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Sample records for doe nuclear air

  1. Proceedings of the 23rd DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    The report contains the papers presented at the 23rd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference and the associated discussions. Major topics are: (1) nuclear air cleaning codes, (2) nuclear waste, (3) filters and filtration, (4) effluent stack monitoring, (5) gas processing, (6) adsorption, (7) air treatment systems, (8) source terms and accident analysis, and (9) fuel reprocessing. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Proceedings of the 24. DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning and treatment conference

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1997-08-01

    This report contains the papers presented at the 24th DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference and the associated discussions. Major topics are: (1) nuclear air cleaning issues, (2) waste management, (3) instrumentation and measurement, (4) testing air and gas cleaning systems, (5) progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford, (6) international nuclear programs, (7) standardized test methods, (8) HVAC, (9) decommissioning, (10) computer modeling applications, (11) adsorption, (12) iodine treatment, (13) filters, and (14) codes and standards for filters and adsorbers. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  4. Twenty-third DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.; Hayes, J.J.; First, M.W.

    1995-03-24

    This paper presents the details of the Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference held in Buffalo, New York during July 1994. Topics discussed include: nuclear air cleaning codes and standards; waste disposal; particulate filter developments; sampling and monitoring of process and effluent streams; off-gasses from fuel reprocessing; adsorbents and adsorption; accident control and analysis; revised source terms for power plant accidents; and the highlight of the conference concerned operations at the West Valley DOE facility where construction is underway to solidify radioactive wastes.

  5. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  6. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  7. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  8. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  9. Gas processing at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jacox, J.

    1995-02-01

    The term {open_quotes}Gas Processing{close_quotes} has many possible meanings and understandings. In this paper, and panel, we will be using it to generally mean the treatment of gas by methods other than those common to HVAC and Nuclear Air Treatment. This is only a working guideline not a rigorous definition. Whether a rigorous definition is desirable, or even possible is a question for some other forum. Here we will be discussing the practical aspects of what {open_quotes}Gas Processing{close_quotes} includes and how existing Codes, Standards and industry experience can, and should, apply to DOE and NRC Licensed facilities. A major impediment to use of the best engineering and technology in many nuclear facilities is the administrative mandate that only systems and equipment that meet specified {open_quotes}nuclear{close_quotes} documents are permissible. This paper will highlight some of the limitations created by this approach.

  10. Overview of DOE space nuclear propulsion programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Department of Energy space nuclear propulsion programs is presented in outline and graphic form. DOE's role in the development and safety assurance of space nuclear propulsion is addressed. Testing issues and facilities are discussed along with development needs and recent research activities.

  11. Index to the AEC/ERDA/DOE Air Cleaning Conferences

    SciTech Connect

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive index to the papers in the second through sixteenth AEC/ERDA/DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference is discussed. The index will be published in early 1981 and will be designated as Volume 3 of the proceeding of the sixteenth conference. The index has three parts, a straight numeric tabulation, an author index, and a key word in context (KWIC) index. (JGB)

  12. Reports to the DOE Nuclear Data Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The report in this document were submitted to the Department of Energy, Nuclear Data Committee (DOE-NDC) in April 1988. The reporting laboratories are those with a substantial program for the measurement of neutron and nuclear cross sections of relevance to the US applied nuclear energy program. Appropriate subjects are microscopic neutron cross sections relevant to the nuclear energy program, including shielding. Inverse reactions where pertinent are included; charged-particle cross sections where relevant to developing and testing nuclear models; gamma ray production, radioactive decay, and theoretical developments in nuclear structure which are applicable to nuclear energy programs; and proton and alpha-particle cross sections, at energies of up to 1 GeV, which are of interest to the space program.

  13. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  14. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  15. Reinvigorating the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-24

    Taiwan. In 2007, a B-52 crew mistakenly flew six nuclear weapons from Minot AFB, North Dakota to Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. These incidents...2010. Functional experts from the Air Staff, Air Force Major Commands (MAJCOMs), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Science Applications...independently of one another, and each was weighted equally. Nuclear Security Analysis of Alternatives Sandia National Labs prepared an Analysis of

  16. DOE`s nuclear energy plant optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.; Savage, C.D.; Singh, B.P.

    1999-09-01

    In December 1997, the United States agreed to the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change that outlines specific greenhouse gas emissions reduction requirements. A key element of this protocol is binding emissions targets and timetables. The Protocol calls for the United States to reach emissions targets 7% below 1990 emissions levels over the 5-yr period from 2008 to 2012. A key element to achieving this goal will be the continued safe and economic operation of the Nation`s 104 nuclear power plants. These plants provide >20% of the Nation`s electricity, and nearly one-half of the 50 states receive >25% of their electricity from nuclear power. DOE`s current Strategic Plan specifies that the United States maintain its nuclear energy option and improve the efficiency of existing plants as part of its energy portfolio, in the interest of national security. As a result, DOE proposed two new nuclear energy R and D programs for fiscal year (FY) 1999: the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), a peer-reviewed, competitively selected R and D program in advanced concepts, and the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO). NERI was authorized and received initial funding of $19 million for its first year. NEPO was not funded in 1999 but has been reintroduced in the FY 2000 budget request. NEPO will be a jointly funded R and D program with industry through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and will address those issues that could hinder continued safe operation of the Nation`s operating nuclear power plants. The FY 2000 funding request to Congress for NEPO is $5 million.

  17. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  18. Nuclear waste: Quarterly report on DOE`s nuclear waste program as of March 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-31

    As part of the Department of Energy`s implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE`s failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin an orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million of the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  19. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  20. Analysis of EPA and DOE WIPP Air Sampling Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During the April 2014 EPA visit to WIPP, EPA co-located four ambient air samplers with existing Department of Energy (DOE) ambient air samplers to independently corroborate DOE's reported air sampling results.

  1. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE`s nuclear waste site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE`s relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult.

  2. 78 FR 716 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    .../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC). DATES... on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda:...

  3. 78 FR 62609 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... within the field of basic nuclear science research. Additionally, the renewal of the DOE/NSF Nuclear...

  4. Update on DOE's Nuclear Energy University Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, Marsha J.

    2009-08-19

    The Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) Office assists the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) by administering its University Program. To promote accountable relationships between universities and the Technical Integration Offices (TIOs)/Technology Development Offices (TDOs), a process was designed and administered which includes two competitive Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and two Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) in the following areas: (1) Research and Development (R and D) Grants, (2) Infrastructure improvement, and (3) Scholarships and Fellowships. NEUP will also host periodic reviews of university mission-specific R and D that document progress, reinforce accountability, and assess return on investment; sponsor workshops that inform universities of the Department's research needs to facilitate continued alignment of university R and D with NE missions; and conduct communications activities that foster stakeholder trust, serve as a catalyst for accomplishing NEUP objectives, and provide national visibility of NEUP activities and accomplishments. Year to date efforts to achieve these goals will be discussed.

  5. Update on DOE's Nuclear Energy University Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambregts, Marsha J.

    2009-08-01

    The Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) Office assists the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) by administering its University Program. To promote accountable relationships between universities and the Technical Integration Offices (TIOs)/Technology Development Offices (TDOs), a process was designed and administered which includes two competitive Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and two Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) in the following areas: (1) Research and Development (R&D) Grants, (2) Infrastructure improvement, and (3) Scholarships and Fellowships. NEUP will also host periodic reviews of university mission-specific R&D that document progress, reinforce accountability, and assess return on investment; sponsor workshops that inform universities of the Department's research needs to facilitate continued alignment of university R&D with NE missions; and conduct communications activities that foster stakeholder trust, serve as a catalyst for accomplishing NEUP objectives, and provide national visibility of NEUP activities and accomplishments. Year to date efforts to achieve these goals will be discussed.

  6. Pyrochemical processing of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development. This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or {open_quotes}pyroprocessing,{close_quotes} provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (>99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess, are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and avoid the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory.

  7. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: A Joint NASA/DOE/DOD Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the joint NASA/DOE/DOD workshop on nuclear thermal propulsion are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: nuclear thermal propulsion programs; Rover/NERVA and NERVA systems; Low Pressure Nuclear Thermal Rocket (LPNTR); particle bed reactor nuclear rocket; hybrid propulsion systems; wire core reactor; pellet bed reactor; foil reactor; Droplet Core Nuclear Rocket (DCNR); open cycle gas core nuclear rockets; vapor core propulsion reactors; nuclear light bulb; Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF); mission analysis; propulsion and reactor technology; development plans; and safety issues.

  8. Nuclear energy information flow from DOE to the public

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.L.; Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this research was to study the DOE's program for educating the public about nuclear power and nuclear waste management. DOE's organizational structuree and the procedures used within this structure to disseminate information were studied and readability tests on nuclear information distributed by DOE were conducted. Initial information was obtained through interviews with 29 local, state, and federal DOE representatives. This was supplemented with additional information as it was released by the DOE. The primary goals of the DOE's information program are to encourage two-way communication between the DOE and the public and to encourage public participation in policy-making decisions. Most of this communication, however, is presented orally. Relative to other energy technologies and conservation, very few nuclear brochures are currently being distributed by the DOE. This is especially true with regard to information about nuclear waste. A recent public survey found that a majority of the public wants to learn more about nuclear power and that, with regard to the nuclear fuel cycle, the public wants most to learn about nuclear waste management. Thus, the DOE appears to be missing an eager audience.

  9. 78 FR 69658 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    .../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory... within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include discussions...

  10. 76 FR 31945 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research....

  11. 75 FR 6651 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear...

  12. 76 FR 8359 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda...

  13. 78 FR 56870 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory. Committee (NSAC... and the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear...

  14. Nuclear rocket propulsion technology - A joint NASA/DOE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and the DOE have initiated critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for SEI human and robotic missions to the moon and to Mars. The activities and project plan of the interagency project planning team in FY 1990 and 1991 are summarized. The project plan includes evolutionary technology development for both nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  15. 77 FR 9219 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science...

  16. DOE NHI: Progress in Nuclear Connection Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is seeking to develop the technologies to enable the large-scale production of hydrogen from water using a nuclear powered heat source. A necessary component in any nuclear powered hydrogen production process is the energy transfer connection between the nuclear plant and the hydrogen plant. This article provides an overview of the research and development work that has been accomplished on the high-temperature heat transfer connection between the nuclear power plant and the hydrogen production plant by the NHI. A description of future work is also provided.

  17. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  18. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  19. 77 FR 51791 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... Energy and the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic...

  20. 78 FR 12044 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... advice and guidance on a continuing basis to the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation...

  1. 76 FR 62050 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of... that the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) will be renewed for a two- year period beginning on September 30, 2011. The Committee will provide advice to the Director, Office of Science...

  2. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  3. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  4. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  5. Nuclear Data Activities in Support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.

    2005-05-01

    The DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) provides the technical infrastructure maintenance for those technologies applied in the evaluation and performance of safe fissionable-material operations in the DOE complex. These technologies include an Analytical Methods element for neutron transport as well as the development of sensitivity/uncertainty methods, the performance of Critical Experiments, evaluation and qualification of experiments as Benchmarks, and a comprehensive Nuclear Data program coordinated by the NCSP Nuclear Data Advisory Group (NDAG). The NDAG gathers and evaluates differential and integral nuclear data, identifies deficiencies, and recommends priorities on meeting DOE criticality safety needs to the NCSP Criticality Safety Support Group (CSSG). Then the NDAG identifies the required resources and unique capabilities for meeting these needs, not only for performing measurements but also for data evaluation with nuclear model codes as well as for data processing for criticality safety applications. The NDAG coordinates effort with the leadership of the National Nuclear Data Center, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The overall objective is to expedite the issuance of new data and methods to the DOE criticality safety user. This paper describes these activities in detail, with examples based upon special studies being performed in support of criticality safety for a variety of DOE operations.

  6. Radiological hazard classification of DOE facilities by DOE STD-1027-92: LANL nuclear facility list

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos facilities containing significant radiological hazards have been reclassified according to DOE-SID 1027-92, a recently issued guide for hazard classification. DOE-STD 1027-92 was provided in support of DOE Order 5480.23 to identify which facilities would be governed under DOE 5480.23 requirements; these would presumably be called nuclear facilities. This new classification has affected the original list of 18 LANL nuclear facilities by increasing it to 39. It has also lowered the classification of TA-55-4, the plutonium processing facility containing highest intrinsic hazard at LANL, from the highest classification to an intermediate classification. This presentation addresses the impact of these changes in the nuclear facility list in the areas of radiological health, safety analysis documentation, and risk management.

  7. Radiological hazard classification of DOE facilities by DOE STD-1027-92: LANL nuclear facility list

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Los Alamos facilities containing significant radiological hazards have been reclassified according to DOE-SID 1027-92, a recently issued guide for hazard classification. DOE-STD 1027-92 was provided in support of DOE Order 5480.23 to identify which facilities would be governed under DOE 5480.23 requirements; these would presumably be called nuclear facilities. This new classification has affected the original list of 18 LANL nuclear facilities by increasing it to 39. It has also lowered the classification of TA-55-4, the plutonium processing facility containing highest intrinsic hazard at LANL, from the highest classification to an intermediate classification. This presentation addresses the impact of these changes in the nuclear facility list in the areas of radiological health, safety analysis documentation, and risk management.

  8. Nuclear Materials Stewardship Within the DOE Environmental Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyeu, J. D.; Kiess, T. E.; Gates, M. L.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has made significant progress in planning disposition of its excess nuclear materials and has recently completed several noteworthy studies. Since establishment in 1997, the EM Nuclear Material Stewardship Program has developed disposition plans for excess nuclear materials to support facility deactivation. All nuclear materials have been removed from the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (Mound), and disposition planning is nearing completion for the Fernald Environmental Management Project and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Only a few issues remain for materials at the Hanford and Idaho sites. Recent trade studies include the Savannah River Site Canyons Nuclear Materials Identification Study, a Cesium/Strontium Management Alternatives Trade Study, a Liquid Technical Standards Trade Study, an Irradiated Beryllium Reflectors with Tritium study, a Special Performance Assessment Required Trade Study, a Neutron Source Trade Study, and development of discard criteria for uranium. A Small Sites Workshop was also held. Potential and planned future activities include updating the Plutonium-239 storage study, developing additional packaging standards, developing a Nuclear Material Disposition Handbook, determining how to recover or dispose of Pu-244 and U-233, and working with additional sites to define disposition plans for their nuclear materials.

  9. Nuclear test lobbying: DOE regulations for contractors need reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Allegations had been made that the Department of Energy was improperly employing contractors to assist in lobbying the Congress on nuclear weapons testing issues. The antilobbying criminal statute has been interpreted by the Department of Justice as allowing federal officials to provide information to the Congress and to state their views on proposed legislation but prohibits ''grass-roots'' lobbying by federal employees. Thus, DOE's extensive briefings of congressional Members and staff to influence their views on nuclear weapons testing issues did not violate applicable statutory provisions.

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle: a current awareness bulletin. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-01-15

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all aspects of the fuel cycle except in-reactor properties and performance of the fuel and radioactive wastes. The summaries refer to current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, conference papers, and monographs from all sources on radioactive wastes. All citations announced in NFC exist as separate records in the DOE Energy Data Base.

  11. The NASA/DOE Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Project

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have initiated planning and critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the moon and to Mars. This paper summarizes the activities of the project planning team in fiscal year (FY) 1990 and 1991 and the plans, progress, and results to date.

  12. Status of the DOE`s foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program

    SciTech Connect

    Chacey, K.; Saris, E.C.

    1997-12-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the U.S. Department of State (DOS), adopted a policy to accept and manage in the United States {approximately}20 tonnes of spent nuclear fuel from research reactors in up to 41 countries. This spent fuel is being accepted under the nuclear weapons non-proliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Only spent fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States is covered under this policy. Implementing this policy is a top priority of the DOE. The purpose of this paper is to provide the current status of the foreign research reactor acceptance program, including achievements to date and future challenges.

  13. Radioactivity in air around nuclear facilities in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, S.; Alvarez, C.; Silva, H.A.; Dorantes, C. ); Gaso, M.I.; Segovia, N. ); Perez, I. )

    1994-01-01

    Radioactivity in air sampled around the Nucleoelectric Power Plant at Laguna Verde and the Nuclear Center of Mexico research laboratories was analyzed. The gross beta activity in air filters during the preoperational (1986-1989) and operational (1989-1992) periods of the plant showed stability except in May 1986 when a contribution from the Chernobyl accident was observed. The radionuclides in air were below the accepted operational limit in the whole period. The average gross beta concentration in air during the same period (1986-1992) at the Nuclear Center showed also the higher values in 1986 and the concentration values of [sup 132]Cs determined in composite samples of edible wild mushrooms collected at this site, exhibited an increase in the same year. An analysis of the synoptical meteorological large-scale pattern occurring in the Northern Hemisphere after the Chernobyl accident is presented in order to estimate how the radioactive plume arrived to Mexico. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Nuclear electric propulsion technologies: Overview of the NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear electric propulsion workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion technology offers substantial benefits to the ambitious piloted and robotic solar system exploration missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes a workshop jointly sponsored by NASA, DoE, DoD to assess candidate nuclear electric propulsion technologies. Twenty-one power and propulsion concepts are reviewed. Nuclear power concepts include solid and gaseous fuel concepts, with static and dynamic power conversion. Propulsion concepts include steady state and pulsed electromagnetic engines, a pulsed electrothermal engine, and a steady state electrostatic engine. The technologies vary widely in maturity. The workshop review panels concluded that compelling benefits would accrue from the development of nuclear electric propulsion systems, and that a focused, well-funded program is required to prepare the technologies for SEI missions.

  15. The actual practice of air cleaning in Belgian nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, W.R.

    1995-02-01

    With 60% of its power generation from nuclear stations Belgium has 7 nuclear power stations in operation with a total capacity of 5.4 MWe. Enriched uranium is imported and converted to fuel assemblies. The actinides of reprocessed fuel are recycled as MOX fuel. A main waste conditioning operation has been performed in the PAMELA vitrifier. The actual practice of nuclear air cleaning in the Belgian PWR station DOEL-4 and in the PAMELA -vitrification plant for high level liquid waste is reviewed.

  16. The Air Blast Wave from a Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    The sudden, large scale release of energy in the explosion of a nuclear bomb in air gives rise, in addition to nuclear emanations such as neutrons and gamma rays, to an extremely hot, rapidly expanding mass of air.** The rapidly expanding air mass has an initial temperature in the vicinity of a few hundred thousand degrees and for this reason it glows in its early stages with an intensity of many suns. It is important that the energy density in this initial "ball of fire" is of the order of 3 × 103 times that found in a detonating piece of TNT and hence that the initial stages of the large scale air motion produced by a nuclear explosion has no counterpart in an ordinary. H. E. explosion. Further, the relatively low temperatures ˜2,000°C associated with the initial stages of an H. E. detonation implies that the thermal radiation which it emits is a relatively insignificant fraction of the total energy involves. This point is made more striking when it is remembered that the thermal energy emitted by a hot object varies directly with the temperature in the Rayleigh Jeans region appropriate to the present discussion. The expansion of the air mass heated by the nuclear reaction produces, in qualitatively the same manner as in an H.E. explosion or the bursting of a high pressure balloon, an intense sharp pressure pulse, a shock wave, in the atmosphere. As the pressure pulse spreads outward it weakens due to the combined effects of divergence and the thermodynamically irreversible nature of the shock wave. The air comprising such a pressure pulse or blast wave moves first radially outward and then back towards the center as the blast wave passes. Since a permanent outward displacement of an infinite mass of air would require unlimited energy, the net outward displacement of the air distant from an explosion must approach zero with increasing distance. As the distance from the explosion is diminished the net outward displacement due to irreversible shock heating of

  17. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR...

  18. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR...

  19. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR...

  20. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available for transfer for economic development? 770.5 Section 770.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC...

  1. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department`s enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion.

  2. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Air Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Moses, S.D.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Morenko, A.

    2007-07-01

    Sometimes the only feasible means of shipping research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) among countries is via air transport because of location or political conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a regulatory framework to certify air transport Type C casks. However, no such cask has been designed, built, tested, and certified. In lieu of an air transport cask, research reactor SNF has been transported using a Type B cask under an exemption with special arrangements for administrative and security controls. This work indicates that it may be feasible to transport commercial power reactor SNF assemblies via air, and that the cost is only about three times that of shipping it by railway. Optimization (i.e., reduction) of this cost factor has yet to be done. (authors)

  4. NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear propulsion technology planning: Summary of FY 1991 interagency panel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.; Doherty, Michael P.; Marshall, Albert; Bhattacharryya, Samit K.; Warren, John

    1992-01-01

    Interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) technical panels worked in 1991 to evaluate critical nuclear propulsion issues, compare nuclear propulsion concepts for a manned Mars mission on a consistent basis, and to continue planning a technology development project for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Panels were formed to address mission analysis, nuclear facilities, safety policy, nuclear fuels and materials, nuclear electric propulsion technology, and nuclear thermal propulsion technology. A summary of the results and recommendations of the panels is presented.

  5. Tactical Implications of Air Blast Variations from Nuclear Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-30

    radiation produced effects of interest are prompt effects; 7 the information used in this analysis comes from the primate studies reported by the Armed Forces...Curran, R. W. Young, and W. F. Davis, "The Performance of Primates Following Exposure to Pulsed Whole-Body Gamma-Neutron Radiation," AFRRI SR 73-1... Gibbons , Nonparametric Statistical Inference, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971. 7. C. E. Needham, et al., Nuclear Blast Standard (1 KT), Air Force

  6. DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has produced spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for many years as part of its various missions and programs. The historical process for managing this SNF was to reprocess it whereby valuable material such as uranium or plutonium was chemically separated from the wastes. These fuels were not intended for long-term storage. As the need for uranium and plutonium decreased, it became necessary to store the SNF for extended lengths of time. This necessity resulted from a 1992 DOE decision to discontinue reprocessing SNF to recover strategic materials (although limited processing of SNF to meet repository acceptance criteria remains under consideration, no plutonium or uranium extraction for other uses is planned). Both the facilities used for storage, and the fuel itself, began experiencing aging from this extended storage. New efforts are now necessary to assure suitable fuel and facility management until long-term decisions for spent fuel disposition are made and implemented. The Program Plan consists of 14 sections as follows: Sections 2--6 describe objectives, management, the work plan, the work breakdown structure, and the responsibility assignment matrix. Sections 7--9 describe the program summary schedules, site logic diagram, SNF Program resource and support requirements. Sections 10--14 present various supplemental management requirements and quality assurance guidelines.

  7. Effect of microstructure on air oxidation resistance of nuclear graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I; Guldan, Tyler R; Wang, Peng; Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation resistance in air of three grades of nuclear graphite with different structures was compared using a standard thermogravimetric method. Differences in the oxidation behavior have been identified with respect to both (i) the rate of oxidation in identical conditions and the derived apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor and (ii) the penetration depth of the oxidant and the development of the oxidized layer. These differences were ascribed to structural differences between the three graphite grades, in particular the grain size and shape of the graphite filler, and the associated textural properties, such as total BET surface area and porosity distribution in the un-oxidized material. It was also found that the amount of strongly bonded surface oxygen complexes measured by thermodesorption significantly exceeds the amount afforded by the low BET surface area, and therefore low temperature oxygen chemisorption is not a reliable method for determining the amount of surface sites (re)active during air oxidation. The relationship between nuclear graphite microstructure and its oxidation resistance demonstrated in this work underlines the importance of performing comprehensive oxidation characterization studies of the new grades of nuclear graphite considered as candidates for very high temperature gas-cooled reactors.

  8. 10 CFR 770.5 - How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense nuclear facility real property is available...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does DOE notify persons and entities that defense... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC... available for transfer for economic development? (a) Field Office Managers annually make available to...

  9. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  10. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  11. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs.

  12. The Future Nuclear Arms Control Agenda and Its Potential Implications for the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear Arms Control Agenda and Its Potential Implications for the Air Force     The Future Nuclear Arms Control Agenda and Its Potential...TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction: The Future Nuclear Arms Control Agenda and Its Potential Implications for the Air Force...1 II. The Arms Control Context

  13. 75 FR 71425 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Department of Energy and National Science Foundation's Nuclear Physics Offices Technical Talk on FRIB Public... minutes of the meeting will be available on the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Physics Web...

  14. 75 FR 37783 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Department of Energy and National Science Foundation's Nuclear Physics Office. Technical Talk on Deep... available on the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Physics Web site for viewing. Rachel Samuel...

  15. 76 FR 69252 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... of Energy and National Science Foundation's Nuclear Physics Office's Update on the Neutron Charge... Office of Nuclear Physics Web site for viewing. Issued in Washington, DC on November 1, 2011. Carol A...

  16. DOE, 2013. A Report to the Secretary of Energy: Beyond Design Basis Event Pilot Evaluations, Results and Recommendations for Improvements to Enhance Nuclear Safety at DOE Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-02-01

    In the six months after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) took several actions to review the safety of its nuclear facilities and identify situations where near-term improvements could be made. These actions and recommendations were addressed in an August 2011 report to the Secretary of Energy, Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events. Based on recommendations in the August 2011 report, DOE embarked on a project to develop and refine guidance that supports improvements in DOE’s processes for analyzing and mitigating beyond design basis events (BDBEs), i.e., events such as earthquakes that are more severe than the events that formed the basis of the design for DOE’s nuclear facilities. The results of this BDBE project and recommendations for further DOE actions are provided in this follow-on report. The main activity of the BDBE project was the pilot application of guidance for evaluation of BDBE analysis and mitigation features at four DOE nuclear facilities representing a range of DOE sites, nuclear facility types/activities, and responsible program offices. The pilot evaluations focused on: (1) BDBE evaluations as documented in the facility Documented Safety Analysis (DSA); (2) potential BDBE vulnerabilities and margins to failure for facility safety features as obtained from general area and specific system walkdowns and design document reviews; and, (3) preparations made in facility and site emergency management programs to respond to severe accidents. The BDBE project also evaluated whether draft BDBE guidance on safety analysis and emergency management could be used to improve the analysis of, and preparations for, mitigating severe accidents and BDBEs. The pilot evaluation team paid close attention to related actions being pursued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. commercial nuclear industry, and the

  17. Innovative open air brayton combined cycle systems for the next generation nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohuri, Bahman

    The purpose of this research was to model and analyze a nuclear heated multi-turbine power conversion system operating with atmospheric air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a molten salt, or liquid metal, to gas heat exchanger reaching a peak temperature of 660 0C. The effects of adding a recuperator or a bottoming steam cycle have been addressed. The calculated results are intended to identify paths for future work on the next generation nuclear power plant (GEN-IV). This document describes the proposed system in sufficient detail to communicate a good understanding of the overall system, its components, and intended uses. The architecture is described at the conceptual level, and does not replace a detailed design document. The main part of the study focused on a Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle system and a Recuperated Brayton Cycle since they offer the highest overall efficiencies. Open Air Brayton power cycles also require low cooling water flows relative to other power cycles. Although the Recuperated Brayton Cycle achieves an overall efficiency slightly less that the Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle, it is completely free of a circulating water system and can be used in a desert climate. Detailed results of modeling a combined cycle Brayton-Rankine power conversion system are presented. The Rankine bottoming cycle appears to offer a slight efficiency advantage over the recuperated Brayton cycle. Both offer very significant advantages over current generation Light Water Reactor steam cycles. The combined cycle was optimized as a unit and lower pressure Rankine systems seem to be more efficient. The combined cycle requires a lot less circulating water than current power plants. The open-air Brayton systems appear to be worth investigating, if the higher temperatures predicted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant do materialize.

  18. Nuclear Thermal Rocket by 2000: a DOE Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Stanley, Marland

    1992-01-01

    It is asserted that a Nuclear Propulsion Space Transportation System is required for the Manned Mars Mission. Additionally, it is felt that a Nuclear Propulsion Space Transportation System can support a wide variety of future space missions, including lunar base implementation and support. The Rover/NERVA program demonstrated that a safe, reliable Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) can be developed and operated for sufficient run times, at desirable temperatures, and with multiple restarts. The discussion is presented in viewgraph form.

  19. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  20. Nuclear Health and Safety: Efforts to Strengthen DOE’s Health and Epidemiology Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    persons poten- tially exposed to radiation, and (4) persons exposed to potential hazards resulting from non- nuclear energy production. The health...Workers Could Be Better Protected at Ohio Defense Plants (QAO/RCED-86.61, Dec. 13, 1985) and Nuclear Health and Safty . Summary o Major Problems at DOE’s...of Energy (March 1990). Page 13 GAO/RCED-91-67 Nuclear Health and Safety Appendix I Reviews of DOE’s Health Programs DOE’S epidemiology activities

  1. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE`s Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE`s weapons laboratories.

  2. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  3. Integration of conventional and nuclear: What does it mean?

    SciTech Connect

    Manzo, Vincent A.; Miles, Aaron R.

    2016-08-04

    In October 2015, Secretary of Defense Carter called for NATO to better integrate conventional and nuclear deterrence. Four months later, Assistant Secretary of Defense Robert Scher stated in Senate testimony that the DoD is "working to ensure an appropriate level of integration between nuclear and conventional planning and operations."

  4. Guideline to good practices for types of maintenance activities at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the Guideline to Good Practices for Types of Maintenance at DOE Nuclear Facilities is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information that may be used for the development and implementation of a properly balanced corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance program at DOE nuclear facilities. This document is intended to be an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter II, Element 4. DOE contractors should not feel obligated to adopt all parts of this guide. Rather, they should use the information contained herein as a guide for developing maintenance programs that are applicable to their facility.

  5. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  6. Aging assessment of nuclear air-treatment system HEPA filters and adsorbers. Volume 1, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    A Phase I aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units (adsorbers) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Information concerning design features; failure experience; aging mechanisms, effects, and stressors; and surveillance and monitoring methods for these key air-treatment system components was compiled. Over 1100 failures, or 12 percent of the filter installations, were reported as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) survey. Investigators from other national laboratories have suggested that aging effects could have contributed to over 80 percent of these failures. Tensile strength tests on aged filter media specimens indicated a decrease in strength. Filter aging mechanisms range from those associated with particle loading to reactions that alter properties of sealants and gaskets. Low radioiodine decontamination factors associated with the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident were attributed to the premature aging of the carbon in the adsorbers. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance include oxidation as well as the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the adsorption of pollutants. Stressors include heat, moisture, radiation, and airborne particles and contaminants.

  7. Guideline to good practices for postmaintenance testing at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Purpose of this guide is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information that may be used for development and implementation of a postmaintenance testing process for structures, systems, and components at DOE nuclear facilities. It is intended to be an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 2, Element 9, Postmaintenance Testing.

  8. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  9. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  10. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  11. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  12. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE's Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE's weapons laboratories.

  13. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207...

  14. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear...

  15. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear...

  16. Nuclear Weapons Materials Gone Missing: What Does History Teach?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    provides a valuable analytical capability within the Army to address strategic and other issues in support of Army participation in national...Plant) – Waste (rough sample only) – DVessel inventory According to a Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board report from 1993, the input term was...usual rate of 5 percent. The NRC staff’s investiga- tion concluded that sloppy accounting was partly to blame, as well as the procedures to measure the

  17. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  19. AIRE-induced apoptosis is associated with nuclear translocation of stress sensor protein GAPDH

    SciTech Connect

    Liiv, Ingrid; Haljasorg, Uku; Kisand, Kai; Maslovskaja, Julia; Laan, Martti; Peterson, Paert

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE induces apoptosis in epithelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CARD domain of AIRE is sufficient for apoptosis induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE induced apoptosis involves GAPDH translocation to the nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deprenyl inhibits AIRE induced apoptosis. -- Abstract: AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator) has a central role in the transcriptional regulation of self-antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells, which is necessary for negative selection of autoreactive T cells. Recent data have shown that AIRE can also induce apoptosis, which may be linked to cross-presentation of these self-antigens. Here we studied AIRE-induced apoptosis using AIRE over-expression in a thymic epithelial cell line as well as doxycycline-inducible HEK293 cells. We show that the HSR/CARD domain in AIRE together with a nuclear localization signal is sufficient to induce apoptosis. In the nuclei of AIRE-positive cells, we also found an increased accumulation of a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH) reflecting cellular stress and apoptosis. Additionally, AIRE-induced apoptosis was inhibited with an anti-apoptotic agent deprenyl that blocks GAPDH nitrosylation and nuclear translocation. We propose that the AIRE-induced apoptosis pathway is associated with GAPDH nuclear translocation and induction of NO-induced cellular stress in AIRE-expressing cells.

  20. Nuclear Weapons Security Crisis: What Does History Teach?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    happened just as the Reg- gan base was preparing for the fourth French nuclear test. Codenamed “Gerboise verte” (“ Green Jerboa”), this explosion of a...de Gaulle him- 34 self.28 Standard procedure was that a green light was given by the Elysée, and that the Reggan authorities decided on the exact day...twice to hasten the test, obviously, accord- ing to him, for political reasons.53 In normal times, only one “ green light” was needed from the Elysée

  1. Does Air Quality Matter? Evidence from the Housing Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chay, Kenneth Y.; Greenstone, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We exploit the structure of the Clean Air Act to provide new evidence on the capitalization of total suspended particulates (TSPs) air pollution into housing values. This legislation imposes strict regulations on polluters in "nonattainment" counties, which are defined by concentrations of TSPs that exceed a federally set ceiling. TSPs…

  2. Does Air Quality Matter? Evidence from the Housing Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chay, Kenneth Y.; Greenstone, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We exploit the structure of the Clean Air Act to provide new evidence on the capitalization of total suspended particulates (TSPs) air pollution into housing values. This legislation imposes strict regulations on polluters in "nonattainment" counties, which are defined by concentrations of TSPs that exceed a federally set ceiling. TSPs…

  3. Indoor Air Quality: part II--what it does.

    PubMed

    Pike-Paris, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Newton, MA. A recent report indicated air quality samples taken from several rooms in the town's North High School had elevated CO2 levels of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) (Viser, 2004). State standards set 800 ppm as the optimum reading. Although not an immediate health issue, high CO2 levels are indicative of poor air circulation--clean air comes in but stale air is not vented out. Safety issues arise in the school setting when chemicals or toxic substances are in use and cannot be vented, therefore posing the health risk (Viser, 2004). Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in schools can result in decreased academic performance and days lost due to illness in the school age population (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2003). As the school nurse at North High School, what would you do?

  4. Enhancement of minority involvement in DOE nuclear physics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of continuing efforts to interact with a large number of minority students, the Minority Program in the ANL Physics Division has succeeded in attracting many highly qualified students to apply for participation in the programs of the Physics Division and other ANL divisions. The program is directed toward the identification of institutions with relatively strong physics programs and with faculty interested in stimulating their students to pursue research activities, particularly summer programs. During visits to colleges, lectures are presented and are followed by discussion of activities in physics, at Argonne and other national laboratories, and the possibilities for graduate study, employment, etc. Additional activities included attending meetings of the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science and of the Society of Black Physics Students. As a result of these efforts, 42 applications were received for the summer program in 1994. A total of 24 offers were made for the Summer Research Participation program in conjunction with Argonne`s Department of Educational Programs. A number of former participants are currently enrolled in graduate programs in physics; one student is working on his Ph.D. thesis in Nuclear Physics in the Physics Division. Various institutions will be visited during this year and several meetings of minority groups will be attended. These ongoing interactions are generating institutional relationships that will enrich the physics programs in minority institutions and substantially enhance minority involvement not only in nuclear physics, but in other branches of physics and science.

  5. Report to the DOE Nuclear Data Committee 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lanier, R.G.; White, R.G.

    1987-02-01

    Both measurements and calculations in the field of nuclear data applications are reported. New measurements include the discovery of two new Lr isotopes, the energy-level structure of Mo-93, a probe of the shell crossing at A = 40 via beta decay (experiment and theory), proton and neutron transition densities in Li-6 and Li-7 from a comparative study of proton and neutron scattering at 24 MeV, measurement of the neutron induced fission cross section of Cm-242, quadrupole moments and spectroscopy of Po-210 with Bi-209(t,2n) reaction, excitation functions for Y-89 + p over the range 5 to 40 MeV, excitation functions for Y-89 + d over the range 3 to 40 MeV, and the nuclear structure of Th-231. New calculations reported include the gamma ray cascades in the code ALICE, low energy neutron capture of neutron rich target nuclides, exploratory (n,f) cross section calculations for the U-235 1/2+ isomer, calculated photon induced isomer production in Lu-176 and its impact on the use of Lu-176 as a stellar chronometer and/or thermometer, disagreement between measured capture gamma ray spectra and calculations, electromagnetic moments for Sr-88 and Sr-86, shell model calculations of first forbidden beta decay in the mass 40 region, and dipole strength function studies in the actinide mass region. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs. (DWL)

  6. Endothelial nuclear lamina is not required for glucocorticoid receptor nuclear import but does affect receptor-mediated transcription activation.

    PubMed

    Nayebosadri, Arman; Ji, Julie Y

    2013-08-01

    The lamina serves to maintain the nuclear structure and stiffness while acting as a scaffold for heterochromatin and many transcriptional proteins. Its role in endothelial mechanotransduction, specifically how nuclear mechanics impact gene regulation under shear stress, is not fully understood. In this study, we successfully silenced lamin A/C in bovine aortic endothelial cells to determine its role in both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and glucocorticoid response element (GRE) transcriptional activation in response to dexamethasone and shear stress. Nuclear translocation of GR, an anti-inflammatory nuclear receptor, in response to dexamethasone or shear stress (5, 10, and 25 dyn/cm(2)) was observed via time-lapse cell imaging and quantified using a Bayesian image analysis algorithm. Transcriptional activity of the GRE promoter was assessed using a dual-luciferase reporter plasmid. We found no dependence on nuclear lamina for GR translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. However, the absence of lamin A/C led to significantly increased expression of luciferase under dexamethasone and shear stress induction as well as changes in histone protein function. PCR results for NF-κB inhibitor alpha (NF-κBIA) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) genes further supported our luciferase data with increased expression in the absence of lamin. Our results suggest that absence of lamin A/C does not hinder passage of GR into the nucleus, but nuclear lamina is important to properly regulate GRE transcription. Nuclear lamina, rather than histone deacetylase (HDAC), is a more significant mediator of shear stress-induced transcriptional activity, while dexamethasone-initiated transcription is more HDAC dependent. Our findings provide more insights into the molecular pathways involved in nuclear mechanotransduction.

  7. Endothelial nuclear lamina is not required for glucocorticoid receptor nuclear import but does affect receptor-mediated transcription activation

    PubMed Central

    Nayebosadri, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The lamina serves to maintain the nuclear structure and stiffness while acting as a scaffold for heterochromatin and many transcriptional proteins. Its role in endothelial mechanotransduction, specifically how nuclear mechanics impact gene regulation under shear stress, is not fully understood. In this study, we successfully silenced lamin A/C in bovine aortic endothelial cells to determine its role in both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and glucocorticoid response element (GRE) transcriptional activation in response to dexamethasone and shear stress. Nuclear translocation of GR, an anti-inflammatory nuclear receptor, in response to dexamethasone or shear stress (5, 10, and 25 dyn/cm2) was observed via time-lapse cell imaging and quantified using a Bayesian image analysis algorithm. Transcriptional activity of the GRE promoter was assessed using a dual-luciferase reporter plasmid. We found no dependence on nuclear lamina for GR translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. However, the absence of lamin A/C led to significantly increased expression of luciferase under dexamethasone and shear stress induction as well as changes in histone protein function. PCR results for NF-κB inhibitor alpha (NF-κBIA) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) genes further supported our luciferase data with increased expression in the absence of lamin. Our results suggest that absence of lamin A/C does not hinder passage of GR into the nucleus, but nuclear lamina is important to properly regulate GRE transcription. Nuclear lamina, rather than histone deacetylase (HDAC), is a more significant mediator of shear stress-induced transcriptional activity, while dexamethasone-initiated transcription is more HDAC dependent. Our findings provide more insights into the molecular pathways involved in nuclear mechanotransduction. PMID:23703529

  8. Honeybee flight metabolic rate: does it depend upon air temperature?

    PubMed

    Woods, William A; Heinrich, Bernd; Stevenson, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    Differing conclusions have been reached as to how or whether varying heat production has a thermoregulatory function in flying honeybees Apis mellifera. We investigated the effects of air temperature on flight metabolic rate, water loss, wingbeat frequency, body segment temperatures and behavior of honeybees flying in transparent containment outdoors. For periods of voluntary, uninterrupted, self-sustaining flight, metabolic rate was independent of air temperature between 19 and 37 degrees C. Thorax temperatures (T(th)) were very stable, with a slope of thorax temperature on air temperature of 0.18. Evaporative heat loss increased from 51 mW g(-1) at 25 degrees C to 158 mW g(-1) at 37 degrees C and appeared to account for head and abdomen temperature excess falling sharply over the same air temperature range. As air temperature increased from 19 to 37 degrees C, wingbeat frequency showed a slight but significant increase, and metabolic expenditure per wingbeat showed a corresponding slight but significant decrease. Bees spent an average of 52% of the measurement period in flight, with 19 of 78 bees sustaining uninterrupted voluntary flight for periods of >1 min. The fraction of time spent flying declined as air temperature increased. As the fraction of time spent flying decreased, the slope of metabolic rate on air temperature became more steeply negative, and was significant for bees flying less than 80% of the time. In a separate experiment, there was a significant inverse relationship of metabolic rate and air temperature for bees requiring frequent or constant agitation to remain airborne, but no dependence for bees that flew with little or no agitation; bees were less likely to require agitation during outdoor than indoor measurements. A recent hypothesis explaining differences between studies in the slope of flight metabolic rate on air temperature in terms of differences in metabolic capacity and thorax temperature is supported for honeybees in voluntary

  9. Iron Phosphate Glasses for Vitrifying DOE High Priority Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.W.; Day, D.E.

    2004-03-29

    Iron phosphate glasses have been studied as an alternative glass for vitrifying Department of Energy (DOE) high priority wastes. The high priority wastes were the Low Activity Waste (LAW) and the High Level Waste (HLW) with high chrome content stored at Hanford, WA, and the Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These wastes were recommended by Tanks Focus Area since they were expected to require special attention when vitrified in borosilicate glasses. All three of these wastes have been successfully vitrified in iron phosphate glasses at waste loadings ranging from a low of 32 wt% for the high sulfate LAW to 40 wt% for the SBW to a high of 75 wt% for the high chrome HLW. In addition to these desirable high waste loadings, the iron phosphate glasses were easily melted, typically between 950 and 1200 C, in less than 4 hours in commercial refractory oxide containers. It is noteworthy that the chemical durability of both glassy and deliberately crystallized iron phosphate wasteforms not only met, but significantly exceeded, all current DOE chemical durability requirements as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). The high waste loading, low melting temperature, rapid furnace throughput (short melting time) and their outstanding chemical durability could significantly accelerate the clean up effort and reduce the time and cost of vitrifying these high priority wastes.

  10. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  11. [Does ultraclean air in the operating room provide greater safety?].

    PubMed

    van Tiel, Frank H; Buiting, Anton G; Meessen, Nico E L; Voss, Andreas; Vos, Margreet C

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch quality control plan for climatisation of the operating room (OR), which was published in 2005, describes the management and maintenance of the air conditioning system. This management plan proposes a standard for air quality in class 1 ORs. This has been adopted by the Dutch Orthopaedic Society, but not by other surgical societies. The British study which underlies the proposed norm for air quality in class 1 ORs, a study on the infection preventive effect of ultraclean air, dates from 1982 and is inadequately controlled for prophylactic use of antibiotics. Antibiotic prophylaxis in itself already reduces the number of surgical site infections.-More recent studies fail to show an infection preventive effect of ultraclean air in the OR. The Dutch Working Party for Infection Prevention (WIP) ought to take the initiative, together with the medical Scientific Societies and the Society of Infection Prevention and Control in the health care setting (VHIG), to establish enforceable norms for microbiological air quality and to set criteria as to which types of operations are allowed to be performed in which class of OR.

  12. Implementation process and deployment initiatives for the regionalized storage of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Smith, N.E.L.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes how DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be stored in the interim 40-year period from 1996 to 2035, by which time it is expected to be in a National Nuclear Repository. The process is described in terms of its primary components: fuel inventory, facilities where it is stored, how the fuel will be moved, and legal issues associated with the process. Tools developed to deploy and fulfill the implementation needs of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program are also discussed.

  13. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Report to the DOE Nuclear Data Committee, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Struble, G.L.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements for nuclear data applicactions are described including branching ratio in /sup 7/Be decay, kerma factor for carbon, photoneutron cross sections, neutron differential scattering cross sections, half-life of /sup 77/Kr, stellar neutron capture rates for /sup 86/ /sup 87/ /sup 88/Sr, neutron total cross sections, /sup 142/ /sup 143/ /sup 144/Nd neutron capture nucleo-synthesis, half-life of /sup 163/Ho, thermal neutron fission of /sup 236/Np, revised branching ratios in /sup 237/U and /sup 238/Pu decays, and levels of /sup 244/Cm populated by the beta decay of 10-hour /sup 244/Am and 26-minute /sup 244m/Am. Calculations discussed include systematic test of microscopic optical models for nucleon scattering in the range 7 to 60 MeV, Lanczos method shell-model calculations of GamowTeller strength functions, explosive nucleosynthesis and direct radiative capture rates, and calculation of fission cross sections. Evaluated data libraries are briefly discussed. (WHK)

  15. Effects of Water in Canisters Containing DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Lessing

    1998-10-01

    This document is a starting analysis in an attempt to quantify the potential of problems resulting from the presence of condensed water and water vapor in sealed storage canisters containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of the 55 spent fuel types, it was determined that only three types required study to evaluate the effects of water, these types were represented by: (1) zirconium clad N-Reactor fuel, (2) aluminum clad Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) or Materials Test Reactor (MTR) fuel, (3) damaged and/or melted zirconium clad Three Mile Island (TMI) fuel. The spent fuel types were briefly described and potential problems were generalized into four catagories: (1) effects of water and the source(s) of that water, (2) effects of hydrogen generated from water, (3) pyrophoricity of uranium hydride, (4) swelling or cavitation. An extensive literature search was conducted, chemical reactions considered, and simple pressurization sensitivity calculations performed. Using the available information, conclusions were drawn and issues identified that need further consideration or analysis.

  16. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    PubMed

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is

  18. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  19. Establishing and maintaining a facility representative program at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE standard, (Establishing and Maintaining a Facility Representative Program at DOE Nuclear Facilities), is to help ensure that DOE Facility Representatives are selected based on consistently high standards and from the best qualified candidates available, that they receive the training required for them to function effectively, and that their expected duties, responsibilities, and authorities are well understood and accurately documented. To this end, this guidance provides the following practical information: (1) An approach for use in determining the required facility coverage; (2) The duties, responsibilities and authorities expected of a Facility Representative; and (3) The training and qualification expected of a Facility Representative.

  20. Nuclear Operations Air Force Doctrine Document 2-1.5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    corporate knowledge re- garding nuclear operations may fade. Nuclear doctrine provides a means of collecting that knowledge and ensuring it remains...a~ ... ....in M~um .....N. .......... m mand,~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~.. cotoad.upr.fnula.eposms.efaiirwt WSS.s for..their...system.. COMMNIC ~iO SYSTEMS

  1. Final report to DOE: Matching Grant Program for the Penn State University Nuclear Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.

    2003-01-17

    The DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program is designed to encourage collaborative support for nuclear engineering education as well as research between the nation's nuclear industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Despite a serious decline in student enrollments in the 1980s and 1990s, the discipline of nuclear engineering remained important to the advancement of the mission goals of DOE. The program is designed to ensure that academic programs in nuclear engineering are maintained and enhanced in universities throughout the U.S. At Penn State, the Matching Grant Program played a critical role in the survival of the Nuclear Engineering degree programs. Funds were used in a variety of ways to support both undergraduate and graduate students directly. Some of these included providing seed funding for new graduate research initiatives, funding the development of new course materials, supporting new teaching facilities, maintenance and purchase of teaching laboratory equipment, and providing undergraduate scholarships, graduate fellowships, and wage payroll positions for students.

  2. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  3. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Graf, J.M.; Dewart, J.M.; Buhl, T.E.; Wenzel, W.J.; Walker, L.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This guide was prepared to provide the experienced safety analyst with accident analysis guidance in greater detail than is possible in Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The guide addresses analysis of postulated serious accidents considered in the siting and selection of major design features of DOE nuclear facilities. Its scope has been limited to radiological accidents at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The analysis steps addressed in the guide lead to evaluation of radiological dose to exposed persons for comparison with siting guideline doses. Other possible consequences considered are environmental contamination, population dose, and public health effects. Choices of models and parameters leading to estimation of source terms, release fractions, reduction and removal factors, dispersion and dose factors are discussed. Although requirements for risk analysis have not been established, risk estimates are finding increased use in siting of major nuclear facilities, and are discussed in the guide. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Does air conditioning impact on hygienic quality of indoor air on seagoing vessels?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gabriele; Schepers, Bernd-Fred

    2007-01-01

    According to observations by occupational health physicians, nearly 50 % of the seamen on German vessels will get diseases of the upper respiratory tract. An impact of the air-conditioning systems on these diseases has been suggested. To examine the hygienic quality of indoor air on seagoing vessels, a pilot study was initiated by the See-Berufsgenossenschaft. Air samples were taken on-site at different sampling sites and analysed for the occurrence of microorganisms. Bacteria showed the highest cell numbers and the highest distribution in indoor air on vessels, whereby the maximum level was determined in the air of crew cabins. The identification of bacteria showed that beside common airborne species, pathogens existed. Air-conditioning seems to influence the quality of indoor air on seagoing vessels. Interim results of the study indicate that regular maintenance of air-conditioning systems is essential.

  5. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  6. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  7. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

  8. Prospective benefits analysis of the DOE Nuclear Energy portfolio: NE R&D program data assumptions, approach, & results

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Vatsal; Friley, Paul; Lee, John; Reisman, Ann

    2006-10-31

    The Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) leads the U.S. Government’s efforts to develop new nuclear energy generation technologies to meet energy and climate goals, and to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel technologies that maximize energy from nuclear fuel; contributes to the R&D for a possible transition to a hydrogen economy; and maintains and enhances the national nuclear technology infrastructure. NE serves the present and future energy needs of the Nation by managing the safe operation and maintenance of the Department of Energy (DOE) critical nuclear in frastructure, providing nuclear technology goods and services, and conducting R&D.

  9. AIRE-induced apoptosis is associated with nuclear translocation of stress sensor protein GAPDH.

    PubMed

    Liiv, Ingrid; Haljasorg, Uku; Kisand, Kai; Maslovskaja, Julia; Laan, Martti; Peterson, Pärt

    2012-06-22

    AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator) has a central role in the transcriptional regulation of self-antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells, which is necessary for negative selection of autoreactive T cells. Recent data have shown that AIRE can also induce apoptosis, which may be linked to cross-presentation of these self-antigens. Here we studied AIRE-induced apoptosis using AIRE over-expression in a thymic epithelial cell line as well as doxycycline-inducible HEK293 cells. We show that the HSR/CARD domain in AIRE together with a nuclear localization signal is sufficient to induce apoptosis. In the nuclei of AIRE-positive cells, we also found an increased accumulation of a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH) reflecting cellular stress and apoptosis. Additionally, AIRE-induced apoptosis was inhibited with an anti-apoptotic agent deprenyl that blocks GAPDH nitrosylation and nuclear translocation. We propose that the AIRE-induced apoptosis pathway is associated with GAPDH nuclear translocation and induction of NO-induced cellular stress in AIRE-expressing cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.; Graf, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    DOE Office of Nuclear Safety has sponsored preparation of a guidance document to aid field offices and contractors in their analyses of consequences of postulated major accidents. The guide addresses the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.1A, Chapter V, and 6430.1, including the general requirement that DOE nuclear facilities be sited, designed, and operated in accordance with standards, codes, and guides consistent with those applied to comparable licensed nuclear facilities. The guide includes both philosophical and technical information in the areas of: siting guidelines doses applied to an offsite reference person; consideration also given to an onsite reference person; physical parameters, models, and assumptions to be applied when calculating doses for comparison to siting criteria; and potential accident consequences other than radiological dose to a reference person which might affect siting and major design features of the facility, such as environmental contamination, population dose, and associated public health effects. Recommendations and/or clarifications are provided where this could be done without adding new requirements. In this regard, the guide is considered a valuable aid to the safety analyst, especially where requirements have been subject to inconsistent interpretation or where analysis methods are in transition, such as use of dose model (ICRP 2 or ICRP 30) or use of probabilistic methods of risk analysis in the siting and design of nuclear facilities.

  11. Report to DOE and Exelon Corporation: Matching Grant Program for the Nuclear Engineering Program at University of Wisconsin, Madison

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael L.

    2002-02-18

    The DOE Industry Matching Grant Program, which began in 1992, is designed to encourage collaborative support for nuclear engineering education as well as research between the nation's nuclear industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over the past two decades nuclear engineering programs in the United States have witnessed a serious decline in student enrollments, number of faculty members and support from their host universities. Despite this decline, the discipline of nuclear engineering remains important to the advancement of the mission goals of the U.S. Department of Energy. These academic programs are also critically important in maintaining a viable workforce for the nation's nuclear industry. As conceived by Commonwealth Edison, this program has focused on creating a partnership between DOE and private sector businesses, which employ nuclear engineers. The program is designed to ensure that academic programs in nuclear engineering are maintained and enhanced in universities throughout the United States.

  12. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  13. DOE/Industrial Matching Grant to Support Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear-Related /Disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, David M.

    2002-08-31

    Final Report - Assurance is given that monies received through the matching grant were, in general, disburse as outlined in the original proposal. Specifically, the grant funded graduate students who participated in the nuclear engineering course opinions. The contract provided for a number of research stipends and student salaries for graduates working with industrial partners affiliated with the CENTER/NEP program (i.e., Envirocare, E-cubed, Aerotest, Little Mountain/Boeing). When necessary, supplies were purchased that supported these student activities. No funds were distributed for faculty or staff salaries.

  14. Looking to the Future of the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    8-Steps Dr. John Kotter is an American writer and educator from Harvard Business School writing many books on organizational structures and how to... Business Review Press. Kozak, W. (2009). LeMay: The Life and Wars of General Curtis LeMay. Washington DC: Regenery Publishing Inc. Lambeth, B. S...end of the Cold War was Air Combat Command (ACC). The ICBMs would move out of ACC to Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) in 1993. A thorough review was

  15. Annular air space effects on nuclear waste canister temperatures in a deep geologic waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, W.E.; Cheung, H.; Davis, B.W.

    1980-05-13

    Air spaces in a deep geologic repository for nuclear high level waste will have an important effect on the long-term performance of the waste package. The important temperature effects of an annular air gap surrounding a high level waste canister are determined through 3-D numerical modeling. Air gap properties and parameters specifically analyzed and presented are the air gap size, surfaces emissivity, presence of a sleeve, and initial thermal power generation rate; particular emphasis was placed on determining the effect of these variables have on the canister surface temperature. Finally a discussion based on modeling results is presented which specifically relates the results to NRC regulatory considerations.

  16. Deployment evaluation methodology for the electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-EM spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, C.A.; Adams, J.P.; Ramer, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Part of the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory may require some type of treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. The current focus for much of this spent nuclear fuel is the electrometallurgical treatment process under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Potential flowsheets for this treatment process are presented. Deployment of the process for the treatment of the spent nuclear fuel requires evaluation to determine the spent nuclear fuel program need for treatment and compatibility of the spent nuclear fuel with the process. The evaluation of need includes considerations of cost, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule to treat a proposed fuel. A siting evaluation methodology has been developed to account for these variables. A work breakdown structure is proposed to gather life-cycle cost information to allow evaluation of alternative siting strategies on a similar basis. The evaluation methodology, while created specifically for the electrometallurgical evaluation, has been written such that it could be applied to any potential treatment process that is a disposition option for spent nuclear fuel. Future work to complete the evaluation of the process for electrometallurgical treatment is discussed.

  17. Proceedings of EPRI/DOE workshop on nuclear industry valve problems

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Representatives from 29 nuclear industry organizations (11 valve manufacturers, 4 nuclear steam supply system vendors, 5 utilities, 3 national laboratories, 2 architect/engineering firms, the Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, and 2 others) attended the workshop. Working sessions on key valves and on valve stem and seat leakage developed the following recommendations: (1) establish a small permanent expert staff to collect, analyze, and disseminate information about nuclear valve problems; (2) perform generic key valve programs for pressurized water reactors and for boiling water reactors, and several plant specific key valve programs, the latter to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of such studies; (3) confirm the identity of, define, and initiate needed longer term research and development programs dealing with seat and stem leakage; and (4) establish an industry working group to review and advise on these efforts. Separate abstracts were prepared for three papers which are included in the appendix. (DLC)

  18. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA/DOE Task Team study

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. ); Borowski, S. . Lewis Research Center); Motloch, C. ); Helms, I. ); Diaz, N.; Anghaie, S. ); Latham, T. (United

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of the concepts on a level technological playing field,'' and to identify critical technologies, issues, and early proof-of-concept experiments. The concepts included the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter. The results of the studies by the panel will be provided. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Iodine evolution from nuclear fuel dissolver solutions by air sparging

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.G.; Holland, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Iodine removal rates were measured from air-sparged nitric acid solutions in experiments designed to simulate part of the iodine recovery system in an advanced fuel reprocessing flowsheet. Variables studied were temperature, sparge rate, and iodine and acid concentrations. Experimental mass transfer coefficients were determined and compared to results based on correlations available in the literature.

  20. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  1. The Evolution of Air and Nuclear Doctrine: The Theories that Shaped SIOP-62

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    THE EVOLUTION OF AIR AND NUCLEAR DOCTRINE: THE THEORIES THAT SHAPED SIOP-62 BY DAVID J. WYRICK A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...success in completing this work. vi ABSTRACT This study analyzes the evolution of Airpower doctrine from 1920- 1962. The key event...Tammy Davis Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The evolution of British and American Ideas about Strategic Bombing, 1914-1945 (Princeton

  2. A nuclear powered air cushion freighter for the 1980's.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    A design for a transoceanic, dry cargo-carrying freighter is suggested; its use and operation in port are discussed. With a gross weight of 4500 metric tons (5000 tons), more than 50 percent of which is cargo, it will cruise at 50 meters per second (100 knots) in waves 2.4 meters (8 ft) high. Its peripheral jet-flexible skirt air cushion concept and air thrustors will let the freighter go over waves 8 meters high at reduced velocity. Power comes from a 1280 megawatt, helium-cooled thermal reactor. It could dock at any major port in the world, but because it needs no surface contact, it could also travel inland to land-locked ports. A modular terminal design and methods of cargo transfer are suggested. The concept of cargo containerization influences both the freighter and terminal design.

  3. Does Current Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses Doctrine Support Air Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    Blowpipe, or Stinger missiles. Hybrid SHORAD systems, such as the 2S6M " Tunguska " and the Avenger system, combine both guns and short-range SAMs on the...Archie, Flak, AAA. and SAM, (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1988), 115. 4Monch Publishing Group, ŖS6M Tunguska : The world’s first gun...NVA offensive. Events would prove that this timetable was too ambitious for the ARVN. Intelliaence At the start of the battle, the NVA in Laos

  4. Application of nuclear air cleaning and treatment codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1995-02-01

    All modifications to existing ventilation systems, as well as any new ventilation systems used on the Hanford Site are required to meet both American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes N509 and N510. Difficulties encountered when applying code N509 at the Hanford Site include the composition of the ventilation air stream and requirements related to ventilation equipment procurement. Also, the existing ventilation systems for the waste tanks at the Hanford Site cannot be tested in accordance with code N510 because of the current configuration of these systems.

  5. Development of a techno-economic model to optimization DOE spent nuclear fuel disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ramer, R.J.; Plum, M.M.; Adams, J.P.; Dahl, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNF) Program conducted by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co. (LMITCO) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is to evaluate what to do with the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Final disposition of the SNF may require that the fuel be treated to minimize material concerns. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. Treatment options and treatment locations will depend on the fuel type and the current locations of the fuel. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating the SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost of each option. An economic analysis will assist in determining which fuel treatment alternative attains the optimum disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public. For this study, a set of questions was developed for the electrometallurgical treatment process for fuels at several locations. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with the design, construction, and operation of a production facility. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products to final disposition. Costs will be applied to determine the life-cycle cost of each option. This technique can also be applied to other treatment techniques for treating spent nuclear fuel.

  6. DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Information In Support of TSPA-VA

    SciTech Connect

    A. Brewer; D. Cresap; D. Fillmore; H. Loo; M. Ebner; R. McCormack

    1998-09-01

    RW has started the viability assessment (VA) effort to determine the feasibility of Yucca Mountain as the first geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste. One component of the viability assessment will be a total system performance assessment (TSPA), based on the design concept and the scientific data and analysis available, describing the repository's probable behavior relative to the overall system performance standards. Thus, all the data collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility to-date have been incorporated into the latest TSPA model. In addition, the Repository Integration Program, an integrated probabilistic simulator, used in the TSPA has also been updated by Golder Associates Incorporated at December 1997. To ensure that the Department of Energy-owned (DOE-owned) SNF continues to be acceptable for disposal in the repository, it will be included in the TSPA-VA evaluation. A number of parameters are needed in the TSPA-VA models to predict the performance of the DOE-owned SNF materials placed into the potential repository. This report documents all of the basis and/or derivation for each of these parameters. A number of properties were not readily available at the time the TSPA-VA data was requested. Thus, expert judgement and opinion was utilized to determine a best property value. The performance of the DOE-owned SNF will be published as part of the TSPA-VA report. Each DOE site will be collecting better data as the DOE SNF program moves closer to repository license application. As required by the RW-0333P, the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program will be assisting each site in qualifying the information used to support the performance assessment evaluations.

  7. Direct high-resolution alpha spectrometry from nuclear fuel particles in an outdoor air sample.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of direct high-resolution alpha spectrometry to identify the presence of transactinium elements in air samples is illustrated in the case when alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides are incorporated in nuclear fuel particles. Alpha particle energy spectra are generated through Monte Carlo simulations assuming a nuclide composition similar to RBMK (Chernobyl) nuclear fuel. The major alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides, in terms of activity, are 242Cm, 239Pu and 240Pu. The characteristics of the alpha peaks are determined by fuel particle properties as well as the type of the air filter. It is shown that direct alpha spectrometry can be readily applied to membrane filter samples containing nuclear fuel particles when rapid nuclide identification is of relevance. However, the development of a novel spectrum analysis code is a prerequisite for unfolding complex alpha spectra.

  8. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Mochiji, Toshiro; Keeney, R.; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakhleh, C.; Puckett, J.; Stanbro, W.

    1999-01-01

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet No. 21, which was signed in February 1996, ``The Joint Research on Transparency in Nuclear Nonproliferation`` under the ``Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation``. The purpose of Action Sheet 21 is to provide a fundamental study on Transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability for the nuclear energy from the nuclear nonproliferation point of view. This project consists of independent research and then joint discussion at workshops that address a series of topics and issues in transparency. The activities covered in Action Sheet 21 took place over a period of 18 months. Three workshops were held; the first and the third hosted by PNC in Tokyo, Japan and the second hosted by LANL in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US. The following is a summary of the three workshops. The first workshop addressed the policy environment of transparency. Each side presented its perspective on the following issues: (1) a definition of transparency, (2) reasons for transparency, (3) detailed goals of transparency and (4) obstacles to transparency. The topic of the second workshop was ``Development of Transparency Options.`` The activities accomplished were (1) identify type of facilities where transparency might be applied, (2) define criteria for applying transparency, and (3) delineate applicable transparency options. The goal of the third workshop, ``Technical Options for Transparency,`` was to (1) identify conceptual options for transparency system design; (2) identify instrumentation, measurement, data collection and data processing options; (3) identify data display options; and (4) identify technical

  9. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May...

  10. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May...

  11. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May...

  12. A study of air-operated valves in U.S. nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rothberg, O.; Khericha, S.; Watkins, J.; Holbrook, M.

    2000-02-01

    A study of air-operated valves in nuclear power plant applications was conducted for the NRC Office of Research (the project was initiated by NRC/AEOD). The results of the study were based on visits to seven nuclear power plant sites, literature studies, and examinations of event records in databases available to the NRC. The purpose is to provide information to the NRC staff concerning capabilities and performance of air-operated valves (AOVs). Descriptions of air systems and AOVs were studied along with the support systems and equipment. Systems and equipment that contain AOVs and SOVs were studied to determine their dependencies. Applications of AOVs and SOVs were listed along with current NRC requirements.

  13. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  14. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation - Results of the NASA/DOE task team study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Borowski, Stanley; Motloch, Chet; Helms, Ira; Diaz, Nils; Anghaie, Samim; Latham, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops, six task teams were created to continue evaluation of various propulsion concepts, from which evolved an innovative concepts subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. This subpanel endeavored to evaluate each concept on a level technology basis, and to identify critical issues, technologies, and early proof-of-concept experiments. Results of the concept studies including the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter are presented.

  15. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation - Results of the NASA/DOE task team study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Borowski, Stanley; Motloch, Chet; Helms, Ira; Diaz, Nils; Anghaie, Samim; Latham, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops, six task teams were created to continue evaluation of various propulsion concepts, from which evolved an innovative concepts subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. This subpanel endeavored to evaluate each concept on a level technology basis, and to identify critical issues, technologies, and early proof-of-concept experiments. Results of the concept studies including the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter are presented.

  16. Environmental dose assessment methods for normal operations at DOE nuclear sites

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    Methods for assessing public exposure to radiation from normal operations at DOE facilities are reviewed in this report. The report includes a discussion of environmental doses to be calculated, a review of currently available environmental pathway models and a set of recommended models for use when environmental pathway modeling is necessary. Currently available models reviewed include those used by DOE contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations involved in environmental assessments. General modeling areas considered for routine releases are atmospheric transport, airborne pathways, waterborne pathways, direct exposure to penetrating radiation, and internal dosimetry. The pathway models discussed in this report are applicable to long-term (annual) uniform releases to the environment: they do not apply to acute releases resulting from accidents or emergency situations.

  17. DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Information in Support of TSPA-SR

    SciTech Connect

    H. H. Loo

    1999-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has started the recommendation (SR) effort to show that Yucca Mountain could be selected as the first geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste. One component of the site recommendation will be a total system performance assessment (TSPA), based on the design concept and the scientific data and analysis available, describing the repository's probable behavior relative to the overall system performance standards. Thus, all the data collected from the Exploratory Studies Facilities to-date have been incorporated into the latest TSPA model. To ensure that the DOE-owned SNF continues to be acceptable for disposal in the repository, it will be included in the TSPA-SR evaluation. A number of parameters are needed in the TSPA-SR models to predict the performance of the DOE-owned SNF materials placed into the potential repository. This report documents all of the basis and/or derivation for each of these parameters. A number of properties were not readily available at the time the TSPA-SR data were requested. Thus, expert judgement and opinion were used to determine a best property value. The performance of the DOE-owned SNF will be published as part of the TSPA-SR report.

  18. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  19. Development of a Techno-Economic Model to Optimize DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ramer, R. J.; Plum, M. M.; Adams, J. P.; Dahl, C. A.

    1998-02-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNF) Program is evaluating final disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNE) in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Final disposition of SNF may require that the fuel be treated to minimize material concerns. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. Treatment options and treatment locations will depend on fuel type and location of the fuel. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost of each option. An economic analysis will assist in determining which fuel treatment alternative attains the optimum disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public. For this study, a set of questions was developed for the EMT process for fuels at several locations. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with design, construction, and operation of a production facility. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products to final disposition. Costs can be applied to determine the life cycle cost of each option. This technique can also be applied to other treatment techniques for treating SNF.

  20. Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Dahl; J.P. Adams; M.A. Rynearson; R.J. Ramer

    1999-02-01

    The Department of Energy - Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is charged with the disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). While direct repository disposal of the SNF is the preferred disposition option, some DOE SNF may need treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. As a planning basis, a need is assumed for a treatment process, either as a primary or backup technology, that is compatible with, and cost-effective for, this portion of the DOE-EM inventory. The current planning option for treating this SNF, pending completion of development work and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, is the EMT process under development by Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W). A decision on the deployment of the EMT is pending completion of an engineering scale demonstration currently in progress at ANL-W. For this study, a set of questions was developed for the EMT process for fuels at several locations. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with design, construction, and operation of a production facility. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products to final disposition. Costs were applied to determine the life-cycle cost of each option. This technique can also be applied to other treatment techniques for treating SNF.

  1. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J.

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  2. Does air pollution play a role in infertility?: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carré, Julie; Gatimel, Nicolas; Moreau, Jessika; Parinaud, Jean; Léandri, Roger

    2017-07-28

    Air pollution is involved in many pathologies. These pollutants act through several mechanisms that can affect numerous physiological functions, including reproduction: as endocrine disruptors or reactive oxygen species inducers, and through the formation of DNA adducts and/or epigenetic modifications. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the impact of air pollution on reproductive function. Eligible studies were selected from an electronic literature search from the PUBMED database from January 2000 to February 2016 and associated references in published studies. Search terms included (1) ovary or follicle or oocyte or testis or testicular or sperm or spermatozoa or fertility or infertility and (2) air quality or O3 or NO2 or PM2.5 or diesel or SO2 or traffic or PM10 or air pollution or air pollutants. The literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We have included the human and animal studies corresponding to the search terms and published in English. We have excluded articles whose results did not concern fertility or gamete function and those focused on cancer or allergy. We have also excluded genetic, auto-immune or iatrogenic causes of reduced reproduction function from our analysis. Finally, we have excluded animal data that does not concern mammals and studies based on results from in vitro culture. Data have been grouped according to the studied pollutants in order to synthetize their impact on fertility and the molecular pathways involved. Both animal and human epidemiological studies support the idea that air pollutants cause defects during gametogenesis leading to a drop in reproductive capacities in exposed populations. Air quality has an impact on overall health as well as on the reproductive function, so increased awareness of environmental protection issues is needed among the general public and the authorities.

  3. Summary of the environmental dose models used at DOE nuclear sites in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Mueller, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    Methods for assessing public exposure to radiation from normal operations at DOE facilities are reviewed in this report. This review includes a summary of the methods used in 1979 as described in annual environmental reports submitted by Department of Energy (DOE) contractors. The methods used ranged from estimating public doses based on environmental measurements and comparison to the DOE concentration guides, to complex methods using environmental pathway modeling and estimated radionuclide releases. No two sites used the same combination of measurements and pathway models in their analysis. While most sites used an atmospheric dispersion model to predict air concentrations of radioactive material, only about half of the sites provided enough information about the model used to permit proper model evaluation. The waterborne pathways related to drinking water or ingestion of fish were generally well described, while the external exposure or terrestrial food pathways were often not considered. The major recommendation resulting from this review was that complete documentations of the models used should be included either within the annual reports or as separate readily available documents. In addition, most sites could make better use of graphics (i.e., tables and figures) to better communicate the findings of their analyses.

  4. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  5. Summary of Preliminary Criticality Analysis for Peach Bottom Fuel in the DOE Standardized Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister

    SciTech Connect

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1999-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is developing a standardized set of canisters for DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). These canisters will be used for DOE SNF handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository. Several fuels are being examined in conjunction with the DOE SNF canisters. This report summarizes the preliminary criticality safety analysis that addresses general fissile loading limits for Peach Bottom graphite fuel in the DOE SNF canister. The canister is considered both alone and inside the 5-HLW/DOE Long Spent Fuel Co-disposal Waste Package, and in intact and degraded conditions. Results are appropriate for a single DOE SNF canister. Specific facilities, equipment, canister internal structures, and scenarios for handling, storage, and transportation have not yet been defined and are not evaluated in this analysis. The analysis assumes that the DOE SNF canister is designed so that it maintains reasonable geometric integrity. Parameters important to the results are the canister outer diameter, inner diameter, and wall thickness. These parameters are assumed to have nominal dimensions of 45.7-cm (18.0-in.), 43.815-cm (17.25-in), and 0.953-cm (0.375-in.), respectively. Based on the analysis results, the recommended fissile loading for the DOE SNF canister is 13 Peach Bottom fuel elements if no internal steel is present, and 15 Peach Bottom fuel elements if credit is taken for internal steel.

  6. UMCP-BG and E collaboration in nuclear power engineering in the framework of DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Lothar PhD

    2000-03-01

    The DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program has been established to support the education of students in Nuclear Engineering Programs to maintain a knowledgeable workforce in the United States in order to keep nuclear power as a viable component in a mix of energy sources for the country. The involvement of the utility industry ensures that this grant program satisfies the needs and requirements of local nuclear energy producers and at the same time establishes a strong linkage between education and day-to-day nuclear power generation. As of 1997, seventeen pairs of university-utility partners existed. UMCP was never a member of that group of universities, but applied for the first time with a proposal to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company in January 1999 [1]. This proposal was generously granted by BG&E [2,3] in the form of a gift in the amount of $25,000 from BG&E's Corporate Contribution Program. Upon the arrival of a newly appointed Director of Administration in the Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, the BG&E check was deposited into the University's Maryland Foundation Fund. The receipt of the letter and the check enabled UMCP to apply for DOE's matching funds in the same amount by a proposal.

  7. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, James W., LTC

    2000-09-15

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Joint DOD/DOE Nuclear Weapons Accident Exercise (NUWAX-79). After Action Report. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-24

    Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory, 17 , Air Force Systems Command, USAF. iS Ŝ. Interservice Nuclear Weapon School , 3416th Technical...mpires 15 ERDA (5/15) 20 16 Army (3/7) 10 17 Navy (6/6) 12 18 USAF (15/25) 40 19 Interservice Nuclear 20 Weapons School (2/6) 8 21 DNA/FCDNA (3/0) 3 2...Interservice Nuclear Weapons School (INWS) Training Area, Kirtland 7 AFB (KAFB), NM (See Appendix B-1-1, KAFB Map.) 8 𔃻. Advantages. 9 I"a. Relative short

  9. Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel at U.S. DOE Facilities Experience and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W. Carlsen; Eric Woolstenhulme; Roger McCormack

    2005-11-01

    From a handling perspective, any spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that has lost its original technical and functional design capabilities with regard to handling and confinement can be considered as damaged. Some SNF was damaged as a result of experimental activities and destructive examinations; incidents during packaging, handling, and transportation; or degradation that has occurred during storage. Some SNF was mechanically destroyed to protect proprietary SNF designs. Examples of damage to the SNF include failed cladding, failed fuel meat, sectioned test specimens, partially reprocessed SNFs, over-heated elements, dismantled assemblies, and assemblies with lifting fixtures removed. In spite of the challenges involved with handling and storage of damaged SNF, the SNF has been safely handled and stored for many years at DOE storage facilities. This report summarizes a variety of challenges encountered at DOE facilities during interim storage and handling operations along with strategies and solutions that are planned or were implemented to ameliorate those challenges. A discussion of proposed paths forward for moving damaged and nondamaged SNF from interim storage to final disposition in the geologic repository is also presented.

  10. Performance Assessment of a Generic Repository in Bedded Salt for DOE-Managed Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. R.; Sevougian, S. D.; Hammond, G. E.; Frederick, J. M.; Mariner, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    A mined repository in salt is one of the concepts under consideration for disposal of DOE-managed defense-related spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW). Bedded salt is a favorable medium for disposal of nuclear waste due to its low permeability, high thermal conductivity, and ability to self-heal. Sandia's Generic Disposal System Analysis framework is used to assess the ability of a generic repository in bedded salt to isolate radionuclides from the biosphere. The performance assessment considers multiple waste types of varying thermal load and radionuclide inventory, the engineered barrier system comprising the waste packages, backfill, and emplacement drifts, and the natural barrier system formed by a bedded salt deposit and the overlying sedimentary sequence (including an aquifer). The model simulates disposal of nearly the entire inventory of DOE-managed, defense-related SNF (excluding Naval SNF) and HLW in a half-symmetry domain containing approximately 6 million grid cells. Grid refinement captures the detail of 25,200 individual waste packages in 180 disposal panels, associated access halls, and 4 shafts connecting the land surface to the repository. Equations describing coupled heat and fluid flow and reactive transport are solved numerically with PFLOTRAN, a massively parallel flow and transport code. Simulated processes include heat conduction and convection, waste package failure, waste form dissolution, radioactive decay and ingrowth, sorption, solubility limits, advection, dispersion, and diffusion. Simulations are run to 1 million years, and radionuclide concentrations are observed within an aquifer at a point approximately 4 kilometers downgradient of the repository. The software package DAKOTA is used to sample likely ranges of input parameters including waste form dissolution rates and properties of engineered and natural materials in order to quantify uncertainty in predicted concentrations and sensitivity to input parameters. Sandia

  11. Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ramer, Ronald James; Adams, James Paul; Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Dahl, Christian Adam

    1999-03-01

    The Department of Energy - Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is charged with the disposition of legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The NSNFP, conducted by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co. (LMITCO) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is evaluating final disposition of SNF in the DOE complex. While direct repository disposal of the SNF is the preferred disposition option, some DOE SNF may need treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. Evaluations of treatment needs and options have been previously prepared, and further evaluations are ongoing activities in the DOE-EM NSNFP. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. As a planning basis, a need is assumed for a treatment process, either as a primary or backup technology, that is compatible with, and cost-effective for, this portion of the DOE-EM inventory. The current planning option for treating this SNF, pending completion of development work and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, is the EMT process under development by Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W). A decision on the deployment of the EMT is pending completion of an engineering scale demonstration currently in progress at ANL-W. Treatment options and treatment locations will depend on fuel type and location of the fuel. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost of each option. An economic analysis will assist in determining which fuel treatment alternative attains the optimum disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public. One of the major issues associated with SNF treatment is final disposition of treatment products and associated waste streams. During conventional SNF treatment, various chemicals are added that may increase the product

  12. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title V operating permit program requirements for the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    Title V of the Clean Air Act (CAA) establishes a new permit program requiring major sources and sources subject to Title III (Hazardous Air Pollutants) to obtain a state operating permit. Historically, most states have issued operating permits for individual emission units. Under the Title V permit program, a single permit will be issued for all of the emission units at the facility much like the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. The permit will specify all reporting, monitoring, and record-keeping requirements for the facility. Sources required to obtain permits include (a) major sources that emit 100 tons per year or more of any criteria air contaminant, (b) any source subject to the HAP provisions of Title III, (c) any source subject to the acid rain provisions of Title IV, (d) any source subject to New Source Performance Standards, and (e) any source subject to new source review under the nonattainment or Prevention of Significant Deterioration provisions. The State of Tennessee Title V Operating Permit Program was approved by EPA on August 28, 1996. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title V Operating Permit Program. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the ETTP conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. Each of the three DOE Facilities is considered a major source under Title V of the CAA.

  13. Natural ³⁷Ar concentrations in soil air: implications for monitoring underground nuclear explosions.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Robin A; Purtschert, Roland

    2011-10-15

    For on-site inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) measurement of the noble gas ³⁷Ar is considered an important technique. ³⁷Ar is produced underground by neutron activation of Calcium by the reaction ⁴⁰Ca(n,α)³⁷Ar. The naturally occurring equilibrium ³⁷Ar concentration balance in soil air is a function of an exponentially decreasing production rate from cosmic ray neutrons with increasing soil depth, diffusive transport in the soil air, and radioactive decay (T(1/2): 35 days). In this paper for the first time, measurements of natural ³⁷Ar activities in soil air are presented. The highest activities of ~100 mBq m⁻³ air are 2 orders of magnitude larger than in the atmosphere and are found in 1.5-2.5 m depth. At depths > 8 m ³⁷Ar activities are < 20 mBq m⁻³ air. After identifying the main ³⁷Ar production and gas transport factors the expected global activity range distribution of ³⁷Ar in shallow subsoil (0.7 m below the surface) was estimated. In high altitude soils, with large amounts of Calcium and with low gas permeability, ³⁷Ar activities may reach values up to 1 Bq m⁻³.

  14. Air pathway effects of nuclear materials production at the Hanford Site, 1983 to 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the air pathway effects of Hanford Site operations from 1983 to 1992 on the local environment by summarizing the air concentrations of selected radionuclides at both onsite and offsite locations, comparing trends in environment concentrations to changing facility emissions, and briefly describing trends in the radiological dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed member of the public. The years 1983 to 1992 represent the last Hanford Site plutonium production campaign, and this report deals mainly with the air pathway effects from the 200 Areas, in which the major contributors to radiological emissions were located. An additional purpose for report was to review the environmental data for a long period of time to provide insight not available in an annual report format. The sampling and analytical systems used by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) to collect air samples during the period of this report were sufficiently sensitive to observe locally elevated concentrations of selected radionuclides near onsite source of emission as well as observing elevated levels, compared to distant locations, of some radionuclides at the down wind perimeter. The US DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) for airborne radionuclides were not exceeded for any air sample collected during 1983 to 1992, with annual average concentrations of all radionuclides at the downwind perimeter being considerably below the DCG values. Air emissions at the Hanford Site during the period of this report were dominated by releases from the PUREX Plant, with {sup 85}Kr being the major release on a curie basis and {sup 129}I being the major release on a radiological dose basis. The estimated potential radiological dose from Hanford Site point source emissions to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) ranged from 0. 02 to 0.22 mrem/yr (effective dose equivalent), which is well below the DOE radiation limit to the public of 100 mrem/yr.

  15. The Logic of Integrating Conventional and Nuclear Planning [Integration of conventional and nuclear: What does it mean?

    DOE PAGES

    Manzo, Vincent A.; Miles, Aaron R.

    2016-10-31

    In October 2015, Secretary of Defense Carter called for NATO to better integrate conventional and nuclear deterrence. Four months later, Assistant Secretary of Defense Robert Scher stated in Senate testimony that the DoD is "working to ensure an appropriate level of integration between nuclear and conventional planning and operations."

  16. Nuclear substructure reorganization during late stageerythropoiesis is selective and does not involve caspase cleavage ofmajor nuclear substructural proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Koury, MarkJ.; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2005-04-06

    Enucleation, a rare feature of mammalian differentiation, occurs in three cell types: erythroblasts, lens epithelium and keratinocytes. Previous investigations suggest that caspase activation functions in lens epithelial and keratinocyte enucleation, as well as in early erythropoiesis encompassing BFU-E differentiation to proerythroblast. To determine whether caspase activation contributes to later erythropoiesis and whether nuclear substructures other than chromatin reorganize, we analyzed distributions of nuclear subcompartment proteins and assayed for caspase-induced cleavage of subcompartmental target proteins in mouse erythroblasts. We found that patterns of lamin B in the filamentous network interacting with both the nuclear envelope and DNA, nuclear matrix protein NuMA, and splicing factors Sm and SC35 persisted during nuclear condensation, consistent with effective transcription of genes expressed late in differentiation. Thus nuclear reorganization prior to enucleation is selective, allowing maintenance of critical transcriptional processes independent of extensive chromosomal reorganization. Consistent with these data, we found no evidence for caspase-induced cleavage of major nuclear subcompartment proteins during late erythropoiesis, in contrast to what has been observed in early erythropoiesis and in lens epithelial and keratinocyte differentiation. These findings imply that nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal erythroid differentiation involve novel mechanisms that do not entail major activation of apoptotic machinery.

  17. 76 FR 42686 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2011-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... workers, the public, and the environment. DOE line management is both responsible and accountable for.... We hold our contractors to the same standard. A strong nuclear safety and quality culture is the... Environmental Management (EM) requested that HSS conduct a comprehensive analysis of the safety culture at...

  18. 78 FR 9902 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford Tank Farms..., Hanford Tank Farms Flammable Gas Safety Strategy. This document corrects an error in that notice....

  19. Artificial radioactivity in environmental media (air, rainwater, soil, vegetation) in Austria after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Merz, Stefan; Hainz, Dieter; Sterba, Johannes H

    2013-04-01

    Several environmental media in Austria were monitored for artificial radionuclides released during the Fukushima nuclear accident. Air (up to 1.2 mBq/m(3) particulate (131)I) and rainwater (up to 5.2 Bq/L (131)I) proved to be the media best suited for the environmental monitoring, allowing also a temporal resolution of the activity levels. Significant regional differences in the wet deposition of (131)I with rain could be observed within the city of Vienna during the arrival of the contaminated air masses. Forward-trajectory analysis supported the hypothesis that the contaminated air masses coming from the northwest changed direction to northeast over Northern Austria, leading to a strong activity concentration gradient over Vienna. In the course of the environmental monitoring of the Fukushima releases, this phenomenon-significant differences of (131)I activity concentrations in rainwater on a narrow local scale (8.1 km)-appears to be unique. Vegetation (grass) was contaminated with (131)I and/or (137)Cs at a low level. Soil (up to 22 Bq/kg (137)Cs) was only affected by previous releases (nuclear weapon tests, Chernobyl). Here, also significant local differences can be observed due to different deposition rates during the Chernobyl accident. The effective ecological half-lives of (137)Cs in soil were calculated for four locations in Austria. They range from 7 to 30 years. No Austrian sample investigated herein exceeded the detection limit for (134)Cs; hence, the Fukushima nuclear accident did not contribute significantly to the total radiocesium inventory in Austrian environmental media. The levels of detected radioactivity were of no concern for public health.

  20. Dry air oxidation kinetics of K-Basin spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Abrefah, J.; Buchanan, H.C.; Gerry, W.M.; Gray, W.J.; Marschman, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    The safety and process analyses of the proposed Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) to move the N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at K-Basin to an interim storage facility require information about the oxidation behavior of the metallic uranium. Limited experiments have been performed on the oxidation reaction of SNF samples taken from an N-Reactor outer fuel element in various atmospheres. This report discusses studies on the oxidation behavior of SNF using two independent experimental systems: (1) a tube furnace with a flowing gas mixture of 2% oxygen/98% argon; and (2) a thermogravimetric system for dry air oxidation.

  1. 137Cs in the Ground Level Air and Deposition in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiulionis, R.; Rozkov, A.

    2007-04-01

    Results of 137Cs activity concentration measurements in the ground level air and deposition at the station of the Institute of Physics situated 3.5 km from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Ignalina NPP), Lithuania, in 2002-2006 are analyzed. 137Cs atmospheric depositional fluxes are estimated, and particle deposition rates are calculated. Results on solubility in water of atmospheric aerosols - carriers of 137Cs - are discussed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model of the global dispersion and deposition is used to explain increases in 137Cs activity concentration in the ground-level air and deposition in the Ignalina NPP region. Modelling results show that the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Sarcophagus can be a source of 137Cs to the environment of the Ignalina NPP.

  2. Mortality of older construction and craft workers employed at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Ringen, Knut; Welch, Laura S; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established medical screening programs at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, the Savannah River Site, and the Amchitka site starting in 1996. Workers participating in these programs have been followed to determine their vital status and mortality experience through December 31, 2004. A cohort of 8,976 former construction workers from Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, and Amchitka was followed using the National Death Index through December 31, 2004, to ascertain vital status and causes of death. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on US death rates. Six hundred and seventy-four deaths occurred in this cohort and overall mortality was slightly less than expected (SMR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-1.01), indicating a "healthy worker effect." However, significantly excess mortality was observed for all cancers (SMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.45), lung cancer (SMR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.24-1.87), mesothelioma (SMR = 5.93, 95% CI = 2.56-11.68), and asbestosis (SMR = 33.89, 95% CI = 18.03-57.95). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was in excess at Oak Ridge and multiple myeloma was in excess at Hanford. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was significantly elevated among workers at the Savannah River Site (SMR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.02-3.29). DOE construction workers at these four sites were found to have significantly excess risk for combined cancer sites included in the Department of Labor' Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program (EEOCIPA). Asbestos-related cancers were significantly elevated. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  4. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored. This report summarizes the progress achieved after only seven months of work on a three-year project.'

  5. EMSP project summary (Project ID: 60077): Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Rearden, B.T.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypical analysis capabilities that can be used by nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, this project has been investigating the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses. It is also investigating the use of a new deterministic code that allows for specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model geometric details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  6. Effects of air flow rate on the oxidation of NBG-18 and NBG-25 nuclear graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Chan Kim, Gen

    2017-08-01

    The effects of air flow rate (FR) (FR range: 1-10 L/min) on the oxidation of NBG-18 and NBG-25 nuclear graphite grades at temperatures between 600 and 1100 °C were studied, in reference to the standard test procedure for measuring oxidation rates of nuclear graphite in air (ASTM D 7542-09). The results showed that the FR effects on oxidation rate (OR) increase with increasing temperature with negligible FR effects at 600 °C for both materials. At high temperatures (>800 °C) there appears to be a two-stage relationship between FR and OR, which corresponds to the transition between reaction rates dominated by chemical kinetics and those dominated by diffusion. The material-specific microstructure appeared strongly influences this transition. The overall OR-FR behaviours of NBG-18 were higher than NBG-25 at 600-800 °C while negligible differences in the OR-FR behaviours between the two grades were observed at 900-1100 °C. The mercury porosimetry data showed that the higher OR-FR behaviours observed in NBG-18 may partly be attributed to the differences in the pore size distribution (open porosity and cumulative pore area) between the grades, especially for the large size pores (diameter ≫ 5 × 103 nm).

  7. Preliminary Aging Assessment of Nuclear Air-Treatment and Cooling System Fans

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W. K.

    1995-07-01

    A preliminary aging assessment of the fans used in nuclear air treatment and cooling systems was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. Details from guides and standards for the design, testing, and installation of fans; results of failure surveys; and information concerning stressors, related aging mechanisms, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM) were compiled. Failure surveys suggest that about half of the failures reported for fans are primarily associated with aging. Aging mechanisms associated with the various fan components and resulting from mechanical, thermal, and environmental stressors include wear, fatigue, corrosion, and erosion of metals and the deterioration of belts and lubricants. A bearing is the component most frequently linked to fan failure. The assessment also suggests that ISMM that will detect irregularities arising from improper lubrication, cooling, alignment, and balance of the various components should aid in counteracting many of the aging effects that could impair fan performance. An expanded program, to define and evaluate the adequacy of current ISMM and maintenance practices and to include a documented Phase I aging assessment, is recommended.

  8. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  9. Australian Students' Views on Nuclear Issues: Does Teaching Alter Prior Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sarina; Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the conceptual understandings of seventy-eight 16-year-old Australian high school students' and their knowledge about several issues related to nuclear energy. As a result of their study of the physics topic Nuclear Technology, the students learned more about applications of nuclear technology, had better though still…

  10. Australian Students' Views on Nuclear Issues: Does Teaching Alter Prior Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sarina; Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the conceptual understandings of seventy-eight 16-year-old Australian high school students' and their knowledge about several issues related to nuclear energy. As a result of their study of the physics topic Nuclear Technology, the students learned more about applications of nuclear technology, had better though still…

  11. National spent fuel program preliminary report RCRA characteristics of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel DOE-SNF-REP-002. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report presents information on the preliminary process knowledge to be used in characterizing all Department of Energy (DOE)-owned Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) types that potentially exhibit a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic. This report also includes the process knowledge, analyses, and rationale used to preliminarily exclude certain SNF types from RCRA regulation under 40 CFR {section}261.4(a)(4), ``Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste,`` as special nuclear and byproduct material. The evaluations and analyses detailed herein have been undertaken as a proactive approach. In the event that DOE-owned SNF is determined to be a RCRA solid waste, this report provides general direction for each site regarding further characterization efforts. The intent of this report is also to define the path forward to be taken for further evaluation of specific SNF types and a recommended position to be negotiated and established with regional and state regulators throughout the DOE Complex regarding the RCRA-related policy issues.

  12. Does the Exposure of Urine Samples to Air Affect Diagnostic Tests for Urine Acidification?

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Joo-Hark; Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Sun-Moon; Han, Sang-Woong; Oh, Man-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives For accurate measurement of pH, urine collection under oil to limit the escape of CO2 on air exposure is recommended. This study aims to test the hypothesis that urine collection under oil is not necessary in acidic urine in which bicarbonate and CO2 are minor buffers, because loss of CO2 would have little effect on its pH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements One hundred consecutive random urine samples were collected under oil and analyzed for pH, pCO2, and HCO3− immediately and after 5 minutes of vigorous shaking in uncovered flasks to allow CO2 escape. Results The pH values in 97 unshaken samples ranged from 5.03 to 6.83. With shaking, urine pCO2 decreased by 76%, whereas urine HCO3− decreased by 60%. Meanwhile, urine baseline median pH (interquartile range) of 5.84 (5.44–6.25) increased to 5.93 (5.50–6.54) after shaking (ΔpH=0.12 [0.07–0.29], P<0.001). ΔpH with pH≤6.0 was significantly lower than the ΔpH with pH>6.0 (0.08 [0.05–0.12] versus 0.36 [0.23–0.51], P<0.001). Overall, the lower the baseline pH, the smaller the ΔpH. Conclusions The calculation of buffer reactions in a hypothetical acidic urine predicted a negligible effect on urine pH on loss of CO2 by air exposure, which was empirically proven by the experimental study. Therefore, exposure of urine to air does not substantially alter the results of diagnostic tests for urine acidification, and urine collection under oil is not necessary. PMID:22700881

  13. Nuclear DNA fragmentation in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: does a mere positive in situ nuclear end-labeling indicate apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Ferrer, I

    1999-01-01

    The method of in situ end-labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation was used in the study of ten patients (two biopsies, eight autopsies) with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). All the patients had the typical morphological lesions including neuron loss, spongiform change and astrocytosis. Four of them also showed prion protein (PrP) deposits in the cerebral cortex, and two of them kuru-like plaques in the cerebellum. A few cells with DNA breaks were found in the two biopsy cases; one of them, suffering from a panencephalopathic form of the disease, showed positive nuclei not only in the cerebral cortex but also in the subcortical white matter. Variable numbers of positive nuclei were observed in the gray and white matter in the eight autopsy cases, in which, although the distribution of positive cells roughly correlated with the distribution of neuron loss, no clear relationship was found as regards the distribution and degree of cell labeling and the degree of neuron loss. Furthermore, large numbers of positive cells were concentrated in a particular area, whereas a few cells were seen in a neighboring equally affected area. Positive glial cells in the plexiform layer of the CA1 area of the hippocampus, and in the frontal white matter were frequently encountered. Staining of the cytoplasm in a minority of cells was interpreted as the result of nuclear DNA leakage. None of the stained cells had the typical morphology of apoptosis; most particularly, peripheral chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies were not seen in any case. PrP deposits did not result in an increase of nuclear DNA breaks either within the area or in adjacent regions. Although positive cells were also observed in autopsy cases of controls which were processed in the same way, positive labeling as a whole was higher in CJD than in age-matched controls. These results show that brain nuclear DNA is vulnerable in CJD, and suggest that increased DNA vulnerability has a role in

  14. The DOE CTBT R&D effort at Livermore: calibrating to enhance international monitoring for clandestine nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Rodgers, A; Schultz, C; Walters, W; Zucca, J

    1999-04-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was signed in 1996 and still needs to be ratified by the US, forbids all nuclear tests and creates an international monitoring system (IMS) to search for evidence of clandestine nuclear explosions. As specified in the treaty, the IMS will consist of 170 seismic stations that record underground elastic waves, 60 infrasound stations to record low-frequency sound waves in the air, 11 hydroacoustic stations to record underwater sound waves, and 80 radionuclide stations to record airborne radionuclide gases or particles. The International Data Center (IDC), located in Vienna, receives data from the IMS system and applies standard event screening criteria to any detected events with the objective of characterizing and highlighting events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or a non-nuclear man made phenomena. The National Data Center (NDC) for each country must go a step further than the IDC and identify events as consistent with natural phenomena, non-nuclear manmade phenomena, or a banned nuclear test using these monitoring technologies.

  15. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  16. Changes in young's modulus and electrical conductivity of nuclear grade graphites oxidized with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hisashi; Fujii, Kimio; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Nomura, Shinzo

    1983-10-01

    Five kinds of nuclear grade graphites were oxidized to study thermal oxidation effects on Young's modulus and electrical conductivity. The property changes were measured on specimens which were oxidized uniformly throughout their whole volume in the temperature range 500-600°C in air. The following relations were derived as a function of the bulk density of the graphites: E/ E0 = ( ρ/ ρ0) nE and R0/ R = ( ρ/ ρ0) nR, where E, R and ρ are Young's modulus, specific electrical resistivity and bulk density, respectively, and subscript zero refers to the initial unoxidized condition. The exponents nE and nR were found to be dependent on both the kind of graphite and the oxidation temperature, and the dependences were discussed in connection with selective oxidation in the graphite texture. It was also tried to relate the property changes with oxidation rate.

  17. Extended-life nuclear air cleaning filters via dynamic exclusion prefilters

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.R.; Crouch, H.S.; Bond, J.H.

    1997-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to ascertain if a dynamic, self-cleaning particulate exclusion precleaner, designed for relatively large dust removal (2 to 100+ {mu}m diameter particles) from helicopter turbine inlets, could be extended to submicron filtration. The improved device could be used as a prefilter for HEPA filtration systems, significantly increasing service life. In nuclear air cleaning, its use would reduce the amount of nuclear particulate matter that would otherwise be entrapped in the HEPA filter cartridge/panel, causing fouling and increased back pressure, as well as requiring subsequent disposal of the contaminated media at considerable expense. A unique (patent-pending) mechanical separation device has recently been developed to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams based on a proprietary concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT). The device creates multiple boundary layers that actively exclude particles from entering the perimeter of the device, while allowing air to traverse the boundaries relatively unimpeded. A modified two-dimensional (2-D) computerized flow simulation model was used to assist in the prototype design. Empirical results are presented from particle breakthrough and AP experiments obtained from a reduced-scale prototype filter. Particles larger than 0.23 {mu}m were actively excluded by the prototype, but at a higher pressure drop than anticipated. Experimental data collected indicates that the filter housing and the inlet flow configuration may contribute significantly to improvements in device particle separation capabilities. Furthermore, preliminary experiments have shown that other downstream pressure drop considerations (besides those just across the spinning filtration disks) must be included to accurately portray the AP across the device. Further detailed quantitative investigations on a larger scale (1,000 CFM) prototype are warranted. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. DOE Manpower Assessment Brief. No. 37: Nuclear-related employment declines in 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The 1993-1995 period represents a time of significant transition for workers engages in nuclear-related activities. Total nuclear-related employment fell markedly from about 300,000 workers in 1993 to 265, 000 in 1995, a 12% decline. This is the lowest level since the 1970s. In 1995, a third of all nuclear-related employment was in the reactor operation and maintenance segment. 6 figs, 1 table.

  19. Nuclear systems in space? Does/will the public accept them?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Harold B.

    1993-01-01

    Public attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy on earth and in space are discussed. Survey data are presented which show that the public believes nuclear energy should play an important role in our energy supply. However, based on broad attitude research, there should be no expectation that the public will accept or support the use of nuclear energy unless it meets special needs and offers special and significant benefits. It is proposed that a public information program be adopted that results in getting recognition and support for the space program broadly and for the missions that benefit substantially from or require nuclear energy for their accomplishment.

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  2. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, Uwe; Burke, Edward J.; Butler, Bruce D.; Davis, Karen L.; Katz, Jeffrey; Melamed, Evan; Morris, William P.; Allen, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 years ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 deg down (LLR-10 deg; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  3. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  4. Copper-dependent inflammation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation by particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T; Ghio, A J; Reed, W; Samet, J; Zagorski, J; Quay, J; Carter, J; Dailey, L; Hoidal, J R; Devlin, R B

    1998-09-01

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in respiratory symptoms in relation to levels of particulate pollution has been well documented. Provo particulates caused cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-dependent inflammation of rat lungs. Provo particulates stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production, increased IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured BEAS-2B cells, and stimulated IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelium. Cytokine secretion was preceded by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and was reduced by treatment of cultures with superoxide dismutase, deferoxamine, or N-acetylcysteine. These biologic effects were replicated by culturing BEAS cells with quantities of Cu2+ found in Provo extract. IL-8 secretion by BEAS cells could be modified by addition of normal constituents of airway lining fluid to the culture medium. Mucin significantly reduced IL-8 secretion, and ceruloplasmin significantly increased IL-8 secretion and activation of NF-kappaB. These findings suggest that copper ions may cause some of the biologic effects of inhaled particulate air pollution in the Provo region of the United States, and may provide an explanation for the sensitivity of asthmatic individuals to Provo particulates that has been observed in epidemiologic studies.

  5. Affordable and Secure Nuclear Energy Development: DOE Investments and Laboratory R&D Challenges - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Dasari, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-12-20

    The need for sustainable and secure nuclear energy is summarized. Driven by economics and public-private partnerships, the technology is evolving. Cost control and regulatory simplification are needed for a nuclear renaissance. Small modular reactors--simple, scalable, and inherently safe--may be the future.

  6. Electrons, muons and hadrons in extensive air showers and how do they depend on nuclear interaction model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrotniak, J. A.; Yodh, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers were performed using a couple of different nuclear interaction models and obtaining a variety of shower characteristics. The discussion of these shows that the sensitivity of observables to the primary mass spectrum is significantly stronger than to the interaction model, the latter being quite weak.

  7. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents: Volume 2, Safety assessment reports for DOE non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Silver, R.C.; Balas, Y.; Gilmore, W.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of Volume 2 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Assessment Reports (SAs) for DOE non-nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 2 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SAs for DOE non-nuclear facilities.

  8. The NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear rocket propulsion project - FY 1991 status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning and critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative missions to the moon and to Mars. Interagency agreements are being negotiated between NASA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense for joint technology development activities. This paper summarizes the activities of the NASA project planning team in FY 1990 that led to the draft Nuclear Propulsion Project Plan, outlines the FY 1991 Interagency activities, and describes the current status of the project plan.

  9. White Paper: Multi-purpose canister (MPC) for DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-04-01

    The paper examines the issue, What are the advantages, disadvantages, and other considerations for using the MPC concept as part of the strategy for interim storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF? The paper is based in part on the results of an evaluation made for the DOE National Spent Fuel Program by the Waste Form Barrier/Canister Team, which is composed of knowledgeable DOE and DOE-contractor personnel. The paper reviews the MPC and DOE SNF status, provides criteria and other considerations applicable to the issue, and presents an evaluation, conclusions, and recommendations. The primary conclusion is that while most of DOE SNF is not currently sufficiently characterized to be sealed into an MPC, the advantages of standardized packages in handling, reduced radiation exposure, and improved human factors should be considered in DOE SNF program planning. While the design of MPCs for DOE SNF are likely premature at this time, the use of canisters should be considered which are consistent with interim storage options and the MPC design envelope.

  10. Specification for HEPA filters used by DOE contractors

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This standard establishes specification and testing requirements for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters procured to provide personnel and environmental protection when installed in DOE nuclear facilities. The standard specifies minimum requirements to be included in contractor specifications.

  11. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  12. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen".

  13. Effects of welding fumes on nuclear air cleaning system carbon adsorber banks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, P.W.

    1997-08-01

    Standard Technical Specifications for nuclear air cleaning systems include requirements for surveillance tests following fire, painting, or chemical release in areas communicating with the affected system. To conservatively implement this requirement, many plants categorize welding as a chemical release process, and institute controls to ensure that welding fumes do not interact with carbon adsorbers in a filter system. After reviewing research data that indicated welding had a minimal impact on adsorber iodine removal efficiency, further testing was performed with the goal of establishing a welding threshold. It was anticipated that some quantity of weld electrodes could be determined that had a corresponding detrimental impact on iodine removal efficiency for the exposed adsorber. This value could be used to determine a conservative sampling schedule that would allow the station to perform laboratory testing to ensure system degradation did not occur without a full battery of surveillance tests. A series of tests was designed to demonstrate carbon efficiency versus cumulative welding fume exposure. Three series of tests were performed, one for each of three different types of commonly used weld electrodes. Carbon sampling was performed at baseline conditions, and every five pounds of electrode thereafter. Two different laboratory tests were performed for each sample; one in accordance with ASTM 3803/1989 at 95% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, and another using the less rigorous conditions of 70% relative humidity and 80 degrees C. Review of the test data for all three types of electrodes failed to show a significant correlation between carbon efficiency degradation and welding fume exposure. Accordingly, welding is no longer categorized as a `chemical release process` at McGuire Nuclear Station, and limits on welding fume interaction with ventilation systems have been eliminated. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  15. Mortality of older construction and craft workers employed at department of energy (DOE) nuclear sites: follow-up through 2011.

    PubMed

    Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Welch, Laura; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia; Chen, Anna; Haas, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Building Trades National Medical Screening Program (BTMed) was established in 1996 to provide occupational medicine screening examinations for construction workers who have worked at US Department of Energy nuclear sites. Workers participating in BTMed between 1998 and 2011 were followed to determine their vital status and mortality experience through December 31, 2011. The cohort includes 18,803 BTMed participants and 2,801 deaths. Cause-specific Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on US death rates. Mortality was elevated for all causes, all cancers, cancers of the trachea, bronchus, and lung and lymphatic and hematopoietic system, mesothelioma, COPD, and asbestosis. Construction workers employed at DOE sites have a significantly increased risk for occupational illnesses. Risks are associated with employment during all time periods covered including after 1980. The cancer risks closely match the cancers identified for DOE compensation from radiation exposures. Continued medical surveillance is important. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Chronic air-flow limitation does not increase respiratory epithelial permeability assessed by aerosolized solute, but smoking does

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Russell, J.A.; Barritault, L.G.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    To determine the separate influences of smoking and severe air-flow limitation on aerosol deposition and respiratory epithelial permeability, we studied 26 normal nonsmokers, 12 smokers without airway obstruction, 12 nonsmokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 11 smokers with COPD. We aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid to particles approximately 1 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter. Levels of radioactivity were plotted semilogarithmically against time to calculate clearance as percent per minute. The distribution of radioactivity was homogeneous in control subjects and in smokers, but patchy in both groups with COPD. No difference was found between clearances of the control group (1.18 +/- 0.31% min-1), and nonsmoker COPD group (1.37 +/- 0.82% min-1), whereas values in smokers without COPD (4.00 +/- 1.70% min-1) and smokers with COPD (3.62 +/- 2.88% min-1) were significantly greater than in both nonsmoking groups. We conclude that (1) small particles appear to deposit peripherally, even with severe COPD; (2) respiratory epithelial permeability is normal in nonsmokers with COPD; (3) smoking increases permeability by a mechanism unrelated to air-flow limitation.

  17. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    heavy bombers, air-launched cruise missiles, and ballistic -missile submarines. bDOE provides budget estimates for the nuclear weapons stockpile...Security Program ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile NC3 Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications NNSA National Nuclear Security...Administration SLBM Submarine-launched Ballistic Missile SSBN Ship Submersible Ballistic Nuclear ( ballistic missile submarine) This is a work

  18. Informing the next nuclear generation - how does the Ginna plant branch do it?

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, A.

    1995-12-31

    Most of us are familiar with the latest advertising phrase, ``Our children are our future.`` This phrase has been used in so many instances - from concerns about waste, Social Security, and the federal deficit to drug abuse and violence. One more area can be added to the list and advertised nuclear power. Since the establishment of the Ginna plant branch (GPB) in 1992, our target audience has been the next nuclear generation (our children), but our vehicle for dissemination has been the current generation (the adults). Have you ever thought about how often your opinions affect the children you come in contact with? One of GPB`s goals is to provide as much information as possible to teachers, neighbors, and civic organizations of our community so that there is a nuclear future that can be carried on by the next generation.

  19. Minutes of the coordination workshop on DOE nuclear data program services via the internet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Dunford, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    This workshop was convened to explore what is currently being done in the area of data dissemination via the Internet and to examine ways that future activities in this area within the U.S. nuclear data programs can be better coordinated. Overview talks on the current status, from both the national and international perspectives, were provided. Following these, there were presentations on specific activities in the area of Internet data dissemination which are taking place at seven different institutions. Institutions represented at this meeting were asked to provide written summaries of their programs before the meeting. The talks included actual demonstrations of the electronic methodologies which are under development at these laboratories, and they highlighted the richness and creativity of these programs. This information proved to be very useful in the ensuing general discussions. The main issues that were addressed at this meeting were: (i) how to adapt to rapid evolution of data management and dissemination technologies, (ii) how to provide outside users with some sense of unity in the U.S. nuclear data program and to develop consistent, user-friendly ways to access data without discouraging individual initiatives and the richness which comes from diversity, (iii) how to maintain quality control over the information and services provided, (iv) how to progress in a era of very restrictive budgets, (v) how to effectively merge the nuclear structure and nuclear reaction data dissemination activities while at the same time recognizing and respecting their inherent differences, (vi) how to organize the stewardship of nuclear data and the processes of nuclear data dissemination in an efficient, technically advanced and yet cost effective manner, and (vii) how the data processing tasks should be allocated between server and client computers.

  20. Effects of annular air gaps surrounding an emplaced nuclear waste canister in deep geologic storage

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, W.E.; Davis, B.W.; Cheung, H.

    1980-06-05

    Annular air spaces surrounding an emplaced nuclear waste canister in deep geologic storage will have significant effects on the long-term performance of the waste form. Addressed specifically in this analysis is the influence of a gap on the thermal response of the waste package. Three dimensional numerical modeling predicts temperature effects for a series of parameter variations, including the influence of gap size, surface emissivities, initial thermal power generation of the canister, and the presence/absence of a sleeve. Particular emphasis is placed on determining the effects these variables have on the canister surface temperature. We have identified critical gap sizes at which the peak transient temperature occurs when gap widths are varied for a range of power levels. It is also shown that high emissivities for the heat exchanging surfaces are desirable, while that of the canister surface has the greatest influence. Gap effects are more pronounced, and therefore more effort should be devoted to optimal design, in situations where the absolute temperature of the near field medium is high. This occurs for higher power level emplacements and in geomedia with low thermal conductivities. Finally, loosely inserting a sleeve in the borehole effectively creates two gaps and drastically raises the canister peak temperature. It is possible to use these results in the design of an optimum package configuration which will maintain the canister at acceptable temperature levels. A discussion is provided which relates these findings to NRC regulatory considerations.

  1. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage.

  2. The "hot nose" sign on brain death nuclear scintigraphy: where does the flow really go?

    PubMed

    Appelt, Eric A; Song, Won S; Phillips, William T; Metter, Darlene F; Salman, Umber A; Blumhardt, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphy has been used in patients with brain death since the 1970s. Many studies report a "hot nose" sign as predictive of brain death and lack of cerebral flow. Current nuclear medicine textbooks state that increased flow to the nose occurs secondary to occlusion of the internal carotid artery with flow rerouted to the nose via the external carotid artery. This explanation has been provided for decades assuming that the blood flow is actually increased to the nose. We performed a study to determine whether flow is really seen in the nose when a hot nose sign is present.

  3. Status of DOE efforts to renew acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Head, C.R.

    1997-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the efforts being made by the Department of Energy to renew acceptance of spent nuclear fuel shipments from foreign research reactors. The author reviews the actions undertaken in this process in a fairly chronological manner, through the present time, as well as the development of an environmental impact statement to support the proposed actions.

  4. The ``Folk Theorem'' on effective field theory: How does it fare in nuclear physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Mannque

    2017-10-01

    This is a brief history of what I consider as very important, some of which truly seminal, contributions made by young Korean nuclear theorists, mostly graduate students working on PhD thesis in 1990s and early 2000s, to nuclear effective field theory, nowadays heralded as the first-principle approach to nuclear physics. The theoretical framework employed is an effective field theory anchored on a single scale-invariant hidden local symmetric Lagrangian constructed in the spirit of Weinberg's "Folk Theorem" on effective field theory. The problems addressed are the high-precision calculations on the thermal np capture, the solar pp fusion process, the solar hep process — John Bahcall's challenge to nuclear theorists — and the quenching of g A in giant Gamow-Teller resonances and the whopping enhancement of first-forbidden beta transitions relevant in astrophysical processes. Extending adventurously the strategy to a wild uncharted domain in which a systematic implementation of the "theorem" is far from obvious, the same effective Lagrangian is applied to the structure of compact stars. A surprising, unexpected, result on the properties of massive stars, totally different from what has been obtained up to day in the literature, is predicted, such as the precocious onset of conformal sound velocity together with a hint for the possible emergence in dense matter of hidden symmetries such as scale symmetry and hidden local symmetry.

  5. Guide for Determining Compliance With the Clean Air Act Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From NRC-Licensed and Non-DOE Federal Facilities: Revision 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The requirements described apply to certain facilities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or its Agreement States to handle radioactive materials. Federal facilities not part of the Department of Energy (DOE) are also covered.

  6. Does air-breathing meet metabolic demands of the juvenile snakehead, Channa argus, in multiple conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongli; Lv, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Chenchen; Duan, Ting

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine how the respiratory metabolism of the snakehead Channa argus changed when it shifted from breathing water to breathing air, and how increased metabolic demands caused by temperature, feeding, and exhaustive exercise affect its survival in air. The results demonstrated that the oxygen consumption rate (MO2) of the snakehead was lower for aerial respiration than aquatic respiration by 12.1, 24.5 and 20.4% at 20, 25, and 30°C, respectively. Survival time was significantly shortened with increasing temperature and was negatively correlated with the resting MO2 in air (MO2Air). No obvious feeding metabolic response was observed in the snakeheads fed at 1% and 3% body mass levels while breathing air. The maximum MO2Air of the snakehead after exhaustive exercise was significantly higher than the resting MO2Air of the control group. The results suggest that the snakehead could survive out of water by breathing air for varying lengths of time, depending on ambient temperature and metabolic demand. Additionally, some degree of metabolic depression occurs in the snakehead when breathing air. The metabolic demand associated with exercise in the snakehead, but not that associated with feeding, can be supported by its capacity for breathing air to some extent. PMID:28396489

  7. The local environment resulting from a massive nuclear attack on Whiteman Air Force Base. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hulburt, C.W.; Yutko, C.A.; Sullivan, R.J.

    1980-04-01

    The study examines the potential blast and fallout damage that would be sustained by the 15 counties surrounding the Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri following a nuclear attack against the associated Minuteman missile silos. The study also provides recommendations concerning the shelters that would be required to protect the population of these 15 counties from blast effects and heavy fallout. The study was performed in consonance with the new emphasis that FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) is giving to nuclear civil protection in counterforce areas. It is intended to be a prototype for analyses of areas containing other U.S. counterforce targets, notably the other five Minuteman wings, the Titan missiles, the Strategic Air Command bases, and the strategic submarine bases.

  8. Oxidation rate of nuclear-grade graphite IG-110 in the kinetic regime for VHTR air ingress accident scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jo Jo; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2014-03-01

    The oxidation rates of nuclear-grade graphite IG-110 in the kinetically-controlled temperature regime of graphite oxidation were predicted and compared in Very High Temperature Reactor air ingress accident scenarios. The oxidative mass loss of graphite was measured thermogravimetrically from 873 to 1873 K in 100% air (21 mol%). The activation energy was found to be 222.07 kJ/mol, and the order of reaction with respect to oxygen concentration is 0.76. The surfaces of the samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation. These results are compared with those available in the literature, and our recently reported results for NBG-18 nuclear-grade graphite using the same technique.

  9. Radiochemistry Student, Postdoc and Invited Speaker Support for New Directions in Isotope Production, Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry Supported by the DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Jurisson, Silvia, S.

    2011-04-11

    The Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (NUCL) of the American Chemistry Society (ACS) is sponsoring a symposium entitled "New Directions in Isotope Production, Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry Supported by the DOE" at the 240th ACS National Meeting in Boston, MA 22-26 August 2010. Radiochemistry and nuclear science is a critical area of research and funding for which the DOE has provided support over the years. Radiochemistry is undergoing a renaissance in interdisciplinary areas including medicine, materials, nanotechnology, nuclear forensics and energy. For example, interest in nuclear energy is growing in response to global warming. The field of nuclear forensics has grown significantly since 9/11 in response to potential terror threats and homeland security. Radioactive molecular imaging agents and targeted radiotherapy are revolutionizing molecular medicine. The need for radiochemists is growing, critical, and global. The NUCL Division of the ACS has been involved in various areas of radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry for many years, and is the host of the DOE supported Nuclear Chemistry Summer Schools. This Symposium is dedicated to three of the critical areas of nuclear science, namely isotope production, nuclear forensics and radiochemistry. An important facet of this meeting is to provide support for young radiochemistry students/postdoctoral fellows to attend this Symposium as participants and contributors. The funding requested from DOE in this application will be used to provide bursaries for U.S. students/postdoctoral fellows to enable them to participate in this symposium at the 240th ACS National Meeting, and for invited scientists to speak on the important issues in these areas.

  10. DOE FRMAC Method Volume 2, Page 33: Gross Alpha and Beta in Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This method determines gross alpha and beta in air filters and americium, californium, cesium, cobalt, curium, europium, iridium, plutonium, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, strontium or uranium in wipes.

  11. 76 FR 16758 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...: Ms. Amanda Anderson, Nuclear Engineer, Departmental Representative to the Defense Nuclear Facilities... Security. February 28, 2011 The Honorable Peter S. Winokur Chairman, Defense Nuclear Facilities...

  12. Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle Power Conversion Design, Physical Performance Estimation and Economic Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreades, Charalampos

    The combination of an increased demand for electricity for economic development in parallel with the widespread push for adoption of renewable energy sources and the trend toward liberalized markets has placed a tremendous amount of stress on generators, system operators, and consumers. Non-guaranteed cost recovery, intermittent capacity, and highly volatile market prices are all part of new electricity grids. In order to try and remediate some of these effects, this dissertation proposes and studies the design and performance, both physical and economic, of a novel power conversion system, the Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC). The NACC is a power conversion system that takes a conventional industrial frame type gas turbine, modifies it to accept external nuclear heat at 670°C, while also maintaining its ability to co-fire with natural gas to increase temperature and power output at a very quick ramp rate. The NACC addresses the above issues by allowing the generator to gain extra revenue through the provision of ancillary services in addition to energy payments, the grid operator to have a highly flexible source of capacity to back up intermittent renewable energy sources, and the consumer to possibly see less volatile electricity prices and a reduced probability of black/brown outs. This dissertation is split into six sections that delve into specific design and economic issues related to the NACC. The first section describes the basic design and modifications necessary to create a functional externally heated gas turbine, sets a baseline design based upon the GE 7FB, and estimates its physical performance under nominal conditions. The second section explores the off-nominal performance of the NACC and characterizes its startup and shutdown sequences, along with some of its safety measures. The third section deals with the power ramp rate estimation of the NACC, a key performance parameter in a renewable-heavy grid that needs flexible capacity. The

  13. Nuclear Waste Management - A Need to Ensure that the Waste Decays While the Knowledge Does Not

    SciTech Connect

    Biedscheid, J.; Devarakonda, M.

    2006-07-01

    The unique time scales associated with nuclear waste management require active work to preserve the knowledge associated with programs that can often span long time frames. For example, repository programs are designed and developed for the safe containment of radionuclides with half-lives on the order of 24,000 years (for Pu-239). Performance assessment studies are required to show, by predictive modeling, that these repositories can safely contain the waste for tens of thousands of years, with one million years a reality in the debate. Development of successful repository programs can span several decades. Once operational, a repository is expected to function until closure for a period of 30 to 40 years. Yet, the decision makers at all levels in such a repository program exert influence and authority over much shorter periods of time (e.g., four years for executive appointments). A discontinuous decision-making process and the associated potential for loss of critical program knowledge are challenges that nuclear waste management programs face in various countries. Due to the disparity of the time frames for the project and associated decision-making, a proactive program to preserve original and developing knowledge for technical and programmatic decisions is vital to the success of any nuclear waste management program. While the mechanisms for knowledge preservation may be program specific, the need for programs to acknowledge and implement a methodology for maintaining program intelligence is collectively shared. (authors)

  14. Guideline to good practices for maintenance history at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Purpose of this guideline is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information for developing and implementing comprehensive, readily retrievable, information on item maintenance and critical parameters essential to effective maintenance planning, safe and reliable first-effort workmanship, trending, problem analysis, and knowledge-based management decisions. This document is an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter II, Element 16, Maintenance History.

  15. A diagnostic dilemma: does peri stent-graft air after thoracic aortic endografting necessarily imply infection?

    PubMed

    Leon, Luis R

    2007-01-01

    The radiographic finding of air bubbles around a surgically placed prosthetic graft is traditionally assumed to be a sign of infection until proven otherwise. Direct delivery of atmospheric air bubbles, shown in an imaging study performed very soon after a surgical intervention, or percutaneously introduced during an endovascular procedure could be possible causes of air bubble presence and not necessarily infection. However, if air around a prosthetic aortic graft is identified in an imaging study after a previous one did not document its presence, or if the amount of air is increasing on serial imaging studies, the suspicion level should increase. The case presented here is of a 49-year-old male who underwent an endovascular repair of a possible symptomatic penetrating aortic ulcer, who was found to have peri stent-graft air 3 weeks after intervention. Previous imaging postoperative studies did not reveal air around the aortic prosthesis. The diagnosis of endovascular stent-graft infection was very difficult due to several challenging factors that are herein presented.

  16. Labor epidural anesthetics comparing loss of resistance with air versus saline: does the choice matter?

    PubMed

    Norman, David; Winkelman, Chris; Hanrahan, Edward; Hood, Ray; Nance, Ben

    2006-08-01

    This study examined whether air or saline, used for the loss-of-resistance (LOR) technique, resulted in a difference in pain relief or adverse events for laboring parturients. Previous studies had mixed findings regarding the onset of analgesia and subsequent pain relief. Research questions were as follows: Is there difference in analgesic onset for patients receiving air vs saline during the LOR technique? Do women receiving the air method for LOR experience any difference in the quality of pain relief from that of women receiving saline? Is there any difference in the incidence of analgesic distribution or segmental pain relief in women receiving the air vs the saline method? Is there any difference in the incidence of adverse effects in women receiving air vs saline during the LOR technique? This was an experimental, prospective study with 50 women. Subjects were randomized to receive air or saline. The visual analogue scale was used to measure pain. A dermatome level recorded the spread of analgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for onset or quality of analgesia. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who experienced segmental blocks after receiving air during the LOR technique.

  17. Experience With Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel at U.S. DOE Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, Brett; Fillmore, Denzel; Woolstenhulme, Eric; McCormack, Roger L.; Sindelar, Robert; Spieker, Timothy

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes some of the challenges encountered and solutions implemented to ensure safe storage and handling of damaged spent nuclear fuels (SNF). It includes a brief summary of some SNF storage environments and resulting SNF degradation, experience with handling and repackaging significantly degraded SNFs, and the associated lessons learned. This work provides useful insight and resolutions to many engineering challenges facing SNF handling and storage facilities. The context of this report is taken from a report produced at Idaho National Laboratory and further detailed information, such as equipment design and usage, can be found in the appendices to that report. (authors)

  18. Tactical Nuclear Weapons-Does the U.S. Army Still Need Them?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-17

    Anson , "The Neutron Bomb," New Times, 5 August 1977, p. 26. 49 McNamara, p. 64. 50 John P. Rose, The Evolution of U.S. Army Nuclear Doctrine, 1945...118 Robert Sam Anson , "The Neutron Bomb," New Times, August 5, 1977, p. 27. 119 Steven T. Possony, "NATO and the...132 COL Leaf, p. 57. 133 Dr. Fred Wikner, The Wall Street Journal, July 24, 1984, cited in Greene, Zwemer, and Woodford, 1986, p. 2. 134 Commander

  19. Does genetic conflict drive rapid molecular evolution of nuclear transport genes in Drosophila?

    PubMed

    Presgraves, Daven C

    2007-04-01

    The Segregation Distorter (SD) system of Drosophila melanogaster is one the best-characterized meiotic drive complexes known. SD gains an unfair transmission advantage through heterozygous SD/SD(+) males by incapacitating SD(+)-bearing spermatids so that virtually all progeny inherit SD. Segregation distorter (Sd), the primary distorting locus in the SD complex, is a truncated duplication of the RanGAP gene, a major regulator of the small GTPase Ran, which has several functions including the maintenance of the nucleocytoplasmic RanGTP concentration gradient that mediates nuclear transport. The truncated Sd-RanGAP protein is enzymatically active but mislocalizes to the nucleus where it somehow causes distortion. Here I present data consistent with the idea that wild-type RanGAP, and possibly other loci able to influence the RanGTP gradient, has been caught up in an ancient genetic conflict that predates the SD complex. The legacy of this conflict could include the unexpectedly rapid evolution of nuclear transport-related proteins, the accumulation of chromosomal inversions, the recruitment of gene duplications, and the turnover of repetitive sequences in the centric heterochromatin. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How Does an Air Film Evolve into a Bubble During Drop Impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji San; Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2012-11-01

    When a liquid drop impacts a solid surface, air is generally entrapped underneath. Using ultrafast x-ray phase-contrast imaging, we directly visualized the profile of an entrapped air film and its evolution into a bubble during drop impact. We identified a complicated evolution process that consists of three stages: inertial retraction of the air film, contraction of the top air surface into a bubble, and pinch-off of a daughter droplet inside the bubble. Energy transfer during retraction drives the contraction and pinch-off of a daughter droplet. The wettability of the solid surface affects the detachment of the bubble, suggesting a method for bubble elimination in many drop-impact applications.

  1. The effects of air pollution on human mortality: does gender difference matter in African countries?

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Alhaji Jibrilla; Ismail, Normaz Wana

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and human health has long been a concern among academic researchers. We use two indicators of environmental pollution, namely particulate matter (PM10) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to examine the effects of poor air quality on human mortality. This study explores an issue that has largely been ignored, particularly in the African literature, where the effect of air pollution on human mortality could be influenced by gender specification. We analyse a panel data from 35 African countries and our result suggests that the elevated levels of PM10 and CO2 have a significant effect on the increasing mortality rates in infants, under-five children and adults. Although the effect of poor air quality on adults is found to differ between genders, such difference is not statistically significant. We conclude that the air pollution effects, on average, are similar between genders in the African countries.

  2. How does an air film evolve into a bubble during drop impact?

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji San; Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2012-11-16

    When a liquid drop impacts a solid surface, air is generally entrapped underneath. Using ultrafast x-ray phase-contrast imaging, we directly visualized the profile of an entrapped air film and its evolution into a bubble during drop impact. We identified a complicated evolution process that consists of three stages: inertial retraction of the air film, contraction of the top air surface into a bubble, and pinch-off of a daughter droplet inside the bubble. Energy transfer during retraction drives the contraction and pinch-off of a daughter droplet. The wettability of the solid surface affects the detachment of the bubble, suggesting a method for bubble elimination in many drop-impact applications.

  3. Using OMI data to improve air quality forecast - does it work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvidberg, M.; Brandt, J.

    2009-04-01

    What benefits can we obtain from using data assimilation of remotely sensed air quality parameters into the CTM? This work presented aims to compare an air quality forecast with and without the use of satellite data, and to quantify the improvement gained from satellite data. The air quality forecast used is the Danish O3 operational warning system. Forecast are generated for each hour, for a 50km grid over Europe. O3 can irritate lungs and airways and can cause inflammation in the respiratory system. It can also trigger other diseases like asthma or bronchitis. O3 is a very important parameter in the CTM as it is highly reactive. The forecast is based on DEHM "Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model" that is a CTM "Chemical Transport Model" designed to forecast air pollution. DEHM is part of the Thor model system. The satellite data used is the OMI NO2, Near Real Time data stream (DOMINO) from KNMI. The model was run for a reference year 2005, both with and without the use of Data Assimilation of OMI data. The results were each compared to reference measurements from ground stations in the European EMEP network. Many stations do not report hourly, but daily values. The validation uses the highest available resolution, temporal ans well as spatial. The present project is not entirely completed. However, expectations are that data assimilation of remotely sensed air quality parameters will increase the accuracy of the air pollution forecasts.

  4. The endotracheal tube air leak test does not predict extubation outcome in critically ill pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wratney, Angela T; Benjamin, Daniel Kelly; Slonim, Anthony D; He, James; Hamel, Donna S; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2008-09-01

    Endotracheal tube air leak pressures are used to predict postextubation upper airway compromise such as stridor, upper airway obstruction, or risk of reintubation. To determine whether the absence of an endotracheal tube air leak (air leak test >/=30 cm H2O) measured during the course of mechanical ventilation predicts extubation failure in infants and children. Prospective, blinded cohort. Multidisciplinary pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital. Patients younger than or equal to 18 yrs and intubated >/=24 hrs. The pressure required to produce an audible endotracheal tube air leak was measured within 12 hrs of intubation and extubation. Unless prescribed by the medical care team, patients did not receive neuromuscular blocking agents during air leak test measurements. The need for reintubation (i.e., extubation failure) was recorded during the 24-hr postextubation period. Seventy-four patients were enrolled resulting in 59 observed extubation trials. The extubation failure rate was 15.3% (9 of 59). Seven patients were treated for postextubation stridor. Extubation failure was associated with a longer median length of ventilation, 177 vs. 78 hrs, p = 0.03. Extubation success was associated with the use of postextubation noninvasive ventilation (p = 0.04). The air leak was absent for the duration of mechanical ventilation (i.e., >/=30 cm H2O at intubation and extubation) in ten patients. Absence of the air leak did not predict extubation failure (negative predictive value 27%, 95% confidence interval 6-60). The air leak test was >/=30 cm H2O before extubation in 47% (28 of 59) of patients yet 23 patients extubated successfully (negative predictive value 18%). An endotracheal tube air leak pressure >/=30 cm H2O measured in the nonparalyzed patient before extubation or for the duration of mechanical ventilation was common and did not predict an increased risk for extubation failure. Pediatric patients who are clinically identified as candidates for an

  5. Does fairness matter in the context of anger about nuclear energy decision making?

    PubMed

    Besley, John C

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have questioned whether nonoutcome forms of fairness matter in decision-making situations where individuals feel strongly engaged by the issue at hand. This survey-based study focuses on perceptions about a decision-making process related to a proposal to expand a nuclear power plant in the U.S. Southeast. It finds that anger moderates the impacts of outcome and procedural fairness on willingness to accept a decision process as satisfactory and legitimate. The more anger a person said he or she would feel if a decision were to contradict that person's point of view, the more perceived outcome and procedural fairness mattered. The study also finds that interpersonal fairness is also moderated by anger, but in the opposite direction. Interpersonal fairness had less of an impact on willingness to accept a decision for those who said they would feel angry if the decision did not go their preferred way. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Heterochromatic self-association, a determinant of nuclear organization, does not require sequence homology in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Brian T; Csink, Amy K

    2003-01-01

    Chromosomes of higher eukaryotes contain blocks of heterochromatin that can associate with each other in the interphase nucleus. A well-studied example of heterochromatic interaction is the brown(Dominant) (bwD) chromosome of D. melanogaster, which contains an approximately 1.6-Mbp insertion of AAGAG repeats near the distal tip of chromosome 2. This insertion causes association of the tip with the centric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 (2h), which contains megabases of AAGAG repeats. Here we describe an example, other than bwD, in which distally translocated heterochromatin associates with centric heterochromatin. Additionally, we show that when a translocation places bwD on a different chromosome, bwD tends to associate with the centric heterochromatin of this chromosome, even when the chromosome contains a small fraction of the sequence homology present elsewhere. To further test the importance of sequence homology in these interactions, we used interspecific mating to introgress the bwD allele from D. melanogaster into D. simulans, which lacks the AAGAG on the autosomes. We find that D. simulans bwD associates with 2h, which lacks the AAGAG sequence, while it does not associate with the AAGAG containing X chromosome heterochromatin. Our results show that intranuclear association of separate heterochromatic blocks does not require that they contain the same sequence. PMID:14668374

  7. Does colloid shape affect detachment of colloids by a moving air-water interface?

    PubMed

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L; Davis, Howard P

    2013-05-14

    Air-water interfaces interact strongly with colloidal particles by capillary forces. The magnitude of the interaction force depends on, among other things, the particle shape. Here, we investigate the effects of particle shape on colloid detachment by a moving air-water interface. We used hydrophilic polystyrene colloids with four different shapes (spheres, barrels, rods, and oblong disks), but otherwise identical surface properties. The nonspherical shapes were created by stretching spherical microspheres on a film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The colloids were then deposited onto the inner surface of a glass channel. An air bubble was introduced into the channel and passed through, thereby generating a receding followed by an advancing air-water interface. The detachment of colloids by the air-water interfaces was visualized with a confocal microscope, quantified by image analysis, and analyzed statistically to determine significant differences. For all colloid shapes, the advancing air-water interface caused pronounced colloid detachment (>63%), whereas the receding interface was ineffective in colloid detachment (<1.5%). Among the different colloid shapes, the barrels were most readily removed (94%) by the advancing interface, followed by the spheres and oblong disks (80%) and the rods (63%). Colloid detachment was significantly affected by colloid shape. The presence of an edge, as it occurs in a barrel-shaped colloid, promoted colloid detachment because the air-water interface is being pinned at the edge of the colloid. This suggests that the magnitude of colloid mobilization and transport in porous media is underestimated for edged particles and overestimated for rodlike particles when a sphere is used as a model colloid.

  8. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... Requirements § 62.14830 Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... Requirements § 62.14830 Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... Requirements § 62.14830 Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... Requirements § 62.14830 Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... Requirements § 62.14830 Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the...

  13. This is a photograph from the left side of the aircraft as NASA's DC-8 does an AirSAR 2004 research "line" over Honduras

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    This is a photograph from the left side of the aircraft as NASA's DC-8 does an AirSAR 2004 research "line" over Honduras. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that will use an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), in a mission ranging from the tropical rain forests of Central America to frigid Antarctica.

  14. Guideline to good practices for seasonal facility preservation at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This guide is intended to assist facility maintenance organizations in the review of existing methods and in the development of new methods for establishing a maintenance Seasonal Facility Preservation program. It is expected that each DOE facility may use approaches or methods different from those defined in this guide. The specific guidelines that follow reflect generally accepted industry practices. Therefore, deviation from any particular guideline would not, in itself, indicate a problem. If substantive differences exist between the intent of this guideline and actual practice, management should evaluate current practice to determine the need to include/exclude proposed features. A change in maintenance practice would be appropriate if a performance weakness were determined to exist. The development, documentation, and implementation of other features that further enhance these guidelines for specific applications are encouraged.

  15. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  16. DOE Response to Japan

    SciTech Connect

    and RaJah Mena, Wendy Pemberton

    2011-06-23

    DOE/NNSA NA-40 was requested to provide support with consequence management activities following the incident at the Fukushima Dai’ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The response involved the deployment of several DOE/NNSA NA-40 assets to provide specialized capabilities analysts, scientists, doctors, nurses, specialized equipment and systems to characterize the deposition for the protection of the public and the environment. General response activities revolved around the concepts of: predictive modeling; monitoring and data collection from the air and on the ground; assessing the collected data and other relevant information; interpreting the data; and coordinating the communication of the interpreted data to the appropriate stakeholders.

  17. Supplement of autologous ooplasm into porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos does not alter embryo development.

    PubMed

    Lee, W-J; Lee, J-H; Jeon, R-H; Jang, S-J; Lee, S-C; Park, J-S; Lee, S-L; King, W-A; Rho, G-J

    2017-02-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered as the technique in which a somatic cell is introduced into an enucleated oocyte to make a cloned animal. However, it is unavoidable to lose a small amount of the ooplasm during enucleation step during SCNT procedure. The present study was aimed to uncover whether the supplement of autologous ooplasm could ameliorate the oocyte competence so as to improve low efficiency of embryo development in porcine SCNT. Autologous ooplasm-transferred (AOT) embryos were generated by the supplementation with autologous ooplasm into SCNT embryos. They were comparatively evaluated with respect to embryo developmental potential, the number of apoptotic body formation and gene expression including embryonic lineage differentiation, apoptosis, epigenetics and mitochondrial activity in comparison with parthenogenetic, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) and SCNT embryos. Although AOT embryos showed perfect fusion of autologous donor ooplasm with recipient SCNT embryos, the supplement of autologous ooplasm could not ameliorate embryo developmental potential in regard to the rate of blastocyst formation, total cell number and the number of apoptotic body. Furthermore, overall gene expression of AOT embryos was presented with no significant alterations in comparison with that of SCNT embryos. Taken together, the results of AOT demonstrated inability to make relevant values improved from the level of SCNT embryos to their IVF counterparts.

  18. Noneconomic factors influencing scrap metal disposition decisions at DOE and NRC-licensed nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, M.D.; Robinson, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing radiation protection standards for scrap metal, which will establish criteria for the unconditional clearance of scrap from nuclear facilities. In support of this effort, Industrial Economics, Incorporated is assessing the costs and benefits attributable to the rulemaking. The first step in this analysis is to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing scrap disposition decisions, so that one can predict current and future practices under existing requirements and compare them to the potential effects of EPA`s rulemaking. These baseline practices are difficult to predict due to a variety of factors. First, because decommissioning activities are just beginning at many sites, current practices do not necessarily provide an accurate indicator of how these practices may evolve as site managers gain experience with related decisions. Second, a number of different regulations and policies apply to these decisions, and the interactive effects of these requirements can be difficult to predict. Third, factors other than regulatory constraints and costs may have a significant effect on related decisions, such as concerns about public perceptions. In general, research suggests that these factors tend to discourage the unconditional clearance of scrap metal.

  19. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.; Maldonado, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception. PMID:28125059

  20. Does the effect of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes differ by gender? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rakesh; Rankin, Judith; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Glinianaia, Svetlana

    2007-11-01

    Gender is known to influence pregnancy outcomes. Recent studies have reported an association between air pollution exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes, but gender differences have not been considered. In order to assess the current evidence of the interactive effects between gender and air pollution on pregnancy outcomes we undertook a systematic literature review. Using a comprehensive list of keywords, English language articles published between 1966 and 2005 were retrieved from major databases. Additional information on gender was obtained from the study authors. Studies were included if they contained well-defined measurements of ambient air pollutants, investigated pregnancy outcomes and reported estimates by gender. In total 11 studies were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the framework in Systematic Reviews in Health Care Meta-analysis in context and Bracken's Guidelines. Of the 11 studies, four evaluated low birth weight (LBW); one each evaluated very low birth weight and fetal growth and six examined preterm birth (PTB). Females were at higher risk of LBW: adjusted odds ratios (AOR) ranged from 1.07 to 1.62. Males were at higher risk for PTB: AORs ranged from 1.11 to 1.20. In addition, there was some evidence to suggest that the effect of air pollution on LBW is differential by gender; however, the evidence was available only from four studies. This is the first systematic review to consider gender effect. Further high quality studies are needed to establish whether these findings prevail.

  1. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Maldonado, Alejandra

    2017-01-25

    This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA-a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  2. Visiting a sauna: does inhaling hot dry air reduce common cold symptoms? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pach, Daniel; Knöchel, Bettina; Lüdtke, Rainer; Wruck, Katja; Willich, Stefan N; Witt, Claudia M

    To compare the efficacy of applying hot dry air versus dry air at room temperature to the throat of patients with a newly acquired common cold using a symptom severity score. A randomised single-blind controlled trial with a treatment duration of 3 days and a follow-up period of 4 days was conducted at a sauna in Berlin, Germany. Between November 2007 and March 2008 and between September 2008 and April 2009, 157 patients with symptoms of the common cold were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=80) and a control group (n=77). Participants in the intervention group inhaled hot dry air within a hot sauna, dressed in a winter coat, whereas participants in the control group inhaled dry air at room temperature within a hot sauna, also dressed in a winter coat. Area under the curve (AUC) summarising symptom severity over time (Days 2, 3, 5 and 7), symptom severity scores for individual days, intake of medication for the common cold and general ill feeling. No significant difference between groups was observed for AUC representing symptom severity over time (intervention group mean, 31.2 [SEM, 1.8]; control group mean, 35.1 [SEM, 2.3]; group difference, -3.9 [95% CI, -9.7 to 1.9]; P=0.19). However, significant differences between groups were found for medication use on Day 1 (P=0.01), symptom severity score on Day 2 (P=0.04), and participants' ratings of the effectiveness of the therapy on Day 7 (P=0.03). Inhaling hot air while in a sauna has no significant impact on overall symptom severity of the common cold. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00552981.

  3. Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    For nuclear energy to remain sustainable in the United States, economically viable sources of uranium beyond terrestrial ores must be developed. The goal of this program is to develop advanced adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater at twice the capacity of the best adsorbent developed by researchers at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1.5 mg U/g adsorbent. A multidisciplinary team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of Texas at Austin was assembled to address this challenging problem. Polymeric adsorbents, based on the radiation grafting of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid onto high surface-area polyethylene fibers followed by conversion of the nitriles to amidoximes, have been developed. These poly(acrylamidoxime-co-methacrylic acid) fibers showed uranium adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. The essence of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area trunk material that considerably increases the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. This technology received an R&D100 Award in 2012. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Simultaneously, de novo structure-based computational design methods are being used to design more selective and stable ligands and the most promising candidates are being synthesized, tested and evaluated for incorporation onto a support matrix. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic studies are being carried out to improve the adsorption efficiency, the selectivity of uranium over other metals, and the stability of the adsorbents. Understanding

  4. Guideline to good practices for facility condition inspections at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This guide is intended to provide a means for owner/operators to have an awareness of the way business is actually being conducted on the shop floor. Also, this guide is intended to provide a means for maintenance managers to impart their expectations to crafts persons as to how maintenance should be conducted. It is expected that each DOE facility may use different approaches or methods than those defined in this guide. Explanation of the intent of this guide is provided in the Discussion section, and the specific guidelines that follow reflect generally accepted industry practices. In some cases, example situations accompany these guidelines. These examples have been provided only as an aid in clear understanding of the guidelines and should not be construed as the only method for meeting the intent of the guidelines. Therefore, deviation from any particular guideline would not, in itself, indicate a problem. If substantive differences exist between the intent of the Guideline and actual practice, management should evaluate current practice to determine the need to include/exclude proposed features. A change to maintenance practice would be appropriate if a performance weakness was determined to exist. Development, documentation, and implementation of other features which further enhance these guidelines for specific applications, is encouraged.

  5. Increased AICD generation does not result in increased nuclear translocation or activation of target gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Elaine; Isbert, Simone; Kern, Andreas; Jaeger, Sebastian; Martin, Anne M.; Hebert, Sebastien S.; Behl, Christian; Weggen, Sascha; De Strooper, Bart; Pietrzik, Claus U.

    2008-08-01

    A sequence of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavages culminates in the sequential release of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) and/or p3 fragment. One of the environmental factors favouring the accumulation of AICD appears to be a rise in intracellular pH. Here we further identified the metabolism and subcellular localization of artificially expressed constructs under such conditions. We also co-examined the mechanistic lead up to the AICD accumulation and explored possible significances for its increased expression. We found that most of the AICD generated under pH neutralized conditions is likely cleaved from C83. While the AICD surplus was unable to further activate transcription of a luciferase reporter via a Gal4-DNA-binding domain, it failed entirely via the endogenous promoter regions of proposed target genes, APP and KAI1. The lack of a specific transactivation potential was also demonstrated by the unchanged levels of target gene mRNA. However, rather than translocating to the nucleus, the AICD surplus remains membrane tethered or free in the cytosol where it interacts with Fe65. Therefore we provide strong evidence that an increase in AICD generation does not directly promote gene activation of previously proposed target 0011gen.

  6. Electrons, muons and hadrons in extensive air showers and how do they depend on nuclear interaction model, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrotniak, J. A.; Yodh, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the results of Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers for nuclear interactions models are presented. The most significant part of scaling violation effect is generated by the inclusion of rising cross-section. Among the models considered the lowest value for Eo/N(max) is obtained when rapidly rising cross-section and charge exchange are both included (model R-F01). The value is still 1.38 GeV/electron. Except at the highest energies, the sensitivity to atomic mass of the primary is greater than to specific assumptions about multiple production.

  7. Safety demonstration tests of hypothetical explosive burning in the cell and air ventilation system in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nisio, G.; Suzuki, M.; Mukaide, S. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant equipped with an air ventilation system consisting of cells, ducts, dampers, high-efficiency particulate air filters, and blowers. This ventilation system is required to have multiple safeguards in order to confine airborne radioactive materials within the plant in the event of fire, explosion, and criticality. To evaluate these safeguards, three kinds of explosive burning tests are performed using a large-scale facility simulating the ventilation system of a reprocessing plant. In the boilover test, an organic solvent is burned on a layer of water in a burning pan to determine the magnitude of the burning caused by the sudden boiling of the water under the solvent. The optimum conditions for boilover burning are determined by the relationship between the pan size and the ventilation rate.

  8. Senior Leader Perspective on the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise: Todays Issues and the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    the changes were more successful than others. In an attempt to better understand the current and future state of the nuclear enterprise, this...Acknowledgments I thank my research advisor, Lt Col Overstreet, for his overall support of this effort, and for helping me overcome my academic barriers. Thank...Figure 9: How Senior Leaders Judge Successes and Failures .......................................... 39 Figure 10: Nuclear Enterprise Organization

  9. An Evaluation of the Modified Sachs and Ledsham-Pike Scaling of a Nuclear Air Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    I-1) for a given yield in a uniform homo - geneous atmosphere, and then transforming this solution to anoth- er yield and atmosphere. The similarity...high explosive shock waves apply to nuclear explosions in an infinite homo - geneous atmosphere when the weight of the nuclear explosion is defined by...pressure: 4Pa. ---i Pa (IV-3) where q* is the dynamic pressure at R* in an infinite, homo - geneous atmosphere. An iterative procedure was required to pro

  10. Investigation of radon level in air and tap water of workplaces at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, P.; Youngchuay, U.; Kongsri, S.; Kongtana, A.

    2017-06-01

    Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) has continuously monitored radiation exposure and radionuclide in workplaces specifically radon gas to estimate effective dose for workers. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the world. In this study, radon in air and tap water at building no. 3, 7, 8, 9 and 18 on Ongkharak site of TINT have been measured for 5 years from 2012 to 2016. Radon level in air and tap water were investigated on 83 stations (workplaces) and 54 samples, respectively. Radon concentrations in air and tap water were measured by using the pulsed ionization chamber (ATMOS 12 DPX). Indoor radon concentrations in air were in the range of 12-138 Bq.m-3 with an average value of 30.13±17.05 Bq.m-3. Radon concentrations in tap water were in the range of 0.10 to 2.89 Bq.l-1 with an average value of 0.51±0.55 Bq.l-1. The results of radon concentrations at TINT were below the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) safety limit of 148 Bq.m-3 and 150 Bq.l-1, for, air and tap water, respectively. The average effective dose for TINT’s workers due to indoor radon exposure was approximately 0.20±0.11 mSv.y-1. The value is 100 times less than the annual dose limit for limit occupational radiation worker defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As a result, the TINT’s workplaces are radiologically safe from radon content in air and tap water.

  11. Environmental assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of commercial low level nuclear waste across the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This environmental assessment investigates the potential environmental and safety effects which could result from the land transport of low level radioactive wastes across the Savannah River Plant. Chem-Nuclear Systems operates a low level radioactive waste burial facility adjacent to the Savannah River Plant and is seeking permission from the DOE to transport the waste across Savannah River Plant.

  12. Draft Nuclear Genome, Complete Chloroplast Genome, and Complete Mitochondrial Genome for the Biofuel/Bioproduct Feedstock Species Scenedesmus obliquus Strain DOE0152z.

    PubMed

    Starkenburg, S R; Polle, J E W; Hovde, B; Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Huang, A; Neofotis, P; McKie-Krisberg, Z

    2017-08-10

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus is an emerging platform species for the industrial production of biofuels. Here, we report the draft assembly and annotation for the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes of S. obliquus strain DOE0152z. Copyright © 2017 Starkenburg et al.

  13. Nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) processes plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. This fact sheet responds to your September 6, 1991, request, that we describe the methods and facilities for DOE's plutonium processing. Plutonium, which is used to make nuclear weapons, does not exist in nature and has to be produced. However, DOE no longer produces plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Instead, DOE processes and recycles the plutonium from retired nuclear weapons and the plutonium that remains as scrap or residue from plutonium processing. This paper reports that DOE recovers plutonium through two basic processes-aqueous and pyrochemical-at four processing sites-Rocky Flats, Savannah River, Hanford, and Los Alamos. However, because of environmental and safety concerns and reductions in nuclear weapons, DOE has closed or may close most of the processing facilities. Only Los Alamos' processing facilities are currently operating.

  14. Does air pollution increase the effect of aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma?

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Sabit; Dales, Robert E; Coates, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Clinical experiments demonstrate that the asthmatic response to an aeroallergen can be enhanced by prior exposure to an air pollutant. We sought to compare the effects of ambient aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma between high and low air pollution days in 11 large Canadian cities. Daily time-series analysis was used, and results were adjusted for day of the week, temperature, barometric pressure, and relative humidity. The relative risk of admission for an interquartile increase in tree pollen levels was 1.124 (95% CI, 1.101-1.147) on days of lower values of fine particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) compared with 1.179 (95% CI, 1.149-1.21) on days of higher PM(2.5) values. Significant (P ≤ .05) differences in the relative risks of admission between lower versus higher values of particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm in diameter were 1.149 (95% CI, 1.118-1.181) versus 1.210 (95% CI, 1.161-1.261) for ascomycetes, 1.112 (95% CI, 1.085-1.14) versus 1.302 (95% CI, 1.242-1.364) for basidiomycetes, 1.159 (95% CI, 1.125-1.195) versus 1.149 (95% CI, 1.129-1.169) for deuteromycetes, and 1.061 (95% CI, 1.016-1.107) versus 1.117 (95% CI, 1.092-1.143) for weeds. We identified an association between aeroallergens and hospitalizations for asthma, which was enhanced on days of higher air pollution. Minimizing exposure to air pollution might reduce allergic exacerbations of asthma. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  16. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  17. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  18. Does shift in oxygen level in soil air affect the trace gases emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    malghani, S.; Gleixner, G.; Trumbore, S.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic processes in soil such as, trace gasses emissions are influenced by presence or absence of oxygen as it is a dominant final acceptor of electrons for number of biochemical processes. However, it is unknown that trace gases emissions from soil are influenced by the level of oxygen or not. To understand the impact of oxygen level on CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions, five contrasting soils which differ in land use and other properties, were incubated at constant temperature and moisture in an automated chamber measurement system. Automated system continuously (30 mL/min) flushed the chambers holding soil samples with inlet air of known composition and the outlet air, sampling the headspace of the column, was connected to an automated multiport stream selection valve (Valco) that directed the air stream from different columns sequentially to instrumental part (LiCOR6262,PICARRO2101i and PICCARO2301). Other greenhouse gases and isotopes (δ13C & D) of CH4 were sampled weekly using 2L flasks. Oxygen levels in inlet air were switched weekly, started from 20% followed by 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0%, and all levels were repeated in reverse fashion (from 1 to 20%).The results showed that soil respiration was higher in soils that were rich in soil organic matter with higher microbial biomass. Three out of five soils exhibited a gradual decrease in soil respiration while shifting higher to lower O2 levels but no such impact was recorded during gradual increase in O2 level. The lowest respiration rates in all soil types were recorded under anaerobic conditions. Forest soils were rich in soil organic carbon and respired more CO2 than grassland or cropland soils. All soils oxidized CH4, except one grassland soil which was acidic in nature (pH=4.1), in the presence of O2 at all levels. Amount of CH4 oxidized varied among soil types and was highest in forest soils. Under anaerobic condition CH4 oxidation was not observed in any soil, while two soils (cropland and one grassland) emitted

  19. Does G force increase the incidence of varicocele in Air Force pilot cadets?

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Panagiotis; Skrepetis, Konstadinos; Efthimiou, Ioannis; Ferentinos, Georgios; Diamantopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Air Force pilots are subjected to acceleration (G) forces with a known effect upon the vascular system. Specific training and anti-G maneuvers are used to counteract this effect, and allow pilots to operate at the limits of human endurance. The objective of the present study is to determine whether acceleration affects the incidence of varicocele. The incidence of varicocele during training in 234 Air Force pilots was assessed. Height, weight, BMI and testicular volume were recorded for every participant. A group of 35 pilots with an absence of varicocele, randomly selected, acted as the control group. Left-sided varicocele was confirmed in 23 (9.8%) pilots. Affected pilots tended to be taller (p = 0.073) and had a smaller mean left testicular volume (p < 0.001) than the control group. Eight cases (35%) were grade I, 10 (43%) were grade II, and 5 (22%) were grade III. For grades I and II, there was a trend for the testicular volume to decrease (p = 0.349 and 0.067, respectively). In grade III varicocele, this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The incidence of varicocele in fighter pilots during training is not higher than in other groups of the same age. Affected individuals tend to be taller, with ipsilateral testicular hypotrophy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Energy use test facility: CAC-DOE solar air heater test report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The solar air heater testing demonstrated an attractive application for residential space heating, especially appealing to the do-it-yourself market. Simple improvements in construction, such as caulking of the glazing, could increase collector performance at little cost. The operating cost of the fan was insignificant, being less than $0.05/week. Tested in its as-shipped configuration at 96.1 cfm (3 cfm/ft (2)), the useful energy delivered averaged 20,000 Btu/day for six days in December. The electrical consumption of the fan was approximately 1 kWh. Doubling the flowrate did not increase collector performance appreciably. A TRNSYS computer simulation model for this solar air heater design was validated by comparing the measured test data on Jaunary 4, 1981 with calculated values. TRNSYS predicted that measured collector outlet temperatures within +- 1.20F and the energy delivered within +- 3%. The excellent agreement was obtained by adjusting the collector loss coefficient to an unrealistically low value; therefore, a parametric study is recommended to determine the model sensitivity to varying different parameters. A first-order collector efficiency curve was derived from the TRNSYS simulations which compared well with the curve defined by the clear-day measured data.

  1. Hydrogen-air-diluent detonation study for nuclear reactor safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Stamps, D.W.; Benedick, W.B.; Tieszen, S.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The detonability of hydrogen-air-diluent mixtures was investigated experimentally in the 0.43 m diameter, 13.1 m long Heated Detonation Tube (HDT) for the effects of variations in hydrogen and diluent concentration, initial pressure, and initial temperature. The data were correlated using a ZND chemical kinetics model. The detonation limits in the HDT were obtained experimentally for lean and rich hydrogen-air mixtures and stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. The addition of a diluent, such as steam or carbon dioxide, increases the detonation cell width for all mixtures. In general, an increase in the initial pressure or temperature produces a decrease in the cell width. In the HDT, the detonable range of hydrogen in a hydrogen-air mixture initially at 1 atm pressure is between 11.6 percent and 74.9 percent for mixtures at 20{degree}C, and 9.4 percent and 76.9 percent for mixtures at 100{degree}C. The detonation limit is between 38.8 percent and 40.5 percent steam for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixture initially at 100{degree}C and 1 atm. The detonation limit is between 29.6 percent and 31.9 percent steam for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixture for the case where hydrogen and steam are added to air initially at 20{degree}C and 1 atm resulting in a final predetonation mixture temperature and pressure of approximately 100{degree}C and 2.6 atm, respectively. 41 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of "neighborhood" impact exposure assessment?

    PubMed

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO2, benzene, PM10 and PM2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment techniques reflecting different definitions of "neighborhood". At the city scale, its definition does not significantly influence exposure estimates. It does impact levels at the building scale, however: at least a quarter of the buildings' exposure estimates for a 400 m buffer differ from the estimated 50 m buffer value (±1.0 μg/m(3) for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5; and ±0.05 μg/m(3) for benzene). This variation is significantly related to the definition of neighborhood. It is vitally important for investigators to understand the impact of chosen assessment techniques on exposure estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring Radon in Air, Soil and Water: An Introduction to Nuclear Physics for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Wachtmeister, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the radon measurement activities at Stockholm House of Science, nuclear and experimental physics is introduced in a way that attracts the attention and interest of the students. These projects give the students the opportunity to use mobile detectors, either in their school, in the House of Science or in their homes. During 2006, 34 radon…

  4. Measuring Radon in Air, Soil and Water: An Introduction to Nuclear Physics for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Wachtmeister, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the radon measurement activities at Stockholm House of Science, nuclear and experimental physics is introduced in a way that attracts the attention and interest of the students. These projects give the students the opportunity to use mobile detectors, either in their school, in the House of Science or in their homes. During 2006, 34 radon…

  5. Cean air and clear responsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, K.C.

    1995-02-01

    This paper is the text of the address given by Commissioner Kenneth C. rogers, USNRC, at the 23rd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. Mr. Rogers reviews the regulatory approach to the subject, discussing the requirements of 10CFR20 and ALARA principles. A discussion of the talk follows the text.

  6. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use on argyrophilic nuclear organizer regions in buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan K; Dutta, Anindita; Banerjee, Anirban; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of indoor air pollution from biomass-fuel use on the expression of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), an indicator of ribosome biosynthesis, in epithelial cells of oral mucosa. AgNORs were evaluated using cytochemical staining in 62 nonsmoking indian women (median age, 34 years), who cooked exclusively with biomass, and 55 age-matched women, who were from a similar neighborhood and cooked with relatively clean liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Concentrations of particulate pollutants in indoor air were measured using a real-time aerosol monitor. Compared to the LPG-using controls, biomass-fuel users showed a remarkably increased number of AgNOR dots per nucleus (6.08 +/-2.26 vs 3.16 +/-0.86, p < 0.001), AgNOR size (0.85 +/-0.19 vs 0.53 +/-0.15 mum2, p < 0.001), and percentage of AgNOR-occupied nuclear area (4.88 +/-1.49 vs 1.75 +/-0.13%, p < 0.001). Biomass-using households had 2 to 4 times more particulate pollutants than that of LPG-using households. The changes in AgNOR expression were positively associated with PM10 and PM2.5 levels in indoor air after controlling for potential confounders such as age, kitchen location, and family income. Thus, biomass smoke appears to be a risk factor for abnormal cell growth via upregulation of ribosome biogenesis.

  7. A Multi-Attribute Utility Decision Analysis for Treatment Alternatives for the DOE/SR Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.; Kuzio, K.; Sorenson, K.; Weiner, R.; Wheeler, T.

    1998-11-01

    A multi-attribute utility analysis is applied to the decision to select a treatment method for the management of aluminum-based spent nuclear i%el (A1-SNF) owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE will receive, treat, and temporarily store Al- SNF, most of which is composed of highly enriched uranium, at its Savannah River Site in South Carolina. DOE intends ultimately to send the treated Al-SNJ? to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE initially considered ten treatment alternatives for the management of A1-SNF, and has narrowed the choice to two of these the direct disposal and melt and dilute alternatives. The decision analysis presented in this document focuses on a decision between these two remaining alternatives.

  8. Cognitive Targeting: A Coercive Air Power Theory for Conventional Escalation Control Against Nuclear Armed Adversaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    knowledge of the subject guided my efforts and focused my attention toward the correct framing of the problem. Additionally, his experience and...This study analyses the applicability of three operational targeting paradigms to coerce a nuclear-armed adversary in a regional crisis, while...principles and elements of war and understand the coercive ability of utility targeting (a capabilities-based targeting paradigm , CBTP), axiological

  9. The Development, Content, Design, and Conduct of the 2011 Piloted US DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program Criticality Safety Engineering Training and Education Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In May 1973 the University of New Mexico conducted the first nationwide criticality safety training and education week-long short course for nuclear criticality safety engineers. Subsequent to that course, the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) developed very successful 'hands-on' subcritical and critical training programs for operators, supervisors, and engineering staff. Since the inception of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCT&SP) in 1983, the DOE has stimulated contractor facilities and laboratories to collaborate in the furthering of nuclear criticality as a discipline. That effort included the education and training of nuclear criticality safety engineers (NCSEs). In 1985 a textbook was written that established a path toward formalizing education and training for NCSEs. Though the NCT&SP went through a brief hiatus from 1990 to 1992, other DOE-supported programs were evolving to the benefit of NCSE training and education. In 1993 the DOE established a Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) and undertook a comprehensive development effort to expand the extant LACEF 'hands-on' course specifically for the education and training of NCSEs. That successful education and training was interrupted in 2006 for the closing of the LACEF and the accompanying movement of materials and critical experiment machines to the Nevada Test Site. Prior to that closing, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was commissioned by the US DOE NCSP to establish an independent hands-on NCSE subcritical education and training course. The course provided an interim transition for the establishment of a reinvigorated and expanded two-week NCSE education and training program in 2011. The 2011 piloted two-week course was coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and jointly conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) classroom education and facility training, the Sandia National

  10. US defense policy, US Air Force doctrine and strategic nuclear weapon systems, 1958-1964: the case of the Minuteman ICBM

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the efforts of the US Air Force during 1958-1964 to develop doctrine for strategic nuclear weapon systems. These years were characterized by rapid, extensive change in the technology of nuclear weapons delivery systems, centering in ICBMs replacing bombers as the chief vehicles. Simultaneously, national military strategy changed with the transfer of power from the Eisenhower to the Kennedy Administrations, shifting from reliance on overwhelming nuclear retaliation to emphasis on balanced conventional and nuclear forces. Against this background, the study poses the question: did the Air Force, when confronted with major changes in technology and national policy, develop doctrine for strategic nuclear weapon systems that was politically acceptable, technically feasible, and strategically sound. Using the development of the Minuteman ICBM as a case study, the study examines the evolution of Air Force doctrine and concludes that the Air Force did not, because of conceptual problems and bureaucratic exigencies, develop a doctrine adequate to the requirements of deterrence in the dawning era of solid-fuel ICBMs.

  11. Pyridostigmine bromide does not alter thermoregulation during exercise in cold air

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.E.; Sawka, M.N.; Young, A.J.; Freund, B.J.

    1994-12-31

    This study examined the effects of acute and chronic pyridostigmine bromide (PB) administration on thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to exercise in cold air (5 C). Seven healthy men completed two 7-day trials in a double-blind, crossover experimental design: during one trial they received PB (30 mg three times daily) and during the other trial they received placebo. For each trial, subjects attempted four (3 h) exercise tests: low-intensity exercise (25% Vo2max) and moderate- intensity exercise (-50% Vo2max), on days 2 and 3 and again on days 6 and 7. Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and venous blood samples were obtained before and during exercise. Red blood cell acerylcholinesterase inhibition induced by PB increased (p < 0.05) from 34% on day I to 43% on days 3-7 Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and regional heat conductance responses were not different between trials. Plasma glucose, glycerol, free fatty acid, lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations were not different between trials. In addition. differences were not found between acute and chronic experiments for any thermoregulatory or metabolic responses. These findings demonstrate that the PB dosage used by military personnel, as a pharmacological defense against nerve-agent poisoning. should not cause any adverse thermoregulatory or metabolic effects during moderate activity in cold climates.

  12. Midweek Intensification of Rain in the U.S.: Does Air Pollution Invigorate Storms?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Hahnenberger, M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pollution on rainfall has been observed to depend both on the type of pollution and the precipitating environment. The climatological consequences of pollution for rainfall are uncertain. In some urban areas, pollution varies with the day of the week because of weekly variations in human activity, in effect providing a repeated experiment on the effects of pollution. Weekly variations in temperature, pressure, cloud characteristics, hails and lightning are observed in many areas. Observing a weekly cycle in rainfall statistics has proven to be more difficult, although there is some evidence for it. Here we examine rainfall statistics from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite over the southern U.S. and adjacent waters, and find that there is a distinct, statistically significant weekly cycle in summertime rainfall over the southeast U.S., as well as weekly variations in rainfall over the nearby Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Rainfall over land peaks in the middle of the week, suggesting that summer rainfall on large scales may increase as pollution levels rise. Both rain statistics over land and what appear to be compensating effects over adjacent seas support the suggestion that air pollution invigorates convection and outflow aloft.

  13. Indoor air quality and health does fungal contamination play a significant role?

    PubMed

    Bardana, Emil J

    2003-05-01

    Fungal contamination in buildings can vary greatly, and their presence in a dwelling does not necessarily constitute exposure. Measurement of mold spores and fragments varies depending on the methodology and instruments used. Meaningful comparison of data is rarely possible. The presence of a specific immune response to a fungal antigen only connotes that exposure to one or more related species has occurred, but not that there is a symptomatic clinical state. The response of individuals to indoor bioaerosols is complex and depends on age, gender, state of health, genetic makeup, and degree and time of bioaerosol exposure. In general, mold contamination in buildings is associated with incursion of water or moisture, which should be remedied as efficiently as possible. When disease occurs, it more likely is related to transient annoyance or irritational reactions. Allergic symptoms may be related to mold proliferation in the home environment. Because molds are encountered both indoors and outdoors, it is difficult to determine where the sensitivity initially arose and if the response is solely provoked by either an indoor or outdoor source. As an indoor allergen, mold is considered to be an infrequent participant in the induction of allergic disease when compared with housedust mites, animal dander, and cockroach allergens. Infection in healthy individuals is rare and usually is caused by an outdoor source. Building-related disease caused by mycotoxicosis has not been proved in the medical literature.

  14. Hidden disbond detection in spent nuclear fuel storage systems using air-coupled ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Homin; Popovics, John S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies an air-coupled ultrasonic scanning approach for damage assessment in steel-clad concrete structures. An air-coupled ultrasonic sender generates guided plate waves in the steel cladding and a small contact-type receiver measures the corresponding wave responses. A frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain signal filtering technique is used to isolate the behavior of the fundamental symmetric (S0) mode of the guided plate waves. The behavior of the S0 mode is sensitive to interface bonding conditions. The proposed inspection approach is verified by a series of experiments performed on laboratory-scale specimens. The experimental results demonstrate that hidden disbond between steel cladding and underlying concrete substrate can be successfully detected with the ultrasonic test setup and the f-k domain signal filtering technique.

  15. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures.

  16. Instrumental nuclear activation analysis (INAA) characterization of environmental air filter samples.

    PubMed

    Alemón, Ernesto; Herrera, Luis; Ortiz, Elba; Longoria, L C Luis C

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear techniques have been used in quantitations of environmental pollutants, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has turned out to be particularly useful in the analysis of airborne suspended particles. This work describes the INAA characterization of the particulate material in the environmental samples obtained in a monitoring campaign in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area. As the types of the irradiation facilities and gamma-ray detection system impose some limitations on the possibilities of INAA analysis, the actual experimental conditions at Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory, where the analysis was performed, had been assessed. The facilities had been found suitable for the analysis of samples from this campaign, in which 22 elements were determined.

  17. Does air-sea coupling influence model projections of the effects of the Paris Agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingaman, Nicholas; Suckling, Emma; Sutton, Rowan; Dong, Buwen

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement includes the long-term goal to hold global-mean temperature to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels", with the further stated aim of limiting the global-mean warming to 1.5°C, in the belief that this would "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change". However, it is not clear which risks and impacts would be avoided, or reduced, by achieving a 1.5°C warming instead of a 2.0°C warming. Initial efforts to quantify changes in risk have focused on analysis of existing CMIP5 simulations at levels of global-mean warming close to 1.5°C or 2.0°C, by taking averages over ≈20 year periods. This framework suffers from several drawbacks, however, including the effect of model internal multi-decadal variability, the influence of coupled-model systematic errors on regional circulation patterns, and the presence of a warming trend across the averaging period (i.e., the model is not in steady state). To address these issues, the "Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts" (HAPPI) project is performing large ensembles of atmosphere-only experiments with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) for present-day and 1.5°C and 2.0°C scenarios. While these experiments reduce the complications from a limited dataset and coupled-model systematic errors, the use of atmosphere-only models neglects feedbacks between the atmosphere and ocean, which may have substantial effects on the representation of local and regional extremes, and hence on the response of these extremes to global-mean warming. We introduce a set of atmosphere-ocean coupled simulations that incorporate much of the HAPPI experiment design, yet retain a representation of air-sea feedbacks. We use the Met Office Unified Model Global Ocean Mixed Layer (MetUM-GOML) model, which comprises the MetUM atmospheric model coupled to many columns of the one-dimensional K Profile Parameterization mixed-layer ocean. Critically, the MetUM-GOML ocean mean

  18. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects: report for January-March 1985. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; Meyer, R.E.; Jacobs, G.K.; Whatley, S.K.

    1985-09-01

    Geochemical information relevant to the retention of radionuclides by the Hanford Site (in basalt) and the Yucca Mountain site (in tuff), candidate high-level nuclear waste geologic repositories being developed by US Department of Energy (DOE) projects, is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Our evaluation of the sorption of technetium by basalt/groundwater systems was essentially completed this quarter and the results summarized; we conclude that the experimental methodology and results reported by the DOE for the Hanford Site have not conclusively established that significant retardation of technetium migration may be provided by phases present in the basalts of the Hanford Site. We have shown that sodium boltwoodite is the saturating uranium solid phase in two basalt/groundwater systems. Because thermodynamic data are not available for sodium boltwoodite, calculated solubilities for uranium are erroneous in these systems. Results of radionuclide solubility/speciation calculations, published by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain site, were evaluated this quarter under our geochemical modeling task. We express concerns relative to the inherent limitations of such calculations. Samples of Yucca Mountain tuff and J-13 well water were received for use in our planned radionuclide sorption/solubility experiments. These Yucca Mountain materials will be used to evaluate radionuclide sorption and apparent concentration limit values published by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project. 40 refs., 5 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Safeguards Options for Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities ? A Collaborative Effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN)

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Begovich, John M; Ferrada, Juan J

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed on a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of an NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. The study, completed in early 2007, identified potential safeguards measures and evaluated their effectiveness and impacts on operations. In addition, advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was framed by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Before this policy, only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and, therefore, subject to AEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, and the IAEA. This paper highlights the findings of this joint collaborative effort and identifies technical measures to strengthen international safeguards in NUCPs.

  20. Enhanced air dispersion modelling at a typical Chinese nuclear power plant site: Coupling RIMPUFF with two advanced diagnostic wind models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hong; Sun, Sida; Fang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced air dispersion modelling scheme is proposed to cope with the building layout and complex terrain of a typical Chinese nuclear power plant (NPP) site. In this modelling, the California Meteorological Model (CALMET) and the Stationary Wind Fit and Turbulence (SWIFT) are coupled with the Risø Mesoscale PUFF model (RIMPUFF) for refined wind field calculation. The near-field diffusion coefficient correction scheme of the Atmospheric Relative Concentrations in the Building Wakes Computer Code (ARCON96) is adopted to characterize dispersion in building arrays. The proposed method is evaluated by a wind tunnel experiment that replicates the typical Chinese NPP site. For both wind speed/direction and air concentration, the enhanced modelling predictions agree well with the observations. The fraction of the predictions within a factor of 2 and 5 of observations exceeds 55% and 82% respectively in the building area and the complex terrain area. This demonstrates the feasibility of the new enhanced modelling for typical Chinese NPP sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A multiscale Bayesian data integration approach for mapping air dose rates around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Haruko M; Seki, Akiyuki; Chen, Jinsong; Saito, Kimiaki

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a multiscale data integration method to estimate the spatial distribution of air dose rates in the regional scale around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We integrate various types of datasets, such as ground-based walk and car surveys, and airborne surveys, all of which have different scales, resolutions, spatial coverage, and accuracy. This method is based on geostatistics to represent spatial heterogeneous structures, and also on Bayesian hierarchical models to integrate multiscale, multi-type datasets in a consistent manner. The Bayesian method allows us to quantify the uncertainty in the estimates, and to provide the confidence intervals that are critical for robust decision-making. Although this approach is primarily data-driven, it has great flexibility to include mechanistic models for representing radiation transport or other complex correlations. We demonstrate our approach using three types of datasets collected at the same time over Fukushima City in Japan: (1) coarse-resolution airborne surveys covering the entire area, (2) car surveys along major roads, and (3) walk surveys in multiple neighborhoods. Results show that the method can successfully integrate three types of datasets and create an integrated map (including the confidence intervals) of air dose rates over the domain in high resolution. Moreover, this study provides us with various insights into the characteristics of each dataset, as well as radiocaesium distribution. In particular, the urban areas show high heterogeneity in the contaminant distribution due to human activities as well as large discrepancy among different surveys due to such heterogeneity.

  2. Safety management of nuclear medicine personnel with visualisation of air dose rate.

    PubMed

    Kawase, S; Ohno, K; Nakamoto, Y; Miyatake, H

    2015-07-01

    Many people are anxious about radiation exposure for the reason that radiation cannot be seen. With the aim of devising a way for medical personnel to perform their medical duties without worry about radiation exposure, we attempted safety management using a system that displays the air dose of radiation in real time. Measurements were made in a lung ventilation scintigraphy examination room with the use of Xe-133. An SCI-type RI detector from Hamamatsu Photonics, which displays the air dose rate in real time, was used for the measurements. These radiation measurements were continued from the start to finish of the examination. The measurements were made in two locations, on the patient inhalation tube side and on the opposite side. Measurements were made on the patient tube side in 24 tests and on the opposite side in 12 tests. The maximum air dose rate was 3.7 ± 2.1 μSv/h on the patient tube side and 1.1 ± 0.5 μSv/h on the opposite side. Thus, the level on the opposite side was about 1/5 that of the tube side. To accurately perform lung ventilation scintigraphy, a medical worker needs to observe the patient's breathing status up close. Because of this, some medical workers are worried about radiation exposure during tests. The simplest way to reduce exposure would be to maintain a distance from the examination tube that is the source of radiation. The measurements in this study were made to encourage medical workers' recognition of this fact. Displaying specific numbers not only serves as basic data for managing staff operations, but is also thought to reassure workers through visualization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects. Annual report, October 1984-September 1985. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; Jacobs, G.K.; Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Whatley, S.K.

    1986-05-01

    Information pertaining to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository, which is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE), is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, emphasis was placed on the evaluation of information pertinent to the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. Results on the sorption/solubility behavior of technetium, neptunium, and uranium in the basalt/water geochemical system are summarized and compared to the results of DOE. Also, summaries of results are reported from two geochemical modeling studies: (1) an evaluation of the information developed by DOE on the native copper deposits of Michigan as a natural analog for the emplacement of copper canisters in a repository in basalt, and (2) calculation of the solubility and speciation of radionuclides for representative groundwaters from the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada.

  4. DOE nuclear public information program. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, December 17, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Four DOE officials defended the DOE public-relations program designed to promote nuclear power. At issue were possible propaganda rather than informational aspects of the program, its cost, and the implications for DOE credibility. The witnesses described their program as a balanced and factual approach to developing all energy sources and an effort to reserve the imbalance of the previous administration. Their testimony is followed by additional material from DOE and the Energy Conservation and Power Subcommittee. (DCK)

  5. Air Pollution Studies in Tver Region of Russia using Moss-Biomonitoring with Nuclear Analytical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vergel, K. N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Povtoreyko, E. A.

    2007-11-26

    Results of the trace element atmospheric deposition in the Tver region based on moss analysis are presented. Moss samples were collected in the summer of 1999 and 2004 from 174 sites evenly distributed over the region. As bioaccumulators, two common mosses were used: Pleurozium schreberi ({approx}80%) and Hylocomium splendens ({approx}20%). The moss samples were subject to neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor JINR Dubna. The purpose of this study was to determine deposition patterns of potent sources of air pollution such as the largest Russian thermal power plant nearby the town of Konakovo and to reveal previously unknown pollution sources located in towns and settlements within the sampled territory. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the examined territory. Comparison of the results obtained with those from other surveys in Russia and Europe shows that Tver region could be considered as a background territory for the Russian Federation.

  6. 76 FR 13397 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet Mixing at the... Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2, concerning Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste... Board (Board) Recommendation 2010-2, Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...

  7. 76 FR 37799 - DOE Final Decision in Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Indiana Avenue NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20004. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Amanda Anderson... analysis. Attachment 1 February 28, 2011 The Honorable Peter S. Winokur, Chairman, Defense Nuclear... 2 May 27, 2011 The Honorable Peter S. Winokur, Chairman, Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  8. Mitochondrial-nuclear epistasis affects fitness within species but does not contribute to fixed incompatibilities between species of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Montooth, Kristi L.; Meiklejohn, Colin D.; Abt, Dawn N.; Rand, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient mitochondrial function requires physical interactions between the proteins encoded by the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Co-evolution between these genomes may result in the accumulation of incompatibilities between divergent lineages. We test whether mitochondrial-nuclear incompatibilities have accumulated within the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup by combining divergent mitochondrial and nuclear lineages and quantifying the effects on relative fitness. Precise placement of nine mtDNAs from D. melanogaster, D. simulans and D. mauritiana into two D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds reveals significant mitochondrial-nuclear epistasis affecting fitness in females. Combining the mitochondrial genomes with three different D. melanogaster X chromosomes reveals significant epistasis for male fitness between X-linked and mitochondrial variation. However, we find no evidence that the more than 500 fixed differences between the mitochondrial genomes of D. melanogaster and the D. simulans species complex are incompatible with the D. melanogaster nuclear genome. Rather, the interactions of largest effect occur between mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphisms that segregate within species of the D. melanogaster species subgroup. We propose that a low mitochondrial substitution rate, resulting from a low mutation rate and/or efficient purifying selection, precludes the accumulation of mitochondrial-nuclear incompatibilities among these Drosophila species. PMID:20624176

  9. Kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of air with nuclear grade graphites: IG-110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loren Fuller, E.; Okoh, Joseph M.

    1997-02-01

    The work presented in this report is part of an ongoing effort in the microgravimetric evaluation of the intrinsic reaction parameters for air reactions with graphite over the temperature range of 450 to 750°C. Earlier work in this laboratory addressed the oxidation/etching of H-451 graphite by oxygen and steam. This report addresses the air oxidation of the Japanese formulated material, IG-110. Fractal analysis showed that each cylinder was remarkably smooth, with an average value, D, the fractal dimension of 0.895. The activation energy, Ea, was determined to be 187.89 kJ/mol indicative of reactions occurring in the zone II kinetic regime and as a result of the porous nature of the cylinders. IG-110 is a microporous solid. The low initial reaction rate of 9.8×10 -5 at 0% burn-off and the high value (764.9) of Φ, the structural parameter confirm this. The maximum rate, 1.35×10 -3 g/m 2s, was measured at 34% burn-off. Reactions appeared to proceed in three stages and transition between them was smooth over the temperature range investigated. Both Ea and ln A did not vary with burn-off. The value of Δ S, the entropy of activation, was -41.4 eu, suggesting oxygen adsorption through an immobile transition state complex. Additional work is recommended to validate the predictions that will be made in relation to accident scenarios for reactors such as the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor where fine grained graphites such as IG-110 could be used in structural applications.

  10. Prompt air fluorescence induced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, H.G.; Collins, D.G.; Holland, R.F.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1990-12-01

    A high-altitude (>100) nuclear explosion emits a large fraction of its energy yield in the form of x rays, approximately half of which are deposited in the atmospheric layers {approximately}50--90 km, exciting prompt fluorescence. This paper examines four of the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative bands that fluorescence strongly: {lambda}{lambda} 3914(0,0), 4278(0,1), 4709(0,2), and 5228(0,3) {Angstrom}. We developed both forward'' and backward'' Monte Carlo procedures and performed calculations using Los Alamos CRAY computers to simulate the physical problem for the variety of situations that are possible. We include the time-dependent treatment of x-ray energy deposition, both local and nonlocal excitation of fluorescence, multiple scattering and transmission of fluorescent photons with the resulting enhancement of the longer wavelength N{sub 2}{sup +} bands, and chemical reactions. A realistic atmospheric model is defined up to 800 km, including the troposphere and a Lambert reflecting ground surface with given albedo. To expedite such computations we use separate spatial meshes in which to carry out the x-ray deposition and fluorescence light scattering. Examples of our calculated results illustrate the effects of explosion yield, geometry, tropospheric scattering, ground albedo, and temperature of the fluorescing layer. 41 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. 77 FR 43583 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Savannah...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... and electrical ignition sources. Operability and safety basis related concerns on fire detection and... in conducting drills necessary to demonstrate the overall effectiveness. DOE is committed to the...

  12. Gas processing in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    This article is a brief overview of code requirements in the nuclear air cleaning arena. NRC standards, which employ the various ASME codes, are noted. It is also noted that DOE facilities do not fall under the purview of the NRC and that DOE facilities (especially fuel cycle facilities) typically have broader gas processing activities than for power reactors. The typical differences between DOE facilities` and power reactor facilities` gas processing needs are listed, as are DOE facility components not covered by the ASME AG-1 code.

  13. Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Wang, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m{sup {minus}1}, 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions.

  14. The air dose rate around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant: its spatial characteristics and temporal changes until December 2012.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Satoshi; Maeyama, Takeshi; Hoshide, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Shoji; Okuda, Naotoshi; Sato, Tetsuro; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Distribution maps of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were constructed using the results of measurement obtained from approximately 6500 locations (at most) per measurement period. The measurements were conducted 1 m above the ground using survey meters in flat and spatially open locations. Spatial distribution and temporal change of the air dose rate in the area were revealed by examining the resultant distribution maps. The observed reduction rate of the air dose rate over the 18 months between June 2011 and December 2012 was greater than that calculated from radioactive decay of radiocesium by 10% in relative percentage except decontaminated sites. This 10% difference in the reduction of the air dose rate can be explained by the mobility of radiocesium in the depth direction. In the region where the air dose rate was lower than 0.25 μSv h(-1) on June 2011, the reduction of the air dose rate was observed to be smaller than that of the other dose rate regions, and it was in fact smaller than the reduction rate caused by radioactive decay alone. In contrast, the reduction rate was larger in regions with higher air dose rates. In flat and spatially open locations, no significant difference in the reduction tendency of air dose rates was observed among different land use classifications (rice fields, farmland, forests, and building sites).

  15. Body fat does not affect venous bubble formation after air dives of moderate severity: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Schellart, Nico A M; van Rees Vellinga, Tjeerd P; van Hulst, Rob A

    2013-03-01

    For over a century, studies on body fat (BF) in decompression sickness and venous gas embolism of divers have been inconsistent. A major problem is that age, BF, and maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) show high multicollinearity. Using the Bühlmann model with eight parallel compartments, preceded by a blood compartment in series, nitrogen tensions and loads were calculated with a 40 min/3.1 bar (absolute) profile. Compared with Haldanian models, the new model showed a substantial delay in N2 uptake and (especially) release. One hour after surfacing, an increase of 14-28% in BF resulted in a whole body increase of the N2 load of 51%, but in only 15% in the blood compartment. This would result in an increase in the bubble grade of only 0.01 Kisman-Masurel (KM) units at the scale near KM = I-. This outcome was tested indirectly by a dry dive simulation (air breathing) with 53 male divers with a small range in age and Vo2max to suppress multicollinearity. BF was determined with the four-skinfold method. Precordial Doppler bubble grades determined at 40, 80, 120, and 160 min after surfacing were used to calculate the Kisman Integrated Severity Score and were also transformed to the logarithm of the number of bubbles/cm(2) (logB). The highest of the four scores yielded logB = -1.78, equivalent to KM = I-. All statistical outcomes of partial correlations with BF were nonsignificant. These results support the model outcomes. Although this and our previous study suggest that BF does not influence venous gas embolism (Schellart NAM, van Rees Vellinga TP, van Dijk FH, Sterk W. Aviat Space Environ Med 83: 951-957, 2012), more studies with different profiles under various conditions are needed to establish whether BF remains (together with age and Vo2max) a basic physical characteristic or will become less important for the medical examination and for risk assessment.

  16. Oxidation rate of nuclear-grade graphite NBG-18 in the kinetic regime for VHTR air ingress accident scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jo Jo; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2013-07-01

    One of the most severe accident scenarios anticipated for VHTRs is an air ingress accident caused by a pipe break. Graphite oxidation could be severe under these conditions. In this work, the oxidation rate of NBG-18 nuclear-grade graphite was studied thermogravimetrically for different oxygen concentrations and with temperatures from 873 to 1873 K. A semi-empirical Arrhenius rate equation was developed for the temperature range of 873-1023 K. The activation energy of NBG-18 was 187 kJ/mol and the order of reaction was 1.25. The penetration depth of oxidant was about 3-4 mm for NBG-18 oxidized at 973 K. Increased porosity and changes in external geometry became more prominent at higher temperatures from about 1173 to 1873 K. The surface of oxidized NBG-18 was characterized by SEM, EDS, FTIR and XPS. Diffusion of oxygen to the graphite surface and walls of open volume pores. Adsorption of oxygen atoms on the graphite surface free active sites and complexes inducing the simultaneous forming of Csbnd O and Csbnd H bonds and breaking of Csbnd C bonds (dissociative chemisorption). Chemical reactions occur at the surface. Desorption of gaseous products, CO and CO2, from the graphite surface and transport to the bulk gas mixture.

  17. Total cellular protein presence of the transcription factor IRF8 does not necessarily correlate with its nuclear presence.

    PubMed

    Minderman, Hans; Maguire, Orla; O'Loughlin, Kieran L; Muhitch, Jason; Wallace, Paul K; Abrams, Scott I

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) plays an essential role in myeloid differentiation and lineage commitment, based largely on molecular and genetic studies. The detection of IRF8 in specific cell populations by flow cytometry (FCM) has the potential to provide new insights into normal and pathologic myelopoiesis, but critical validation of this protein-based approach, particularly in human samples, is lacking. In this study, the assessment of total cellular IRF8 presence was compared to its specific nuclear presence as assessed by imaging flow cytometry (IFC) analysis. Peptide neutralization of the IRF8-specific antibody that has been predominantly used to date in the literature served as a negative control for the immunofluorescent labeling. Expression of total IRF8 was analyzed by total cellular fluorescence analogous to the mean fluorescence intensity readout of conventional FCM. Additionally, specific nuclear fluorescence and the similarity score between the nuclear image (DAPI) and the corresponding IRF8 image for each cell were analyzed as parameters for nuclear localization of IRF8. IFC showed that peptide blocking eliminated binding of the IRF8 antibody in the nucleus. It also reduced cytoplasmic binding of the antibody but not to the extent observed in the nucleus. In agreement with the similarity score data, the total cellular IRF8 as well as nuclear IRF8 intensities decreased with peptide blocking. In healthy donor peripheral blood subpopulations and a positive control cell line (THP-1), the assessment of IRF8 by total cellular presence correlated well with its specific nuclear presence and correlated with the known distribution of IRF8 in these cells. In clinical samples of myeloid-derived suppressors cells derived from patients with renal carcinoma, however, total cellular IRF8 did not necessarily correlate with its nuclear presence. Discordance was primarily associated with peptide blocking having a proportionally greater

  18. A technical review of non-destructive assay research for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies being conducted under the US DOE NGSI

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Tobin, Stephen J

    2010-12-06

    There is a growing belief that expansion of nuclear energy generation will be needed in the coming decades as part of a mixed supply chain to meet global energy demand. At stake is the health of the economic engine that delivers human prosperity. As a consequence renewed interest is being paid to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the plutonium it contains. In addition to being an economically valuable resource because it can be used to construct explosive devices, Pu must be placed on an inventory and handled securely. A multiinstitutional team of diverse specialists has been assembled under a project funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to address ways to nondestructively quantify the plutonium content of spent nuclear fuel assemblies, and to also detect the potential diversion of pins from those assemblies. Studies are underway using mostly Monte Carlo tools to assess the feasibility, individual and collective performance capability of some fourteen nondestructive assay methods. Some of the methods are familiar but are being applied in a new way against a challenging target which is being represented with a higher degree of realism in simulation space than has been done before, while other methods are novel. In this work we provide a brief review of the techniques being studied and highlight the main achievements to date. We also draw attention to the deficiencies identified in for example modeling capability and available basic nuclear data. We conclude that this is an exciting time to be working in the NDA field and that much work, both fundamental and applied, remains ahead if we are to advance the state of the practice to meet the challenges posed to domestic and international safeguards by the expansion of nuclear energy together with the emergence of alternative fuel cycles.

  19. Analysis of Air Activity Concentration Data Collected in the Kanto Plain, Japan, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-09

    Concentration Data Collected in the Kanto Plain, Japan, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...collected at three locations following the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The time series at...useful in other similar exposure situations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Operation Tomodachi, Department of Defense, Japan, Fukushima , accidents, nuclear

  20. 76 FR 37798 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet Mixing at the..., concerning Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, to the Department of Energy. In... Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2010-2, Pulse Jet Mixing (PJM) at the Waste Treatment and...

  1. User`s guide for the KBERT 1.0 code: For the knowledge-based estimation of hazards of radioactive material releases from DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Browitt, D.S.; Washington, K.E.; Powers, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    The possibility of worker exposure to radioactive materials during accidents at nuclear facilities is a principal concern of the DOE. The KBERT software has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories under DOE support to address this issue by assisting in the estimation of risks posed by accidents at chemical and nuclear facilities. KBERT is an acronym for Knowledge-Based system for Estimating hazards of Radioactive material release Transients. The current prototype version of KBERT focuses on calculation of doses and consequences to in-facility workers due to accidental releases of radioactivity. This report gives detailed instructions on how a user who is familiar with the design, layout and potential hazards of a facility can use KBERT to assess the risks to workers in that facility. KBERT is a tool that allows a user to simulate possible accidents and observe the predicted consequences. Potential applications of KBERT include the evaluation of the efficacy of evacuation practices, worker shielding, personal protection equipment and the containment of hazardous materials.

  2. Hyperbaric air exposure at 2.5 ATA does not affect respiratory mechanics and lung histology in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Alessandro; Porzionato, Andrea; Sarasin, Gloria; Zara, Susi; Macchi, Veronica; Camporesi, Enrico; Bosco, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that the exposure to hyperbaric hyperoxia increased respiratory system elastance and both the "ohmic" and viscoelastic components of inspiratory resistances, probably because of increased oxygen tension toxic effects. We presently investigated the possible consequences of a single exposure to 2.5-atmospheres absolute air (hyperbarism) lasting 90 min. We used the end-inflation occlusion method on anesthetized rats after about 15 min from previous exposure to hyperbarism. The method allows the measurements of respiratory system elastance and of the ohmic and viscoelastic components of airway resistance, which respectively depend on the Newtonian pressure dissipation due to the ohmic airway resistance to airflow and on the viscoelastic pressure dissipation caused by respiratory system tissue stress relaxation. The expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in the lung's tissues were also investigated, together with the histological characteristics of lung tissue. Data were compared with those obtained in control animals and in previously studied animals exposed to hyperoxic hyperbarism. Unlike with hyperoxic hyperbarism, hyperbarism per se did not change significantly the parameters of respiratory mechanics in the control animals (respiratory system elastance and ohmic and viscoelastic resistances were 2.01 ± 0.17 vs. 1.74 ± 0.08 cm H(2)O/ml, and 0.13 ± 0.02 vs. 0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.425 ± 0.04 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 cm H(2)O/ml s(-1) in control vs. experimental animals, respectively, none significantly different), nor did it induce evident effects on lung histology. An increment of both iNOS and eNOS expressions was documented instead (0.50 ± 0.05 vs. 0.75 ± 0.07 and 1.04 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.15, respectively). Our results indicate that, at variance with hyperoxic hyperbarism, the acute exposure to only hyperbarism does not affect either the elastic or the resistive respiratory system properties, or lung

  3. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, Susan E.; Pickett, Chris A.; Queirolo, Al; Bachner, Katherine M.; Worrall, Louise G.

    2015-04-07

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers’ goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term “software sustainability” was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  4. Does external pleural suction reduce prolonged air leak after lung resection? Results from the AirINTrial after 500 randomized cases.

    PubMed

    Leo, Francesco; Duranti, Leonardo; Girelli, Lara; Furia, Simone; Billè, Andrea; Garofalo, Giuseppe; Scanagatta, Paolo; Giovannetti, Riccardo; Pastorino, Ugo

    2013-10-01

    External pleural suction is used after lung resection to promote lung expansion and minimize air leak duration. Published randomized trials failed to prove this advantage but they are limited in number and underpowered in many cases. The aim of the AirINTrial study was to test the hypothesis that external pleural suction may reduce the rate of prolonged air leak in a large, randomized cohort. All candidates for lung resection (with the exception of pneumonectomy) were considered eligible for this single-center study. At the end of operation, patients were stratified by the type of resection (anatomic versus nonanatomic) and randomly allocated into the external suction arm (-15 cmH2O, group A) or into the no external suction arm (control arm, group B) in a 1:1 ratio. Chest drains were maintained for 3 days and then they were either removed or connected to an Heimlich valve, when an air leak was present. The main endpoint was to compare groups in terms of prolonged air leak (defined as the rate of patients having a chest drain still in place by postoperative day 7). Starting on February 2011, 500 patients were randomized over a 21-month period, 250 in group A and 250 in group B. Twenty-one patients in group B (8.4%) required pleural suction owing to large pneumothorax or diffuse subcutaneous emphysema. On postoperative day 7, the chest drain was still in place in 25 patients in group A and in 34 patients in group B (10% and 14%, respectively; p = 0.2). Subgroup analysis showed that external pleural suction reduced the prolonged air leak rate in the subgroup of patients who underwent anatomic resection (n = 296, 9.6% in group A and 16.8% in group B; p = 0.05). Results from the AirINTrial showed that the routine use of external suction reduces the rate of prolonged air leak after anatomic lung resection. More accurate strategies of pleural suction based on the amount of air flow and the degree of lung expansion should be probably established to improve its

  5. Epidural analgesia using loss of resistance with air versus saline: does it make a difference? Should we reevaluate our practice?

    PubMed

    Norman, David

    2003-12-01

    The choice of using air or saline in epidural syringes during the loss-of-resistance technique, for identifying the epidural space, has been based largely on personal preference of the anesthesia provider. A survey of practice in the United Kingdom, thought to be similar to practice in the United States, revealed that the majority of anesthesia providers use air. Case reports have appeared in the literature suggesting that air may be harmful to patients or, at the very least, impede the onset and quality of epidural analgesia. Two studies have evaluated air vs saline to determine whether one may lead to more rapid or better quality epidural analgesia in laboring parturients. Results are mixed. However, they seem to indicate that the use of saline for the loss-of-resistance may result in more rapid and satisfactory quality of pain relief in laboring parturients. Current anesthesia literature suggests using saline with an air bubble in the loss-of-resistance syringe. Many anesthesia training programs continue to teach the use of air, saline, and saline with an air bubble. Further studies may help to determine whether there is a scientific or safety basis for using air vs saline.

  6. Exposure to ambient air pollution--does it affect semen quality and the level of reproductive hormones?

    PubMed

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with a variety of reproductive disorders. However, a limited amount of research has been conducted to examine the association between air pollution and male reproductive outcomes, specifically semen quality. The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to fluctuating levels of specific air pollutants adversely affects sperm parameters and the level of reproductive hormones. The study population consisted of 327 men who were attending an infertility clinic in Łodź, Poland for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Air quality data were obtained from AirBase database. The statistically significant association was observed between abnormalities in sperm morphology and exposure to all examined air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX, CO). Exposure to air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOx) was also negatively associated with the level of testosterone. Additional exposure to PM2.5, PM10 increase the percentage of cells with immature chromatin (HDS). The present study provides suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Further research is needed to explore this association in more detail. Individual precise exposure assessment would be needed for more detailed risk characterization.

  7. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas.

  8. Loss of Nuclear Receptor SHP Impairs but Does Not Eliminate Negative Feedback Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas A.; Saeki, Shigeru; Schneider, Manfred; Schaefer, Karen; Berdy, Sara; Redder, Thadd; Shan, Bei; Russell, David W.; Schwarz, Margrit

    2014-01-01

    Summary The in vivo role of the nuclear receptor SHP in feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis was examined. Loss of SHP in mice caused abnormal accumulation and increased synthesis of bile acids due to derepression of rate-limiting CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 hydroxylase enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway. Dietary bile acids induced liver damage and restored feedback regulation. A synthetic agonist of the nuclear receptor FXR was not hepatotoxic and had no regulatory effects. Reduction of the bile acid pool with cholestyramine enhanced CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 expression. We conclude that input from three negative regulatory pathways controls bile acid synthesis. One is mediated by SHP, and two are SHP independent and invoked by liver damage and changes in bile acid pool size. PMID:12062084

  9. Natural variation of ambient dose rate in the air of Izu-Oshima Island after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Maedera, Fumihiko; Inoue, Kazumasa; Sugino, Masato; Sano, Ryosuke; Furue, Mai; Shimizu, Hideo; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Le Van, Tan; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The ambient dose rate in air and radioactivity concentration in soil samples collected on Izu-Oshima Island were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014, i.e. 1, 2 and 3 years after the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A car-borne survey for the ambient dose rate in air was carried out for the entire island. Soil samples were collected for the radioactivity concentration measurements from 22 points. The ambient dose rates in air were 36 nGy h(-1) in 2012, 34 nGy h(-1) in 2013 and 29 nGy h(-1) in 2014. The corresponding radioactivity concentrations in those years for (134)Cs were 53, 39 and 29 Bq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs, 87, 73 and 75 Bq kg(-1). All the values have decreased every year.

  10. Inactivation of retinoblastoma protein does not overcome the requirement for human cytomegalovirus UL97 in lamina disruption and nuclear egress.

    PubMed

    Reim, Natalia I; Kamil, Jeremy P; Wang, Depeng; Lin, Alison; Sharma, Mayuri; Ericsson, Maria; Pesola, Jean M; Golan, David E; Coen, Donald M

    2013-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes one conventional protein kinase, UL97. During infection, UL97 phosphorylates the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) on sites ordinarily phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), inactivating the ability of pRb to repress host genes required for cell cycle progression to S phase. UL97 is important for viral DNA synthesis in quiescent cells, but this function can be replaced by human papillomavirus type 16 E7, which targets pRb for degradation. However, viruses in which E7 replaces UL97 are still defective for virus production. UL97 is also required for efficient nuclear egress of viral nucleocapsids, which is associated with disruption of the nuclear lamina during infection, and phosphorylation of lamin A/C on serine 22, which antagonizes lamin polymerization. We investigated whether inactivation of pRb might overcome the requirement of UL97 for these roles, as pRb inactivation induces CDK1, and CDK1 phosphorylates lamin A/C on serine 22. We found that lamin A/C serine 22 phosphorylation during HCMV infection correlated with expression of UL97 and was considerably delayed in UL97-null mutants, even when E7 was expressed. E7 failed to restore gaps in the nuclear lamina seen in wild-type but not UL97-null virus infections. In electron microscopy analyses, a UL97-null virus expressing E7 was as impaired as a UL97-null mutant in cytoplasmic accumulation of viral nucleocapsids. Our results demonstrate that pRb inactivation is insufficient to restore efficient viral nuclear egress of HCMV in the absence of UL97 and instead argue further for a direct role of UL97 in this stage of the infectious cycle.

  11. 78 FR 4404 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2012-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Hanford...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Implementation Plan (IP), DOE will take the pragmatic and graded approach detailed below to address the sub... monitoring data available at remote locations. Remaining actions associated with sub recommendations 3 through 5 to reduce the potential hazards posed by gas release events will also be identified in the IP...

  12. Nuclear-Powered Aircraft: Potential Air Force’s Future Alternative Fuel Persistence and Reach Platform or Crazy Idea?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    and Chernobyl accidents, will limit the scope of a nuclear-powered aircraft program, if not eliminate the idea completely. By analyzing the potential...Island and Chernobyl accidents, will limit the scope of a nuclear-powered aircraft program, if not eliminate the idea completely. By analyzing the...established political hurdles and associated public fears with nuclear power after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents, will limit the

  13. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  14. Supplement analysis for a container system for the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel located at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-12

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the NEPA, 40 CFR 1502.9 (c), directs federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement when an agency makes substantial changes in the Proposed Action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are significant new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the Proposed Action or impacts. When it is unclear whether a supplemental environmental impact statement is required, DOE regulations (10 CFR 1021.314) direct the preparation of a supplement analysis to assist in making that determination. This supplement analysis evaluates the impacts of employing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) to prepare DOE SNF located at the INEEL for interim onsite storage and transport outside the State of Idaho. Impacts associated with DPC manufacturing, loading and storage of DOE-ID SNF into DPCs, transport of loaded DPCs outside Idaho, and the cumulative impacts are compared with the impacts previously analyzed in the SNF and INEL EIS and the Navy Container System EIS. This SA provides information to determine whether: (1) an existing EIS should be supplemented; (2) a new EIS should be prepared; or (3) no further NEPA documentation is required.

  15. The interaction between air pollution and diet does not influence the DNA damage in lymphocytes of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kalemba-Drożdż, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of DNA damage in lymphocytes of pregnant women with respect to hormonal and nutritional status and to air pollution in Lesser Poland. The study was performed on 39 healthy pregnant women. The oxidative DNA damage, alkali-labile sites and uracil in DNA of lymphocytes were measured by using the comet assay. The concentration of 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, cholesterol, vitamin B12 and folates were determined. Dietary data were assembled from food diaries. Voivodeship Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Krakow using automatic pollution monitoring system provided the air pollution information, such as concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NO, NO2, SO2, CO and O3. Many statistical correlations between DNA damage and air pollutants concentration were found however their biological meaning is still to be explained. It should be taken under consideration, that the protective effect of air pollutants is a result of hormesis, as the measured amounts of air pollutants during the study did not exceed the admissible levels. There was found no diet-and air pollution interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Artificial radionuclides in surface air in Finland following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Mattila, Aleksi; Kettunen, Markku; Kontro, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    We present observations of radionuclides released during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in ambient air and in deposition made in Finland during March-May 2011. The first observed fission product was (131)I, which arrived in Finland 8-9 days after the accident. Detections of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were made 2-3 days after the first (131)I observations. The highest concentrations of fission products in Finland were observed during March 31st and April 1st. The highest observed concentrations of the following isotopes were: (131)I (10.6 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3)), (134)Cs (0.397 ± 0.020 mBq/m(3)), (137)Cs (0.405 ± 0.017 mBq/m(3)), (136)Cs (28 ± 2 μBq/m(3)), (129)Te (129 ± 9 μBq/m(3)), (129m)Te (234 ± 20 μBq/m(3)), (132)Te (51 ± 3 μBq/m(3)) and (132)I (54 ± 3 μBq/m(3)). Generally, higher concentrations of fission product were observed in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland. The variations in the (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentration data suggest that three separate plumes passed over Finland with decreasing concentrations. The first plume, with highest cesium concentrations, passed over Finland during March 31st - April 2nd, the second plume during April 4th - 6th and the third and smallest one during April 10th - April 11th. Both aerosol and gaseous iodine fractions were sampled simultaneously and thus an accurate view of the behaviour of aerosol and gaseous fractions was obtained. Large variations between different fractions were observed with the gaseous fraction representing 65-98% of the total (131)I. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio was determined to be 0.99 ± 0.10, which indicates a fuel burnup of approximately 30 MWd/t. The (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(132)Te ratios were used to estimate the time lapse after the accident. The differences between true time lapse and the ones deduced from the isotope ratios were from the correct time lapse to 0-3 days for (136)Cs/(137)Cs and 5 days for (129m)Te/(132)Te, respectively. Radionuclides from

  17. Mutation of the rice XA21 predicted nuclear localization sequence does not affect resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Tong; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Ho, Yuen Ting; ...

    2016-10-05

    Background: The rice receptor kinase XA21 confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogenXanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae(Xoo). We previously reported that XA21 is cleaved in transgenic plants overexpressing XA21 with a GFP tag (Ubi-XA21-GFP) and that the released C-terminal domain is localized to the nucleus. XA21 carries a predicted nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that directs the C-terminal domain to the nucleus in transient assays, whereas alanine substitutions in the NLS disrupt the nuclear localization. Methods: To determine if the predicted NLS is required for XA21-mediated immunityin planta, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing an XA21 variant carrying the NLS with the same alaninemore » substitutions (Ubi-XA21nls-GFP). Results: Ubi- XA21nls-GFP plants displayed slightly longer lesion lengths, higherXoo bacterial populations after inoculation and lower levels of reactive oxygen species production compared with the Ubi- XA21-GFP control plants. However, the Ubi- XA21nls-GFP plants express lower levels of protein than that observed inUbi- XA21-GFP. Discussion: These results demonstrate that the predicted NLS is not required for XA21-mediated immunity.« less

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Ten-year Site Plan (2012 through 2021) -- DOE-NE's National Nuclear Capability -- Developing and Maintaining the INL Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Cal Ozaki

    2010-06-01

    To meet long-term objectives to transform the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), we are providing an integrated, long-term vision of infrastructure requirements that support research, development and demonstration (RD&D) goals outlined in the DOE strategic plans, including the NE Roadmap and reports such as Facilities for the Future of Nuclear Energy Research: A Twenty-year Outlook. The goal of the INL Ten-year Site Plan (TYSP) is to clearly link RD&D mission goals and INL core capabilities with infrastructure requirements (single and multi-program), establish the 10-year end-state vision for INL complexes, identify and prioritize infrastructure and capability gaps, as well as the most efficient and economic approaches to closing those gaps.

  19. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER41149 ''Nuclear Physics of Core-Collapse Supernovae''

    SciTech Connect

    Yong-Zhong Qian

    2004-10-26

    During the funding period from August 15, 2000 to August 14, 2004, the main foci of my research have been implications of abundances in metal-poor stars for nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae and chemical evolution of the universe, effects of neutrino oscillations and neutrino-nucleus interactions on r-process nucleosynthesis, physical conditions in neutrino-driven winds from proto-neutron stars, neutrino driven mechanism of supernova explosion, supernova neutrino signals in terrestrial detectors, and constraints on variations of fundamental couplings and astrophysical conditions from properties of nuclear reactions. Personnel (three graduate students and a postdoctoral research associate) involved in my research are listed in section 2. Completed research projects are discussed in section 3. Publications during the funding period are listed in section 4 and oral presentations in section 5. Remarks about the budget are given in section 6.

  20. Does natural selection explain the fine scale genetic structure at the nuclear exon Glu-5' in blue mussels from Kerguelen?

    PubMed

    Gérard, Karin; Roby, Charlotte; Bierne, Nicolas; Borsa, Philippe; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The Kerguelen archipelago, isolated in the Southern Ocean, shelters a blue mussel Mytilus metapopulation far from any influence of continental populations or any known hybrid zone. The finely carved coast leads to a highly heterogeneous habitat. We investigated the impact of the environment on the genetic structure in those Kerguelen blue mussels by relating allele frequencies to habitat descriptors. A total sample comprising up to 2248 individuals from 35 locations was characterized using two nuclear markers, mac-1 and Glu-5', and a mitochondrial marker (COI). The frequency data from 9 allozyme loci in 9 of these locations were also reanalyzed. Two other nuclear markers (EFbis and EFprem's) were monomorphic. Compared to Northern Hemisphere populations, polymorphism in Kerguelen blue mussels was lower for all markers except for the exon Glu-5'. At Glu-5', genetic differences were observed between samples from distinct regions (F CT = 0.077), as well as within two regions, including between samples separated by <500 m. No significant differentiation was observed in the AMOVA analyses at the two other markers (mac-1 and COI). Like mac-1, all allozyme loci genotyped in a previous publication, displayed lower differentiation (Jost's D) and F ST values than Glu-5'. Power simulations and confidence intervals support that Glu-5' displays significantly higher differentiation than the other loci (except a single allozyme for which confidence intervals overlap). AMOVA analyses revealed significant effects of the giant kelp Macrocystis and wave exposure on this marker. We discuss the influence of hydrological conditions on the genetic differentiation among regions. In marine organisms with high fecundity and high dispersal potential, gene flow tends to erase differentiation, but this study showed significant differentiation at very small distance. This may be explained by the particular hydrology and the carved coastline of the Kerguelen archipelago, together with

  1. Does Explosive Nuclear Burning Occur in Tidal Disruption Events of White Dwarfs by Intermediate-mass Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Sato, Yushi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nakasato, Naohito; Hachisu, Izumi

    2017-04-01

    We investigate nucleosynthesis in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate-mass black holes. We consider various types of WDs with different masses and compositions by means of three-dimensional (3D) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. We model these WDs with different numbers of SPH particles, N, from a few 104 to a few 107 in order to check mass resolution convergence, where SPH simulations with N > 107 (or a space resolution of several 106 cm) have unprecedentedly high resolution in this kind of simulation. We find that nuclear reactions become less active with increasing N and that these nuclear reactions are excited by spurious heating due to low resolution. Moreover, we find no shock wave generation. In order to investigate the reason for the absence of a shock wave, we additionally perform one-dimensional (1D) SPH and mesh-based simulations with a space resolution ranging from 104 to 107 cm, using a characteristic flow structure extracted from the 3D SPH simulations. We find shock waves in these 1D high-resolution simulations, one of which triggers a detonation wave. However, we must be careful of the fact that, if the shock wave emerged in an outer region, it could not trigger the detonation wave due to low density. Note that the 1D initial conditions lack accuracy to precisely determine where a shock wave emerges. We need to perform 3D simulations with ≲106 cm space resolution in order to conclude that WD TDEs become optical transients powered by radioactive nuclei.

  2. How well does journal 'impact' work in the assessment of papers on clinical physiology and nuclear medicine?

    PubMed

    Hansen, H B; Henriksen, J H

    1997-07-01

    This study reports a citation analysis of 217 scientific papers on clinical physiology and nuclear medicine published in 69 different journals during the years 1985-92. The actual citation frequency was compared with the journal 'impact factor' (i.e. the average number of times a paper is cited in a particular journal in the year of publication and the subsequent year). The average impact factor per paper was 1.96 and per journal 1.92 (range 0.0-22.8). A direct relation was found between the journal impact factor and the citation factor (i.e. the actual citations in the year of publication and the subsequent year) (journals with five or more papers R = 0.69, P < 0.01; all journals R = 0.40, P < 0.001). However, the citation factor was significantly below the journal impact factor (P < 0.0001). An almost linear relation was found between cumulated citations and time (R = 0.99, P < 0.02.-0.0001), but an initial phase of no citation was identified, and the number of citations per year reached a maximum or plateau 3-7 years after publication, which was later than the general maximum of 2-3 years for all medical specialities. In a sample of 200 known autocitations, 75% of the papers had full recovery, 3% mixed recovery and 22% no recovery, giving an overall recovery of 70%. In conclusion, although a phase of no citation was identified, which gave a lower citation factor than the journal impact factor, the citation frequency increased over time, and altogether there seems to be a good agreement between journal impact factor and overall citation frequency of papers on clinical physiology and nuclear medicine.

  3. The Planning, Licensing, Modifications, and Use of a Russian Vessel for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel by Sea in Support of the DOE RRRFR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Wlodzimierz Tomczak; Sergey Naletov; Oleg Pichugin

    2001-10-01

    The Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative, began returning Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia in January 2006. During the first years of making HEU SNF shipments, it became clear that the modes of transportation needed to be expanded from highway and railroad to include sea and air to meet the extremely aggressive commitment of completing the first series of shipments by the end of 2010. The first shipment using sea transport was made in October 2008 and used a non-Russian flagged vessel. The Russian government reluctantly allowed a one-time use of the foreign-owned vessel into their highly secured seaport, with the understanding that any future shipments would be made using a vessel owned and operated by a Russian company. ASPOL-Baltic of St. Petersburg, Russia, owns and operates a small fleet of vessels and has a history of shipping nuclear materials. ASPOL-Baltic’s vessels were licensed for shipping nuclear materials; however, they were not licensed to transport SNF materials. After a thorough review of ASPOL Baltic’s capabilities and detailed negotiations, it was agreed that a contract would be let with ASPOL-Baltic to license and refit their MCL Trader vessel for hauling SNF in support of the RRRFR Program. This effort was funded through a contract between the RRRFR Program, Idaho National Laboratory, and Radioactive Waste Management Plant of Swierk, Poland. This paper discusses planning, Russian and international maritime regulations and requirements, Russian authorities’ reviews and approvals, licensing, design, and modifications made to the vessel in preparation for SNF shipments. A brief summary of actual shipments using this vessel, experiences, and lessons learned also are described.

  4. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects; Report for October 1987--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; O`Kelley, G.D.; Case, F.I.; Land, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Information that is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) pertinent to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The principal emphasis in this report period was on column studies of migration of uranium and technetium in water from well J-13 at the Yucca Mountain site. Columns 1 cm in diameter and about 5 cm long were constructed and carefully packed with ground tuff. The characteristics of the columns were tested by determination of elution curves of tritium and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. Elution peaks obtained in past studies with uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations that suggested irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. To try to understand these observations, the effects of flow rate and temperature on uranium migration were studied in detail. Sorption ratios calculated from the elution peaks became larger as the flow rate decreased and as the temperature increased. These observations support the conclusion that the sorption of uranium is kinetically hindered. To confirm this, batch sorption ratio experiments were completed for uranium as a function of time for a variety of conditions.

  5. Alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade with phenoxybenzamine does not affect the ability of the nose to condition air.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Assanasen, Paraya; Baroody, Fuad M; Naureckas, Edward; Naclerio, Robert M

    2005-07-01

    The primary function of the nose is to warm and humidify air. We have previously shown that raising nasal mucosal temperature by immersing feet in warm water increases the amount of water evaporated by the nose as air passes through it (nasal conditioning capacity; Abbott D, Baroody F, Naureckas E, and Naclerio R. Am J Rhinol 15: 41-45, 2001). To investigate further the effect of nasal mucosal temperature on nasal conditioning capacity, we raised the temperature through alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade by intranasally administering phenoxybenzamine. We hypothesized that blocking alpha-adrenoreceptors during inhalation of cold, dry air would lead to an increase in nasal blood flow, surface temperature, and nasal conditioning capacity, as measured by the water gradient. After appropriate pilot studies, we performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study in nine nonatopic, healthy subjects by studying the effect of treatment with intranasal phenoxybenzamine. Nasal mucosal temperature increased significantly after administration of phenoxybenzamine and was associated with a significantly smaller net decrease in nasal mucosal temperature after exposure to cold, dry air (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in nasal conditioning capacity between treatments (P > 0.05). Phenoxybenzamine decreased the symptom of rhinorrhea after exposure to cold, dry air (P < 0.05), but congestion was not different between individuals given phenoxybenzamine and placebo (P > 0.05). Our data demonstrate that phenoxybenzamine, despite raising mucosal temperature and not affecting nasal volume, did not affect the ability of the nose to warm and humidify air.

  6. Environmental data and analyses for the proposed management of spent nuclear fuel on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Socolof, M.L.; Curtis, A.H.; Blasing, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    DOE needs to continue the safe and efficient management of SNF on ORR, based on the requirement for future SNF storage capacity and implementation of the ROD for the PEIS. DOE is proposing to implement the ROD through proper management of SNF on ORR, including the possible construction and operation of a dry cask storage facility. This report describes the potentially affected environment and analyzes impacts on various resources due to the proposed action. The information provided in this report is intended to support the Environmental Assessment being prepared for the proposed activities. Construction of the dry cask storage facility would result in minimal or no impacts on groundwater, surface water, and ecological resources. Contaminated soils excavated during construction would result in negligible risk to human health and to biota. Except for noise from trucks and equipment, operation of the dry cask storage facility would not be expected to have any impact on vegetation, wildlife, or rare plants or animals. Noise impacts would be minimal. Operation exposures to the average SNF storage facility worker would not exceed approximately 0.40 mSv/year (40 mrem/year). The off-site population dose within an 80-km (50-mile) radius of ORR from SNF operations would be less than 0.052 person-Sv/year (5.2 person-rem/year). Impacts from incident-free transportation on ORR would be less than 1.36 X 10{sup -4} occupational fatal cancers and 4.28 X 10{sup -6} public fatal cancers. Credible accident scenarios that would result in the greatest probable risks would cause less than one in a million cancer fatalities to workers and the public.

  7. Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?

    PubMed

    Albert, Hanne B; Lambert, Peter; Rollason, Jess; Sorensen, Joan Solgaard; Worthington, Tony; Pedersen, Mogens Bach; Nørgaard, Hanne Schack; Vernallis, Ann; Busch, Frederik; Manniche, Claus; Elliott, Tom

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of infected herniated nucleus material in lumbar disc herniations and to determine if patients with an anaerobic infected disc are more likely to develop Modic change (MC) (bone oedema) in the adjacent vertebrae after the disc herniation. MCs (bone oedema) in vertebrae are observed in 6 % of the general population and in 35-40 % of people with low back pain. These changes are strongly associated with low back pain. There are probably a mechanical cause and an infective cause that causes MC. Several studies on nuclear tissue from herniated discs have demonstrated the presence of low virulent anaerobic microorganisms, predominantly Propionibacterium acnes, in 7-53 % of patients. At the time of a herniation these low virulent anaerobic bacteria may enter the disc and give rise to an insidious infection. Local inflammation in the adjacent bone may be a secondary effect due to cytokine and propionic acid production. Patients undergoing primary surgery at a single spinal level for lumbar disc herniation with an MRI-confirmed lumbar disc herniation, where the annular fibres were penetrated by visible nuclear tissue, had the nucleus material removed. Stringent antiseptic sterile protocols were followed. Sixty-one patients were included, mean age 46.4 years (SD 9.7), 27 % female. All patients were immunocompetent. No patient had received a previous epidural steroid injection or undergone previous back surgery. In total, microbiological cultures were positive in 28 (46 %) patients. Anaerobic cultures were positive in 26 (43 %) patients, and of these 4 (7 %) had dual microbial infections, containing both one aerobic and one anaerobic culture. No tissue specimens had more than two types of bacteria identified. Two (3 %) cultures only had aerobic bacteria isolated. In the discs with a nucleus with anaerobic bacteria, 80 % developed new MC in the vertebrae adjacent to the previous disc herniation. In contrast, none of those with aerobic bacteria and

  8. U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    extend the life of the missiles and warheads so that they and the submarines can remain in the fleet past 2020 . It is designing a new submarine and...nuclear weapons. The Air Force plans to procure both a new long-range bomber during the 2020s and a new cruise missile after 2030. DOE is also...Minuteman Fleet has Life Beyond 2020 , Says Senior Air Force Space Official. Defense Daily. June 14, 2006. 42 LGM Minuteman III Modernization

  9. The importance of the exposure metric in air pollution epidemiology studies: When does it matter, and why?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure error in ambient air pollution epidemiologic studies may introduce bias and/or attenuation of the health risk estimate, reduce statistical significance, and lower statistical power. Alternative exposure metrics are increasingly being used in place of central-site measure...

  10. The importance of the exposure metric in air pollution epidemiology studies: When does it matter, and why?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure error in ambient air pollution epidemiologic studies may introduce bias and/or attenuation of the health risk estimate, reduce statistical significance, and lower statistical power. Alternative exposure metrics are increasingly being used in place of central-site measure...

  11. Glassy-winged sharpshooter feeding does not cause air embolisms in xylem of well-watered plants.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant xylem vessels are under negative hydrostatic pressure (tension) as evapotranspiration of water from the leaf surface pulls the column of water in xylem upwards. When xylem fluid flux is under extreme tension, any puncture or breakage of the xylem vessel wall can cause formation of air embolis...

  12. Does long-distance air travel associated with the Sevens World Series increase players' risk of injury?

    PubMed

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen E; Raftery, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To assess whether players who cross ≥6 time zones and/or undertake ≥10 h air travel prior to competition experience a higher risk of injury during the Sevens World Series than players not required to undertake this level of travel. Five-year, prospective, cohort study. All players from nine core teams competing in the Sevens World Series from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. A total of 436 match injuries and 3363 player-match-hours of exposure were recorded in the study, which corresponds to an overall incidence of 129.6 injuries/1000 player-match-hours, irrespective of the nature of pretournament travel. The incidence of injury for those players crossing ≥6 time zones and undertaking ≥10 h air travel prior to competition (99.3 injuries/1000 player-match-hours) was significantly lower than that of players undertaking ≥10 h air travel but crossing ≤2 time zones prior to competition (148.8 injuries/1000 player-match-hours; p=0.003) and of those undertaking ≤3 h air travel and crossing ≤2 time zones prior to competition (146.4 injuries/1000 player-match-hours; p=0.004). There was no significant difference in the incidence of injury for players crossing ≤2 time zones in the week prior to competition, irrespective of whether the length of air travel was ≤3 h or ≥10 h (p=0.904). Precompetition air travel had no significant effect (p=0.879) on the performance of teams in terms of their final Tournament ranking positions. There was no evidence to suggest that players were exposed to a greater risk of injury following extensive air travel and crossing multiple time zones prior to Tournaments in the Sevens World Series. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Report of the Defense Science Board Permanent Task Force on Nuclear Weapons Surety: Independent Assessment of the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    corrective action are oriented to long‐term sustainment rather than the lowest near‐ term  cost  path.  The Air Staff and Air Force Materiel Command...technician must inspect the condition of the component.  The  inspection frequently reveals small defects (nicks and scratches, mostly  cosmetic  in nature) that...to prepare an item for inspection and another half day to  document the defects and return the item to storage, each such incident  costs  a day’s

  14. Does Mental Health Status Influence Susceptibility to the Physiologic Effects of Air Pollution? A Population Based Study of Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert E.; Cakmak, Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Background Both air pollution exposure and the presence of mental illness are associated with an increased risk of physical illness. Objective To determine whether or not children with less favourable mental health are more susceptible to pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, compared to those who are mentally healthy. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,883 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures population survey between 2007 and 2009. Subjects were assigned the air pollution values obtained from the National Air Pollution monitor closest to their neighborhood. Lung function, heart rate and blood pressure were stratified by indicators of mental health. The latter were ascertained by questions about feelings of happiness, a diagnosed mood disorder, and the emotional symptom subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Among those who reported a mood disorder, an interquartile increase in ozone was associated with increases in systolic and diastolic pressures of 3.8 mmHg (95% CI 1.6, 5.9) and 3.0mmHg (95%CI 0.9, 5.2) respectively, and a decreases in FVC of 7.6% (95% CI 2.9, 12.3). No significant changes in these variables were observed in those who did not report a mood disorder. Among those with unfavourable emotional symptoms, ozone was associated with a 6.4% (95% CI 1.7, 11.3) increase in heart rate, a 4.1% (95%CI 1.2, 7.1) increase in systolic blood pressure, and a 6.0% (95% CI 1.4, 10.6) decrease in FEVl. No significant effect was seen in these variables among those with no emotional symptoms. Conclusions In the Canadian population, children who report mood disorders or unfavourable emotional symptoms appear to be more vulnerable to the adverse physiologic effects of air pollution. PMID:28030615

  15. The Melt-Dilute Treatment of Al-Base Highly Enriched DOE Spent Nuclear Fuels: Principles and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.M.

    1998-11-25

    The melt-dilute treatment technology program is focused on the development and implementation of a treatment technology for diluting highly enriched (>20 percent 235U) aluminum spent nuclear fuel to low enriched levels (<20 percent 235U) and qualifying the LEU Al-SNF form for geologic repository storage. In order to reduce the enrichment of these assemblies prior to ultimate geologic repository disposal, the melt-dilute technology proposes to melt these SNF assemblies and then dilute with additions of depleted uranium. The benefits accrued from this treatment process include the potential for significant volume reduction, reduced criticality potential, and the potential for enhanced SNF form characteristics. The emphasis within the development program to date has been on determining the process metallurgy and off-gas system design for the treatment of all types of Al SNF (UAlx, Al-U3O8, and Al-U3Si2). In determining the process metallurgy a wide range of alloys, representative of those expected in the Al-SNF form, have been fabricated and their product characteristics, namely microstructure, homogeneity, phase composition, and "ternary" constituent effects have been analyzed. As a result of the presence of species within the melt which will possess significant vapor pressures in the desired operating temperature range an off-gas system is necessary. Of the volitile species the one of greatest concern is 137Cs.

  16. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

    1999-07-01

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective.

  17. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  18. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  19. Air versus ground transport for patients with st-elevation myocardial infarction: does transport type affect patient outcomes?

    PubMed

    Baylous, Denise; Tillman, Harry J; Smith, Melanie W

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether air versus ground transport from non-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers to PCI centers affects the health and quality of life of persons with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) 30 days after cardiac interventional treatment. Data for the analysis were collected between January 2006 and December 2008 for 195 patients with STEMI who received no thrombolytic therapy but were transported by air or ground from non-PCI centers to PCI centers for cardiac intervention. Although the observed differences were not statistically significant because of the sample size, the study showed that at 30 days after discharge a larger percentage of ground transport patients had experienced an infarction (17.5% vs 10.7%), stroke (4.2% vs 2.7%), or died (5.8% vs 2.7%) compared with air transport patients. The analyses should be considered relative to the clinical and operational importance of the results, particularly with regard to postdischarge status. Because "time is muscle" with patients who have a STEMI, it is crucial to perform studies that provide solid statistical data showing that the type of transport affects patient outcome. This knowledge could lead to the implementation of a regional transport protocol between non-PCI and PCI centers to provide a more streamlined plan of care, thus affecting patients' long-term quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear abnormalities in cells from nasal epithelium: a promising assay to evaluate DNA damage related to air pollution in infants.

    PubMed

    Mergener, Michelle; Rhoden, Cláudia R; Amantéa, Sérgio L

    2014-01-01

    This study intends to provide a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to assess nuclear abnormalities such as micronuclei and bud frequencies; binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, pycnotic, and condensed chromatin cells in nasal scrapings of infants, which are particularly important for conducting genotoxic studies related to the inhaled atmosphere in pediatric populations. Nasal swab samples were collected from 40 infants under 12 months of age using a small cytobrush. 2,000 cells from each infant sample were analyzed and classified according to the frequency of nuclear abnormalities. Rates of nuclear abnormalities found agree with values reported in other studies of neonates and children. This study found 0.13% of cells with micronuclei; 1.20% karyorrhexis; 0.03% pyknosis; 10.85% karyolysis; 1.11% condensed chromatin; 0.54 binucleated cells; and 0.02% nuclear bud. Differences were not observed between genders or environmental passive smoking, nor was any age correlation found. The assay proposed here is suitable for assessing the frequency of nuclear abnormalities from nasal cells in infants. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  2. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    PubMed

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  3. Space nuclear thermal propulsion program

    SciTech Connect

    Haslett, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes te development and funding problems of the space nuclear thermal propulsion program (SNTP). The SNTP program was transferred to the air force, and almost immediately , they indicated that they would have to terminate the program because of a decreasing defense budget and other air force priorities. Congress continued to strongly support the program and $55 million was appropriated for fiscal year 1993, but the air force would not release any of the money to the program. By the summer of 1993, barely 18 months after the program was transferred to the air force, the SNTP team had essentially stopped all work and reduced to a skeleton staff to perform an orderly termination. Despite the significant accomplishments of the program and the endorsements it received from two DSBs, the 1994 Congressional Appropriations Committee had no alternative but to withhold further funding support since no cognizant agency (air force, NASA, or the DOE) was willing to take the lead and continue the technology for future space applications. Once again, the inability to forge cooperation between government agencies for a long-term goal doomed another nuclear technology program. The technology is currently being documented to the extent possible with existing funds because it is clear that a compact lightweight PBR space power and/or propulsion system will be required to enable unmanned and eventually manned exploration of the solar system.

  4. L'énergie nucléaire : obstacles et promessesNuclear energy: obstacles and promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    Nuclear energy has distinctive merits (sustainable resources, low costs, no greenhouse gases) but its development must overcome serious hurdles (fear of accidents, radiophobia, waste management). The large unit size of present-day reactors is compatible only with large electrical grids, and involves a high capital cost. Taking into account these different factors, the paper outlines how nuclear energy may contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases, and which are the most promising developments. To cite this article: P. Bacher, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  5. Does weather confound or modify the association of particulate air pollution with mortality? An analysis of the Philadelphia data, 1973-1980.

    PubMed

    Samet, J; Zeger, S; Kelsall, J; Xu, J; Kalkstein, L

    1998-04-01

    Because weather has the potential to confound or modify the pollution-mortality relationship, researchers have developed several approaches for controlling it in estimating the independent effect of air pollution on mortality. This report considers the consequences of using alternative approaches to controlling for weather and explores modification of air pollution effects by weather, as weather patterns could plausibly alter air pollution's effect on health. We analyzed 1973-1980 total mortality data for Philadelphia using four weather models and compared estimates of the effects of TSP and SO2 on mortality using a Poisson regression model. Two synoptic categories developed by Kalkstein were selected--the Temporal Synoptic Index (TSI) and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC)--and compared with (1) descriptive models developed by Schwartz and Dockery (S-D); and (2) LOESS, a non-parametric function of the previous day's temperature and dew point. We considered model fit using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and changes in the estimated effects of TSP and SO2. In the full-year analysis, S-D is better than LOESS at predicting mortality, and S-D and LOESS are better than TSI, as measured by AIC. When TSP or SO2 was fit alone, the results were qualitatively similar, regardless of how weather was controlled; when TSP and SO2 were fit simultaneously, the S-D and LOESS models give qualitatively different results than TSI, which attributes more of the pollution effect to SO2 than to TSP. Model fit is substantially poorer with TSI. This pattern was repeated in analyses of summer and winter months, which included SSC. In summary, using synoptic weather categories in regression models does not meaningfully change the association between mortality and air pollution indexes. We also found little evidence that weather conditions modified the effect of pollution, regardless of the approach used to represent weather.

  6. A Compass in Need of Alignment: Does United States Air Force Fighter Doctrine Adequately Cover Contingency Operations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-13

    Vol. 9, RF-4 No No Vol. 10, Wild Weasel No No Vol. 11, A-7 Yes Yes Vol. 12. F-106 No No Vol. 13, EF-1I1A No No Vol. 14, Strategic Air No No Defense...airplanes are vulnerable to fighters. Otto Skorzeny, Skorzeny’s Secret Missions: War Memoirs of the Most Dangerous Man in Europe. translated by James Le...New York: Harcourt Brace Jovancv’.ch, 1983. Ben -Porat, Yeshayahu, Haber, Eitan and Schiff, Zeev. Entebbe Rescue. Trans. Louis Williams. New York

  7. Does better taxon sampling help? A new phylogenetic hypothesis for Sepsidae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) based on 50 new taxa and the same old mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Annie, Ang Shi Hui; Amrita, Srivathsan; Yi, Su Kathy Feng; Rudolf, Meier

    2013-10-01

    We here present a phylogenetic hypothesis for Sepsidae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha), a group of schizophoran flies with ca. 320 described species that is widely used in sexual selection research. The hypothesis is based on five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers totaling 8813 bp for ca. 30% of the diversity (105 sepsid taxa) and - depending on analysis - six or nine outgroup species. Maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian inferences (BI) yield overall congruent, well-resolved, and supported trees that are largely unaffected by three different ways to partition the data in BI and ML analyses. However, there are also five areas of uncertainty that affect suprageneric relationships where different analyses yield alternate topologies and MP and ML trees have significant conflict according to Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Two of these were already affected by conflict in a previous analysis that was based on the same genes and a subset of 69 species. The remaining three involve newly added taxa or genera whose relationships were previously resolved with low support. We thus find that the denser taxon sample in the present analysis does not reduce the topological conflict that had been identified previously. The present study nevertheless presents a significant contribution to the understanding of sepsid relationships in that 50 additional taxa from 18 genera are added to the Tree-of-Life of Sepsidae and that the placement of most taxa is well supported and robust to different tree reconstruction techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Guidance for the design and management of a maintenance plan to assure safety and improve the predictability of a DOE nuclear irradiation facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, R.S.; Kryter, R.C.; Shepard, R.L.; Smith, O.L.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    A program is recommended for planning the maintenance of DOE nuclear facilities that will help safety and enhance availability throughout a facility`s life cycle. While investigating the requirements for maintenance activities, a major difference was identified between the strategy suitable for a conventional power reactor and one for a research reactor facility: the latter should provide a high degree of predicted availability (referred to hereafter as ``predictability``) to its users, whereas the former should maximize total energy production. These differing operating goals necessitate different maintenance strategies. A strategy for scheduling research reactor facility operation and shutdown for maintenance must balance safety, reliability,and predicted availability. The approach developed here is based on three major elements: (1) a probabilistic risk analysis of the balance between assured reliability and predictability (presented in Appendix C), (2) an assessment of the safety and operational impact of maintenance activities applied to various components of the facility, and (3) a data base of historical and operational information on the performance and requirements for maintenance of various components. These factors are integrated into a set of guidelines for designing a new highly maintainable facility, for preparing flexible schedules for improved maintenance of existing facilities, and for anticipating the maintenance required to extend the life of an aging facility. Although tailored to research reactor facilities, the methodology has broader applicability and may therefore be used to improved the maintenance of power reactors, particularly in anticipation of peak load demands.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): Model AL-M1 nuclear packaging (DOE C of C No. USA/9507/BLF)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, H.L.; Whitney, M.A.; Williams, M.A.; Alexander, B.M.; Shapiro, A.

    1987-11-24

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) satisfies the request of the US Department of Energy for a formal safety analysis of the shipping container identified as USA/9507/BLF, also called AL-M1, configuration 5. This report makes available to all potential users the technical information and the limits pertinent to the construction and use of the shipping containers. It includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. A complete physical and technical description of the package is presented. The package consists of an inner container centered within an insulated steel drum. The configuration-5 package contains tritiated water held on sorbent material. There are two other AL-M1 packages, designated configurations 1 and 3. These use the same insulated outer drum, but licensing of these containers will not be addressed in this SARP. Design and development considerations, the tests and evaluations required to prove the ability of the container to withstand normal transportation conditions, and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion) are discussed. Tables, graphs, dimensional sketches, photographs, technical references, loading and shipping procedures, Monsanto Research Corporation-Mound experience in using the containers, and a copy of the DOE/OSD/ALO Certificate of Compliance are included.

  10. DOE HEPA filter test program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  11. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Vibratory Stresses in a Concentric-Ring Direct-Air-Cycle Nuclear Fuel Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiarito, Patrick T.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary tests made by the General Electric Company indicated that aerodynamic loads might cause large enough distortions in the thin sheet-metal rings of a nuclear fuel element to result in structural failure. The magnitude of the distortions in a test fuel element was determined from strains measured with airflow conditions simulating those expected during engine operation. The measured vibratory strains were low enough to indicate the improbability of failure by fatigue. A conservative estimate of the radial deflection that accompanied peak strains in the outer ring was +0.0006 inch.

  13. Does open-air exposure to volatile organic compounds near a plastic recycling factory cause health effects?

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Tsuda, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Kashima, Saori; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    After a plastic reprocessing factory began to operate in August 2004, the residents around the factory in Neyagawa, Osaka, Japan, began to complain of symptoms. Therefore, we conducted an exposure assessment and a population-based epidemiological study in 2006. To assess exposure, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOCs were measured at two locations in the vicinity of the factory. In the population-based study, a total of 3,950 residents were targeted. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about subjects' mucocutaneous or respiratory symptoms. Using logistic regression models, we compared the prevalence of symptoms in July 2006 by employing the farthest area from the factory as a reference, and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The concentration of total VOCs was higher in the vicinity of the factory. The prevalence of mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms was the highest among the residents in the closest area to the factory. Some symptoms were significantly increased among the residents within 500 m of the factory compared with residents of an area 2800 m from the factory: e.g., sore throat (POR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.3-8.0), eye itch (POR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-6.0), eye discharge (POR=6.0, 95% CI: 2.3-15.9), eczema (POR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1-7.9) and sputum (POR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.1). Despite of the limitations of this study, these results imply a possible association of open-air VOCs with mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms. Because this kind of plasticre cycling factory only recently came into operation, more attention should be paid to the operation of plastic recycling factories in the environment.

  14. Seasonal performance of air conditioners - an analysis of the DOE test procedures: the thermostat and measurement errors. Report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, G.D.; Tree, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two aspects of the DOE test procedures are analyzed. First, the role of the thermostat in controlling the cycling of conditioning equipment is investigated. The test procedures call for a cycling scheme of 6 minutes on, 24 minutes off for Test D. To justify this cycling scheme as being representative of cycling in the field, it is assumed that the thermostat is the major factor in controlling the cycle rate. This assumption is examined by studying a closed-loop feedback model consisting of a thermostat, a heating/cooling plant and a conditioned space. Important parameters of this model are individually studied to determine their influence on the system. It is found that the switch differential and the anticipator gain are the major parameters in controlling the cycle rate. This confirms the thermostat's dominant role in the cycling of a system. The second aspect of the test procedures concerns transient errors or differences in the measurement of cyclic capacity. In particular, errors due to thermocouple response, thermocouple grid placement, dampers and nonuniform velocity and temperature distributions are considered. Problems in these four areas are mathematically modeled and the basic assumptions are stated. Results from these models help to clarify the problem areas and give an indication of the magnitude of the errors involved. It is found that major disagreement in measured capacity can arise in these four areas and can be mainly attributed to test set-up differences even though such differences are allowable in the test procedures. An understanding of such differences will aid in minimizing many problems in the measurement of cyclic capacity.

  15. Comparison of measured and calculated air-transported radiation from a fast unshielded nuclear reactor. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Robitaille, H.A.; Hoffarth, B.E.

    1980-12-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra have been measured at various distances up to 1100 metres from the fast-neutron reactor of the U.S. Army Pulse Radiation Division (Materiel Testing Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.) The spectra were obtained at a height of two metres above the air-ground interface and are compared to previous measurements performed by two other research laboratories, and also to the results of theoretical predictions based on two-dimensional discrete-ordinates transport theory. Integral quantities such as partial and total radiation kermas are generally in good agreement, however the theoretical calculations tend to predict somewhat softer neutron spectra than are observed experimentally.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of media velocity on filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filters.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Steven L; Parsons, Michael S; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Waggoner, Charles A

    2008-11-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are widely used to control particulate matter emissions from processes that involve management or treatment of radioactive materials. Section FC of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers AG-1 Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment currently restricts media velocity to a maximum of 2.5 cm/sec in any application where this standard is invoked. There is some desire to eliminate or increase this media velocity limit. A concern is that increasing media velocity will result in higher emissions of ultrafine particles; thus, it is unlikely that higher media velocities will be allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of ultrafine particles. In this study, the performance of nuclear grade HEPA filters, with respect to filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size, was evaluated as a function of media velocity. Deep-pleat nuclear grade HEPA filters (31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm) were evaluated at media velocities ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 cm/sec using a potassium chloride aerosol challenge having a particle size distribution centered near the HEPA filter most penetrating particle size. Filters were challenged under two distinct mass loading rate regimes through the use of or exclusion of a 3 microm aerodynamic diameter cut point cyclone. Filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size measurements were made throughout the duration of filter testing. Filter efficiency measured at the onset of aerosol challenge was noted to decrease with increasing media velocity, with values ranging from 99.999 to 99.977%. The filter most penetrating particle size recorded at the onset of testing was noted to decrease slightly as media velocity was increased and was typically in the range of 110-130 nm. Although additional testing is needed, these findings indicate that filters operating at media velocities up to 4.5 cm/sec will meet or exceed current filter efficiency requirements. Additionally

  17. Qualification of box HEPA filters for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Wilson, K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-03-01

    We have successfully completed qualification tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that are encapsulated within a box and manufactured by American Air Filters. The qualification tests are required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standard ASME N509 and the U.S. Military Standard MIL-F-51068 for HEPA filters to be used in nuclear applications. The qualification tests specify minimum filter efficiencies following exposure to heated air, overpressure, and rough handling. Prior to this study, no box HEPA filters from any manufacturer had been qualified despite their wide-spread use in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Box HEPA filters are not addressed in any of the existing HEPA standards and only briefly discussed in the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook.

  18. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  19. 76 FR 40352 - National Nuclear Security Administration; Amended Record of Decision: Site-Wide Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... similar to those estimated for transportation of radioactive material in other DOE NEPA documents. The air... includes the effort to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian.../EIS-0380-SA-02 include packaging the sealed sources (sometimes with a part of the larger device within...

  20. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  1. Small Nuclear-powered Hot Air Balloons for the Exploration of the Deep Atmosphere of Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cleve, J. E.; Grillmair, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Galileo probe gathered data in the Jovian atmosphere for about one hour before its destruction. For a wider perceptive on the atmospheres of the outer planets, multiple, long-lived observations platforms would be useful. In this paper we examine the basic physics of hot-air ballooning in a hydrogen atmosphere, using plutonium RTGs as a heat source. We find that such balloons are buoyant at a sufficiently great depth in these atmospheres, and derive equations for the balloon radius and mass of plutonium required as a function of atmospheric mass density and balloon material parameters. We solve for the buoyancy depth given the constraint that each probe may contain 1.0 kg of Pu, and find that the temperature at that depth is too great for conventional electronics (>70 C) for Jupiter and Saturn. However, the Pu mass constraint and the operating temperature constraint are consistent for Uranus and Neptune, and this concept may be applicable to those planets. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Source term estimation using air concentration measurements and a Lagrangian dispersion model - Experiments with pseudo and real cesium-137 observations from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Draxler, Roland; Stein, Ariel

    2015-04-01

    A transfer coefficient matrix (TCM) was created in a previous study using a Lagrangian dispersion model to provide plume predictions under different emission scenarios. The TCM estimates the contribution of each emission period to all sampling locations and can be used to estimate source terms by adjusting emission rates to match the model prediction with the measurements. In this paper, the TCM is used to formulate a cost functional that measures the differences between the model predictions and the actual air concentration measurements. The cost functional also includes a background term which adds the differences between a first guess and the updated emission estimates. Uncertainties of the measurements, as well as those for the first guess of source terms are both considered in the cost functional. In addition, a penalty term is added to create a smooth temporal change in the release rate. The method is first tested with pseudo observations generated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model at the same location and time as the actual observations. The inverse estimation system is able to accurately recover the release rates and performs better than a direct solution using singular value decomposition (SVD). It is found that computing ln(c) differences between model and observations is better than using the original concentration c differences in the cost functional. The inverse estimation results are not sensitive to artificially introduced observational errors or different first guesses. To further test the method, daily average cesium-137 air concentration measurements around the globe from the Fukushima nuclear accident are used to estimate the release of the radionuclide. Compared with the latest estimates by Katata et al. (2014), the recovered release rates successfully capture the main temporal variations. When using subsets of the measured data, the inverse estimation method still manages to identify most of the

  3. Nuclear-electric power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Truscello, V.C.; Davis, H.S.

    1984-12-01

    Because direct-broadcast satellites, air-traffic-control radar satellites, industrial processing on subsequent versions of the space station, and long range excursions to other planets using nuclear-electric propulsion systems, all space missions for which current power-supply systems are not sufficient. NASA and the DOE therefore have formed a joint program to develop the technology required for nuclear-reactor space power plants. After investigating potential space missions in the given range, the project will develop the technology to build such systems. High temperatures pose problems, ''hot shoes'' and ''cold shoes'', a Stirling engine dynamic system, and critical heat-transfer problems are all discussed. The nuclear reactor system for space as now envisioned is schematicized.

  4. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer concept for hermetically sealed magic angle spinning investigations on highly toxic, radiotoxic, or air sensitive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L.; Somers, J.; Berkmann, C.; Koepp, F.; Rothermel, A.; Pauvert, O.; Selfslag, C.; Farnan, I.

    2013-05-01

    A concept to integrate a commercial high-resolution, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) probe capable of very rapid rotation rates (70 kHz) in a hermetically sealed enclosure for the study of highly radiotoxic materials has been developed and successfully demonstrated. The concept centres on a conventional wide bore (89 mm) solid-state NMR magnet operating with industry standard 54 mm diameter probes designed for narrow bore magnets. Rotor insertion and probe tuning take place within a hermetically enclosed glovebox, which extends into the bore of the magnet, in the space between the probe and the magnet shim system. Oxygen-17 MAS-NMR measurements demonstrate the possibility of obtaining high quality spectra from small sample masses (˜10 mg) of highly radiotoxic material and the need for high spinning speeds to improve the spectral resolution when working with actinides. The large paramagnetic susceptibility arising from actinide paramagnetism in (Th1-xUx)O2 solid solutions gives rise to extensive spinning sidebands and poor resolution at 15 kHz, which is dramatically improved at 55 kHz. The first 17O MAS-NMR measurements on NpO2+x samples spinning at 55 kHz are also reported. The glovebox approach developed here for radiotoxic materials can be easily adapted to work with other hazardous or even air sensitive materials.

  5. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer concept for hermetically sealed magic angle spinning investigations on highly toxic, radiotoxic, or air sensitive materials.

    PubMed

    Martel, L; Somers, J; Berkmann, C; Koepp, F; Rothermel, A; Pauvert, O; Selfslag, C; Farnan, I

    2013-05-01

    A concept to integrate a commercial high-resolution, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) probe capable of very rapid rotation rates (70 kHz) in a hermetically sealed enclosure for the study of highly radiotoxic materials has been developed and successfully demonstrated. The concept centres on a conventional wide bore (89 mm) solid-state NMR magnet operating with industry standard 54 mm diameter probes designed for narrow bore magnets. Rotor insertion and probe tuning take place within a hermetically enclosed glovebox, which extends into the bore of the magnet, in the space between the probe and the magnet shim system. Oxygen-17 MAS-NMR measurements demonstrate the possibility of obtaining high quality spectra from small sample masses (~10 mg) of highly radiotoxic material and the need for high spinning speeds to improve the spectral resolution when working with actinides. The large paramagnetic susceptibility arising from actinide paramagnetism in (Th(1-x)U(x))O2 solid solutions gives rise to extensive spinning sidebands and poor resolution at 15 kHz, which is dramatically improved at 55 kHz. The first (17)O MAS-NMR measurements on NpO(2+x) samples spinning at 55 kHz are also reported. The glovebox approach developed here for radiotoxic materials can be easily adapted to work with other hazardous or even air sensitive materials.

  6. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  16. Using DOE-ARM and Space-Based Assets to Assess the Quality of Air Force Weather 3D Cloud Analysis and Forecast Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has documented requirements for global cloud analysis and forecasting to support DoD missions around the world. To meet these needs, AFW utilizes a number of cloud products. Cloud analyses are constructed using 17 different near real time satellite sources. Products include analysis of the individual satellite transmissions at native satellite resolution and an hourly global merge of all 17 sources on a 24km grid. AFW has also recently started creation of a time delayed global cloud reanalysis to produce a 'best possible' analysis for climatology and verification purposes. Forecasted cloud products include global short-range cloud forecasts created using advection techniques as well as statistically post processed cloud forecast products derived from various global and regional numerical weather forecast models. All of these cloud products cover different spatial and temporal resolutions and are produced on a number of different grid projections. The longer term vision of AFW is to consolidate these various approaches into uniform global numerical weather modeling (NWM) system using advanced cloudy-data assimilation processes to construct the analysis and a licensed version of UKMO's Unified Model to produce the various cloud forecast products. In preparation for this evolution in cloud modeling support, AFW has started to aggressively benchmark the performance of their current capabilities. Cloud information collected from so called 'active' sensors on the ground at the DOE-ARM sites and from space by such instruments as CloudSat, CALIPSO and CATS are being utilized to characterize the performance of AFW products derived largely by passive means. The goal is to understand the performance of the 3D cloud analysis and forecast products of today to help shape the requirements and standards for the future NWM driven system.This presentation will present selected results from these benchmarking efforts and highlight insights and observations

  17. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.; Lum, B.; Bogdanoff, A.; Hebard, H.; Hall, M.; Banks, D.; Mazumder, M.; Johnson, J.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters.

  18. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  19. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  20. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model.

  1. Estimation of the caesium-137 source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using a consistent joint assimilation of air concentration and deposition observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarek, Victor; Bocquet, Marc; Duhanyan, Nora; Roustan, Yelva; Saunier, Olivier; Mathieu, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Inverse modelling techniques can be used to estimate the amount of radionuclides and the temporal profile of the source term released in the atmosphere during the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. In Winiarek et al. (2012b), the lower bounds of the caesium-137 and iodine-131 source terms were estimated with such techniques, using activity concentration measurements. The importance of an objective assessment of prior errors (the observation errors and the background errors) was emphasised for a reliable inversion. In such critical context where the meteorological conditions can make the source term partly unobservable and where only a few observations are available, such prior estimation techniques are mandatory, the retrieved source term being very sensitive to this estimation. We propose to extend the use of these techniques to the estimation of prior errors when assimilating observations from several data sets. The aim is to compute an estimate of the caesium-137 source term jointly using all available data about this radionuclide, such as activity concentrations in the air, but also daily fallout measurements and total cumulated fallout measurements. It is crucial to properly and simultaneously estimate the background errors and the prior errors relative to each data set. A proper estimation of prior errors is also a necessary condition to reliably estimate the a posteriori uncertainty of the estimated source term. Using such techniques, we retrieve a total released quantity of caesium-137 in the interval 11.6-19.3 PBq with an estimated standard deviation range of 15-20% depending on the method and the data sets. The “blind” time intervals of the source term have also been strongly mitigated compared to the first estimations with only activity concentration data.

  2. Advanced nuclear precleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.R.

    1997-10-01

    This Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program`s goal is to develop a dynamic, self-cleaning air precleaner for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems that would extend significantly the life of HEPA filter banks by reducing the particulate matter that causes filter fouling and increased pack pressure. HEPA filters are widely used in DOE, Department of Defense, and a variety of commercial facilities. InnovaTech, Inc. (Formerly Micro Composite materials Corporation) has developed a proprietary dynamic separation device using a concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT) to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams. When used as a prefilter in the HVAC systems or downstream of waste vitrifiers in nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and weapons decommissioning factories, the BLMT filter will dramatically extend the service life and increase the operation efficiency of existing HEPA filtration systems. The BLMT filter is self cleaning, so there will be no degraded flow or increased pressure drop. Because the BLMT filtration process is independent of temperature, it can be designed to work in ambient, medium, or high-temperature applications. During Phase II, the authors are continuing development of the computerized flow simulation model to include turbulence and incorporate expansion into a three-dimensional model that includes airflow behavior inside the filter housing before entering the active BLMT device. A full-scale (1000 ACFM) prototype filter is being designed to meet existing HEPA filter standards and will be fabricated for subsequent testing. Extensive in-house testing will be performed to determine a full range of performance characteristics. Final testing and evaluation of the prototype filter will be conducted at a DOE Quality Assurance Filter Test Station.

  3. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-12

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by June 30, 2008. The opening of the repository is now scheduled for 2017 . This report will be updated as events...repository licensing process, according to DOE, nuclear waste shipments to Yucca Mountain could begin by 2017 . NRC issued the first nuclear reactor Early Site...contaminated with high levels of radioactive iodine , which concentrates in the thyroid. Although the Chernobyl Forum found only 15 deaths from those

  4. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. The risk of bacteria in foam sclerotherapy: does the condition of the air in outpatient vs. operating rooms make a difference?

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Liu, Y-R; Sun, Y-D; Liu, C; Zhuo, S-Y; Li, K; Wei, F-C; Liu, S-H

    2014-12-01

    Foam sclerotherapy has been one of the most frequently applied therapeutic methods for the treatment of varicose veins and venous malformation. Few studies have investigated the sterile condition of the air used for foam creation. To evaluate the bacterial conditions in foam created from the air in outpatient and operating rooms used for sclerotherapy treatment, in order to provide the basis for clinical applications in foam sclerotherapy. In this study, we measured the amount of airborne microorganisms in the air in the operating room, and in the outpatient room, the polidocanol (POL) foam created using the air in the respective rooms, and the microorganisms present in the liquid POL. We used the settle plate method for air sampling. We used the Tessari method to generate foam. The experiment was repeated three times. Typical bacterial colonies were formed on nutrient agar plates in both the outpatient room and operating room air groups. No colonies were cultivated in the liquid POL. Although the use of sterile or nonsterile air in sclerotherapy produces significantly different results in the counts of colony-forming units, there was no difference in the foam created using sterile or nonsterile air (i.e. no colonies were cultivated on either foam). There is no increased risk of infection when using foam sclerotherapy in outpatient rooms compared with using foam created under sterile operating-room conditions. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Requirements for canisters used for delivery of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to DOE (Department of Energy) under standard disposal contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is studying prospective changes to the waste acceptance criteria contained in the Standard Contract which involve consideration of the possible acceptance of failed fuel, consolidated fuel rods, compacted structural parts resulting from at reactor consolidation operations, and other non-fuel bearing materials on the same scheduling basis as used for standard fuel under the existing Standard Contract. During the course of these studies it has become clear that all such forms of spent fuel and related wastes would have to be delivered to DOE (and stored at the reactor) in a container having an envelope about the same as the fuel assemblies from which the fuel forms originated. Thus, the first objective of the DOE effort has been to develop draft requirements for canisters to be used by utilities (and others) to deliver the foregoing forms of spent fuel and related wastes. These draft requirements have been completed and are included in this paper.

  7. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  8. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  9. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  10. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  11. The Future of Energy from Nuclear Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Taiwo, Temitope

    2013-04-13

    Nuclear energy is an important part of our current global energy system, and contributes to supplying the significant demand for electricity for many nations around the world. There are 433 commercial nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries with an installed capacity of 367 GWe as of October 2011 (IAEA PRIS, 2011). Nuclear electricity generation totaled 2630 TWh in 2010 representing 14% the world’s electricity generation. The top five countries of total installed nuclear capacity are the US, France, Japan, Russia and South Korea at 102, 63, 45, 24, and 21 GWe, respectively (WNA, 2012a). The nuclear capacity of these five countries represents more than half, 68%, of the total global nuclear capacity. The role of nuclear power in the global energy system today has been motivated by several factors including the growing demand for electric power, the regional availability of fossil resources and energy security concerns, and the relative competitiveness of nuclear power as a source of base-load electricity. There is additional motivation for the use of nuclear power because it does not produce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or local air pollutants during its operation and contributes to low levels of emissions throughout the lifecycle of the nuclear energy system (Beerten, J. et. al., 2009). Energy from nuclear fission primarily in the form of electric power and potentially as a source of industrial heat could play a greater role for meeting the long-term growing demand for energy worldwide while addressing the concern for climate change from rising GHG emissions. However, the nature of nuclear fission as a tremendously compact and dense form of energy production with associated high concentrations of radioactive materials has particular and unique challenges as well as benefits. These challenges include not only the safety and cost of nuclear reactors, but proliferation concerns, safeguard and storage of nuclear materials associated with nuclear fuel

  12. Radiological investigations at the "Taiga" nuclear explosion site, part II: man-made γ-ray emitting radionuclides in the ground and the resultant kerma rate in air.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Repin, V; Medvedev, A; Khramtsov, E; Timofeeva, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-07-01

    Samples of soil and epigeic lichens were collected from the "Taiga" peaceful nuclear explosion site (61.30°N 56.60°E, the Perm region, Russia) in 2009 and analyzed using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. For soil samples obtained at six different plots, two products of fission ((137)Cs and (155)Eu), five products of neutron activation ((60)Co, (94)Nb, (152)Eu, (154)Eu, (207)Bi) and (241)Am have been identified and quantified. The maximal activity concentrations of (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am for the soils samples were measured as 1650, 7100, and 6800 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), respectively. The deposit of (137)Cs for the top 20 cm of soil on the tested plots at the "Taiga" site ranged from 30 to 1020 kBq m(-2); the maximal value greatly (by almost 3 orders of magnitude) exceeded the regional background (from global fallout) level of 1.4 kBq m(-2). (137)Cs contributes approximately 57% of the total ground inventory of the man-made γ-ray emitters for the six plots tested at the "Taiga" site. The other major radionuclides -(241)Am and (60)Co, constitute around 40%. Such radionuclides as (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am, and (207)Bi have also been determined for the epigeic lichens (genera Cladonia) that colonized certain areas at the ground lip produced by the "Taiga" explosion. Maximal activity concentrations (up to 80 Bq kg(-1) for (60)Co, 580 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs, 200 Bq kg(-1) for (241)Am, and 5 Bq kg(-1) for (207)Bi; all are given in terms of d.w.) have been detected for the lower dead section of the organisms. The air kerma rates associated with the anthropogenic sources of gamma radiation have been calculated using the data obtained from the laboratory analysis. For the six plots tested, the kerma rates ranged from 50 to 1200 nGy h(-1); on average, 51% of the dose can be attributed to (137)Cs and 45% to (60)Co. These estimates agree reasonably well with the results of the in situ measurements made during our field survey of the "Taiga" site in August

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNF is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNFmore » is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).« less

  15. Transcriptomic evidence that longevity of acquired plastids in the photosynthetic slugs Elysia timida and Plakobranchus ocellatus does not entail lateral transfer of algal nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Wägele, Heike; Deusch, Oliver; Händeler, Katharina; Martin, Rainer; Schmitt, Valerie; Christa, Gregor; Pinzger, Britta; Gould, Sven B; Dagan, Tal; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Martin, William

    2011-01-01

    Sacoglossan sea slugs are unique in the animal kingdom in that they sequester and maintain active plastids that they acquire from the siphonaceous algae upon which they feed, making the animals photosynthetic. Although most sacoglossan species digest their freshly ingested plastids within hours, four species from the family Plakobranchidae retain their stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) in a photosynthetically active state on timescales of weeks to months. The molecular basis of plastid maintenance within the cytosol of digestive gland cells in these photosynthetic metazoans is yet unknown but is widely thought to involve gene transfer from the algal food source to the slugs based upon previous investigations of single genes. Indeed, normal plastid development requires hundreds of nuclear-encoded proteins, with protein turnover in photosystem II in particular known to be rapid under various conditions. Moreover, only algal plastids, not the algal nuclei, are sequestered by the animals during feeding. If algal nuclear genes are transferred to the animal either during feeding or in the germ line, and if they are expressed, then they should be readily detectable with deep-sequencing methods. We have sequenced expressed mRNAs from actively photosynthesizing, starved individuals of two photosynthetic sea slug species, Plakobranchus ocellatus Van Hasselt, 1824 and Elysia timida Risso, 1818. We find that nuclear-encoded, algal-derived genes specific to photosynthetic function are expressed neither in P. ocellatus nor in E. timida. Despite their dramatic plastid longevity, these photosynthetic sacoglossan slugs do not express genes acquired from algal nuclei in order to maintain plastid function.

  16. Transcriptomic Evidence That Longevity of Acquired Plastids in the Photosynthetic Slugs Elysia timida and Plakobranchus ocellatus Does Not Entail Lateral Transfer of Algal Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wägele, Heike; Deusch, Oliver; Händeler, Katharina; Martin, Rainer; Schmitt, Valerie; Christa, Gregor; Pinzger, Britta; Gould, Sven B.; Dagan, Tal; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Martin, William

    2011-01-01

    Sacoglossan sea slugs are unique in the animal kingdom in that they sequester and maintain active plastids that they acquire from the siphonaceous algae upon which they feed, making the animals photosynthetic. Although most sacoglossan species digest their freshly ingested plastids within hours, four species from the family Plakobranchidae retain their stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) in a photosynthetically active state on timescales of weeks to months. The molecular basis of plastid maintenance within the cytosol of digestive gland cells in these photosynthetic metazoans is yet unknown but is widely thought to involve gene transfer from the algal food source to the slugs based upon previous investigations of single genes. Indeed, normal plastid development requires hundreds of nuclear-encoded proteins, with protein turnover in photosystem II in particular known to be rapid under various conditions. Moreover, only algal plastids, not the algal nuclei, are sequestered by the animals during feeding. If algal nuclear genes are transferred to the animal either during feeding or in the germ line, and if they are expressed, then they should be readily detectable with deep-sequencing methods. We have sequenced expressed mRNAs from actively photosynthesizing, starved individuals of two photosynthetic sea slug species, Plakobranchus ocellatus Van Hasselt, 1824 and Elysia timida Risso, 1818. We find that nuclear-encoded, algal-derived genes specific to photosynthetic function are expressed neither in P. ocellatus nor in E. timida. Despite their dramatic plastid longevity, these photosynthetic sacoglossan slugs do not express genes acquired from algal nuclei in order to maintain plastid function. PMID:20829345

  17. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  18. Mutation of the rice XA21 predicted nuclear localization sequence does not affect resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Tong; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Ho, Yuen Ting; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2016-10-05

    Background: The rice receptor kinase XA21 confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogenXanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae(Xoo). We previously reported that XA21 is cleaved in transgenic plants overexpressing XA21 with a GFP tag (Ubi-XA21-GFP) and that the released C-terminal domain is localized to the nucleus. XA21 carries a predicted nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that directs the C-terminal domain to the nucleus in transient assays, whereas alanine substitutions in the NLS disrupt the nuclear localization. Methods: To determine if the predicted NLS is required for XA21-mediated immunityin planta, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing an XA21 variant carrying the NLS with the same alanine substitutions (Ubi-XA21nls-GFP). Results: Ubi- XA21nls-GFP plants displayed slightly longer lesion lengths, higherXoo bacterial populations after inoculation and lower levels of reactive oxygen species production compared with the Ubi- XA21-GFP control plants. However, the Ubi- XA21nls-GFP plants express lower levels of protein than that observed inUbi- XA21-GFP. Discussion: These results demonstrate that the predicted NLS is not required for XA21-mediated immunity.

  19. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects. Report for April-June 1985. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kelmers, A.D.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; Meyer, R.E.; Jacobs, G.K.; Whatley, S.K.

    1986-02-01

    Geochemical information relevant to the potential mobility of radionuclides at the Hanford Site and the Yucca Mountain site, candidate sites for high-level nuclear waste geologic repositories being developed by Department of Energy projects, is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Neptunium(V) sorption isotherms in three different basalt/synthetic groundwater systems were initiated this quarter. Uranium(VI) sorption isotherms were completed with McCoy Canyon basalt and synthetic groundwater GR-2. The control of U(VI) solutions at a level of {similar_to}10{sup -4} mol/L is apparently dominated by the precipitation of sodium boltwoodite. Different apparent concentration limits for uranium were obtained with GR-2 and GR-4 solutions. The results suggest that uranium sorption/solubility behavior could be substantially different in the various basalt units likely to be encountered by groundwater during migration from the waste package to the accessible environment. The EQ3/6 software package was implemented and tested on the ORNL computer system. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda:Palinuridae)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan D.; McCauley, Robert D.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8–12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa2·s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  1. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    PubMed

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-03-07

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages.

  2. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  3. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) interacts with a meiosis-specific RecA homologues, Lim15/Dmc1, but does not stimulate its strand transfer activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Fumika N.; Koshiyama, Akiyo; Namekawa, Satoshi H.; Ishii, Satomi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Hiroko; Nara, Takayuki Y.; Sakaguchi, Kengo . E-mail: kengo@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp; Sawado, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-26

    PCNA is a multi-functional protein that is involved in various nuclear events. Here we show that PCNA participates in events occurring during early meiotic prophase. Analysis of protein-protein interactions using surface plasmon resonance indicates that Coprinus cinereus PCNA (CoPCNA) specifically interacts with a meiotic specific RecA-like factor, C. cinereus Lim15/Dmc1 (CoLim15) in vitro. The binding efficiency increases with addition of Mg{sup 2+} ions, while ATP inhibits the interaction. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the CoLim15 protein interacts with the CoPCNA protein in vitro and in the cell extracts. Despite the interaction between these two factors, no enhancement of CoLim15-dependent strand transfer activity by CoPCNA was found in vitro. We propose that the interaction between Lim15/Dmc1 and PCNA mediates the recombination-associated DNA synthesis during meiosis.

  4. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  5. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  6. Does natural selection explain the fine scale genetic structure at the nuclear exon Glu-5′ in blue mussels from Kerguelen?

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Karin; Roby, Charlotte; Bierne, Nicolas; Borsa, Philippe; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Kerguelen archipelago, isolated in the Southern Ocean, shelters a blue mussel Mytilus metapopulation far from any influence of continental populations or any known hybrid zone. The finely carved coast leads to a highly heterogeneous habitat. We investigated the impact of the environment on the genetic structure in those Kerguelen blue mussels by relating allele frequencies to habitat descriptors. A total sample comprising up to 2248 individuals from 35 locations was characterized using two nuclear markers, mac-1 and Glu-5′, and a mitochondrial marker (COI). The frequency data from 9 allozyme loci in 9 of these locations were also reanalyzed. Two other nuclear markers (EFbis and EFprem's) were monomorphic. Compared to Northern Hemisphere populations, polymorphism in Kerguelen blue mussels was lower for all markers except for the exon Glu-5′. At Glu-5′, genetic differences were observed between samples from distinct regions (FCT = 0.077), as well as within two regions, including between samples separated by <500 m. No significant differentiation was observed in the AMOVA analyses at the two other markers (mac-1 and COI). Like mac-1, all allozyme loci genotyped in a previous publication, displayed lower differentiation (Jost's D) and FST values than Glu-5′. Power simulations and confidence intervals support that Glu-5′ displays significantly higher differentiation than the other loci (except a single allozyme for which confidence intervals overlap). AMOVA analyses revealed significant effects of the giant kelp Macrocystis and wave exposure on this marker. We discuss the influence of hydrological conditions on the genetic differentiation among regions. In marine organisms with high fecundity and high dispersal potential, gene flow tends to erase differentiation, but this study showed significant differentiation at very small distance. This may be explained by the particular hydrology and the carved coastline of the Kerguelen archipelago, together with

  7. Promiscuous modification of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein by multiple protein-arginine methyltransferases does not affect the aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Fronz, Katharina; Otto, Silke; Kölbel, Knut; Kühn, Uwe; Friedrich, Henning; Schierhorn, Angelika; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Wahle, Elmar

    2008-07-18

    The mammalian nuclear poly(A)-binding protein, PABPN1, carries 13 asymmetrically dimethylated arginine residues in its C-terminal domain. By fractionation of cell extracts, we found that protein-arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs)-1, -3, and -6 are responsible for the modification of PABPN1. Recombinant PRMT1, -3, and -6 also methylated PABPN1. Our data suggest that these enzymes act on their own, and additional polypeptides are not involved in recognizing PABPN1 as a substrate. PRMT1 is the predominant methyltransferase acting on PABPN1. Nevertheless, PABPN1 was almost fully methylated in a Prmt1(-/-) cell line; thus, PRMT3 and -6 suffice for methylation. In contrast to PABPN1, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is selectively methylated only by PRMT1. Efficient methylation of synthetic peptides derived from PABPN1 or hnRNP K suggested that PRMT1, -3, and -6 recognize their substrates by interacting with local amino acid sequences and not with additional domains of the substrates. However, the use of fusion proteins suggested that the inability of PRMT3 and -6 to modify hnRNP K is because of structural masking of the methyl-accepting amino acid sequences by neighboring domains. Mutations leading to intracellular aggregation of PABPN1 cause the disease oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. The C-terminal domain containing the methylated arginine residues is known to promote PAPBN1 self-association, and arginine methylation has been reported to inhibit self-association of an orthologous protein. Thus, arginine methylation might be relevant for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. However, in two different types of assays we have been unable to detect any effect of arginine methylation on the aggregation of bovine PABPN1.

  8. Nuclear industry will be short of engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-09-13

    This article discusses the potential shortage of nuclear engineers due to reduction of educational and training facilities and difficulty in attracting minorities into nuclear engineering. The article reports on recommendations from the National Research Council Nuclear Education Study Committee on attracting minorities to nuclear engineering, increasing DOE fellowships, funding for research and development, involvement of utilities and vendors, and support of the American Nuclear Society's advocacy of nuclear engineering education.

  9. A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: Does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Marion; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Lyon-Caen, Sarah; Morelli, Xavier; Cracowski, Claire; Pontet, Sabrina; Pin, Isabelle; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Slama, Rémy

    2015-11-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=-0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=-0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Marion, OUIDIR; Lise, GIORGIS-ALLEMAND; Sarah, LYON-CAEN; Xavier, MORELLI; Claire, CRACOWSKI; Sabrina, PONTET; Isabelle, PIN; Johanna, LEPEULE; Valérie, SIROUX; Rémy, SLAMA

    2016-01-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=−0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=−0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  12. 10 CFR 830.207 - DOE approval of safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of this...

  13. 10 CFR 830.207 - DOE approval of safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of this...

  14. 10 CFR 830.207 - DOE approval of safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of this...

  15. 10 CFR 830.207 - DOE approval of safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of this...

  16. 10 CFR 830.207 - DOE approval of safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of... DOE nuclear facility must submit for DOE approval a safety basis that meets the requirements of this...

  17. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): Models AL-M3 and AL-M6 nuclear packaging (DOE C of C No. USA/5790/BLF and No. USA/5791/BLF)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, H.L.; Whitney, M.A.; Williams, M.A.; Alexander, B.M.; Shapiro, A.

    1987-11-24

    This revised Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) satisfies the requirement of the US Department of Energy (DOE) for an updated formal safety analysis of the two insulated drum shipping containers identified as USA/5790/BLF and USA/5791/BLF. The report makes available to all potential users the technical information and limits pertinent to the construction and use of the shipping containers. This SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Complete physical and technical descriptions of the packages are presented. Each package consists of a cylindrical steel inner container centered within an insulating steel drum assembly. The contents may be any radioactive materials that satisfy the requirements established in this SARP. A shipment of plutonium-238 in the form of a solid oxide is evaluated in this SARP as an example. Design and development considerations, the tests and evaluations required to prove the ability of the containers to withstand normal transportation conditions, and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion) are discussed. Tables, graphs, dimensional sketches, photographs, technical references, loading and shipping procedures, Mound Facility experience in using the containers, and copies of the DOE Certificates of Compliance are included.

  18. NARAC Modeling During the Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Probanz, B; Foster, K T; Simpson, M; Vogt, P; Aluzzi, F; Dillon, M; Homann, S

    2012-02-14

    This paper summarizes the activities of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis. NARAC provided a wide range of products and analyses as part of its support including: (1) Daily Japanese weather forecasts and hypothetical release (generic source term) dispersion predictions to provide situational awareness and inform planning for U.S. measurement data collection and field operations; (2) Estimates of potential dose in Japan for hypothetical scenarios developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to inform federal government considerations of possible actions that might be needed to protect U.S. citizens in Japan; (3) Estimates of possible plume arrival times and dose for U.S. locations; and (4) Plume model refinement and source estimation based on meteorological analyses and available field data. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) deployed personnel to Japan and stood up 'home team' assets across the DOE complex to aid in assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The DOE Nuclear Incident Team (NIT) coordinated response activities, while DOE personnel provided predictive modeling, air and ground monitoring, sample collection, laboratory analysis, and data assessment and interpretation. DOE deployed the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) personnel, and the Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to Japan. DOE/NNSA home team assets included the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT); National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS); and Radiological Triage. NARAC was activated by the DOE/NNSA on March 11, shortly after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred. The center remained on active operations through late May when DOE ended its deployment to Japan. Over 32 NARAC staff members

  19. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects: Report for April 1986--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; O`Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1988-07-01

    During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Batch sorption ratio determinations were conducted for strontium, cesium, uranium, and technetium onto samples of tuff using real and synthetic groundwater J-13. There were no significant differences in sorption ratios in experiments with real and synthetic groundwater. Columns were tested by determination of elution curves in J-13 containing tritium and technetium as the TcO{sub 4}/sup {minus}/ ion. For strontium and cesium, fairly good correlation between values of the sorption ratio obtained by the two methods was observed. Little technetium sorption was observed with either method. The elution peaks obtained with neptunium and uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations which suggest irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. Synthetic groundwater J-13 was slowly dripped onto a slab of tuff maintained at 95--100{degree}C, and the result was a thin encrustation of solids on the slab as the water evaporated. Fresh J-13 groundwater was then allowed to contact the encrustation in a vessel maintained at 90{degree}C. The principal result of the experiment was a significant loss of calcium and magnesium from the fresh J-13 groundwater. 13 refs. 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Nuclear factor-κB does not mediate the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Martin W; Staples, Karl J; Barnes, Peter J; Newton, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Human granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reporter constructs containing up to 3·3 kb of upstream promoter sequence were transiently transfected into both Jurkat and HUT78 human T-cell lines. In Jurkat cells, stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus phytohemaglutinin (PHA) produced robust increases in reporter activity, whereas HUT78 cells showed low levels of reporter induction attributable to constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity. Following mutation of either the proximal NF-κB site (−85/−76) or the activator protein1 (AP-1) motif within the conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLE0) site (−54/−31), reporter activity was markedly reduced in both cell lines. Despite this dependence on NF-κB and CLE0/AP-1, GM-CSF reporter activity was unaffected by dexamethasone in either cell line. Similarly, an NF-κB-dependent reporter was also not repressed by dexamethasone, yet GM-CSF release from HUT78 T cells was inhibited. These data therefore confirm a critical role for both NF-κB and CLE0 sites in GM-CSF promoter activation and indicate that NF-κB may not mediate glucocorticoid-dependent repression of GM-CSF in these cells. PMID:15056380

  1. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  2. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES USED BY EPA, SCDHEC, AND DOE TO INCREASE STAKEHOLDER AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN THE CLEANUP OF NUCLEAR PRODUCTION FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mccollum, L

    2007-01-18

    This paper will describe the importance of public and stakeholder involvement to the decisions being made at Savannah River Site (SRS) regarding the cleanup of major production facilities. For over a decade the Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) have operated under a three party agreement (known as the Federal Facilities Agreement or FFA) to clean up the SRS from the remnants of the Cold War plutonium production at SRS. During this time, the 3 agencies have consulted with the surrounding and impacted public to gain stakeholder input on the decisions concerning the clean up of various wastes at the SRS. The primary instrument of public input has been and remains the SRS Community Advisory Board (CAB). Much progress has been made over the years in cleaning up the SRS and the CAB has provided invaluable stakeholder input. Many planned decisions have been modified and changed as a result of the input of the CAB. Recently, DOE has decided to move forward with the Decommissioning of excess facilities at the SRS. These facilities include many buildings involved in the various missions of radioactive isotope production at the SRS, including the reactors and the plutonium processing facilities. The discussions of the 3 agencies on how to best accomplish this work have always included discussions about how to best involve and receive input from all stakeholders. The innovative way the 3 agencies have worked together through the public involvement format has application nationally and DOE-Complex wide. The decisions made will impact the surrounding community and the country for years. Multiple meetings with the CAB and other stakeholders will be required and it will be incumbent on the 3 agencies to reach out to and involve all interested parties. At least 3 different approaches could be used for stakeholder involvement. (1) a typical CERCLA ''proposed plan

  3. Does a lag-structure of temperature confound air pollution-lag-response relation? Simulation and application in 7 major cities, Korea (1998-2013).

    PubMed

    Kim, Honghyok; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2017-09-06

    Temperature must be controlled when estimating the associations of short-term exposure to air pollution and mortality. Given that multi-country studies have implied temperature has lagged effects, we aim to explore confounding by temperature-lag-response and investigate PM10-lag-mortality relation in 7 cities, Korea. In a simulation study, we compared the performance of different methods to control for: the same day temperature, a lagged temperature and distributed lags of temperature. In a real data study, we explored PM10-lag-mortality relation in 7 cities using these different methods. We confirmed that a model with insufficient control of temperature offers a biased estimate of PM10 risk. The degree of bias was from -82% to 95% in simulation settings. A real data study shows estimates among different models by temperature adjustments and PM10 lag variables ranging from -0.3% to 0.4% increase in the risk of all-cause mortality, with a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM10. Controlling for temperature as distributed lags for 21 days provided 0.25% (95% CI: 0.1, 0.4) increase in the risk of all-cause mortality. A lag structure of temperature can confound the air pollution-lag-response relation. Temperature-lag-response relation should be evaluated when estimating air pollution-lag-response relation. As a corollary, air pollution and temperature risk in mortality can be estimated using the same regression model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  5. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  6. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects: Report for April 1986-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; O`Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Batch sorption ratio determinations were conducted for strontium, cesium, uranium, and technetium onto samples of tuff using real and synthetic groundwater J-13. There were no significant differences in sorption ratios in experiments with real and synthetic groundwater. Columns 1 cm in diameter and about 5 cm long were constructed, and experiments were conducted with the objective of correlating the results of batch and the column experiments. The characteristics of the columns were tested by determination of elution curves in J-13 containing tritium and technetium as the TcO{sub 4}{sup -} ion. For strontium and cesium, fairly good correlation between values of the sorption ratio obtained by the two methods was observed. Little or no technetium sorption was observed with either method. The elution peaks obtained with neptunium and uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations which suggest irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. An experiment was performed to provide information on the compositions of the first groundwaters that will contact waste canisters in a tuff-hosted repository after very near field temperatures have cooled to below 100{degree}C. Synthetic groundwater J-13 was slowly dripped onto a slab of tuff maintained at 95-100{degree}C, and the result was a thin encrustation of solids on the slab as the water evaporated. Fresh J-13 groundwater was then allowed to contact the encrustation in a vessel maintained at 90{degree}C. The principal result of the experiment was a significant loss of calcium and magnesium from the fresh J-13 groundwater.

  7. Does Osteoprotegerin or Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand Mediate the Association between Bone and Coronary Artery Calcification?

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Accumulating evidence indicates that vascular and bone mineralization may be related, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether an observed inverse association between bone mineral density (BMD) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in postmenopausal women currently taking estrogen therapy is mediated by osteoprotegerin (OPG) or receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Design: Participants were 92 postmenopausal women (aged 58–81 yr) taking estrogen therapy who had hip and spine BMD assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and CAC measured by electron-beam computed tomography in 1998–2002 and serum RANKL and OPG levels measured in samples collected in 1997–1999. Total CAC score was dichotomized as none/minimal (≤10) vs. some (>10). Results: OPG serum levels were higher in women who had some CAC compared with those who had none/minimal (126.8 ± 1.08 vs. 102.9 ± 1.07 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.03); these differences became nonsignificant after adjustment for age and other risk factors (P = 0.51). A 1 sd increase in hip BMD was associated with significantly lower odds of having CAC > 10 (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.29–0.93) independent of age, fat-free mass, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, current smoking, and use of cholesterol-lowering medications. Other skeletal sites demonstrated a similar pattern. Addition of RANKL and/or OPG to the model had minimal effect on the magnitude or statistical significance of the BMD-CAC association. Additionally, a test of interaction indicated that RANKL and OPG are not significant effect modifiers. Conclusions: Serum OPG and RANKL do not account for the observed association between bone and coronary artery calcification among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy. PMID:18319315

  8. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  10. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  11. Congress targets DOE plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Calling the Department of Energy's management of the nation's crippled nuclear weapons production complex “a 35-year secret chemical war waged against people living near DOE's sites,” Representative Thomas Luken (D-OH) opened a congressional hearing on February 23 with an appeal to DOE Secretary-designate James Watkins to release secret health records of workers at the plants. In testimony that followed, Comptroller General Charles Bowsher told a subcommittee of the House Energy and Commerce Committee that President Bush's new budget does not go far enough on the long and costly road of cleaning up and modernizing the contaminated and aging facilities. The renovation is expected to cost up to $155 billion.By next month, 11 of the 17 installations that make up the DOE complex will be on the EPA's Superfund list of the nation's most contaminated waste sites. Some o f the DOE facilities, including the Rocky Flats plant in Denver, Colo., the Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington, and the Savannah River plant in South Carolina, are among the most polluted sites ever identified by EPA. The principal function of the facilities, the production of tritium and plutonium for nuclear weapons, has stopped, creating what DOE has characterized as a looming national security crisis.

  12. Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Nuclear and Space Security Tactics Training Center Project AFSPC053012 for Air Force Security Forces at Camp Guernsey, Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Assessment Nuclear & Space Security Tactics Training Center Camp Guernsey, Wyoming endemic to moist soils near wetland meadows, springs, lakes , and...in alluvial substrates along riparian edges, gravel bars, old oxbows , and moist to wet meadows. Soils where Spiranthes have been found typically

  13. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Questions Remain Open In Mol Nuclear Scandal [ Michel Balthasart; Brussels LE VIF/L’EXPRESS, 25-31 Mar 88] 35 FRANCE Nuclear Fuel Cycle Industry...at End of 1987 [M. Barron ; Paris REVUE GENERALE NUCLEAIRE, Jan-Feb 88] 36 TURKEY Argentina To Help Acquire ’Nuclear Technology’ [Atilla Atakan...51002447 Brussels LE VIF/L’EXPRESS in French 25-31 Mar 88 pp 24-26 [Article by Michel Balthasart] [Text] What does the boycott of the European

  14. How does the long range transport of aerosols from biomass burning affect air quality in Poland - a case study with the WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Maciej; Werner, Małgorzata; Szkop, Artur; Guzikowski, Jakub; Pietruczuk, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    Episodes of wildfires and related emission of the pollutants are reported every year in Eastern Europe. They usually occur in late summer and may strongly influence the air quality in Central and Western Europe. In this work we use the WRF-Chem model to study the long range transport of wildfires pollution from the Ukraine and Russia to Poland. The model is run two times, first using anthropogenic emission alone, second with the FINN fire emission inventory included for the heavy wildfires episode observed in August 2015. The model was run for the entire Europe with 12km x 12km grid cell and 48 vertical levels. The difference between two model runs shows strong advection of PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols from Eastern Europe to Poland. This long range transport increases the concentrations of PM10 by up to 10 ug m-3. The model run that includes emission from wildfires is in better agreement with surface measurements, if compared to the base run with only anthropogenic emission considered. These results clearly show the importance of remote wildfire episodes on summertime air quality in Poland.

  15. Does weather confound or modify the association of particulate air pollution with mortality? An analysis of the Philadelphia data, 1973--1980

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Zeger, S.; Kelsall, J.; Xu, J.; Kalkstein, L.

    1998-04-01

    This report considers the consequences of using alternative approaches to controlling for weather and explores modification of air pollution effects by weather, as weather patterns could plausibly alter air pollution`s effect on health. The authors analyzed 1973--1980 total mortality data for Philadelphia using four weather models and compared estimates of the effects of TSP and SO{sub 2} on mortality using a Poisson regression model. Two synoptic categories developed by Kalkstein were selected--The Temporal Synoptic Index (TSI) and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC)--and compared with (1) descriptive models developed by Schwartz and Dockery (S-D); and (2) LOESS, a nonparametric function of the previous day`s temperature and dew point. The authors considered model fit using Akaike`s Information Criterion (AIC) and changes in the estimated effects of TSP and SO{sub 2}. In the full-year analysis, S-D is better than LOESS at predicting mortality, and S-D and LOESS are better than TSI, as measured by AIC. When TSP or SO{sub 2} was fit alone, the results were qualitatively similar, regardless of how weather was controlled; when TSP and SO{sub 2} were fit simultaneously, the S-D and LOESS models give qualitatively different results than TSI, which attributes more of the pollution effect to SO{sub 2} than to TSP. Model fit is substantially poorer with TSI.

  16. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects? An illustration of the bias-variance trade-off in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle; Charles, Marie Aline; Forhan, Anne; Hulin, Agnés; Galineau, Julien; Lepeule, Johanna; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Sunyer, Jordi; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Slama, Rémy

    2013-10-01

    Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may also enhance the potential for confounding. We aimed to discuss some analytical approaches to handle this trade-off. We modeled NO2 and PM10 concentrations at the home addresses of 1082 pregnant mothers from EDEN cohort living in and around urban areas, using ADMS dispersion model. Simulations were performed to identify the best strategy to limit confounding by unmeasured factors varying with area type. We examined the relation between modeled concentrations and respiratory health in infants using regression models with and without adjustment or interaction terms with area type. Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure. Area tended to modify effect measures of air pollution on respiratory health. Increasing the size of the study area also increases the potential for residual confounding. Our simulations suggest that adjusting for type of area is a good option to limit residual confounding due to area-associated factors without restricting the area size. Other statistical approaches developed in the field of spatial epidemiology are an alternative to control for poorly-measured spatially-varying confounders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  18. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-12-31

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University.

  19. Source term estimation of radioxenon released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, P W; Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Cooper, M W; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Korpach, E; Yi, J; Miley, H S; Rishel, J P; Ungar, K; White, B; Woods, V T

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout across the northern hemisphere resulting from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Sampling data from multiple International Modeling System locations are combined with atmospheric transport modeling to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of releases of (133)Xe. Modeled dilution factors at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of (133)Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This analysis suggests that 92% of the 1.24 × 10(19) Bq of (133)Xe present in the three operating reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a 3 d period. An uncertainty analysis bounds the release estimates to 54-129% of available (133)Xe inventory.

  20. THERMAL NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fenning, F.W.; Jackson, R.F.

    1957-09-24

    Nuclear reactors of the graphite moderated air cooled type in which canned slugs or rods of fissile material are employed are discussed. Such a reactor may be provided with a means for detecting dust particles in the exhausted air. The means employed are lengths of dust absorbent cord suspended in vertical holes in the shielding structure above each vertical coolant flow channel to hang in the path of the cooling air issuing from the channels, and associated spindles and drive motors for hauling the cords past detectors, such as Geiger counters, for inspecting the cords periodically. This design also enables detecting the individual channel in which a fault condition may have occurred.

  1. Measurements of radioxenon in ground level air in South Korea following the claimed nuclear test in North Korea on October 9, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ringbom, Anders; Elmgren, K.; Lindh, Karin; Peterson, Jenny; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Panisko, Mark E.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-12-03

    Abstract Following the claimed nuclear test in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) on October 9, 2006, and a reported seismic event, a mobile system for sampling of atmospheric xenon was transported to the Republic of South Korea (ROK) in an attempt to detect possible emissions of radioxenon in the region from a presumed test. Five samples were collected in the ROK during October 11–14, 2006 near the ROK–DPRK border, and thereafter transported to the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) in Stockholm, Sweden, for analysis. Following the initial measurements, an automatic radioxenon sampling and analysis system was installed at the same location in the ROK, and measurements on the ambient atmospheric radioxenon background in the region were performed during November 2006 to February 2007. The measured radioxenon concentrations strongly indicate that the explosion in October 9, 2006 was a nuclear test. The conclusion is further strengthened by atmospheric transport models. Radioactive xenon measurement was the only independent confirmation that the supposed test was in fact a nuclear explosion and not a conventional (chemical) explosive.

  2. Bending fatigue of electron-beam-welded foils. Application to a hydrodynamic air bearing in the Chrysler/DOE upgraded automotive gas tubine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltsman, J. F.; Halford, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrodynamic air bearing with a compliment surface is used in the gas generator of an upgraded automotive gas turbine engine. In the prototype design, the compliant surface is a thin foil spot welded at one end to the bearing cartridge. During operation, the foil failed along the line of spot welds which acted as a series of stress concentrators. Because of its higher degree of geometric uniformity, electron beam welding of the foil was selected as an alternative to spot welding. Room temperature bending fatigue tests were conducted to determine the fatigue resistance of the electron beam welded foils. Equations were determined relating cycles to crack initiation and cycles to failure to nominal total strain range. A scaling procedure is presented for estimating the reduction in cyclic life when the foil is at its normal operating temperature of 260 C (500 F).

  3. DOE/RL Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Annual Compliance Certification Report for the Period July 2 2001 through December 31 2001 [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN, W.E.

    2002-05-22

    The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit (AOP), Number 00-05-006, became effective on July 2, 2001. The AOP, Section 4.3.4, ''Annual Compliance Certification'', requires submittal of an annual compliance certification report no later than 12 months following the effective date of the permit. This report is to be certified for truth, accuracy, and completeness by a Responsible Official. This first annual compliance certification report contains information for the period from July 2, 2001 through December 31, 2001. Hereafter, the annual compliance certification report will contain information for the period from January 1 through December 31, as required by the AOP Section 4.3, ''Submittals''. Copies of the annual compliance certification reports are transmitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), the Benton Clean Air Authority (BCAA), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. For the applicable reporting period, Section 4.3.3, ''Annual Compliance Certification'', requires the following content for the annual compliance certification report: (1) The identification of each term or condition of the permit that is the basis of the certification; (2) The compliance status; (3) Whether compliance was continuous or intermittent; (4) The method(s) used to determine the compliance status of the source over the reporting period consistent with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173401 -61 5(3)(a); and (5) Such other facts as Ecology, WDOH, or BCAA might be required to determine the compliance status of the source. According to WAC 173-401-630(5), no certification is required for insignificant emission units. The specific terms and conditions for this annual compliance certification report consist of all emission point specific terms and conditions contained in the AOP Attachment 1 and Attachment 2 tables, plus Attachment 3 for asbestos and open burning.

  4. Ensuring Strategic Stability In The Second Nuclear Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    nuclear survivability and nuclear command, control and communication. He attended intermediate developmental education as an Air Force Fellow at...systematically to the new stability framework, the paper presents a balanced posture to ensure strategic stability during the second nuclear age. 1...Introduction The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) discussed, “...strategic stability as a goal that future nuclear reductions must support. Any

  5. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  6. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  7. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  8. Nuclear power: Unexpected health benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellenberger, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Public fears of nuclear power are widespread, especially in the aftermath of accidents, yet their benefits are rarely fully considered. A new study shows how the closure of two nuclear power plants in the 1980s increased air pollution and led to a measurable reduction in birth weights, a key indicator of future health outcomes.

  9. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  10. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  11. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  12. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    disarmament activities. And as I said before, countries in the use of atomic energy for peaceful pur- since nuclear energy does not pollute the environment...sun, wind [Text] Minsk August 14-By TASS Correspondent and thermal waters. Aleksandr Kryzhanovskiy: It is necessary to thoroughly analyse power

  13. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 1. Nuclear explosions, 1951

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, J.F.; Simonds, B.T.

    1984-10-31

    The primary objective of this experiment was to obtain accurate information on the pressure in the shock wave in the free-air region. In particular, it was desired to know the peak pressure as a function of distance in this region. Secondary objectives were to determine the path of the triple point and to determine the peak pressure in the Mach-stem region.

  14. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen conifer Jack pine.

    PubMed

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P A; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22 degrees C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7 degrees C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7 degrees C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22 degrees C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of beta-carotene in the warm autumn

  15. Revitalizing the Nuclear Weapons Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    units failing Nuclear Operational Readiness Inspections ( NORI ). In assessing the Air Force, the Schlesinger Task Force found a cause for these...all of the time. For example, the Air Force unit involved in the “Bent Spear” incident in 2007 had passed their NORI about 16 months earlier.52

  16. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  17. Where does the carbon go? A model–data intercomparison of vegetation carbon allocation and turnover processes at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment sites

    PubMed Central

    De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Zaehle, Sönke; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Wang, Ying-Ping; Luo, Yiqi; Jain, Atul K; El-Masri, Bassil; Hickler, Thomas; Wårlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William J; Thornton, Peter E; Wang, Shusen; Prentice, I Colin; Asao, Shinichi; Smith, Benjamin; McCarthy, Heather R; Iversen, Colleen M; Hanson, Paul J; Warren, Jeffrey M; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) has the potential to increase vegetation carbon storage if increased net primary production causes increased long-lived biomass. Model predictions of eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage depend on how allocation and turnover processes are represented. We used data from two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments to evaluate representations of allocation and turnover in 11 ecosystem models. Observed eCO2 effects on allocation were dynamic. Allocation schemes based on functional relationships among biomass fractions that vary with resource availability were best able to capture the general features of the observations. Allocation schemes based on constant fractions or resource limitations performed less well, with some models having unintended outcomes. Few models represent turnover processes mechanistically and there was wide variation in predictions of tissue lifespan. Consequently, models did not perform well at predicting eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage. Our recommendations to reduce uncertainty include: use of allocation schemes constrained by biomass fractions; careful testing of allocation schemes; and synthesis of allocation and turnover data in terms of model parameters. Data from intensively studied ecosystem manipulation experiments are invaluable for constraining models and we recommend that such experiments should attempt to fully quantify carbon, water and nutrient budgets. PMID:24844873

  18. Where does the carbon go? A model-data intercomparison of vegetation carbon allocation and turnover processes at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment sites.

    PubMed

    De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Zaehle, Sönke; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Wang, Ying-Ping; Luo, Yiqi; Jain, Atul K; El-Masri, Bassil; Hickler, Thomas; Wårlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William J; Thornton, Peter E; Wang, Shusen; Prentice, I Colin; Asao, Shinichi; Smith, Benjamin; McCarthy, Heather R; Iversen, Colleen M; Hanson, Paul J; Warren, Jeffrey M; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) has the potential to increase vegetation carbon storage if increased net primary production causes increased long-lived biomass. Model predictions of eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage depend on how allocation and turnover processes are represented. We used data from two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments to evaluate representations of allocation and turnover in 11 ecosystem models. Observed eCO2 effects on allocation were dynamic. Allocation schemes based on functional relationships among biomass fractions that vary with resource availability were best able to capture the general features of the observations. Allocation schemes based on constant fractions or resource limitations performed less well, with some models having unintended outcomes. Few models represent turnover processes mechanistically and there was wide variation in predictions of tissue lifespan. Consequently, models did not perform well at predicting eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage. Our recommendations to reduce uncertainty include: use of allocation schemes constrained by biomass fractions; careful testing of allocation schemes; and synthesis of allocation and turnover data in terms of model parameters. Data from intensively studied ecosystem manipulation experiments are invaluable for constraining models and we recommend that such experiments should attempt to fully quantify carbon, water and nutrient budgets. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. 1979 DOE statistical symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D.A.; Truett T.

    1980-09-01

    The 1979 DOE Statistical Symposium was the fifth in the series of annual symposia designed to bring together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in helping to solve the nation's energy problems. The program included presentations of technical papers centered around exploration and disposal of nuclear fuel, general energy-related topics, and health-related issues, and workshops on model evaluation, risk analysis, analysis of large data sets, and resource estimation.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Dynamic Deformation of Air Transport Fresh Fuel Package in Accidental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, A. A.; Romanov, V. I.; Sotskov, G. I.

    2003-02-24

    Results of numerical investigations of dynamic deformations of packages for air transportation of fresh nuclear fuel from Nuclear Power Plants are presented for the cases of axis and on-side impacts with hard surface at a speed of 90 meters/second (m/s). Modeling results on deformed structure shapes and kinematical parameters (displacements, decelerations, cramping) for axis impact are compared with experimental data. Use of this numerical-experimental technology gives new capabilities to analyze correctly the safety of such a package in accidents through modeling, which does not require implantation of expensive testing, thereby saving money.

  1. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  2. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  3. What can nuclear energy do for society.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a compact and abundant source of energy. Its cost per unit of energy is less than that of fossil fuel. Disadvantages of nuclear fuel are connected with the high cost of capital equipment required for releasing nuclear energy and the heavy weight of the necessary shielding. In the case of commercial electric power production and marine propulsion the advantages have outweighed the disadvantages. It is pointed out that nuclear commercial submarines have certain advantages compared to surface ships. Nuclear powerplants might make air-cushion vehicles for transoceanic ranges feasible. The problems and advantages of a nuclear aircraft are discussed together with nuclear propulsion for interplanetary space voyages.

  4. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Korpach, E.; Yi, Jing; Miley, Harry S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Ungar, R. Kurt; White, Brian; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  5. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  6. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  7. Does free-air carbon dioxide enrichment affect photochemical energy use by evergreen trees in different seasons? A chlorophyll fluorescence study of mature loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    Hymus, G.J.; Ellsworth, D.S.; Baker, N.R.; Long, S.P.

    1999-08-01

    Previous studies of the effects of growth at elevated CO{sup 2} on energy partitioning in the photosynthetic apparatus have produced conflicting results. The hypothesis was developed and tested that elevated CO{sub 2} increases photochemical energy use when there is a high demand for assimilates and decreases usage when demand is low. Modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and leaf gas exchange were measured on needles at the tope of a mature, 12-m loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.l) forest. Trees were exposed to ambient CO{sub 2} or ambient plus 20 Pa CO{sub 2} using free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment. During April and August, periods of shoot growth, light-saturated photo-synthesis and linear electron transport were increased by elevated CO{sub 2}. In November, when growth had ceased but temperatures were still moderate, CO{sub 2} treatment had no significant effect on linear electron transport. In February, when low temperatures were likely to inhibit translocation, CO{sub 2} treatment caused a significant decrease in linear electron transport. This coincided with a slower recovery of the maximum photosystem II efficiency on transfer of needles to the shade, indicating that growth in elevated CO{sub 2} induced a more persistent photoinhibition. Both the summer increase and the winter decrease in linear electron transport in elevated CO{sub 2} resulted from a change in photochemical quenching, not in the efficiency of energy transfer within the photosystem II antenna. There was no evidence of any effect of CO{sub 2} on photochemical energy sinks other than carbon metabolism. Their results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} may increase the effects of winter stress on evergreen foliage.

  8. Long-term growth of soybean at elevated [CO2] does not cause acclimation of stomatal conductance under fully open-air conditions.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-09-01

    Accurately predicting plant function and global biogeochemical cycles later in this century will be complicated if stomatal conductance (g(s)) acclimates to growth at elevated [CO(2)], in the sense of a long-term alteration of the response of g(s) to [CO(2)], humidity (h) and/or photosynthetic rate (A). If so, photosynthetic and stomatal models will require parameterization at each growth [CO(2)] of interest. Photosynthetic acclimation to long-term growth at elevated [CO(2)] occurs frequently. Acclimation of g(s) has rarely been examined, even though stomatal density commonly changes with growth [CO(2)]. Soybean was grown under field conditions at ambient [CO(2)] (378 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO(2)] (552 micromol mol(-1)) using free-air [CO(2)] enrichment (FACE). This study tested for stomatal acclimation by parameterizing and validating the widely used Ball et al. model (1987, Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol IV, 221-224) with measurements of leaf gas exchange. The dependence of g(s) on A, h and [CO(2)] at the leaf surface was unaltered by long-term growth at elevated [CO(2)]. This suggests that the commonly observed decrease in g(s) under elevated [CO(2)] is due entirely to the direct instantaneous effect of [CO(2)] on g(s) and that there is no longer-term acclimation of g(s) independent of photosynthetic acclimation. The model accurately predicted g(s) for soybean growing under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] in the field. Model parameters under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] were indistinguishable, demonstrating that stomatal function under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] could be modelled without the need for parameterization at each growth [CO(2)].

  9. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  10. Does climate warming stimulate or inhibit soil protist communities? A test on testate amoebae in high-arctic tundra with free-air temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Nijs, Ivan; Beyens, Louis

    2011-04-01

    Soil testate amoebae assemblages in a grassland area at Zackenberg (Northeast Greenland) were subjected to simulated climate-warming during the growing season using the Free-Air Temperature Increase technique. Samples were collected in upper (0 - 3cm) and deeper (3 - 6cm) soil horizons. Mean temperature elevations at 2.5 and 7.5 cm depth were 2.58 ± SD 1.11 and 2.13±SD 0.77°C, respectively, and did not differ significantly. Soil moisture in the top 11cm was not affected by the warming. During the manipulation, the densities of living amoebae and empty shells were higher in the experimental plots but only in the upper layer. Possibly, testate amoebae in the deeper layer were limited by other factors, suggesting that warming enhances the carrying capacity only in favourable conditions. Species richness, on the other hand, was only increased in the deeper horizon. Warming did not change the percentage of individuals belonging to small-sized species in any of the living assemblages, contrary to our expectation that those species would quickly increase their density. However, in the empty shell assemblages, the proportion of small-sized individuals in the experimental plots was higher in both layers, indicating a rapid, transient increase in small amoebae before the first sampling date. Changes in successional state of testate amoebae assemblages in response to future climate change might thus be ephemeral, whereas alterations in density and species richness might be more sustained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  12. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  13. The Nuclear Issue and the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforto, A. M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates Italian high school and college students' awareness of the risks connected with both the civilian and military uses of nuclear energy. Summarizes some findings of this analysis and concludes that the education regarding nuclear issues does not meet current needs. Provides a questionnaire on nuclear issues. (YP)

  14. The Nuclear Issue and the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforto, A. M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates Italian high school and college students' awareness of the risks connected with both the civilian and military uses of nuclear energy. Summarizes some findings of this analysis and concludes that the education regarding nuclear issues does not meet current needs. Provides a questionnaire on nuclear issues. (YP)

  15. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  16. A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    Berlusconi , Washington D.C., 13 October 08) 4 HR 362, 110th Congress, 2nd Session, 2008, sec. (1) 5 “Ahmadinejad: Iran won’t retreat one iota from its...Independent Task Force Report, September 2008. Bush, President George W., Remarks during Whitehouse appearance with Prime Minister Berlusconi , Washington

  17. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency's Use of Geographic Information Systems for Nuclear Emergency Response Support

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Guber

    2001-06-01

    The U.S, Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Agency's (NNSA) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) provides Geographic Information System (GIS) support during nuclear emergency response activities. As directed by the NNSA, the RSL GIS staff maintains databases and equipment for rapid field deployment during an emergency response. When on location, GIS operators provide information products to on-site emergency managers as well as to emergency managers at the DOE Headquarters (HQ) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Washington, D.C. Data products are derived from multiple information sources in the field including radiological prediction models, field measurements taken on the ground and from the air, and pertinent information researched on the Internet. The GIS functions as a central data hub where it supplies the information to response elements in the field, as well as to headquarters officials at HQ during emergency response activities.

  18. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  19. Aire Expression Is Inherent to Most Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells during Their Differentiation Program.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Junko; Hirota, Fumiko; Morita, Ryoko; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Aire in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) plays an important role in the establishment of self-tolerance. Because Aire(+) mTECs appear to be a limited subset, they may constitute a unique lineage(s) among mTECs. An alternative possibility is that all mTECs are committed to express Aire in principle, but Aire expression by individual mTECs is conditional. To investigate this issue, we established a novel Aire reporter strain in which endogenous Aire is replaced by the human AIRE-GFP-Flag tag (Aire/hAGF-knockin) fusion gene. The hAGF reporter protein was produced and retained very efficiently within mTECs as authentic Aire nuclear dot protein. Remarkably, snapshot analysis revealed that mTECs expressing hAGF accounted for >95% of mature mTECs, suggesting that Aire expression does not represent a particular mTEC lineage(s). We confirmed this by generating Aire/diphtheria toxin receptor-knockin mice in which long-term ablation of Aire(+) mTECs by diphtheria toxin treatment resulted in the loss of most mature mTECs beyond the proportion of those apparently expressing Aire. These results suggest that Aire expression is inherent to all mTECs but may occur at particular stage(s) and/or cellular states during their differentiation, thus accounting for the broad impact of Aire on the promiscuous gene expression of mTECs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. 10 CFR 710.24 - Appointment of DOE Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Criteria and Procedures for Determining Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.24 Appointment of DOE Counsel. (a...