_CR criteria, 30.6% were assessed as high performance with 45.9% as mid-level performance programmes, 18.2% were in the lower-level and 5.3% failed to meet any of the minimum criteria. Conclusions This study shows that high levels of performance is achievable in the era of modern cardiology and that many CR programmes are close to meeting high performance standards. However, substantial variation, below the recommended minimum standards, exists throughout the UK. National certification should be seen as a positive step to ensure that patients, irrespective of where they live, are accessing quality services. PMID:28123763

  11. Level of Dietary Fat Does Not Affect Fuel Oxidation or Endurance Exercise Performance of Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-15

    exercise endurance, metabolism, and cardiovascular dynamics in swine. NHRC, Technical Report 88-3, 1988. 4. Workshop on calorie-dense rations. Committee...composition, and metabolic rate. Cln. Chest Med. 7:3-17, 1986. 34 31. Flock, M.H., Ed., Nutrition and Diet Therapv in Gastrointestinal Disease . New York...Sustainment Module) on the intestinal microbiota and the bacterial P-glucuronidase activity was studied in young healthy male military subjects. The

  12. Does a single bout of exercise influence subsequent physical activity and sedentary time in overweight boys?

    PubMed

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-05-01

    To assess the influence of a single bout of exercise on subsequent physical activity and sedentary time among overweight boys. A crossover study on 24 overweight boys (11-13years old) was conducted with three different experimental sessions: control, one bout of moderate exercise, and one bout of vigorous exercise. Physical activity was measured using triaxial accelerometers and time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, and sedentary activities was assessed during six days of follow-up. Differences in daily percentage of time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activities among experimental sessions were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models. Time spent in sedentary behavior was greater after moderate and vigorous sessions compared to the control, with statistically significant differences in trajectories between moderate (p=0.04) and vigorous sessions (p=0.006) compared to controls. Similarly, the time spent in moderate physical activity was smaller after moderate (p=0.02) and vigorous sessions (p=0.02) compared to the control. No differences in sedentary (p=0.50) and moderate (p=0.97) activities were observed between moderate and vigorous sessions. The percentage of time spent in vigorous physical activity showed a greater reduction in vigorous condition compared to moderate and control (p<0.01) conditions, while time spent in light physical activities was not different between sessions. Our results indicate a compensatory effect after a single bout of exercise due to decreases in moderate and vigorous physical activity and increases in sedentary time during the following six days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does exercise-induced muscle damage play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy?

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2012-05-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) occurs primarily from the performance of unaccustomed exercise, and its severity is modulated by the type, intensity, and duration of training. Although concentric and isometric actions contribute to EIMD, the greatest damage to muscle tissue is seen with eccentric exercise, where muscles are forcibly lengthened. Damage can be specific to just a few macromolecules of tissue or result in large tears in the sarcolemma, basal lamina, and supportive connective tissue, and inducing injury to contractile elements and the cytoskeleton. Although EIMD can have detrimental short-term effects on markers of performance and pain, it has been hypothesized that the associated skeletal muscle inflammation and increased protein turnover are necessary for long-term hypertrophic adaptations. A theoretical basis for this belief has been proposed, whereby the structural changes associated with EIMD influence gene expression, resulting in a strengthening of the tissue and thus protection of the muscle against further injury. Other researchers, however, have questioned this hypothesis, noting that hypertrophy can occur in the relative absence of muscle damage. Therefore, the purpose of this article will be twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature and attempt to determine what, if any, role EIMD plays in promoting skeletal muscle hypertrophy and (b) to make applicable recommendations for resistance training program design.

  14. Does cheating pay: the role of externally supplied momentum on muscular force in resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2013-01-01

    Our work investigates the use of "external momentum" in the context of hypertrophy-oriented training. This is momentum supplied to the load (such as a dumbbell) used in an exercise by means of action of muscles not inherently involved in the exercise. We challenge the general consensus that the use of such momentum often described as "cheating" is counterproductive. We focus on the use of external momentum in the shoulder lateral raise and adopt a framework whereby exercise execution is simulated on a computer. This is achieved using a physical model of motion which is combined with anthropomorphic measurements and empirical data of muscular recruitment from previous work. The introduction of moderate momentum (producing initial angular velocities around 57.5° s(-1)) increases the torque of the target muscles even without an increase in the load used. A moderate increase in the load and the use of momentum allows the torque to be increased even further. In contrast, excessive use of momentum results in lower demands on the target muscles, while an excessive increase of the load reduces the total hypertrophy stimulus by virtue of the decreased number of repetitions which can be performed successfully and thus the dramatically shortened time under tension. Our results disprove the conventional belief that the use of external momentum necessarily reduces the overload of the target muscles. A moderate use of external momentum increases both the per-repetition peak torque and the total hypertrophy stimulus in a set.

  15. State anxiety reduction and exercise: does hemispheric activation reflect such changes?

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Landers, D M

    1994-08-01

    Acute bouts of aerobic exercise have been consistently associated with significant reductions in anxiety, but explanations for this effect remain elusive. The cerebral lateralization hypothesis predicts that anxiety reductions would be caused by a postexercise decrease in anterior right, relative to left, hemisphere activation. A sample of 19 right-handed males ran at 75% of their VO2max for 30 min on a treadmill. Electroencephalogram (EEG; F3, F4, T3, T4) and state anxiety were collected before and following exercise. Compared with preexercise, anxiety was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at 10, 20, and 30 min postexercise. Preexercise EEG alpha asymmetry was significantly related to trait anxiety and also predicted a significant amount of variance (30%; P = 0.008) in postexercise anxiety reduction. From pre- to postexercise, the relative activation of the left frontal area increased with respect to the homologous right frontal site. Within-subject correlations for the change in anxiety with corresponding EEG changes were small but in line with theoretical predictions. It is concluded that the cerebral lateralization hypothesis remains tenable for explaining anxiety reductions associated with exercise.

  16. Does exercise impact on sleep for people who have rheumatoid arthritis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Sean; Donnelly, Alan; Fraser, Alexander; Comber, Laura; Kennedy, Norelee

    2017-06-01

    To systematically search for the availability of evidence for exercise impacting on sleep for people who have rheumatoid arthritis. Two reviewers independently searched seven electronic databases, identified and extracted relevant studies by applying eligibility criteria. Sources of bias were assessed independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane bias assessment tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for non-RCTs. Data were synthesized using a level of evidence approach. Meta-analyses were deemed to be inappropriate due to the heterogeneity of study designs, measurement tools and interventions. Five studies were included: one RCT; two pilot RCTs and two samples of convenience. A total of 262 people with RA were included. Interventions used were difficult to assess due to the heterogeneity of study designs and the inclusion of two using different types of yoga as an intervention. Different sleep outcome measures were used thus, it was not feasible to pool results. Studies had a high risk of bias. This review could find no consistent or conclusive evidence on whether exercise impacts on sleep in people who have rheumatoid arthritis, therefore no firm conclusions can be made. However, there is some indication that exercise may have positive benefits on sleep in people who have rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies with improved study designs, using subjective and objective measures, are needed.

  17. Impaired calcium pump function does not slow relaxation in human skeletal muscle after prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Booth, J; McKenna, M J; Ruell, P A; Gwinn, T H; Davis, G M; Thompson, M W; Harmer, A R; Hunter, S K; Sutton, J R

    1997-08-01

    This study examined the effects of prolonged exercise on human quadriceps muscle contractile function and homogenate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-adenosinetriphosphatase activity. Ten untrained men cycled at 75 +/- 2% (SE) peak oxygen consumption until exhaustion. Biopsies were taken from the right vastus lateralis muscle at rest, exhaustion, and 20 and 60 min postexercise. Peak tension and half relaxation time of the left quadriceps muscle were measured during electrically evoked twitch and tetanic contractions and a maximal voluntary isometric contraction at rest, exhaustion, and 10, 20, and 60 min postexercise. At exhaustion, homogenate Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ adenosinetriphosphatase activity were reduced by 17 +/- 4 and 21 +/- 5%, respectively, and remained depressed after 60 min recovery (P exercise by 28 +/- 3, 45 +/- 6, 65 +/- 5%, respectively (P exercise reduced muscle Ca2+ uptake, but this did not cause a slower relaxation of evoked contractions.

  18. Does vitamin C and E supplementation impair the favorable adaptations of regular exercise?

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kerksick, Chad M; Lamprecht, Manfred; McAnulty, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body's ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals.

  19. DOE workshop meeting on the application of positron spectroscopy to materials sciences: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, C.H.

    1993-04-01

    Positron spectroscopy has advanced to the point where it is in the best interest of DOE to assess past progress and to identify research needs/opportunities that can be exploited to advance the understanding of materials problems important to DOE. Purpose of the workshop is to identify areas of materials science where positron spectroscopy can serve to advance goals of DOE in energy research: problem areas for which positron spectroscopy can serve as a unique or complementary tool for materials characterization and analysis, possible sources of positrons at high intensities and instrumentation, and possible applications (defect profiles at surfaces/interfaces, composite materials, superconductors). Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for the 23 papers.

  20. DOE workshop meeting on the application of positron spectroscopy to materials sciences: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, C.H.

    1993-04-01

    Positron spectroscopy has advanced to the point where it is in the best interest of DOE to assess past progress and to identify research needs/opportunities that can be exploited to advance the understanding of materials problems important to DOE. Purpose of the workshop is to identify areas of materials science where positron spectroscopy can serve to advance goals of DOE in energy research: problem areas for which positron spectroscopy can serve as a unique or complementary tool for materials characterization and analysis, possible sources of positrons at high intensities and instrumentation, and possible applications (defect profiles at surfaces/interfaces, composite materials, superconductors). Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for the 23 papers.

  1. Post-exercise cold water immersion does not alter high intensity interval training-induced exercise performance and Hsp72 responses, but enhances mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Paula Fernandes; Magalhães, Sílvia Mourão; Fonseca, Ivana Alice Teixeira; da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Matos, Mariana Aguiar; Peixoto, Marco Fabrício Dias; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Crandall, Craig; Araújo, Hygor Nunes; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; de Castro Magalhães, Flávio; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro

    2016-09-01

    , HFS-1 (p = 0.007), PDK4 (p = 0.03), and Tfam (p = 0.03) mRNA were higher in CWI. NRF-1 decrease in both groups after training (p = 0.006). CaMK2 decreased with HIIT (p = 0.003) but it was not affected by CWI (p = 0.99). Cold water immersion does not alter HIIT-induced Hsp72, AMPK, p38 MAPK, and exercise performance but was able to increase some markers of cellular stress response and signaling molecules related to mitochondria biogenesis.

  2. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  3. What does it mean to be genomically literate?: National Human Genome Research Institute Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Hurle, Belen; Citrin, Toby; Jenkins, Jean F; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Lamb, Neil; Roseman, Jo Ellen; Bonham, Vence L

    2013-08-01

    Genomic discoveries will increasingly advance the science of medicine. Limited genomic literacy may adversely impact the public's understanding and use of the power of genetics and genomics in health care and public health. In November 2011, a meeting was held by the National Human Genome Research Institute to examine the challenge of achieving genomic literacy for the general public, from kindergarten to grade 12 to adult education. The role of the media in disseminating scientific messages and in perpetuating or reducing misconceptions was also discussed. Workshop participants agreed that genomic literacy will be achieved only through active engagement between genomics experts and the varied constituencies that comprise the public. This report summarizes the background, content, and outcomes from this meeting, including recommendations for a research agenda to inform decisions about how to advance genomic literacy in our society.

  4. What Does it Mean to be Genomically Literate? National Human Genome Research Institute Meeting Report

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, Belen; Citrin, Toby; Jenkins, Jean F.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Lamb, Neil; Roseman, Jo Ellen; Bonham, Vence L.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic discoveries will increasingly advance the science of medicine. Limited genomic literacy may adversely impact the public’s understanding and use of the power of genetics and genomics in health care and public health. In November 2011, a meeting was held by the National Human Genome Research Institute to examine the challenge of achieving genomic literacy for the general public, from K-12 to adult education. The role of the media in disseminating scientific messages and in perpetuating, or reducing, misconceptions was also discussed. Workshop participants agreed that genomic literacy will only be achieved through active engagement between genomics experts and the varied constituencies that comprise the public. This report summarizes the background, content, and outcomes from this meeting, including recommendations for a research agenda to inform decisions about how to advance genomic literacy in our society. PMID:23448722

  5. 5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.410 Addressing performance... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addressing performance that does not...

  6. Does Swimming Exercise Affect Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats Treated with Gum Acacia?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H.; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A.; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I.; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A.; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine –induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380

  7. Exercise economy does not change after acclimatization to moderate to very high altitude.

    PubMed

    Lundby, C; Calbet, J A L; Sander, M; van Hall, G; Mazzeo, R S; Stray-Gundersen, J; Stager, J M; Chapman, R F; Saltin, B; Levine, B D

    2007-06-01

    For more than 60 years, muscle mechanical efficiency has been thought to remain unchanged with acclimatization to high altitude. However, recent work has suggested that muscle mechanical efficiency may in fact be improved upon return from prolonged exposure to high altitude. The purpose of the present work is to resolve this apparent conflict in the literature. In a collaboration between four research centers, we have included data from independent high-altitude studies performed at varying altitudes and including a total of 153 subjects ranging from sea-level (SL) residents to high-altitude natives, and from sedentary to world-class athletes. In study A (n=109), living for 20-22 h/day at 2500 m combined with training between 1250 and 2800 m caused no differences in running economy at fixed speeds despite low typical error measurements. In study B, SL residents (n=8) sojourning for 8 weeks at 4100 m and residents native to this altitude (n=7) performed cycle ergometer exercise in ambient air and in acute normoxia. Muscle oxygen uptake and mechanical efficiency were unchanged between SL and acclimatization and between the two groups. In study C (n=20), during 21 days of exposure to 4300 m altitude, no changes in systemic or leg VO(2) were found during cycle ergometer exercise. However, at the substantially higher altitude of 5260 m decreases in submaximal VO(2) were found in nine subjects with acute hypoxic exposure, as well as after 9 weeks of acclimatization. As VO(2) was already reduced in acute hypoxia this suggests, at least in this condition, that the reduction is not related to anatomical or physiological adaptations to high altitude but to oxygen lack because of severe hypoxia altering substrate utilization. In conclusion, results from several, independent investigations indicate that exercise economy remains unchanged after acclimatization to high altitude.

  8. Does extending the dual-task functional exercises workout improve postural balance in individuals with ID?

    PubMed

    Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining postural balance, overcoming visual and motor coordination disorders and experiencing problems with low general fitness - typical of intellectually disabled individuals - adversely affect the performance quality of their activities of daily living (ADLs). Physical fitness and postural balance can be improved by taking part in special intervention programs. Our study was designed to test whether extending the dual-task intervention program (combining ADLs with balance exercises on unstable surfaces) from 12 to 24 weeks additionally improved postural balance in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). We also attempted to assess whether the effects of the above intervention program were still noticeable after 8 weeks of holidays, in which participants did not take any rehabilitation exercises. A total of 34 adolescents, aged 14-16 years (15.06±0.9), with moderate ID took part in our study. The experimental group (E) consisted of 17 individuals, who continued the intervention program originated 3 months earlier, and the control group (C) comprised the same number of participants. Postural balance was assessed on a stabilometric platform Alfa. Having extended the workout period by another 12 weeks, we noticed that the path length of the center of pressure (COP) covered by participants on tests with their eyes open and closed significantly shortened. After a lapse of 8 weeks from the completion of the program, the experimental group revealed a statistically significant decrease in the velocity along the medio-lateral (M/L) and anterior-posterior (A/P) axes. The remaining variables stayed at the same level and the control group did not demonstrate any statistically significant changes. Dual-task exercises, in which enhancing functional tasks of daily living is combined with a parallel stimulation of balance reactions, may improve static balance in persons with ID.

  9. Swim training does not protect mice from skeletal muscle oxidative damage following a maximum exercise test.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Tatiane Oliveira; Cleto, Lorena Sabino; Gioda, Carolina Rosa; Silva, Renata Sabino; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; de Sousa-Franco, Junia; de Magalhães, José Carlos; Penaforte, Claudia Lopes; Pinto, Kelerson Mauro de Castro; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2012-07-01

    We investigated whether swim training protects skeletal muscle from oxidative damage in response to a maximum progressive exercise. First, we investigated the effect of swim training on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the gastrocnemius muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, 48 h after the last training session. Mice swam for 90 min, twice a day, for 5 weeks at 31°C (± 1°C). The activities of SOD and CAT were increased in trained mice (P < 0.05) compared to untrained group. However, no effect of training was observed in the activity of GPx. In a second experiment, trained and untrained mice were submitted to a maximum progressive swim test. Compared to control mice (untrained, not acutely exercised), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice after maximum swim. The activity of GPx was increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice, while SOD activity was increased only in trained mice after maximum swimming. CAT activity was increased only in the untrained compared to the control group. Although the trained mice showed increased activity of citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, swim performance was not different compared to untrained mice. Our results show an imbalance in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in response to swim training, which could account for the oxidative damage observed in the skeletal muscle of trained mice in response to maximum swim, resulting in the absence of improved exercise performance.

  10. Anaerobic energy provision does not limit Wingate exercise performance in endurance-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; De Paz, J A; Garatachea, N; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Chavarren, J

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of severe acute hypoxia on exercise performance and metabolism during 30-s Wingate tests. Five endurance- (E) and five sprint- (S) trained track cyclists from the Spanish National Team performed 30-s Wingate tests in normoxia and hypoxia (inspired O(2) fraction = 0.10). Oxygen deficit was estimated from submaximal cycling economy tests by use of a nonlinear model. E cyclists showed higher maximal O(2) uptake than S (72 +/- 1 and 62 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). S cyclists achieved higher peak and mean power output, and 33% larger oxygen deficit than E (P < 0.05). During the Wingate test in normoxia, S relied more on anaerobic energy sources than E (P < 0.05); however, S showed a larger fatigue index in both conditions (P < 0.05). Compared with normoxia, hypoxia lowered O(2) uptake by 16% in E and S (P < 0.05). Peak power output, fatigue index, and exercise femoral vein blood lactate concentration were not altered by hypoxia in any group. Endurance cyclists, unlike S, maintained their mean power output in hypoxia by increasing their anaerobic energy production, as shown by 7% greater oxygen deficit and 11% higher postexercise lactate concentration. In conclusion, performance during 30-s Wingate tests in severe acute hypoxia is maintained or barely reduced owing to the enhancement of the anaerobic energy release. The effect of severe acute hypoxia on supramaximal exercise performance depends on training background.

  11. Caffeine ingestion does not alter carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Terry E; Helge, Jorn W; MacLean, David A; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effect of ingesting caffeine (6 mg kg−1) on muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during steady-state exercise in humans. Young male subjects (n = 10) performed 1 h of exercise (70 % maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2,max)) on two occasions (after ingestion of placebo and caffeine) and leg metabolism was quantified by the combination of direct Fick measures and muscle biopsies. Following caffeine ingestion serum fatty acid and glycerol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest, suggesting enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis. In addition circulating adrenaline concentration was increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest following caffeine ingestion and this, as well as leg noradrenaline spillover, was elevated (P ≤ 0.05) above placebo values during exercise. Caffeine resulted in a modest increase (P ≤ 0.05) in leg vascular resistance, but no difference was found in leg blood flow. Arterial lactate and glucose concentrations were increased (P ≤ 0.05) by caffeine, while the rise in plasma potassium was dampened (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio or in leg glucose uptake, net muscle glycogenolysis, leg lactate release or muscle lactate, or glucose 6-phosphate concentration. Similarly there were no differences between treatments in leg fatty acid uptake, glycerol release or muscle acetyl CoA concentration. These findings indicate that caffeine ingestion stimulated the sympathetic nervous system but did not alter the carbohydrate or fat metabolism in the monitored leg. Other tissues must have been involved in the changes in circulating potassium, fatty acids, glucose and lactate. PMID:11118510

  12. Erythropoietin Does Not Enhance Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis Following Exercise in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lamon, Séverine; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Gatta, Paul A. Della; Ghobrial, Lobna; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Garnham, Andrew; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a renal cytokine that is primarily involved in hematopoiesis while also playing a role in non-hematopoietic tissues expressing the EPO-receptor (EPOR). The EPOR is present in human skeletal muscle. In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway. Methods: Ten young (24.2 ± 0.9 years) and 10 older (66.6 ± 1.1 years) healthy subjects received a primed, constant infusion of [ring-13C6] L-phenylalanine and a single injection of 10,000 IU epoetin-beta or placebo in a double-blind randomized, cross-over design. 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Results: Significant interaction effects in the phosphorylation levels of the members of the AKT signaling pathway indicated a differential activation of protein synthesis signaling in older subjects when compared to young subjects. However, EPO offered no synergistic effect on vastus lateralis mixed muscle protein synthesis rate in young or older subjects. Conclusions: Despite its ability to activate the AKT pathway in skeletal muscle, an acute EPO injection had no additive or synergistic effect on the exercise-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis or muscle protein synthesis signaling pathways. PMID:27458387

  13. Captopril does not Potentiate Post-Exercise Hypotension: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Andréia Cristiane Carrenho; Sousa, Julio Cesar Silva; Silva, Natan Daniel; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Ortega, Katia Coelho; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Montano, Nicola; Mion, Decio; Tinucci, Taís; de Moraes Forjaz, Claudia Lucia

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate whether captopril (3×50 mg/day) potentiates post-resistance exercise hypotension (PREH) in hypertensives (HT), 12 HT men received captopril and placebo for 4 weeks each in a double-blinded, randomized-crossover design. On each therapy, subjects underwent 2 sessions: Control (C - rest) and Resistance Exercise (RE - 7 exercises, 3 sets to moderate fatigue, 50% of 1 RM -repetition maximum). Measurements were taken before and after 30-60 min (Post1) and 7 h (Post2), and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was monitored for 24 h. There were no differences in PREH characteristics and mechanisms between the placebo and captopril periods. At Post1, systolic/diastolic BP decreased significantly and similarly after RE with both therapies (Placebo=-13±2/-9±1 mmHg vs. Captopril=-12±2/-10±1 mmHg, P<0.05). RE reduced cardiac output in some subjects and systemic vascular resistance in others. Heart rate and cardiac sympathetic modulation increased, while stroke volume and baroreflex sensitivity decreased after RE (Placebo: +13±2 bpm, +21±5 nu, -11±5 ml, -4±2 ms/mmHg; Captopril: +13±2 bpm, +35±4 nu, 17±5 ml, -3±1 ms/mmHg, P<0.05). At Post2, all variables returned to pre-intervention values. Ambulatory BP was similar between the sessions. Thus, captopril did not potentiate the magnitude and duration of PREH in HT men, and it did not influence PREH mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  15. Does sex have an independent effect on thermoeffector responses during exercise in the heat?

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Daniel; Kenny, Glen P

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of studies have examined potential differences in temperature regulation between males and females during heat stress, conclusions have remained limited as to whether reported differences are due to confounding physical characteristics or to actual differences in the physiological variables of temperature regulation. Recent observations suggest that sex differences in temperature regulation, particularly in sudomotor activity, go beyond those associated with physical characteristics. Females have recently been shown to have a lower sudomotor activity, as well as a lower thermosensitivity of the response compared to males during exercise performed at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production. Furthermore, sex differences in local and whole-body sudomotor activity are only evident above a certain combination of environmental conditions and rate of metabolic heat production. In contrast, both the onset threshold and thermosensitivity of cutaneous vasodilatation are similar between males and females. In theory, differences in the thermosensitivity of sudomotor activity could be related to either a central (neural activity/integration) and/or peripheral (effector organ) modulation of temperature regulation. Based on recent findings, sex differences in sudomotor activity appear to be mediated peripherally, although a central modulation has yet to be conclusively ruled out. Here we present a brief yet comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge pertaining to sex differences in temperature regulation during exercise in the heat. PMID:23045336

  16. Proceedings of the DOE/Industry Sensor Working Group meeting, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This paper report contains topics presented at a sensor workshop group meeting. The topics describe measuring instruments of use in the pulp and paper industry. Topics include: measurement of solids fraction; process instrumentation research for the pulp paper industry; real-time non-contact optical surface motion monitor; on-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties; hierarchical intelligent control of industrial processes -- an in-parallel lime kiln application; proposal for research on lignin concentration measurement in pulping liquors; and advanced polymeric sensor materials for industrial drying.

  17. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  18. Does meeting the HEDIS substance abuse treatment engagement criterion predict patient outcomes?

    PubMed

    Harris, Alex H S; Humphreys, Keith; Bowe, Thomas; Tiet, Quyen; Finney, John W

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the patient-level associations between the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) substance use disorder (SUD) treatment engagement quality indicator and improvements in clinical outcomes. Administrative and survey data from 2,789 US Department of Veterans Affairs SUD patients were used to estimate the effects of meeting the HEDIS engagement criterion on improvements in Addiction Severity Index Alcohol, Drug, and Legal composite scores. Patients meeting the engagement indicator improved significantly more in all domains than patients who did not engage, and the relationship was stronger for alcohol and legal outcomes for patients seen in outpatient settings. The benefit accrued by those who engaged was statistically significant but clinically modest. These results add to the literature documenting the clinical benefits of treatment entry and engagement. Although these findings only indirectly support the use of the HEDIS engagement measure for its intended purpose-discriminating quality at the facility or system level-they confirm that the processes of care captured by the measure are associated with important patient outcomes.

  19. Exercise-onset heart rate increase is slowed in multiple sclerosis patients: does a disturbed cardiac autonomic control affect exercise tolerance?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Wens, Inez; Dendale, Paul; Eijnde, Bert O

    2013-01-01

    To explore the etiology of exercise intolerance in patients with MS, it is analyzed whether a disturbed cardiac autonomic control could be observed during exercise testing in patients with MS, and is related to exercise tolerance. From 26 MS patients and 15 healthy subjects, exercise-onset (first 20 and 60 seconds) and -offset (1-minute recovery) HR change was determined during a 6-minute constant-load exercise bout on bike. Blood lactate, HR, oxygen uptake, expiratory volume and perceived exertion were assessed during exercise, and compared between groups. In 15 MS patients, a 6-min walking test was executed. Twenty-second exercise-onset HR increase was significantly smaller in MS patients (14 ± 7 bts/min) vs. healthy subjects (20 ± 8 bts/min, p < 0.05), and independently related to MS and age in total group (p < 0.05). Sixty-second exercise-onset and -offset HR changes were not different between groups, nor independently related to MS presence (p > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between 20-second exercise-onset HR increase and walking capacity in MS patients (r = 0.64, p < 0.01). In MS patients, the early increase in heart rate during endurance exercise is significantly slowed, indicating a disturbed cardiac autonomic control, and is related to exercise tolerance.

  20. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; West, Daniel W. D.; Burd, Nicholas A.; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that the acute postexercise increases in muscle protein synthesis rates, with differing nutritional support, are predictive of longer-term training-induced muscle hypertrophy. Here, we aimed to test whether the same was true with acute exercise-mediated changes in muscle protein synthesis. Eighteen men (21 ± 1 yr, 22.6 ± 2.1 kg/m2; means ± SE) had their legs randomly assigned to two of three training conditions that differed in contraction intensity [% of maximal strength (1 repetition maximum)] or contraction volume (1 or 3 sets of repetitions): 30%-3, 80%-1, and 80%-3. Subjects trained each leg with their assigned regime for a period of 10 wk, 3 times/wk. We made pre- and posttraining measures of strength, muscle volume by magnetic resonance (MR) scans, as well as pre- and posttraining biopsies of the vastus lateralis, and a single postexercise (1 h) biopsy following the first bout of exercise, to measure signaling proteins. Training-induced increases in MR-measured muscle volume were significant (P < 0.01), with no difference between groups: 30%-3 = 6.8 ± 1.8%, 80%-1 = 3.2 ± 0.8%, and 80%-3= 7.2 ± 1.9%, P = 0.18. Isotonic maximal strength gains were not different between 80%-1 and 80%-3, but were greater than 30%-3 (P = 0.04), whereas training-induced isometric strength gains were significant but not different between conditions (P = 0.92). Biopsies taken 1 h following the initial resistance exercise bout showed increased phosphorylation (P < 0.05) of p70S6K only in the 80%-1 and 80%-3 conditions. There was no correlation between phosphorylation of any signaling protein and hypertrophy. In accordance with our previous acute measurements of muscle protein synthetic rates a lower load lifted to failure resulted in similar hypertrophy as a heavy load lifted to failure. PMID:22518835

  1. Mitochondria-specific antioxidant supplementation does not influence endurance exercise training-induced adaptations in circulating angiogenic cells, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Shill, Daniel D; Southern, W Michael; Willingham, T Bradley; Lansford, Kasey A; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2016-12-01

    Reducing excessive oxidative stress, through chronic exercise or antioxidants, can decrease the negative effects induced by excessive amounts of oxidative stress. Transient increases in oxidative stress produced during acute exercise facilitate beneficial vascular training adaptations, but the effects of non-specific antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are an exercise-inducible subset of white blood cells that maintain vascular integrity. We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training in CACs, muscle mitochondrial capacity and maximal oxygen uptake in young healthy men. We show that endurance exercise training increases multiple CAC types, an adaptation that is not altered by MitoQ supplementation. Additionally, MitoQ does not affect skeletal muscle or whole-body aerobic adaptations to exercise training. These results indicate that MitoQ supplementation neither enhances nor attenuates endurance training adaptations in young healthy men. Antioxidants have been shown to improve endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effects of antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. General acting antioxidants combined with exercise have not impacted circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training on CD3(+) , CD3(+) /CD31(+) , CD14(+) /CD31(+) , CD31(+) , CD34(+) /VEGFR2(+) and CD62E(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), muscle mitochondrial capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ) in healthy men aged 22.1 ± 0.7 years, with a body mass index of 26.9 ± 0.9 kg m(-2) , and 24.8 ± 1.3% body fat. Analysis of main effects revealed that training induced 33, 105 and 285% increases in CD

  2. Glucose administration does not modulate prolactin response to exercise, TRH or haloperidol injection.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Jezová, D

    1994-01-01

    Glucose was found to exert an In vitro regulatory effect on prolactin secretion. Its role in the modulation of stimulated secretion of prolactin in man is, however, not clear. To evaluate the effect of hyperglycaemia on prolactin release, three stimulatory tests with different mechanisms of stimulation were employed. Healthy male subjects served as volunteers during submaximal exercise, TRH test (0.2 mg i.v.) and administration of haloperidol (2 mg i.v.). Glucose (100 g in 400 ml) or an equal volume of water was given 30 min before the tests. Blood for glucose and prolactin analysis was taken via an indwelling catheter. The plasma prolactin concentration increased in response to each of the stimuli applied. However, the prolactin increase during hyperglycaemia did not differ from values obtained in tests performed in normoglycaemia after water administration. These results indicate that prolactin release in healthy man is not modulated by hyperglycaemia.

  3. Does a single bout of resistance or aerobic exercise after insulin dose reduction modulate glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes? A randomised cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brett A; Bird, Stephen R; MacIsaac, Richard J; Benson, Amanda C

    2016-10-01

    Regular exercise is advocated for individuals with type 2 diabetes, without fully understanding the acute (0-72h post-exercise) glycaemic response. This study assessed post-exercise glycaemic profiles of non-exercising individuals with insulin treated type 2 diabetes, following resistance and aerobic exercise. Randomised cross-over trial. Fourteen individuals with insulin treated type 2 diabetes (9 males, 5 females) aged 58.1±7.1 years (HbA1c: 8.0±0.6%) were allocated to single sessions of resistance (six whole-body exercises, three sets, 8-10 repetitions, 70% 1RM) and aerobic (30min cycling, 60% VO2peak) exercise, 7-days apart, with the day prior to the first exercise day of each intervention being the control condition. Immediately prior to exercise, insulin dosage was halved and breakfast consumed. Continuous glucose monitoring was undertaken to determine area under the curve and glucose excursions. Blood glucose initially increased (0-2h) following both resistance and aerobic exercise (p<0.001), peaking at 12.3±3.4mmolL(-1) and 12.3±3.3mmolL(-1), respectively. Area under the glucose curve was not statistically different over any of the 24h periods (p=0.12), or different in response to resistance (222±41mmolL(-1)24h(-1)) or aerobic (211±40 mmolL(-1)24h(-1)) exercise (p=0.56). Incidence of hyperglycaemia did not differ between exercise modes (p=0.68). Hypoglycaemic events were identified in three and four participants following resistance and aerobic exercise respectively: these did not require treatment. Glycaemic response is not different between exercise modes, although 50% insulin dose reduction prior to exercise impairs the expected improvement. A common clinical recommendation of 50% insulin dose reduction does not appear to cause adverse glycaemic events. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aerobic exercise does not compromise muscle hypertrophy response to short-term resistance training.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per A

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that chronic aerobic and resistance exercise (AE+RE) would elicit greater muscle hypertrophy than resistance exercise only (RE). Ten men (25 ± 4 yr) performed 5 wk unilateral knee extensor AE+RE. The opposing limb was subjected to RE. AE completed 6 hr prior to RE consisted of ~45 min one-legged cycle ergometry. RE comprised 4 × 7 maximal concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Various indexes of in vivo knee extensor function were measured before and after training. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessed m. quadricep femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA), volume, and signal intensity (SI). Biopsies obtained from m. vastus lateralis determined fiber CSA, enzyme levels, and gene expression of myostatin, atrogin-1, MuRF-1, PGC-1α, and VEGF. Increases (P < 0.05) in isometric strength and peak power, respectively, were comparable in AE+RE (9 and 29%) and RE (11 and 24%). AE+RE showed greater increase (14%; P < 0.05) in QF volume than RE (8%). Muscle fiber CSA increased 17% after AE+RE (P < 0.05) and 9% after RE (P > 0.05). QF SI increased (12%; P < 0.05) after AE+RE, but not RE. Neither AE+RE nor RE showed altered mRNA levels. Citrate synthase activity increased (P < 0.05) after AE+RE. The results suggest that the increased aerobic capacity shown with AE+RE was accompanied by a more robust increase in muscle size compared with RE. Although this response was not carried over to greater improvement in muscle function, it remains that intense AE can be executed prior to RE without compromising performance outcome.

  5. Knowledge of healthy foods does not translate to healthy snack consumption among exercise science undergraduates.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Laura H; Valentino, Antonette; Holbert, Donald

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample). Chi-square and t-test analyses compared ES and NES students on snack correlates. Snacks consumed most often by the ES and NES students on-campus were health bars/squares ( n = 56 vs. n = 48) and savory snacks ( n = 55 vs. n = 71), and off-campus were savory snacks ( n = 60 vs. n = 71) and fruits ( n = 41 vs. n = 34). Over half of both samples believed their snack choices were a mix of unhealthy and healthy. Fruits were considered healthier snacks and chips less healthy by both samples, and fruits were the most often recommended snack. About 20% believed these choices would impact their health unfavorably, and about two thirds self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Since knowledge about healthy food choices did not translate to healthy snack selection, these students would benefit from interventions that teach selection and preparation of healthy snacks on a restricted budget.

  6. Current hydration guidelines are erroneous: dehydration does not impair exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Wall, Bradley A; Watson, Greig; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Siegel, Rodney; Laursen, Paul B

    2015-08-01

    Laboratory studies that support the hydration guidelines of leading governing bodies have shown that dehydration to only -2% of body mass can lead to increase in body temperature and heart rate during exercise, and decrease in performance. These studies, however, have been conducted in relatively windless environments (ie, wind speed <12.9 km/h), without participants being blinded to their hydration status. To investigate the effect of blinded hydration status on cycling time-trial performance in the heat with ecologically valid facing wind speed conditions. During three experimental trials, 10 cyclists were dehydrated to -3% body mass by performing 2 h of submaximal exercise (walking and cycling) in the heat, before being reinfused with saline to replace 100%, 33% or 0% of fluid losses, leaving them 0%, -2% or -3% hypohydrated, respectively. Participants then completed a 25 km time trial in the heat (33°C, 40% relative humidity; wind speed 32 km/h) during which their starting hydration status was maintained by infusing saline at a rate equal to their sweat rate. The treatment was participant-blinded and the order was randomised. Completion time, power output, heart rate, rectal temperature and perceptual variables were measured. While rectal temperature was higher beyond 17 km of the time trial in the -3% vs 0% conditions (38.9±0.3°C vs 38.6±0.3°C; p<0.05), no other differences between trials were shown. When well-trained cyclists performed a 25 km cycling time trial under ecologically valid conditions and were blinded to their hydration status, performance, physiological and perceptual variables were not different between trials. These data do not support the residing basis behind many of the current hydration guidelines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. DOE Hanford Network Upgrades and Disaster Recovery Exercise Support the Cleanup Mission Now and into the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Eckman, Todd J.; Hertzel, Ali K.; Lane, James J.

    2013-11-07

    In 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in Washington State, funded an update to the critical network infrastructure supporting the Hanford Federal Cloud (HFC). The project, called ET-50, was the final step in a plan that was initiated five years ago called "Hanford's IT Vision, 2015 and Beyond." The ET-50 project upgraded Hanford's core data center switches and routers along with a majority of the distribution layer switches. The upgrades allowed HFC the network intelligence to provide Hanford with a more reliable and resilient network architecture. The culmination of the five year plan improved network intelligence and high performance computing as well as helped to provide 10 Gbps capable links between core backbone devices (10 times the previous bandwidth). These improvements allow Hanford the ability to further support bandwidth intense applications, such as video teleconferencing. The ET-50 switch upgrade, along with other upgrades implemented from the five year plan, have prepared Hanford's network for the next evolution of technology in voice, video, and data. Hand-in-hand with ET-50's major data center outage, Mission Support Alliance's (MSA) Information Management (IM) organization executed a disaster recovery (DR) exercise to perform a true integration test and capability study. The DR scope was planned within the constraints of ET-50's 14 hour datacenter outage window. This DR exercise tested Hanford's Continuity of Operations (COOP) capability and failover plans for safety and business critical Hanford Federal Cloud applications. The planned suite of services to be tested was identified prior to the outage and plans were prepared to test the services ability to failover from the primary Hanford data center to the backup data center. The services tested were: Core Network (backbone, firewall, load balancers); Voicemail; Voice over IP (VoIP); Emergency Notification; Virtual desktops; and, Select set of production applications

  8. The University of Barchester. The Case of Ruth Kerwin. A Role Playing Exercise of a Departmental Staff Meeting Discussing a Problem Student. Organiser's Copy. UTMU: University Teaching Methods Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, David Warren; Terry, Paul

    A role playing exercise is presented that can be run either with or without video-tape depicting a problem student in a play-acted version. Suggestions are offered for organizing the exercise, which is a meeting of professors, a residence hall worker, the assistant registrar, a tutor, and possibly a college counselor. General instructions for role…

  9. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s(-1) concentric and 180° · s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE.

  10. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at −110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s−1 concentric and 180° · s−1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

  11. Pre-Participation Physical Fitness does not Influence Adherence to a Supervised Exercise Program.

    PubMed

    Nishijuka, Fábio Akio; Silva, Christina Grüne de Souza E; Duarte, Carlos Vieira; Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de

    2017-08-17

    Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation tends to reduce mortality. However, it requires medium/long-term adherence to regular physical exercise. It is relevant to identify the variables that affect adherence to an supervised exercise program (SEP). To evaluate the influence of pre-participation levels of aerobic and non-aerobic physical fitness components in medium-term adherence to SEP. A total of 567 SEP participants (65 ± 12 years) (68% men) were studied. Participants adherent to the program for less than 6 months (48%) (non-adherent - NAD) were compared with 52% of participants who were adherent for 6 months or more (adherents - AD). In the non-aerobic fitness, flexibility (FLX) (Flexitest) and muscle power (MPW)/body weight in standing rowing (watts/kg) were evaluated while aerobic fitness was obtained by direct measure of VO2max/body weight (VO2). These measurements were normatized for sex and age based on percentiles (P) (P-FLX/P-MPW) of reference data or percentages of predicted (P-VO2). Additionally, AD and NAD with extreme results (tertiles) were simultaneously compared for the three variables. There was no difference between AD and NAD for non-aerobic results, in median [P25-P75], P-FLX: 30 [13-56] and 31 [9-52], respectively, (p = 0.69) and P-MPW: 34 [17-58] and 36 [16-62], respectively (p = 0.96), and for aerobic results (mean ± standard error) P-VO2 (75.9 ± 1.3% and 75.0 ± 1.3%, respectively) (p = 0.83). When comparing extreme tertiles, a difference was found for P-MPW in the lower tertile only, with a slight advantage of AD over NAD- 9 [5-16] versus 4 [1-11] (p = 0.04). Although awareness of the pre-participation levels of aerobic and non-aerobic physical fitness components is useful for individualized exercise prescription, these variables do not seem to influence medium-term adherence to SEP. Reabilitação cardíaca com ênfase em exercício tende a reduzir a mortalidade. Contudo, é necessário que haja aderência de médio/longo prazo ao exerc

  12. Supervised exercise therapy: it does work, but how to set up a program?

    PubMed

    Hageman, David; van den Houten, Marijn M; Spruijt, Steffie; Gommans, Lindy N; Scheltinga, Marc R; Teijink, Joep A

    2017-04-01

    Intermittent claudication (IC) is a manifestation of peripheral arterial disease. IC has a high prevalence in the older population, is closely associated with other expressions of atherosclerotic disease and often co-exists in multimorbid patients. Treatment of IC should address reduction of cardiovascular risk and improvement of functional capacity and health-related quality of life (QoL). As recommended by contemporary international guidelines, the first-line treatment includes supervised exercise therapy (SET). In several randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews, SET is compared with usual care, placebo, walking advice and endovascular revascularization. The evidence supporting the efficacy of SET programs to alleviate claudication symptoms is robust. SET improves walking distance and health-related QoL and appears to be the most cost-effective treatment for IC. Nevertheless, only few of all newly diagnosed IC patients worldwide receive this safe, efficient and structured treatment. Worldwide implementation of structured SET programs is seriously impeded by outdated arguments favoring an invasive intervention, absence of a network of specialized physical therapists providing standardized SET and lack of awareness and/or knowledge of the importance of SET by referring physicians. Besides, misguiding financial incentives and lack of reimbursement hamper actual use of SET programs. In the Netherlands, a national integrated care network (ClaudicatioNet) was launched in 2011 to combat treatment shortcomings and stimulate cohesion and collaboration between stakeholders. This care intervention has resulted in optimized quality of care for all patients with IC.

  13. Does acute side-alternating vibration exercise enhance ballistic upper-body power?

    PubMed

    Cochrane, D J; Black, M J; Barnes, M J

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute vibration exercise, at 2 different frequencies, on upper body power output. Muscle activity (EMG) and upper-body peak power was measured in 12 healthy males during ballistic bench press throws at 30% of 1-repetition maximum on a Smith machine. Measures were made prior to, 30 s and 5 min after one of 3 conditions performed for 30 s in a press-up position: side-alternating vibration at 20 Hz, 26 Hz and no vibration. EMG was recorded in the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii and pectoralis major during ballistic bench press throws as well as during application of each condition. While peak power output was higher at 5 min post condition across all conditions, compared to baseline measures (P<0.05), only 20 Hz vibration resulted in a significant increase in peak power output (P<0.05) compared to no vibration. EMG was greater during both vibration conditions, compared to no vibration (P<0.001). However, this difference was not evident during bench press throws when no difference was seen in muscle activity between conditions. These findings suggest that 20 Hz vibration has an ergogenic effect on upper-body power that may be due to peripheral, rather than central, mediated mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. L-carnitine supplementation does not promote weight loss in ovariectomized rats despite endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Melton, S A; Keenan, M J; Stanciu, C E; Hegsted, M; Zablah-Pimentel, E M; O'Neil, C E; Gaynor, P; Schaffhauser, A; Owen, K; Prisby, R D; LaMotte, L L; Fernandez, J M

    2005-03-01

    In this five-week study, we tested the hypotheses that free access to a maintenance diet supplemented with L-carnitine (L-C) would reduce body fat in adult, sedentary, ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and that there would be an additive effect of L-C on weight reduction in swim-trained animals. As expected, serum carnitine was higher in rats fed the L-C diet, and the OVX-induced weight gain and abdominal fat were counteracted by swimming. L-C supplementation did not reduce the weight gain or abdominal fat in these adult female rats, Moreover, though not reaching statistical significance, rats that were fed L-C demonstrated a tendency for greater weight gain than their basal-fed counterparts despite no difference in energy intake. If the results of this study on ovariectomized rats can be translated to postmenopausal women, moderate intensity exercise may be recommended, but L-C supplementation, with no energy restriction, may be contraindicated as a weight loss method in this cohort.

  15. Does pre-exercise static stretching inhibit maximal muscular performance? A meta-analytical review.

    PubMed

    Simic, L; Sarabon, N; Markovic, G

    2013-03-01

    We applied a meta-analytical approach to derive a robust estimate of the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching (SS) on strength, power, and explosive muscular performance. A computerized search of articles published between 1966 and December 2010 was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases. A total of 104 studies yielding 61 data points for strength, 12 data points for power, and 57 data points for explosive performance met our inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate of the acute effects of SS on strength, power, and explosive performance, expressed in standardized units as well as in percentages, were -0.10 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.15 to -0.04], -0.04 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.08), and -0.03 (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.01), or -5.4% (95% CI: -6.6% to -4.2%), -1.9% (95% CI: -4.0% to 0.2%), and -2.0% (95% CI: -2.8% to -1.3%). These effects were not related to subject's age, gender, or fitness level; however, they were more pronounced in isometric vs dynamic tests, and were related to the total duration of stretch, with the smallest negative acute effects being observed with stretch duration of ≤ 45 s. We conclude that the usage of SS as the sole activity during warm-up routine should generally be avoided. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Does the distribution of health care benefits in Kenya meet the principles of universal coverage?

    PubMed

    Chuma, Jane; Maina, Thomas; Ataguba, John

    2012-01-10

    The 58th World Health Assembly called for all health systems to move towards universal coverage where everyone has access to key promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative health interventions at an affordable cost. Universal coverage involves ensuring that health care benefits are distributed on the basis of need for care and not on ability to pay. The distribution of health care benefits is therefore an important policy question, which health systems should address. The aim of this study is to assess the distribution of health care benefits in the Kenyan health system, compare changes over two time periods and demonstrate the extent to which the distribution meets the principles of universal coverage. Two nationally representative cross-sectional households surveys conducted in 2003 and 2007 were the main sources of data. A comprehensive analysis of the entire health system is conducted including the public sector, private-not-for-profit and private-for-profit sectors. Standard benefit incidence analysis techniques were applied and adopted to allow application to private sector services. The three sectors recorded similar levels of pro-rich distribution in 2003, but in 2007, the private-not-for-profit sector was pro-poor, public sector benefits showed an equal distribution, while the private-for-profit sector remained pro-rich. Larger pro-rich disparities were recorded for inpatient compared to outpatient benefits at the hospital level, but primary health care services were pro-poor. Benefits were distributed on the basis of ability to pay and not on need for care. The principles of universal coverage require that all should benefit from health care according to need. The Kenyan health sector is clearly inequitable and benefits are not distributed on the basis of need. Deliberate efforts should be directed to restructuring the Kenyan health system to address access barriers and ensure that all Kenyans benefit from health care when they need it.

  17. Does Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis Contribute to Non-Shivering Thermogenesis?

    PubMed

    Harris, Ann M; Macbride, Leslie R; Foster, Randal C; McCrady, Shelly K; Levine, James A

    2006-12-01

    We wanted to examine if spontaneous physical activity contributes to non-shivering thermogenesis. Ten lean, healthy male subjects wore a physical activity, micro-measurement system whilst the room temperature was randomly altered at two hourly intervals between thermoneutral (72°F), cool (62°F) and warm (82°F) temperatures. Physical activity measured during the thermoneutral, cooling and warming periods was not significantly different. Cooling, increased EE above basal and thermoneutral values 2061 ± 344 kcal/day (p <0.01). Thus, the increase in energy expenditure associated with short-term environmental cooling in lean, healthy males does not appear to be due to increased spontaneous physical activity or fidgeting.

  18. 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training does not alter the exercise-induced growth hormone response in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Morishima, Takuma; Hasegawa, Yuta; Mori, Ayaka; Ijichi, Toshiaki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of high-intensity interval training on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) responses, whole body and regional fat content. Twenty-four sedentary males were randomized to either a high-intensity interval training (HIT) group or a low-intensity continuous training (LT) group. The HIT group performed intermittent exercises at 85% of [Formula: see text], whereas the LT group performed continuous exercise for 22 min at 45% of [Formula: see text]. Before and after 4 weeks of training, hormonal and metabolic responses to acute exercise were determined. Acute exercise significantly increased GH concentrations in both groups (p < 0.05). However, the responses did not change after training period in either group. Furthermore, the training did not significantly affect intramyocellular or intrahepatic lipid content in either group. The present study indicates that 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training does not alter the exercise-induced GH responses, whole body fat mass or intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipid content in sedentary males.

  19. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  20. Albumin infusion in humans does not model exercise induced hypervolaemia after 24 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P < 0.05), but by 24 h plasma volume and albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P < 0.05), and showed a trend to decrease at 2 h after infusion (167.6 +/- 32.5(-1) 06.2 +/- 13.4 pg mL-1, P = 0.07). These data demonstrate that a 6.8% expansion of plasma volume and 10.5% expansion of plasma albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.

  1. Albumin infusion in humans does not model exercise induced hypervolaemia after 24 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P < 0.05), but by 24 h plasma volume and albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P < 0.05), and showed a trend to decrease at 2 h after infusion (167.6 +/- 32.5(-1) 06.2 +/- 13.4 pg mL-1, P = 0.07). These data demonstrate that a 6.8% expansion of plasma volume and 10.5% expansion of plasma albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--Surface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) 6th Annual PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen Ed., T.C.

    2011-04-11

    On behalf of the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program managers in the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD), Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcome to the 2011 SBR Principal Investigators meeting. Thank you in advance for your attendance and your presentations at this year's meeting. As the events in Japan continue to unfold, we are all reminded that the research we perform on radionuclide behavior in the environment has implications beyond legacy waste cleanup and in fact has its place in the discussion on the expanded use of nuclear power. As in the past, there are three broad objectives to the Principal Investigators meeting: (1) to provide opportunities to share research results and promote interactions among the SBR scientists and other invited guests; (2) to evaluate the progress of each project within the program; and (3) to showcase the scientific expertise and research progress over the past year to senior managers within the DOE Office of Science, the technology offices within DOE, and other invited attendees from other Federal Agencies. This past year has seen a few significant changes within BER and within the SBR program. In November, our Associate Director for BER, Anna Palmisano, retired from Federal service. Just this month, Dr. Sharlene Weatherwax (Division Director for Biological Systems Sciences) has been named as the new Associate Director for BER. In August, BER welcomed Dr. Gary Geernaert as the new Division Director for CESD. Gary joins the division from Los Alamos National Laboratory with a background in atmospheric science. Within the SBR program, a new Strategic Plan was completed last June (currently posted on the SBR and the Office of Science website). The new strategic plan is intended to foster integration within the Environmental Systems Science portion of the BER budget that includes both SBR and Terrestrial Ecosystem Sciences (TES). Both these programs share a goal of advancing a

  3. Handgrip strength does not represent an appropriate measure to evaluate changes in muscle strength during an exercise intervention program in frail older people.

    PubMed

    Tieland, Michael; Verdijk, Lex B; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-02-01

    Although handgrip strength is considered a strong predictor of negative health outcomes, it is unclear whether handgrip strength represents a useful measure to evaluate changes in muscle strength following resistance-type exercise training in older people. We assessed whether measuring handgrip strength provides proper insight in the efficacy of resistance-type exercise training to increase muscle mass, strength, and physical performance in frail older people. Prefrail and frail older people (≥ 65 y) were either conducting a 24-week resistance-type exercise training or no exercise training. Before, during, and after the intervention, handgrip strength (JAMAR), lean body mass (DXA), leg strength (1-RM), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed. Handgrip strength correlated with appendicular lean mass (r = 0.68; p < .001) and leg strength (r = 0.67; p < .001). After 24 weeks of whole body resistance-type exercise training, leg extension strength improved significantly better when compared with the control group (57 ± 2-78 ± 3 kg vs 57 ± 3-65 ± 3 kg: p < .001). Moreover, physical performance improved significantly more in the exercise group (8.0 ± 0.4-9.3 ± 0.4 points) when compared with the control group (8.3 ± 0.4-8.9 ± 0.4 points: p < .05). These positive changes were not accompanied with any significant changes in handgrip strength (26.3 ± 1.2-27.6 ± 1.2 kg in the exercise group vs 26.6 ± 1.2-26.3 ± 1.3 kg in the control group: p = .71). Although handgrip strength strongly correlates with muscle mass and leg strength in frail older people, handgrip strength does not provide a valid means to evaluate the efficacy of exercise intervention programs to increase muscle mass or strength in an older population.

  4. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082

  5. 20 CFR 661.307 - How does the Local Board meet its requirement to conduct business in an open manner under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to conduct business in an open manner under the âsunshine provisionâ of WIA section 117(e)? 661.307... its business in an open manner as required by WIA section 117(e), by making available to the public... Local Governance Provisions § 661.307 How does the Local Board meet its requirement to conduct...

  6. 14 CFR 39.9 - What if I operate an aircraft or use a product that does not meet the requirements of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What if I operate an aircraft or use a product that does not meet the requirements of an airworthiness directive? 39.9 Section 39.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...

  7. 25 CFR 162.588 - What happens if BIA does not meet a deadline for issuing a decision on a lease document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if BIA does not meet a deadline for issuing a decision on a lease document? 162.588 Section 162.588 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr...

  8. 25 CFR 162.588 - What happens if BIA does not meet a deadline for issuing a decision on a lease document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if BIA does not meet a deadline for issuing a decision on a lease document? 162.588 Section 162.588 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr...

  9. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250... I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Eligibility for Youth Services § 664.250 May a disabled...

  10. 20 CFR 661.307 - How does the Local Board meet its requirement to conduct business in an open manner under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to conduct business in an open manner under the âsunshine provisionâ of WIA section 117(e)? 661.307... its business in an open manner as required by WIA section 117(e), by making available to the public... Local Governance Provisions § 661.307 How does the Local Board meet its requirement to conduct...

  11. 20 CFR 661.307 - How does the Local Board meet its requirement to conduct business in an open manner under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does the Local Board meet its requirement... Section 661.307 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) STATEWIDE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE...

  12. 20 CFR 661.207 - How does the State Board meet its requirement to conduct business in an open manner under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to conduct business in an open manner under the âsunshine provisionâ of WIA section 111(g)? 661.207... AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT State Governance Provisions § 661.207 How does the State Board meet its requirement to conduct...

  13. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement.

  14. Does the planned long-term care policy in Taiwan meet the needs of people with disabilities?

    PubMed

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liao, Hua-Fang; Li, Yi-Shing; Liang, Chung-Chao; Teng, Sue-Wen

    2014-05-01

    The long-term care (LTC) insurance policy will be enacted in Taiwan. Under the proposed policy, people with disabilities will have priority in receiving insurance. The aim of this study was to compare the functional statuses of 3 disability groups and to investigate the coverage provided by the planned LTC insurance in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in this study to fulfill this research goal. There were 3239 subjects with physical, sensory, or intellectual disabilities from the Disability Eligibility System during September 2011 and July 2012. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 - 36-item version (WHODAS 2.0)--traditional Chinese version was used to assess their functional statuses. Significant differences in all of the domain scores and summary scores of the WHODAS 2.0 were determined after adjusting for age among the 3 groups. People with physical or sensory disabilities exhibited the most drastic differences in the domain of daily living, and people with intellectual disabilities exhibited major differences in the cognition domain. After matching the planned coverage services, we determined that the planned LTC insurance does not meet the diverse needs of people with disabilities. In particular, social participation and a sense of security and satisfaction regarding the psychological aspects of having a disability must be considered in LTC insurance policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not attenuate post-exercise muscle soreness following muscle-damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Close, Graeme L; Ashton, Tony; Cable, Tim; Doran, Dominic; Holloway, Chris; McArdle, Frank; MacLaren, Don P M

    2006-05-01

    Exercise involving lengthening muscle actions, such as downhill running, results in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which may be attributable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although exercise causes oxidative stress, any link between ROS and DOMS remains speculative. There is emerging evidence to suggest that ROS play an important physiological role, assisting in the recovery process and protecting the cell from future damage; however, this has not been fully established. Despite this uncertainty as to the precise role of ROS, attempts to prevent post-exercise ROS production through antioxidant intervention are still common. The study investigated the effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on ROS production and DOMS following downhill running. Subjects were assigned to two groups. The ascorbic acid group (group AA) received 1 g ascorbic acid 2 h pre-, and for 14 d post-downhill running, whilst the placebo group (Pl group) received a placebo. Blood samples were drawn pre-supplement, pre- and post-exercise, and then 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 14 d post-exercise for analysis of ascorbate, malonaldehyde and total glutathione. DOMS was assessed using a visual analogue scale and pressure algometry. Muscle function was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Plasma ascorbate was elevated throughout in group AA compared with the Pl group. Downhill running resulted in DOMS in both groups. Muscle function was impaired post-exercise in both groups, although a delayed recovery was noted in group AA. Malonaldehyde increased 4 d post-exercise in the Pl group only. Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates ROS production following downhill running, without affecting DOMS. Furthermore, ascorbic acid supplementation may inhibit the recovery of muscle function.

  16. Does action planning moderate the intention-habit interaction in the exercise domain? A three-way interaction analysis investigation.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Rhodes, Ryan E; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2012-10-01

    Both habit strength and action planning have been found to moderate the intention-exercise behaviour relationship, but no research exists that has investigated how habit strength and action planning simultaneously influence this relationship. The present study was designed to explore this issue in a prospective sample of undergraduate students (N = 415): action planning, habit strength, intention, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were assessed at baseline and exercise behaviour was assessed 2 weeks later. Both habit strength and action planning moderated the intention-exercise relationship, with stronger relationship at higher levels of planning or habit strength. Decomposing a significant action planning × habit strength × intention interaction showed that the strength of the intention-exercise relationship progressed linearly through levels of action planning and habit strength. These novel results show that action planning strengthens the intention-habit strength interaction in the exercise domain: exercise interventions should therefore focus on simultaneously bolstering action planning and habit strength.

  17. Aerobic exercise combined with antioxidative treatment does not counteract moderate- or mid-stage Alzheimer-like pathophysiology of APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lu-Qing; Wang, Qin; Marshall, Charles; Xiao, Na; Gao, Jun-Ying; Wu, Ting; Ding, Jiong; Hu, Gang; Xiao, Ming

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the combined treatment effects of aerobic exercise and antioxidative stress on moderate-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ten-month-old APP/PS1 mice were given antioxidative treatment with acetylcysteine, along with aerobic exercise for 6 weeks. Spatial learning and memory were tested using the Morris water maze, and β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque deposits in the forebrain were quantified by Thioflavin-S staining. Levels of soluble Aβ1-42, β-secretase enzyme, ү-secretase enzyme, oxidative and antioxidant stress markers nitrotyrosine and peroxiredoxin-1, glial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, and synaptic protein synaptophysin in the hippocampus were all measured by western blotting and/or immunohistochemistry. APP/PS1 mice showed severe declines in spatial learning and memory compared with their wild-type littermates, which were not attenuated by aerobic exercise combined with antioxidative treatment. The pathologic analysis revealed that Aβ deposition and production, oxidative stress, glial inflammation, and synaptic loss were not mitigated in the brain of exercised APP/PS1 mice, compared with the sedentary APP/PS1 animals. This study reveals that a combined treatment of aerobic exercise plus antioxidative stress does not counteract pathophysiology in the moderate- or mid-stages of AD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Addition of glutamine to essential amino acids and carbohydrate does not enhance anabolism in young human males following exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah B; Kim, Paul L; Armstrong, David; Phillips, Stuart M

    2006-10-01

    We examined the effect of a post-exercise oral carbohydrate (CHO, 1 g.kg(-1).h(-1)) and essential amino acid (EAA, 9.25 g) solution containing glutamine (0.3 g/kg BW; GLN trial) versus an isoenergetic CHO-EAA solution without glutamine (control, CON trial) on muscle glycogen resynthesis and whole-body protein turnover following 90 min of cycling at 65% VO2 peak. Over the course of 3 h of recovery, muscle biopsies were taken to measure glycogen resynthesis and mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS), by incorporation of [ring-2H5] phenylalanine. Infusion of [1-13C] leucine was used to measure whole-body protein turnover. Exercise resulted in a significant decrease in muscle glycogen (p < 0.05) with similar declines in each trial. Glycogen resynthesis following 3 h of recovery indicated no difference in total accumulation or rate of repletion. Leucine oxidation increased 2.5 fold (p < 0.05) during exercise, returned to resting levels immediately post-exercise,and was again elevated at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05). Leucine flux, an index of whole-body protein breakdown rate, was reduced during exercise, but increased to resting levels immediately post-exercise, and was further increased at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), but only during the CON trial. Exercise resulted in a marked suppression of whole-body protein synthesis (50% of rest; p < 0.05), which was restored post-exercise; however, the addition of glutamine did not affect whole-body protein synthesis post-exercise. The rate of MPS was not different between trials. The addition of glutamine to a CHO + EAA beverage had no effect on post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis or muscle protein synthesis, but may suppress a rise in whole-body proteolysis during the later stages of recovery.

  19. Does eccentric exercise reduce pain and improve strength in physically active adults with symptomatic lower extremity tendinosis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980-2006), CINAHL (1982-2006), Web of Science (1995-2006), SPORT Discus (1980-2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution of tendinosis symptoms remains questionable.

  20. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  1. Does a 20-week aerobic exercise training programme increase our capabilities to buffer real-life stressors? A randomized, controlled trial using ambulatory assessment.

    PubMed

    von Haaren, Birte; Ottenbacher, Joerg; Muenz, Julia; Neumann, Rainer; Boes, Klaus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    The cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis suggests that regular exercise leads to adaptations in the stress response systems that induce decreased physiological responses to psychological stressors. Even though an exercise intervention to buffer the detrimental effects of psychological stressors on health might be of utmost importance, empirical evidence is mixed. This may be explained by the use of cross-sectional designs and non-personally relevant stressors. Using a randomized controlled trial, we hypothesized that a 20-week aerobic exercise training does reduce physiological stress responses to psychological real-life stressors in sedentary students. Sixty-one students were randomized to either a control group or an exercise training group. The academic examination period (end of the semester) served as a real-life stressor. We used ambulatory assessment methods to assess physiological stress reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate variability: LF/HF, RMSSD), physical activity and perceived stress during 2 days of everyday life and multilevel models for data analyses. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) was assessed pre- and post-intervention via cardiopulmonary exercise testing to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention. During real-life stressors, the exercise training group showed significantly reduced LF/HF (β = -0.15, t = -2.59, p = .01) and increased RMSSD (β = 0.15, t = 2.34, p = .02) compared to the control group. Using a randomized controlled trial and a real-life stressor, we could show that exercise appears to be a useful preventive strategy to buffer the effects of stress on the autonomic nervous system, which might result into detrimental health outcomes.

  2. The ingestion of combined carbohydrates does not alter metabolic responses or performance capacity during soccer-specific exercise in the heat compared to ingestion of a single carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N D; Campbell, I T; Drust, B; Evans, L; Reilly, T; Maclaren, D P M

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of ingesting a glucose plus fructose solution on the metabolic responses to soccer-specific exercise in the heat and the impact on subsequent exercise capacity. Eleven male soccer players performed a 90 min soccer-specific protocol on three occasions. Either 3 ml · kg(-1) body mass of a solution containing glucose (1 g · min(-1) glucose) (GLU), or glucose (0.66 g · min(-1)) plus fructose (0.33 g · min(-1)) (MIX) or placebo (PLA) was consumed every 15 minutes. Respiratory measures were undertaken at 15-min intervals, blood samples were drawn at rest, half-time and on completion of the protocol, and muscle glycogen concentration was assessed pre- and post-exercise. Following the soccer-specific protocol the Cunningham and Faulkner test was performed. No significant differences in post-exercise muscle glycogen concentration (PLA, 62.99 ± 8.39 mmol · kg wet weight(-1); GLU 68.62 ± 2.70; mmol · kg wet weight(-1) and MIX 76.63 ± 6.92 mmol · kg wet weight(-1)) or exercise capacity (PLA, 73.62 ± 8.61 s; GLU, 77.11 ± 7.17 s; MIX, 83.04 ± 9.65 s) were observed between treatments (P > 0.05). However, total carbohydrate oxidation was significantly increased during MIX compared with PLA (P < 0.05). These results suggest that when ingested in moderate amounts, the type of carbohydrate does not influence metabolism during soccer-specific intermittent exercise or affect performance capacity after exercise in the heat.

  3. Habitual aerobic exercise does not protect against micro- or macrovascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Vorwald, Victoria M; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-01

    Aging causes micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD), which can be prevented and reversed by habitual aerobic exercise (AE) in men. However, in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, whole forearm microvascular EDD has not been studied, and a beneficial effect of AE on macrovascular EDD has not been consistently shown. We assessed forearm blood flow in response to brachial artery infusions of acetylcholine (FBFACh), a measure of whole forearm microvascular EDD, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of macrovascular EDD, in 12 premenopausal sedentary women (Pre-S; 24 ± 1 yr; V̇o2max = 37.5 ± 1.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 25 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal sedentary women (Post-S; 62 ± 1 yr; V̇o2max = 24.7 ± 0.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and 16 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal AE-trained women (Post-AE; 59 ± 1 yr; V̇o2max = 40.4 ± 1.4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). FBFACh was lower in Post-S and Post-AE compared with Pre-S women (135 ± 9 and 116 ± 17 vs. 193 ± 21 AUC, respectively, both P < 0.008), whereas Post-S and Post-AE women were not different (P = 0.3). Brachial artery FMD was 34% (5.73 ± 0.67%) and 45% (4.79 ± 0.57%) lower in Post-S and Post-AE, respectively, vs. Pre-S women (8.69 ± 0.95%, both P ≤ 0.01), but not different between Post-S and Post-AE women (P = 0.3). Post-AE women had lower circulating C-reactive protein and oxidized low-density lipoprotein compared with Post-S women (0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 mg/l and 40 ± 4 vs. 55 ± 3 U/l, respectively, both P = 0.01), but these markers were not correlated to FBFACh (P = 0.3) or brachial artery FMD (P = 0.8). These findings are consistent with the idea that habitual AE does not protect against age/menopause-related whole forearm micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy nonobese estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, despite being associated with lower systemic markers of inflammation and oxidative

  4. Acute exercise increases feeding latency in healthy normal weight young males but does not alter energy intake.

    PubMed

    King, James A; Wasse, Lucy K; Stensel, David J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the acute influence of exercise on eating behaviour in an ecologically valid setting whereby healthy active males were permitted complete ad libitum access to food. Ten healthy males completed two, 8h trials (exercise and control) in a randomised-crossover design. In the exercise trials participants consumed a breakfast snack and then rested for 1h before undertaking a 60 min run (72% of VO(2)max) on a treadmill. Participants then rested in the laboratory for 6h during which time they were permitted complete ad libitum access to a buffet meal. The timing of meals, energy/macronutrient intake and eating frequency were assessed. Identical procedures were completed in the control trial except no exercise was performed. Exercise increased the length of time (35 min) before participants voluntarily requested to eat afterwards. Despite this, energy intake at the first meal consumed, or at subsequent eating episodes, was not influenced by exercise (total trial energy intake: control 7426 kJ, exercise 7418 kJ). Neither was there any difference in macronutrient intake or meal frequency between trials. These results confirm that food intake remains unaffected by exercise in the immediate hours after but suggest that exercise may invoke a delay before food is desired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired myocardial function does not explain reduced left ventricular filling and stroke volume at rest or during exercise at high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Ainslie, Philip N.; Hughes, Michael G.; Stöhr, Eric J.; Cotter, James D.; Tymko, Michael M.; Day, Trevor A.; Bakker, Akke; Shave, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Impaired myocardial systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation have been suggested as possible mechanisms contributing to the decreased stroke volume (SV) observed at high altitude (HA). To determine whether intrinsic myocardial performance is a limiting factor in the generation of SV at HA, we assessed left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic mechanics and volumes in 10 healthy participants (aged 32 ± 7; mean ± SD) at rest and during exercise at sea level (SL; 344 m) and after 10 days at 5,050 m. In contrast to SL, LV end-diastolic volume was ∼19% lower at rest (P = 0.004) and did not increase during exercise despite a greater untwisting velocity. Furthermore, resting SV was lower at HA (∼17%; 60 ± 10 vs. 70 ± 8 ml) despite higher LV twist (43%), apical rotation (115%), and circumferential strain (17%). With exercise at HA, the increase in SV was limited (12 vs. 22 ml at SL), and LV apical rotation failed to augment. For the first time, we have demonstrated that EDV does not increase upon exercise at high altitude despite enhanced in vivo diastolic relaxation. The increase in LV mechanics at rest may represent a mechanism by which SV is defended in the presence of a reduced EDV. However, likely because of the higher LV mechanics at rest, no further increase was observed up to 50% peak power. Consequently, although hypoxia does not suppress systolic function per se, the capacity to increase SV through greater deformation during submaximal exercise at HA is restricted. PMID:25749445

  6. Impaired myocardial function does not explain reduced left ventricular filling and stroke volume at rest or during exercise at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; Hughes, Michael G; Stöhr, Eric J; Cotter, James D; Tymko, Michael M; Day, Trevor A; Bakker, Akke; Shave, Rob

    2015-11-15

    Impaired myocardial systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation have been suggested as possible mechanisms contributing to the decreased stroke volume (SV) observed at high altitude (HA). To determine whether intrinsic myocardial performance is a limiting factor in the generation of SV at HA, we assessed left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic mechanics and volumes in 10 healthy participants (aged 32 ± 7; mean ± SD) at rest and during exercise at sea level (SL; 344 m) and after 10 days at 5,050 m. In contrast to SL, LV end-diastolic volume was ∼19% lower at rest (P = 0.004) and did not increase during exercise despite a greater untwisting velocity. Furthermore, resting SV was lower at HA (∼17%; 60 ± 10 vs. 70 ± 8 ml) despite higher LV twist (43%), apical rotation (115%), and circumferential strain (17%). With exercise at HA, the increase in SV was limited (12 vs. 22 ml at SL), and LV apical rotation failed to augment. For the first time, we have demonstrated that EDV does not increase upon exercise at high altitude despite enhanced in vivo diastolic relaxation. The increase in LV mechanics at rest may represent a mechanism by which SV is defended in the presence of a reduced EDV. However, likely because of the higher LV mechanics at rest, no further increase was observed up to 50% peak power. Consequently, although hypoxia does not suppress systolic function per se, the capacity to increase SV through greater deformation during submaximal exercise at HA is restricted. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Leucine-enriched protein feeding does not impair exercise-induced free fatty acid availability and lipid oxidation: beneficial implications for training in carbohydrate-restricted states.

    PubMed

    Impey, Samuel G; Smith, Dominic; Robinson, Amy L; Owens, Daniel J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Smith, Kenneth; Limb, Marie; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2015-02-01

    Given that the enhanced oxidative adaptations observed when training in carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted states is potentially regulated through free fatty acid (FFA)-mediated signalling and that leucine-rich protein elevates muscle protein synthesis, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that leucine-enriched protein feeding enhances circulating leucine concentration but does not impair FFA availability or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise. Nine males cycled for 2 h at 70% VO2peak when fasted (PLACEBO) or having consumed a whey protein solution (WHEY) or a leucine-enriched whey protein gel (GEL), administered as 22 g 1 h pre-exercise, 11 g/h during and 22 g 30 min post-exercise. Total leucine administration was 14.4 g and 6.3 in GEL and WHEY, respectively. Mean plasma leucine concentrations were elevated in GEL (P = 0.001) compared with WHEY and PLACEBO (375 ± 100, 272 ± 51, 146 ± 14 µmol L(-1), respectively). No differences (P = 0.153) in plasma FFA (WHEY 0.53 ± 0.30, GEL 0.45 ± 0.25, PLACEBO 0.65 ± 0.30, mmol L(-1)) or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise (WHEY 0.37 ± 0.26, GEL 0.36 ± 0.24, PLACEBO 0.34 ± 0.24 g/min) were apparent between trials, despite elevated (P = 0.001) insulin in WHEY and GEL compared with PLACEBO (38 ± 16, 35 ± 16, 22 ± 11 pmol L(-1), respectively). We conclude that leucine-enriched protein feeding does not impair FFA availability or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise, thus having practical applications for athletes who deliberately train in CHO-restricted states to promote skeletal muscle adaptations.

  8. Does physical exercise help maintain mental health during pregnancy? A comparison of changes in mental health in participants of physical exercise classes and childbirth classes.

    PubMed

    Guszkowska, Monika; Langwald, Marta; Sempolska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the changes in the negative indices of mental health in pregnant women who participated in programs of either physical exercise classes or childbirth classes. The study was quasi-experimental in nature and run on 109 healthy primigravidae aged from 22 to 37, including 62 women participating in an exercise program (exercise group, E-group) for pregnant women and 47 women attending traditional childbirth classes (childbirth classes group, CC-group). The mental health assessment was performed using Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The negative indices of mental health did not change over time. Lower levels of somatic symptoms and severe depression, as well as total score, were observed in the E-group (condition effect). Time × condition interactions, as well as analysis of change within the groups, indicated that in the CC-group all indices of disorders increased significantly, whereas in the E-group, only the increase of depression was significant. Regular physical exercises during pregnancy may constitute a factor in the prophylaxis of mental health disorders in pregnant women.

  9. Does core stability exercise improve lumbopelvic stability (through endurance tests) more than general exercise in chronic low back pain? A quasi-randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Mohammad Bagher; Rezaei, Mandana; Zamanlou, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare core stability and general exercises (GEs) in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients based on lumbopelvic stability (LPS) assessment through three endurance core stability tests. There is a controversy about preference of core stability exercise (CSE) over other types of exercise for chronic LBP. Studies which have compared these exercises used other outcomes than those related to LPS. As it is claimed that CSE enhances back stability, endurance tests for LPS were used. A 16-session CSE program and a GE program with the same duration were conducted for two groups of participants. Frequency of interventions for both groups was three times a week. Forty-three people (aged 18-60 years) with chronic non-specific LBP were alternately allocated to core stability (n = 22) or GE group (n = 21) when admitted. The primary outcomes were three endurance core stability tests including: (1) trunk flexor; (2) trunk extensor; and (3) side bridge tests. Secondary outcomes were disability and pain. Measurements were taken at baseline and the end of the intervention. After the intervention, test times increased and disability and pain decreased within groups. There was no significant difference between two groups in increasing test times (p = 0.23 to p = 0.36) or decreasing disability (p = 0.16) and pain (p = 0.73). CSE is not more effective than GE for improving endurance core stability tests and reducing disability and pain in chronic non-specific LBP patients.

  10. Does exercise habit strength moderate the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in Malaysian primary school children?

    PubMed

    Zainol, Nurul Ain; Hashim, Hairul Anuar

    2015-01-01

    We examined the moderating effects of exercise habit strength on the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in primary school children. The sample consisted of 165 primary school students (10-12 years old). Participants completed measures of emotional distress, exercise habit strength, and the Digit Span Test. Mid-year exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. The results of SEM revealed an acceptable fit for the hypothesised model. Exercise habit was positively associated with short-term memory, and better short-term memory was associated with better academic performance. However, although an inverse relationship was found between emotional distress and short-term memory, a positive association was found between exercise habit strength and emotional distress. The findings indicate that exercise habit is positively associated with cognitive ability and mediates the negative effect of distress.

  11. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Paschalis, Vassilis; Chanou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm) and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm). After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin) were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality. PMID:26240654

  12. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-03-01

    The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years) participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces) and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds) exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes) training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  13. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...

  14. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens Print A A A en español ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...

  15. Does a resistance exercise session with continuous or intermittent blood flow restriction promote muscle damage and increase oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Novaes, Jefferson S; Salerno, Verônica P; Gonçalves, Michel M; Batista, Gilmário R; Cirilo-Sousa, Maria S

    2017-01-31

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction (BFR) on the creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and uric acid (UA) levels in military men. The study included 10 recreationally trained men aged 19 ± 0.82 years who underwent the following experimental protocols in random order on separate days (72-96 h): 4 LLRE sessions at a 20% 1RM (one-repetition maximum [1RM]) with continuous BFR (LLRE + CBFR); 4 LLRE sessions at 20% 1RM with intermittent BFR (LLRE + IBFR) and 4 high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) sessions at 80% 1RM. The CK and LDH (markers of muscle damage) levels were measured before exercise (BE), 24 h post-exercise and 48 h post-exercise, and the PC, TBARS and UA (markers of oxidative stress) levels were measured BE and immediately after each exercise session. There was a significant increase in CK in the HIRE 24 post-exercise samples compared with the LLRE + CBFR and LLRE + IBFR (P = 0.035, P = 0.036, respectively), as well as between HIRE 48 post-exercise and LLRE + CBFR (P = 0.049). Additionally, there was a significant increase in CK in the LLRE + CBFR samples BE and immediately after each exercise (Δ = 21.9%) and in the HIRE samples BE and immediately after each exercise, BE and 24 post-exercise, and BE and 48 post-exercise (Δ values of 35%, 177.6%, and 177.6%, respectively). However, there were no significant changes in LDH, PC, TBARS, and UA between the protocols (P > 0.05). Therefore, a physical exercise session with continuous or intermittent BFR did not promote muscle damage; moreover, neither protocol seemed to affect the oxidative stress markers.

  16. When energy balance is maintained, exercise does not induce negative fat balance in lean sedentary, obese sedentary, or lean endurance-trained individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Barry, Daniel W.; MacLean, Paul S.; Grunwald, Gary K.; Hill, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Fat oxidation during exercise is increased by endurance training, and evidence suggests that fat oxidation during exercise is impaired in obesity. Thus the primary aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of exercise on 24-h fat oxidation and fat balance in lean sedentary [LS, n = 10, body mass index (BMI) = 22.5 ± 6.5 kg/m2], lean endurance-trained (LT, n = 10, BMI = 21.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), and obese sedentary (OS, n = 7, BMI = 35.5 ± 4.4 kg/m2) men and women. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured under sedentary (control; CON) and exercise (EX) conditions while maintaining energy balance. During EX, subjects performed 1 h of stationary cycling at 55% of aerobic capacity. Twenty-four-hour fat oxidation did not differ on the CON or EX day in LS (43 ± 9 vs. 29 ± 7 g/day, respectively), LT (53 ± 8 vs. 42 ± 5 g/day), or OS (58 ± 7 vs. 80 ± 9 g/day). However, 24-h fat balance was significantly more positive on EX compared with CON (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles were similar on the EX and CON days, but after consumption of the first meal, FFA concentrations remained below fasting levels for the remainder of the day. These data suggest that when exercise is performed with energy replacement (i.e., energy balance is maintained), 24-h fat oxidation does not increase and in fact, may be slightly decreased. It appears that the state of energy balance is an underappreciated factor determining the impact of exercise on fat oxidation. PMID:19833807

  17. When energy balance is maintained, exercise does not induce negative fat balance in lean sedentary, obese sedentary, or lean endurance-trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Barry, Daniel W; Maclean, Paul S; Grunwald, Gary K; Hill, James O

    2009-12-01

    Fat oxidation during exercise is increased by endurance training, and evidence suggests that fat oxidation during exercise is impaired in obesity. Thus the primary aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of exercise on 24-h fat oxidation and fat balance in lean sedentary [LS, n = 10, body mass index (BMI) = 22.5 +/- 6.5 kg/m(2)], lean endurance-trained (LT, n = 10, BMI = 21.2 +/- 1.2 kg/m(2)), and obese sedentary (OS, n = 7, BMI = 35.5 +/- 4.4 kg/m(2)) men and women. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured under sedentary (control; CON) and exercise (EX) conditions while maintaining energy balance. During EX, subjects performed 1 h of stationary cycling at 55% of aerobic capacity. Twenty-four-hour fat oxidation did not differ on the CON or EX day in LS (43 +/- 9 vs. 29 +/- 7 g/day, respectively), LT (53 +/- 8 vs. 42 +/- 5 g/day), or OS (58 +/- 7 vs. 80 +/- 9 g/day). However, 24-h fat balance was significantly more positive on EX compared with CON (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles were similar on the EX and CON days, but after consumption of the first meal, FFA concentrations remained below fasting levels for the remainder of the day. These data suggest that when exercise is performed with energy replacement (i.e., energy balance is maintained), 24-h fat oxidation does not increase and in fact, may be slightly decreased. It appears that the state of energy balance is an underappreciated factor determining the impact of exercise on fat oxidation.

  18. Fractionated Concurrent Exercise throughout the Day Does Not Promote Acute Blood Pressure Benefits in Hypertensive Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Azevêdo, Luan M.; de Souza, Alice C.; Santos, Laiza Ellen S.; Miguel dos Santos, Rodrigo; de Fernandes, Manuella O. M.; Almeida, Jeeser A.; Pardono, Emerson

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a chronic disease that affects about 30% of the world’s population, and the physical exercise plays an important role on its non-pharmacological treatment. Anywise, the dose–response of physical exercise fractionation throughout the day demands more investigation, allowing new exercise prescription possibilities. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the acute blood pressure (BP) kinetics after 1 h of exercises and the BP reactivity after different concurrent exercise (CE) sessions and its fractioning of hypertensive middle-aged women. In this way, 11 hypertensive women voluntarily underwent three experimental sessions and one control day [control session (CS)]. In the morning session (MS) and night session (NS), the exercise was fully realized in the morning and evening, respectively. For the fractionized session (FS), 50% of the volume was applied in the morning and the remaining 50% during the evening. The MS provided the greatest moments (p ≤ 0.05) of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) for systolic BP (SBP) and highest reduction of BP reactivity for SBP (~44%) and diastolic BP (DBP) (~59%) compared to CS (p ≤ 0.05). The findings of the present study have shown that MS is effective for PEH to SBP, as well as it promotes high quality of attenuation for BP reactivity, greater than the other sessions. PMID:28261583

  19. Four-week exercise program does not change rotator cuff muscle activation and scapular kinematics in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff and scapular muscle strengthening exercises are an essential part of shoulder rehabilitation and sports training. Although the effect of exercise training on pain and function have been widely investigated, few studies have focused on the changes in shoulder kinematics and muscle activity after exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises on shoulder kinematics and the activation of rotator cuff and scapular muscles in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a training or control group. Subjects in the training group were trained with rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises for 4 weeks. Scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity during arm elevation were measured before and after exercise training. After the 4-week training protocol, there was an increase in strength and a decrease in upper trapezius activation in the training group, which is consistent with previous studies. However, no difference was found in scapular kinematics and activation of rotator cuff muscles between the control and training groups after the training protocol. Although the exercise protocol resulted in strength gains for the rotator cuff, these gains did not transfer to an increase in muscle activation during motion. These results demonstrate the difficulty in changing activation patterns of the rotator cuff muscles. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2079-2088, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fractionated Concurrent Exercise throughout the Day Does Not Promote Acute Blood Pressure Benefits in Hypertensive Middle-aged Women.

    PubMed

    Azevêdo, Luan M; de Souza, Alice C; Santos, Laiza Ellen S; Miguel Dos Santos, Rodrigo; de Fernandes, Manuella O M; Almeida, Jeeser A; Pardono, Emerson

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a chronic disease that affects about 30% of the world's population, and the physical exercise plays an important role on its non-pharmacological treatment. Anywise, the dose-response of physical exercise fractionation throughout the day demands more investigation, allowing new exercise prescription possibilities. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the acute blood pressure (BP) kinetics after 1 h of exercises and the BP reactivity after different concurrent exercise (CE) sessions and its fractioning of hypertensive middle-aged women. In this way, 11 hypertensive women voluntarily underwent three experimental sessions and one control day [control session (CS)]. In the morning session (MS) and night session (NS), the exercise was fully realized in the morning and evening, respectively. For the fractionized session (FS), 50% of the volume was applied in the morning and the remaining 50% during the evening. The MS provided the greatest moments (p ≤ 0.05) of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) for systolic BP (SBP) and highest reduction of BP reactivity for SBP (~44%) and diastolic BP (DBP) (~59%) compared to CS (p ≤ 0.05). The findings of the present study have shown that MS is effective for PEH to SBP, as well as it promotes high quality of attenuation for BP reactivity, greater than the other sessions.

  1. Four-week exercise program does not change rotator cuff muscle activation and scapular kinematics in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff and scapular muscle strengthening exercises are an essential part of shoulder rehabilitation and sports training. Although the effect of exercise training on pain and function have been widely investigated, few studies have focused on the changes in shoulder kinematics and muscle activity after exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises on shoulder kinematics and the activation of rotator cuff and scapular muscles in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a training or control group. Subjects in the training group were trained with rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises for four weeks. Scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity during arm elevation were measured before and after exercise training. After the four-week training protocol, there was an increase in strength and a decrease in upper trapezius activation in the training group, which is consistent with previous studies. However, no difference was found in scapular kinematics and activation of rotator cuff muscles between the control and training groups after the training protocol. Although the exercise protocol resulted in strength gains for the rotator cuff, these gains did not transfer to an increase in muscle activation during motion. These results demonstrate the difficulty in changing activation patterns of the rotator cuff muscles. PMID:26996811

  2. Family caregiver participation in hospice interdisciplinary team meetings: how does it affect the nature and content of communication?

    PubMed

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Kruse, Robin L; Demiris, George; Gage, L Ashley; Wagner, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between family caregivers and health care providers is necessary to ensure patient-centered care, especially for hospice patients. During hospice care, interdisciplinary team members meet biweekly to collaborate and develop holistic care plans that address the physical, spiritual, psychological, and social needs of patients and families. The purpose of this study was to explore team communication when video-conferencing is used to facilitate the family caregiver's participation in a hospice team meeting. Video-recorded team meetings with and without family caregiver participation were analyzed for communication patterns using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Standard meetings that did not include caregivers were shorter in duration and task-focused, with little participation from social workers and chaplains. Meetings that included caregivers revealed an emphasis on biomedical education and relationship-building between participants, little psychosocial counseling, and increased socioemotional talk from social workers and chaplains. Implications for family participation in hospice team meetings are highlighted.

  3. Low-intensity resistance exercise does not affect cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Andrade Lima, Aluísio H R; Farah, Breno Quintella; Rodrigues, Lausanne B C C; Miranda, Alessandra S; Rodrigues, Sérgio L C; de A Correia, Marilia; Sobral Filho, Dario C; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Prado, Wagner Luiz; Wolosker, Nelson; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2013-05-01

    To analyze the effect of a single bout of resistance exercise on cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with peripheral artery disease. Fifteen patients with peripheral artery disease (age: 58.3±4.0 years) underwent the following sessions in a random order: resistance exercise (three sets of 10 repetitions of the six resistance exercises with a workload of 5-7 in the OMNI-RES scale) and control (similar to the resistance session; however, the resistance exercises were performed with no load). The frequency domain (low frequency, high frequency and sympathovagal balance) and symbolic analysis (0V, 1V and 2V patterns) of heart rate variability were obtained before and until one hour after the interventions. After the resistance exercise and control sessions, similar increases were observed in the consecutive heartbeat intervals (control: 720.8±28.6 vs. 790.9±34.4 ms; resistance exercise: 712.9±30.1 vs. 756.8±37.9 ms; p<0.05) and in the pattern of the symbolic analysis with no variation (0V) (control: 25.1±3.5 vs. 33.4±4.1%; resistance exercise: 26.1±3.2 vs. 29.7±3.5%; p<0.05) until 50 min after both interventions. The pattern of two variations (2V) decreased similarly (control: 11.2±2.1 vs. 8.3±2.1%; resistance exercise: 9.5±1.7 vs. 7.8±1.7%; p<0.05). In contrast, the pattern of one variation (1V), the low and high frequency bands and sympathovagal balance did not change after the interventions (p>0.05). A single bout of resistance exercise did not alter cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with peripheral artery disease.

  4. Acute administration of conjugated equine oestrogen does not improve exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in men with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Davis, S R; Bradbury, J; Bell, R; Johns, J A

    2003-01-01

    The parenteral administration of oestradiol acutely protects against exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in women, but whether this effect is sex-specific is not known. The effects of acutely administered conjugated equine oestrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in men with established coronary heart disease were investigated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. Twenty men, aged 62 +/- 11.6 years, with reproducible exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia were treated with either intravenous conjugated equine oestrogen (25 mg) or saline prior to undergoing an exercise stress test. Primary end-points were total exercise time and time to 1 mm ST-segment depression. All participants completed the protocol. Total exercise time exceeded the baseline value in 17 of the 20 men following saline, and in 17 of the 20 men following oestrogen pretreatment. Time to 1 mm ST-segment depression exceeded the baseline value in 14 of the 19 men following saline, and following oestrogen administration, exceeded baseline in 13 of the 19 men. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in either time to 1 mm ST-segment depression or total exercise time. A period effect was apparent for total exercise time (P = 0.05) but not for time to ST-segment depression. Acute parenteral oestrogen therapy did not increase total exercise time or time to the onset of electrocardiographic changes of ischaemia in men with chronic stable coronary artery disease. These findings contrast the favourable effects of oestrogen in women in comparable studies and indicate a sex specificity for the acute cardiovascular effects of oestrogen.

  5. Acute acetaminophen ingestion does not alter core temperature or sweating during exercise in hot-humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Coombs, G B; Cramer, M N; Ravanelli, N M; Morris, N B; Jay, O

    2015-06-01

    Acute acetaminophen (ACT) ingestion has been reported to reduce thermal strain during cycling in the heat. In this study, nine active participants ingested 20 mg of ACT per kg of total body mass (ACT) or a placebo (PLA), 60 min prior to cycling at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (ACT: 8.3 ± 0.3 W/kg; PLA: 8.5 ± 0.5 W/kg), which was equivalent to 55 ± 6% VO2max , for 60 min at 34.5 ± 0.1 °C, 52 ± 1% relative humidity. Resting rectal temperature (Tre ; ACT: 36.70 ± 0.17 °C; PLA: 36.80 ± 0.16 °C, P = 0.24), esophageal temperature (Tes ; ACT: 36.54 ± 0.22 °C; PLA: 36.61 ± 0.17 °C, P = 0.50) and mean skin temperature (Tsk ; ACT: 34.00 ± 0.14 °C; PLA: 33.96 ± 0.20 °C, P = 0.70) were all similar among conditions. At end-exercise, no differences in ΔTre (ACT: 1.12 ± 0.15 °C; PLA: 1.11 ± 0.21 °C, P = 0.92), ΔTes (ACT: 0.90 ± 0.28 °C; PLA: 0.88 ± 0.23 °C, P = 0.84), ΔTsk (ACT: 0.80 ± 0.39 °C; PLA: 0.70 ± 0.46 °C, P = 0.63), mean local sweat rate (ACT: 1.02 ± 0.15 mg/cm(2) /min; PLA: 1.02 ± 0.13 mg/cm(2) /min, P = 0.98) and whole-body sweat loss (ACT: 663 ± 83 g; PLA: 663 ± 77 g, P = 0.995) were evident. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion and thermal sensation and thermal comfort were not different between ACT and PLA conditions. In conclusion, ACT ingested 60 min prior to moderate intensity exercise in hot-humid conditions does not alter physiologic thermoregulatory control nor perceived strain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  7. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  8. Does Postural Awareness Contribute to Exercise-Induced Improvements in Neck Pain Intensity? A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Tai Chi and Neck Exercises.

    PubMed

    Lauche, Romy; Wayne, Peter M; Fehr, Johannes; Stumpe, Christoph; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger

    2017-08-15

    Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This secondary analysis aims to examine associations of improvement of chronic neck pain with patients' and intervention-related characteristics. Previous research has found that Tai Chi and neck exercises significantly improved chronic nonspecific neck pain; however, the factors for treatment success remain unclear. Subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of group Tai Chi or conventional neck exercises, and they attended 12 weekly sessions of 60 to 90 minutes. The interventions included exercises to improve body awareness, that is, interoceptive and postural awareness. A linear forward stepwise regression analysis was conducted to examine associations with improvements in neck pain intensity. Potential predictor variables included baseline pain, age, sex, the type of intervention, attendance rate and home practice duration, and changes in psychological well-being, perceived stress, and postural and interoceptive awareness during the study. Overall 75 patients were randomized into Tai Chi or conventional exercises, with the majority being women (78.7%). Participants reported an average pain intensity of 50.7 ± 20.4 mm visual analog scale at baseline, and the average reduction of pain intensity in both groups was 21.4 ± 21.3 mm visual analog scale. Regression analysis revealed that reductions in pain intensity from baseline to 12 weeks were predicted by higher pain intensity at baseline (r = 0.226, P < 0.001), a decrease in anxiety (r = 0.102, P = 0.001), and an increase in postural awareness (r = 0.078, P = 0.0033), explaining a total of 40.6% of variance. Neck pain improvement was significantly associated with changes in postural awareness in subject with chronic nonspecific neck pain independent of treatment characteristics. Training of postural awareness might be an important mechanism of action of different exercise-based interventions

  9. Patent Foramen Ovale Is Not Associated with Hypoxemia in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Does Not Impair Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Zarrin F.; Kelly, Julia L.; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; de Villa, Manuel; Mullen, Michael J.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Morrell, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) may be disadvantageous in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether right-to-left shunting through PFO increases during exercise impairing exercise performance. Objectives: To determine whether (1) PFO prevalence is greater in hypoxemic versus less hypoxemic patients with COPD, (2) PFO is associated with clinically relevant impairment, and (3) right-to-left shunting increases during exercise and impairs exercise performance. Methods: Patients with COPD and age-matched control subjects underwent contrast transthoracic echocardiography and transcranial Doppler to identify PFO. Patients with COPD with no shunt and patients with large PFO underwent cardiopulmonary exercise tests with contrast transcranial Doppler, esophageal, and gastric balloon catheters. Measurements and Main Results: PFO prevalence was similar in 50 patients with COPD and 50 healthy control subjects (46% vs. 30%; P = 0.15). Large shunts were more common in patients with COPD (26% vs. 6%; P = 0.01). In an expanded COPD cohort, PFO prevalence was similar in 31 hypoxemic (Pao2 ≤ 7.3 kPa) and 63 less hypoxemic (Pao2 > 8.0 kPa) patients with COPD (39% vs. 52%; P = 0.27). Patients with intrapulmonary shunting had lower Pao2 than both patients with PFO and those with no right-to-left shunt (7.7 vs. 8.6 vs. 9.3 kPa, respectively; P = 0.002). Shunting significantly increased during exercise in patients with COPD with PFO. Endurance time at 60% Vo2max was 574 (178) seconds for patients with PFO and 534 (279) seconds for those without (P = ns). Conclusions: Hypoxemic patients with COPD do not have a higher prevalence of PFO. Patients with COPD with PFO do not perform less well either on a 6-minute walk or submaximal exercise testing despite increased right-to-left shunting during exercise. PMID:24450410

  10. Endothelial function does not improve with high-intensity continuous exercise training in SHR: implications of eNOS uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Battault, Sylvain; Singh, François; Gayrard, Sandrine; Zoll, Joffrey; Reboul, Cyril; Meyer, Grégory

    2016-02-01

    Exercise training is a well-recognized way to improve vascular endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. However, in hypertensive subjects, unlike low- and moderate-intensity exercise training, the beneficial effects of continuous high-intensity exercise on endothelial function are not clear, and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of high-intensity exercise on vascular function, especially on the NO pathway, in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). These effects were studied on WKY, sedentary SHR and SHR that exercised at moderate (SHR-MOD) and high intensity (SHR-HI) on a treadmill (1 h per day; 5 days per week for 6 weeks at 55% and 80% of their maximal aerobic velocity, respectively). Endothelial function and specific NO contributions to acetylcholine-mediated relaxation were evaluated by measuring the aortic ring isometric forces. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and phosphorylation (ser1177) were evaluated by western blotting. The total aortic and eNOS-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance in aortic tissue. Although the aortas of SHR-HI had increased eNOS levels without alteration of eNOS phosphorylation, high-intensity exercise had no beneficial effect on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, unlike moderate exercise. This result was associated with increased eNOS-dependent ROS production in the aortas of SHR-HI. Notably, the use of the recoupling agent BH4 or a thiol-reducing agent blunted eNOS-dependent ROS production in the aortas of SHR-HI. In conclusion, the lack of a positive effect of high-intensity exercise on endothelial function in SHR was mainly explained by redox-dependent eNOS uncoupling, resulting in a switch from NO to O2(-) generation.

  11. Short-term treadmill exercise in a cold environment does not induce adrenal Hsp72 and Hsp25 expression.

    PubMed

    Akin, Senay; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Ichinoseki-Sekine, Noriko; Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Kakigi, Ryo; Demirel, Haydar A

    2016-07-28

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting cells from a range of acute and chronic stressful conditions. Treadmill running exercise results in increased Hsp72 and Hsp25 levels in various tissues and heat production during exercise has been shown to be the main factor for the increased levels of Hsp72 in myocardium. Since the adrenal gland plays a vital role in general response to stress, regulation of Hsps in adrenal glands following stressful events seems to be critical for controlling the whole-body stress response appropriately. This study tested the hypothesis of whether elevation of temperature is solely responsible for exercise-induced adrenal Hsp72 and Hsp25 expression. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old) were randomly assigned to either a sedentary control group or one of two treadmill-running groups: a cold exercise group run in a cold room at 4 °C (CE), and a warm exercise group run at 25 °C temperature (WE). Animals were run 60 min a day at 30 m min(-1) speed for 4 consecutive days following adaptation to treadmill exercise. Exercise resulted in a significant elevation of body temperature only in the WE group (p < 0.05). Adrenal Hsp72 and Hsp25 levels were significantly higher in the WE group compare to the other groups (p < 0.05). These data demonstrated that exercise-related elevations of body temperature could be the only factor for the inductions of adrenal Hsp72 and Hsp25 expression.

  12. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Exercise programs that challenge an individual's balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. STUDIES WERE OBTAINED BY SEARCHING THE FOLLOWING DATABASES: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home-based treatment cannot be made at this

  13. Sympathetic vasomotor control does not explain the change in femoral artery shear rate pattern during arm-crank exercise.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J; Steendijk, Sjoerd; Hopman, Maria T E

    2009-01-01

    During lower limb exercise, blood flow through the resting upper limbs exhibits a change characterized by increased anterograde flow during systole, but also large increases in retrograde diastolic flow. One explanation for the retrograde flow is that increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone and concomitant increased peripheral resistance generate a rebound during diastole. To examine whether the SNS contributes to retrograde flow patterns, we measured femoral artery blood flow during arm-crank exercise in 10 healthy men (31 +/- 4 yr) and 10 spinal cord-injured (SCI) subjects who lack sympathetic innervation in the legs (33 +/- 5 yr). Before, and every 5 min during 25-min arm-crank exercise at 50% maximal capacity, femoral artery blood flow and peak anterograde and retrograde shear rate were assessed using echo Doppler sonography. Femoral artery baseline blood flow was significantly lower in SCI compared with controls. Exercise increased femoral artery blood flow in both groups (ANOVA, P < 0.05), whereas leg vascular conductance did not change during exercise in either group. Mean shear rate was lower in SCI than in controls (P < 0.05). Peak anterograde shear rate was higher in SCI than in controls (P < 0.05), whereas peak retrograde shear rate did not differ between groups. Arm-crank exercise induced an increase in peak anterograde and retrograde shear rate in the femoral artery in controls and SCI subjects (P < 0.05). This suggests that the SNS is not obligatory to change the flow pattern in inactive regions during exercise. Local mechanisms may play a role in the arm-crank exercise-induced changes in flow pattern in the femoral artery.

  14. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  15. Rate of utilization of a given fraction of W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) does not affect fatigue during severe-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Kristopher Mendes; Dekerle, Jeanne; Salvador, Paulo Cesar do Nascimento; de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2016-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does the rate of utilization of W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) affect fatigue during severe-intensity exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? The magnitude of fatigue after two severe-intensity exercises designed to deplete the same fraction of W' (70%) at two different rates of utilization (fast versus slow) was similar after both exercises. Moreover, the magnitude of fatigue was related to critical power (CP), supporting the contention that CP is a key determinant in fatigue development during high-intensity exercise. Thus, the CP model is a suitable approach to investigate fatigue mechanisms during high-intensity exercise. The depletion of W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) seems to contribute to fatigue during severe-intensity exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a fast versus a slow rate of utilization of W' on the occurrence of fatigue within the severe-intensity domain. Fifteen healthy male subjects performed tests to determine the critical power, W' and peak torque in the control condition (TCON ) and immediately after two fatiguing work rates (THREE and TEN) set to deplete 70% W' in either 3 (TTHREE ) or 10 min (TTEN ). The TTHREE and TTEN were significantly reduced (F = 19.68, P = 0.01) in comparison to TCON . However, the magnitude of reduction in peak torque (TTHREE  = -19.8 ± 10.1% versus TTEN  = -16.8 ± 13.3%) was the same in the two fatiguing exercises (t = -0.76, P = 0.46). There was a significant inverse relationship between the critical power and the reduction in peak torque during both THREE (r = -0.49, P = 0.03) and TEN (r = -0.62, P = 0.02). In contrast, the W' was not significantly correlated with the reduction in peak torque during both THREE (r = -0.14, P = 0.33) and TEN (r = -0.30, P = 0.10). Thus, fatigue following severe-intensity exercises performed

  16. Salivary Hsp72 does not track exercise stress and caffeine-stimulated plasma Hsp72 responses in humans.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Matthew B; Whitham, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) has been detected within saliva, and its presence may contribute to oral defence. It is currently unknown how physiological stress affects salivary Hsp72 or if salivary Hsp72 concentrations reflect plasma Hsp72 concentrations. We studied the effect of exercise upon salivary Hsp72 expression, and using caffeine administration, investigated the role of sympathetic stimulation upon salivary Hsp72 expression. Six healthy males performed two treadmill running exercise bouts in hot conditions (30°C) separated by 1 week in a randomized cross-over design, one with caffeine supplementation (CAF) the other with placebo (PLA). Plasma and saliva samples were collected prior to, during and post-exercise and assayed for Hsp72 concentration by ELISA. Exercise significantly increased plasma Hsp72, but not salivary Hsp72 concentration. Mean salivary Hsp72 concentration (5.1 ± 0.8 ng/ml) was significantly greater than plasma Hsp72 concentration (1.8 ± 0.1 ng/ml), and concentrations of salivary and plasma Hsp72 were unrelated. Caffeine supplementation and exercise increased the concentration of catecholamines, salivary α-amylase and total protein, whilst the salivary Hsp72:α-amylase ratio was lower in CAF. Salivary Hsp72 was not altered by exercise stress nor caffeine supplementation, and concentrations did not track plasma Hsp72 concentration.

  17. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity?-A RCT.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA. Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences in 4-month ABP changes were evaluated by intention-to-treat analysis using a repeated-measure 2 × 2 multiadjusted mixed-models design. Relative to REF, 24-hour ABP significantly increased in AE: systolic 3.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.7) and diastolic 2.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.9-3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4-9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3-6.4). Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits of aerobic exercise, especially among workers with high OPA and a demanding aerobic workload. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN86682076. Unique identifier ISRCTN86682076. Trial Number ISRCTN86682076.

  18. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners? A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H; Krustrup, Peter; Krause, Niklas; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. We randomized 116 cleaners between 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 minutes twice a week) and the reference group (N=59) received lectures. Cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure (BP) and diurnal heart rate (HR) for measuring aerobic workload [% HR reserve (% HRR)] were collected at baseline and after four months. A repeated measure 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences in an intention-to-treat analysis. Between-group differences (P<0.01) were found: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.2 [standard error (SE) 0.8] ml O 2 × min -1 × kg -1 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-3.8], aerobic workload - 3.5 (SE 1.2) % HRR (95% CI - 5.9- -1.0), resting HR -3.8 (SE 1.2) bpm (95 % CI -6.1- - 1.4), sleeping HR -3.8 (SE 1.1) bpm (95% CI - 5.9- - 1.7), and systolic BP 3.6 (SE 1.3) mmHg (95% CI 1.1-6.0). Worksite aerobic exercise seems to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, aerobic workload, and resting and sleeping HR, but increase systolic BP among cleaners. Beneficial physiological cardiovascular effects are seen from aerobic exercise, but also a harmful effect is evident. Therefore, recommendations should take into consideration the potential cardiovascular overload from additional aerobic exercise on workers with high levels of occupational physical activity.

  19. Short-Term Exercise Training Does Not Stimulate Skeletal Muscle ATP Synthesis in Relatives of Humans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kacerovsky-Bielesz, Gertrud; Chmelik, Marek; Ling, Charlotte; Pokan, Rochus; Szendroedi, Julia; Farukuoye, Michaela; Kacerovsky, Michaela; Schmid, Albrecht I.; Gruber, Stephan; Wolzt, Michael; Moser, Ewald; Pacini, Giovanni; Smekal, Gerhard; Groop, Leif; Roden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise training improves hereditary insulin resistance by stimulating ATP synthesis and investigated associations with gene polymorphisms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 24 nonobese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients and 12 control subjects at rest and 48 h after three bouts of exercise. In addition to measurements of oxygen uptake and insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test), ectopic lipids and mitochondrial ATP synthesis were assessed using1H and31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. They were genotyped for polymorphisms in genes regulating mitochondrial function, PPARGC1A (rs8192678) and NDUFB6 (rs540467). RESULTS Relatives had slightly lower (P = 0.012) insulin sensitivity than control subjects. In control subjects, ATP synthase flux rose by 18% (P = 0.0001), being 23% higher (P = 0.002) than that in relatives after exercise training. Relatives responding to exercise training with increased ATP synthesis (+19%, P = 0.009) showed improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.009) compared with those whose insulin sensitivity did not improve. A polymorphism in the NDUFB6 gene from respiratory chain complex I related to ATP synthesis (P = 0.02) and insulin sensitivity response to exercise training (P = 0.05). ATP synthase flux correlated with O2uptake and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS The ability of short-term exercise to stimulate ATP production distinguished individuals with improved insulin sensitivity from those whose insulin sensitivity did not improve. In addition, the NDUFB6 gene polymorphism appeared to modulate this adaptation. This finding suggests that genes involved in mitochondrial function contribute to the response of ATP synthesis to exercise training. PMID:19265027

  20. Exercise training does not improve cardiac function in compensated or decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy induced by aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    van Deel, Elza D; de Boer, Martine; Kuster, Diederik W; Boontje, Nicky M; Holemans, Patricia; Sipido, Karin R; van der Velden, Jolanda; Duncker, Dirk J

    2011-06-01

    There is ample evidence that regular exercise exerts beneficial effects on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, remodeling and dysfunction produced by ischemic heart disease or systemic hypertension. In contrast, the effects of exercise on pathological LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by LV outflow obstruction have not been studied to date. Consequently, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running in mice (which mitigates post-infarct LV dysfunction) on LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by mild (mTAC) and severe (sTAC) transverse aortic constriction. mTAC produced ~40% LV hypertrophy and increased myocardial expression of hypertrophy marker genes but did not affect LV function, SERCA2a protein levels, apoptosis or capillary density. Exercise had no effect on global LV hypertrophy and function in mTAC but increased interstitial collagen, and ANP expression. sTAC produced ~80% LV hypertrophy and further increased ANP expression and interstitial fibrosis and, in contrast with mTAC, also produced LV dilation, systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, apoptosis and capillary rarefaction and decreased SERCA2a and ryanodine receptor (RyR) protein levels. LV diastolic dysfunction was likely aggravated by elevated passive isometric force and Ca(2+)-sensitivity of myofilaments. Exercise training failed to mitigate the sTAC-induced LV hypertrophy and capillary rarefaction or the decreases in SERCA2a and RyR. Exercise attenuated the sTAC-induced increase in passive isometric force but did not affect myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and tended to aggravate interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, exercise had no effect on LV function in compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy produced by LV outflow obstruction, suggesting that the effect of exercise on pathologic LV hypertrophy and dysfunction depends critically on the underlying cause. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Capsaicin and evodiamine ingestion does not augment energy expenditure and fat oxidation at rest or after moderately-intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Neil A; Spillane, Mike; La Bounty, Paul; Grandjean, Peter W; Leutholtz, Brian; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2013-12-01

    Capsaicin and evodiamine are 2 thermogenic agents recognized for their ability to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesized that both capsaicin and evodiamine would be effective at increasing thermogenesis and lipid oxidation during rest and exercise. In a randomized, cross-over design, 11 men ingested 500 mg of cayenne pepper (1.25 mg capsaicin), 500 mg evodiamine, or placebo at rest following 30 minutes of energy expenditure assessment using open-circuit spirometry. Energy expenditure was assessed again prior to commencing approximately 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 65% peak oxygen consumption. Energy expenditure was assessed for another 30 minutes of the post-exercise period. Heart rate, blood pressure, core temperature, and venous blood samples were obtained 30 minutes before supplement ingestion, 1 hour after supplement ingestion, immediately post-exercise, and 45 minutes post-exercise. Serum markers of lipid oxidation (glycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) were determined spectrophotometrically with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two-way analyses of variance with repeated measures were performed for each dependent variable (P ≤ .05) with Supplement and Test as main effects. Statistical analyses revealed significant main effects for Test for hemodynamics, energy expenditure, serum catecholamines, and markers of fat oxidation immediately post-exercise (P < .05). No significant interactions between Supplement and Test were noted for any criterion variable (P > .05). These results suggest that acute ingestion of 500 mg of cayenne (1.25 mg capsaicin) or evodiamine is not effective at inducing thermogenesis and increasing fat oxidation at rest or during exercise in men.

  2. A systematic review to evaluate exercise for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: does this approach reduce the incidence of knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Koji J; Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; Maly, Monica R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Among a variety of conservative and surgical options to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, we do not understand which options could potentially prevent knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence pertaining to exercise treatment of ACL injuries in the context of knee OA. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) databases were systematically searched using keywords encompassed within four primary key terms: knee, osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament, and exercise. Clinical studies evaluating the effect of an exercise treatment for ACL injuries on the development of knee OA in adult humans were included. The PEDro scale was used to critically assess the studies included in the review. Results Eighteen studies were included in this review, with a median PEDro score of 6/11 (range, 2/11–9/11). Three studies provided statistical evidence that exercise following ACL injury lowered the risk for knee OA development. Nine studies demonstrated no benefit of exercise in preventing knee OA incidence relative to either operative treatment or the contralateral, unaffected knee. However, exercise resulted in higher knee instability. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in subjective or objective knee outcomes for early versus late ACL reconstruction. Limitations This review was not registered through PROSPERO. Conclusion The relationship between a rehabilitative exercise for ACL injuries and long-term knee OA prevalence is inconclusive. However, research suggests initial conservative treatment with optional late ACL reconstruction because this treatment strategy may reduce the risk of knee OA. More research, ideally randomized controlled trials or comparable designs, is required prior to establishing clinical guidelines for ACL injury management. PMID:27843365

  3. Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise.

    PubMed

    Hongu, N; Sachan, D S

    2000-02-01

    The effect of a combination of caffeine, carnitine and choline with or without exercise on changes in body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin concentration and metabolic indices was determined in 20 male, 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats. They were given free access to a nonpurified diet without or with caffeine, carnitine and choline at concentrations of 0.1, 5 and 11.5 g/kg diet, respectively. In a 2x2 factorial design, one-half of each dietary group was exercised, and the other half was sedentary. Body weight and food intake of all rats were measured every day for 28 d. Rats were killed and blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical markers. Food intake of the groups was not different, but the body weight was significantly reduced by exercise in both dietary groups. Fat pad weights and total lipids of epididymal, inguinal and perirenal regions were significantly reduced by the supplements as well as by exercise. Regardless of exercise, supplements significantly lowered triglycerides in serum but increased levels in skeletal muscle. Serum leptin concentrations were equally lowered by supplements and exercise. Serum leptin was correlated with body weight (r = 0.55, P< or =0.01), fat pad weight (r = 0.82, P< or =0.001) and serum glucose (r = 0.51, P< or =0.05). We conclude that the indices of body fat loss due to dietary supplements were similar to those due to mild exercise, and there were no interactive effects of the two variables.

  4. Seven days of high carbohydrate ingestion does not attenuate post-exercise IL-6 and hepcidin levels.

    PubMed

    Badenhorst, Claire E; Dawson, Brian; Cox, Gregory R; Sim, Marc; Laarakkers, Coby M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Peeling, Peter

    2016-09-01

    This investigation examined if a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet, maintained across a seven-day training period, could attenuate post-exercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum hepcidin levels. Twelve endurance-trained male athletes completed two seven-day running training blocks whilst consuming either a high (8 g kg(-1)) versus a low (3 g kg(-1)) CHO isoenergetic diet. Each training block consisted of five running sessions performed on days 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7, with the intensity and duration of each session matched between training weeks. Serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin were measured pre- and either immediately (IL-6) or 3-h (hepcidin) post-exercise on days 1 and 7 of each training week. During each training week, the immediate post-exercise IL-6 and 3-h post-exercise serum hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (both p = 0.001) from pre-exercise on days 1 and 7. These increases were not different between trials. These results suggest that the ingestion of a high (compared to low) CHO diet over a seven-day training period is ineffective in attenuating post-exercise IL-6 and hepcidin responses. Such results may be due to the modest training load, the increased protein intake in the low-CHO trial, and a 48 h recovery period prior to sample collection on day 7, allowing a full recovery of muscle glycogen status between exercise sessions.

  5. A putative low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet elicits mild nutritional ketosis but does not impair the acute or chronic hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise in rodents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael D; Holland, A Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mobley, C Brooks; Mumford, Petey W; Lowery, Ryan P; Fox, Carlton D; McCloskey, Anna E; Shake, Joshua J; Mesquita, Paulo; Patel, Romil K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Young, Kaelin C; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-05-15

    We examined whether acute and/or chronic skeletal muscle anabolism is impaired with a low-carbohydrate diet formulated to elicit ketosis (LCKD) vs. a mixed macronutrient Western diet (WD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 wk of age, 300-325 g) were provided isoenergetic amounts of a LCKD or a WD for 6 wk. In AIM 1, basal serum and gastrocnemius assessments were performed. In AIM 2, rats were resistance exercised for one bout and were euthanized 90-270 min following exercise for gastrocnemius analyses. In AIM 3, rats voluntarily exercised daily with resistance-loaded running wheels, and hind limb muscles were analyzed for hypertrophy markers at the end of the 6-wk protocol. In AIM 1, basal levels of gastrocnemius phosphorylated (p)-rps6, p-4EBP1, and p-AMPKα were similar between diets, although serum insulin (P < 0.01), serum glucose (P < 0.001), and several essential amino acid levels (P < 0.05) were lower in LCKD-fed rats. In AIM 2, LCKD- and WD-fed rats exhibited increased postexercise muscle protein synthesis levels (P < 0.0125), but no diet effect was observed (P = 0.59). In AIM 3, chronically exercise-trained LCKD- and WD-fed rats presented similar increases in relative hind limb muscle masses compared with their sedentary counterparts (12-24%, P < 0.05), but there was no between-diet effects. Importantly, the LCKD induced "mild" nutritional ketosis, as the LCKD-fed rats in AIM 2 exhibited ∼1.5-fold greater serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels relative to WD-fed rats (diet effect P = 0.003). This study demonstrates that the tested LCKD in rodents, while only eliciting mild nutritional ketosis, does not impair the acute or chronic skeletal muscle hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gigou, Pierre-Yves; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Berrigan, Felix; Goulet, Eric D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW) of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA). PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01) and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH) to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP) (P < 0.01) during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82). Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min) and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C) and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C) temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise. PMID:23016126

  7. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace.

    PubMed

    Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training.

  8. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. PMID:26380361

  9. Is exercise used as medicine? Association of meeting strength training guidelines and functional limitations among older US adults.

    PubMed

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Rovniak, Liza S; Lehman, Erik B; Candotti, Carolina; Ballentine, Noel H

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between meeting strength training guidelines (≥2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (N=6763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting strength training guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet strength training recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met strength training guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (p<.001). In sum, 21.7% of those with no limitations (33.7% of sample) met strength training guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1-4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5-9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (p<.001). Strength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for strength training to improve the public's health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from strength training participate the least. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is exercise used as medicine? Association of meeting strength training guidelines and functional limitations among older US adults

    PubMed Central

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Ciccolo, Joseph T.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Lehman, Erik B.; Candotti, Carolina; Ballentine, Noel H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association between meeting strength training (ST) guidelines (≥ 2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. METHODS This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (n=6,763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. RESULTS Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting ST guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet ST recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met ST guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (p<.001). In sum, 21.7% of those with no limitations (33.7% of sample) met ST guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1–4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5–9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (p<.001). CONCLUSION Strength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for ST to improve the public’s health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from ST participate the least. PMID:24878584

  11. Exercise in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: what are the benefits and how does it work?

    PubMed

    Duclos, Martine; Virally, Marie-Laure; Dejager, Sylvie

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we examine the results from meta-analyses of studies that have focused on the effects of supervised exercise in patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exercise has been clearly demonstrated to have benefits on blood glucose control (average reduction of glycated hemoglobin, 0.6%) and cardiovascular risk factors. These benefits are observed independently of any change in body mass index and fat mass, and are also seen in older populations. Multiple mechanisms are involved, and the improved insulin-sensitizing effect of exercise training is not restricted to muscle but extends to hepatic and adipose tissue. However, while the benefits of exercise in type 2 diabetes management are undisputable, it is not as easy to draw correlations between clinical benefit and the amount of physical activity included in daily life. Recent studies have shown encouraging results with moderate increases in physical activity, which are feasible for most patients and are sufficient to induce sustained positive changes for 2 years. Thus, the benefits of structured and supervised exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes have been consistently demonstrated. Currently, the primary challenge is to determine how long-term increased physical activity can be durably implemented in a patient's daily life.

  12. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Meeting DOE Challenge Home Program Certification - Chicago, IL; Denver, CO; Devens, MA

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-01

    In this project, three production home builders—K. Hovnanian Homes, David Weekley Homes, and Transformations, Inc.—partnered with Building America team Building Science Corporation to evaluate the certification of five test homes to the new DOE Challenge Home program performance standard (now DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program). The builders identified key benefits and barriers that impacted the certification of the test homes, and the likelihood of whether DOE Challenge Home certification would be pursued in future homes

  13. Exercise training with blood flow restriction has little effect on muscular strength and does not change IGF-1 in fit military warfighters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Andrew E; Palombo, Laura J; Niederberger, Brenda; Turcotte, Lorraine P; Kelly, Karen R

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic exercise with blood flow restriction (aBFR) has been proposed as an adjunctive modality in numerous populations, potentially via an enhanced growth factor response. However, the effects of aBFR on highly trained warfighters have yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine if adjunctive aBFR as part of a regular physical training regimen would increase markers of aerobic fitness and muscle strength in elite warfighters. In addition, we sought to determine whether the changes in blood lactate concentration induced by aBFR would be associated with alterations in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. Active-duty US Naval Special Warfare Operators (n=18, age=36.8 ± 2.2 years, weight=89.1 ± 1.2 kg, height=181.5 ± 1.4 cm) from Naval Amphibious Base Coronado were recruited to participate in 20 days of adjunctive aBFR training. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), and 1-repetition max (1-RM) bench press and squat were assessed pre- and post-aBFR training. Blood lactate and plasma IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were assessed pre-, 2 min post-, and 30 min post-aBFR on days 1, 9, and 20 of aBFR training. Following aBFR training there were no changes in VO2 peak or VT, but there was an increase in the 1-RM for the bench press and the squat (5.0 and 3.9%, respectively, P<0.05). Blood lactate concentration at the 2-min post-exercise time point was 4.5-7.2-fold higher than pre-exercise levels on all days (P<0.001). At the 30-min post-exercise time point, blood lactate was still 1.6-2.6-fold higher than pre-exercise levels (P<0.001), but had decreased by 49-56% from the 2-min post-exercise time point (P<0.001). Plasma IGF-1 concentrations did not change over the course of the study. On day 9, plasma IGFBP-3 concentration was 4-22% lower than on day 1 (P<0.01) and 22% lower on day 9 than on day 20 at the 30-min post-exercise time point (P<0.001). Our data suggest that aBFR training does not lead to practical

  14. Regulation of Flowering in Brachypodium distachyon (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Amasino, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Rick Amasino of the University of Wisconsin on "Regulation of Flowering in Brachypodium distachyon" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  15. PMI: Plant-Microbe Interfaces (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Schadt, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Christopher Schadt of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Plant-Microbe Interactions" in the context of poplar trees at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 held in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  16. Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Jane Lau of the Joint BioEnergy Institute on "Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  17. Genomics of Climate Resilience (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-03-27

    Eldredge Bermingham of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute-Panama on "Genomics of climate resilience" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  18. Comparison of Different Forms of Exercise Training in Patients With Cardiac Disease: Where Does High-Intensity Interval Training Fit?

    PubMed

    Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program.

  19. Cold habituation does not improve manual dexterity during rest and exercise in 5 °C.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Pollock, Brandon S; Burns, Keith J; Glickman, Ellen L

    2014-04-01

    When exposed to a cold environment, a barehanded person experiences pain, cold sensation, and reduced manual dexterity. Both acute (e.g. exercise) and chronic (e.g. cold acclimatization or habituation) processes might lessen these negative effects. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of cold habituation on physiology, perception, and manual dexterity during rest, exercise, and recovery in 5 °C. Six cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight non habituated men (NON) volunteered to participate in a repeated measures cross-over design. The protocol was conducted in 5 °C and was 90 min of resting cold exposure, 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise (50 % VO2 peak), and 60 min of seated recovery. Core and finger skin temperature, metabolic rate, Purdue Pegboard dexterity performance, hand pain, thermal sensation, and mood were quantified. Exercise-induced finger rewarming (EIFRW) was calculated for each hand. During 90 min of resting exposure to 5 °C, the CWA had a smaller reduction in finger temperature, a lower metabolic rate, less hand pain, and less negative mood. Despite this cold habituation, dexterity performance was not different between groups. In response to cycle ergometry, EIFRW was greater in CWA (~12 versus 7 °C) and occurred at lower core temperatures (37.02 versus 37.31 °C) relative to NON but dexterity was not greater during post-exercise recovery. The current data indicate that cold habituated men (i.e., CWA) do not perform better on the Purdue Pegboard during acute cold exposure. Furthermore, despite augmented EIFRW in CWA, dexterity during post-exercise recovery was similar between groups.

  20. Does wearing clothing made of a synthetic “cooling” fabric improve indoor cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sara J; Krug, Robin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the effects of a clothing ensemble made of a synthetic fabric promoted as having superior cooling properties (COOL) on exercise performance and its physiological and perceptual determinants during cycle exercise in ambient laboratory conditions that mimic environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. Twenty athletes (15 men:5 women) aged 25.8 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SEM) with a maximal rate of O2 consumption of 63.7 ± 1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed cycle exercise testing at 85% of their maximal incremental power output to exhaustion while wearing an ensemble consisting of a fitted long-sleeved shirt and full trousers made of either COOL or a synthetic control fabric (CTRL). Exercise endurance time was not different under COOL versus CTRL conditions: 12.38 ± 0.98 versus 11.75 ± 1.10 min, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, COOL had no effect on detailed thermoregulatory (skin and esophageal temperatures), cardiometabolic, ventilatory, and perceptual responses to exercise (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, clothing made of a synthetic fabric with purported “cooling” properties did not improve high-intensity cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes under ambient laboratory conditions that mimic the environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. PMID:26290527

  1. Does a multicomponent exercise program improve dual-task performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takao

    2012-12-01

    There has been much interest in exercise interventions as a primary behavioral prevention strategy against cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent exercise program on physical and dual-task performances in community-dwelling older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Fifty older adults (23 women) with aMCI (mean age, 76 years) were randomized to an intervention (n=25) or a control group (n=25). The intervention group received a multicomponent exercise program for 90 minutes/day, 2 days/week, or 40 times over six months. The multicomponent exercises included aerobic exercise, muscle strength training and postural balance retraining, which was conducted under multi-task conditions to stimulate attention and memory. Participants in the control group attended two health promotion education classes within six months. Physical and dual-task performances were measured before randomization and after six months. Dual-task performances using reaction times with balance and cognitive demands were measured. The improvement effects on dual-task performances with both balance and cognitive demands were not statistically significant: reaction time with balance demand F1,45=3.3, p=0.07, and cognitive demand F1,45=2.6, p=0.12. However, there was a significant group-by-time interaction on maximal walking speed, which decreased significantly in the control group (F1,45=5.9, p=0.02). This six-month multicomponent exercise program improved maximal walking speed in older adults with aMCI; however, it did not improve dual-task performances assessed by reaction times.

  2. The addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink does not influence post-exercise rehydration.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Ruth; James, Lewis

    2015-01-01

    The addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink has been shown to enhance post-exercise rehydration when a volume below that recommended for full fluid balance restoration is provided. We investigated if this held true when volumes sufficient to restore fluid balance were consumed and if differences might be explained by changes in plasma albumin content. Sixteen participants lost ~1.9% of their pre-exercise body mass by cycling in the heat and rehydrated with 150% of body mass lost with either a 60 g · L(-1) carbohydrate drink (CHO) or a 60 g · L(-1) carbohydrate, 20 g · L(-1) whey protein isolate drink (CHO-P). Urine and blood samples were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise, post-rehydration and every hour for 4 h post-rehydration. There was no difference between trials for total urine production (CHO 1057 ± 319 mL; CHO-P 970 ± 334 mL; P = 0.209), drink retention (CHO 51 ± 12%; CHO-P 55 ± 15%; P = 0.195) or net fluid balance (CHO -393 ± 272 mL; CHO-P -307 ± 331 mL; P = 0.284). Plasma albumin content relative to pre-exercise was increased from 2 to 4 h during CHO-P only. These results demonstrate that the addition of whey protein isolate to a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink neither enhances nor inhibits rehydration. Therefore, where post-exercise protein ingestion might benefit recovery, this can be consumed without effecting rehydration.

  3. Postexercise blood flow restriction does not enhance muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Nakada, Satoshi; Ohta, Takahisa; Ishii, Naokata

    2017-04-27

    To test the applicability of postexercise blood flow restriction (PEBFR) in practical training programmes, we investigated whether PEBFR enhances muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise (RE). Seven men completed an eight-week RE programme for knee extensor muscles. Employing a within-subject design, one leg was subjected to RE + PEBFR, whereas contralateral leg to RE only. On each exercise session, participants performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercise at approximately 70% of their one-repetition maximum for RE leg first, and then performed three sets for RE + PEBFR leg. Immediately after completion of the third set, the proximal portion of the RE + PEBFR leg was compressed with an air-pressure cuff for 5 min at a pressure ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg. If participants could perform 10 repetitions for three sets in two consecutive exercise sessions, the work load was increased by 5% at the next exercise session. Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor muscles were measured before and after the eight-week training period and after the subsequent eight-week detraining period. There was a main effect of time but no condition × time interaction or main effect of condition for muscle thickness and strength. Both muscle thickness and strength increased after the training period independent of the condition. This result suggests that PEBFR would not be an effective training method at least in an early phase of adaptation to high-load resistance exercise. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Does impaired O2 delivery during exercise accentuate central and peripheral fatigue in patients with coexistent COPD-CHF?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Mayron F.; Zelt, Joel T. J.; Jones, Joshua H.; Hirai, Daniel M.; O'Donnell, Denis E.; Verges, Samuel; Neder, J. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in oxygen (O2) delivery to the central nervous system (“brain”) and skeletal locomotor muscle during exercise has been associated with central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue in healthy humans. From a clinical perspective, impaired tissue O2 transport is a key pathophysiological mechanism shared by cardiopulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). In addition to arterial hypoxemic conditions in COPD, there is growing evidence that cerebral and muscle blood flow and oxygenation can be reduced during exercise in both isolated COPD and CHF. Compromised cardiac output due to impaired cardiopulmonary function/interactions and blood flow redistribution to the overloaded respiratory muscles (i.e., ↑work of breathing) may underpin these abnormalities. Unfortunately, COPD and CHF coexist in almost a third of elderly patients making these mechanisms potentially more relevant to exercise intolerance. In this context, it remains unknown whether decreased O2 delivery accentuates neuromuscular manifestations of central and peripheral fatigue in coexistent COPD-CHF. If this holds true, it is conceivable that delivering a low-density gas mixture (heliox) through non-invasive positive pressure ventilation could ameliorate cardiopulmonary function/interactions and reduce the work of breathing during exercise in these patients. The major consequence would be increased O2 delivery to the brain and active muscles with potential benefits to exercise capacity (i.e., ↓central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue, respectively). We therefore hypothesize that patients with coexistent COPD-CHF stop exercising prematurely due to impaired central motor drive and muscle contractility as the cardiorespiratory system fails to deliver sufficient O2 to simultaneously attend the metabolic demands of the brain and the active limb muscles. PMID:25610401

  5. Family caregiver participation in hospice interdisciplinary team meetings: How does it affect the nature and content of communication?

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Kruse, Robin L.; Demiris, George; Gage, L. A.; Wagner, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration between family caregivers and healthcare providers is necessary to ensure patient-centered care, especially for hospice patients. During hospice care, interdisciplinary team members meet bi-weekly to collaborate and develop holistic care plans that address the physical, spiritual, psychological, and social needs of patients and families. The purpose of this study was to explore team communication when video-conferencing is used to facilitate the family caregiver’s participation in a hospice team meeting. Video-recorded team meetings with and without family caregiver participation were analyzed for communication patterns using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Standard meetings that did not include caregivers were shorter in duration and task-focused, with little participation from social workers and chaplains. Meetings that included caregivers revealed an emphasis on biomedical education and relationship-building between participants, little psychosocial counseling, and increased socio-emotional talk from social workers and chaplains. Implications for family participation in hospice team meetings are highlighted. PMID:22435889

  6. Challenging a dogma of exercise physiology: does an incremental exercise test for valid VO 2 max determination really need to last between 8 and 12 minutes?

    PubMed

    Midgley, Adrian W; Bentley, David J; Luttikholt, Hans; McNaughton, Lars R; Millet, Gregoire P

    2008-01-01

    A widely cited recommendation is that to elicit valid maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) values, incremental exercise tests should last between 8 and 12 minutes. However, this recommendation originated from the findings of a single experimental study conducted by Buchfuhrer et al. in 1983. Although this study is an important contribution to scientific knowledge, it should not be viewed as sufficient evidence to support the recommendation for eliciting valid VO(2 max) values. At least eight studies have reported that durations as short as 5 minutes and as long as 26 minutes elicit VO(2 max) values similar to those derived from tests of 8-12 minutes' duration. Two studies reported that the shorter test protocols elicited significantly higher VO(2 max) values in untrained men and women. In three studies that reported significantly higher VO(2 max) values determined during tests of 8-12 minutes than during more prolonged tests, the prolonged tests were associated with maximal treadmill grades of 20-25%, compared with 6-10% in the shorter tests. Therefore, intolerable treadmill grades, rather than the prolonged test duration, may have limited the ability to elicit VO(2 max). In view of the available evidence, test administrators, reviewers and journal editors should not view 8-12 minutes' duration for incremental exercise tests as obligatory for valid VO(2 max) determination. Current evidence suggests that to elicit valid VO(2 max) values, cycle ergometer tests should last between 7 and 26 minutes and treadmill tests between 5 and 26 minutes. This is dependent on the qualification that short tests are preceded by an adequate warm-up and that treadmill grades do not exceed 15%. Current research is too limited to indicate appropriate test duration ranges for discontinuous test protocols, or protocols incorporating high treadmill grades.

  7. Does Composition Medium Affect the Psychometric Properties of Scores on an Exercise Designed to Assess Written Medical Communication Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulet, John R.; McKinley, Danette W.; Rebbecchi, Thomas; Whelan, Gerald P.

    2007-01-01

    The ECFMG[R] Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA[R]) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The performance-based patient note exercise is specifically used to assess an examinee's ability to summarize, synthesize and interpret the data collected…

  8. How Many Years Does It Take for a Mountain To Wash into the Sea?, An Introductory Geology Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gene D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an exercise for a lecture class that breaks the monotony of note taking and requires active student thought and participation. Helps students grasp the idea of geologic time as it relates to the erosion of a prominent local landmark, Massanutten Mountain. (Author/SAH)

  9. Does exercise intensity affect blood pressure and heart rate in obese adolescents? A 6-month multidisciplinary randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    Farah, B Q; Ritti-Dias, R M; Balagopal, P B; Hill, J O; Prado, W L

    2014-04-01

    Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular health in general, but whether the impact varies with exercise intensity is not clear. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of a high-intensity aerobic exercise training (HIT) vs. a low-intensity aerobic exercise training (LIT) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in obese adolescents. Forty-three (13-18 years) Tanner stage (III-IV) matched obese adolescents were studied in a randomized trial of either HIT (corresponding to the ventilatory threshold I; n = 20) or LIT (corresponding to 20% below the ventilatory threshold I; n = 23) programme for a period of 6 months. All participants also received a multidisciplinary therapy that included nutritional, psychological and clinical counselling. Both HIT and LIT sessions were isocaloric, with energy expenditure set at 350 kcal. BP, HR and HRV were measured along with markers of body adiposity and insulin resistance before and after the respective interventions. The participants in both groups had similar physical and clinical characteristics. After the 6-month intervention, systolic, diastolic and mean BP decreased (P < 0.05, for all) similarly in both groups, whereas waist circumference, HR and HRV showed beneficial changes only in the HIT group (P < 0.05). Aerobic exercise training set at a high intensity compared with the low intensity appears to have additional benefits on abdominal obesity and cardiovascular health in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in obese adolescents. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. Hypertensive response with exercise does not increase the prevalence of abnormal Tc-99m SPECT stress perfusion images.

    PubMed

    Kane, Garvan C; Askew, John W; Chareonthaitawee, Panithaya; Miller, Todd D; Gibbons, Raymond J

    2008-05-01

    Systemic hypertension and an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response with exercise have been associated with 'false-positive' findings on stress electrocardiography and echocardiography; however, limited data is available for stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an exaggerated elevation in BP with exercise is associated with an increased prevalence of abnormal MPI. BP responses to exercise were assessed in a cohort of 7,205 patients who underwent stress testing with technetium 99m-SPECT MPI (7/1999-6/2005) for the evaluation of chest pain or dyspnea. A hypertensive response, defined as a peak systolic BP > or = 220 mmHg, occurred in 355 (4.9%) and was not associated with higher rates of ischemic ECG changes (16.1 versus 16.6%; P = .7), differences in Duke treadmill scores (4.7 +/- 4 versus 5.1 +/- 5; P = .3) or an increased prevalence of abnormal perfusion images (30.1% versus 32.9%; P = .3) to those without a hypertensive exercise response. Patients with a hypertensive response and either intermediate or high-risk MPI (on the basis of summed-difference-scores) referred for coronary angiography, had a high prevalence of coronary artery disease which was similar to those without a hypertensive response (88% versus 83%; P = .5). In an analysis of a community-based patient subset, a hypertensive response was not associated with a difference in either all-cause mortality or subsequent myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or cardiac death (8% versus 9%; P = .7). A hypertensive BP response to exercise is not associated with increased rates of ischemic ECG changes, higher-risk Duke treadmill scores, greater degrees of abnormal MPI or worse clinical outcome.

  11. A high blood lactate induced by heavy exercise does not affect the increase in submaximal VO2 with hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Favier, F B; Prieur, F; Grataloup, O; Busso, T; Castells, J; Denis, C; Geyssant, A; Benoit, H

    2005-05-01

    Few studies evidenced an enhancement in oxygen uptake (VO2) during submaximal exercise in hyperoxia. This O2 "overconsumption" seems to increase above the lactate threshold. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hyperoxia-induced enhancement in VO2 may be related to a higher metabolism of lactate. Nine healthy males (aged 23.1 years, mean VO2 max= 53.8 ml min-1 kg-1) were randomized to two series of exercise in either normoxia or hyperoxia corresponding to an inspired O2 fraction (FIO2) of 30%. Each series consisted of 6 min cycling at 50% VO2 max (Moderate1), 5 min cycling at 95%VO2 max (Near Max) and then 6 min at 50% VO2 max (Moderate2). In both series Near Max was performed in normoxia. VO2 was significantly greater under hyperoxia than in normoxia during Moderate1 (2192 +/- 189 vs. 2025 +/- 172 ml min-1) and during Moderate2 (2352 +/- 173 vs. 2180+ /- 193 ml min-1). However, the effect of the high FIO2 was not significantly different on VO2Moderate2 (+172+/-137 ml min-1 with [La] approximately 6 mmol l-1) compared to VO2Moderate1 (+166 +/- 133 ml min-1 with [La] approximately 2.4 mmol l-1). [La] at the onset of Moderate2 was not different between normoxia and hyperoxia (10.1 +/- 2.2 vs. 10.9 +/- 1.6 mmol l-1). The results show that VO2 is significantly increased during moderate exercise in hyperoxia. But this O2 overconsumption was not modified by a high [La] induced by a prior heavy exercise. It could be concluded that lactate accumulation is not directly responsible for the increase in O2 overconsumption with intensity during exercise in hyperoxia.

  12. Does chronic physical activity level modify the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period?

    PubMed

    Kurti, Stephanie P; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Chapes, Stephen K; Teeman, Colby S; Cull, Brooke J; Emerson, Sam R; Levitt, Morton H; Smith, Joshua R; Harms, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However, exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify postprandial airway inflammation. The postprandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. This study investigated whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Thirty-nine nonasthmatic subjects (20 active, 13 males/7 females) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and 19 insufficiently active (6 males/13 females) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill for 1 h post-HFM (63% fat, 10 kcal/kg body weight). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline and 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p = 0.03). There was a time × COND interaction (p = 0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 h compared with CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 h post-HFM (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after an HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level.

  13. Exercise training from late middle age until senescence does not attenuate the declines in skeletal muscle aerobic function.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Thomas, Melissa M; Wright, Kathryn J; Riel, Caitlin D; Hepple, Russell T

    2009-09-01

    We previously showed that 7 wk of treadmill exercise training in late-middle-aged rats can reverse the modest reductions in skeletal muscle aerobic function and enzyme activity relative to values in young adult rats (Exp Physiol 93: 863-871, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether extending this training program into senescence would attenuate the accelerated decline in the muscle aerobic machinery normally seen at this advanced age. For this purpose, 29-mo-old Fisher 344 Brown-Norway rats underwent 5 or 7 mo of treadmill exercise training. Training resulted in greater exercise capacity during an incremental treadmill exercise test and reduced percent body fat in 34- and 36-mo-old rats and improved survival. Despite these benefits at the whole body level, in situ muscle aerobic capacity and muscle mass were not greater in the trained groups at 34 mo or 36 mo of age. Similarly, the trained groups did not have higher activities of citrate synthase (CS) or Complex IV in homogenates of either the plantaris (fast twitch) or the soleus (slow twitch) muscles at either age. Finally, protein expression of CS (a marker of mitochondrial content) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (relating to the drive on mitochondrial biogenesis) were not higher in the trained groups. Therefore, although treadmill training from late middle age into senescence had significant benefits on running capacity, survival, and body fat, it did not prevent the declines in muscle mass, muscle aerobic capacity, or mitochondrial enzyme activities normally seen across this age, revealing a markedly diminished plasticity of the aerobic machinery in response to endurance exercise at advanced age.

  14. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

    2014-07-01

    Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject's body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary.

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  16. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  17. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  18. Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites ('entheses') in relation to exercise and/or mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M; Toumi, H; Ralphs, J R; Bydder, G; Best, T M; Milz, S

    2006-04-01

    Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure-function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the 'enthesis organ' concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological 'anchorage' sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle-tendon-bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints.

  19. Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites (‘entheses’) in relation to exercise and/or mechanical load

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Toumi, H; Ralphs, J R; Bydder, G; Best, T M; Milz, S

    2006-01-01

    Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure–function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the ‘enthesis organ’ concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological ‘anchorage’ sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle–tendon–bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints. PMID:16637873

  20. Does the effectiveness of core stability exercises correlate with the severity of spinal stenosis in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis?

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaxiang; Lin, Zhichao; Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Zemin; Tang, Shujie

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the effectiveness of core stability exercises correlates with the severity of spinal stenosis in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Forty-two patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis treated in the department of orthopedics of our hospital between May 2013 and January 2016 were included in the study. All the patients performed core stability exercises once daily for six weeks, and the clinical outcomes were evaluated using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and self-reported walking capacity. The anteroposterior osseous spinal canal diameter was measured to evaluate the severity of spinal stenosis. The correlation between the stenosis degree and the differences of Japanese Orthopaedic Association score or self-reported walking capacity at baseline and after treatment were analyzed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the spinal stenosis degree. In the three groups, there was no significant difference in JOA or self-reported walking distance at baseline (p>0.05) and after treatment (p>0.05). The JOA scores and self-reported walking distance were significantly increased after treatment (p<0.05) in any of the three groups when compared to the baseline. Also, there was no significant correlation between the stenosis degree and the difference of JOA (p>0.05) or self-reported walking distance (p>0.05). There was no significantcorrelation between the effectiveness of core stability exercises and the severity of spinal stenosis in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.

  1. Does Creatine Supplementation Hinder Exercise Heat Tolerance or Hydration Status? A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To critically assess original research addressing the effect of creatine supplementation on exercise heat tolerance and hydration status. Data Sources: We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine, without date limitations, for the following key words: creatine, exercise, thermoregulation, dehydration, hyperthermia, heat tolerance, exertional heat illnesses, and renal function. Our goal was to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of creatine supplementation on hydration status and thermoregulation. Citations from related articles also were identified and retrieved. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. One author initially screened all articles. Fifteen of 95 articles examined the effects of creatine on thermoregulation or hydration status (or both). Two independent reviewers then reviewed these articles. Ten studies were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PEDro scores for the 10 studies ranged from 7 to 10 points (maximum possible score  =  10 points). Conclusions: No evidence supports the concept that creatine supplementation either hinders the body's ability to dissipate heat or negatively affects the athlete's body fluid balance. Controlled experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation at recommended dosages. PMID:19295968

  2. Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    To critically assess original research addressing the effect of creatine supplementation on exercise heat tolerance and hydration status. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine, without date limitations, for the following key words: creatine, exercise, thermoregulation, dehydration, hyperthermia, heat tolerance, exertional heat illnesses, and renal function. Our goal was to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of creatine supplementation on hydration status and thermoregulation. Citations from related articles also were identified and retrieved. Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. One author initially screened all articles. Fifteen of 95 articles examined the effects of creatine on thermoregulation or hydration status (or both). Two independent reviewers then reviewed these articles. Ten studies were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PEDro scores for the 10 studies ranged from 7 to 10 points (maximum possible score = 10 points). No evidence supports the concept that creatine supplementation either hinders the body's ability to dissipate heat or negatively affects the athlete's body fluid balance. Controlled experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation at recommended dosages.

  3. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    PubMed Central

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary. PMID:25068141

  4. Event mapping meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, L.; Mason, D.

    1997-02-20

    A one-day meeting was held by the authors to evaluate how the strategic lab workshops would tie to this year`s tactical planning exercise. In particular, they wanted to find recent events that would support the tactical goal decisions of the Lab, and they wanted to find events that verify the Lab`s present course. The events which are each briefly discussed are: Galvin Commission recommends consolidating DOE defense labs (1995); Congressional subcommittee staff force budget cuts and consolidation (1995); 28% of DOE/DP budget held back pending completion of a clear 5-yr plan for nukes (1995); DOD and DOE focus on dual use (1995); LANL work includes weapons rebuilds (1995); LANL chosen by DOE to develop and test advanced remediation techniques (1995); AGEX/DARHT Project is stopped by suits from environmental activities (1996); Non-proliferation treaty renewed (1996); US complies with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996); Capability based deterrence policy put into place (1998); Stockpile shrinks to approximately 2000 weapons (2005); DOE weapons labs re-chartered as true national labs (1996); DOE terminates all nuclear weapons testing support (1996); Industrial projects at LANL up 20% from previous year (1997); NIST-ATP Program becomes an interagency process (1997); DOE warns that spent commercial reactor fuels is a major proliferation threat (1998); Non-lethal weapons work helps to reshape LANL image (1998); Global warning theory proven (2005); Overall US spending on science has been flat or decreasing for three years (1998); and Economic role of LANL in northern New Mexico declines (2005).

  5. Does a family meetings intervention prevent depression and anxiety in family caregivers of dementia patients? A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Joling, Karlijn J; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Smit, Filip; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Scheltens, Philip; van de Ven, Peter M; Mittelman, Mary S; van Hout, Hein P J

    2012-01-01

    Family caregivers of dementia patients are at increased risk of developing depression or anxiety. A multi-component program designed to mobilize support of family networks demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing depressive symptoms in caregivers. However, the impact of an intervention consisting solely of family meetings on depression and anxiety has not yet been evaluated. This study examines the preventive effects of family meetings for primary caregivers of community-dwelling dementia patients. A randomized multicenter trial was conducted among 192 primary caregivers of community dwelling dementia patients. Caregivers did not meet the diagnostic criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder at baseline. Participants were randomized to the family meetings intervention (n = 96) or usual care (n = 96) condition. The intervention consisted of two individual sessions and four family meetings which occurred once every 2 to 3 months for a year. Outcome measures after 12 months were the incidence of a clinical depressive or anxiety disorder and change in depressive and anxiety symptoms (primary outcomes), caregiver burden and quality of life (secondary outcomes). Intention-to-treat as well as per protocol analyses were performed. A substantial number of caregivers (72/192) developed a depressive or anxiety disorder within 12 months. The intervention was not superior to usual care either in reducing the risk of disorder onset (adjusted IRR 0.98; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.38) or in reducing depressive (randomization-by-time interaction coefficient = -1.40; 95% CI -3.91 to 1.10) or anxiety symptoms (randomization-by-time interaction coefficient = -0.55; 95% CI -1.59 to 0.49). The intervention did not reduce caregiver burden or their health related quality of life. This study did not demonstrate preventive effects of family meetings on the mental health of family caregivers. Further research should determine whether this intervention might be more beneficial if

  6. Does a Family Meetings Intervention Prevent Depression and Anxiety in Family Caregivers of Dementia Patients? A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Joling, Karlijn J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Smit, Filip; van der Horst, Henriëtte E.; Scheltens, Philip; van de Ven, Peter M.; Mittelman, Mary S.; van Hout, Hein P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Family caregivers of dementia patients are at increased risk of developing depression or anxiety. A multi-component program designed to mobilize support of family networks demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing depressive symptoms in caregivers. However, the impact of an intervention consisting solely of family meetings on depression and anxiety has not yet been evaluated. This study examines the preventive effects of family meetings for primary caregivers of community-dwelling dementia patients. Methods A randomized multicenter trial was conducted among 192 primary caregivers of community dwelling dementia patients. Caregivers did not meet the diagnostic criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder at baseline. Participants were randomized to the family meetings intervention (n = 96) or usual care (n = 96) condition. The intervention consisted of two individual sessions and four family meetings which occurred once every 2 to 3 months for a year. Outcome measures after 12 months were the incidence of a clinical depressive or anxiety disorder and change in depressive and anxiety symptoms (primary outcomes), caregiver burden and quality of life (secondary outcomes). Intention-to-treat as well as per protocol analyses were performed. Results A substantial number of caregivers (72/192) developed a depressive or anxiety disorder within 12 months. The intervention was not superior to usual care either in reducing the risk of disorder onset (adjusted IRR 0.98; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.38) or in reducing depressive (randomization-by-time interaction coefficient = −1.40; 95% CI −3.91 to 1.10) or anxiety symptoms (randomization-by-time interaction coefficient = −0.55; 95% CI −1.59 to 0.49). The intervention did not reduce caregiver burden or their health related quality of life. Conclusion This study did not demonstrate preventive effects of family meetings on the mental health of family caregivers. Further research should determine whether this

  7. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Jakob L; Bech, Rune D; Nygaard, Tobias; Sahlin, Kent; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1, n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ∼56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level; nevertheless, the gene expression was not different between groups. Glycogen and most gene expression levels returned to baseline by 24 h in both CHO and H2O. Baseline mRNA expression of NRF-1, COX-IV, GLUT4 and PPAR-α gene targets were higher in trained compared to untrained. Additionally, the proportion of type I muscle fibers positively correlated with baseline mRNA for PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, COX-IV, PPAR-α, and GLUT4 for both trained and untrained. CHO restriction during recovery from glycogen depleting exercise does not improve the mRNA response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, baseline gene expression of key metabolic pathways is higher in trained than untrained. PMID:25677542

  8. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans: insight from right atrial pacing during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R; Secher, N H; González-Alonso, J; Mortensen, S P

    2014-01-15

    In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax) and remained unchanged until exhaustion. SV initially increased, plateaued and then decreased before exhaustion (P < 0.05) despite an increase in right atrial pressure (RAP) and a tendency (P = 0.056) for a reduction in left ventricular transmural filling pressure (LVFP). Atrial pacing increased HRmax from 184 ± 2 to 206 ± 3 beats min(-1) (P < 0.05), but Q remained similar to the control condition at all intensities because of a lower SV and LVFP (P < 0.05). No differences in arterial pressure, peripheral haemodynamics, catecholamines or VO2 were observed, but pacing increased the rate pressure product and RAP (P < 0.05). Atrial pacing had a similar effect on haemodynamics during KEE, except that pacing decreased RAP. In conclusion, the human heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit VO2 max in healthy individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict Q close to VO2 max .

  9. Subcellular fractionation reveals HSP72 does not associate with SERCA in human skeletal muscle following damaging eccentric and concentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Noni T; Lamb, Graham D; Vissing, Kristian; Murphy, Robyn M

    2014-06-01

    Through its upregulation and/or translocation, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is involved in protection and repair of key proteins after physiological stress. In human skeletal muscle we investigated HSP72 protein after eccentric (ECC1) and concentric (CONC) exercise and repeated eccentric exercise (ECC2; 8 wk later) and whether it translocated from its normal cytosolic location to membranes/myofibrils. HSP72 protein increased ~2-fold 24 h after ECC1, with no apparent change after CONC or ECC2. In resting (nonstressed) human skeletal muscle the total pool of HSP72 protein was present almost exclusively in the cytosolic fraction, and after each exercise protocol the distribution of HSP72 protein remained unaltered. Overall, the amount of HSP72 protein in the cytosol increased 24 h after ECC1, matching the fold increase that was measured in total HSP72 protein. To better ascertain the capabilities and limitations of HSP72, using quantitative Western blotting we determined the HSP72 protein content to be 11.4 μmol/kg wet weight in resting human vastus lateralis muscle, which is comprised of Type I (slow-twitch) and Type II (fast-twitch) fibers. HSP72 protein content was similar in individual Type I or II fiber segments. After physiological stress, HSP72 content can increase and, although the functional consequences of increased amounts of HSP72 protein are poorly understood, it has been shown to bind to and protect protein pumps like SERCA and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Given no translocation of cytosolic HSP72, these findings suggest eccentric contractions, unlike other forms of stress such as heat, do not trigger tight binding of HSP72 to its primary membrane-bound target proteins, in particular SERCA. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. High-sweat Na+ in cystic fibrosis and healthy individuals does not diminish thirst during exercise in the heat

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, N. A.; Millard-Stafford, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sweat Na+ concentration ([Na+]) varies greatly among individuals and is particularly high in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of this study was to determine whether excess sweat [Na+] differentially impacts thirst drive and other physiological responses during progressive dehydration via exercise in the heat. Healthy subjects with high-sweat [Na+] (SS) (91.0 ± 17.3 mmol/l), Controls with average sweat [Na+] (43.7 ± 9.9 mmol/l), and physically active CF patients with very high sweat [Na+] (132.6 ± 6.4 mmol/l) cycled in the heat without drinking until 3% dehydration. Serum osmolality increased less (P < 0.05) in CF (6.1 ± 4.3 mosmol/kgH2O) and SS (8.4 ± 3.0 mosmol/kgH2O) compared with Control (14.8 ± 3.5 mosmol/kgH2O). Relative change in plasma volume was greater (P < 0.05) in CF (−19.3 ± 4.5%) and SS (−18.8 ± 3.1%) compared with Control (−14.3 ± 2.3%). Thirst during exercise and changes in plasma levels of vasopressin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone relative to percent dehydration were not different among groups. However, ad libitum fluid replacement was 40% less, and serum NaCl concentration was lower for CF compared with SS and Control during recovery. Despite large variability in sweat electrolyte loss, thirst appears to be appropriately maintained during exercise in the heat as a linear function of dehydration, with relative contributions from hyperosmotic and hypovolemic stimuli dependent upon the magnitude of salt lost in sweat. CF exhibit lower ad libitum fluid restoration following dehydration, which may reflect physiological cues directed at preservation of salt balance over volume restoration. PMID:21813870

  11. Exercise-induced AMPK activation does not interfere with muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training in men.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A

    2014-03-15

    As aerobic exercise (AE) may interfere with adaptations to resistance exercise (RE), this study explored acute and chronic responses to consecutive AE (∼45 min cycling) and RE (4 × 7 maximal knee extensions) vs. RE only. Ten men performed acute unilateral AE + RE interspersed by 15 min recovery. The contralateral leg was subjected to RE. This exercise paradigm was then implemented in a 5-wk training program. Protein phosphorylation, gene expression, and glycogen content were assessed in biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both legs immediately before and 3 h after acute RE. Quadriceps muscle size and in vivo torque were measured, and muscle samples were analyzed for citrate synthase activity and glycogen concentration, before and after training. Acute AE reduced glycogen content (32%; P < 0.05) and increased (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of AMPK (1.5-fold) and rpS6 (1.3-fold). Phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1 remained unchanged. Myostatin gene expression was downregulated after acute AE + RE but not RE. Muscle size showed greater (P < 0.05) increase after AE + RE (6%) than RE (3%) training. Citrate synthase activity (18%) and endurance performance (22%) increased (P < 0.05) after AE + RE but not RE. While training increased (P < 0.05) in vivo muscle strength in both legs, normalized and concentric torque increased after RE only. Thus AE activates AMPK, reduces glycogen stores, and impairs the progression of concentric force, yet muscle hypertrophic responses to chronic RE training appear not to be compromised.

  12. High-sweat Na+ in cystic fibrosis and healthy individuals does not diminish thirst during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; McCarty, N A; Millard-Stafford, M

    2011-10-01

    Sweat Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) varies greatly among individuals and is particularly high in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of this study was to determine whether excess sweat [Na(+)] differentially impacts thirst drive and other physiological responses during progressive dehydration via exercise in the heat. Healthy subjects with high-sweat [Na(+)] (SS) (91.0 ± 17.3 mmol/l), Controls with average sweat [Na(+)] (43.7 ± 9.9 mmol/l), and physically active CF patients with very high sweat [Na(+)] (132.6 ± 6.4 mmol/l) cycled in the heat without drinking until 3% dehydration. Serum osmolality increased less (P < 0.05) in CF (6.1 ± 4.3 mosmol/kgH(2)O) and SS (8.4 ± 3.0 mosmol/kgH(2)O) compared with Control (14.8 ± 3.5 mosmol/kgH(2)O). Relative change in plasma volume was greater (P < 0.05) in CF (-19.3 ± 4.5%) and SS (-18.8 ± 3.1%) compared with Control (-14.3 ± 2.3%). Thirst during exercise and changes in plasma levels of vasopressin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone relative to percent dehydration were not different among groups. However, ad libitum fluid replacement was 40% less, and serum NaCl concentration was lower for CF compared with SS and Control during recovery. Despite large variability in sweat electrolyte loss, thirst appears to be appropriately maintained during exercise in the heat as a linear function of dehydration, with relative contributions from hyperosmotic and hypovolemic stimuli dependent upon the magnitude of salt lost in sweat. CF exhibit lower ad libitum fluid restoration following dehydration, which may reflect physiological cues directed at preservation of salt balance over volume restoration.

  13. Does Whole-Body Vibration Improve the Functional Exercise Capacity of Subjects With COPD? A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardim, Adriane B; Marinho, Patrícia Em; Nascimento, Jasiel F; Fuzari, Helen Kb; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle

    2016-11-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is considered a type of physical activity based on the assumption that it results in an increase in muscle strength and performance and, therefore, may be a promising way to exercise patients with COPD. A comprehensive database search (PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and COCHRANE Library) for randomized trials, including original articles, that compared WBV groups versus control groups was conducted and studies were selected for comparison. The effect of WBV treatment was compared for minimum clinically important differences. The statistical heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I(2) statistic; the results are expressed as percentages. Inconsistencies of up to 25% were considered low, those between 50 and 75% were considerate moderate, and those > 75% were considered high. Risk of bias was classified based on the Cochrane Collaboration tool, the meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software, and the level of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. The primary outcome was functional exercise capacity. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, performance in activities of daily living, muscle strength of the lower limbs, and possible adverse effects assessed clinically or by subject reports. We included 4 articles involving 185 subjects for analysis. All subjects in the groups undergoing WBV showed improvement in distance walked in the 6-min walk test compared with the control group (57.85 m, 95% CI 16.36-99.33 m). Regarding the secondary end points, just one article reported improved quality of life and activities of daily living. The only article that assessed muscle strength found no difference between the groups. The quality of evidence for functional exercise capacity outcome was considered moderate. WBV seems to benefit subjects with COPD by improving their functional exercise capacity, without producing adverse effects. The quality of evidence is moderate, but the degree of

  14. Does targeting manual therapy and/or exercise improve patient outcomes in nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A central element in the current debate about best practice management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is the efficacy of targeted versus generic (non-targeted) treatment. Many clinicians and researchers believe that tailoring treatment to NSLBP subgroups positively impacts on patient outcomes. Despite this, there are no systematic reviews comparing the efficacy of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise. This systematic review was undertaken in order to determine the efficacy of such targeted treatment in adults with NSLBP. Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents, AMED and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were electronically searched, reference lists were examined and citation tracking performed. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of targeted manual therapy and/or exercise for NSLPB that used trial designs capable of providing robust information on targeted treatment (treatment effect modification) for the outcomes of activity limitation and pain. Included trials needed to be hypothesis-testing studies published in English, Danish or Norwegian. Method quality was assessed using the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Results Four high-quality randomized controlled trials of targeted manual therapy and/or exercise for NSLBP met the inclusion criteria. One study showed statistically significant effects for short-term outcomes using McKenzie directional preference-based exercise. Research into subgroups requires much larger sample sizes than traditional two-group trials and other included studies showed effects that might be clinically important in size but were not statistically significant with their samples sizes. Conclusions The clinical implications of these results are that they provide very cautious evidence supporting the notion that treatment targeted to subgroups of patients with NSLBP may improve patient outcomes. The results of the studies included in this review

  15. 76 FR 78673 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... burden for the TSA Exercise Information System (EXIS). EXIS is a web portal designed to serve... security exercise support, from the initial planning meeting, through exercise design, implementation...

  16. Leg compressions improve ventilatory efficiency while reducing peak and post exercise blood lactate, but does not improve perceived exertion, exercise economy or aerobic exercise capacity in endurance-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Eric; Smith, John D; Sherman, Nestor W

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if leg compressions would alter cardiorespiratory and perceived exertion measures during rest, submaximal and maximal exercise in endurance-trained runners. Thirteen young, endurance trained runners (10 males, 20.9±3y, 58.9±5.7mlkgmin(-1)) completed a randomized design, leg compressions and non-compression control condition. The incremental graded exercise test consisted of baseline rest and submaximal intensities at 23%, 70%, 75%, 85% and then a progressive increase to 100% VO2max. Running economy (RE), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), breathing rate (BR), heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), blood lactate, VO2max and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VO2) were the primary outcome variables. Relative to the control condition, VO2 at rest, during submaximal and at max were not different. Additionally, RE, RPE, BR, and HR were similar under both conditions. Leg compressions reduced lactate at VO2max by 11% (P<0.05) and at 10min post-exercise recovery by 18% (P<0.01). Additionally, peak VE was significantly reduced in the compression condition by 8% (P<0.0001) relative to the control condition. Ventilatory efficiency was improved in compressions compared to control condition at 85 and 100% VO2max (condition×time interaction, P<0.0001). These data suggest that leg compressions do not alter RE, RPE, BR, HR, or VO2, during exercise. However, compressions may be beneficial for submaximal and maximal ventilatory efficiency while improving lactate clearance at VO2max and during recovery in trained runners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Does PGC1α/FNDC5/BDNF Elicit the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed

    Jodeiri Farshbaf, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Megraw, Timothy L; Curtiss, Jennifer; Shirani Faradonbeh, Mahsa; Vaziri, Pooneh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have high prevalence among the elderly. Many strategies have been established to alleviate the symptoms experienced by affected individuals. Recent studies have shown that exercise helps patients with neurological disorders to regain lost physical abilities. PGC1α/FNDC5/BDNF has emerged recently as a critical pathway for neuroprotection. PGC1α is a highly conserved co-activator of transcription factors that preserves and protects neurons against destruction. PGC1α regulates FNDC5 and its processed and secreted peptide Irisin, which has been proposed to play a critical role in energy expenditure and to promote neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. FNDC5 may also increase the expression of the neurotrophic factor BDNF, a neuroprotective agent, in the hippocampus. BDNF is secreted from hippocampus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and hypothalamus neurons and initiates intracellular signaling pathways through TrkB receptors. These pathways have positive feedback on CREB activities and lead to enhancement in PGC1α expression in neurons. Therefore, FNDC5 could behave as a key regulator in neuronal survival and development. This review presents recent findings on the PGC1α/FNDC5/BDNF pathway and its role in neuroprotection, and discusses the controversial promise of irisin as a mediator of the positive benefits of exercise.

  18. Exercise training reveals trade-offs between endurance performance and immune function, but does not influence growth, in juvenile lizards.

    PubMed

    Husak, Jerry F; Roy, Jordan C; Lovern, Matthew B

    2017-04-15

    Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success. We manipulated allocation of resources to performance, via endurance exercise training, to examine trade-offs among endurance capacity, immune function and growth in juvenile green anole lizards. We trained male and female captive anoles on a treadmill for 8 weeks, with increasing intensity, and compared traits with those of untrained individuals. Our results show that training enhanced endurance capacity equally in both sexes, but immune function was suppressed only in females. Training had no effect on growth, but males had higher growth rates than females. Previous work showed that trained adults have enhanced growth, so juvenile growth is either insensitive to stimulation with exercise, or they are already growing at maximal rates. Our results add to a growing body of literature indicating that locomotor performance is an important part of life-history trade-offs that are sex and age specific. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Does composition medium affect the psychometric properties of scores on an exercise designed to assess written medical communication skills?

    PubMed

    Boulet, John R; McKinley, Danette W; Rebbecchi, Thomas; Whelan, Gerald P

    2007-05-01

    The ECFMG Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The performance-based patient note exercise is specifically used to assess an examinee's ability to summarize, synthesize and interpret the data collected in a patient interview. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether choice of composition method (typing or writing) affected the psychometric properties of the scores. Using data for a 1-year period, the validity and reliability of typed and written notes was contrasted. Although the characteristics of individuals who chose whether or not to type were different, the statistical analyses indicated that, controlling for examinee ability, physician examiner ratings of the written summaries were not influenced by composition method. The results of this study suggest that the psychometric properties of the patient note scores are invariant with respect to composition method.

  20. Does skeletal muscle have an 'epi'-memory? The role of epigenetics in nutritional programming, metabolic disease, aging and exercise.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire E; Seaborne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass, quality and adaptability are fundamental in promoting muscle performance, maintaining metabolic function and supporting longevity and healthspan. Skeletal muscle is programmable and can 'remember' early-life metabolic stimuli affecting its function in adult life. In this review, the authors pose the question as to whether skeletal muscle has an 'epi'-memory? Following an initial encounter with an environmental stimulus, we discuss the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms enabling skeletal muscle to adapt, should it re-encounter the stimulus in later life. We also define skeletal muscle memory and outline the scientific literature contributing to this field. Furthermore, we review the evidence for early-life nutrient stress and low birth weight in animals and human cohort studies, respectively, and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms culminating in skeletal muscle dysfunction, metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass across the lifespan. We also summarize and discuss studies that isolate muscle stem cells from different environmental niches in vivo (physically active, diabetic, cachectic, aged) and how they reportedly remember this environment once isolated in vitro. Finally, we will outline the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle memory and review the epigenetic regulation of exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptation, highlighting exercise interventions as suitable models to investigate skeletal muscle memory in humans. We believe that understanding the 'epi'-memory of skeletal muscle will enable the next generation of targeted therapies to promote muscle growth and reduce muscle loss to enable healthy aging. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Chair-sitting exercise intervention does not improve respiratory muscle function in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Yu; Chang, Li-Yin; Huang, Yi-Chia; Lin, Kuei-Man; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang

    2011-10-01

    Chair-sitting may allow for more readily activated scalene, sternocleidomastoid, and parasternal intercostal muscles, and may raise and enlarge the upper thoracic cage, thereby allowing the thoracic cage to be more easily compressed. To evaluate the effect of chair-sitting during exercise training on respiratory muscle function in mechanically ventilated patients. We randomized 16 patients to a control group and 18 patients to a chair-sitting group. The patients in the chair-sitting group were transferred by 2 intensive care unit nurses from bed to armchair and rested for at least 30 min, based on the individual patient's tolerance. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, S(pO(2)), and respiratory rate. In the treatment group, before transferring the patient from bed to armchair, and 30 min after the completion of chair-sitting we measured respiratory muscle function variables, including the ratio of respiratory rate (f) to tidal volume (V(T)), S(pO(2)), maximum inspiratory pressure (P(Imax)) and maximum expiratory pressure (P(Emax)). In the control patients we took those same measurements while the patient was in semirecumbent position, before and after treatments, for at least 6 days or until the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit or died. The 2 groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, or clinical outcomes. Respiratory rate, V(T), f/V(T), S(pO(2)), P(Imax), and P(Emax) were not significantly better in the chair-sitting group. The study period significantly improved respiratory rate, V(T), P(Imax), and P(Emax) (all P < .001), but not f/V(T). Six days of chair-sitting exercise training did not significantly improve respiratory muscle function in mechanically ventilated patients.

  2. Seven days of oral taurine supplementation does not increase muscle taurine content or alter substrate metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Stuart D R; Talanian, Jason L; Shoveller, Anna K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2008-08-01

    This study examined 1) the plasma taurine response to acute oral taurine supplementation (T), and 2) the effects of 7 days of T on muscle amino acid content and substrate metabolism during 2 h of cycling at approximately 60% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). In the first part of the study, after an overnight fast, 7 volunteers (28+/-3 yr, 184+/-2 cm, 88.0+/-6.6 kg) ingested 1.66 g oral taurine doses with breakfast (8 AM) and lunch (12 noon), and blood samples were taken throughout the day. In the second part of the study, eight men (22+/-1 yr, 181+/-1 cm, 80.9+/-3.8 kg, 4.21+/-0.16 l/min VO2peak) cycled for 2 h after 7 days of placebo (P) ingestion (6 g glucose/day) and again following 7 days of T (5 g/day). In the first part of the study, plasma taurine was 64+/-4 microM before T and rose rapidly to 778+/-139 microM by 10 AM and remained elevated at noon (359+/-56 microM). Plasma taurine reached 973+/-181 microM at 1 PM and was 161+/-31 microM at 4 PM. In the second part of the study, seven days of T had no effect on muscle taurine content (mmol/kg dry muscle) at rest (P, 44+/-15 vs. T, 42+/-15) or after exercise (P, 43+/-12 vs. T, 43+/-11). There was no difference in muscle glycogen or other muscle metabolites between conditions, but there were notable interaction effects for muscle valine, isoleucine, leucine, cystine, glutamate, alanine, and arginine amino acid content following exercise after T. These data indicate that 1) acute T produces a 13-fold increase in plasma taurine concentration; 2) despite the ability to significantly elevate plasma taurine for extended periods throughout the day, 7 days of T does not alter skeletal muscle taurine content or carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise; and 3) T appears to have some impact on muscle amino acid response to exercise.

  3. Underserved patients' perspectives on patient-centered primary care: does the patient-centered medical home model meet their needs?

    PubMed

    Mead, Holly; Andres, Ellie; Regenstein, Marsha

    2014-02-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has gained significant interest as a delivery system model that can improve health care quality while reducing costs. This study uses focus groups to investigate underserved, chronically ill patients' preferences for care and develops a patient-centered framework of priorities. Seven major priorities were identified: (a) communication and partnership, (b) affordable care, (c) coordinated care, (d) personal responsibility, (e) accessible care, (f) education and support resources, and (g) the essential role of nonphysician providers in supporting their care. Using the framework, we analyzed the PCMH joint principals as developed by U.S. medical societies to identify where the PCMH model could be improved to better meet the needs of these patients. Four of the seven patient priorities were identified as not present in or supported by current PCMH joint principles. The study discusses how the PCMH model can better address the needs of low-income, disadvantaged patients.

  4. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. Mild Dehydration Does Not Influence Performance Or Skeletal Muscle Metabolism During Simulated Ice Hockey Exercise In Men.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Matthew S; Heigenhauser, George J F; Duong, MyLinh; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2017-04-01

    This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 × 45-s cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 s of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, immediately before and after P3. Subjects were mildly dehydrated (-1.8% BM) at the end of P3 in the NF trial. There were no differences between the NF and WATER trials for glycogen use (P1+P2; 350.1 ± 31.9 vs. 413.2 ± 33.2, P3; 103.5 ± 16.2 vs. 131.5 ± 18.9 mmol·kg dm(-1)), core temperature (P1; 37.8 ± 0.1 vs. 37.7 ± 0.1, P2; 38.2 ± 0.1 vs. 38.1 ± 0.1, P3; 38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 38.2 ± 0.1 °C) or performance (P1; 156.3 ± 7.8 vs. 154.4 ± 8.2, P2; 150.5 ± 7.8 vs. 152.4 ± 8.3, P3; 144.1 ± 8.7 vs. 148.4 ± 8.7 kJ). This study demonstrated that typical dehydration experienced by ice hockey players (~1.8% BM loss), did not affect glycogen use, core temperature, or voluntary performance vs. staying hydrated by ingesting water during a cycle-based simulation of ice hockey exercise in a laboratory environment.

  6. A single bout of resistance exercise does not affect nonlinear dynamics of lower extremity kinematics during treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Nessler, Jeff A; Huynh, Hal; McDougal, Mary

    2011-06-01

    Peripheral fatigue has been known to result in altered force output and muscle recruitment patterns by the CNS. These changes may affect lower extremity movement during gait, and such behavior may present implications for the interpretation of nonlinear analysis of gait in situations where a subject might become fatigued. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single bout of resistance training on lower extremity movement during treadmill walking in healthy subjects. Fifteen recreationally active subjects performed two 10min trials of treadmill walking at their preferred speed while knee and ankle kinematics of their right limb were recorded via optical motion capture. Between walking trials, subjects performed a series of lower extremity resistance exercises designed to induce moderate muscular fatigue. Detrended fluctuation analysis of stride length and stride time revealed that statistical persistence was unaffected by moderate muscle fatigue. Estimates of finite-time maximal Lyapunov exponents for ankle angle, knee angle, and vertical ankle movement over the short (0-1 stride) and long (4-10 strides) term were also unaffected by a single bout of resistance training. These results suggest that control of locomotion in healthy individuals, as measured by the nonlinear dynamics of lower extremity movement used here, is relatively robust to moderate muscle fatigue. Additional work with greater levels of fatigue will be necessary to fully characterize the effects of muscular fatigue on gait.

  7. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-02-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE.

  8. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed Central

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night’s sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660

  9. How does an online patient-nurse communication service meet the information needs of men with recently diagnosed testicular cancer?

    PubMed

    Wibe, Torunn; Hellesø, Ragnhild; Varsi, Cecilie; Ruland, Cornelia; Ekstedt, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    Online communication has become a potential means of communication between patients and health care providers, but so far few studies are published about online communication as part of nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore how an online patient-nurse communication (OPNC) service meets the information needs of men with newly diagnosed testicular cancer. We applied a qualitative approach by examining the content of online messages sent by patients to nurses in a specialist cancer unit. In addition, individual interviews were conducted with patients who had used the OPNC service. Four themes became distinct through a synthesis of the material from the interviews and the messages: "a means for managing illness-related concerns at home," "a means for ensuring information flow," "a means for strategic information seeking," and "not yet available when needed most." Individualized information provided by nurses with access to their medical record was shown to be important to these patients. The findings of this study indicate that not only may access to an OPNC service help patients fulfill their otherwise unmet information needs, but also it may prevent delays and discontinuity in care due to informational gaps and lead to improved patient safety.

  10. The exercise-induced myokine irisin does not show an association with depressiveness, anxiety and perceived stress in obese women.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, T; Elbelt, U; Ahnis, A; Obbarius, A; Rose, M; Klapp, B F; Stengel, A

    2016-04-01

    Irisin has recently been proposed to act as a myokine secreted from skeletal muscle following exercise and to exert several health-beneficial effects, although its role is far from being established. In contrast to the growing body of literature on the biological regulation and function of irisin, there is no evidence on potential associations with mental functions. Since physical activity has been reported to have favorable impact on mental functions, we investigated the association of irisin with depressiveness, perceived stress, and anxiety as well as eating disorder symptoms in obese women. We included 98 female obese inpatients (age: mean ± S.D. 43.9 ± 12.5 years; body mass index 49.2 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)) covering a broad spectrum of psychopathology. Depressiveness (PHQ-9), perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and eating disorder symptoms (EDI-2) were assessed psychometrically. Plasma irisin obtained at the same time was determined by ELISA. Irisin did not correlate with depressiveness (r = -0.03, P = 0.80), anxiety (r = 0.14, P = 0.17) and perceived stress (r = -0.14, P = 0.18) as well as eating disorder symptoms in general (r = -0.09, P = 0.39). No correlation of irisin was observed with any subscales of the PSQ-20 and EDI-2 (after Bonferroni correction). In conclusion, irisin is not associated with depressiveness, anxiety and perceived stress in female obese patients. These results do not support the assumption of irisin being involved in psychoendocrine pathways of the regulation of depression or other mental functions such as anxiety and perceived stress.

  11. Physical exercise retards the development of chronic nephropathy in the ageing rat as efficiently as food restriction does.

    PubMed

    Loupal, Gerhard; Url, Angelika; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    Obesity combined with decreasing physical fitness in the ageing Western populations promotes a number of degenerative diseases, including chronic kidney disease. It has further been shown in rodent models that prevention of obesity by food restriction mitigates development of kidney lesions. Whether lifelong physical activity also has a positive effect is not known. To compare the effects of physical exercise and food restriction on the development of chronic kidney lesions in ageing rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups: voluntarily running in wheels (RW), food restriction to the degree necessary to attain pair weight to RW rats (PW), forced running in treadmills (TM) and sedentary controls housed individually (S1) or 4 in each cage (S4). The interventions began at the age of 5 months and kidneys were sampled and analysed histologically at the ages of 15, 19 and 23 months. Total score for kidney lesions (sum of the scores for glomerular changes, interstitial non-purulent inflammation, proteinaceous casts in tubules and increased amount of connective tissue, the possible maximum being 10.0) increased from 0.5 +/- 0.2 at 5 months of age to 1.6 +/- 0.3 for RW, 2.3 +/- 0.4 for PW, 4.5 +/- 0.4 for TM, 3.6 +/- 0.5 for S1 and 5.4 +/- 0.6 for S4 at the age of 23 months. The increase from 5 months of age was gradual for all groups through 15, 19 and 23 months. The patterns for the various lesions followed the same pattern with the exception of connective tissue, which did not increase. Voluntary running in wheels is as effective in mitigating kidney lesions as is food restriction, while forced running in a treadmill is not effective in this respect. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (χ(2) = 7.447, P < 0.059) and serving in the same utensils (χ(2) = 10.866, P < 0.012), were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (χ(2) = 13.266, P < 0.004), not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (χ(2) = 21.133, P < 0.00) and called with filthy nicknames (χ(2) = 8.334, P < 0.040), were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (χ(2) = 9.459, P < 0.024), were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (χ(2) = 9.823, P < 0.044). The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness.

  13. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (χ2 = 7.447, P < 0.059) and serving in the same utensils (χ2 = 10.866, P < 0.012), were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (χ2 = 13.266, P < 0.004), not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (χ2 = 21.133, P < 0.00) and called with filthy nicknames (χ2 = 8.334, P < 0.040), were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (χ2 = 9.459, P < 0.024), were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (χ2 = 9.823, P < 0.044). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness. PMID:26167021

  14. Building America Case Study: Meeting DOE Challenge Home Program Certification, Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate integrated packages of advanced measures in individual test homes to assess their performance with respect to Building America Program goals, specifically compliance with the DOE Challenge Home Program. BSC consulted on the construction of five test houses by three Cold Climate production builders in three separate US cities. BSC worked with the builders to develop a design package tailored to the cost-related impacts for each builder. Therefore, the resulting design packages do vary from builder to builder. BSC provided support through this research project on the design, construction and performance testing of the five test homes. Overall, the builders have concluded that the energy related upgrades (either through the prescriptive or performance path) represent reasonable upgrades. The builders commented that while not every improvement in specification was cost effective (as in a reasonable payback period), many were improvements that could improve the marketability of the homes and serve to attract more energy efficiency discerning prospective homeowners. However, the builders did express reservations on the associated checklists and added certifications. An increase in administrative time was observed with all builders. The checklists and certifications also inherently increase cost due to: 1. Adding services to the scope of work for various trades, such as HERS Rater, HVAC contractor. 2. Increased material costs related to the checklists, especially the EPA Indoor airPLUS and EPA WaterSense Efficient Hot Water Distribution requirement.

  15. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  16. Ecologically Valid Carbohydrate Intake during Soccer-Specific Exercise Does Not Affect Running Performance in a Fed State.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Mark P; Dykes, Nick R; Owen, Elliot J; Mears, Stephen A; Rollo, Ian; James, Lewis J

    2017-01-05

    This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg(-1)∙min(-1); soccer experience 13 ± 4 years) completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min) of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA) before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202). Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122) was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297) or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172) for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001) at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state.

  17. Transcranial Doppler-determined change in posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity does not reflect vertebral artery blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Washio, Takuro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2017-02-10

    We examined whether a change in posterior cerebral artery flow velocity (PCAv) reflected the posterior cerebral blood flow, in healthy subjects, during both static and dynamic exercise. PCAv and vertebral artery (VA) blood flow, as an index of posterior blood flow, were continuously measured during an exercise trial, using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Static handgrip exercise significantly increased both PCAv and VA blood flow. Increasing intensity of dynamic exercise further increased VA blood flow from moderate exercise, while PCAv decreased to almost resting level. During both static and dynamic exercise, the PCA cerebrovascular conductance (CVC) index significantly decreased from rest (static and high intensity dynamic exercise; -11.5 ± 12.2% and -18.0 ± 16.8%; mean ± SD, respectively), despite no change in the CVC of VA. These results indicate that vasoconstriction occurred at PCA but not VA during exercise-induced hypertension. This discrepancy in vascular response to exercise between PCA and VA may be due to different cerebral arterial characteristics. Therefore, to determine the effect of exercise on posterior cerebral circulation, at least, we need to consider carefully which cerebral artery to measure, regardless of exercise mode.

  18. Ecologically Valid Carbohydrate Intake during Soccer-Specific Exercise Does Not Affect Running Performance in a Fed State

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Mark P.; Dykes, Nick R.; Owen, Elliot J.; Mears, Stephen A.; Rollo, Ian; James, Lewis J.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg−1∙min−1; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years) completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min) of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA) before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202). Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122) was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297) or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172) for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001) at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state. PMID:28067762

  19. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  20. Muscular contraction frequency does not affect plasma homocysteine concentration in response to energy expenditure and intensity matched acute exercise in sedentary males.

    PubMed

    Úbeda, Natalia; Carson, Brian P; García-González, Ángela; Aguilar-Ros, Antonio; Díaz-Martínez, Ángel Enrique; Venta, Rafael; Terrados, Nicolás; O Gorman, Donal J; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2017-09-14

    Acute exercise seems to increase total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). That is related to cardiovascular risk, therefore it is important to understand the determinants of its response to all types of exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cycling at two different rates of muscle contraction on the complete tHcy kinetics. Eight young sedentary males were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal) acute exercise trials at 50% VO2peak on separate occasions at 50 or 80 revolutions per minute (rpm). Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h), during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min), and after exercise (post0 and post19 h). Dietary and lifestyle factors were controlled during the research. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, for both conditions (50 rpm: 11.4 ± 2.7 µmol/L; 80 rpm: 10.8 ± 3.2 µmol/L). From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending below pre exercise values at 19h post exercise (p<0.05). No hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point in both trials. In conclusion, the different muscular contraction frequency during exercise has no impact on tHcy during an acute bout of exercise in sedentary individuals, when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B12, and B6 is adequate. This information is relevant to further inform healthy exercise prescription, not only in terms of duration and intensity of exercise, but also taking into account frequency of contraction.

  1. Exercise in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vigorous exercise pregnancy were used. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: With proper attention to risk stratification and surveillance, exercise is safe for the mother and fetus. Benefits of exercise in pregnancy include reduction in Cesarean section rates, appropriate maternal and fetal weight gain, and managing gestational diabetes. Exercise as a means of preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression cannot be reliably supported. Overall, the current evidence suffers from a lack of rigorous study design and compliance with physical activity interventions. Conclusion: Research thus far has been unable to consistently demonstrate proposed benefits of exercise in pregnancy, such as preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression. However, moderate- and high-intensity exercise in normal pregnancies is safe for the developing fetus and clearly has several important benefits. Thus, exercise should be encouraged according to the woman’s preconception physical activity level. PMID:26502446

  2. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; Rooyackers, Olav; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids (EAAs). Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied EAAs with leucine, EAAs without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAAs and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.

  3. Does risk for major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing vasodilator stress with adjunctive exercise differ from patients undergoing either standard exercise or vasodilator stress with myocardial perfusion imaging?

    PubMed

    Nair, Sanjeev U; Ahlberg, Alan W; Katten, Deborah M; Heller, Gary V

    2015-02-01

    In patients with functional limitations, the use of adjunctive exercise with vasodilator stress has advantages over vasodilator stress alone in single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for technical reasons and with regards to more effective cardiac risk stratification. Whether patients who undergo vasodilator with adjunctive exercise stress MPI possess clinical characteristics and cardiac risk that differs from those who undergo standard exercise or vasodilator stress MPI is unknown. Prospectively collected data on 19,367 consecutive patients referred for stress MPI to a tertiary care center (9,331 [48%] underwent exercise-only, 3,793 [20%] underwent vasodilator plus exercise, and 6,243 [32%] underwent vasodilator-only) were analyzed. Perfusion data were scored using the ASNC 17-segment with a summed stress score (SSS) < 4 = normal, 4-8 = mildly abnormal, and > 8 = moderate to severely abnormal. Patients were followed a mean of 1.96 ± 0.95 years. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction) were compared between the three stress modality groups. Comparison of demographics and clinical characteristics revealed significant differences in gender, age, cardiac risk factors, and stress MPI between the three stress modality groups (P < .001). In follow-up, cardiac event-free survival of patients in the vasodilator plus exercise stress group was significantly higher than those in the vasodilator-only group but lower than those in the exercise-only group (P < .001). Annualized cardiac event rates of patients in the vasodilator plus exercise stress group were significantly lower than those in the vasodilator-only group for all three categories of the SSS (P < .001). After multivariable adjustment, with exercise-only as reference category, vasodilator plus exercise and vasodilator-only stress emerged as independent predictors (more likely

  4. Does action follow intention with participation in home and group-based falls prevention exercise programs? An exploratory, prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Haines, Terry P; Hill, Keith D; Vu, Trang; Clemson, Lindy; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Exercise for falls prevention is effective but of limited uptake in real life. The link between intention and behavior is central to many health-behavior models, but has not been examined in the falls prevention exercise context. This study examines this relationship and prospectively identifies factors associated with participation in group and home-based falls prevention exercise. This was an observational study of community-dwelling adults in Australia >70 years of age with a 12 month follow-up (n=394 commenced baseline assessment, n=247 commenced follow-up). Intention, and other potential predictive factors examined, were measured at baseline while participation was measured using self-report at 12 month follow-up. Between 65% and 72% of our sample at baseline agreed or strongly agreed they would participate in the falls prevention exercise programs. n=27 respondents participated in home-based exercise during follow-up and had intention to do so while n=29 who participated did not have intention. In contrast, n=43 respondents participated in group exercise and had intention to do so compared to 11 who participated but did not intend to at baseline. Perception of personal effectiveness and previous exposure to the exercise intervention were most strongly predictive of future participation. More people who do not want to participate in home exercise actually participate in home exercise than people who do not want to participate in group exercise that actually do. It may be easier to convince people who do not want to participate in falls prevention exercise to participate in a home program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does rating of perceived exertion result in target exercise intensity during interval training in cardiac rehabilitation? A study of the Borg scale versus a heart rate monitor.

    PubMed

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Forbord, Siv Hege; Karlsen, Trine; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2014-09-01

    To assess whether rating of perceived exertion using the Borg 6-20 scale is a valid method for achieving target exercise intensity during high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. A single-group cross-over design. Ten participants (56 (6.5) years) who were enrolled in a high-intensity interval training cardiac rehabilitation program were recruited. A target exercise intensity of Borg 17 (very hard) was used for exercise intensity guidance in the initial four exercise sessions that took place before a cardiopulmonary exercise test, as in usual care rehabilitation. The heart rate was recorded and blinded to the participants. After performing the test, the participants were then instructed using heart rate monitors openly for exercise guidance in four subsequent exercise sessions, at an intensity corresponding to 85-95% of peak heart rate. The mean exercise intensity during high-intensity bouts was 82% (6%) of peak heart rate for the rating of perceived exertion and 85% (6%) using heart rate monitors (p=0.005). Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis with a mean bias showed a bias of 2.97 (-2.08, 8.02) percentage points for the two methods. Exercise intensity was highly repeatable with intra-class correlations of 0.95 (95% CI 0.86-0.99, p<0.001) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-0.99, p<0.001) in the exercise sessions using rating of perceived exertion and percentage of peak heart rate for intensity control, respectively. Rating of perceived exertion results in an exercise intensity below target during high-intensity interval training bouts in cardiac rehabilitation. Heart rate monitoring should be used for accurate intensity guidance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treadmill exercise enhances synaptic plasticity, but does not alter β-amyloid deposition in hippocampi of aged APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Liu, H L; Zhang, H; Tong, X J

    2015-07-09

    Several studies reveal that the beneficial effects of exercise interventions are dependent on the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that long-term treadmill exercise begun before the onset of β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology prevents the deficits of cognition and long-term potentiation (LTP) in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice (8 months of age) paralleled by the reduction of soluble Aβ levels and Aβ deposition in the hippocampus. In the present study, treadmill exercise was initiated at a developed Aβ deposition stage in order to further investigate whether or not treadmill exercise in this phase can delay the progression of AD in aged APP/PS1 mice (17 months of age). Our results show that 5-month treadmill exercise ameliorates the impairment of spatial learning and memory with age paralleled by synaptic plasticity enhancement in aged APP/PS1 mice. In addition, exercise-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity was accompanied by a significant reduction of soluble Aβ levels rather than Aβ plaque deposition. Therefore, the investigation demonstrates that long-term treadmill exercise has beneficial effects on cognition and synaptic plasticity even when the brain has developed Aβ deposition, and changes in soluble Aβ levels rather than Aβ plaque deposition may contribute to exercise-induced benefits.

  7. 77 FR 34974 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Exercise Initial Fundraising Plan Web site Demo Next Meetings PORTIONS TO BE OPEN TO THE PUBLIC: Approval... Fundraising Plan Web site Demo Next Meetings CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Paul Zimmerman,...

  8. Exercise Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ... exercise dilates blood vessels inside the skull. Secondary exercise headaches Secondary exercise headaches are caused by an ...

  9. Does acute exercise affect the performance of whole-body, psychomotor skills in an inverted-U fashion? A meta-analytic investigation.

    PubMed

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I

    2015-03-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance.

  10. Short-Term Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Does Not Inhibit Inflammatory Pathways in Immune Cells from Insulin-Resistant Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Sara M.; Tantiwong, Puntip; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. PMID:23671849

  11. Short-term exercise training improves insulin sensitivity but does not inhibit inflammatory pathways in immune cells from insulin-resistant subjects.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Sara M; Tantiwong, Puntip; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Defronzo, Ralph A; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  12. Does the inverted-U function disappear in expert athletes? An analysis of the attentional behavior under physical exercise of athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Memmert, Daniel

    2014-05-28

    A number of studies document that physical exercise influences cognitive performance in a variety of ways. Some of these studies present the relationship between the workload of exercise and the activation level of the central nervous system as an inverted-U relationship. Among the factors that could be responsible for diverging results are the participants' individual fitness level and the athletic status. While athletes and non-athletes do not differ in general cognitive skills, athletes are better able to maintain these during physical exercise especially under high exercise intensities. Hence, we hypothesized that the inverted-U function applies for non-athletes but disappears in team sports experts. We compared athletes' and non-athletes' cognitive performance on a measure of attentional behavior under three different physical exercise intensities. Results showed an increase of non-athletes' attentional breadth right up to a certain level of maximal aerobic power before decreasing, as expected according to an inverted-U curve. In contrast, athletes' attentional breadth continued to increase with higher physical exercise intensities. We concluded that physical exercise influences participants' attentional behavior and that individual fitness acts as a moderator of this relationship.

  13. Exercise therapy for treatment of supraspinatus tears does not alter glenohumeral kinematics during internal/external rotation with the arm at the side.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Gerald A; Miller, R Matthew; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Tashman, Scott; Irrgang, James J; Musahl, Volker; Debski, Richard E

    2017-09-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a significant clinical problem, with exercise therapy being a common treatment option for patients. Failure rates of exercise therapy may be due to the failure to improve glenohumeral kinematics. Tears involving the supraspinatus may result in altered glenohumeral kinematics and joint instability for internal/external rotation with the arm at the side because not all muscles used to stabilize the glenohumeral joint are functioning normally. The objective of the study is to assess in vivo glenohumeral kinematic changes for internal/external rotation motions with the arm at the side of patients with a symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tear before and after a 12-week exercise therapy programme. Five patients underwent dynamic stereoradiography analysis before and after a 12-week exercise therapy protocol to measure changes in glenohumeral kinematics during transverse plane internal/external rotation with the arm at the side. Patient-reported outcomes and shoulder strength were also evaluated. No patient sought surgery immediately following exercise therapy. Significant improvements in isometric shoulder strength and patient-reported outcomes were observed (p < 0.05). No significant changes in glenohumeral kinematics following physical therapy were found. Isolated supraspinatus tears resulted in increased joint translations compared to healthy controls from the previous literature for internal/external rotation with the arm at the side. Despite satisfactory clinical outcomes following exercise therapy, glenohumeral kinematics did not change. The lack of changes may be due to the motion studied or the focus of current exercise therapy protocols being increasing shoulder strength and restoring range of motion. Current exercise therapy protocols should be adapted to also focus on restoring glenohumeral kinematics to improve joint stability since exercise therapy may have different effects depending on the motions of daily living. Prognostic

  14. Where does HIT fit? An examination of the affective response to high-intensity intervals in comparison to continuous moderate- and continuous vigorous-intensity exercise in the exercise intensity-affect continuum.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mary E; Bourne, Jessica E; Little, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Affect experienced during an exercise session is purported to predict future exercise behaviour. Compared to continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMI), the affective response to continuous vigorous-intensity exercise (CVI) has consistently been shown to be more aversive. The affective response, and overall tolerability to high-intensity interval training (HIT), is less studied. To date, there has yet to be a comparison between HIT, CVI, and CMI. The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerability and affective responses during HIT to CVI and CMI. This study utilized a repeated measures, randomized, counter-balanced design. Forty-four participants visited the laboratory on four occasions. Baseline fitness testing was conducted to establish peak power output in Watts (W peak). Three subsequent visits involved a single bout of a) HIT, corresponding to 1-minute at ∼ 100% W peak and 1-minute at ∼ 20% W peak for 20 minutes, b) CMI, corresponding to ∼ 40% W peak for 40 minutes, and c) CVI, corresponding to ∼ 80% W peak for 20 minutes. The order of the sessions was randomized. Affective responses were measured before, during and after each session. Task self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment and preference were measured after sessions. Participants reported greater enjoyment of HIT as compared to CMI and CVI, with over 50% of participants reporting a preference to engage in HIT as opposed to either CMI or CVI. HIT was considered more pleasurable than CVI after exercise, but less pleasurable than CMI at these times. Despite this participants reported being just as confident to engage in HIT as they were CMI, but less confident to engage in CVI. This study highlights the utility of HIT in inactive individuals, and suggests that it may be a viable alternative to traditionally prescribed continuous modalities of exercise for promoting self-efficacy and enjoyment of exercise.

  15. Where Does HIT Fit? An Examination of the Affective Response to High-Intensity Intervals in Comparison to Continuous Moderate- and Continuous Vigorous-Intensity Exercise in the Exercise Intensity-Affect Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary E.; Bourne, Jessica E.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Affect experienced during an exercise session is purported to predict future exercise behaviour. Compared to continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMI), the affective response to continuous vigorous-intensity exercise (CVI) has consistently been shown to be more aversive. The affective response, and overall tolerability to high-intensity interval training (HIT), is less studied. To date, there has yet to be a comparison between HIT, CVI, and CMI. The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerability and affective responses during HIT to CVI and CMI. This study utilized a repeated measures, randomized, counter-balanced design. Forty-four participants visited the laboratory on four occasions. Baseline fitness testing was conducted to establish peak power output in Watts (Wpeak). Three subsequent visits involved a single bout of a) HIT, corresponding to 1-minute at ∼100% Wpeak and 1-minute at ∼20% Wpeak for 20 minutes, b) CMI, corresponding to ∼40% Wpeak for 40 minutes, and c) CVI, corresponding to ∼80% Wpeak for 20 minutes. The order of the sessions was randomized. Affective responses were measured before, during and after each session. Task self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment and preference were measured after sessions. Participants reported greater enjoyment of HIT as compared to CMI and CVI, with over 50% of participants reporting a preference to engage in HIT as opposed to either CMI or CVI. HIT was considered more pleasurable than CVI after exercise, but less pleasurable than CMI at these times. Despite this participants reported being just as confident to engage in HIT as they were CMI, but less confident to engage in CVI. This study highlights the utility of HIT in inactive individuals, and suggests that it may be a viable alternative to traditionally prescribed continuous modalities of exercise for promoting self-efficacy and enjoyment of exercise. PMID:25486273

  16. Does Exercise Reduce Aggressive Feelings? An Experiment Examining the Influence of Movement Type and Social Task Conditions on Testiness and Anger Reduction.