Science.gov

Sample records for doe offsite mixed

  1. Incineration of DOE offsite mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.D.; Harvego, L.A.; Jacobs, A.M.; Willcox, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of three incinerators in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex capable of incinerating mixed low-level waste (MLLW). WERF has received MLLW from offsite generators and is scheduled to receive more. The State of Idaho supports receipt of offsite MLLW waste at the WERF incinerator within the requirements established in the (INEEL) Site Treatment Plan (STP). The incinerator is operating as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status Facility, with a RCRA Part B permit application currently being reviewed by the State of Idaho. Offsite MLLW received from other DOE facilities are currently being incinerated at WERF at no charge to the generator. Residues associated with the incineration of offsite MLLW waste that meet the Envirocare of Utah waste acceptance criteria are sent to that facility for treatment and/or disposal. WERF is contributing to the treatment and reduction of MLLW in the DOE Complex.

  2. Offsite Radiological Consequence Calculation for the Bounding Mixing of Incompatible Materials Accident

    SciTech Connect

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-07-30

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. Conservative input parameters were applied in accordance with the guidance provided. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from the Office of River Protection.

  3. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE CALCULATION FOR THE BOUNDING MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-10-09

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding accident is an inadvertent addition of acid to a waste tank. Conservative inputs were applied in accordance with the guidance provided. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline.

  4. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  5. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  6. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  7. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  8. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  9. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  10. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  11. Protecting off-site populations and site workers from vapor discharges during shallow soil mixing at the North Carolina State University National Priorities List Site.

    PubMed

    Schaad, David E; Halley, James M; Alaimo, Vince

    2007-09-01

    Although vapor monitoring is generally a component of remedial action activities, most sites do not have routine gaseous releases or vapor clouds erupting from the soil during implementation of the cleanup process (or during cleanup of the site). At the North Carolina State University Lot 86 National Priorities List Site, over 8410 m3 (11,000 yd3) of chemical waste was disposed at the Site, including organic solvents and shock-sensitive and air- and water-reactive compounds. During the Remedial Action, it was imperative to protect site workers and off-site populations from potential inhalation exposures. Engineering controls were incorporated into the shallow soil mixing process to limit the release of gaseous compounds. To quantify potential exposures to on-site and off-site receptors, modeling was conducted to evaluate potential exposure routes and migration pathways. To demonstrate acceptable levels of airborne constituents, a multifaceted air sampling and monitoring program was implemented. To ensure that potential exposures could be quantified, passive dosimeters, continuous real-time monitoring, time-weighted whole air sampling, and grab samples of vapor clouds were all critical components of the air monitoring program. After the successful completion of the Remedial Action, the pre-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) chemical waste generated from the University's educational and research laboratories was entirely encapsulated and neither on-site workers nor off-site populations were exposed to analyzed compounds above any health-based action level (i.e., 15-min short-term exposure limit [STEL], 8-hr threshold limit value, or time-weighted average permissible exposure limit).

  12. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  13. The Off-Site Rule. CERCLA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, B.

    1994-03-01

    Under Section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, wastes generated as a result of CERCLA remediation activities and transferred off-site must be managed at a facility operating in compliance with federal laws. EPA issued its Off-Site Policy (OSWER Directive No. 9834, 11), which gave guidance on complying with this particular requirement. Specifically, EPA requires off-site waste management facilities to fulfill EPA`s definition of acceptability and has established detailed procedures for issuing and reviewing unacceptability determinations. EPA proposed amending the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR part 300) to include the requirements contained in the Off-Site Policy (53 FR 48218). On September 22, 1993 EPA published the Off-Site Rules [58 FR 49200], which became effective on October 22, 1993. The primary purpose of the Off-Site Rule is to clarify and codify CERCLA`s requirement to prevent wastes generated from remediation activities conducted under CERCLA from contributing to present or future environmental problems at off-site waste management facilities that receive them. Thus, the Off-Site Rule requires that CERCLA wastes only be sent to off-site facilities that meet EPA`s acceptability criteria. The final Off-Site Rule makes two major changes to the proposed Off-Site Rule: (1) only EPA, not an authorized State, can make determinations of the acceptability of off-site facilities that manage CERCLA wastes, and (2) the Off-Site eliminate the distinction between CERCLA wastes governed under pre-SARA and post-SARA agreements. The purpose of this information Brief is to highlight and clarify EPA`s final Off-Site and its implications on DOE remedial actions under CERCLA.

  14. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the waste transfer leak

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2003-03-21

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological/consequence of the bounding waste transfer leak accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding waste transfer leak accident is a fine spray leak into the air. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. The calculated offsite dose of 0.7 rem does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline.

  15. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  16. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Waste Transfer Leak

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2003-07-30

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding waste transfer leak accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding waste transfer leak accident is a large pipe break into a pit. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guidelines. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from the Office of River Protection.

  17. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain

    2010-08-16

    Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor contaminants to reduce occupant exposure. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining the exposure of occupants to given sources, but the zone- specific distribution of exhaust and supply air, and the mixing of ventilation air can have significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage through the building envelope, air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact that air mixing has on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. Evaluations of existing field measurements and simulations reported in the literature are combined with new analyses to provide an integrated overview of the topic. The results show that for extreme cases additional mixing can be a significant factor but for typical homes looking at average exposures mixing is not helpful and can even make exposures worse.

  18. User's Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2015-04-01

    The RESRAD-OFFSITE code can be used to model the radiological dose or risk to an offsite receptor. This User’s Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 3.1 is an update of the User’s Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 contained in the Appendix A of the User’s Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 (ANL/EVS/TM/07-1, DOE/HS-0005, NUREG/CR-6937). This user’s guide presents the basic information necessary to use Version 3.1 of the code. It also points to the help file and other documents that provide more detailed information about the inputs, the input forms and features/tools in the code; two of the features (overriding the source term and computing area factors) are discussed in the appendices to this guide. Section 2 describes how to download and install the code and then verify the installation of the code. Section 3 shows ways to navigate through the input screens to simulate various exposure scenarios and to view the results in graphics and text reports. Section 4 has screen shots of each input form in the code and provides basic information about each parameter to increase the user’s understanding of the code. Section 5 outlines the contents of all the text reports and the graphical output. It also describes the commands in the two output viewers. Section 6 deals with the probabilistic and sensitivity analysis tools available in the code. Section 7 details the various ways of obtaining help in the code.

  19. Determinations of TSD facility acceptability under the CERCLA Off-Site Rule

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    On September 22, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the ``Off-Site Rule`` to implement section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA {section}121(d)(3) requires that wastes generated as a result of remediation activities taken under CERCLA authority and transferred off-site be managed only at facilities that comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In 1994, the DOE`s Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (OEPA), RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413) published a CERCLA Information Brief titled ``The Off-Site Rule`` which describes the content of the Off-Site Rule and clarifies some of its implications for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. Additionally, EH-413 published the Guide on Selecting Compliant Off-Site Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities which provides a regulatory roadmap for accomplishing off-site transfers of environmental restoration and process hazardous waste at DOE facilities in a manner compliant with the Off-Site Rule and other relevant Federal regulations. Those guidance documents concentrate primarily on DOE`s perspective as a hazardous waste generator. The purpose of this Information Brief is to address the implications of the Off-Site Rule for DOE-owned hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities that accept CERCLA remediation wastes from off-site locations.

  20. R D activities at DOE applicable to mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Devgun, J.S.; Brown, J.J.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Within the new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation (RDDT E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Because of US governmental activities dating back to the Manhattan project, mixed radioactive and hazardous waste is an area of particular concern to DOE. The OTD is responsible for a number of R D activities aimed at improving capabilities to characterize, control, and properly dispose of mixed waste. These activities and their progress to date will be reviewed. In addition, needs for additional R D on managing mixed waste will be presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Nalesnik, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    Under the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is directed to develop treatment plans for their stockpile of wastes generated at their various sites. As a result, DOE is facing the monumental problem associated with the treatment and ultimate disposal of their mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste. Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final {open_quotes}Hazardous Waste Combustion Strategy{close_quotes} in November 1994. Under the Combustion Strategy, EPA permit writers have been given the authority to use the Omnibus Provision of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to impose more stringent emission limits for waste combustors prior to the development of new regulations. EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in 1991. The main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these technologies particularly under the new requirements of the above-mentioned EPA Combustion Strategy. The objective of this Paper is to summarize the results of the EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment since the establishment of the original Interagency Agreement. Specifically, this Paper will discuss six activities that have been underway; namely: (1) National Technical Workgroup (NTW) on Mixed Waste Treatment, (2) State-of-the-Art Assessment of APC (Air Pollution Control) and Monitoring Technologies for the Rocky Flats Fluidized Bed Unit, (3) Initial Study of Permit {open_quotes}Roadmap{close_quotes} Development for Mixed Waste Treatment, (4) Risk Assessment Approach for a Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment Facility, (5) Development and Application of Technology Selection Criteria for Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment, and (6) Performance Testing of Mixed Waste Incineration: In-Situ Chlorine Capture in a Fluidized Bed Unit.

  2. Benchmarking of RESRAD-OFFSITE : transition from RESRAD (onsite) toRESRAD-OFFSITE and comparison of the RESRAD-OFFSITE predictions with peercodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Biwer, B.

    2006-05-22

    The main purpose of this report is to document the benchmarking results and verification of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code as part of the quality assurance requirements of the RESRAD development program. This documentation will enable the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees and other stakeholders to use the quality-assured version of the code to perform dose analysis in a risk-informed and technically defensible manner to demonstrate compliance with the NRC's License Termination Rule, Title 10, Part 20, Subpart E, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E); DOE's 10 CFR Part 834, Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment''; and other Federal and State regulatory requirements as appropriate. The other purpose of this report is to document the differences and similarities between the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes so that users (dose analysts and risk assessors) can make a smooth transition from use of the RESRAD (onsite) code to use of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code for performing both onsite and offsite dose analyses. The evolution of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code from the RESRAD (onsite) code is described in Chapter 1 to help the dose analyst and risk assessor make a smooth conceptual transition from the use of one code to that of the other. Chapter 2 provides a comparison of the predictions of RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE for an onsite exposure scenario. Chapter 3 documents the results of benchmarking RESRAD-OFFSITE's atmospheric transport and dispersion submodel against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) CAP88-PC (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) and ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex-Long Term) models. Chapter 4 documents the comparison results of the predictions of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code and its submodels with the predictions of peer models. This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne

  3. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO, C.A.

    2003-07-30

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.

  4. Off-sites that work.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Bob; Chandler, Logan

    2006-06-01

    Of all the meetings top executives go to in a year, none is more important than the strategy off-site, where the most essential conversations for the future of the business occur. Yet it is the rare management team that can say its strategy off-site truly changed the way the business is run. At best, participants do some vague direction setting and work on team-building skills; at worst, they write off the retreat as a waste of time and resources. It needn't be like that. From their two decades of experience designing and facilitating strategy off-sites in companies large and small around the world, the authors have distilled a set of best practices that businesses can use to make the most of this annual opportunity. Essentially, the problem with most strategy off-sites is that they're insufficiently structured. People think that if you schedule a meeting, invite top leaders (and perhaps an outside expert), and block off units of time to discuss big subjects, the rest will take care of itself. In reality, formlessness leads to aimlessness. Oddly enough, only rigorously designed meetings give rise to truly candid strategy discussions. That rigor starts before the meeting, when the scope of the matters discussed must be limited, the participant list drawn up accordingly, the relevant materials (and only those) sent out and absorbed, and a detailed agenda established. During the meeting, the pace and quality of the conversation can be managed through attention to politics and by using carefully tailored frameworks, decision points, and group exercises. After the meeting, an action plan ensures clear accountability and follow-through. If you and your executive team spend four days a year rafting down rivers together, you'll eventually get good at rafting down rivers. Spend four days a year having well -designed strategy conversations together, and you will transform your annual off-site from a meaningless junket into a genuine turning point for your business.

  5. 47 CFR 54.637 - Off-site data centers and off-site administrative offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.637 Off-site data centers and off-site administrative offices. (a) The... the Healthcare Connect Fund, subject to the conditions and restrictions set forth in paragraph (b)...

  6. 47 CFR 54.637 - Off-site data centers and off-site administrative offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... connections and network equipment associated with off-site data centers and off-site administrative offices... care provider's computer systems, associated components, and data, including (but not limited to... center and the public Internet or another network, (v) An off-site administrative office and the public...

  7. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-20

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in WE-STK-3009, Appendix A. The bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident is a single-shell tank failure due to excessive concentrated load. The calculated offsite dose of 0.045 rem, based on reasonably conservative input, does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline.

  8. RMP Guidance for Offsite Consequence Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Offsite consequence analysis (OCA) consists of a worst-case release scenario and alternative release scenarios. OCA is required from facilities with chemicals above threshold quantities. RMP*Comp software can be used to perform calculations described here.

  9. RMP Guidance for Offsite Consequence Analysis - Appendices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Assists owners/operators of processes covered by Chemical Accident Prevention Program rule in analysis of offsite consequences for toxic or flammable substances. Includes methods and tables for calculating worst-case/alternative scenarios and endpoints.

  10. An offsite activity policy for asthma camp.

    PubMed

    Clack, Gail

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the activities undertaken during asthma camps and highlights the benefits for children and young people. These include: improved understanding of asthma, increased concordance with medication, greater participation in physical activity and enhanced self-confidence. In the absence of a nationally agreed offsite activity policy, the author demonstrates the use of a clinical governance framework to develop a local offsite activity policy for asthma camps to ensure the safety of children and young people as well as staff.

  11. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-12-31

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  12. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D. ); Stevens, L. )

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  13. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS FOR THE BOUNDING FLAMMABLE GAS ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a SST. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with guidance in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. A detonation in an SST versus a double-shell tank (DST) was selected as the bounding accident because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  14. 10 CFR 140.85 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 140.85 Section 140.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL... practical to restore to use, (4) Financial loss resulting from protective actions appropriate to reduce...

  15. 10 CFR 140.85 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 140.85 Section 140.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.85 Criterion...

  16. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gablin, K.; No, Hyo; Herman, J.

    1993-08-01

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage.

  17. Release protocol to address DOE moratorium on shipments of waste generated in radiologically controlled areas

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L A; Boothe, G F

    1992-10-01

    On May 17, 1991 the US DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a moratorium on the shipment of hazardous waste from radiologically contaminated or potentially contaminated areas on DOE sites to offsite facilities not licensed for radiological material. This document describes a release protocol generated by Westinghouse Hanford submitted for US DOE approval. Topics considered include designating Radiological Materials Management Areas (RMMAs), classification of wastes, handling of mixed wastes, detection limits.

  18. Gender mix: does it modify birthweight--outcome association?

    PubMed

    Derom, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Loos, Ruth J F; Thiery, Evert; Vlietinck, Robert; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Gender mix, especially the supposed hormone transfer in utero of the male fetus to his female co-twin, is a highly debated controversial subject. It occurs in animals (free-martin syndrome in the cow) but its existence in man has not been convincingly demonstrated. Two aspects of gender mix effects in man, birthweight and cognitive development, were studied in the Belgian East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey, a large population-based registry of multiple maternities, characterised by accurate data on pregnancy, placental structure and zygosity. The birthweight of the female member of the pair is not influenced by the male co-twin but, unexpectedly, the female twin enhances to a slight degree the birthweight of her male co-twin by prolonging the gestation for a few days. Also unexpectedly, in an opposite direction, the cognitive development, as measured by the IQ (WISC-R) of the female twin rises as compared with controls if her birthweight exceeds that of her male co-twin.

  19. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2013-07-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  20. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  6. A Survey of Mixed-Waste HEPA Filters in the DOE Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Felicione, F. S.; Barber, D. B.; Carney, K. P.

    2002-02-28

    A brief investigation was made to determine the quantities of spent, mixed-waste HEPA filters within the DOE Complex. The quantities of both the mixed-waste filters that are currently being generated, as well as the legacy mixed-waste filters being stored and awaiting disposition were evaluated. Seven DOE sites representing over 89% of the recent HEPA filter usage were identified. These sites were then contacted to determine the number of these filters that were likely destined to become mixed waste and to survey the legacy-filter quantities. Inquiries into the disposition plans for the filters were also made. It was determined that the seven sites surveyed possess approximately 500 m3 of legacy mixed-waste HEPA filters that will require processing, with an annual generation rate of approximately 25 m3. No attempt was made to extrapolate the results of this survey to the entire DOE Complex. These results were simply considered to be the lower bound of the totality of mixed-waste HEPA filters throughout the Complex. The quantities determined encourage the development of new treatment technologies for these filters, and provide initial data on which an appropriate capacity for a treatment process may be based.

  7. Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  8. Off-Site Source Recovery Project Overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Coel-Roback, Rebecca J.

    2016-09-29

    This report introduces the Off-Site Source Recovery project and gives a summary of domestic and international work. The mission of OSRP is to eliminate excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to health, safety, and national security. OSRP identifies and tracks disused sealed sources potentially requiring recovery, and performs special form encapsulation for sealed sources to simplify transportation.

  9. Off-site approach for Merseyside PFI.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Ken

    2009-10-01

    Ken Dickinson, operations manager for NG Bailey, M&E contractor for the new St Helens and Whiston Hospitals in Merseyside (pictured), describes how off-site construction of a high proportion of the electrical and services modules required for the two new hospitals benefited the overall construction process, while simultaneously reducing safety risk, paring waste, cutting the number of deliveries to site, and improving the quality and consistency of electrical and mechanical fittings.

  10. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. Methods: This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Results: Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. Conclusion: According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers. PMID:27390714

  11. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization.

    PubMed

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers.

  12. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered.

  13. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  14. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  15. Minutes of the workshop on off-site release criteria for contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.

    1989-11-01

    A one and one-half-day workshop was held May 2-3, 1989, at the Pollard Auditorium in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the objective of formulating a strategy for developing reasonable and uniform criteria for releasing radioactively contaminated materials from the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This report contains the minutes of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshop, a plan was formulated to facilitate the development of the above-mentioned off-site release criteria.

  16. Effects of spent fuel types on offsite consequences of hypothetical accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, J. C.; Dwight, C. C.; Lehto, M. A.

    2000-02-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducts experimental work on the development of waste forms suitable for several types of spent fuel at its facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) located 48 km West of Idaho Falls, ID. The objective of this paper is to compare the offsite radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents involving the various types of spent nuclear fuel handled in nonreactor nuclear facilities. The highest offsite total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) are estimated at a receptor located about 5 km SSE of ANL facilities. Criticality safety considerations limit the amount of enriched uranium and plutonium that could be at risk in any given scenario. Heat generated by decay of fission products and actinides does not limit the masses of spent fuel within any given operation because the minimum time elapsed since fissions occurred in any form is at least five years. At cooling times of this magnitude, fewer than ten radionuclides account for 99% of the projected TEDE at offsite receptors for any credible accident. Elimination of all but the most important nuclides allows rapid assessments of offsite doses with little loss of accuracy. Since the ARF (airborne release fraction), RF (respirable fraction), LPF (leak path fraction) and atmospheric dilution factor ({chi}/Q) can vary by orders of magnitude, it is not productive to consider nuclides that contribute less than a few percent of the total dose. Therefore, only {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba, and the actinides significantly influence the offsite radiological consequences of severe accidents. Even using highly conservative assumptions in estimating radiological consequences, they remain well below current Department of Energy guidelines for highly unlikely accidents.

  17. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.165 Offsite consequence...

  18. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.165 Offsite consequence...

  19. 40 CFR 68.22 - Offsite consequence analysis parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis... analysis parameters. (a) Endpoints. For analyses of offsite consequences, the following endpoints shall be.... (b) Wind speed/atmospheric stability class. For the worst-case release analysis, the owner or...

  20. 40 CFR 273.61 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off-site shipments. 273.61 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Destination Facilities § 273.61 Off-site shipments... notify the appropriate regional EPA office of the illegal shipment, and provide the name, address,...

  1. Prior Exercise Does Not Reduce Postprandial Lipemia Following a Mixed Glucose Meal When Compared with a Mixed Fructose Meal.

    PubMed

    Rowe, James R; Biggerstaff, Kyle D; Ben-Ezra, Vic; Nichols, David L; DiMarco, Nancy

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia (PPL) concentration following a mixed meal (MM) made with either glucose or fructose. Sedentary women completed four trials in random order: 1) Rest-Fructose: RF, 2) Rest-Glucose: RG, 3) Exercise-Fructose: EF, 4) Exercise-Glucose: EG. Exercise expended 500 kcal while walking at 70%VO2max. Rest was 60 min of sitting. The morning after each trial, a fasting (12 hr) blood sample was collected followed by consumption of the MM. The MM was blended with whole milk and ice cream plus a glucose or fructose powder. Glucose and fructose powder accounted for 30% of the total kcal within the MM. Blood was collected periodically for 6 hr post-MM and analyzed for PPL. Magnitude of PPL over the 6 hr postmeal was quantified using the triglyceride incremental area under the curve (TG AUCI). Significant differences (p < .05) between trials were determined using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. There was no significant difference in the TG AUCI between the four trials (p > .05). A significant trial by time interaction for TG concentration was reported (p < .05). Despite lack of change in the AUCI with prior exercise, the lower TG concentration at multiple time points in the EG trial does indicate that prior exercise has some desirable effect on PPL. This study suggests that replacing fructose with glucose sugars and incorporating exercise may minimize PPL following a mixed meal but exercise will need to elicit greater energy expenditure.

  2. ELUCIDATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONSITE AND OFFSITE SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.

    2013-06-19

    Federal regulations stipulate how radioactive materials are transported within the United States. However, the Department of Energy, under Department of Energy Order, has the authority to operate, within the boundaries of their physical site, to other stipulations. In many cases the DOE sites have internal reviews for onsite transfers that rival reviews performed by the regulatory authorities for offsite shipments. Most of the differences are in the level or type of packaging that is required, but in some cases it may be in the amount and type of material that is allowed to be transferred. This paper will describe and discuss those differences and it will discuss ways to effectively align the onsite rules for transferring materials with those for offsite shipment.

  3. Risk methodologies for offsite hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Eichler, T.V.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    A number of suggestions have been advanced in recent years concerning the risks posed to nuclear power plants by offsite hazardous materials relative to (1) the regulatory approach including considerations of minimum and safe standoff distances, exclusion distances, site acceptance ceilings and floors, screening distances and screening probabilities, plant design, etc., and (2) the analysis and evaluation procedures such as material screening criteria, plant vulnerability, standarized physical models, etc. An evaluation of current analyses and approaches indicates that this complex problem, variety of approaches, and safety concerns may be better accommodated by developing criteria and treatments along the lines of a so-called conditional risk approach. Specifically, the probability (P) of some ultimate consequence (C) occurring from an accident (A) involving hazardous materials is given as P(C) = P(C/A) x P(A). Assuming that the plant to accident site standoff distance is the fundamental independent variable of the risk methodology, certain conditional risk designations and conditions can be made and are presented.

  4. Does Para-chloroaniline Really Form after Mixing Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine?

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ekim Onur; Irmak, Özgür; Hür, Deniz; Yaman, Batu Can; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-03-01

    Mixing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with chlorhexidine (CHX) forms a brown-colored precipitate. Previous studies are not in agreement whether this precipitate contains para-chloroaniline (PCA). Tests used for analysis may demonstrate different outcomes. Purpose of this study was to determine whether PCA is formed through the reaction of mixing NaOCl and CHX by using high performance liquid chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. To obtain a brown precipitate, 4.99% NaOCl was mixed with 2.0% CHX. This brown precipitate was analyzed and compared with signals obtained from commercially available 4.99% NaOCl, 2% solutions, and 98% PCA in powder form. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses showed that brown precipitate does not contain free PCA. This study will be a cutoff proof for the argument on PCA formation from reaction of CHX and NaOCl. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  6. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  7. RMP Guidance for Warehouses - Chapter 4: Offsite Consequence Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Offsite consequence analysis (OCA) informs government and the public about potential consequences of an accidental toxic or flammable chemical release at your facility, and consists of a worst-case release scenario and alternative release scenarios.

  8. Savannah River Site offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Kudera, D.E.; Page, L.A.; Rohe, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this data validation is to verify that waste shipments reported in response to the US Department of Energy Headquarters data request are properly categorized according to DOE-HQ definitions. This report documents all findings and actions resulting from the independent review of the Savannah River Site data submittal, and provides a summary of the SRS data submittal and data validation strategy. The overall hazardous waste management and offsite release process from 1987--1991 is documented, along with an identification and description of the hazardous waste generation facilities. SRS did not ship any hazardous waste offsite before 1987. Sampling and analysis and surface surveying procedures and techniques used in determining offsite releasability of the shipments are also described in this report. SRS reported 150 manifested waste shipments from 1984 to 1991 that included 4,755 drums or lab packs and 13 tankers. Of these waste items, this report categorizes 4,251 as clean (including 12 tankers), 326 as likely clean, 138 as likely radioactive, and 55 as radioactive (including one tanker). Although outside the original scope of this report, 14 manifests from 1992 and 1993 are included, covering 393 drums or lab packs and seven tankers. From the 1992--1993 shipments, 58 drums or lab packs are categorized as radioactive and 16 drums are categorized as likely radioactive. The remainder are categorized as clean.

  9. State of offsite construction in India-Drivers and barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, M.; Bendi, D.; Sawhney, A.; Iyer, K. C.

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of the construction industry in India has influenced key players in the industry to adopt alternative technologies addressing time, cost and quality. The rising demand in housing, infrastructure and other facilities have further highlighted the need for the construction industry to look at adopting alternate building technologies. Offsite construction has evolved as a panacea to dealing with the under-supply and poor quality in the current age construction industry. Several offsite techniques have been adopted by the construction sector. Although, different forms of offsite techniques have been around for a while but their uptake has been low in the Indian context. This paper presents the perceptions about offsite construction in India and highlights some of the barriers and drivers facing the Indian construction industry. The data was gathered through a survey of 17 high level managers from some of the largest stakeholder organizations of the construction sector in India. The influence of time and cost has been highlighted as a major factor fuelling the adoption of offsite construction. However, the influence of current planning systems and the need for a paradigm shift are some of the prominent barriers towards the adoption of offsite techniques.

  10. 40 CFR 63.684 - Standards: Off-site material treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy the HAP contained in off-site material streams to be managed in the off-site material management... to the affected off-site material management unit or process equipment. Thereafter, the owner or... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Off-site material treatment...

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters requested this report to verify that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) properly categorized hazardous waste shipped offsite from 1984 to 1991. LLNL categorized the waste shipments by the new guidelines provided on the definition of radioactive waste. For this validation, waste that has had no radioactivity added by DOE operations is nonradioactive. Waste to which DOE operations has added or concentrated any radioactivity is radioactive. This report documents findings from the review of available LLNL hazardous waste shipment information and summarizes the data validation strategy. The report discusses administrative and radiological control procedures in place at LLNL during the data validation period. It also describes sampling and analysis and surface survey procedures used in determining radionuclide concentrations for offsite release of hazardous waste shipments. The evaluation team reviewed individual items on offsite hazardous waste shipments and classified them, using the DOE-HQ waste category definitions. LLNL relied primarily on generator knowledge to classify wastes. Very little radioanalytical information exists on hazardous wastes shipped from LLNL. Slightly greater than one-half of those hazardous waste items for which the documentation included radioanalytical data showed concentrations of radioactivity higher than the LLNL release criteria used from 1989 to 1991. Based on this small amount of available radioanalytical data, very little (less than one percent) of the hazardous waste generated at the LLNL main site can be shown to contain DOE added radioactivity. LLNL based the criteria on the limit of analytical sensitivity for gross alpha and gross beta measurements and the background levels of tritium. Findings in this report are based on information and documentation on the waste handling procedures in place before the start of the hazardous waste shipping moratorium in May 1991.

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  13. Environmental assessment for the offsite commercial cleaning of controlled and routine laundry from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the offsite commercial cleaning of controlled and routine laundry from the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Controlled laundry consists of protective clothing and respirator equipment potentially containing radioactive contamination resulting from activities at SRS facilities. Routine laundry includes uncontaminated protective clothing. The aging onsite SRS laundry facility does not comply with current low hazard nuclear facility standards in DOE Order 6430.1. Constructing a new facility on site or upgrading the existing facility have prohibitive costs. The option to seek a commercial offsite vendor was selected as a viable alternative.

  14. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Houlton, Robert J.

    2012-07-11

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  16. User's Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Biwer, B. M.; Kamboj, S.; Cheng, J. -J.; Klett, T.; LePoire, D.; Zielen, A. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Domotor, S.; Mo, T.; Schwartzman, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE; NRC

    2007-09-05

    The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code, which has been widely used for calculating doses and risks from exposure to radioactively contaminated soils. The development of RESRAD-OFFSITE started more than 10 years ago, but new models and methodologies have been developed, tested, and incorporated since then. Some of the new models have been benchmarked against other independently developed (international) models. The databases used have also expanded to include all the radionuclides (more than 830) contained in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 38 database. This manual provides detailed information on the design and application of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It describes in detail the new models used in the code, such as the three-dimensional dispersion groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model, the Gaussian plume model for atmospheric dispersion, and the deposition model used to estimate the accumulation of radionuclides in offsite locations and in foods. Potential exposure pathways and exposure scenarios that can be modeled by the RESRAD-OFFSITE code are also discussed. A user's guide is included in Appendix A of this manual. The default parameter values and parameter distributions are presented in Appendix B, along with a discussion on the statistical distributions for probabilistic analysis. A detailed discussion on how to reduce run time, especially when conducting probabilistic (uncertainty) analysis, is presented in Appendix C of this manual.

  17. Off-site control of repolarization alternans in cardiac fibers

    PubMed Central

    Karma, Alain; Riccio, Mark L.; Jordan, Peter N.; Christini, David J.; Gilmour, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Repolarization alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration, has been putatively linked to the onset of cardiac reentry. Anti-alternans control strategies can eliminate alternans in individual cells by exploiting the rate dependence of action potential duration. The same approach, when applied to a common measuring/stimulating site at one end of a cardiac fiber, has been shown to have limited spatial efficacy. As a first step toward spatially distributed electrode control systems, we investigated “off-site” control in canine Purkinje fibers, in which the recording and control sites are different. We found experimentally that alternans can be eliminated at, or very near, the recording site, and that varying the location of the recording site along the fiber causes the node (the location with no alternans) to move along the fiber in close proximity to the recording site. Theoretical predictions based on an amplitude equation [B. Echebarria and A. Karma, Chaos 12, 923 (2002)] show that those findings follow directly from the wave nature of alternans: the most unstable mode of alternans along the fiber is a wave solution of a one-dimensional Helmholtz equation with a node position that only deviates slightly from the recording site by an amount dependent on electrotonic coupling. Computer simulations using a Purkinje fiber model confirm these theoretical and experimental results. Although off-site alternans control does not suppress alternans along the entire fiber, our results indicate that placing the node away from the stimulus site reduces alternans amplitude along the fiber, and may therefore have implications for antiarrhythmic strategies based on alternans termination. PMID:20365407

  18. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding unplanned excavation/drilling of 200 area soils

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS, L.S.

    2003-03-21

    This analysis calculates the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding unplanned excavation/drilling of 200 Area soils accident. The US. Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94 Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. This document supports the development of the unplanned excavation/drilling of 200 Area soils accident in the tank farm documented safety analysis. Consequently, it: (1) Provides a comprehensive review of potential unplanned excavation scenarios (i.e., backhoe, buried pressurized line ruptures, drilling, Guzzler vacuum) to determine the representative activity that would bound unmitigated, unplanned, or inadvertent excavations of 200 Area soils. (2) Evaluates radiological isotope inventories of all current Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) liquid waste disposal sites [i.e., cribs, ditches, and ponds (including French drains)], and isotope inventories of unplanned release sites (UPR) and plume columns. (3) Establishes the radiological consequences to the maximum offsite individual (MOI) from an unplanned/inadvertent 200 Area soil disturbance based on bounding site development and representative accident determination.

  19. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation`s allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered.

  20. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  1. Treatment of DOE and commercial mixed waste by the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, T.W.; Apel, M.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for private sector treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste generated by the US Department of Energy and commercial industries. This approach focuses on MLLW treatment technologies and capacities available through the private sector in the near term. Wastestream characterization data for 108 MLLW streams at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were collected and combined with similar data for MLLWs generated through commercial practices. These data were then provided to private treatment facilities and vendors to determine if, and to what extent, they could successfully treat these wastes. Data obtained from this project have provided an initial assessment of private sector capability and capacity to treat a variety of MLLW streams. This information will help formulate plans for future treatment of these and similar wastestreams at DOE facilities. This paper presents details of the MLLW data-gathering efforts used in this research, private sector assessment methods employed, and results of this assessment. Advantages of private sector treatment, as well as barriers to its present use, are also addressed.

  2. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    2000-03-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an offsite environmental surveillance program for the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the third quarter of 1999 is based on 704 samples of air, fine particulates, atmospheric moisture, precipitation, milk, and food. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear operations around the world. No! measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  3. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    1999-12-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the second quarter 1999 is based on 618 samples of air (including airborne radioactivity, fine particulates, and atmospheric moisture), precipitation, milk, drinking water, sheep, wild game tissues, and environmental radiation. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  4. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    1999-09-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the first quarter 1999 is based on 564 samples of air (including airborne radioactivity, fine particulates, and atmospheric moisture), precipitation, milk, and wild game tissues. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons ! testing, an d nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  5. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Fourth Quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. Saffle; R. Evans

    1999-08-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts the Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the fourth quarter 1998 is based on 622 samples collected of air, fine particulates, atmospheric moisture, precipitation, water, milk, potatoes, and game animals. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radioactivity, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, an! d nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL, although statistical differences did exist between on-site and distant gross beta concentrations. No evidence could be found to link these differences with a specific INEEL source. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  6. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  7. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  8. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  9. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  10. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  11. 40 CFR 279.24 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lubricant, cutting oil, or coolant. The contract (known as a “tolling arrangement”) must indicate: (1) The... the processing/re-refining facility and to deliver recycled used oil back to the generator is owned...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.24 Off-site shipments...

  12. 40 CFR 279.24 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.24 Off-site shipments. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, generators must ensure that their used...-transportation of small amounts to approved collection centers. Generators may transport, without an EPA...

  13. 40 CFR 279.24 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.24 Off-site shipments. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, generators must ensure that their used...-transportation of small amounts to approved collection centers. Generators may transport, without an EPA...

  14. 40 CFR 273.38 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.38 Off-site shipments. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste is prohibited from sending...

  15. 40 CFR 273.38 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.38 Off-site shipments. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste is prohibited from sending...

  16. 40 CFR 273.18 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.18 Off-site shipments. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste is prohibited from sending...

  17. 40 CFR 273.38 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.38 Off-site shipments. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste is prohibited from sending...

  18. 40 CFR 273.18 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.18 Off-site shipments. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste is prohibited from sending...

  19. 40 CFR 273.18 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.18 Off-site shipments. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste is prohibited from sending...

  20. Off-Site Trip Leaders: Selecting Appropriate Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Will

    1996-01-01

    Well-trained off-site trip leaders can turn a trip into a positive educational lesson. American Camping Association standards are referenced, and some personality traits are suggested as criteria for determining the suitability of staff to act responsibly "in loco director." Discusses factors that determine counselor-to-camper ratios,…

  1. 40 CFR 273.55 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.55 Off-site shipments. (a) A universal waste transporter is prohibited from transporting the universal waste to a place...

  2. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population. The...

  3. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population. The...

  4. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population. The...

  5. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population. The...

  6. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

  7. 24 CFR 242.47 - Insured advances for building components stored off-site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... components stored off-site. 242.47 Section 242.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... for building components stored off-site. (a) Building components. In insured advances for building components stored off-site, the term building component shall mean any manufactured or pre-assembled part...

  8. 24 CFR 242.47 - Insured advances for building components stored off-site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... components stored off-site. 242.47 Section 242.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... for building components stored off-site. (a) Building components. In insured advances for building components stored off-site, the term building component shall mean any manufactured or pre-assembled part...

  9. 40 CFR 63.684 - Standards: Off-site material treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the affected off-site material management unit or process equipment. Thereafter, the owner or... treatment that measures operating parameters appropriate for the treatment process technology. This system... destroy the HAP contained in off-site material streams to be managed in the off-site material...

  10. 40 CFR 63.684 - Standards: Off-site material treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to the affected off-site material management unit or process equipment. Thereafter, the owner or... treatment that measures operating parameters appropriate for the treatment process technology. This system... destroy the HAP contained in off-site material streams to be managed in the off-site material...

  11. 40 CFR 280.51 - Investigation due to off-site impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investigation due to off-site impacts... to off-site impacts. When required by the implementing agency, owners and operators of UST systems must follow the procedures in § 280.52 to determine if the UST system is the source of off-site...

  12. 40 CFR 280.51 - Investigation due to off-site impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation due to off-site impacts... to off-site impacts. When required by the implementing agency, owners and operators of UST systems must follow the procedures in § 280.52 to determine if the UST system is the source of off-site...

  13. Pollution Prevention Plan for the Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization Off-Site Union Valley Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J. G.

    2010-03-01

    The Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization (ACO) Off-Site Union Valley Facility (Union Valley Facility) is managed by Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, L.L.C. (B and W Y-12) through the Y-12 National Security Complex organization. Accordingly, the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program encompasses the operations conducted at the Union Valley Facility. The Y-12 Program is designed to fully comply with state, federal and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements concerning waste minimization/pollution prevention as documented in the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program Plan. The Program is formulated to reduce the generation and toxicity of all Y-12 wastes in all media, including those wastes generated by the Union Valley Facility operations. All regulatory and DOE requirements are met by the Y-12 Program Plan.

  14. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  16. Investigating the linearity assumption between lumber grade mix and yield using design of experiments (DOE)

    Treesearch

    Xiaoqiu Zuo; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Solving the least-cost lumber grade mix problem allows dimension mills to minimize the cost of dimension part production. This problem, due to its economic importance, has attracted much attention from researchers and industry in the past. Most solutions used linear programming models and assumed that a simple linear relationship existed between lumber grade mix and...

  17. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Armstrong, C.; Daugherty, N.M.; Foppe, T.L.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Southward, B.

    1990-05-01

    This project plan for Phase II summarizes the design of a project to complete analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Federal, state, and local governments develop emergency plans for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of these plans is to identify EPZs where actions might be necessary to protect public health. Public protective actions include sheltering, evacuation, and relocation. Agencies use EPZs to develop response plans and to determine needed resources. The State of Colorado, with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Rocky Flats contractors, has developed emergency plans and EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant periodically beginning in 1980. In Phase II, Interim Emergency Planning Zones Analysis, Maximum Credible Accident'' we will utilize the current Rocky Flats maximum credible accident (MCA), existing dispersion methodologies, and upgraded dosimetry methodologies to update the radiological EPZs. Additionally, we will develop recommendations for EPZs for nonradiological hazardous materials releases and evaluate potential surface water releases from the facility. This project will allow EG G Rocky Flats to meet current commitments to the state of Colorado and make steady, tangible improvements in our understanding of risk to offsite populations during potential emergencies at the Rocky Flats Plant. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Application service provider (ASP) financial models for off-site PACS archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Liu, Brent J.; McCoy, J. Michael; Enzmann, Dieter R.

    2003-05-01

    For the replacement of its legacy Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (approx. annual workload of 300,000 procedures), UCLA Medical Center has evaluated and adopted an off-site data-warehousing solution based on an ASP financial with a one-time single payment per study archived. Different financial models for long-term data archive services were compared to the traditional capital/operational costs of on-site digital archives. Total cost of ownership (TCO), including direct and indirect expenses and savings, were compared for each model. Financial parameters were considered: logistic/operational advantages and disadvantages of ASP models versus traditional archiving systems. Our initial analysis demonstrated that the traditional linear ASP business model for data storage was unsuitable for large institutions. The overall cost markedly exceeds the TCO of an in-house archive infrastructure (when support and maintenance costs are included.) We demonstrated, however, that non-linear ASP pricing models can be cost-effective alternatives for large-scale data storage, particularly if they are based on a scalable off-site data-warehousing service and the prices are adapted to the specific size of a given institution. The added value of ASP is that it does not require iterative data migrations from legacy media to new storage media at regular intervals.

  19. A decision methodology for the evaluation of mixed low-level radioactive waste management options for DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, J.; Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Djordjevic, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    Currently, many DOE sites are developing site-specific solutions to manage their mixed low-level wastes. These site-specific MLLW programs often result in duplication of efforts between the different sites, and consequently, inefficient use of DOE system resources. A nationally integrated program for MLLW eliminates unnecessary duplication of effort, but requires a comprehensive analysis of waste management options to ensure that all site issues are addressed. A methodology for comprehensive analysis of the complete DOE MLLW system is being developed by DOE-HQ to establish an integrated and standardized solution for managing MLLW. To be effective, the comprehensive systems analysis must consider all aspects of MLLW management from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from MLLW generation to disposal). The results of the analysis will include recommendations for alternative management options for the complete DOE MLLW system based on various components such as effectiveness, cost, health and safety risks, and the probability of regulatory acceptance for an option. Because of the diverse nature of these various components and the associated difficulties in comparing between them, a decision methodology is being developed that will integrate the above components into a single evaluation scheme for performing relative comparisons between different MLLW management options. The remainder of this paper provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the various participants of the DOE MLLW Program, and discusses in detail the components involved in the development of the decision methodology for a comprehensive systems analysis.

  20. THERMOHALINE MIXING: DOES IT REALLY GOVERN THE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LOW-MASS RED GIANTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Denissenkov, Pavel A.; Merryfield, William J. E-mail: bill.merryfield@ec.gc.ca

    2011-01-20

    First results of our three-dimensional numerical simulations of thermohaline convection driven by {sup 3}He burning in a low-mass red giant branch (RGB) star at the bump luminosity are presented. They confirm our previous conclusion that this convection has a mixing rate that is a factor of 50 lower than the observationally constrained rate of RGB extra-mixing. It is also shown that the large-scale instabilities of the salt-fingering mean field (those of the Boussinesq and advection-diffusion equations averaged over length and timescales of many salt fingers), which have been observed to increase the rate of oceanic thermohaline mixing up to one order of magnitude, do not enhance the RGB thermohaline mixing. We speculate on possible alternative solutions of the problem of RGB extra-mixing, among which the most promising one that is related to thermohaline mixing takes advantage of the shifting of the salt-finger spectrum toward larger diameters by toroidal magnetic field.

  1. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence... CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence...

  2. Does the vertical profile of ethane contain more insight into mixing layer height than carbon monoxide?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Pusede, Sally; Diskin, Glenn; DiGangi, Joshua; Sachse, Glenn; Crawford, James

    2015-04-01

    To improve the interpretation of satellite data measurements near the surface, the DISCOVER-AQ project embarked on a four year campaign to produce an integrated dataset of airborne and surface based measurements at various locations in North America. One of the key metrics when pursuing the the goal of measuring the surface air quality from space is the mixing layer height. The measurement phase in 2014 included the novel 1-Hz Aerodyne Research, Inc. fast Ethane Spectrometer to distinguish the methane emissions from thermogenic (oil&gas) and biogenic sources in the Denver-Julesberg basin. A second potential use of ethane as a determinant of mixing layer height is revealed in the analysis of 213 vertical profiles collected at 7 points during 21 flights. The findings are evaluated relative to other in-situ metrics, such as carbon monoxide and remote sensing attributions of mixing layer height.

  3. Challenging the unipolar-bipolar division: does mixed depression bridge the gap?

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Franco

    2007-01-30

    Mixed states, i.e., opposite polarity symptoms in the same mood episode, question the categorical splitting of mood disorders in bipolar disorders and unipolar depressive disorders, and may support a continuum between these disorders. Study aim was to find if there were a continuum between hypomania (defining BP-II) and depression (defining MDD), by testing mixed depression as a 'bridge' linking these two disorders. A correlation between intradepressive hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms could support such a continuum, but other explanations of a correlation are possible. Consecutive 389 BP-II and 261 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed, cross-sectionally, with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide (to assess intradepressive hypomanic symptoms) and the Family History Screen, by a mood disorders specialist psychiatrist in a private practice. Patients presented voluntarily for treatment of depression when interviewed drug-free and had many subsequent follow-ups after treatment start. Mixed depression (depressive mixed state) was defined as the combination of MDE (depression) and three or more DSM-IV intradepressive hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem were always absent by definition), a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. BP-II, versus MDD, had significantly lower age at onset, more recurrences, atypical and mixed depressions, bipolar family history, MDE symptoms and intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. Mixed depression was present in 64.5% of BP-II and in 32.1% of MDD (p=0.000). There was a significant correlation between number of MDE symptoms and number of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. A dose-response relationship between frequency of mixed depression and number of MDE symptoms was also found. Differences on classic diagnostic validators could support a division between BP-II and MDD. Presence of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms by itself, and

  4. Offsite dose commitment due to intentional releases of Argon-41

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.F.; Pratt, D.S.; Cordell, S.M.

    1990-07-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor, written in 1968, identified Ar-41 as the only gaseous radionuclide which would be released as a result of the facility's operation. Calculations based on the extremely conservative assumptions of continuous operation at 1000 kW with all four beam ports in constant use indicated that the maximum offsite concentration of Ar-41 would be 140 Bq/m{sup 3} (4 x 10{sup -9} /{mu}Ci/cm{sup 3} which corresponds to a whole body gamma-ray dose of less than 0.45 mSv (45 mrem) integrated over a year. The actual releases of Ar-41 during the past two decades have been much less than the source term used in the SAR calculations and the OSTR environmental monitoring program has not identified any offsite location at which the dose commitment is above the natural background level. Nevertheless, the Oregon State reactor has undergone a number of facility changes designed to minimize the production and release of Ar-41. Since the Environmental Protection Agency recently issued its final rule limiting the effective dose commitment to any member of the public to 0.10 mSv (10 mrem) per year as a result of the operation of any NRC-licensed facility, the OSTR radiation protection staff has undertaken the task of calculating the offsite dose commitment which resulted from actual Ar-41 released from the facility. The calculations are performed using the dispersion code, MICROAIRDOS, which is a microcomputer version of the EPA gaussian plume code, AIRDOSE-EPA. (author)

  5. Closure of hazardous and mixed radioactive waste management units at DOE facilities. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This is document addresses the Federal regulations governing the closure of hazardous and mixed waste units subject to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. It provides a brief overview of the RCRA permitting program and the extensive RCRA facility design and operating standards. It provides detailed guidance on the procedural requirements for closure and post-closure care of hazardous and mixed waste management units, including guidance on the preparation of closure and post-closure plans that must be submitted with facility permit applications. This document also provides guidance on technical activities that must be conducted both during and after closure of each of the following hazardous waste management units regulated under RCRA.

  6. Illusory color mixing upon perceptual fading and filling-in does not result in 'forbidden colors'.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, P-J; Tse, P U

    2006-07-01

    A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading. It is commonly believed that the color of the apparently vanished object is filled in with the color of the background because the features of the filled-in area are determined by features located outside the stabilized boundary. Crane, H. D., & Piantanida, T. P. (1983) (On seeing reddish green and yellowish blue. Science, 221, 1078-1080) reported that the colors that are perceived upon full or partial perceptual fading can be 'forbidden' in the sense that they violate color opponency theory. For example, they claimed that their subjects could perceive "reddish greens" and "yellowish blues." Here we use visual stimuli composed of spatially alternating stripes of two different colors to investigate the characteristics of color mixing during perceptual filling-in, and to determine whether 'forbidden colors' really occur. Our results show that (1) the filled-in color is not solely determined by the background color, but can be the mixture of the background and the foreground color; (2) apparent color mixing can occur even when the two colors are presented to different eyes, implying that color mixing during filling-in is in part a cortical phenomenon; and (3) perceived colors are not 'forbidden colors' at all, but rather intermediate colors.

  7. Maximally exposed offsite individual location determination for NESHAPS compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2000-03-13

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer program CAP88 for demonstrating compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS.) One of the inputs required for CAP88 is the location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI) by sector and distance. Distances to the MEI have been determined for 15 different potential release locations at SRS. These locations were compared with previous work and differences were analyzed. Additionally, SREL Conference Center was included as a potential offsite location since in the future it may be used as a dormitory. Worst sectors were then determined based on the distances.

  8. EPA finalizes offsite management requirements for CERCLA wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    Effective October 22, 1993, EPA has added a new section to the National Contingency Plan (NCP) establishing procedures for managing CERCLA response action wastes at offsite facilities. The purpose of the NCP amendments is to ensure that CERCLA cleanup wastes are directed to environmentally sound waste management units, thus preventing these wastes from contributing to present or future environmental problems. Wastes may only be transferred to facilities that are in compliance with RCRA, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), or other applicable federal and state requirements. The final rule was published on September 22, 1993 (58 FR 49200-49218) and will add {section}300.440 to the NCP. 1 tab.

  9. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  10. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes.

  11. THE RETRIEVAL KNOWLEDGE CENTER EVALUATION OF LOW TANK LEVEL MIXING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK RETRIEVAL 10516

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-12-08

    technology have proven to be difficult. Through the RKC, DOE-EM funded an evaluation of adaptable commercial technologies that could assist with the removal of the tank heels. This paper will discuss the efforts and results of developing the RKC to improve communications and discussion of tank waste retrieval through a series of meetings designed to identify technical gaps in retrieval technologies at the DOE Hanford and Savannah River Sites. This paper will also describe the results of an evaluation of commercially available technologies for low level mixing as they might apply to HLW tank heel retrievals.

  12. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  13. Does the optimum hydrophilic lipophilic balance condition affect the physical properties of mixed reverse micelles? A spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Das, Arindam; Mitra, Rajib Kumar

    2014-05-22

    Synergism in several physical properties as realized in many mixed surfactant reverse micellar (RM) systems often manifests optimum hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), interdroplet interaction, or both. Such synergism is often desired for specific applications of RM systems; however, a proper rationale on the effect of such phenomenon imparted on the structure, dynamics, and activity of water molecules in RM waterpool is strongly demanded. In the present contribution we have investigated how the optimum HLB condition of mixed RM composed two nonionic surfactants (Igepal 210 and Igepal 630) affects the physical properties of entrapped water molecules in the RM waterpool. The studied mixed RM exhibits synergistic water solubilization behavior as a function of the mixing ratio with a maximum in solubilization capacity being reached at X(Ig630) = 0.3. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies show a bimodal distribution of droplet size in this region, whereas it is monomodal in terminal compositions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study in the 3000-3800 cm(-1) region identifies a linear trend in which the content of "bound" water increases at the expense of the "network" water as the content of the hydrophilic surfactant Igepal 630 is increased in the mixture. Subnanosecond relaxation dynamics of the entrapped water as revealed by the fluoroprobe coumarin 500 corroborates a similar linear trend as observed in the FTIR measurements as the rotational diffusion gets retarded with the increase of ethylene oxide chain length of Igepal. Reaction kinetics of solvolysis of benzoyl chloride reaction, however, does not offer any linear trend as it gets slower in the optimum HLB region, the nonlinearity being a consequence of the distribution of the substrate in the different phases.

  14. Does age matter? The influence of age on response rates in a mixed-mode survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Dietsch, Alia

    2014-01-01

    The appeal of cost savings and faster results has fish and wildlife management agencies considering the use of Internet surveys instead of traditional mail surveys to collect information from their constituents. Internet surveys, however, may suffer from differential age-related response rates, potentially producing biased results if certain age groups respond to Internet surveys differently than they do to mail surveys. We examined this concern using data from a mixed-mode angler survey conducted in South Dakota following the 2011 fishing season. Results indicated that young anglers (16–18) had the lowest return rates and senior anglers (65+) had the highest, regardless of survey mode. Despite this consistency in response rates, we note two concerns: (a) lower Internet response rates and (b) different age groups represented by the Internet and mail survey samples differed dramatically. Findings indicate that constituent groups may be represented differently with the use of various survey modes.

  15. Employment of Low-Income African American and Latino Teens: Does Neighborhood Social Mix Matter?

    PubMed

    Galster, George; Santiago, Anna; Lucero, Jessica

    We quantify how teen employment outcomes for low-income African Americans and Latinos relate to their neighborhood conditions during ages 14-17. Data come from surveys of Denver Housing Authority (DHA) households who have lived in public housing scattered throughout Denver County. Because DHA household allocation mimics random assignment to neighborhood, this program represents a natural experiment for overcoming geographic selection bias. Our logistic and Tobit regression analyses found overall greater odds of teen employment and more hours worked for those who lived in neighborhoods with higher percentages of pre-1940 vintage housing, property crime rates and child abuse rates, though the strength of relationships was highly contingent on gender and ethnicity. Teen employment prospects of African Americans were especially diminished by residence in more socially vulnerable, violent neighborhoods, implying selective potential gains from social mixing alternatives.

  16. Hiding an elephant: heavy sterile neutrino with large mixing angle does not contradict cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukov, F.; Chudaykin, A.; Gorbunov, D.

    2017-06-01

    We study a model of a keV-scale sterile neutrino with a relatively large mixing with the Standard Model sector. Usual considerations predict active generation of such particles in the early Universe, which leads to constraints from the total Dark Matter density and absence of X-ray signal from sterile neutrino decay. These bounds together may deem any attempt of creation of the keV scale sterile neutrino in the laboratory unfeasible. We argue that for models with a hidden sector coupled to the sterile neutrino these bounds can be evaded, opening new perspectives for the direct studies at neutrino experiments such as Troitsk ν-mass and KATRIN. We estimate the generation of sterile neutrinos in scenarios with the hidden sector dynamics keeping the sterile neutrinos either massless or superheavy in the early Universe. In both cases the generation by oscillations from active neutrinos in plasma is suppressed.

  17. Employment of Low-Income African American and Latino Teens: Does Neighborhood Social Mix Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Anna; Lucero, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    We quantify how teen employment outcomes for low-income African Americans and Latinos relate to their neighborhood conditions during ages 14–17. Data come from surveys of Denver Housing Authority (DHA) households who have lived in public housing scattered throughout Denver County. Because DHA household allocation mimics random assignment to neighborhood, this program represents a natural experiment for overcoming geographic selection bias. Our logistic and Tobit regression analyses found overall greater odds of teen employment and more hours worked for those who lived in neighborhoods with higher percentages of pre-1940 vintage housing, property crime rates and child abuse rates, though the strength of relationships was highly contingent on gender and ethnicity. Teen employment prospects of African Americans were especially diminished by residence in more socially vulnerable, violent neighborhoods, implying selective potential gains from social mixing alternatives. PMID:26273120

  18. Hazards assessment document for receiving basin for offsite fuel (244-H) and resin regeneration facility (245-H) (RBOF/RRF)

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, A.N.; Ortaldo, S.F.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazard Assessment Document (HAD) for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF), Building 244-H, and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF), Building 245-H, was prepared in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, DOE-STD-1 027-92, and WSRC-MS-92-206. The HAD provides hazards categorizations based on the radiological and chemical hazards associated with the facility. The hazard category is used to provide the input data for a graded approach to the development of the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.23. The RBOF/RRF was assumed to be a one segment facility. The accident consequences are calculated without consideration for any mitigative systems or administrative controls This facility is categorized as Hazard Category 2 as a result of the analysis of the radiological inventory conducted in accordance with Reference 2 and the chemical inventory in accordance with Reference 3.

  19. MERCURY REMOVAL FROM DOE SOLID MIXED WASTE USING THE GEMEP(sm) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Metcalf and Eddy (M and E), in association with General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (GE-CRD), Colorado Minerals Research Institute (CMRI), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests of the General Electric Mercury Extraction Process technology on two mercury-contaminated mixed solid wastes from U. S. Department of Energy sites: sediment from the East Fork of Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge (samples supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and drummed soils from Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL). Fluorescent lamps provided by GE-CRD were also studied. The GEMEP technology, invented and patented by the General Electric Company, uses an extraction solution composed of aqueous potassium iodide plus iodine to remove mercury from soils and other wastes. The extraction solution is regenerated by chemical oxidation and reused, after the solubilized mercury is removed from solution by reducing it to the metallic state. The results of the laboratory- and bench-scale testing conducted for this project included: (1) GEMEP extraction tests to optimize extraction conditions and determine the extent of co-extraction of radionuclides; (2) pre-screening (pre-segregation) tests to determine if initial separation steps could be used effectively to reduce the volume of material needing GEMEP extraction; and (3) demonstration of the complete extraction, mercury recovery, and iodine recovery and regeneration process (known as locked-cycle testing).

  20. Does Density-Driven Nocturnal Water Column Mixing Drive Redox Oscillations in Flocculent Organic Sediments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, D. W.; Phanikumar, M. S.; Hamilton, S. K.; Briggs, M. A.; Zarnetske, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Thick accumulations of flocculent organic sediments (floc) are common in shallow, calm freshwaters. These loosely consolidated layers are potentially more influenced by overlying water than relatively consolidated sediments, and may be subject to diel variation in reduction-oxidation (redox) status. The processes driving solute exchange between floc suspensions and overlying waters are unknown. We hypothesized that density-driven advective exchange associated with nocturnal mixing of the shallow (< 1 meter) water column may extend the redox gradient several cm into floc layers and thereby eclipse diffusion-driven exchange of oxygen and oxidized solutes as the dominant exchange process. We sampled the aqueous component of floc and measured redox potential vertically through the floc layer over diel cycles in floc settings lacking vascular plants. We also measured hydrologic exchange using added bromide and natural heat gradients as conservative tracers. Bromide profiles and heat transport modeling suggest there is penetration of overlying water into floc suspensions, but we did not always observe simple concomitant shifts in redox profiles expected to occur with the introduction of oxygen and other oxidants. This poster will explore the processes driving hydrologic exchange between floc suspensions and overlying water, as well as potential explanations for the absence of evidence for consistent diel redox oscillations.

  1. Computer assisted chronic disease management: does it work? A pilot study using mixed methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kay M; Biezen, Ruby; Piterman, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Background. Key factors for the effective chronic disease management (CDM) include the availability of practical and effective computer tools and continuing professional development/education. This study tested the effectiveness of a computer assisted chronic disease management tool, a broadband-based service known as cdmNet in increasing the development of care plans for patients with chronic disease in general practice. Methodology. Mixed methods are the breakthrough series methodology (workshops and plan-do-study-act cycles) and semistructured interviews. Results. Throughout the intervention period a pattern emerged suggesting GPs use of cdmNet initially increased, then plateaued practice nurses' and practice managers' roles expanded as they became more involved in using cdmNet. Seven main messages emerged from the GP interviews. Discussion. The overall use of cdmNet by participating GPs varied from "no change" to "significant change and developing many the GPMPs (general practice management plans) using cdmNet." The variation may be due to several factors, not the least, allowing GPs adequate time to familiarise themselves with the software and recognising the benefit of the team approach. Conclusion. The breakthrough series methodology facilitated upskilling GPs' management of patients diagnosed with a chronic disease and learning how to use the broadband-based service cdmNet.

  2. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of off...

  3. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  4. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  5. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  6. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  7. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  8. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Internet access to certain off-site... DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off... elements in the risk management plan database available on the Internet: (a) The concentration of...

  9. 13 CFR 120.1025 - Off-site reviews and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-site reviews and monitoring. 120.1025 Section 120.1025 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1025 Off-site reviews and monitoring. SBA may conduct...

  10. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  11. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  12. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  13. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  14. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-05-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of {sup 14}C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of {sup 3}H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, {sup 14}C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for {sup 3}H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities.

  15. Habitat effects on condition of doe mule deer in arid mixed woodland-grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Lomas, L.A.; Kamienski, T.

    2007-01-01

    Productivity of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus Raf.) populations is closely linked to individual nutritional condition. We modeled body fat of individual does as a function of vegetation cover, composition, and water characteristics of their annual, summer, and winter home ranges in north-central New Mexico. We also modeled home range size as a function of the same characteristics. Levels of body fat were most closely and negatively related to the amount of pinyon-juniper in an individual deer's annual home range (F1,21 = 7.6; P = 0.012; r2 = 0.26). Pinyon-juniper types provided little (combined ground cover of preferred forbs and shrubs = 5.7%) mule deer forage but were included in home ranges in excess of their availability on the landscape, likely because of security cover attributes. Proportion of grasslands in home ranges was most strongly related to both annual (F1,23 = 4.9; P = 0.037; r2 = 0.18) and summer (F2,25 = 5.7; P = 0.009; r2 = 0.31) home range sizes, and home ranges increased as the grassland component increased, indicating that this habitat type was providing little value to mule deer. Grassland (0.2% combined cover of preferred forb and shrub) and montane conifer (3.2% ground cover of preferred forb and shrub) habitat types similarly lacked preferred mule deer food, and grasslands also lacked cover. Most immediate gains in mule deer habitat in north-central New Mexico may be attained by management of pinyon-juniper communities to increase forage quantity and quality while maintaining cover attributes. Gains can also be realized in grasslands, but here management must establish both cover and forage.

  16. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  17. Mixed waste disposal at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, J.

    1996-05-01

    Off-site disposal of mixed waste was severely curtailed at the beginning of FY 96. During FY 95 Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) conducted a comprehensive characterization and packaging project to remove mixed waste from the ANL-E inventory. The mixed wastes were primarily historic material which had been stored on-site since 1987. The waste consisted of solid debris, sludges, ignitable and corrosive liquids, and water-reactive metal. All of the waste was contaminated with varying degrees of radioactivity. The first step in the characterization process was to review available documentation on the waste. Because of the historic nature of the material, most records were incomplete. Using the records as a guide, the waste was divided into groups that could each be sampled according to the physical nature of the material. Worker safety was an important consideration during the sampling phase, therefore, several precautions were taken to prevent spills or cause unnecessary chemical reactions in the material. Characterization activities were either completed entirely by ANL-E technicians or with assistance from specialized contractors. Once characterization of the waste was complete it was packaged for shipment to other DOE facilities for storage and eventual treatment. Because most of the mixed waste treatment systems were not yet operational, waste was packaged to ensure integrity for a long period of time. Fifty-five cubic meters of mixed waste was characterized and packaged during FY 95. Most of this material was sent off-site. However, the remainder was stored in a configuration that will provide better health and safety protection than previously afforded.

  18. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  19. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  20. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  1. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, compare on-site medical waste treatment facilities with off-site systems and find the best location of medical waste treatment. To assess the current on-site facilities, four provinces (and 40 active hospitals) were selected to participate in the survey. For comparison of on-site and off-site facilities (due to non availability of an installed off-site facility) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed. The result indicated that most on-site medical waste treating systems have problems in financing, planning, determining capacity of installations, operation and maintenance. AHP synthesis (with inconsistency ratio of 0.01 < 0.1) revealed that, in total, the off-site treatment of medical waste was in much higher priority than the on-site treatment (64.1% versus 35.9%). According to the results of study it was concluded that the off-site central treatment can be considered as an alternative. An amendment could be made to Iran’s current medical waste regulations to have infectious-hazardous waste sent to a central off-site installation for treatment. To begin and test this plan and also receive the official approval, a central off-site can be put into practice, at least as a pilot in one province. Next, if it was practically successful, it could be expanded to other provinces and cities. PMID:24739145

  2. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mohammadyarei, Taher; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, compare on-site medical waste treatment facilities with off-site systems and find the best location of medical waste treatment. To assess the current on-site facilities, four provinces (and 40 active hospitals) were selected to participate in the survey. For comparison of on-site and off-site facilities (due to non availability of an installed off-site facility) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed. The result indicated that most on-site medical waste treating systems have problems in financing, planning, determining capacity of installations, operation and maintenance. AHP synthesis (with inconsistency ratio of 0.01 < 0.1) revealed that, in total, the off-site treatment of medical waste was in much higher priority than the on-site treatment (64.1% versus 35.9%). According to the results of study it was concluded that the off-site central treatment can be considered as an alternative. An amendment could be made to Iran's current medical waste regulations to have infectious-hazardous waste sent to a central off-site installation for treatment. To begin and test this plan and also receive the official approval, a central off-site can be put into practice, at least as a pilot in one province. Next, if it was practically successful, it could be expanded to other provinces and cities.

  3. 10 years and 20,000 sources: the offsite source recovery project

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia R; Abeyta, Cristy L; Pearson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources. This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Sealed source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity, as evidenced by its initial organization under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) program. After the terrorist attacks of 2001, however, the interagency community began to recognize the threat posed by excess and unwanted radiological material, particularly those that could not be disposed at the end of their useful life. After being transferred to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) when it became waste, but also any other materials that might be a 'national security consideration.' This paper discusses OSRP's history, recovery operations, expansion to accept high-activity beta-gamma-emitting sealed sources and devices and foreign-possessed sources, and more recent efforts such as cooperative projects with the Council on Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) and involvement in GTRI's Search and Secure project. Current challenges and future work will also be discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 279.58 - Off-site shipments of used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.58 Off-site shipments of used oil. Used oil processors/re-refiners who initiate shipments of used...

  5. Reaching Critical Mass: Off-Site Storage in the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses why digitization is not the solution to libraries' storage problems. Describes Harvard University's first off-site storage model and the creation of book storage facilities by several other universities, also noting collaborative storage arrangements. (AEF)

  6. Ablation of mixed lineage kinase 3 (Mlk3) does not inhibit ototoxicity induced by acoustic trauma or aminoglycoside exposure.

    PubMed

    Polesskaya, Oksana; Cunningham, Lisa L; Francis, Shimon P; Luebke, Anne E; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Collins, David; Vasilyeva, Olga N; Sahler, Julie; Desmet, Emily A; Gelbard, Harris A; Maggirwar, Sanjay B; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated in cochlear hair cells following acoustic trauma or exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Blockade of JNK activation using mixed lineage kinase (MLK) inhibitors prevents hearing loss and hair cell death following these stresses. Since current pharmacologic inhibitors of MLKs block multiple members of this kinase family, we examined the contribution of the major neuronal family member (MLK3) to stress-induced ototoxicity, usingMlk3(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that MLK3 is expressed in cochlear hair cells of C57/BL6 mice (but not in Mlk3(-/-) animals). After exposure to acoustic trauma there was no significant difference in DPOAE and ABR values betweenMlk3(-/-) and wild-type mice at 48 h following exposure or 2 weeks later. Susceptibility of hair cells to aminoglycoside toxicity was tested by exposing explanted utricles to gentamicin. Gentamicin-induced hair cell death was equivalent in utricles from wild-type and Mlk3(-/-) mice. Blockade of JNK activation with the pharmacologic inhibitor SP600125 attenuated cell death in utricles from both wild-type and Mlk3(-/-) mice. These data show that MLK3 ablation does not protect against hair cell death following acoustic trauma or exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics, suggesting that MLK3 is not the major upstream regulator of JNK-mediated hair cell death following these stresses. Rather, other MLK family members such as MLK1, which is also expressed in cochlea, may have a previously unappreciated role in noise- and aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ablation of mixed lineage kinase 3 (Mlk3) does not inhibit ototoxicity induced by acoustic trauma or aminoglycoside exposure

    PubMed Central

    Polesskaya, Oksana; Cunningham, Lisa L.; Francis, Shimon P.; Luebke, Anne E.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Collins, David; Vasilyeva, Olga N.; Sahler, Julie; Desmet, Emily A.; Gelbard, Harris A.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated in cochlear hair cells following acoustic trauma or exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Blockade of JNK activation using mixed lineage kinase (MLK) inhibitors prevents hearing loss and hair cell death following these stresses. Since current pharmacologic inhibitors of MLKs block multiple members of this kinase family, we examined the contribution of the major neuronal family member (MLK3) to stress-induced ototoxicity, using Mlk3−/− mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that MLK3 is expressed in cochlear hair cells of C57/BL6 mice (but not in Mlk3−/− animals). After exposure to acoustic trauma there was no significant difference in DPOAE and ABR values between Mlk3−/− and wild-type mice at 48 hours following exposure or 2 weeks later. Susceptibility of hair cells to aminoglycoside toxicity was tested by exposing explanted utricles to gentamicin. Gentamicin-induced hair cell death was equivalent in utricles from wild-type and Mlk3−/− mice. Blockade of JNK activation with the pharmacologic inhibitor SP600125 attenuated cell death in utricles from both wild-type and Mlk3−/− mice. These data show that MLK3 ablation does not protect against hair cell death following acoustic trauma or exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics, suggesting that MLK3 is not the major upstream regulator of JNK-mediated hair cell death following these stresses. Rather, other MLK family members such as MLK1, which is also expressed in cochlea, may have a previously unappreciated role in noise- and aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. PMID:20971179

  8. Offsite source recovery project - ten years of sealed source recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia Rose; Pearson, Mike; Witkowski, Ioana; Wald - Hopkins, Mark; Cuthbertson, A

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources (this number has since increased to more than 23,000). This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Decades later, these sources began to exceed their special form certifications or fall out of regular use. As OSRP has collected and stored sealed sources, initially using 'No Path Forward' waste exemptions for storage within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, it has consistently worked to create disposal pathways for the material it has recovered. The project was initially restricted to recovering sealed sources that would meet the definition of Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste, assisting DOE in meeting its obligations under the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act Amendments (PL 99-240) to provide disposal for this type of waste. After being transferred from DOE-Environmental Management (EM) to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as GTCC when it became waste, but also any other materials that might constitute a 'national security consideration.' It was recognized at the time that the GTCC category was a waste designation having to do with environmental consequence, rather than the threat posed by deliberate or accidental misuse. The project faces barriers to recovery in many areas, but disposal continues to be one of the more difficult to overcome. This paper discusses OSRP's disposal efforts over its 10-year history. For sources meeting the DOE definition of

  9. Vacuum-mixing cement does not decrease overall porosity in cemented femoral stems: AN IN VITRO LABORATORY INVESTIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Messick, K. J.; Miller, M. A.; Damron, L. A.; Race, A.; Clarke, M. T.; Mann, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of vacuum mixing on the reduction of porosity and on the clinical performance of cemented total hip replacements remains uncertain. We have used paired femoral constructs prepared with either hand-mixed or vacuum-mixed cement in a cadaver model which simulated intra-operative conditions during cementing of the femoral component. After the cement had cured, the distribution of its porosity was determined, as was the strength of the cement-stem and cement-bone interfaces. The overall fraction of the pore area was similar for both hand-mixed and vacuum-mixed cement (hand 6%; vacuum 5.7%; paired t-test, p = 0.187). The linear pore fractions at the interfaces were also similar for the two techniques. The pore number-density was much higher for the hand-mixed cement (paired t-test, p = 0.0013). The strength of the cement-stem interface was greater with the hand-mixed cement (paired t-test, p = 0.0005), while the strength of the cement-bone interface was not affected by the conditions of mixing (paired t-test, p = 0.275). The reduction in porosity with vacuum mixing did not affect the porosity of the mantle, but the distribution of the porosity can be affected by the technique of mixing used. PMID:17785755

  10. Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Dana L; Jin, Jing; Newman, Daniel A; O'Boyle, Ernest H

    2015-03-01

    Recent empirical reviews have claimed a surprisingly strong relationship between job performance and self-reported emotional intelligence (also commonly called trait EI or mixed EI), suggesting self-reported/mixed EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance (e.g., ρ = .47; Joseph & Newman, 2010b). Results further suggest mixed EI can robustly predict job performance beyond cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits (Joseph & Newman, 2010b; O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). These criterion-related validity results are problematic, given the paucity of evidence and the questionable construct validity of mixed EI measures themselves. In the current research, we update and reevaluate existing evidence for mixed EI, in light of prior work regarding the content of mixed EI measures. Results of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that (a) the content of mixed EI measures strongly overlaps with a set of well-known psychological constructs (i.e., ability EI, self-efficacy, and self-rated performance, in addition to Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and general mental ability; multiple R = .79), (b) an updated estimate of the meta-analytic correlation between mixed EI and supervisor-rated job performance is ρ = .29, and (c) the mixed EI-job performance relationship becomes nil (β = -.02) after controlling for the set of covariates listed above. Findings help to establish the construct validity of mixed EI measures and further support an intuitive theoretical explanation for the uncommonly high association between mixed EI and job performance--mixed EI instruments assess a combination of ability EI and self-perceptions, in addition to personality and cognitive ability.

  11. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pyles; Jhon Carilli

    2007-02-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program. However, the NNSA/NSO has identified DOE complex-wide issues: (1) the temporary closure of the Hanford facility to off-site generators leaves the NTS as the only Federal facility able to dispose of MLLW. If the Hanford facility is not permitted to accept waste from off-site generators after December 2010, the DOE complex will have no Federal facility

  12. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A.; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R.

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention. PMID:22163638

  13. Using RFID to enhance security in off-site data storage.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system's benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  14. Wireless remote control clinical image workflow: utilizing a PDA for offsite distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Brent J.; Documet, Luis; Documet, Jorge; Huang, H. K.; Muldoon, Jean

    2004-04-01

    Last year we presented in RSNA an application to perform wireless remote control of PACS image distribution utilizing a handheld device such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). This paper describes the clinical experiences including workflow scenarios of implementing the PDA application to route exams from the clinical PACS archive server to various locations for offsite distribution of clinical PACS exams. By utilizing this remote control application, radiologists can manage image workflow distribution with a single wireless handheld device without impacting their clinical workflow on diagnostic PACS workstations. A PDA application was designed and developed to perform DICOM Query and C-Move requests by a physician from a clinical PACS Archive to a CD-burning device for automatic burning of PACS data for the distribution to offsite. In addition, it was also used for convenient routing of historical PACS exams to the local web server, local workstations, and teleradiology systems. The application was evaluated by radiologists as well as other clinical staff who need to distribute PACS exams to offsite referring physician"s offices and offsite radiologists. An application for image workflow management utilizing wireless technology was implemented in a clinical environment and evaluated. A PDA application was successfully utilized to perform DICOM Query and C-Move requests from the clinical PACS archive to various offsite exam distribution devices. Clinical staff can utilize the PDA to manage image workflow and PACS exam distribution conveniently for offsite consultations by referring physicians and radiologists. This solution allows the radiologist to expand their effectiveness in health care delivery both within the radiology department as well as offisite by improving their clinical workflow.

  15. Using a Consensus Conference to Characterize Regulatory Concerns Regarding Bioremediation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in Mixed Waste at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Denise Lach; Stephanie Sanford

    2006-09-01

    A consensus workshop was developed and convened with ten state regulators to characterize concerns regarding emerging bioremediation technology to be used to clean-up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at US DOE sites. Two questions were explored: integrated questions: (1) What impact does participation in a consensus workshop have on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of state regulators regarding bioremediation technology? (2) How effective is a consensus workshop as a strategy for eliciting and articulating regulators’ concerns regarding the use of bioremediation to clean up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at U.S. Department of Energy Sites around the county? State regulators met together for five days over two months to learn about bioremediation technology and develop a consensus report of their recommendations regarding state regulatory concerns. In summary we found that panel members: - quickly grasped the science related to bioremediation and were able to effectively interact with scientists working on complicated issues related to the development and implementation of the technology; - are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, implementation (e.g., institutional controls), and long-term effectiveness of the technology; - are concerned equally about technological and implementation issues; and - believed that the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation was appropriate and useful. Finally, regulators wanted decision makers at US DOE to know they are willing to work with DOE regarding innovative approaches to clean-up at their sites, and consider a strong relationship between states and the DOE as critical to any effective clean-up. They do not want perceive themselves to be and do not want others to perceive them as barriers to successful clean-up at their sites.

  16. The sediment-water flux of HOCs due to "diffusion" or is there a well-mixed layer? If there is, does it matter?

    PubMed

    Lick, Wilbert

    2006-09-15

    In most present modeling of the sediment-water flux of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), the flux due to sediment erosion/deposition is described explicitly by means of a sediment transport model, while the remaining components of the flux (molecular diffusion, bioturbation, and groundwater flow) are lumped together and modeled as a "diffusive" flux. This diffusive flux is usually described by means of a mass transfer approximation with the implicit assumption of a well-mixed contaminant layer of thickness h in the sediments. On the basis of recent experiments and theoretical modeling, the justification forthis assumption and the quantification of this diffusive flux are discussed here. In particular, for HOCs with large partition coefficients, it is argued that a well-mixed layer often may not exist, and, when it does, it is slow to form; that h is difficult to define and even harder to quantify; and that, as far as long-term predictions (up to 100 years) of this diffusive flux are concerned, the exact value for h probably does not matter. What does matter are the magnitudes and time dependencies of each of the components of the flux and the interactions between the diffusive flux and the flux due to erosion/deposition.

  17. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  18. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  19. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or... dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite...

  20. 75 FR 20391 - Autodie, LLC Including On-Site and Off-Site Individual Contractors Grand Rapids, MI; Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... 3, 2010, applicable to workers of Autodie, LLC, including on- site and off-site individual... Employment and Training Administration Autodie, LLC Including On-Site and Off-Site Individual Contractors Grand Rapids, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...

  1. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.3 Public access to... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment...

  2. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.3 Public access to... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment...

  3. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  4. Process-based index modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site agrichemical movement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    dentifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient agrichemical use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to...

  5. STS-26 crewmembers participate in bench review at offsite Boeing Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers participate in bench review at the offsite Boeing Building. Left to right Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, MS George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey, holding clipboards with checklists, look over hygiene supplies (razors, deodorants, tooth paste, etc.). Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  6. STS-26 crewmembers participate in bench review at offsite Boeing Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers participate in bench review at the offsite Boeing Building. Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers tests an electric razor while MS George D. Nelson reviews clipboard checklist and looks over hygiene supplies (razors, deodorants, tooth paste, etc.). Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  8. Mapping agricultural fields with GPR and EMI to predict offsite movement of agrochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Ronald E.; Freeland, Robert S.; Ammons, J. T.; Leonard, L. L.

    2000-04-01

    Offsite movement of waterborne agrochemicals is increasingly targeted as a nonpoint source of water quality degradation. Our research has indicated that subsurface water movement is variable and site-specific, and that a small soil volume frequently conducts a large volume of flow. This concentrated flow is usually caused by soil morphology, and it often results in water moving rapidly offsite from certain areas of fields; little or no lateral subsurface flow may occur in other areas. Identifying these subsurface regions is difficult using conventional soil survey and vadose zone sampling techniques. In this study, traditional surveying is combined with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) mapping to identify areas with high potential for subsurface offsite movement of agrochemicals, optimizing these identification techniques, and expanding the mapping procedures to make them useful at the field-scale for agricultural production practices. Conclusions from this research are: (1) EMI mapping provides rapid identification of areas of soil with a high potential for offsite movement of subsurface water, (2) GPR mapping of areas identified by EMI mapping provides a means to identify features that are known to conduct concentrated lateral flow of water, and (3) combining the capabilities of EMI and GPR instrumentation make possible the surveys of large areas that would otherwise be impossible or unfeasible to characterize.

  9. Mapping agricultural fields with GPR and EMI to identify offsite movement of agrochemicals1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Ronald E.; Freeland, Robert S.; Ammons, John T.; Leonard, Leroy L.

    2001-07-01

    Offsite movement of waterborne agrochemicals is increasingly targeted as a non-point source of water quality degradation. Our research has indicated that subsurface water movement is variable and site-specific, and that a small soil volume frequently conducts a large volume of flow. This concentrated flow is usually caused by soil morphology, and it often results in water moving rapidly offsite from certain areas of fields; little or no lateral subsurface flow may occur in other areas. Identifying these subsurface regions is difficult using conventional soil survey and vadose zone sampling techniques. In this study, traditional surveying is combined with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) mapping to identify areas with high potential for subsurface offsite movement of agrochemicals, optimizing these identification techniques, and expanding the mapping procedures to make them useful at the field-scale for agricultural production practices. Conclusions from this research are: (1) EMI mapping provides rapid identification of areas of soil with a high electrical conductivity and presumably high potential for offsite movement of subsurface water, (2) GPR mapping of areas identified by EMI mapping provides a means to identify features that are known to conduct concentrated lateral flow of water, and (3) combining the capabilities of EMI and GPR instrumentation makes possible the surveys of large areas that would otherwise be impossible or unfeasible to characterize.

  10. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from a..., collection point, or slaughter facility, must remain segregated from noncertified swine at all times and...

  11. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from a..., collection point, or slaughter facility, must remain segregated from noncertified swine at all times and...

  12. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from a..., collection point, or slaughter facility, must remain segregated from noncertified swine at all times and...

  13. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from a..., collection point, or slaughter facility, must remain segregated from noncertified swine at all times and...

  14. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from a..., collection point, or slaughter facility, must remain segregated from noncertified swine at all times and...

  15. Process-based modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site pesticide transport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient pesticide use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to a...

  16. A Bookless Library, Part I: Relocating Print Materials to Off-Site Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the feasibility of a bookless library in a research setting. As spaces for collections are being converted for increased study and community spaces, many libraries have been moving low-use collections to off-site storage. Issues regarding the types of storage spaces available are addressed. Concerns and…

  17. Off-Site Supervision in Social Work Education: What Makes It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Sarah P.; Mertz, Linda K. P.; Fortune, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    The field practicum is the signature pedagogy of the social work profession, yet field directors struggle to find adequate field placements--both in quantity and quality. To accommodate more students with a dwindling pool of practicum sites, creative models of field supervision have emerged. This article considers off-site supervision and its…

  18. STS-26 crewmembers participate in bench review at offsite Boeing Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers participate in bench review at the offsite Boeing Building. Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers tests an electric razor while MS George D. Nelson reviews clipboard checklist and looks over hygiene supplies (razors, deodorants, tooth paste, etc.). Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  19. STS-26 crewmembers participate in bench review at offsite Boeing Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers participate in bench review at the offsite Boeing Building. Left to right Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, MS George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey, holding clipboards with checklists, look over hygiene supplies (razors, deodorants, tooth paste, etc.). Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  20. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... centers or shelters and related facilities and services for evacuees; (4) Providing emergency medical... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan. 352.26 Section 352.26 Emergency Management...

  1. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... centers or shelters and related facilities and services for evacuees; (4) Providing emergency medical... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan. 352.26 Section 352.26 Emergency Management...

  2. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... centers or shelters and related facilities and services for evacuees; (4) Providing emergency medical... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan. 352.26 Section 352.26 Emergency Management...

  3. 40 CFR 300.440 - Procedures for planning and implementing off-site response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... implementing off-site response actions. 300.440 Section 300.440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... human health and the environment, the On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) may determine that it is necessary to...) Applicable sections of State environmental laws; and (C) In addition, land disposal units at RCRA subtitle...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offsite installations and operations. 960.5-2-4 Section 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... operations, including atomic energy defense activities, (1) will not significantly affect repository...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsite installations and operations. 960.5-2-4 Section 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... operations, including atomic energy defense activities, (1) will not significantly affect repository...

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offsite installations and operations. 960.5-2-4 Section 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... operations, including atomic energy defense activities, (1) will not significantly affect repository...

  7. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offsite installations and operations. 960.5-2-4 Section 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... operations, including atomic energy defense activities, (1) will not significantly affect repository...

  8. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  9. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-22

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash frequencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash Frequency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash frequency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more frequent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required.

  10. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Ottesen, Bent; Konge, Lars; Dieckmann, Peter; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-01-21

    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities are called in-house training. In-house training facilities can be part of hospital departments and resemble to some extent simulation centres but often have less technical equipment. In situ simulation, introduced over the past decade, mainly comprises of team-based activities and occurs in patient care units with healthcare professionals in their own working environment. Thus, this intentional blend of simulation and real working environments means that in situ simulation brings simulation to the real working environment and provides training where people work. In situ simulation can be either announced or unannounced, the latter also known as a drill. This article presents and discusses the design of SBME and the advantage and disadvantage of the different simulation settings, such as training in simulation-centres, in-house simulations in hospital departments, announced or unannounced in situ simulations. Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence individual or team learning. However, hospital department-based simulations, such as in-house simulation and in situ simulation, lead to a gain in organisational learning. To our knowledge no studies have compared announced and unannounced in situ simulation. The literature suggests some improved organisational learning from unannounced in situ simulation; however, unannounced in situ simulation was also found to be challenging to plan and conduct, and more stressful among participants. The importance of

  11. 40 CFR 63.7936 - What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? 63.7936 Section 63.7936 Protection of... I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? (a) If you transfer to... facility are controlled according to all applicable requirements in the subpart for an off-site...

  12. 40 CFR 63.7936 - What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? 63.7936 Section 63.7936 Protection of... I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? (a) If you transfer to... facility are controlled according to all applicable requirements in the subpart for an off-site...

  13. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jens T; Safford, Hugh D; North, Malcolm P; Fried, Jeremy S; Gray, Andrew N; Brown, Peter M; Dolanc, Christopher R; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Falk, Donald A; Farris, Calvin A; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Hagmann, R Keala; Knapp, Eric E; Miller, Jay D; Smith, Douglas F; Swetnam, Thomas W; Taylor, Alan H

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  14. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jens T.; Safford, Hugh D.; North, Malcolm P.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gray, Andrew N.; Brown, Peter M.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Falk, Donald A.; Farris, Calvin A.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Hagmann, R. Keala; Knapp, Eric E.; Miller, Jay D.; Smith, Douglas F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Taylor, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the “stand age” variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical “mixed-severity” fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data. PMID:27196621

  15. Daily mixed visual experience that prevents amblyopia in cats does not always allow the development of good binocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Donald E; Kennie, Jan; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Sengpiel, Frank

    2009-05-21

    Kittens reared with mixed daily visual input that consists of episodes of normal (binocular) exposure followed by abnormal (monocular) exposure can develop normal visual acuity in both eyes if the length of the former exposure exceeds a critical amount. However, later studies of the tuning of cells in primary visual cortex of animals reared in this manner revealed that their responses to interocular differences in phase were not reliable suggesting that their binocular depth perception may not be normal. We examined this possibility in 3 kittens reared with mixed daily visual exposure (2 hrs binocular vision followed by 5 hrs monocular exposure) that allowed development of normal visual acuity in both eyes. Measurements made of the threshold differences in depth that could be perceived under monocular and binocular viewing revealed a 10-fold superiority of binocular over monocular depth thresholds in one animal while the depth thresholds of the other two animals were poor and there was no binocular superiority. Thus, there was evidence that only one animal possessed stereopsis while the other two were likely stereoblind. While 2 hrs of daily binocular vision protected against the development of amblyopia, the poor outcome with respect to stereopsis points to the need for additional measures to promote binocular vision.

  16. Does mixed-species flocking influence how birds respond to a gradient of land-use intensity?

    PubMed

    Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-07-22

    Conservation biology is increasingly concerned with preserving interactions among species such as mutualisms in landscapes facing anthropogenic change. We investigated how one kind of mutualism, mixed-species bird flocks, influences the way in which birds respond to different habitat types of varying land-use intensity. We use data from a well-replicated, large-scale study in Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, in which flocks were observed inside forest reserves, in 'buffer zones' of degraded forest or timber plantations, and in areas of intensive agriculture. We find flocks affected the responses of birds in three ways: (i) species with high propensity to flock were more sensitive to land use; (ii) different flock types, dominated by different flock leaders, varied in their sensitivity to land use and because following species have distinct preferences for leaders, this can have a cascading effect on followers' habitat selection; and (iii) those forest-interior species that remain outside of forests were found more inside flocks than would be expected by chance, as they may use flocks more in suboptimal habitat. We conclude that designing policies to protect flocks and their leading species may be an effective way to conserve multiple bird species in mixed forest and agricultural landscapes.

  17. Does mixed-species flocking influence how birds respond to a gradient of land-use intensity?

    PubMed Central

    Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Conservation biology is increasingly concerned with preserving interactions among species such as mutualisms in landscapes facing anthropogenic change. We investigated how one kind of mutualism, mixed-species bird flocks, influences the way in which birds respond to different habitat types of varying land-use intensity. We use data from a well-replicated, large-scale study in Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, in which flocks were observed inside forest reserves, in ‘buffer zones' of degraded forest or timber plantations, and in areas of intensive agriculture. We find flocks affected the responses of birds in three ways: (i) species with high propensity to flock were more sensitive to land use; (ii) different flock types, dominated by different flock leaders, varied in their sensitivity to land use and because following species have distinct preferences for leaders, this can have a cascading effect on followers' habitat selection; and (iii) those forest-interior species that remain outside of forests were found more inside flocks than would be expected by chance, as they may use flocks more in suboptimal habitat. We conclude that designing policies to protect flocks and their leading species may be an effective way to conserve multiple bird species in mixed forest and agricultural landscapes. PMID:26156772

  18. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  19. TEMA-DOE annual report, July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) will develop off-site Multi-Jurisdictional Emergency Response Plans (MJERPs) in coordination with Federal, State, and local agencies. The MJERPs will describe actions to minimize the risks to the citizens of Tennessee as a result of an off-site release of hazardous material from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. This report describes actions made during each quarter of the year.

  20. Safety analysis approaches or mixed transuranic waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, J. C.; Dwight, C. C.; Forrester, R. J.; Lehto, M. A.; Pan, Y. C.

    1999-02-10

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed a survey of assumptions and techniques used for safety analyses at seven sites that handle or store mixed transuranic (TRU) waste operated by contractors for the US Department of Energy (DOE). While approaches to estimating on-site and off-site consequences of hypothetical accidents differ, there are commonalities in all of the safety studies. This paper identifies key parameters and methods used to estimate the radiological consequences associated with release of waste forms under abnormal conditions. Specific facilities are identified by letters with their safety studies listed in a bibliography rather than as specific references so that similarities and differences are emphasized in a nonjudgmental manner. References are provided for specific parameters used to project consequences associated with compromise of barriers and dispersion of potentially hazardous materials. For all of the accidents and sites, estimated dose commitments are well below guidelines even using highly conservative assumptions. Some of the studies quantified the airborne concentrations of toxic materials; this paper only addresses these analyses briefly, as an entire paper could be dedicated to this subject.

  1. OFF-SITE SOURCE RECOVERY PROJECT HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUSS

    SciTech Connect

    M. W. PERASON; C. O. GRIGSBY; ET AL

    2000-09-01

    Beginning in the 1950's the federal government, through the Atomic Energy Commission, began providing limited quantities of special nuclear material to industry and research institutions to stimulate advances in nuclear science and technology. By the early 1960s the identified beneficial uses of radioactive material had added Am-241, Cs- 137, CO-60, and Sr-90 to the list of common isotopes which were distributed in significant numbers as high-energy sealed sources for industry, medicine and research. By the mid 1980s many of these sealed radioactive sources were thirty years old and the changing priorities of research and industry had rendered many of them excess. Unfortunately, many of these sources exceeded activity limits established for Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal and the owners were left with no viable options to rid themselves of unwanted material. In 1985, Congress attempted to address this concern by assigning responsibility for disposal of radioactive material which exceeded the Class-C LLW limits to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (PL 99-240). As with other attempts for disposal facility development however, the years passed and the facilities were not forthcoming. This paper briefly describes the history of government efforts to effect retrieval of these sources and provides projections on availability of retrieval services by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A summary of eligible materials, points of contact at LANL, and recommended actions by current source owners are included.

  2. Fluid Management Plan for the Project Shoal Area, Off-sites Subproject, CAU 447, Revision 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Off-Site Project to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Off-Sites Project areas located off the NTS, but within the state of Nevada. The PSA is located approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Four wells were drilled at the PSA in 1996 as part of the site investigation administered through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The hydrogeologic data gathered from these wells was used to support the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling of the PSA. However, the subsequent evaluation of the groundwater model concluded that further delineation of the subsurface was required to reduce uncertainties in the model. In accordance with the FFACO, an addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the proposed PSA subsurface investigation, Corrective Action Unit 447, was developed. The addendum proposed the drilling and construction of four additional wells and the conduct of hydrologic testing at the PSA. This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from the well construction and testing activities at the PSA.

  3. DOE Building America Technology and Energy Savings Analysis of Two 2721 ft2 Homes in a Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K; Christian, Jeffrey E; Khowailed, Gannate A

    2013-09-01

    The ZEBRAlliance is an opportunity to accelerate progress toward DOE s goal of maximizing cost-effective energy efficiency by investing in a highly leveraged, focused effort to test new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The Alliance integrated efficient components into the construction of four research houses that will be used as test markets to gauge the integral success of the components and houses. These four research houses are expected to be the first houses used to field-test several newly emerging products such as the ClimateMaster ground-source integrated heat pump, factory assembled ZEHcor walls, and one or more new appliances from Whirlpool Corporation.

  4. DOE`s Phytoremediation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation contains an outline of the US DOE`s phytoremediation program. A brief overview of the goals, infrastructure, and results of the program is presented. Environmental contaminants addressed include chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals, radionuclides, inorganic wastes, and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. Studies of soil remediation using phytoextraction and water remediation using rhizofiltration are briefly described.

  5. Analysis of offsite dose calculation methodology for a nuclear power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Donna Smith

    1995-01-01

    This technical study reviews the methodology for calculating offsite dose estimates as described in the offsite dose calculation manual (ODCM) for Pennsylvania Power and Light - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES). An evaluation of the SSES ODCM dose assessment methodology indicates that it conforms with methodology accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Using 1993 SSES effluent data, dose estimates are calculated according to SSES ODCM methodology and compared to the dose estimates calculated according to SSES ODCM and the computer model used to produce the reported 1993 dose estimates. The 1993 SSES dose estimates are based on the axioms of Publication 2 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). SSES Dose estimates based on the axioms of ICRP Publication 26 and 30 reveal the total body estimates to be the most affected.

  6. Simple lake breeze front position technique for off-site dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, T.J.; Mazzola, C.A.

    1983-07-01

    During a lake/sea breeze an airflow trajectory reversal generally occurs at the leading edge (lake/sea breeze front) of the landward advancing marine air and can significantly affect the use of an off-site dose assessment procedure. Knowledge of the location of the lake/sea breeze front in real time is vital in interpreting the results from a conventional straightline Gaussian off-site dose calculation methodology, which ignores this complex flow pattern. A simple, low-cost technique was developed to estimate the location of the lake/sea breeze front in real time from easily obtainable meteorological parameters recorded at National Weather Service stations. Although this technique was developed for lake breezes occurring near the Wisconsin Public Service Kewaunee nuclear plant, the concept is applicable after site-specific modifications for other lakeshore sites in approximating the location of the lake breeze front.

  7. Sample preparation of organic liquid for off-site analysis of chemical weapons convention related compounds.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Deepak; Palit, Meehir; Gupta, A K; Shakya, Purushottam; Sekhar, K; Dubey, D K

    2005-02-15

    Off-site analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and related compounds plays a key role in the verification program of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The analysis results, aiming toward unambiguous identication of compounds, depend on the type of sample preparation method. Development of milder sample preparation methods, which offer good recoveries and do not alter the structure of analytes, is highly desirable. Organic liquid with high hydrocarbon background is a frequently encountered challenge in off-site analysis and in official proficiency tests conducted by OPCW. Sample cleanup procedures, namely, solvent exchange followed by cooling and liquid-liquid extraction were studied to eliminate the hydrocarbons from organic liquid. Acetonitrile, a polar aprotic solvent, was effectively used to remove the background in both methods, and recoveries of spiked CWAs by the two techniques were between 69 and 99%.

  8. STS-26 crewmembers participate in bench review at offsite Boeing Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers participate in bench review at the offsite Boeing Building. Left to right Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, MS George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey, holding clipboards with checklists, look over hygiene supplies (razors, deodorants, tooth paste, etc.). Flight Equipment Processing engineer Laura E. Duvall, standing behind crew members, waits to lend a hand in the 'shopping spree'. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  9. STS-26 crewmembers participate in bench review at offsite Boeing Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers participate in bench review at the offsite Boeing Building. Commander Frederick H. Hauck reviews a checklist of necessary supplies with Flight Equipment Processing engineer Laura E. Duvall. Pilot Richard O. Covey makes notations on checklist in background. Hygiene supplies (razors, deodorants, brushes, combs, etc.) are displayed on table behind Hauck. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  10. STS-26 crewmembers participate in bench review at offsite Boeing Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers participate in bench review at the offsite Boeing Building. Left to right Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, MS George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey, holding clipboards with checklists, look over hygiene supplies (razors, deodorants, tooth paste, etc.). Flight Equipment Processing engineer Laura E. Duvall, standing behind crew members, waits to lend a hand in the 'shopping spree'. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  11. Nutritional levels of diets fed to captive Amazon parrots: does mixing seed, produce, and pellets provide a healthy diet?

    PubMed

    Brightsmith, Donald J

    2012-09-01

    Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous. As a result, many bird owners feed a mixture of seed, produce, and formulated diet. However, the nutritional contents of such mixed diets have rarely been evaluated. In this study, we describe the nutrient contents of diets consumed by 7 adult (>6 years old), captive Amazon parrots offered produce (50% fresh weight), formulated diet (25%), and seed (25%). Diets consumed were deficient in calcium, sodium, and iron and contained more than the recommended amount of fat. In addition, the birds chose foods that exacerbated these imbalances. Birds offered low-seed diets (60% pellet, 22% produce, 18% seed, wet weight) consumed diets with more fat than recommended but acceptable levels of calcium and all other nutrients measured, as well as acceptable calcium:phosphorus ratios. This suggests that small quantities of seeds may not result in nutritionally imbalanced diets. Birds fed 75% formulated diet and 25% produce consumed diets within the recommendations for nearly all measured nutrients, demonstrating that owners of psittacine birds should be encouraged to supplement manufactured diets with low energy-density, fresh produce items to provide stimulation and foraging opportunities without fear of causing major nutritional imbalances.

  12. Survey of commercial firms with mixed-waste treatability study capability

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; McNeel, K.; Eaton, D.; Kimmel, R.

    1996-04-01

    According to the data developed for the Proposed Site Treatment Plans, the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 230,000 m{sup 3} and embodied in approximately 2,000 waste streams. Many of these streams are unique and may require new technologies to facilitate compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act disposal requirements. Because most waste streams are unique, a demonstration of the selected technologies is justified. Evaluation of commercially available or innovative technologies in a treatability study is a cost-effective method of providing a demonstration of the technology and supporting decisions on technology selection. This paper summarizes a document being prepared by the Mixed Waste Focus Area of the DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50). The document will provide DOE waste managers with a list of commercial firms (and universities) that have mixed-waste treatability study capabilities and with the specifics regarding the technologies available at those facilities. In addition, the document will provide a short summary of key points of the relevant regulations affecting treatability studies and will compile recommendations for successfully conducting an off-site treatability study. Interim results of the supplier survey are tabulated in this paper. The tabulation demonstrates that treatment technologies in 17 of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s technology categories are available at commercial facilities. These technologies include straightforward application of standard technologies, such as pyrolysis, as well as proprietary technologies developed specifically for mixed waste. The paper also discusses the key points of the management of commercial mixed-waste treatability studies.

  13. ALTERNATIVES OF MACCS2 IN LANL DISPERSION ANALYSIS FOR ONSITE AND OFFSITE DOSES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, John HC

    2012-05-01

    In modeling atmospheric dispersion to determine accidental release of radiological material, one of the common statistical analysis tools used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2). MACCS2, however, has some limitations and shortfalls for both onsite and offsite applications. Alternative computer codes, which could provide more realistic calculations, are being investigated for use at LANL. In the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), the suitability of MACCS2 for the calculation of onsite worker doses was a concern; therefore, ARCON96 was chosen to replace MACCS2. YMP's use of ARCON96 provided results which clearly demonstrated the program's merit for onsite worker safety analyses in a wide range of complex configurations and scenarios. For offsite public exposures, the conservatism of MACCS2 on the treatment of turbulence phenomena at LANL is examined in this paper. The results show a factor of at least two conservatism in calculated public doses. The new EPA air quality model, AERMOD, which implements advanced meteorological turbulence calculations, is a good candidate for LANL applications to provide more confidence in the accuracy of offsite public dose projections.

  14. Comparing onsite and offsite methods for measuring norms for trail impacts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the comparability of onsite and offsite methods for measuring norms for trail impacts using photo/survey techniques. A total of 449 subjects participated in a study of Mudeung-Mountain Provincial Park, Gwang-Ju, Korea. For the overall photo evaluation method (OPEM), respondents rated the acceptability of bare soil area for each of a series of photographs. For the specific photo evaluation method (SPEM), respondents selected a photograph that illustrated the largest acceptable proportion of bare soil area from a series of 10 photographs. Overall, there were no substantial differences in maximum acceptable impacts between onsite (onsite-I visitor group surveyed at the actual trail points and onsite-II departing visitor group surveyed at the exit area) and offsite (students surveyed in a laboratory setting) groups for the two norm measurement alternatives (OPEM and SPEM). Subjects' difficulty ratings were low for both methods, and there were no substantial differences in norms between individuals with high and low levels of experience at the park. The offsite method appears to be substitutable for onsite methods in this particular study area, which is a frontcountry setting with a relatively simple range of recreation opportunities. Implications and further studies are discussed.

  15. Review of nuclear power plant offsite power source reliability and related recommended changes to the NRC rules and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R.E.; Clark, F.H.; Reddoch, T.W.

    1980-05-01

    The NRC has stated its concern about the reliability of the offsite power system as the preferred emergency source and about the possible damage to a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that could result from a rapid decay of power grid frequency. ORNL contracted with NRC to provide technical assistance to establish criteria that can be used to evaluate the offsite power system for the licensing of a nuclear power plant. The results of many of the studies for this contract are recommendations to assess and control the power grid during operation. This is because most of the NRC regulations pertaining to the offsite power system are related to the design of the power grid, and we believe that additional emphasis on monitoring the power grid operation will improve the reliability of the nuclear plant offsite power supply. 46 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Does a physical activity program in the nursing home impact on depressive symptoms? A generalized linear mixed-model approach.

    PubMed

    Diegelmann, Mona; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver K; Schnabel, Eva-Luisa; Hauer, Klaus

    2017-04-18

    Physical activity (PA) may counteract depressive symptoms in nursing home (NH) residents considering biological, psychological, and person-environment transactional pathways. Empirical results, however, have remained inconsistent. Addressing potential shortcomings of previous research, we examined the effect of a whole-ecology PA intervention program on NH residents' depressive symptoms using generalized linear mixed-models (GLMMs). We used longitudinal data from residents of two German NHs who were included without any pre-selection regarding physical and mental functioning (n = 163, Mage = 83.1, 53-100 years; 72% female) and assessed on four occasions each three months apart. Residents willing to participate received a 12-week PA training program. Afterwards, the training was implemented in weekly activity schedules by NH staff. We ran GLMMs to account for the highly skewed depressive symptoms outcome measure (12-item Geriatric Depression Scale-Residential) by using gamma distribution. Exercising (n = 78) and non-exercising residents (n = 85) showed a comparable level of depressive symptoms at pretest. For exercising residents, depressive symptoms stabilized between pre-, posttest, and at follow-up, whereas an increase was observed for non-exercising residents. The intervention group's stabilization in depressive symptoms was maintained at follow-up, but increased further for non-exercising residents. Implementing an innovative PA intervention appears to be a promising approach to prevent the increase of NH residents' depressive symptoms. At the data-analytical level, GLMMs seem to be a promising tool for intervention research at large, because all longitudinally available data points and non-normality of outcome data can be considered.

  17. 25 CFR 247.14 - Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities... USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.14 Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? (a) You must share access to all on-site facilities. (b) Because there are a...

  18. 25 CFR 247.14 - Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities... USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.14 Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? (a) You must share access to all on-site facilities. (b) Because there are a...

  19. Does early intervention improve outcomes in physiotherapy management of lumbar radicular syndrome? A mixed-methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Stephen J; Baxter, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lumbar radicular syndrome (LRS) can be a painful and debilitating condition. The optimum management strategies and their timing remain elusive despite extensive research. Surgery provides good short-term outcomes but has concomitant risks and costs. Physiotherapy is commonly practised for patients with LRS but its effects remain equivocal and there is a lack of consensus on the type, duration and timing of physiotherapy intervention. There is a lack of high-quality evidence into new and innovative management strategies and the timings of those strategies for LRS. This pilot trial is an essential preliminary to a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early physiotherapy intervention for patients with LRS. The study will test the protocol, the intervention, the use of outcome measures and the ability to set-up and run the trial to enable refinement of a future definitive RCT. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study encompassing an external pilot RCT with integrated qualitative interviews with patients, clinicians and other key stakeholders. 80 patients will be recruited from primary care and randomised, after consent into 1 of 2 groups. Both groups will receive individually tailored, goal orientated physiotherapy. The usual care group will begin their physiotherapy 6 weeks after randomisation and the intervention group at 2 weeks after randomisation. Outcome measures will primarily be feasibility parameters including the ability to recruit and retain patients and to deliver the intervention. Data will be collected at baseline, and 6, 12 and 26 weeks following randomisation. Ethics and dissemination The study has received favourable ethical review from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) on the 20 August 2015 (15/ES/0130). Recruitment began on the 1 March 2016 and is expected to close in January 2017. Data collection is anticipated to be complete in July 2017

  20. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required.

  1. Final Technical Report for "Ice nuclei relation to aerosol properties: Data analysis and model parameterization for IN in mixed-phase clouds" (DOE/SC00002354)

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Prenni; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2012-09-28

    Clouds play an important role in weather and climate. In addition to their key role in the hydrologic cycle, clouds scatter incoming solar radiation and trap infrared radiation from the surface and lower atmosphere. Despite their importance, feedbacks involving clouds remain as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate models. To better simulate cloud processes requires better characterization of cloud microphysical processes, which can affect the spatial extent, optical depth and lifetime of clouds. To this end, we developed a new parameterization to be used in numerical models that describes the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number concentrations active to form ice crystals in mixed-phase (water droplets and ice crystals co-existing) cloud conditions as these depend on existing aerosol properties and temperature. The parameterization is based on data collected using the Colorado State University continuous flow diffusion chamber in aircraft and ground-based campaigns over a 14-year period, including data from the DOE-supported Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The resulting relationship is shown to more accurately represent the variability of ice nuclei distributions in the atmosphere compared to currently used parameterizations based on temperature alone. When implemented in one global climate model, the new parameterization predicted more realistic annually averaged cloud water and ice distributions, and cloud radiative properties, especially for sensitive higher latitude mixed-phase cloud regions. As a test of the new global IN scheme, it was compared to independent data collected during the 2008 DOE-sponsored Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). Good agreement with this new data set suggests the broad applicability of the new scheme for describing general (non-chemically specific) aerosol influences on IN number concentrations feeding mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds. Finally, the parameterization was implemented into a regional

  2. 1996-1997 TEMA/DOE oversite annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) has entered into a five-year agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide emergency response activities associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The Agreement in Principle (AIP) delineates the duties and responsibilities of the parties. The agreement tasked TEMA with the following responsibilities: develop offsite emergency plans; conduct emergency management training; develop offsite emergency organizations; develop emergency communications; develop emergency facilities; conduct exercises and drills; provide detection and protection equipment; and develop an emergency staff. This document reports on progress on these tasks during the past year.

  3. 1996--1997 TEMA/DOE oversight annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) has entered into a five-year agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide emergency response activities associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The Agreement in Principle (AIP) delineates the duties and responsibilities of the parties. The agreement tasked TEMA with the following responsibilities: develop offsite emergency plans; conduct emergency management training; develop offsite emergency organizations; develop emergency communications; develop emergency facilities; conduct exercises and drills; provide detection and protection equipment; and develop an emergency staff. This report describes progress on the 14 deliverables connected with this contract.

  4. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men.

    PubMed

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E; Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Eliasson, B; Räsänen, S M; Rivellese, A; Patti, L; Prinster, A; Riccardi, G; Després, J-P; Alméras, N; Holst, J J; Deacon, C F; Borén, J; Taskinen, M-R

    2017-06-01

    Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m(2)) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal were unchanged. Postprandial TG response increased significantly, p = 0.004, and we observed small but significant increases in weight and liver fat content, but not in visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. However, even the subgroups who gained weight or liver fat during fructose intervention did not worsen their glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or PYY responses. A minor increase in GIP response during OGTT occurred in subjects who gained liver fat (p = 0.049). In obese males with features of metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks fructose intervention 75 g/day did not change glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or GIP responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  6. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-- 01, which allows Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft form for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. 11 tabs.

  7. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the {open_quotes}problem{close_quotes} DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization.

  8. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  9. Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. Risk analyses suggest that loss of all alternating current power contributes over 70% of the overall risk at some U.S. nuclear plants. LOOP event and subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience during calendar years 1997 through 2013. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. The emergency diesel generator failure modes considered are failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends in LOOP frequencies over the 1997–2013 period are identified. There is a possibility that a significant trend in grid-related LOOP frequency exists that is not easily detected by a simple analysis. Statistically significant increases in recovery times after grid- and switchyard-related LOOPs are identified.

  10. Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. Risk analyses performed loss of all alternating current power contributes over 70% of the overall risk at some U.S. nuclear plants. LOOP event and subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience from fiscal year 1998 through 2012. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. The EDG failure modes considered are failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. A statistically significant increase in industry performance was identified for plant-centered and switchyard-centered LOOP frequencies. There is no statistically significant trend in LOOP durations.

  11. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  12. Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1997-2015

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Nancy Ellen; Schroeder, John Alton

    2016-07-01

    Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. LOOP event frequencies and times required for subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience during calendar years 1997 through 2015. LOOP events during critical operation that do not result in a reactor trip, are not included. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. Emergency diesel generator reliability is also considered (failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour). There is an adverse trend in LOOP durations. The previously reported adverse trend in LOOP frequency was not statistically significant for 2006-2015. Grid-related LOOPs happen predominantly in the summer. Switchyard-centered LOOPs happen predominantly in winter and spring. Plant-centered and weather-related LOOPs do not show statistically significant seasonality. The engineering analysis of LOOP data shows that human errors have been much less frequent since 1997 than in the 1986 -1996 time period.

  13. A Randomized Trial of Off-Site Collaborative Care for Depression in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Fasiha; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Tavakoli-Tabasi, Shahriar; Nicholson, Susan; Dieckgraefe, Brian; Storay, Erma; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Kramer, Jennifer R; Smith, Donna; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Tansel, Aylin; Gifford, Allen L; Asch, Steven M

    2017-09-11

    To test the effectiveness of a collaborative depression care model in improving depression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) care. Hepatitis C virus clinic patients who screened positive for depression at four Veterans Affairs Hospitals. We compared off-site depression collaborative care (delivered by depression care manager, pharmacist, and psychiatrist) with usual care in a randomized trial. Primary depression outcomes were treatment response (≥50 percent decrease in 20-item Hopkins Symptoms Checklist [SCL-20] score), remission (mean SCL-20 score, <0.5), and depression-free days (DFDs). Primary HCV outcome was receipt of HCV treatment. Patient data were collected by self-report telephone surveys at baseline and 12 months, and from electronic medical records. Baseline screening identified 292 HCV-infected patients with depression, and 242 patients completed 12-month follow-up (82.9 percent). Intervention participants were more likely to report depression treatment response, remission, and more DFDs than usual care participants. Intervention participants were more likely to receive antiviral treatment; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Off-site depression collaborative care improved depression outcomes in HCV patients and may serve as a model for collaboration between mental health and specialty physical health providers in other high co-occurring conditions. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Off-site toxic consequence assessment: a simplified modeling procedure and case study.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Joe; Hoppe, Tom

    2008-11-15

    An assessment of off-site exposure from spills/releases of toxic chemicals can be conducted by compiling site-specific operational, geographic, demographic, and meteorological data and by using screening-level public-domain modeling tools (e.g., RMP Comp, ALOHA and DEGADIS). In general, the analysis is confined to the following: event-based simulations (allow for the use of known, constant, atmospheric conditions), known receptor distances (on the order of miles or less), short time scale for the distances considered (order of 10's of minutes or less), gently sloping rough terrain, dense and neutrally buoyant gas dispersion, known chemical inventory and infrastructure (used to define source-term), and known toxic endpoint (defines significance). While screening-level models are relatively simple to use, care must be taken to ensure that the results are meaningful. This approach allows one to assess risk from catastrophic release (e.g., via terrorism), or plausible release scenarios (related to standard operating procedures and industry standards). In addition, given receptor distance and toxic endpoint, the model can be used to predict the critical spill volume to realize significant off-site risk. This information can then be used to assess site storage and operation parameters and to determine the most economical and effective risk reduction measures to be applied.

  15. Evaluation of angler reporting accuracy in an off-site survey to estimate statewide steelhead harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, J. L.; Whitney, D.; Schill, D. J.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy of angler-reported data on steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), harvest in Idaho, USA, was quantified by comparing data recorded on angler harvest permits to the numbers that the same group of anglers reported in an off-site survey. Anglers could respond to the off-site survey using mail or Internet; if they did not respond using these methods, they were called on the telephone. A majority of anglers responded through the mail, and the probability of responding by Internet decreased with increasing age of the respondent. The actual number of steelhead harvested did not appear to influence the response type. Anglers in the autumn 2012 survey overreported harvest by 24%, whereas anglers in the spring 2013 survey under-reported steelhead harvest by 16%. The direction of reporting bias may have been a function of actual harvest, where anglers harvested on average 2.6 times more fish during the spring fishery than the autumn. Reporting bias that is a function of actual harvest can have substantial management and conservation implications because the fishery will be perceived to be performing better at lower harvest rates and worse when harvest rates are higher. Thus, these findings warrant consideration when designing surveys and evaluating management actions.

  16. Impact of Uncertainty on Calculations for Recovery from Loss of Offsite Power

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly

    2010-06-01

    Uncertainty, both aleatory and epistemic, can have a significant impact on estimated probabilities of recovering from loss of offsite power within a specified time window, and such probabilities are an input to risk-informed decisions as to the significance of inspection findings in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Reactor Oversight Process. In particular, the choice of aleatory model for offsite power recovery time can have a significant impact on the estimated nonrecovery probability, especially if epistemic uncertainty regarding parameters in the aleatory model is accounted for properly. In past and current analyses, such uncertainty has largely been ignored. This paper examines the impact of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty on the results, using modern open-source Bayesian inference software, which implements Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. It includes examples of time-dependent convolution calculations to show the impact that uncertainty can have on this increasingly frequent type of calculation, also. The results show that the “point estimate” result, which is an input to risk-informed decisions, can easily be uncertain by a factor of 10 if both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are considered. The paper also illustrates the use of Bayesian model selection criteria to aid in the choice of aleatory model.

  17. An approach to estimating radiological risk of offsite release from a design basis earthquake for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Reny, D.A.; Brown, A.N.

    1990-09-01

    In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1A, a seismic analysis was performed on DOE's Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), a facility for processing low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste. Because no hazard curves were available for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), DOE guidelines were used to estimate the frequency for the specified design-basis earthquake (DBE). A dynamic structural analysis of the building was performed, using the DBE parameters, followed by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the PRA, a functional organization of the facility equipment was effected so that top events for a representative event tree model could be determined. Building response spectra (calculated from the structural analysis), in conjunction with generic fragility data, were used to generate fragility curves for the PREPP equipment. Using these curves, failure probabilities for each top event were calculated. These probabilities were integrated into the event tree model, and accident sequences and respective probabilities were calculated through quantification. By combining the sequences failure probabilities with a transport analysis of the estimated airborne source term from a DBE, onsite and offsite consequences were calculated. The results of the comprehensive analysis substantiated the ability of the PREPP facility to withstand a DBE with negligible consequence (i.e., estimated release was within personnel and environmental dose guidelines). 57 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. DOE-EMSP Project Report FY 04: Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Joseph

    2004-11-02

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species. The electrochemical sensors being investigate d are based on a new class of nanoengineered sorbents, Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS). SAMMS are highly efficient sorbents due to their interfacial chemistry that can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) will be performed on two classes of electrodes: the SAMMS modified carbon paste electrodes, and the SAMMS thin film immobilized on microelectrode arrays. Interfacial chemistry and electrochemistry of metal species on the surfaces of SAMMS-based electrodes will be studied. This fundamental knowledge is required for predicting how the sensors will perform in the real wastes which consist of many interferences/ligands and a spectrum of pH levels. The best electrode for each specific waste constituent will be integrated onto the portable microfluidic platform. Efforts will also be focused on testing the portable microfluidics/electrochemical sensor systems with the selected MW and TRU waste samples

  19. 40 CFR 63.7936 - What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? 63.7936 Section 63.7936 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation General Compliance Requirements § 63.7936 What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? (a) If you transfer...

  20. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material.

  1. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-01, which allows Radiological Effect Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft from (NUREG-0471 and -0473) for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. Also included for completeness are: (1) radiological environmental monitoring program guidance previously which had been available as a Branch Technical Position (Rev. 1, November 1979); (2) existing ODCM guidance; and (3) a reproduction of generic Letter 89-01.

  2. Challenges associated with being an off-site depression care manager.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Betty; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Fortney, John C

    2009-04-01

    Within the context of depression care, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has an ongoing depression care manager (DCM) training program. The VA has already trained approximately 50 DCMs and plans to continue DCM training to facilitate the integration of primary care and mental health care. This article provides an overview of the role of a DCM, challenges encountered by an off-site DCM, and strategies to address those challenges. Specifically, this article addresses the following challenges from the perspective of the DCM: suicidal patients, different agendas between patients and DCMs, feeling isolated, maintaining boundaries, building trust, learning to read between the lines, and dealing with hard-to-contact patients. Care management in the context of a distributed care team is becoming increasingly popular in health care systems.

  3. Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with the SCRPA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harir, S.; Bennai, M.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2007-10-01

    The self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) and a direct analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) in one dimension (1D). We have considered an EHM including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in 1D with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with the ones obtained by a DA approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains in a rigorous manner. The analysis of the nearest-neighbour repulsion effect on the dynamics of our closed chains shows that this repulsive interaction between the electrons of the neighbouring atoms induces supplementary conductivity, since, the SCRPA energygap vanishes when these closed chains are governed by a strong repulsive on-site interaction and intermediate nearest-neighbour repulsion.

  4. Evaluation of Loss of Offsite Power Events at Nuclear Power Plants: 1980 - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Atwood; D. A. Prawdzik; D. L. Kelly; F. M. Marshall; J. W. Stetkar

    1999-08-01

    It is recognized that the availability of AC power to commercial nuclear power plants is essential for safe operations and accident recovery. A loss of offsite power (LOSP) event, therefore, is considered an important contributor to total risk at nuclear power plants. In 1988, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission published NUREG-1032 to report on an evaluation of the risk from actual LOSP events that had occurred at nuclear power plants within the United States up through 1985. This paper summarizes a similar study, whose primary objective was to update the LOSP model parameters, frequency and recovery time, using power plant event data from 1980-1996, published as NUREG/CR-5496 in 1998. An additional objective of the study is to re-examine the engineering insights concerning LOSP events.

  5. New Source Term Model for the RESRAD-OFFSITE Code Version 3

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Charley; Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kamboj, Sunita; Chen, Shih-Yew

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the new source term model developed and implemented in Version 3 of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This new source term model includes: (1) "first order release with transport" option, in which the release of the radionuclide is proportional to the inventory in the primary contamination and the user-specified leach rate is the proportionality constant, (2) "equilibrium desorption release" option, in which the user specifies the distribution coefficient which quantifies the partitioning of the radionuclide between the solid and aqueous phases, and (3) "uniform release" option, in which the radionuclides are released from a constant fraction of the initially contaminated material during each time interval and the user specifies the duration over which the radionuclides are released.

  6. RHF RELAP5 model and preliminary loss-of-offsite-power simulation results for LEU conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, J. R.; Bergeron, A.; Dionne, B.; Thomas, F.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the RELAP5 model for the Institut Laue-Langevin High Flux Reactor (RHF) located in Grenoble, France, and provide an update to the key information required to complete, for example, simulations for a loss of offsite power (LOOP) accident. A previous status report identified a list of 22 items to be resolved in order to complete the RELAP5 model. Most of these items have been resolved by ANL and the RHF team. Enough information was available to perform preliminary safety analyses and define the key items that are still required. Section 2 of this document describes the RELAP5 model of RHF. The final part of this section briefly summarizes previous model issues and resolutions. Section 3 of this document describes preliminary LOOP simulations for both HEU and LEU fuel at beginning of cycle conditions.

  7. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    A quality assurance plan (QAP) is a documented description or a listing of the controls to be implemented to assure that an operation or activity is accomplished in a consistent manner and in accordance with requirements. Federal, state, and local governments require emergency planning for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of this EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) project is to identify the EPZs where actions could be necessary to protect public health. The RFP EPZ project is developing an interim basis for potential sheltering and evacuation recommendations in the event of an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere from this facility. Also, RFP is developing EPZs for accidental releases of major nonradiological hazardous substances to the atmosphere, and will analyze the impacts of an unplanned surface water release from the facility.

  8. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  9. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT...

  10. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION...

  11. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  12. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  13. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  14. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  15. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... local government official in electronic form, unless the official specifically requests the information... analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of... Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence...

  16. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  17. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of Environment... Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials. The Administrator shall provide any Federal government official with the...

  18. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of Environment... Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials. The Administrator shall provide any Federal government official with the...

  19. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of Environment... Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials. The Administrator shall provide any Federal government official with the...

  20. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of Environment... Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials. The Administrator shall provide any Federal government official with the...

  1. Off-site movement of pesticide-contaminated fill from agrichemical facilities during the 1993 flooding in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Krapac, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty retail agrichemical facilities were flooded. There was a concern that pesticide-contaminated road fill at these facilities had been transported into residential areas by the flooding. Forty fill and flood- related sediment samples were collected at six facilities. No significant accumulation of sediments was present at any of the six facilities. At five of the six facilities, it did not appear that road fill had been transported off-site. Pesticides were detected in sediment samples collected off-site adjacent to five of the facilities. Of the 21 samples collected off-site, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazide) and metolachlor (2-chloro-6'-ethyl-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acet-o-toluidine) were detected in 86 and 81% of the samples, respectively. When compared with on-site concentrations, off-site pesticide concentrations were either at similar levels, or were as much as three orders of magnitude less. The interpretation of the pesticide data was difficult and often inconclusive, because there were no background data on the occurrence and distribution of pesticides at each site before flooding.

  2. Evaluation of individual and combined management practices to reduce the off-site transport of pesticides from golf course turf.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Hamlin, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines. In this study we evaluated the addition of verticutting (VC) to HTCC (HTCC+VC) in an attempt to further enhance infiltration and mitigate the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from managed turf. Overall, greater or equal quantities of pesticides were transported with runoff from plots managed with HTCC+VC compared to HTCC or VC alone. For the pesticides evaluated HTCCoff-site transport of the high mobility pesticides while HTCC=VC=HTCC+VC for the low mobility pesticides. It is likely the addition of VC following HTCC further increased compaction and reduced availability of recently exposed soil sorptive sites produced from the HTCC. Results of this research provides guidance to golf course managers on selection of management practices that assure quality turf while minimizing off-site transport of pesticides, improving pesticide efficacy and the environmental stewardship of managed biological systems.

  3. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  4. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  5. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  6. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(...

  7. Final report of the Oak Ridge Task Force concerning public health impacts of the off-site contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and other area streams

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Blaylock, B.G.; Daniels, K.L.; Gist, C.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; McElhaney, R.J.; Weber, C.W.

    1989-08-01

    As a result of operations associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a nearby creek, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), became contaminated with mercury and trace levels of other metals, organics and radionuclides. An interagency task force, identified as the Oak Ridge Task Force (ORTF) was organized to investigate the extent of off-site environmental contamination of EFPC and other area streams related to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and to determine if any immediate public health impacts might result from such contamination. Four study groups were established by the ORTF to supervise investigations of fisheries, groundwater, soils, surface water, sediment, and floodplains. A fifth study group was established to perform an evaluation of possible public health impacts. The DOE also authorized several organizations to collect and analyze samples and make field measurements needed by the Task Force. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was authorized to perform an instream contaminant study to determine the extent of contamination of surface water, sediment, fish, and floodplains. The US Geological Survey (USGS) was authorized to determine the extent of groundwater contaminant. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) was charged with determining the extent of contamination of the terrestrial foodchain which might be consumed by humans. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested to provide assistance in health impact assessments. 19 refs., 12 tabs.

  8. OFF-SITE SMARTPHONE VS. STANDARD WORKSTATION IN THE RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF SMALL INTESTINAL MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION IN DOGS AND CATS.

    PubMed

    Noel, Peter G; Fischetti, Anthony J; Moore, George E; Le Roux, Alexandre B

    2016-09-01

    Off-site consultations by board-certified veterinary radiologists benefit residents and emergency clinicians by providing immediate feedback and potentially improving patient outcome. Smartphone devices and compressed images transmitted by email or text greatly facilitate availability of these off-site consultations. Criticism of a smartphone interface for off-site consultation is mostly directed at image degradation relative to the standard radiographic viewing room and monitors. The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, methods comparison study was to compare the accuracy of abdominal radiographs in two imaging interfaces (Joint Photographic Experts Group, off-site, smartphone vs. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, on-site, standard workstation) for the diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs and cats. Two board-certified radiologists graded randomized abdominal radiographs using a five-point Likert scale for the presence of mechanical obstruction in 100 dogs or cats presenting for vomiting. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for both imaging interfaces was high. The accuracy of the smartphone and traditional workstation was not statistically significantly different for either reviewer (P = 0.384 and P = 0.536). Correlation coefficients were 0.821 and 0.705 for each reviewer when the same radiographic study was viewed in different formats. Accuracy differences between radiologists were potentially related to years of experience. We conclude that off-site expert consultation with a smartphone provides an acceptable interface for accurate diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in dogs and cat. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Does case mix matter for substance abuse treatment? A comparison of observed and case mix-adjusted readmission rates for inpatient substance abuse treatment in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed Central

    Phibbs, C S; Swindle, R W; Recine, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a case mix model for inpatient substance abuse treatment to assess the effect of case mix on readmission across Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The computerized patient records from the 116 VAMCs with inpatient substance abuse treatment programs between 1987 and 1992. STUDY DESIGN: Logistic regression was used on patient data to model the effect of demographic, psychiatric, medical, and substance abuse factors on readmission to VAMCs for substance abuse treatment within six months of discharge. The model predictions were aggregated for each VAMC to produce an expected number of readmissions. The observed number of readmissions for each VAMC was divided by its expected number to create a measure of facility performance. Confidence intervals and rankings were used to examine how case mix adjustment changed relative performance among VAMCs. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Ward where care was provided and ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify patients receiving treatment for substance abuse (N = 313,886). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The case mix model explains 36 percent of the observed facility level variation in readmission. Over half of the VAMCs had numbers of readmissions that were significantly different than expected. There were also noticeable differences between the rankings based on actual and case mix-adjusted readmissions. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary data can be used to build a reasonably stable case mix model for substance abuse treatment that will identify meaningful variation across facilities. Further, case mix has a large effect on facility level readmission rates for substance abuse treatment. Uncontrolled facility comparisons can be misleading. Case mix models are potentially useful for quality assurance efforts. PMID:9018215

  10. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  11. Potential Offsite Radiological Doses Estimated for the Proposed Divine Strake Experiment, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Warren

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the potential radiation dose that residents offsite of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) might receive from the proposed Divine Strake experiment was made to determine compliance with Subpart H of Part 61 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. The Divine Strake experiment, proposed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, consists of a detonation of 700 tons of heavy ammonium nitrate fuel oil-emulsion above the U16b Tunnel complex in Area 16 of the NTS. Both natural radionuclides suspended, and historic fallout radionuclides resuspended from the detonation, have potential to be transported outside the NTS boundary by wind. They may, therefore, contribute radiological dose to the public. Subpart H states ''Emissions of radionuclides to the ambient air from Department of Energy facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr'' (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 61.92) where mrem/yr is millirem per year. Furthermore, application for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval of construction of a new source or modification of an existing source is required if the effective dose equivalent, caused by all emissions from the new construction or modification, is greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/yr (40 CFR 61.96). In accordance with Section 61.93, a dose assessment was conducted with the computer model CAP88-PC, Version 3.0. In addition to this model, a dose assessment was also conducted by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This modeling was conducted to obtain dose estimates from a model designed for acute releases and which addresses terrain effects and uses meteorology from multiple locations. Potential radiation dose to a hypothetical maximally

  12. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    1990-03-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead and chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins since 1984. Projects included in the monitoring are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. This monitoring project is also funded under the same authority. A mitigation record is being developed to use actual and potential increases in smolt production as the best measures of benefit from a habitat improvement project. This project is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other IDFG management and research activities. The primary objective of the intensive monitoring subproject is to determine the relationships between spawning escapement, parr production, and smolt production in two Idaho streams; the upper Salmon River and Crooked River. Results of the intensive monitoring will be used to estimate mitigation benefits in terms of smolt production and to interpret natural production monitoring in Idaho. 30 refs., 19 figs., 34 tabs.

  13. Guidance on offsite emergency radiation measurement systems. Phase 3. Water and non-dairy food pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, B.J.; Hoffman, L.G.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides guidance to State and local governments and to federal agencies on offsite emergency measurement of radionuclides in non-dairy food and potable water to determine dose commitment after an accident involving a light-water nuclear power plant. In the early emergency phase of an accident, monitoring of the ingestion pathway should be primarily directed toward controlling the human ingestion of deposited airborne contamination. Ingestion of edible plants is the non-dairy food pathway of primary concern. The importance of this pathway is dependent on the time of year the nuclide release occurs (e.g. deposition of radionuclides on plants just prior to or during harvest presents the greatest hazard). The greatest immediate concern following a release may be from the radioiodines; however, because of their short half-life, the hazard diminishes rapidly and the longer lived radionuclides of strontium and cesium become important. Protective actions and monitoring requirements are discussed. Several alternatives for field monitoring of foodstuffs and water are presented. However, the recommended procedure for monitoring foodstuffs is field sampling in predetermined areas followed by laboratory analyses. The recommended procedure for monitoring water is collection of samples at water purification plants followed by analyses performed by experienced technical personnel. 32 references, 2 figures, 9 tables.

  14. Guidance on offsite emergency radiation measurement systems. Phase 2: The milk pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This document provides guidance to State and local governments and to Federal agencies on offsite emergency measurement of radionuclides after an accident involving a light-water nuclear power plant; in particular, this document provides guidance on determining the dose commitment from the milk pathway. Protective action levels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for milk are used as the basis for monitoring requirements. Measurement of radionuclides in milk should be made at the earliest practical point in the production chain: dairy farms, receiving and transfer stations, processing plants or marketing facilities. Early monitoring will provide data to keep significantly contaminated milk out of distribution and will provide the basis for the most timely emergency response action. Radioiodine plus four other radionuclides, cesium-134, cesium-137, strontium-89, and strontium-90, contribute significantly to dose via the milk pathway; of the most severe potential accident, the short-term dose via the milk pathway from radioiodine is significantly greater than that of cesium or strontium. There is no emergency field monitoring instrumentation available for accurately monitoring cesium and strontium, particularly in the presence of radioiodine. Radioiodine can be a potential contamination problem in liquid milk, whereas radiocesium and radiostrontium can be a contamination problem in processed milk products. Monitoring for the long half-life nuclides such as cesium and strontium requires sophisticated equipment or chemistry procedures which are only available in a laboratory. 2 references, 21 figures, 21 tables.

  15. Lateral migration and offsite surface emission of landfill gas at City of Montreal Landfill Site.

    PubMed

    Franzidis, Jean-Pierre; Héroux, Martin; Nastev, Miroslav; Guy, Christophe

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of lateral landfill gas migration was carried out at the Saint-Michel Environmental Complex in Montreal, City of Montreal Landfill Site, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. Biogas concentration measurements and gas-pumping tests were conducted in multilevel wells installed in the backfilled overburden beside the landfill site. A migration event recorded in autumn 2004 during the maintenance shutdown of the extraction system was simulated using TOUGH-LGM software. Eleven high-density instantaneous surface monitoring (ISM) surveys of methane were conducted on the test site. Gas fluxes were calculated by geostatistical analyses of ISM data correlated to dynamic flux chamber measurements. Variograms using normal transformed data showed good structure, and kriged estimates were much better than inverse distance weighting, due to highly skewed data. Measurement-based estimates of yearly off-site surface emissions were two orders of magnitude higher than modelled advective lateral methane flux. Nucleodensimeter measurements of the porosity were abnormally high, indicating that the backfill was poorly compacted. Kriged porosity maps correlated well with emission maps and areas with vegetation damage. Pumping tests analysis revealed that vertical permeability was higher than radial permeability. All results suggest that most of the lateral migration and consequent emissions to the atmosphere were due to the existence of preferential flow paths through macropores. In December 2006, two passively vented trenches were constructed on the test site. They were successful in countering lateral migration.

  16. Simulation of disaster recovery of a picture archiving and communications system using off-site hierarchal storage management.

    PubMed

    Avrin, D E; Andriole, K P; Yin, L; Gould, R; Arenson, R L

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this communication is to report on the testing of the disaster recovery capability of our hierarchical storage management (HSM) system. Disaster recovery implementation is a requirement of every mission-critical information technology project. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) certainly falls into this category, even though the counterpart, conventional film archive, has no protection against fire, for example. We have implemented a method for hierarchical storage with wavelet technology that maximizes on-site case storage (using lossy compression), retains bit-preserved image data for legal purposes, provides an off-site backup (lossless bit-preserving wavelet transform), and provides for disaster recovery. Recovery from a natural (earthquake and subsequent fire) or technical (system crash and data loss) disaster was simulated by attempting to restore from the off-site image and database backup to clean core PACS components. The only existing loaded software was the operating system. The database application was reloaded locally, and then the database contents and image store were loaded from the off-site component of the HSM system. The following measurements were analyzed: (1) the ability to recover all data; (2) the integrity of the recovered database and image data; (3) the time to recover the database relative to the number of studies and age of the archive, as well as bandwidth between the local and remote site; and (4) the time to recover image data relative to compression ratio, number of studies, number of images, and time depth of the archive. This HSM system, which maximizes on-site storage, maintains a legal record, and provides off-site backup, also facilitates disaster recovery for a PACS.

  17. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  18. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /Navarro/NSTec

    2007-02-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program.

  19. Assessment of the Incentives Created by Public Disclosure of Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information for Reduction in the Risk of Accidental Releases

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The off-site consequence analysis (OCA) evaluates the potential for worst-case and alternative accidental release scenarios to harm the public and environment around the facility. Public disclosure would likely reduce the number/severity of incidents.

  20. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, Delis

    2012-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes

  1. Does Linking Mixed-Format Tests Using a Multiple-Choice Anchor Produce Comparable Results for Male and Female Subgroups? Research Report. ETS RR-11-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of subpopulation invariance indices to evaluate the appropriateness of using a multiple-choice (MC) item anchor in mixed-format tests, which include both MC and constructed-response (CR) items. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using an MC-only anchor set for 4…

  2. Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell gamma-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael W; Ward, Natalie C; Wu, Jason H Y; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Croft, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Some studies have shown potential benefit of vitamin E on platelet function, but several clinical trials failed to show improved cardiovascular outcome with alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Gamma-tocopherol, a major dietary form of vitamin E, may have protective properties different from those of alpha-tocopherol. We compared the effects of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (500 mg) and a gamma-tocopherol-rich compound (500 mg, containing 60% gamma-tocopherol) on serum and cellular tocopherol concentrations, urinary tocopherol metabolite excretion, and in vivo platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Fifty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg alpha-tocopherol/d, 500 mg mixed tocopherols/d, or matching placebo. Serum, erythrocyte, and platelet tocopherol and urinary metabolite concentrations were measured at baseline and after the 6-wk intervention. Soluble CD40 ligand, urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2, serum thromboxane B2, soluble P-selectin, and von Willebrand factor were measured as biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation. Serum alpha-tocopherol increased with both tocopherol treatments. Serum and cellular gamma-tocopherol increased 4-fold (P < 0.001) in the mixed tocopherol group, whereas red blood cell gamma-tocopherol decreased significantly after alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Excretion of alpha-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman increased significantly after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and mixed tocopherols. Excretion of gamma-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman increased significantly after supplementation with mixed tocopherols and after that with alpha-tocopherol, which may reflect the displacement of gamma-tocopherol by alpha-tocopherol due to incorporation of the latter into lipoproteins in the liver. Neither treatment had any significant effect on markers of platelet activation. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol decreased red blood cell gamma-tocopherol, whereas mixed tocopherols increased both serum

  3. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.

    1988-04-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages over the last four years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production at full seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded attainment of full benefit of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration. According to the BPA Work Plan, project implementors have the primary responsibility for measuring physical habitat and estimating habitat change. To date, Idaho habitat projects have been implemented primarily by the US Forest Service (USFS). The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have sponsored three projects (Bear Valley Mine, Yankee Fork, and the proposed East Fork Salmon River projects). IDFG implemented two barrier-removal projects (Johnson Creek and Boulder Creek) that the USFS was unable to sponsor at that time. The role of IDFG in physical habitat monitoring is primarily to link habitat quality and habitat change to changes in actual, or potential, fish production. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  4. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1985.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation approaches to document a record of credit for mitigation were developed in 1984-1985 for most of the habitat projects. Restoration of upriver anadromous fish runs through increased passage survival at main stem Columbia and Snake River dams is essential to the establishment of an off-site mitigation record, as well as to the success of the entire Fish and Wildlife program. The mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production (i.e., yield) at full-seeding as the basic measure of benefit from a habitat project. The IDFG evaluation approach consists of three basic, integrated levels: general monitoring, standing crop evaluations, and intensive studies. Annual general monitoring of anadromous fish densities in a small number of sections for each project will be used to follow population trends and define full-seeding levels. For most projects, smolt production will be estimated indirectly from standing crop estimates by factoring appropriate survival rates from parr to smolt stages. Intensive studies in a few key production streams will be initiated to determine these appropriate survival rates and provide other basic biological information that is needed for evaluation of the Fish and Wildlife program. A common physical habitat and fish population data base is being developed for every BPA habitat project in Idaho to be integrated at each level of evaluation. Compatibility of data is also needed between Idaho and other agencies and tribes in the Columbia River basin. No final determination of mitigation credit for any Idaho habitat enhancement project has been attainable to date.

  5. Diagnosing and modifying off-site blast effects by seismic means -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Brashear, S.; Brush, R.; Cook, B.

    1995-12-31

    A series of complaints were received from the owners of a 130 year-old farmhouse that had been converted into a bed and breakfast establishment. It was determined that blast effects were most noticeable on the third floor of the farmhouse. A vibration study was proposed aimed at isolating the actual cause of the perceived vibration. To aid in this determination, a customized, split-cable seismograph utilizing three single component transducers was deployed both in the interior and exterior of the farmhouse for two primary blasts. By utilizing a monitoring technique involving both interior and exterior sensors from a single seismograph, vibration time-histories from the three locations could be time-linked, providing an accurate assessment as to the actual mechanism responsible for the complaints. In this case, the split-cable array provided data indicating a low frequency ground vibration effect. Amplification of structure vibration due to the matching of the natural frequency of the farmhouse and the transmitted ground vibration was identified as the probable cause of the complaints. Given the potential impact of low frequency energy with surrounding properties, an analytical approach based on the concept of linear superpositioning was used to determine optimum delay intervals to reduce the off-site impact of future production blasts. Single-hole test blast data was recorded with traditional seismographs and analyzed using vibration control software. Utilization of recommended blasthole sequencing, combined with a change in blast orientation, resulted in the elimination of complaints at the farmhouse, in reduced vibration values at other neighboring properties and in a reduction in the overall liability exposure.

  6. Lessons from a BACE inhibitor trial: Off-site but not off base

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Maloney, Bryan; Long, Justin M.; Greig, Nigel H.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuritic plaque formation, which is primarily composed of a small filamentous protein called amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ is the processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by a β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Hence, BACE1 activity plausibly plays a significant role in the generation of potentially toxic Aβ within brain and the development of AD, thereby making it an interesting drug target. A phase 2 trial of the promising LY2886721 inhibitor of BACE1 was suspended in June of 2013 by Eli Lilly and Company due to apparent liver toxicity. This outcome was apparently a surprise to the study's team, particularly since BACE1 knockout mice and mice treated with the drug did not show such liver toxicity. Lilly proposed that the problem was not due to LY2886721 anti-BACE1 activity. We offer an alternative hypothesis, whereby anti-BACE1 activity may induce apparent hepatotoxicity through inhibiting BACE1's processing of β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase I (STGal6 I). In knockout mice, paralogues, such as BACE2 or cathepsin D, could partially compensate. Furthermore, the short duration of animal studies and short lifespans of study animals could mask effects that would require several decades to accumulate in humans. Inhibition of hepatic BACE1 activity in middle-aged humans would produce effects not detectable in mice. In summary, we present a testable model to explain the off-target effects of LY2886721 and highlight more broadly that so called off-target drug effects might actually represent off-site effects that are not necessarily off-target. Consideration of this concept in forthcoming drug design, screening and testing programs might prevent such failures in the future. PMID:24530026

  7. Lessons from a BACE1 inhibitor trial: off-site but not off base.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Debomoy K; Maloney, Bryan; Long, Justin M; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by formation of neuritic plaque primarily composed of a small filamentous protein called amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ is the processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Hence, BACE1 activity plausibly plays a rate-limiting role in the generation of potentially toxic Aβ within brain and the development of AD, thereby making it an interesting drug target. A phase II trial of the promising LY2886721 inhibitor of BACE1 was suspended in June 2013 by Eli Lilly and Co., due to possible liver toxicity. This outcome was apparently a surprise to the study's team, particularly since BACE1 knockout mice and mice treated with the drug did not show such liver toxicity. Lilly proposed that the problem was not due to LY2886721 anti-BACE1 activity. We offer an alternative hypothesis, whereby anti-BACE1 activity may induce apparent hepatotoxicity through inhibiting BACE1's processing of β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase I (STGal6 I). In knockout mice, paralogues, such as BACE2 or cathepsin D, could partially compensate. Furthermore, the short duration of animal studies and short lifespan of study animals could mask effects that would require several decades to accumulate in humans. Inhibition of hepatic BACE1 activity in middle-aged humans would produce effects not detectable in mice. We present a testable model to explain the off-target effects of LY2886721 and highlight more broadly that so-called off-target drug effects might actually represent off-site effects that are not necessarily off-target. Consideration of this concept in forthcoming drug design, screening, and testing programs may prevent such failures in the future.

  8. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Examples: Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.R.; Parsons, A.M.; Waters, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    The disposal of mixed low-level waste has become an issue for the U.S. Department of Energy and the States since the inception of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act in 1992. Fifteen sites, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), have been evaluated to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of this type of waste after it has been subjected to treatment processes. The analyses were designed to quantify the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive and hazardous constituents in mixed low-level waste that could potentially be disposed of in a facility at one of the fifteen sites and meet regulatory requirements. The evaluations provided several major insights about the disposal of mixed low-level waste. All of the fifteen sites have the technical capability for disposal of some waste. Maximum permissible concentrations for the radioactive component of the waste at and sites such as SNL and LANL are almost exclusively determined by pathways other than through groundwater. In general, for the hazardous component of the waste, travel times through groundwater to a point 100 meters from the disposal facility are on the order of thousands of years. The results of the evaluations will be compared to actual treated waste that may be disposed of in a facility at one of these fifteen evaluated sites. These comparisons will indicate which waste streams may exceed the disposal limitations of a site and which component of the waste limits the technical acceptability for disposal. The technical analyses provide only partial input to the decision-making process for determining the disposal sites for mixed low-level waste. Other, less quantitative factors such as social and political issues will also be considered.

  9. Preliminary screening of contaminants in the off-site surface water environment downstream of the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Etnier, E.L.; Talmage, S.S. ); Hook, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides and of inorganic and organic compounds in the surface water environment off-site of the US Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE/ORR) suggest the presence of a large number of substances of possible concern to the protection of human health and the ecosystem. Screening of these data, as part of the initial scoping phase of the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation, is necessary to develop a field sampling plan for the acquisition of additional data through the identification of potential contaminants of concern for further evaluation and investigation. The results of this report are based on human health risk end points. For the purposes of screening, conservative and nonconservative estimates of potential maximum exposures were used to identify, respectively, definitely low- and definitely high-priority pollutants. Because of relatively high concentrations of contaminants in sediment, the presence of industrial and agricultural wastes not related to DOE/ORR operations, and the use of a lifetime risk for carcinogens of 10{sup {minus}6} as a lower screening criterion, no surface water reach considered in this study was identified as low priority. In contrast to this result, three contaminants, arsenic in water and thallium in fish of McCoy Branch and {sup 137}Cs in the sediment of the White Oak Creek embayment downstream from White Oak Lake, were tentatively identified as definitely high-priority substances. These locations are within the boundaries of ORR. Nonconservative estimates of exposure identified arsenic, antimony, thallium, uranium, polychlorinated biphenyls 1254 and 1260, chlordane, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 234}Pa as potentially high-priority contaminants in at least one or more locations. These are the contaminants that should receive the most scrutiny in future investigations.

  10. Preliminary screening of contaminants in the off-site surface water environment downstream of the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Etnier, E.L.; Talmage, S.S.; Hook, L.A.

    1991-11-01

    Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides and of inorganic and organic compounds in the surface water environment off-site of the US Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE/ORR) suggest the presence of a large number of substances of possible concern to the protection of human health and the ecosystem. Screening of these data, as part of the initial scoping phase of the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation, is necessary to develop a field sampling plan for the acquisition of additional data through the identification of potential contaminants of concern for further evaluation and investigation. The results of this report are based on human health risk end points. For the purposes of screening, conservative and nonconservative estimates of potential maximum exposures were used to identify, respectively, definitely low- and definitely high-priority pollutants. Because of relatively high concentrations of contaminants in sediment, the presence of industrial and agricultural wastes not related to DOE/ORR operations, and the use of a lifetime risk for carcinogens of 10{sup {minus}6} as a lower screening criterion, no surface water reach considered in this study was identified as low priority. In contrast to this result, three contaminants, arsenic in water and thallium in fish of McCoy Branch and {sup 137}Cs in the sediment of the White Oak Creek embayment downstream from White Oak Lake, were tentatively identified as definitely high-priority substances. These locations are within the boundaries of ORR. Nonconservative estimates of exposure identified arsenic, antimony, thallium, uranium, polychlorinated biphenyls 1254 and 1260, chlordane, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 234}Pa as potentially high-priority contaminants in at least one or more locations. These are the contaminants that should receive the most scrutiny in future investigations.

  11. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-12-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications.

  12. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  13. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  14. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6–60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches. PMID:27597984

  15. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

  16. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

  17. Off-site environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States Nuclear Test areas, Calendar year 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Patzer, R.G.; Fontana, C.A.; Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Dye, R.E.; Smith, D.D.; Thome', D.J.; Mullen, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    The principal activity at the NTS is testing of nuclear devices, though other related projects are also conducted. The principal activities of the Off-Site Radiological Safety Program are routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests; and protective actions in support of the nuclear testing program. These are conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. 28 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Does e-pain plan improve management of sickle cell disease associated vaso-occlusive pain crisis? a mixed methods evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kato-Lin, Yi-Chin; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Padman, Rema; Seltman, Howard J

    2014-11-01

    There is limited application and evaluation of health information systems in the management of vaso-occlusive pain crises in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. This study evaluates the impact of digitization of paper-based individualized pain plans on process efficiency and care quality by examining both objective patient data and subjective clinician insights. Retrospective, before and after, mixed methods evaluation of digitization of paper documents in Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC. Subjective perceptions are analyzed using surveys completed by 115 clinicians in emergency department (ED) and inpatient units (IP). Objective effects are evaluated using mixed models with data on 1089 ED visits collected via electronic chart review 28 months before and 22 months after the digitization. Surveys indicate that all clinicians perceived the digitization to improve the efficiency and quality of pain management. Physicians overwhelmingly preferred using the digitized plans, but only 44% of the nurses had the same response. Analysis of patient records indicates that adjusted time from analgesic order to administration was significantly reduced from 35.50 to 26.77 min (p<.05). However, time to first dose and some of the objective quality measures (time from administration to relief, relief rate, admission rate, and ED re-visit rate) were not significantly affected. The relatively simple intervention, high baseline performance, and limited accommodation of nurses' perspectives may account for the marginal improvements in process efficiency and quality outcomes. Additional efforts, particularly improved communication between physicians and nurses, are needed to further enhance quality of pain management. This study highlights the important role of health information technology (HIT) on vaso-occlusive pain management for pediatric patients with sickle cell disease and the critical challenges in accommodating human factor considerations in implementing and

  19. Using a Consensus Conference to Characterize Regulatory Concerns Regarding Bioremediation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in Mixed Wastes at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Denise

    2005-06-01

    We have spent this first part of the project preparing background material for conference participants and making arrangements for the conference itself. Material regarding state regulatory constraints to the use of bioremediation in the cleanup of radionuclides and heavy metals at DOE sites around the country has been added to the Bioremediation Briefing paper for participants. The Steering Committee has been formulated and will hold their first meeting via phone conference on Monday, September 13, 2005. On the agenda is identification of conference participants, experts, and initial issues likely to be addressed. Human Subjects approval has been secured from the University. The ''pre-test'' has been developed and is ready to implement. The Consensus Conference will be held in Phoenix, AZ during January and February 2005; we are working with the Chamber of Commerce to find an appropriate site.

  20. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Alina; Fischer, Helen; Amelung, Dorothee; Litvine, Dorian; Aall, Carlo; Andersson, Camilla; Baltruszewicz, Marta; Barbier, Carine; Bruyère, Sébastien; Bénévise, Françoise; Dubois, Ghislain; Louis, Valérie R; Nilsson, Maria; Richardsen Moberg, Karen; Sköld, Bore; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-01

    It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds' Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries) that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households' decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households' willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and whether health co-benefits can serve as a motivator for households to

  1. Does Moral Case Deliberation Help Professionals in Care for the Homeless in Dealing with Their Dilemmas? A Mixed-Methods Responsive Study.

    PubMed

    Spijkerboer, R P; van der Stel, J C; Widdershoven, G A M; Molewijk, A C

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals often face moral dilemmas. Not dealing constructively with moral dilemmas can cause moral distress and can negatively affect the quality of care. Little research has been documented with methodologies meant to support professionals in care for the homeless in dealing with their dilemmas. Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a method for systematic reflection on moral dilemmas and is increasingly being used as ethics support for professionals in various health-care domains. This study deals with the question: What is the contribution of MCD in helping professionals in an institution for care for the homeless to deal with their moral dilemmas? A mixed-methods responsive evaluation design was used to answer the research question. Five teams of professionals from a Dutch care institution for the homeless participated in MCD three times. Professionals in care for the homeless value MCD positively. They report that MCD helped them to identify the moral dilemma/question, and that they learned from other people's perspectives while reflecting and deliberating on the values at stake in the dilemma or moral question. They became aware of the moral dimension of moral dilemmas, of related norms and values, of other perspectives, and learned to formulate a moral standpoint. Some experienced the influence of MCD in the way they dealt with moral dilemmas in daily practice. Half of the professionals expect MCD will influence the way they deal with moral dilemmas in the future. Most of them were in favour of further implementation of MCD in their organization.

  2. Do parents or siblings engage in more negative weight-based talk with children and what does it sound like? A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Tate, Allan; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-09-01

    The current mixed-methods study examined the prevalence of negative weight-based talk across multiple family members (i.e., mother, father, older/younger brother, older/younger sister) and analyzed qualitative data to identify what negative weight-based talk sounds like in the home environment. Children (n=60; ages 9-12) and their families from low income and minority households participated in the study. Children reported the highest prevalence of negative weight-based talk from siblings. Among specific family members, children reported a higher prevalence of negative weight-based talk from mothers and older brothers. In households with younger brothers, children reported less negative weight-based talk compared to other household compositions. Both quantitative and qualitative results indicated that mothers' negative weight-based talk focused on concerns about child health, whereas fathers' and siblings' negative weight-based talk focused on child appearance and included teasing. Results suggest that interventions targeting familial negative weight-based talk may need to be tailored to specific family members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do Parents or Siblings Engage in More Negative Weight-Based Talk with Children and What Does it Sound Like?: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Hanson, Carrie; Tate, Allan; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    The current mixed-methods study examined the prevalence of negative weight-based talk across multiple family members (i.e., mother, father, older/younger brother, older/younger sister) and analyzed qualitative data to identify what negative weight-based talk sounds like in the home environment. Children (n = 60; ages 9–12) and their families from low income and minority households participated in the study. Children reported the highest prevalence of negative weight-based talk from siblings. Among specific family members, children reported a higher prevalence of negative weight-based talk from mothers and older brothers. In households with younger brothers, children reported less negative weight-based talk compared to other household compositions. Both quantitative and qualitative results indicated that mothers’ negative weight-based talk focused on concerns about child health, whereas fathers’ and siblings’ negative weight-based talk focused on child appearance and included teasing. Results suggest that interventions targeting familial negative weight-based talk may need to be tailored to specific family members. PMID:27236475

  4. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-25

    As part of the overall Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-1) project baseline being prepared by International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), the RUST Engineering Company is providing necessary input for the Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) Facilities. The project baseline is comprised of: design baseline - technical definition of work; schedule baseline - detailed and management level 1 schedules; and cost baseline - estimates and cost/manpower plan. The design baseline (technical definition) for the OSBL Facilities has been completed and is presented in Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The OSBL technical definition is based on, and compatible with, the ICRC defined statement of work, design basis memorandum, master project procedures, process and mechanical design criteria, and baseline guidance documents. The design basis memorandum is included in Paragraph 1.3 of Volume I. The baseline design data is presented in 6 volumes. Volume I contains the introduction section and utility systems data through steam and feedwater. Volume II continues with utility systems data through fuel system, and contains the interconnecting systems and utility system integration information. Volume III contains the offsites data through water and waste treatment. Volume IV continues with offsites data, including site development and buildings, and contains raw materials and product handling and storage information. Volume V contains wastewater treatment and solid wastes landfill systems developed by Catalytic, Inc. to supplement the information contained in Volume III. Volume VI contains proprietary information of Resources Conservation Company related to the evaporator/crystallizer system of the wastewater treatment area.

  5. Disassortative Age-Mixing Does Not Explain Differences in HIV Prevalence between Young White and Black MSM: Findings from Four Studies

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Jeremy Alexander; Rothenberg, Richard B.; Sullivan, Patrick Sean; Rosenberg, Eli Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age disassortativity is one hypothesis for HIV disparities between Black and White MSM. We examined differences in age mixing by race and the effect of partner age difference on the association between race and HIV status. Design We used data from four studies of MSM. Participants reported information about recent sexual partners, including age, race, and sexual behavior. Two studies were online with a US sample and two focused on MSM in Atlanta. Methods We computed concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) by race across strata of partner type, participant HIV status, condom use, and number of partners. We used Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to compare Black and White MSM on partner age differences across five age groups. Finally, we used logistic regression models using race, age, and partner age difference to determine the odds ratio of HIV-positive serostatus. Results Of 48 CCC comparisons, Black MSM were more age-disassortative than White MSM in only two. Furthermore, of 20 comparisons of median partner age, Black and White MSM differed in two age groups. One indicated larger age gaps among the Black MSM (18-19). Prevalent HIV infection was associated with race and age. Including partner age difference in the model resulted in a 2% change in the relative odds of infection among Black MSM. Conclusions Partner age disassortativity and partner age differences do not differ by race. Partner age difference offers little predictive value in understanding prevalent HIV infection among Black and White MSM, including diagnosis of HIV-positive status among self-reported HIV-negative individuals. PMID:26090814

  6. Does an integrated Emergency Department Information System change the sequence of clinical work? A mixed-method cross-site study.

    PubMed

    Callen, Joanne; Li, Ling; Georgiou, Andrew; Paoloni, Richard; Gibson, Kathryn; Li, Julie; Stewart, Michael; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2014-12-01

    (1) to describe Emergency Department (ED) physicians' and nurses' perceptions about the sequence of work related to patient management with use of an integrated Emergency Department Information System (EDIS), and (2) to measure changes in the sequence of clinician access to patient information. A mixed method study was conducted in four metropolitan EDs. Each used the same EDIS which is a module of the hospitals' enterprise-wide clinical information system composed of many components of an electronic medical record. This enabled access to clinical and management information relating to patients attending all hospitals in the region. Phase one - data were collected from ED physicians and nurses (n=97) by 69 in-depth interviews, five focus groups (28 participants), and 26 h of observations. Phase two - physicians (n=34) in one ED were observed over 2 weeks. Data included whether and what type of information was accessed from the EDIS prior to first examination of the patient. Clinicians reported, and phase 2 observations confirmed, that the integrated EDIS led to changes to the order of information access, which held implications for when tests were ordered and results accessed. Most physicians accessed patient information using EDIS prior to taking the patients' first medical history (77/116; 66.4%, 95% CI: 57.8-75.0%). Previous discharge summaries (74%) and past test results (61%) were most frequently accessed and junior doctors were more likely to access electronic past history information than their senior colleagues (χ(2)=20.717, d.f.=1, p<0.001). The integrated EDIS created new ways of working for ED clinicians. Such changes could hold positive implications for: time taken to reach a diagnosis and deliver treatments; length of stay; patient outcomes and experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Revised paradigms of forest production over stand development: Why does carbon storage increase as trees die in aging mixed temperate forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Curtis, P.; Hardiman, B. S.; Scheuermann, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The broad emergence of century-old forests in the US upper Midwest and Northeast has large potential implications for carbon (C) storage, as the long-assumed future decline of production in aging stands is expected to reduce continental C sink strength. As mixed temperate forests in the region broadly transition from early to middle stages of succession, short-lived canopy trees are dying and giving way to more structurally complex forests. At the same time, disturbances in the region are shifting from severe events to more moderate disturbances resulting in only partial canopy defoliation. We review new evidence that temperate deciduous forests, against prior expectations, are likely to maintain their capacity to store C over the next several decades even as diffuse mortality of canopy trees increases with advancing age. Forest production data from long-term observational studies and experimental chronosequences in the region do not support a decline in C storage during middle succession. Instead, sustained forest C storage in intermediate-aged forests corresponds with the accrual of structural complexity over time from small-scale, non-stand replacing disturbances such as age-related mortality. Increasing complexity with age gives rise to more efficient use of growth-limiting light and nutrient resources, which may offset, in part or whole, the lost contribution of senescent canopy trees to forest production. These findings indicate that older, structurally complex forests that emerge following diffuse mortality may store C at rates comparable to their younger counterparts. We conclude that regional land-use decisions permitting age-related senescence in maturing forests or, alternatively, management outcomes emulating the structural features of older forests will support goals to maintain the region's C sink strength.

  8. Norfolk Southern boxcar blocking/bracing plan for the mixed waste disposal initiative project. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Seigler, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs will dispose of mixed waste no longer deemed useful. This project is one of the initial activities used to help meet this goal. The project will transport the {approximately}46,000 drums of existing stabilized mixed waste located at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and presently stored in the K-31 and K-33 buildings to an off-site commercially licensed and permitted mixed waste disposal facility. Shipping and disposal of all {approximately}46,000 pond waste drums ({approximately}1,000,000 ft{sup 3} or 55,000 tons) is scheduled to occur over a period of {approximately}5--10 years. The first shipment of stabilized pond waste should transpire some time during the second quarter of FY 1994. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., proposes to line each of the Norfolk Southem boxcars with a prefabricated, white, 15-mm low-density polyethylene (LDPE) liner material. To avoid damaging the bottom of the polyethylene floor liner, a minimum .5 in. plywood will be nailed to the boxcars` nailable metal floor. At the end of the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative (MWDI) Project workers at the Envirocare facility will dismantle and dispose of all the polyethylene liner and plywood materials. Envirocare of Utah, Inc., located in Clive, Utah, will perform a health physic survey and chemically and radiologically decontaminate, if necessary, each of the rail boxcars prior to them being released back to Energy Systems. Energy Systems will also perform a health physic survey and chemically and radiologically decontaminate, if necessary, each of the rail boxcars prior to them being released back to Norfolk Southem Railroad.

  9. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  10. How does playing adapted sports affect quality of life of people with mobility limitations? Results from a mixed-method sequential explanatory study.

    PubMed

    Côté-Leclerc, Félix; Boileau Duchesne, Gabrielle; Bolduc, Patrick; Gélinas-Lafrenière, Amélie; Santerre, Corinne; Desrosiers, Johanne; Levasseur, Mélanie

    2017-01-25

    Occupations, including physical activity, are a strong determinant of health. However, mobility limitations can restrict opportunities to perform these occupations, which may affect quality of life. Some people will turn to adapted sports to meet their need to be involved in occupations. Little is known, however, about how participation in adapted sports affects the quality of life of people with mobility limitations. This study thus aimed to explore the influence of adapted sports on quality of life in adult wheelchair users. A mixed-method sequential explanatory design was used, including a quantitative and a qualitative component with a clinical research design. A total of 34 wheelchair users aged 18 to 62, who regularly played adapted sports, completed the Quality of Life Index (/30). Their scores were compared to those obtained by people of similar age without limitations (general population). Ten of the wheelchair users also participated in individual semi-structured interviews exploring their perceptions regarding how sports-related experiences affected their quality of life. The participants were 9 women and 25 men with paraplegia, the majority of whom worked and played an individual adapted sport (athletics, tennis or rugby) at the international or national level. People with mobility limitations who participated in adapted sports had a quality of life comparable to the group without limitations (21.9 ± 3.3 vs 22.3 ± 2.9 respectively), except for poorer family-related quality of life (21.0 ± 5.3 vs 24.1 ± 4.9 respectively). Based on the interviews, participants reported that the positive effect of adapted sports on the quality of life of people with mobility limitations operates mainly through the following: personal factors (behavior-related abilities and health), social participation (in general and through interpersonal relationships), and environmental factors (society's perceptions and support from the environment). Some contextual

  11. Testing the Off-Site Experience, or, How Well Do You Proxy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribaric, Tim J.

    2009-01-01

    Almost everything is now available online. What is good about this is that in most circumstances, libraries are no longer limited to serving users within just physical spaces. This proves to be a wonderful benefit for users, but sometimes it does not always work out as expected. Those familiar with setting up electronic resources know the…

  12. Testing the Off-Site Experience, or, How Well Do You Proxy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribaric, Tim J.

    2009-01-01

    Almost everything is now available online. What is good about this is that in most circumstances, libraries are no longer limited to serving users within just physical spaces. This proves to be a wonderful benefit for users, but sometimes it does not always work out as expected. Those familiar with setting up electronic resources know the…

  13. Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Yetkin

    According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa.s. respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design method to determine optimal mixing and compaction temperatures. In order to estimate the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixture design, a temperature-viscosity relationship for the binder needs to be developed (ASTM D 2493, Calculation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures). The current approach is simple and provides reasonable temperatures for unmodified binders. However, some modified binders have exhibited unreasonably high temperatures for mixing and compaction using this technique. These high temperatures can result in construction problems, damage of asphalt, and production of fumes. Heating asphalt binder to very high temperatures during construction oxidizes the binder and separates the polymer from asphalt binder. It is known that polymer modified asphalt binders have many benefits to the roads, such as; increasing rutting resistance, enhancing low temperature cracking resistance, improving traction, better adhesion and cohesion, elevating tensile strength which are directly related to the service life of the pavement. Therefore, oxidation and separation of the polymer from the asphalt binder results in reduction of the service life. ASTM D 2493 was established for unmodified asphalt binders which are Newtonian fluids at high temperatures. For these materials, viscosity does not depend on shear rate. However, most of the modified asphalt binders exhibit a phenomenon known as pseudoplasticity, where viscosity does depend on shear rate. Thus, at the high shear rates occurring during mixing and compaction, it is not necessary to go to very high temperatures. This research was undertaken to determine the shear rate during compaction such that the effect of this parameter could be

  14. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  15. When daylight reveals neighborhood nightmares: The duty of builders and developers to disclose off-site environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.M.

    1997-12-31

    This article describes a situation in the city of Warner Robbins, Georgia, USA where a residential land owner discovered methane gas on one of the lots in his subdivision. It was determined that the methane gas was leaking from fill material from a neighboring landfill, even though the landfill was no longer in operation. The landowner subsequently filed suit against the city asserting claims of trespass, abatable and permanent nuisance, and emotional distress, and won. Thousands of facilities in the nation generate industrial and household wastes and other pollutants which may pose health threats to the residents of those communities. In spite of these threats, builders and developers construct homes in close proximity to these potentially harmful facilities. This article discusses whether the builders and developers should have a duty to disclose off-site environmental concerns such as landfills and incinerators to home buyers.

  16. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maskill, Mark

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  17. Strong influence of off-site symmetry positions of hydrogen atoms in ScH3 hcp phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakornchote, T.; Bovornratanaraks, T.; Vannarat, S.; Pinsook, U.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the wave-like arrangements of H atoms around metal plane (Hm) in the ScH3 hcp phase by using the ab-initio method. We found that only P63 / mmc, P 3 bar c 1, P63cm and P63 phases are energetically favorable. The wave-like arrangement allows the off-site symmetry positions of the H atoms, and leads to substantial changes in the pair distribution between Sc and H atoms which are associating with the changes in the electronic structure in such a way that the total energy is lowering. The symmetry breaking from P63mmc is also responsible for the band gap opening. In the P63 structure, the calculated band gap is 0.823 eV and 1.223 eV using GGA and sX-LDA functionals, respectively. This band gap can be compared with 1.7 eV derived from the optical measurement and 1.55 eV from the HSE06 calculation. Thus, the broken symmetry structures can be viewed as Peierls distortion of the P63 / mmc structure. Furthermore, we found that only the P63 structure is dynamically stable, unlike YH3 where the P63cm structure is also stable. The stability of P63 comes from sufficiently strong interactions between two neighboring H atoms at their off-site symmetry positions, i.e. near the metal plane and near the tetragonal site. The P63 phonon density of states is in good agreement with the data from the neutron experiment.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of on-site versus off-site collaborative care for depression in rural FQHCs.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Jeffrey M; Fortney, John C; Mouden, Sip; Lu, Liya; Hudson, Teresa J; Mittal, Dinesh

    2015-05-01

    Collaborative care for depression in primary care settings is effective and cost-effective. However, there is minimal evidence to support the choice of on-site versus off-site models. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of on-site practice-based collaborative care (PBCC) versus off-site telemedicine-based collaborative care (TBCC) for depression in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). In a multisite, randomized, pragmatic comparative cost-effectiveness trial, 19,285 patients were screened for depression, 2,863 (14.8%) screened positive, and 364 were enrolled. Telephone interview data were collected at baseline and at six, 12, and 18 months. Base case analysis used Arkansas FQHC health care costs, and secondary analysis used national cost estimates. Effectiveness measures were depression-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from depression-free days, the 12-Item Short-Form Survey, and the Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale. Nonparametric bootstrap with replacement methods were used to generate an empirical joint distribution of incremental costs and QALYs and acceptability curves. The TBCC intervention resulted in more depression-free days and QALYs but at a greater cost than the PBCC intervention. The disease-specific (depression-free day) and generic (QALY) incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were below their respective ICER thresholds for implementation, suggesting that the TBCC intervention was more cost effective than the PBCC intervention. These results support the cost-effectiveness of TBCC in medically underserved primary care settings. Information about whether to insource (make) or outsource (buy) depression care management is important, given the current interest in patient-centered medical homes, value-based purchasing, and bundled payments for depression care.

  19. Linking RESRAD-OFFSITE and HYDROGEOCHEM Model for Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility - 13429

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kamboj, Sunita; Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments are crucial steps for the long-term radiological safety requirements of low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. How much concentration of radionuclides released from the near-field to biosphere and what radiation exposure levels of an individual can influence on the satisfactory performance of the LLW disposal facility and safety disposal environment. Performance assessment methodology for the radioactive waste disposal consists of the reactive transport modeling of safety-concerned radionuclides released from the near-field to the far-field, and the potential exposure pathways and the movements of radionuclides through the geosphere, biosphere and man of which the accompanying dose. Therefore, the integration of hydrogeochemical transport model and dose assessment code, HYDROGEOCHEM code and RESRAD family of codes is imperative. The RESRAD family of codes such as RESRAD-OFFSITE computer code can evaluate the radiological dose and excess cancer risk to an individual who is exposed while located within or outside the area of initial (primary) contamination. The HYDROGEOCHEM is a 3-D numerical model of fluid flow, thermal, hydrologic transport, and biogeochemical kinetic and equilibrium reactions in saturated and unsaturated media. The HYDROGEOCHEM model can also simulate the crucial geochemical mechanism, such as the effect of redox processes on the adsorption/desorption, hydrogeochemical influences on concrete degradation, adsorption/desorption of radionuclides (i.e., surface complexation model) between solid and liquid phase in geochemically dynamic environments. To investigate the safety assessment of LLW disposal facility, linking RESRAD-OFFSITE and HYDROGEOCHEM model can provide detailed tools of confidence in the protectiveness of the human health and environmental impact for safety assessment of LLW disposal facility. (authors)

  20. Off-site source recovery project case study: disposal of high activity cobalt 60 sources at the Nevada test site 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cocina, Frank G; Stewart, William C; Wald - Hopkins, Mark; Hageman, John P

    2009-01-01

    The Off-Site Source Recovery Project has been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1998 to address the U.S. Department of Energy responsibility for collection and management of orphaned or disused radioactive sealed sources which may represent a risk to public health and national security if not properly managed.

  1. SU-D-213-05: Design, Evaluation and First Applications of a Off-Site State-Of-The-Art 3D Dosimetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm, J; Mein, S; McNiven, A; Letourneau, D; Oldham, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design, construct and commission a prototype in-house three dimensional (3D) dose verification system for stereotatic body radiotherapy (SBRT) verification at an off-site partner institution. To investigate the potential of this system to achieve sufficient performance (1mm resolution, 3% noise, within 3% of true dose reading) for SBRT verification. Methods: The system was designed utilizing a parallel ray geometry instigated by precision telecentric lenses and an LED 630nm light source. Using a radiochromic dosimeter, a 3D dosimetric comparison with our gold-standard system and treatment planning software (Eclipse) was done for a four-field box treatment, under gamma passing criteria of 3%/3mm/10% dose threshold. Post off-site installation, deviations in the system’s dose readout performance was assessed by rescanning the four-field box irradiated dosimeter and using line-profiles to compare on-site and off-site mean and noise levels in four distinct dose regions. As a final step, an end-to-end test of the system was completed at the off-site location, including CT-simulation, irradiation of the dosimeter and a 3D dosimetric comparison of the planned (Pinnacle{sup 3}) to delivered dose for a spinal SBRT treatment(12 Gy per fraction). Results: The noise level in the high and medium dose regions of the four field box treatment was relatively 5% pre and post installation. This reflects the reduction in positional uncertainty through the new design. This At 1mm dose voxels, the gamma pass rates(3%,3mm) for our in-house gold standard system and the off-site system were comparable at 95.8% and 93.2% respectively. Conclusion: This work will describe the end-to-end process and results of designing, installing, and commissioning a state-of-the-art 3D dosimetry system created for verification of advanced radiation treatments including spinal radiosurgery.

  2. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  3. Reentry planning: The technical basis for offsite recovery following warfare agent contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.

    1990-04-01

    In the event on an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce and livestock. Persistent agents, such as VX or sulfur mustard, pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. The purpose of this technical support study is to provide information and analyses that can be used by federal, state and local emergency planners in determining the safety or reentry to, as well as the potential for recovery of, contaminated or suspect areas beyond the installation boundary. Guidelines for disposition of livestock, agricultural crops and personal/real property are summarized. Advisories for ingestion of food crops, water, meat and milk from the affected zones are proposed. This document does not address potential adverse effects to, or agent contamination of, wild species of plants or animals. 80 refs., 4 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  5. Applying a process based erosion model to assess off-site effects of soil erosion from the regional scale to the measure level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Arevalo, Annika; Saathoff, Ulfert; Käpermann, Philipp; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Since soil erosion is one of the most important issues of global soil degradation, great effort was put into the application of erosion models for the assessment and prevention of on-site damages. Beside the primary impact of soil loss in decreasing soil fertility, erosion can cause significant impacts if transported sediments are entering downslope ecosystems, settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes. These off-site damages can be very costly, affect a lot of people and contaminate water-resources. The analysis of these problems is intensified by the requirements of new legislation, such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), providing new challenges for planning authorities in order to combat off-site damage. Hence there is strong public and scientific interest in understanding the processes of sediment as well as particle attached nutrient and pollutant transport. Predicting the frequency, magnitude and extent of off-site impacts of water erosion is a necessary precondition for adequate risk assessments and mitigation measures. Process based models are increasingly used for the simulation of soil erosion. Regarding the requirements of the WFD, these models need to deliver comparable estimates from the regional scale to the level of mitigation measures. This study aims on the application of the process based model EROSION 3D for off-site risk assessment on different scales for the German federal state of Saxony using available geo data, data base applications and GIS-routines. Following issues were investigated: - Where are the expected sediment deposition areas? - Which settlements, infrastructures and traffic routes are affected by sediment fluxes? - Which river sections are affected by sediment inputs? - Which river sections are affected by nutrient and heavy metal inputs? The model results identify the Saxon loess belt as highly endangered by off-site damages although hotspots can be found in the northern flatlands and the southern mountain range as

  6. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff,

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai

  7. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  8. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP`s mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP`s LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility.

  9. Evaluation and measurements of radioactive air emission and off-site doses at SLAC.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ivy; Liu, James; Tran, Henry

    2013-08-01

    SLAC, a high-energy (GeV) electron accelerator facility, performs experimental and theoretical research using high-energy electron and/or positron beams that can produce secondary neutron and gamma radiation when beam losses occur. Radioactive gas production (mainly C, N, O, Ar) and release is one of the environmental protection program issues. U.S. DOE Order 458.1 requires that 40 CFR 61 Subpart H's NESHAP requirements be followed. These regulations prescribe a total dose limit of 0.1 mSv y to the Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) of the general public, a requirement for a continuous air monitoring system if a release point within a facility can cause > 1 × 10 mSv y to the MEI, and a requirement for periodic confirmatory measurements for minor sources which give releases that contribute ≤ 1 × 10 mSv y to the MEI. At SLAC, all air release points for current operations are evaluated to be minor sources. This paper describes SLAC's evaluation following NESHAP requirements; measurements using the Air Monitoring Station (AMS) as periodic confirmatory measurements are also discussed.

  10. Does age matter? A mixed methods study examining determinants of good recovery and resilience in young and middle-aged adults following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Caroline; Gosselin, Nadia; Levert, Marie-Josée; Gauvin-Lepage, Jérôme; Michallet, Bernard; Lefebvre, Hélène

    2017-07-05

    To examine whether age contributes to functional recovery and resilience after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. The ability to recover may change across the lifespan, but the influence of age on brain injury outcome is understudied. Mixed methods study. All adults of working age (18-64 years) discharged from a level I trauma centre between 2010-2013 after sustaining a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury were considered. Functional recovery was assessed during a telephone interview with the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 12-36 months postinjury. A subgroup completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and a face-to-face interview about resilience. Ninety-seven young (mean age: 27 years; 75% male) and 47 middle-aged brain trauma survivors (mean age: 53 years; 75% male) completed the telephone interview. Eight young and five middle-aged adults were also assessed for resilience. Overall, young participants experienced more severe head injuries. Yet, they achieved slightly higher levels of functional recovery compared with middle-aged ones as per the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Controlling for CT scan findings and posttraumatic amnesia duration, age was not found to be associated to functional recovery in adults of working age. Although both groups showed similar levels of resilience, young participants discussed the challenges related to "having more time on their hands" and "being a changed person", two elements perceived positively by middle-aged ones. While age does not appear to interfere with functional recovery in adults of working age, younger brain trauma survivors could benefit from nursing interventions to strengthen their resilience process related to re-employment orientation and identity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Storage and retrieval of SNOP-coded pathologic diagnoses using offsite computing and optical character recognizing systems.

    PubMed

    Cechner, R L; Carter, J R

    1976-05-01

    A computerized cross-reference system for retrieving autopsy and surgical pathology cases on the basis of case number or diagnosis has been implemented. The system achieves economy and flexibility by using offsite computer service bureaus for job production, eliminating the need for expensive onsite equipment. Coded diagnoses may be typed using the OCR (Optical Character Recognition) font simultaneously with or separately from the clinical documentation. The flexibility of new OCR equipment permits production of machine-readable code sheets with an ordinary pencil and completely eliminates the need for typing. The system produces year-to-date books that list all diagnoses, on an accumulating basis, in alphabetic order by SNOP* topology, morphology, etiology and function, and will be compatible with SNOMed. Because all data are stored on magnetic tape, they may be manipulated and retrieved as desired through user programming. The initial setup cost was dollar 1,000 for programming and testing, and production runs and all report printing cost about dollar 1,000 per year (autopsies and surgical pathology cases), which is about 1.1 cents per diagnosis.

  12. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  13. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  14. Environmental Restoration Program project management plan for the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office Major System Acquisition OR-1. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In the early 1940s, the Manhattan Project was conducted in a regulatory and operational environment less sophisticated than today. Less was known of the measures needed to protect human health and safety and the environment from the dangers posed by radioactive and hazardous wastes, and experience in dealing with these hazardous materials has grown slowly. Certain hazards were recognized and dealt with from the beginning. However, the techniques used, though standard practices at the time, are now known to have been inadequate. Consequently, the DOE has committed to an aggressive program for cleaning up the environment and has initiated an Environmental Restoration Program involving all its field offices. The objective of this program is to ensure that inactive and surplus DOE facilities and sites meet current standards to protect human health and the environment. The objective of these activities is to ensure that risks posed to human health and safety and the environment by inactive sites and surplus facilities contaminated with radioactive, hazardous, and/or mixed wastes are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed safe levels. This Project Management Plan for Major System Acquisition OR-1 Project documents, communicates, and contributes to the evolution of, the management organizations, systems, and tools necessary to carry out effectively the long-range complex cleanup of the DOE sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation, and at the Paducah, Kentucky, and Piketon, Ohio, uranium enrichment plants managed by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office; the cleanup of off-site contamination resulting from past releases; and the Decontamination and Decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities at these installations.

  15. The Impact of Off-site Land use Energy Intensity (LUEI) on the Overall Life Cycle LUEI for Utility-scale Solar Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, David J; Horner, Robert M.; Clark, Corrie E.

    2015-05-01

    Estimates of the amount of land used for a defined amount of utility-scale electricity generation in the solar power industry, referred to as solar land use energy intensity (LUEI), are important to decision makers for evaluating the environmental impact of energy technology choices. In general, solar energy tends to have a larger on-site LUEI than that of fossil fuels because the energy generated per square meter of power plant area is much lower. Unfortunately, there are few studies that quantify the off-site LUEI for utility-scale solar energy, and of those that do, they share common methodologies and data sets. In this study, we develop a new method for calculating the off-site LUEI for utility-scale solar energy for three different technologies: silicon photovoltaic (Si-PV), cadmium-telluride (CdTe) PV, and parabolic trough concentrated solar thermal. Our results indicate that the off-site LUEI is most likely 1% or less of the on-site LUEI for each technology. Although our results have some inherent uncertainties, they fall within an order of magnitude of other estimates in the literature.

  16. DOE regulation of mixed waste. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 2009 and H. R. 2593, April 10, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Testimony by representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency, citizen environmental organizations, DOE, and universities on the Mixed Hazardous Waste Amendment Act of 1985 (H.R. 2009) and the Military Radioactive Emissions Control Act of 1985 (H.R. 2593) focused on safety aspects of mixed wastes at DOE facilities from the point of view of the general public and the implications for tourism and recreation in affected areas. H.R. 2593 calls for standards and continuous independent monitoring, while H.R. 2009 ensures that wastes the Solid Waste Management Act covers solid wastes containing radioactive material. The testimony covered definitions and interpretations by byproduct material and the problems associated with self-regulation. The testimony of the 10 witnesses follows the text of the two bills.

  17. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  18. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... community Use our Virtual Library Treatment and outcomes back to top Because most people with mixed dementia are diagnosed with a single type of dementia, physicians often base their prescribing decisions on the type of dementia ...

  19. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water.

  20. Offsite radiation doses summarized from Hanford environmental monitoring reports for the years 1957-1984. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; McCormack, W.D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1957, evaluations of offsite impacts from each year of operation have been summarized in publicly available, annual environmental reports. These evaluations included estimates of potential radiation exposure to members of the public, either in terms of percentages of the then permissible limits or in terms of radiation dose. The estimated potential radiation doses to maximally exposed individuals from each year of Hanford operations are summarized in a series of tables and figures. The applicable standard for radiation dose to an individual for whom the maximum exposure was estimated is also shown. Although the estimates address potential radiation doses to the public from each year of operations at Hanford between 1957 and 1984, their sum will not produce an accurate estimate of doses accumulated over this time period. The estimates were the best evaluations available at the time to assess potential dose from the current year of operation as well as from any radionuclides still present in the environment from previous years of operation. There was a constant striving for improved evaluation of the potential radiation doses received by members of the public, and as a result the methods and assumptions used to estimate doses were periodically modified to add new pathways of exposure and to increase the accuracy of the dose calculations. Three conclusions were reached from this review: radiation doses reported for the years 1957 through 1984 for the maximum individual did not exceed the applicable dose standards; radiation doses reported over the past 27 years are not additive because of the changing and inconsistent methods used; and results from environmental monitoring and the associated dose calculations reported over the 27 years from 1957 through 1984 do not suggest a significant dose contribution from the buildup in the environment of radioactive materials associated with Hanford operations.

  1. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  2. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  3. Applicability of Loss of Offsite Power (LOSP) Events in NUREG/CR-6890 for Entergy Nuclear South (ENS) Plants LOSP Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yunlong; Yilmaz, Fatma; Bedell, Loys

    2006-07-01

    Significant differences have been identified in loss of offsite power (LOSP or LOOP) event description, category, duration, and applicability between the LOSP events used in NUREG/CR-6890 and ENS'LOSP packages, which were based on EPRI LOSP reports with plant-specific applicability analysis. Thus it is appropriate to reconcile the LOSP data listed in the subject NUREG and EPRI reports. A cross comparison showed that 62 LOSP events in NUREG/CR-6890 were not included in the EPRI reports while 4 events in EPRI reports were missing in the NUREG. Among the 62 events missing in EPRI reports, the majority were applicable to shutdown conditions, which could be classified as category IV events in EPRI reports if included. Detailed reviews of LERs concluded that some events did not result in total loss of offsite power. Some LOSP events were caused by subsequent component failures after a turbine/plant trip, which have been modeled specifically in most ENS plant PRA models. Moreover, ENS has modeled (or is going to model) the partial loss of offsite power events with partial LOSP initiating events. While the direct use of NUREG/CR-6890 results in SPAR models may be appropriate, its direct use in ENS' plant PRA models may not be appropriate because of modeling details in ENS' plant-specific PRA models. Therefore, this paper lists all the differences between the data in NUREG/CR-6890 and EPRI reports and evaluates the applicability of the LOSP events to ENS plant-specific PRA models. The refined LOSP data will characterize the LOSP risk in a more realistic fashion. (authors)

  4. Off-site evaluation of three-dimensional ultrasound for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules: comparison with two-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Chin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Yun, Tae Jin; Wi, Jae Yeon; Kim, Sun Ah; Sun, Hye Young; Ryoo, Inseon; Park, Sun-Won; Sohn, Chul-Ho

    2016-10-01

    We compared the diagnostic performance of off-site evaluation between prospectively obtained 3D and 2D ultrasound for thyroid nodules. 3D and 2D ultrasonographies were preoperatively obtained from 85 consecutive patients (mean age, 51 years; age range, 28-83 years) who were referred for a total thyroidectomy. Three radiologists independently evaluated 3D and 2D images of 91 pathologically confirmed thyroid nodules (30 benign and 61 malignant nodules) for nodule characterization. Diagnostic performance, interobserver agreement and time for scanning were compared between 3D and 2D. 3D had significantly higher sensitivities than 2D for predicting malignancy (78.7 % vs. 61.2 %, P < 0.01) and extrathyroidal extension (66.7 % vs. 46.4 %, P = 0.03) in malignancy. In terms of specificities, there were no statistically significant differences between 2D and 3D for predicting malignancy (78.4 % vs. 74.8 %, P = 1.00) and extrathyroidal extension (63.6 % vs. 57.6 %, P = 0.46). With respect to interobserver agreement, 3D showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.53) for predicting extrathyroidal extension in malignancy compared with 2D ultrasound, which showed fair agreement (κ = 0.37). 3D saved time (30 ± 56.52 s) for scanning compared with 2D. For off-site evaluation, 3D US is more useful for diagnosis of thyroid nodules than 2D US. • 3D had higher sensitivity than 2D for predicting malignancy and extrathyroidal extension. • 3D showed better agreement for predicting extrathyroidal extension in malignancy than 2D. • 3D thyroid ultrasound saved time for scanning compared with 2D. • For off-site evaluation of thyroid nodules, 3D is more useful than 2D.

  5. Technical approach for the assessment of air emissions from municipal landfills using the US EPA flux chamber and dispersion modeling to predict off-site impact potential

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.E.; Wilsey, S.D.; Hasek, T. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Municipal solid waste landfills are described as large, heterogeneous area sources with relatively high generation rates of methane and carbon dioxide and relatively low emission levels of total non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (TNMHCs) and reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) including hydrogen sulfide. Recent public awareness and enacted air regulations have generated concerns from fugitive emissions of landfill gases as a significant contribution to air pollution and the potential health effects off-site. As such, assessing impacts to local ambient air quality around a municipal landfill can be a challenge to quantify and evaluate. A technical approach has been developed and used at a large municipal landfill in the Northeast in order to assess potential impact to local air quality with particular emphasis on identifying hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and RSCs as well as other air toxics and odor-causing compounds. The technical approach includes: Screening the landfill surface using direct-reading field analyzers based on a surface grid system; Assigning areas of similar emission potential based on screening data and engineering descriptions of the landfill (surface condition and operation); Direct emission testing using the US EPA recommended flux chamber, estimating area-specific emissions using measured flux and surface area; Predicting off-site impact using a dispersion model with area source input capability; and Collection of collaborating off-site ambient air samples during periods of significant odor events to identify compounds and their concentrations. This approach was found to be superior to other assessment approaches including use of emission factors or indirect ambient air monitoring technologies.

  6. [Mixed Waste Focus Area]. Monthly progress report summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    During November 1994, a Call for Proposals to lead the implementation team of the Mixed Waste Focus Area was issued by DOE-HQ. Interested Sites prepared proposals to lead the MWFA and responded to DOE-HQ on December 1, 1994. DOE-ID was selected to lead the MWFA on December 15, 1994. As this report is being published, the Mixed Waste Integrated Program is being transitioned to the Mixed Waste Focus Area. Transition is scheduled to be complete by March 31, 1995. This report contains summaries of individual research projects which demonstrate the development of technology to treat mixed waste throughout the DOE complex.

  7. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  8. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  9. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-12-31

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I{sub 2} leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste.

  10. Off-site repulsion-induced triplet superconductivity: a possibility for chiral p(x+y)-wave pairing in Sr2RuO4.

    PubMed

    Arita, Ryotaro; Onari, Seiichiro; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Aoki, Hideo

    2004-06-18

    In order to probe the effect of charge fluctuations on triplet pairing, we study the pairing symmetry in the one-band Hubbard model having the off-site Coulomb repulsion (V) on top of the on-site repulsion as a model for the gamma band of Sr2RuO4, a strong candidate for a triplet pairing superconductor. The result, obtained with the dynamical cluster approximation combined with the quantum Monte Carlo method, and confirmed from the fluctuation exchange approximation, shows that while d(x(2)-y(2)) pairing dominates over p in the absence of V, introduction of V makes p(x+y) and d(xy) dominant. The gap function for the chiral p(x+y)+ip(x-y) has nodes that are consistent with the recent measurement of specific heat in rotated magnetic fields in the ruthenate. This suggests that the off-site repulsion may play an essential role in triplet superconductivity in this material.

  11. Off-site transport of nitrogen fertilizer with runoff from golf course fairway turf: A comparison of creeping bentgrass with a fine fescue mixture.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P

    2017-02-15

    Maintaining quality golf course turf often requires irrigation and application of fertilizer. The transport of excess nutrients with runoff water from highly managed and fertilized biological systems to surrounding surface waters has been shown to result in enhanced algal blooms and promotion of eutrophication. Environmental stewardship includes looking for new approaches to reduce adverse environmental impacts of current practices. One strategy is to replace traditional turfgrass with low-maintenance turfgrass species. Fescue grasses have been shown to provide characteristics desirable for golf course fairways. Thus side-by-side studies comparing runoff from plots planted in creeping bentgrass (CGB) or fine fescue mixture (FFM), similarly managed as a golf course fairway, were conducted to measure runoff volumes and the amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) transported off-site with runoff. Greater runoff volumes and mass of applied nutrients were measured in the runoff from the FFM, representing a 38% and 56% median increase in the off-site mass transport of NH4-N and NO3-N with surface flow. Shoot density, thatch depth and soil moisture were the most important factors related to runoff volume. Results of this research will be useful to grounds superintendents and researchers for selecting and developing management strategies to improve environmental stewardship of managed turf while providing desired turf quality. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Modeling Mix in ICF Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Clark, D. S.; Chang, B.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2014-10-01

    The observation of ablator material mixing into the hot spot of ICF implosions correlates with reduced yield in National Ignition Campaign (NIC) experiments. Higher Z ablator material radiatively cools the central hot spot, inhibiting thermonuclear burn. This talk focuses on modeling a ``high-mix'' implosion from the NIC, where greater than 1000 ng of ablator material was inferred to have mixed into the hot spot. Standard post-shot modeling of this implosion does not predict the large amounts of ablator mix necessary to explain the data. Other issues are explored in this talk and sensitivity to the method of radiation transport is found. Compared with radiation diffusion, Sn transport can increase ablation front growth and alter the blow-off dynamics of capsule dust. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites.

  14. Mixed cryoglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Clodoveo

    2008-01-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B

  15. Mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Clodoveo

    2008-09-16

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B

  16. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  17. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator.

  18. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper.

  19. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers.

  20. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  1. A common soil flagellate (Cercomonas sp.) grows slowly when feeding on the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians in isolation, but does not discriminate against it in a mixed culture with Sphingopyxis witflariensis.

    PubMed

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Rønn, Regin

    2008-07-01

    Flagellates are very important predators on bacteria in soil. Because of their high growth rates, flagellate populations respond rapidly to changes in bacterial numbers. Previous results indicate that actinobacteria are generally less suitable than proteobacteria as food for flagellates. In this study, we investigated the growth of the flagellate Cercomonas sp. (ATCC 50334) on each of the two bacteria Sphingopyxis witflariensis (Alphaproteobacteria) and Rhodococcus fascians (actinobacteria) separately and in combination. The growth rate of the flagellate was lower and the lag phase was longer when fed with R. fascians than when fed with S. witflariensis. This supports our initial hypothesis that the actinobacterium is less suitable as food than the alphaproteobacterium. However, after longer periods of growth the peak abundance of flagellates was higher on R. fascians, indicating that the food quality of bacterial prey depends on the time perspective of the flagellate-bacterial interaction. There was no evidence that the flagellates selected against the actinobacterium when feeding in mixed cultures of the two bacteria. Experiments where flagellates were fed with washed bacterial cells or with bacteria growing with different substrate concentrations suggested that the low food quality of R. fascians is related both to the intrinsic cell properties and to the extracellular metabolites.

  2. Overview and History of DOE's Hanford Site - 12502

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Karen; McCormick, Matt

    2012-07-01

    Hanford's DOE offices are responsible for one of the largest nuclear cleanup efforts in the world, cleaning up the legacy of nearly five decades of nuclear weapons production. Nowhere in the DOE Complex is cleanup more challenging than at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Hanford cleanup entails remediation of hundreds of large complex hazardous waste sites; disposition of nine production reactors and the preservation of one as a National Historic Landmark; demolition of hundreds of contaminated facilities including five enormous process canyons; remediation of billions of gallons of contaminated groundwater; disposition of millions of tons of low-level, mixed low-level, and transuranic waste; disposition of significant quantities of special nuclear material; storage and ultimate disposition of irradiated nuclear fuel; remediation of contamination deep in the soil that could impact groundwater; decontamination and decommissioning of hundreds of buildings and structures; and treatment of 56 million gallons of radioactive waste in 177 large underground tanks through the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant. Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The DOE Richland Operations Office has a vision and a strategy for completing Hanford's cleanup including the transition to post-cleanup activities. Information on the strategy is outlined in the Hanford Site Completion Framework. The framework describes three major components of cleanup - River Corridor, Central Plateau, and Tank Waste. It provides the context for individual cleanup actions by describing the key challenges and approaches for the decisions needed to complete cleanup. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), is implementing a strategy to achieve final cleanup decisions for the River Corridor portion of the Hanford Site. The DOE Richland

  3. Fort St. Vrain--a DOE success story.

    PubMed

    Borst, Ted

    2003-02-01

    The Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station was a one-of-its-kind High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor located near Denver, CO. Due to operational difficulties, the reactor was permanently shut down in August 1989. Plants to ship the spent reactor fuel to Idaho were thwarted by the Governor of Idaho. The inability to ship the spent reactor fuel offsite necessitated the construction of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) in order to proceed with the decommissioning of the reactor. After loading the ISFSI, decommissioning of the reactor was initiated and successfully completed. At the same time, the site was repowered using natural gas. As part of a settlement with the owner of the reactor, the U.S. Department of Energy agreed to take title to the spent fuel in the ISFSI and obtain an NRC license for the facility. The license for the ISFSI was transferred to the DOE in June 1999. Day-to-day operations of the ISFSI are accomplished by the DOE's Maintenance and Operations contractor, Bechtel Babcock Wilcox Idaho (BBWI). BBWI also operates the Three Mile Island Unit 2 ISFSI in Idaho for the DOE. This paradigm for ISFSI operations has been highly successful and is expandable to additional ISFSIs that may come under the jurisdiction of the DOE.

  4. Microgravity acoustic mixing for particle cloud combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic; Rubinstein, Robert I.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of acoustic mixing procedures designed to uniformly distribute fuel particles in a combustion tube for application in the proposed Particle Cloud Combustion Experiment (PCCE) are described. Two acoustic mixing methods are investigated: mixing in a cylindrical tube using high frequency spinning modes generated by suitably phased, or quadrature speakers, and acoustic premixing in a sphere. Quadrature mixing leads to rapid circumferential circulation of the powder around the tube. Good mixing is observed in the circulating regions. However, because axial inhomogeneities are necessarily present in the acoustic field, this circulation does not extend throughout the tube. Simultaneous operation of the quadrature-speaker set and the axial-speaker was observed to produce considerably enhanced mixing compared to operation of the quadrature-speaker set alone. Mixing experiments using both types of speakers were free of the longitudinal powder drift observed using axial-speakers alone. Vigorous powder mixing was obtained in the sphere for many normal modes: however, in no case was the powder observed to fill the sphere entirely. Theoretical analysis indicated that mixing under steady conditions cannot fill more than a hemisphere except under very unusual conditions. Premixing in a hemisphere may be satisfactory; otherwise, complete mixing in microgravity might be possible by operating the speaker in short bursts. A general conclusion is that acoustic transients are more likely to produce good mixing than steady state conditions. The reason is that in steady conditions, flow structures like nodal planes are possible and often even unavoidable. These tend to separate the mixing region into cells across which powder cannot be transferred. In contrast, transients not only are free of such structures, they also have the characteristics, desirable for mixing, of randomness and disorder. This conclusion is corroborated by mixing

  5. Offsite radiation doses from Hanford Operations for the years 1983 through 1987: A comparison of results calculated by two methods

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, J.K.

    1989-10-01

    This report compares the results of the calculation of potential radiation doses to the public by two different environmental dosimetric systems for the years 1983 through 1987. Both systems project the environmental movement of radionuclides released with effluents from Hanford operations; their concentrations in air, water, and foods; the intake of radionuclides by ingestion and inhalation; and, finally, the potential radiation doses from radionuclides deposited in the body and from external sources. The first system, in use for the past decade at Hanford, calculates radiation doses in terms of 50-year cumulative dose equivalents to body organs and to the whole body, based on the methodology defined in ICRP Publication 2. This system uses a suite of three computer codes: PABLM, DACRIN, and KRONIC. In the new system, 50-year committed doses are calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the ICRP Publications 26 and 30, which were adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in 1985. This new system calculates dose equivalent (DE) to individual organs and effective dose equivalent (EDE). The EDE is a risk-weighted DE that is designed to be an indicator of the potential health effects arising from the radiation dose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 38 tabs.

  6. Off-site impacts of agricultural composting: role of terrestrially derived organic matter in structuring aquatic microbial communities and their metabolic potential.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Thomas; Merroune, Asmaa; Bettarel, Yvan; Got, Patrice; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal; Thu, Thuy D; Toan, Tran D; Rochelle-Newall, Emma

    2014-12-01

    While considered as sustainable and low-cost agricultural amendments, the impacts of organic fertilizers on downstream aquatic microbial communities remain poorly documented. We investigated the quantity and quality of the dissolved organic matter leaching from agricultural soil amended with compost, vermicompost or biochar and assessed their effects on lake microbial communities, in terms of viral and bacterial abundances, community structure and metabolic potential. The addition of compost and vermicompost significantly increased the amount of dissolved organic carbon in the leachate compared with soil alone. Leachates from these additions, either with or without biochar, were highly bioavailable to aquatic microbial communities, although reducing the metabolic potential of the community and harbouring more specific communities. Although not affecting bacterial richness or taxonomic distributions, the specific addition of biochar affected the original lake bacterial communities, resulting in a strongly different community. This could be partly explained by viral burst and converging bacterial abundances throughout the samples. These results underline the necessity to include off-site impacts of agricultural amendments when considering their cascading effect on downstream aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Modeling human off-site aerosol exposures to polybrominated flame retardants emitted during the land application of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Chris; Yang, Wulin; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-10-01

    PBDE aerosols from sludge-applied fields does not represent a significant contribution to human exposure compared to other common indoor exposures. However, land application is a major environmental source of PBDEs and sludge health impact analyses should focus on the practice's impacts on other exposures, such as biomagnification in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ion mixing of semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, W.; Hsu, S. N.; Han, C. C.; Pappert, S. A.; Zhu, B.; Cozzolino, C.; Yu, P. K. L.; Lau, S. S.; Poker, D. B.; White, C. W.; Schwarz, S. A.

    1991-07-01

    Compositional disordering of III-V compound superlattice structures has received considerable attention recently due to its potential application for photonic devices. The conventional method to induce compositional disorder is to implant a moderate dose of impurity ions (˜ 10 15 cm -2) into the structure at room temperature, followed by a high-temperature annealing step (this process is referred to as IA here). Ion irradiation at room temperature alone does not cause any significant intermixing of layers. The subsequent high-temperature annealing step tends to restrict device processing flexibility. Ion mixing (IM) is capable of enhancing compositional disordering of layers at a rate which increases exponentially with the ion irradiation temperature. As a processing technique to planarize devices, ion mixing appears to be an attractive technology. In this work, we investigate compositional disordering in the AlGaAs/GaAs and the InGaAs/InP systems using ion mixing. We found that the ion mixing behavior of these two systems shows a thermally activated regime as well as an athermal regime, similar to that observed for metal-metal and metal-semiconductor systems. Ion mixing is observed to induce compositional disordering at significantly lower temperatures than that for the IA process. We have compared the two processes in terms of four parameters (1) irradiation temperature, (2) dose dependence, (3) annealing, and (4) electrically active ions. We found that the IM process is more efficient in utilizing the defects generated by ion irradiation to cause disordering. Both the physical mechanism of ion mixing and possible device implications will be discussed.

  9. Ion mixing of semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, W.; Hsu, S. N.; Han, C. C.; Pappert, S. A.; Zhu, B.; Cozzolino, C.; Yu, P. K. L.; Lau, S. S.; Poker, D. B.; White, C. W.

    Compositional disordering of III-V compound superlattice structures has received considerable attention recently due to its potential application for photonic devices. The conventional method in induce compositional disorder is to implant a moderate dose of impurity ions (approx. 10 (exp 15)/sq cm) into the structure at room temperature, followed by a high temperature annealing step (this process is referred to as IA here). Ion irradiation at room temperature alone does not cause any significant intermixing of layers. The subsequent high temperature annealing step tends to restrict device processing flexibility. Ion mixing (IM) is capable of enhancing compositional disordering of layers at a rate which increases exponentially with the ion irradiation temperature. As a processing technique to planarize devices, ion mixing appears to be an attractive technology. Compositional disordering was studied disordering in the AlGaAs/GaAs and the InGaAs/InP systems using ion mixing. It was found that the ion mixing behavior of these two systems shows a thermally activated regime as well as an athermal regime, similar to that observed for metal-metal and metal-semiconductor systems. Ion mixing is observed to induce compositional disordering at significantly lower temperatures than that for the IA process. The two processes were compared in terms of five parameters (1) irradiation temperature, (2) dose dependence (3) annealing, and (4) electrically active ions. It was found that the IM process is more efficient in utilizing the defects generated by ion irradiation to cause disordering. Both the physical mechanism of ion mixing and possible device implications will be discussed.

  10. Mixing TCP and Satellites: A View from Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Mixing TCP and Satellites: A View from Above" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Why are open protocol standards important?; and 2) Protocols are like galoshes: One size does not fit all.

  11. Extended Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segawa, Eisuke; Emery, Sherry; Curry, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized linear latent and mixed modeling (GLLAMM framework) includes many models such as hierarchical and structural equation models. However, GLLAMM cannot currently accommodate some models because it does not allow some parameters to be random. GLLAMM is extended to overcome the limitation by adding a submodel that specifies a…

  12. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  13. Measures on mixing angles

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, Gary W.; Gielen, Steffen; Pope, C. N.; Turok, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1){sup 2}/SU(3)/U(1){sup 2}. We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of the measure, and compute expectation values for powers of J for these measures. We find that different choices of the measure generically make the observed magnitude of CP violation appear finely tuned. Since the quark masses and the mixing angles are determined by the same set of Yukawa couplings, we then do a second calculation in which we take the known quark mass hierarchy into account. We construct the simplest measure on the space of 3x3 Hermitian matrices which reproduces this known hierarchy. Calculating expectation values for powers of J in this second approach, we find that values of J close to the observed value are now rather likely, and there does not seem to be any fine-tuning. Our results suggest that the choice of Kobayashi-Maskawa angles is closely linked to the observed mass hierarchy. We close by discussing the corresponding case of neutrinos.

  14. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  15. Comparing on-site to off-site biomass collection for Dehalococcoides biomarker gene quantification to predict in situ chlorinated ethene detoxification potential.

    PubMed

    Ritalahti, Kirsti M; Hatt, Janet K; Lugmayr, Veronica; Henn, Keith; Petrovskis, Erik A; Ogles, Dora M; Davis, Greg A; Yeager, Chris M; Lebrón, Carmen A; Löffler, Frank E

    2010-07-01

    Biostimulation and bioaugmentation have emerged as constructive remedies for chlorinated ethene-contaminated aquifers, and a link between Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacteria and chlorinated ethene detoxification has been established. To quantify Dhc biomarker genes, groundwater samples are shipped to analytical laboratories where biomass is collected on membrane filters by vacuum filtration for DNA extraction and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. This common practice was compared with a straightforward, on-site filtration approach to Sterivex cartridges. In initial laboratory studies with groundwater amended with known amounts of Dhc target cells, Sterivex cartridges yielded one-third of the total DNA and 9-18% of the Dhc biomarker gene copies compared with vacuum filtration. Upon optimization, DNA yields increased to 94 +/- 38% (+/-SD, n = 10), and quantification of Dhc biomarker genes exceeded the values obtained with the vacuum filtration procedure up to 5-fold. Both methods generated reproducible results when volumes containing >10(4) total Dhc target gene copies were collected. Analysis of on-site and off-site biomass collection procedures corroborated the applicability of the Sterivex cartridge for Dhc biomarker quantification in groundwater. Ethene formation coincided with Dhc cell titers of >2 x 10(6) L(-1) and high (i.e., >10(5)) abundance of the vinyl chloride reductive dehalogenase genes vcrA and/or bvcA; however, high Dhc cell titers alone were insufficient to predict ethene formation. Further, ethene formation occurred at sites with high Dhc cell titers but low or no detectable vcrA or bvcA genes, suggesting that other, not yet identified vinyl chloride reductive dehalogenases contribute to ethene formation. On-site biomass collection with Sterivex cartridges avoids problems associated with shipping groundwater and has broad applicability for biomarker monitoring in aqueous samples.

  16. Simulation-based multiprofessional obstetric anaesthesia training conducted in situ versus off-site leads to similar individual and team outcomes: a randomised educational trial

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jette Led; van der Vleuten, Cees; Rosthøj, Susanne; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Johansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Kim; Starkopf, Liis; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Weikop, Pia; Ottesen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. Design Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority educational trial. Setting Obstetrics and anaesthesiology departments, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 100 participants in teams of 10, comprising midwives, specialised midwives, auxiliary nurses, nurse anaesthetists, operating theatre nurses, and consultant doctors and trainees in obstetrics and anaesthesiology. Interventions Two multiprofessional simulations (clinical management of an emergency caesarean section and a postpartum haemorrhage scenario) were conducted in teams of 10 in the ISS versus the OSS setting. Primary outcome Knowledge assessed by a multiple choice question test. Exploratory outcomes Individual outcomes: scores on the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, stress measurements (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, cognitive appraisal and salivary cortisol), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and perceptions of simulations. Team outcome: video assessment of team performance. Organisational impact: suggestions for organisational changes. Results The trial was conducted from April to June 2013. No differences between the two groups were found for the multiple choice question test, patient safety attitude, stress measurements, motivation or the evaluation of the simulations. The participants in the ISS group scored the authenticity of the simulation significantly higher than did the participants in the OSS group. Expert video assessment of team performance showed no differences between the ISS versus the OSS group. The ISS group provided more ideas and suggestions for changes at the organisational level. Conclusions In this randomised trial, no significant differences were found regarding knowledge, patient safety attitude, motivation or stress

  17. Clarifying the learning experiences of healthcare professionals with in situ and off-site simulation-based medical education: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Navne, Laura Emdal; Martin, Helle Max; Ottesen, Bent; Albrecthsen, Charlotte Krebs; Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Kjærgaard, Hanne; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. Design Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. Participants Twenty-five healthcare professionals (obstetricians, midwives, auxiliary nurses, anaesthesiologists, a nurse anaesthetist and operating theatre nurse) participated in four focus groups and were recruited due to their exposure to either ISS or OSS in multidisciplinary obstetric emergencies in a randomised trial. Setting Departments of obstetrics and anaesthesia, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Results Initially participants preferred ISS, but this changed after the training when the simulation site became of less importance. There was a strong preference for simulation in authentic roles. These perceptions were independent of the ISS or OSS setting. Several positive and negative factors in simulation were identified, but these had no relation to the simulation setting. Participants from ISS and OSS generated a better understanding of and collaboration with the various health professionals. They also provided individual and team reflections on learning. ISS participants described more experiences that would involve organisational changes than the OSS participants did. Conclusions Many psychological and sociological aspects related to the authenticity of the learning experience are important in simulation, but the physical setting of the simulation as an ISS and OSS is the least important. Based on these focus groups OSS can be used provided that all other authenticity elements are taken into consideration and respected. The only difference was that ISS had an organisational impact and ISS participants talked more about issues that would involve practical organisational changes. ISS and OSS participants did, however, go through similar individual and team learning experiences

  18. Clarifying the learning experiences of healthcare professionals with in situ and off-site simulation-based medical education: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Navne, Laura Emdal; Martin, Helle Max; Ottesen, Bent; Albrecthsen, Charlotte Krebs; Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Kjærgaard, Hanne; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2015-10-06

    To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. Twenty-five healthcare professionals (obstetricians, midwives, auxiliary nurses, anaesthesiologists, a nurse anaesthetist and operating theatre nurse) participated in four focus groups and were recruited due to their exposure to either ISS or OSS in multidisciplinary obstetric emergencies in a randomised trial. Departments of obstetrics and anaesthesia, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Initially participants preferred ISS, but this changed after the training when the simulation site became of less importance. There was a strong preference for simulation in authentic roles. These perceptions were independent of the ISS or OSS setting. Several positive and negative factors in simulation were identified, but these had no relation to the simulation setting. Participants from ISS and OSS generated a better understanding of and collaboration with the various health professionals. They also provided individual and team reflections on learning. ISS participants described more experiences that would involve organisational changes than the OSS participants did. Many psychological and sociological aspects related to the authenticity of the learning experience are important in simulation, but the physical setting of the simulation as an ISS and OSS is the least important. Based on these focus groups OSS can be used provided that all other authenticity elements are taken into consideration and respected. The only difference was that ISS had an organisational impact and ISS participants talked more about issues that would involve practical organisational changes. ISS and OSS participants did, however, go through similar individual and team learning experiences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  19. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.) ...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.) ...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.) ...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282... 21) § 29.2282 Mixed color or variegated (M). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together... and does not blend with the normal colors of the type or group. (See Rule 17, § 29.2408.) ...

  3. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  4. Mixing in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2011-01-07

    Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

  5. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  6. Shear mixing in classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, A.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Times, F. X.; Truran, J. W.; Rosner, R.; Lamb, D. M.; Mignone, A.; Fryxel, B.; Zingale, M.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.

    2003-03-01

    The mixing of white dwarf material with the accretion envelope in classical novae scenarios is essential for the later evolution and the outburst. One of the plausible mechanisms for the enrichment involves the coupling of large scale flows like convection or accretion with the breaking interfacial waves at the white dwarf surface. We examine how the interaction of accretion wind with a white dwarf surface can lead to a substantial C/O enrichment that can power a novae. We use the FLASH code to perform two and three dimensional simulations of wind driven gravity waves and investigate their growth and non-linear development for a variety of wind profiles. Our results show that even weak winds generate gravity waves through a resonant mechanism with the wind that grow nonlinear and break leading to spray formation and mixing. The total amount of white dwarf material mixed at late times, is shown to be proportional to the square of the maximum wind velocity, inversely proportional to gravity and independent of the functional form of the wind profile. This work has been supported by the DOE ASCI/Alliances program at the University of Chicago under grant No. B341495.

  7. Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.

    1996-03-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.

  8. Herbicide off-site transport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicides are an important part of modern agriculture as they control weeds that would otherwise reduce yields by competing for water and nutrients. In the future herbicides will play an increasing role as agriculture strives to meet food, fuel, and fiber requirements of a growing global populatio...

  9. Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.

    PubMed

    Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 μL of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time.

  10. DOE/EIS-0355 Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, Final Environmental Impact Statement (July 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2005-08-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is proposing to clean up surface contamination and implement a ground water compliance strategy to address contamination that resulted from historical uranium-ore processing at the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Moab site), Grand County, Utah. Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) {section} 4321 et seq., DOE prepared this environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential environmental impacts of remediating the Moab site and vicinity properties (properties where uranium mill tailings were used as construction or fill material before the potential hazards associated with the tailings were known). DOE analyzed the potential environmental impacts of both on-site and off-site remediation and disposal alternatives involving both surface and ground water contamination. DOE also analyzed the No Action alternative as required by NEPA implementing regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality. DOE has determined that its preferred alternatives are the off-site disposal of the Moab uranium mill tailings pile, combined with active ground water remediation at the Moab site. The preferred off-site disposal location is the Crescent Junction site, and the preferred method of transportation is rail. The basis for this determination is discussed later in this Summary. DOE has entered into agreements with 12 federal, tribal, state, and local agencies to be cooperating agencies in the development and preparation of this EIS. Several of the cooperating agencies have jurisdiction by law and intend to use the EIS to support their own decisionmaking. The others have expertise relevant to potential environmental, social, or economic impacts within their geographic regions. During the preparation of the EIS, DOE met with the cooperating agencies, provided them with opportunities to review preliminary versions of the document, and addressed their comments

  11. Final Report to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail Gultepe

    2012-05-15

    This final report summarizes the accomplished goals and provide a list of the publications and presentations made during the project. The goals of the project were accomplished through the various publications submitted to Journals and presentations done at the DOE and international meetings and conferences. The 8 journal articles related to the goals of this project were accepted or submitted. The 23 presentations related to goals of the project were presented at the meetings. There were some minor changes regarding to project goals because of issues encountered during the analysis of the data. For example, a total water probe sensor mounted on the Convair-580 that can be used for defining mixed phase conditions and parameterization, had some problems to estimate magnitude of total water mass, and this resulted in issues providing an accurate parameterization for cloud fraction. Variability related aerosol number concentrations and their composition for direct and indirect effects were studied and published. Results were given to explain aerosol and ice microphysical effects on climate change studies. It is suggested that developed parameterizations should consider the variability in aerosol and ice parameters over the Arctic regions.

  12. Long-term on-site and off-site effects of logging and erosion in the Redwood Creek basin, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagans, Danny K.; Weaver, William E.; Madej, Mary Ann

    1986-01-01

    diversions. The effects of land use are then additive, occur essentially instantaneously over large areas, and are displaced both spatially and temporally from their source and time of initiation. The objective of this brief report is to describe how specific land use practices can cause multiple on-site and off-site geomorphic impacts which may become obvious only years following the land use disturbance. Additionally, we will briefly outline how a large percentage of these persistent effects can be avoided entirely by minor changes in road construction techniques.

  13. Sulfolane degradation by mixed cultures and a bacterial isolate identified as a Variovorax sp.

    PubMed

    Greene, E A; Beatty, P H; Fedorak, P M

    2000-01-01

    Sulfolane (tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide) is used in the Sulfinol process for natural gas sweetening. At many sour-gas processing plants spills, landfills and leakage from unlined surface storage ponds have contaminated groundwaters with sulfolane. Due to its high water solubility and mobility in aquifers, sulfolane poses a risk for off-site contamination. This study investigated the aerobic biodegradation of sulfolane by two mixed microbial enrichment cultures and by three bacterial isolates. Sulfolane served as the sole C, S and energy source for these cultures. In the two mixed cultures, 60% and 80% of the sulfolane C was recovered as CO2, whereas in cultures of the three isolates only 40-42% of the substrate C was recovered as CO,. In the mixed cultures, 81% and 97% of the sulfolane S was converted to sulfate, and in the pure isolates, 55-90% of the substrate S was converted to sulfate. Thus, the mixed cultures were capable of greater mineralization than the pure isolates. One isolate, strain WP1, was identified using a combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, physiological traits and cell morphology. WP1 was determined to be most similar to Varioivorax paradoxus.

  14. Transition mixing study empirical model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

    1988-01-01

    The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

  15. Permitting mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities: A mixed bag

    SciTech Connect

    Ranek, N.L.; Coalgate, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (FFCAct) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to make a comprehensive national inventory of its mixed wastes (i.e., wastes that contain both a hazardous component that meets the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of hazardous waste and a radioactive component consisting of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA)), and of its mixed waste treatment technologies and facilities. It also requires each DOE facility that stores or generates mixed waste to develop a treatment plan that includes, in part, a schedule for constructing units to treat those wastes that can be treated using existing technologies. Inherent in constructing treatment units for mixed wastes is, of course, permitting. This paper identifies Federal regulatory program requirements that are likely to apply to new DOE mixed waste treatment units. The paper concentrates on showing how RCRA permitting requirements interrelate with the permitting or licensing requirements of such other laws as the Atomic Energy Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Clean Air Act. Documentation needed to support permit applications under these laws are compared with RCRA permit application documentation. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements are also addressed, and throughout the paper, suggestions are made for managing the permitting process.

  16. Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO`s Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: FY 1994--FY 2001. Environmental Restoration Program, September 1993 Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO`s Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project. FY 1994--FY 2001 is the third in a series of documents that report current estimates of the waste volumes expected to be generated as a result of Environmental Restoration activities at Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), sites. Considered in the scope of this document are volumes of waste expected to be generated as a result of remedial action and decontamination and decommissioning activities taking place at these sites. Sites contributing to the total estimates make up the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the off-site contaminated areas adjacent to the Oak Ridge facilities (collectively referred to as the Oak Ridge Reservation Off-Site area). Estimates are available for the entire fife of all waste generating activities. This document summarizes waste estimates forecasted for the 8-year period of FY 1994-FY 2001. Updates with varying degrees of change are expected throughout the refinement of restoration strategies currently in progress at each of the sites. Waste forecast data are relatively fluid, and this document represents remediation plans only as reported through September 1993.

  17. Department of Energy – Office of Science Pacific Northwest Site Office Environmental Monitoring Plan for the DOE-SC PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2011-12-21

    The Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) manages the contract for operations at the U.S. Depart¬ment of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site in Richland, Washington. Radiological operations at the DOE-SC PNNL Site expanded in 2010 with the completion of facilities at the Physical Sciences Facility. As a result of the expanded radiological work at the site, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has required that offsite environmental surveillance be conducted as part of the PNNL Site Radioactive Air Emissions License. The environ¬mental monitoring and surveillance requirements of various orders, regulations, and guidance documents consider emission levels and subsequent risk of negative human and environmental impacts. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes air surveillance activities at the DOE-SC PNNL Site. The determination of offsite environmental surveillance needs evolved out of a Data Quality Objectives process (Barnett et al. 2010) and Implementation Plan (Snyder et al. 2010). The entire EMP is a compilation of several documents, which include the Main Document (this text), Attachment 1: Sampling and Analysis Plan, Attachment 2: Data Management Plan, and Attachment 3: Dose Assessment Guidance.

  18. Single biphoton ququarts as either pure or mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. V.; Volkov, P. A.; Mikhailova, J. M.

    2011-09-15

    We analyze features of mixed biphoton polarization states, which arise from pure states of polarization-frequency biphoton ququarts after averaging over frequencies of photons. For mixed states, we find their concurrence C, Schmidt parameter K, degree of polarization P, as well as the von Neumann mutual information I. In some simple cases, we also find the relative entropy S{sub rel} and the degree of classical correlations C{sub cl}. In mixed states, the Schmidt parameter does not characterize the degree of entanglement anymore, as it does in pure states. Nevertheless, the Schmidt parameter remains useful even in the case of mixed states because it remains directly related to the degree of polarization. We compare results occurring in the cases of full pure polarization-frequency states of ququarts and mixed states (averaged over frequencies). Differences between these results can be seen in experiments with and without frequency filters in front of a detector.

  19. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE`s waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE`s mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters.

  20. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyuan; Gan, Jieqing; Pinson, David; Zhou, Zongyan

    2017-06-01

    Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM) is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  1. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  2. Cement mixing with vibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.E.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a method of cementing a casing string in a bore hole of a well. It comprises introducing water and dry cement material into a mixing vessel; mixing the water and dry cement material in the mixing vessel to form a cement slurry, the slurry including lumps of the dry cement material, the mixing including steps of: agitating the slurry; and while agitating the slurry, transmitting vibrational energy into the slurry and thereby aiding disintegration and subsequent wetting of the lumps of the dry cement material in the slurry; and pumping the slurry into an annulus between the casing string and the bore hole.

  3. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  4. 41 CFR 109-50.403 - Need to establish DOE program benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... Property in a Mixed Facility § 109-50.403 Need to establish DOE program benefit. When approval for a proposed programmatic disposal of DOE personal property in a mixed facility is being sought, it must...

  5. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  6. Development of a simplified asphalt mix stability procedure for use in Superpave volumetric mix design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihab Hussein Fahmy

    Over the last five decades, two common test methods (Marshall and Hveem) have evolved for the design of asphaltic mixes. These design methods have been historically found to be generally reliable and reasonable for most application in design. However, premature distress in many flexible pavements suggests that these empirical methods of design do not guarantee a stable mix. Recently, many studies have been carried out in order to develop a rational mix design procedure that accounts for both the mix volumetric properties as well as fundamental engineering properties. Among those is the Superpave design procedure, which was originally divided into three, hierarchical levels termed the volumetric mix design (level I), the abbreviated mix design (level II), and the full mix design (level III). In the volumetric design, the entire mix design process is based upon the volumetric properties and does not include a test method to evaluate the stability/strength of the mix. Although both the abbreviated level and the full level of design included test methods that considered the engineering properties in a complete and a comprehensive manner; they required the purchase of very expensive equipment and a large number of samples to be tested. The objective of this research was to develop a new rational "fundamental" mix strength (stability) test for the design of dense graded mixes to overcome the limitations of the Hveem and Marshall empirical methods and to fill the gaps and major deficiencies in the current Superpave volumetric mix design. The new procedure is based upon the Superpave volumetric design (level I) but is augmented by the simple, but fundamental mix strength (stability) test. Such a test is now currently absent in the existing Superpave approach. The new procedure introduces the flow time as a fundamental engineering design criterion in the mix design. This parameter is defined as the time (in seconds) at which plastic flow in a mix occurs under creep loading

  7. Admission mixing duct assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, Robert J. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A variable cycle jet engine is provided with a mixing duct assembly which mixes core engine exhaust gas with bypass air when the engine is operating in a turbofan mode and which blocks flow from the core engine and isolates the core engine from the bypass flow when the engine is operating as a ramjet.

  8. Dilution Zone Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies to characterize dilution zone mixing; experiments on the effects of free-stream turbulence on a jet in crossflow; and the development of an interactive computer code for the analysis of the mixing of jets with a confined crossflow are reviewed.

  9. Microfluidic Mixing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Chin-Lung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of microfluidic mixing is to achieve a thorough and rapid mixing of multiple samples in microscale devices. In such devices, sample mixing is essentially achieved by enhancing the diffusion effect between the different species flows. Broadly speaking, microfluidic mixing schemes can be categorized as either “active”, where an external energy force is applied to perturb the sample species, or “passive”, where the contact area and contact time of the species samples are increased through specially-designed microchannel configurations. Many mixers have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 10 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers. PMID:21686184

  10. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to - π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  11. High-mix insulins

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Farooqi, Mohammad Hamed; El-Houni, Ali E.

    2015-01-01

    Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use. PMID:26425485

  12. MHD turbulent mixing layers

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Benjamin, R.A.; Cho, J.; Leitner, S.N.

    2005-09-28

    Turbulent mixing layers have been proposed to explain observations of line ratios of highly ionized elements in the interstellar medium. We present preliminary results of numerical simulations of turbulent mixing layers in a magnetized medium. We developed a MHD code with radiative cooling. The magnetic field is expected to be a controlling factor by suppressing instabilities that lead to the turbulent mixing. Our results suggest that the difference in turbulent mixing in the unmagnetized case as compared to the case of a weak magnetic field, {beta} = Pgas/Pmag {approx} 10, is insignificant. With a more thorough exploration of parameter space, this work will provide more reliable diagnostics of turbulent mixing layers than those available today.

  13. Mixed Waste Focus Area -- Waste form initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-07-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI.

  14. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  15. Effect of mixed (boundary) pixels on crop proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    In estimating acreage proportions of crop types in a segment using Landsat data, considerable problem is caused by the presence of mixed pixels. Due to lack of understanding of their spectral characteristics, mixed pixels have been treated in the past as pure while clustering and classifying the segment data. This paper examines this approach of treating mixed pixels as pure pixels and the effect of mixed pixels on the bias and variance of a crop type proportion estimate. First, the spectral response of a boundary pixel is modeled and an analytical expression for the bias and variance of a proportion estimate is obtained. This is followed by a numerical illustration of the effect of mixed pixels on bias and variance. It is shown that as the size of the mixed pixel class increases in a segment, the variance increases, however, such increase does not always affect the bias of the proportion estimate.

  16. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in

  17. Mixing in Microfluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskok, A.

    Flow and species transport in micro-scales experience laminar, even Stokes flow conditions. In absence of turbulence, species mixing becomes diffusion dominated, and requires very long mixing length scales (l m ). This creates significant challenges in the design of Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices, where mixing of macromolecules and biological species with very low mass diffusivities are often desired. The objectives of this chapter are to introduce concepts relevant to mixing enhancement in microfluidic systems, and guide readers in the design of new mixers via numerical simulations. A distinguishing feature is the identification of flow kinematics that enhance mixing, followed with systematic characterization of mixing as a function of the Schmidt number at fixed kinematic conditions. In this chapter, we briefly review the routes to achieve chaotic advection in Stokes flow, and then illustrate the characteri-zation of a continuous flow chaotic stirrer via appropriate numerical tools, including the Poincaré section, finite time Lyapunov exponent, and mixing index.

  18. The mixing of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils.

  19. HIA 2016 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Mandalay Homes, Cathedral Point at The Dells, Prescott, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2016 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the mixed-dry climate that met the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home criteria and achieved a HERS 47 without PV or HERS -2 with PV.

  20. Nearly discontinuous chaotic mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, David Howland; Lim, Hyun K; Yu, Yan; Glimm, James G

    2009-01-01

    A new scientific approach is presented for a broad class of chaotic problems involving a high degree of mixing over rapid time scales. Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows are typical of such problems. Microscopic mixing properties such as chemical reaction rates for turbulent mixtures can be obtained with feasible grid resolution. The essential dependence of (some) fluid mixing observables on transport phenomena is observed. This dependence includes numerical as well as physical transport and it includes laminar as well as turbulent transport. A new approach to the mathematical theory for the underlying equations is suggested.

  1. Liquid air mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device for mixing liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen to form liquid air. The mixing device consists of a tube for transferring liquid oxygen positioned within a tube for transferring liquid nitrogen. Supply vessels for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are equally pressurized and connected to the appropriate tubes. Liquid oxygen and nitrogen flow from the supply vessels through the respective tubes and are mixed to form liquid air upon exiting the outlets of the tube. The resulting liquid air is transferred to a holding vessel.

  2. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  3. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a remotely controllable mixing system in which a plurality of mixing assemblies are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly employs a central chamber and two outer, upper and lower chambers. Valves are positioned between chambers, and these valves for a given mixing assembly are operated by upper and lower control rotors, which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors. Additionally, a hoop is compressed around upper control rotors and a hoop is compressed around lower control rotors to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors and drive rotors. The drive rollers are driven by a motor.

  4. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    SciTech Connect

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  5. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  6. Mixed-Media Owls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  7. Mixed-Media Owls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  8. Artificial upwelling and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The authors present results related to artificial upwelling and coastal mariculture using deep ocean water and mixing in coastal waters. They discuss the application of research results for marine waste disposal.

  9. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada: Mitigation action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The DOE Notice of Availability for this environmental impact statement was published in the Federal Register on Friday, October 18, 1996 (61 FR 54437). The final environmental impact statement identifies potential adverse effects resulting from the four use alternatives evaluated and discusses measures that DOE considered for the mitigation of these potential adverse effects. The Secretary of Energy signed the Record of Decision on the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site and other DOE sites in the state of Nevada on December 9, 1996. These decisions will result in the continuation of the multipurpose, multi-program use of the Nevada Test Site, under which DOE will pursue a further diversification of interagency, private industry, and public-education uses while meeting its Defense Program, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration mission requirements at the Nevada Test Site and other Nevada sites, including the Tonopah Test Range, the Project Shoal Site, the Central Nevada Test Area, and on the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. The Record of Decision also identifies specific mitigation actions beyond the routine day-to-day physical and administrative controls needed for implementation of the decisions. These specific mitigation actions are focused on the transportation of waste and on groundwater availability. This Mitigation Action Plan elaborates on these mitigation commitments.

  10. Asymmetric antiproton debuncher: No bad mixing, more good mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-07-01

    An asymmetric lattice for the Fermilab Antiproton Debuncher is designed. The lattice has zero mixing between the pickups and the kickers (bad mixing) while the mixing in the rest of the machine (good mixing) can be varied (even during the operation of the machine) in order to optimize the stochastic cooling. As an example, a lattice with zero bad mixing and twice the good mixing is presented. The betatron cooling rate in this lattice is twice its present value.

  11. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  12. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational

  13. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  14. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  15. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  16. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  17. Martian Mixed Layer during Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, G. M.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.

    2008-09-01

    In situ measurements of the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (MPBL) encompass only the sur- face layer. Therefore, in order to fully address the MPBL, it becomes necessary to simulate somehow the behaviour of the martian mixed layer. The small-scale processes that happen in the MPBL cause GCM's ([1], [2]) to describe only partially the turbulent statistics, height, convective scales, etc, of the surface layer and the mixed layer. For this reason, 2D and 3D martian mesoscale models ([4], [5]), and large eddy simulations ([4], [6], [7], [8]) have been designed in the last years. Although they are expected to simulate more accurately the MPBL, they take an extremely expensive compu- tational time. Alternatively, we have derived the main turbu- lent characteristics of the martian mixed layer by using surface layer and mixed layer similarity ([9], [10]). From in situ temperature and wind speed measurements, together with quality-tested simu- lated ground temperature [11], we have character- ized the martian mixed layer during the convective hours of Pathfinder mission Sol 25. Mean mixed layer turbulent statistics like tem- perature variance < σ? >, horizontal wind speed variance < σu,v >, vertical wind speed variance < σw >, viscous dissipation rate < ǫ >, and turbu- lent kinetic energy < e > have been calculated, as well as the mixed layer height zi, and the convective scales of wind w? and temperature θ?. Our values, obtained with negligible time cost, match quite well with some previously obtained results via LES's ([4] and [8]). A comparisson between the above obtained mar- tian values and the typical Earth values are shown in Table 1. Convective velocity scale w doubles its counterpart terrestrial typical value, as it does the mean wind speed variances < σu,v > and < σw >. On the other hand, the temperature scale θ? and the mean temperature variance < σ > are virtually around one order higher on Mars. The limitations of these results concern the va- lidity

  18. MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE`s mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel.

  19. Chromium silicide formation by ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreter, U.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of CrSi2 by ion mixing was studied as a function of temperature, silicide thickness and irradiated interface. Samples were prepared by annealing evaporated couples of Cr on Si and Si on Cr at 450 C for short times to form Si/CrSi2/Cr sandwiches. Xenon beams with energies up to 300 keV and fluences up to 8 x 10 to the 15th per sq cm were used for mixing at temperatures between 20 and 300 C. Penetrating only the Cr/CrSi2 interface at temperatures above 150 C induces further growth of the silicide as a uniform stoichiometric layer. The growth rate does not depend on the thickness of the initially formed silicide at least up to a thickness of 150 nm. The amount of growth depends linearly on the density of energy deposited at the interface. The growth is temperature dependent with an apparent activation energy of 0.2 eV. Irradiating only through the Si/CrSi2 interface does not induce silicide growth. It is concluded that the formation of CrSi2 by ion beam mixing is an interface-limited process and that the limiting reaction occurs at the Cr/CrSi2 interface.

  20. Chromium silicide formation by ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreter, U.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of CrSi2 by ion mixing was studied as a function of temperature, silicide thickness and irradiated interface. Samples were prepared by annealing evaporated couples of Cr on Si and Si on Cr at 450 C for short times to form Si/CrSi2/Cr sandwiches. Xenon beams with energies up to 300 keV and fluences up to 8 x 10 to the 15th per sq cm were used for mixing at temperatures between 20 and 300 C. Penetrating only the Cr/CrSi2 interface at temperatures above 150 C induces further growth of the silicide as a uniform stoichiometric layer. The growth rate does not depend on the thickness of the initially formed silicide at least up to a thickness of 150 nm. The amount of growth depends linearly on the density of energy deposited at the interface. The growth is temperature dependent with an apparent activation energy of 0.2 eV. Irradiating only through the Si/CrSi2 interface does not induce silicide growth. It is concluded that the formation of CrSi2 by ion beam mixing is an interface-limited process and that the limiting reaction occurs at the Cr/CrSi2 interface.

  1. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  2. [Mixed states and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Cermolacce, M; Corréard, N; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    Because of their compilation of contrasted symptoms and their variable clinical presentation, mixed episodes have been withdrawn from the DSM. However, mixed states question not only the bonds between depression and mania, but also the distinction between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Indeed, doubts about the dichotomy introduced by Kraepelin between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia is as old as the nosolgy itself, as attest the later works of this author revealing his hesitations on his own classification. But findings here reviewed issued from recent technical advances, particularly in the imaging and genetic fields, offer a better understanding of the boundaries between these two disorders. Yet, when confronted to an acute episode, clinicians may find it challenging to distinguish a mixed state from a schizophrenic relapse. Indeed, there is no pathognomonic manifestation allowing to retain a diagnosis with confidence. The physician will therefore have to identify a pattern of signs, which will orient his assessment with no certainty. Thus, negative rather than affective or psychotic symptomatology appears to be useful in discriminating schizophrenia (or schizoaffective) disorders from mixed mania. However, a conclusion during this acute stage appears in definitive a formal exercise, first because the final diagnosis will only be ascertained once the symptoms are amended, and second because, according to our classifications, a mood episode, including mania and mixed mania, can be observed without ruling out the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2002-06-10

    The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

  4. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2001-06-11

    The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

  5. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  6. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  7. Natural convective mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; de La Cruz, Luis; del Castillo, Luis

    1998-11-01

    Natural convective mixing flows. Eduardo Ramos and Luis M. de La Cruz, National University of Mexico and Luis Del Castillo San Luis Potosi University. The possibility of mixing a fluid with a natural convective flow is analysed by solving numerically the mass, momentum and energy equations in a cubic container. Two opposite vertical walls of the container are assumed to have temperatures that oscillate as functions of time. The phase of the oscillations is chosen in such a way that alternating corrotating vortices are formed in the cavity. The mixing efficiency of this kind of flow is examined with a Lagrangian tracking technique. This work was partially financed by CONACyT-Mexico project number GE0044

  8. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controllable mixing system (210) in which a plurality of mixing assemblies (10a-10e) are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly (10) employs a central chamber (16) and two outer, upper and lower, chambers (12, 14). Valves (18, 20) are positioned between chambers, and these valves (18, 20) for a given mixing assembly (10) are operated by upper and lower control rotors (29), which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors (270, 270b). Additionally, a hoop (278) is compressed around upper control rotors (29) and a hoop (278b) is compressed around lower control rotors (29) to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors (29) and drive rotors (270, 270b). The drive rollers (270, 270b) are driven by a motor (213).

  9. Dilution jet mixing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

    1984-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

  10. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  11. The mixed waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to {approximately}$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at {approximately}$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability.

  12. DOE`s decommissioning policy and framework

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Buller, J.; Gross, T.

    1996-03-01

    After decades of weapons production and testing at U.S. Department of Energy facilities across the nation, the DOE has hundreds of unneeded and unwanted buildings still in the complex, many of them contaminated with radioactive and hazardous substances. The DOE`s environmental restoration program mission includes ensuring that risks posed by these surplus facilities are either eliminated or reduced to safe levels through decommissioning. More than 100 buildings in the former weapons complex have been decommissioned since the environmental restoration program began in late 1989. Another 800-plus structures have been declared surplus to the department`s needs and placed in surveillance and maintenance (S&M) programs awaiting final decommissioning activities. Several thousand more facilities are expected to be declared surplus, then deactivated, and placed in S&M programs for eventual decommissioning by the Environmental Restoration program. The Baseline Environmental Management Report that the DOE prepared for Congress in March 1995 estimates that $46.5 billion will be needed over the next 75 years to decommission the department`s contaminated surplus facilities.

  13. Mixing navigation on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we propose a mixing navigation mechanism, which interpolates between random-walk and shortest-path protocol. The navigation efficiency can be remarkably enhanced via a few routers. Some advanced strategies are also designed: For non-geographical scale-free networks, the targeted strategy with a tiny fraction of routers can guarantee an efficient navigation with low and stable delivery time almost independent of network size. For geographical localized networks, the clustering strategy can simultaneously increase efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The present mixing navigation mechanism is of significance especially for information organization of wireless sensor networks and distributed autonomous robotic systems.

  14. Turbulence and Interfacial Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, James; Li, Xiaolin

    2005-03-15

    The authors study mix from analytical and numerical points of view. These investigations are linked. The analytical studies (in addition to laboratory experiments) provide bench marks for the direct simulation of mix. However, direct simulation is too detailed to be useful and to expensive to be practical. They also consider averaged equations. Here the major issue is the validation of the closure assumptions. They appeal to the direct simulation methods for this step. They have collaborated with several NNSA teams; moreover, Stony Brook alumni (former students, faculty and research collaborators) presently hold staff positions in NNSA laboratories.

  15. Atomization and Mixing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Hunt, K.; Duesberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective was the obtainment of atomization and mixing performance data for a variety of typical liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon injector element designs. Such data are required to establish injector design criteria and to provide critical inputs to liquid rocket engine combustor performance and stability analysis, and computational codes and methods. Deficiencies and problems with the atomization test equipment were identified, and action initiated to resolve them. Test results of the gas/liquid mixing tests indicated that an assessment of test methods was required. A series of 71 liquid/liquid tests were performed.

  16. Atomization and mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Jaqua, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art in atomization and mixing for triplet, pentad, and coaxial injectors is described. Injectors that are applicable for LOX/hydrocarbon propellants and main chamber and fuel rich preburner/gas generator mixture ratios are of special interest. Various applicable correlating equations and parameters as well as test data found in the literature are presented. The validity, utility, and important aspects of these data and correlations are discussed and the measurement techniques used are evaluated. Propellant mixing tests performed are described and summarized, results are reported, and tentative conclusions are included.

  17. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  18. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.; Graf, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    DOE Office of Nuclear Safety has sponsored preparation of a guidance document to aid field offices and contractors in their analyses of consequences of postulated major accidents. The guide addresses the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.1A, Chapter V, and 6430.1, including the general requirement that DOE nuclear facilities be sited, designed, and operated in accordance with standards, codes, and guides consistent with those applied to comparable licensed nuclear facilities. The guide includes both philosophical and technical information in the areas of: siting guidelines doses applied to an offsite reference person; consideration also given to an onsite reference person; physical parameters, models, and assumptions to be applied when calculating doses for comparison to siting criteria; and potential accident consequences other than radiological dose to a reference person which might affect siting and major design features of the facility, such as environmental contamination, population dose, and associated public health effects. Recommendations and/or clarifications are provided where this could be done without adding new requirements. In this regard, the guide is considered a valuable aid to the safety analyst, especially where requirements have been subject to inconsistent interpretation or where analysis methods are in transition, such as use of dose model (ICRP 2 or ICRP 30) or use of probabilistic methods of risk analysis in the siting and design of nuclear facilities.

  19. DOE standard: Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  20. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  1. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Mollie; Welch, Cynthia F.; Goodwin, Lynne Alese; Keller, Jennie

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  2. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, DH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-05-01

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized as a promising and economically viable technology for large-scale energy storage on worldwide electrical grids. But because these batteries are entirely liquid, fluid flow and instabilities may affect battery robustness and performance. Here we present estimates of flow magnitude and ultrasound measurements of the flow in a realistic liquid metal electrode. We find that flow does substantially affect mass transport by altering the electrode mixing time. Above a critical electrical current density, the convective flow organizes and gains speed, which promotes transport and would yield improved battery efficiency. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  3. Diffraction manipulation by four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Katzir, Itay; Ron, Amiram; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2015-03-09

    We suggest a scheme to manipulate paraxial diffraction by utilizing the dependency of a four-wave mixing process on the relative angle between the light fields. A microscopic model for four-wave mixing in a Λ-type level structure is introduced and compared to recent experimental data. We show that images with feature size as low as 10 μm can propagate with very little or even negative diffraction. The mechanism is completely different from that conserving the shape of spatial solitons in nonlinear media, as here diffraction is suppressed for arbitrary spatial profiles. At the same time, the gain inherent to the nonlinear process prevents loss and allows for operating at high optical depths. Our scheme does not rely on atomic motion and is thus applicable to both gaseous and solid media.

  4. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  5. The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Verlinde, J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; McFarquhar, Greg; Yannuzzi, V. T.; Avramov, Alexander; Greenburg, S.; Johnson, N.; Zhang, G.; Poellot, Michael; Mather, Jim H.; Turner, David D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Zak, Bernard D.; Prenni, Anthony J.; Daniel, J. S.; Kok, G. L.; Tobin, D. C.; Holz, R. E.; Sassen, Kenneth; Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, Patrick; Tooman, Tim P.; Ivey, Mark D.; Richardson, S. J.; Bahrmann, C. P.; Shupe, Matthew D.; DeMott, Paul J.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Schofield, R.

    2007-02-01

    In order to help bridge the gaps in our understanding of mixed-phase Arctic clouds, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (DOE-ARM) funded an integrated, systematic observational study. The major objective of the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted September 27–October 22, 2004 during the autumnal transition season, was to collect a focused set of observations needed to advance our understanding of the cloud microphysics, cloud dynamics, thermodynamics, radiative properties, and evolution of Arctic mixed-phase clouds. These data would then be used to improve to both detailed models of Arctic clouds and large-scale climate models. M-PACE successfully documented the microphysical structure of arctic mixed-phase clouds, with multiple in situ profiles in both single-layer and multi-layer clouds, over the two ground-based remote sensing sites at Barrow and Oliktok Point. Liquid was found in clouds with temperatures down to -30C, the coldest cloud top temperature below -40C sampled by the aircraft. The remote sensing instruments suggest that ice was present in low concentrations, mostly concentrated in precipitation shafts, although there are indications of light ice precipitation present below the optically thick single-layer clouds. Flights into arctic cirrus clouds revealed microphysics properties very similar to their mid-latitude in situ formed cousins, with dominant ice crystal habit bullet rosettes.

  6. Quantum evaporation of flavor-mixed particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2014-03-01

    Particles whose propagation (mass) and interaction (flavor) bases are misaligned are mixed, e.g., neutrinos, quarks, Kaons, etc. We show that interactions (elastic scattering) of individual mass-eigenstates can result in their inter-conversions. Most intriguing and counter-intuitive implication of this process is a new process, which we refer to as the ``quantum evaporation.'' Consider a mixed particle trapped in a gravitational potential. If such a particle scatters off something (e.g., from another mixed particle) elastically from time to time, this particle (or both particles, respectively) can eventually escape to infinity with no extra energy supplied. That is as if a ``flavor-mixed satellite'' hauled along a bumpy road puts itself in space without a rocket, fuel, etc. Of course, the process at hand is entirely quantum and has no counterpart in classical mechanics. It also has nothing to do with tunneling or other known processes. We discuss some implications to the dark matter physics, cosmology and cosmic neutrino background. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.

  7. Radial Mixing in Turbomachines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-31

    Belgium March 31, 1991 Final Scientific Report June 1, 1989 - July 31, 1990 VUB -STR -17 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. - Prepared ...secondary flows and turbulence as sources of mixing was investigated by conducting experiments using hot-wire anemometry and ehtylene tracer gas

  8. Stabilizer for mixed fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, M.; Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.

    1984-03-13

    A stabilizer for mixed fuels containing a reaction product obtained by reacting (1) a polyol having at least 3 hydroxyl groups in the molecule and a molecular weight of 400-10,000 with (2) an epihalohydrin, as the principal component.

  9. Mixing and Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditmars, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of longitudinal dispersion, mixing and transport in streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and oceans. This review covers also: (1) fluid-solid mixtures and (2) oil spill behavior. A list of 189 references published in 1976 and 1977 is presented. (HM)

  10. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  11. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  12. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  13. Mixing and Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditmars, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of longitudinal dispersion, mixing and transport in streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and oceans. This review covers also: (1) fluid-solid mixtures and (2) oil spill behavior. A list of 189 references published in 1976 and 1977 is presented. (HM)

  14. Mixed valent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riseborough, P. S.; Lawrence, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We review the theory of mixed-valent metals and make comparison with experiments. A single-impurity description of the mixed-valent state is discussed alongside the description of the nearly-integer valent or Kondo limit. The degeneracy N of the f-shell plays an important role in the description of the low-temperature Fermi-liquid state. In particular, for large N, there is a rapid cross-over between the mixed-valent and the Kondo limit when the number of f electrons is changed. We discuss the limitations on the application of the single-impurity description to concentrated compounds such as those caused by the saturation of the Kondo effect and those due to the presence of magnetic interactions between the impurities. This discussion is followed by a description of a periodic lattice of mixed-valent ions, including the role of the degeneracy N. The article concludes with a comparison of theory and experiment. Topics covered include the single-impurity Anderson model, Luttinger’s theorem, the Friedel sum rule, the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, the single-impurity Kondo model, Kondo screening, the Wilson ratio, local Fermi-liquids, Fermi-liquid sum rules, the Noziéres exhaustion principle, Doniach’s diagram, the Anderson lattice model, the Slave-Boson method, etc.

  15. Preserving DOE's Research Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parr, Patricia D.

    1998-01-01

    Seven sites are designated as Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Parks and serve as irreplaceable outdoor laboratories for scientific research and education. The DOE has recommended the disposal of nearly one- quarter of the research park land holdings. Offers suggestions for developing a plan for protecting the…

  16. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC`s. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  17. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC's. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  18. Considerations Underlying the Use of Mixed Group Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewsbury, Paul A.; Bowden, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed Group Validation (MGV) is an approach for estimating the diagnostic accuracy of tests. MGV is a promising alternative to the more commonly used Known Groups Validation (KGV) approach for estimating diagnostic accuracy. The advantage of MGV lies in the fact that the approach does not require a perfect external validity criterion or gold…

  19. Iterative methods for mixed finite element equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, S.; Nagtegaal, J. C.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

    1985-01-01

    Iterative strategies for the solution of indefinite system of equations arising from the mixed finite element method are investigated in this paper with application to linear and nonlinear problems in solid and structural mechanics. The augmented Hu-Washizu form is derived, which is then utilized to construct a family of iterative algorithms using the displacement method as the preconditioner. Two types of iterative algorithms are implemented. Those are: constant metric iterations which does not involve the update of preconditioner; variable metric iterations, in which the inverse of the preconditioning matrix is updated. A series of numerical experiments is conducted to evaluate the numerical performance with application to linear and nonlinear model problems.

  20. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Dietsche, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE`s Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP`s charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program.