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Sample records for doe sodium bearing

  1. Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

    2003-12-01

    A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

  2. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  3. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  4. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  5. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  6. Electrolytic Treatment of ICPP Sodium-Bearing Waste Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-02-02

    Two proof-of-principle tests were conducted to determine if nitrate can be destroyed electrochemically in a simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Sodium-Bearing waste. Both tests demonstrated the destruction of nitrate as well as the removal of other metals in the simulant. Metals removal is believed to be due to precipitation as a result of a change in the pH of the waste solution from strongly acidic to highly alkaline and reduction to a metal or metal oxide. Although gas evolution at the cathode was visible during each test, there were no visible signs of NO{sub x} formation in either test.

  7. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.

    2000-10-30

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  8. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  9. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Buchmiller, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Graham, Dennis D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Macisaac, Brett D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Reamer, Irene A.; Workman, R. J.

    2002-08-01

    Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW). SBW is a high soda, acid high activity waste stored at the INEEL in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates the its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high then a molten alkali sulfate containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product quality constraint determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This report summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW. Summary

  10. TRUEX partitioning from radioactive ICPP sodium bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Southeast Idaho is currently evaluating several treatment technologies applicable to waste streams generated over several decades of-nuclear fuel reprocessing. Liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), generated primarily during decontamination activities, is one of the waste streams of interest. The TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process developed at Argonne National Laboratory is currently being evaluated to separate the actinides from SBW. On a mass basis, the amount of the radioactive species in SBW are low relative to inert matrix components. Thus, the advantage of separations is a dramatic decrease in resulting volumes of high activity waste (HAW) which must be dispositioned. Numerous studies conducted at the ICPP indicate the applicability of the TRUEX process has been demonstrated; however, these studies relied on a simulated SBW surrogate for the real waste. Consequently, a series of batch contacts were performed on samples of radioactive ICPP SBW taken from tank WM-185 to verify that actual waste would behave similarly to the simulated waste. The test results with SBW from tank WM-185 indicate the TRUEX solvent effectively extracts the actinides from the samples of actual waste. Gross alpha radioactivity, attributed predominantly to Pu and Am, was reduced from 3.14E+04 dps/mL to 1.46 dps/mL in three successive batch contacts with fresh TRUEX solvent. This reduction corresponds to a decontamination factor of DF = 20,000 or 99.995% removal of the gross a activity in the feed. The TRUEX solvent also extracted the matrix components Zr, Fe, and Hg to an appreciable extent (D{sub Zr} > 10, D{sub Fe} {approx} 2, D{sub Hg} {approx}6). Iron co-extracted with the actinides can be successfully scrubbed from the organic with 0.2 M HNO{sub 3}. Mercury can be selectively partitioned from the actinides with either sodium carbonate or nitric acid ({ge} 5 M HNO{sub 3}) solutions.

  11. Pre-Decisional Sodium Bearing Waste Technology Development Roadmap FY-01 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Dannel, Gary Eidson

    2001-09-01

    This report provides an update to the Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) Technology Development Roadmap generated a year ago. It outlines progress made to date and near-term plans for the technology development work necessary to support processing SBW. In addition, it serves as a transition document to the Risk Management Plan (RMP) required by the Project per DOE Order 413.3, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.” Technical uncertainties have been identified as design basis elements (DBEs) and captured in a technical baseline database. As the risks are discovered, assessed, and mitigated, the status of the DBEs in the database will be updated and tracked to closure.

  12. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  13. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  14. Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  15. Preparation and characterization of sodium bearing perovskite phases

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, N.K. Sali, S.K.; Mudher, K.D. Singh; Venugopal, V.

    2008-02-05

    Ceramic waste-forms constitute a major alternative to glass for immobilization of radionuclides in solid phase, with advantage of greater stability in the presence of water at moderate temperature. CaZrO{sub 3} and SrZrO{sub 3} with ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure are suitable host matrices for fixation of sodium and neodymium. Three new phases with compositions Na{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5}ZrO{sub 3}, Ca{sub 0.44}Na{sub 0.28}Nd{sub 0.28}ZrO{sub 3} and Sr{sub 0.6}Na{sub 0.2}Nd{sub 0.2}ZrO{sub 3} have been synthesized and characterized as orthorhombic phases. The crystal structure of Ca{sub 0.44}Na{sub 0.28}Nd{sub 0.28}ZrO{sub 3} was derived from the crystallographic parameters of CaZrO{sub 3} using X-ray powder diffraction data in the orthorhombic system by Rietveld profile method. Preliminary leaching studies carried out in a digestion bomb showed low leachability of sodium and neodymium in water at 70 deg. C from Ca{sub 0.44}Na{sub 0.28}Nd{sub 0.28}ZrO{sub 3} matrix as compared to that from Sr{sub 0.6}Na{sub 0.2}Nd{sub 0.2}ZrO{sub 3} matrix.

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Research and Development FY-2002 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Deldebbio, John Anthony; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Olson, Lonnie Gene; Scholes, Bradley Adams

    2002-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2002, immobilization-related research included of grout formulation development for sodium-bearing waste, absorption of the waste on silica gel, and off-gas system mercury collection and breakthrough using activated carbon. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout at 70 weight percent and onto silica gel at 74 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 11 weight percent mercury in sulfur-impregnated activated carbon was achieved with 99.8% off-gas mercury removal efficiency.

  17. Alternative TRUEX-Based Pretreatment Processing of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2000-09-27

    The goals of this study were to demonstrate a selective complexant for separating mercury from the transuranic (TRU) elements in the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process and to demonstrate alternative stripping methods to eliminate phosphorus-containing, actinide stripping agents during TRUEX processing. The work described in this report provides the basis for implementing an improved TRUEX-based flowsheet for processing INEEL sodium-bearing waste using only minor modifications to the current Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) flowsheet design.

  18. Sputtering Products of Sodium Sulfate: Implications for Io's Surface and for Sodium-Bearing Molecules in the Io Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, D. S.; Calaway, W. F.; Hansen, C. S.; Lykke, K. R.; Pellin, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    The composition of the sodium-bearing molecular ion cloud in the vicinity of Io may yield clues to Io's geochemistry. Likely Na-bearing source minerals are Na-sulfides and Na2SO4, with the relative composition depending on the distribution of thermal environments in the upper crust. These materials will be sputtered by co-rotating torus ions either from the surface or from atmospheric aerosols. Using laser postionization, we investigated the ion-sputtered neutral products of Na2SO4to determine whether NaO in the Io torus might be a diagnostic indicator for sodium sulfate on Io's surface or in aerosols. With an ArF excimer laser (λ = 6.4 eV), single-photon saturation of the ionization step was achieved for NaS, Na2O, and the combination Na2S + Na2O2at mass 78, while other species, including NaO, were close to saturation. Photofragmentation during the ionization step was minimal by all indications. The results predict sputtering ratios NaO/NaS > 8, Na2O/NaS ∼8, Na2/NaS ≥ 6, and Na/NaS ≥ 100. Multiphoton ionization was also attempted using a frequency-doubled (3.2-eV) Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser at high intensities, but saturation was not achieved for the major species, and there was evidence of photofragmentation. Velocity distributions of the sputter products show for the first time that significant fractions of sodium-bearing molecules can be sputtered into unbound trajectories from Io's surface, with escape fractions > 50% in the case of NaO. Combining relative sputter yields and velocity distributions gives escape ratios of NaO/NaS > 10, Na2/NaS ∼ 6, and Na2O/NaS ∼2.8 from Na2SO4. While absolute sputtering and escape ratios need to be compared for Na-sulfides versus Na2SO4, this work shows that, in the absence of significant modification by atmospheric chemical reactions, measurement of the neutral NaO/NaS ratio in the vicinity of Io could identify the major Na-bearing minerals.

  19. Leaching of vanadium, sodium, and silicon from molten V-Ti-bearing slag obtained from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan-yuan; Yi, Ling-yun; Zhao, Wei; Chen, De-sheng; Zhao, Hong-xin; Qi, Tao

    2016-08-01

    The water leaching process of vanadium, sodium, and silicon from molten vanadium-titanium-bearing (V-Ti-bearing) slag obtained from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was investigated systematically. The results show that calcium titanate, sodium aluminosilicate, sodium oxide, silicon dioxide and sodium vanadate are the major components of the molten V-Ti-bearing slag. The experimental results indicate that the liquid-solid (L/S) mass ratio significantly affects the leaching process because of the respective solubilities and diffusion rates of the components. A total of 83.8% of vanadium, 72.8% of sodium, and 16.1% of silicon can be leached out via a triple counter-current leaching process under the optimal conditions of a particle size below 0.074 mm, a temperature of 90°C, a leaching time of 20 min, an L/S mass ratio of 4:1, and a stirring speed of 300 r/min. The kinetics of vanadium leaching is well described by an internal diffusion-controlled model and the apparent activation energy is 11.1 kJ/mol. The leaching mechanism of vanadium was also analyzed.

  20. Paramont's Black Bear No. 4 mine does it right, again

    SciTech Connect

    Sanda, A.

    2007-07-15

    The Paramont Coal Company Virginia, LLC, a subsidiary of Alpha Natural Resources, recently won the '2007 overall award for excellence in mining and reclamation from the Virginia Division of Mined Land Reclamation and the Virginia Mining Association. Coal People Magazine recently visited Black Bear No. 4 mine where a settling pond was being removed and stream bed placed to drain the area, part of the 451-acre award winning reclamation project. The article recounts discussions with mining engineers about the company's operations with emphasis on the Black Bear No. 4 mine. Black Bear No. 1 mine won five state and national awards last year for conservation and land management practices. 8 photos.

  1. Does despotic behavior or food search explain the occurrence of problem brown bears in Europe?

    PubMed

    Elfström, Marcus; Zedrosser, Andreas; Jerina, Klemen; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Kindberg, Jonas; Budic, Lara; Jonozovič, Marko; Swenson, Jon E

    2014-07-01

    Bears foraging near human developments are often presumed to be responding to food shortage, but this explanation ignores social factors, in particular despotism in bears. We analyzed the age distribution and body condition index (BCI) of shot brown bears in relation to densities of bears and people, and whether the shot bears were killed by managers (i.e., problem bears; n = 149), in self-defense (n = 51), or were hunter-killed nonproblem bears (n = 1,896) during 1990-2010. We compared patterns between areas with (Slovenia) and without supplemental feeding (Sweden) of bears relative to 2 hypotheses. The food-search/food-competition hypothesis predicts that problem bears should have a higher BCI (e.g., exploiting easily accessible and/or nutritious human-derived foods) or lower BCI (e.g., because of food shortage) than nonproblem bears, that BCI and human density should have a positive correlation, and problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears should have a negative correlation (i.e., more problem bears during years of low food availability). Food competition among bears additionally predicts an inverse relationship between BCI and bear density. The safety-search/naivety hypothesis (i.e., avoiding other bears or lack of human experience) predicts no relationship between BCI and human density, provided no dietary differences due to spatiotemporal habitat use among bears, no relationship between problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears, and does not necessarily predict a difference between BCI for problem/nonproblem bears. If food competition or predation avoidance explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted younger problem than nonproblem bears and a negative correlation between age and human density. However, if only food search explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted no relation between age and problem or nonproblem bear status, or between age and human density. We found no

  2. Does despotic behavior or food search explain the occurrence of problem brown bears in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Elfström, Marcus; Zedrosser, Andreas; Jerina, Klemen; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Kindberg, Jonas; Budic, Lara; Jonozovič, Marko; Swenson, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Bears foraging near human developments are often presumed to be responding to food shortage, but this explanation ignores social factors, in particular despotism in bears. We analyzed the age distribution and body condition index (BCI) of shot brown bears in relation to densities of bears and people, and whether the shot bears were killed by managers (i.e., problem bears; n = 149), in self-defense (n = 51), or were hunter-killed nonproblem bears (n = 1,896) during 1990–2010. We compared patterns between areas with (Slovenia) and without supplemental feeding (Sweden) of bears relative to 2 hypotheses. The food-search/food-competition hypothesis predicts that problem bears should have a higher BCI (e.g., exploiting easily accessible and/or nutritious human-derived foods) or lower BCI (e.g., because of food shortage) than nonproblem bears, that BCI and human density should have a positive correlation, and problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears should have a negative correlation (i.e., more problem bears during years of low food availability). Food competition among bears additionally predicts an inverse relationship between BCI and bear density. The safety-search/naivety hypothesis (i.e., avoiding other bears or lack of human experience) predicts no relationship between BCI and human density, provided no dietary differences due to spatiotemporal habitat use among bears, no relationship between problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears, and does not necessarily predict a difference between BCI for problem/nonproblem bears. If food competition or predation avoidance explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted younger problem than nonproblem bears and a negative correlation between age and human density. However, if only food search explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted no relation between age and problem or nonproblem bear status, or between age and human density. We found

  3. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  4. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  5. Suitability of Silica Gel to Process INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste - Letter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Robert John; Herbst, Alan Keith

    2000-09-01

    The suitability of using the silica gel process for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sodium bearing waste was investigated during fiscal year 2000. The study was co-funded by the Tanks Focus Area as part of TTP No. ID-77WT-31 and the High Level Waste Program. The task also included the investigation of possible other absorbents. Scoping tests and examination of past work showed that the silica gel absorption/adsorption and drying method was the most promising; thus only silica gel was studied and not other absorbents. The documentation on the Russian silica gel process provided much of the needed information but did not provide some of the processing detail so these facts had to be inferred or gleaned from the literature.

  6. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium -Bearing Waste (FY2001 WM-180)

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-09-21

    A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate the vitrification flowsheet of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's sodium bearing waste (SBW) using the latest WM-180 tank composition. Although the previous study did not restrict waste loadings (WLs) based on the potential to form a segregated salt layer, avoiding its development in a melter is beneficial and was the primary focus from the glass-formulation perspective. The testing results described in this report were aimed at providing a candidate glass composition for use in a scaled melter demonstration of direct vitrification of WM-180 in the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the EV-16 melter at the Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory.

  7. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  8. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

  9. Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) as a sodium-bearing anode for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z; Ravnsbaek, DB; Xiang, K; Chiang, YM

    2014-07-01

    Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) synthesized as fine carbon-coated powders is demonstrated for the first time to be a suitable sodium-bearing anode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries (ANaBs). Importantly, Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) is found to be stable in deoxygenated water, enabling use of this material in aqueous systems. As a sodiated anode, it allows use of sodium-depleted cathode materials that require supply of sodium-ions from the anode. As an example, we demonstrate for the first time the use of olivine FePO4 as a cathode in an ANaB. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the teddy bear sign predict psychogenic nonepileptic seizures?

    PubMed

    Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Lesser, Ronald; Tran, Tung T; Fortuné, Taryn; Muthugovindan, Deivasumathy; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated whether adults and older teenagers who bring toy stuffed animals to an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU), i.e., the "teddy bear sign," were more likely to be diagnosed to have psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) than to have epilepsy. We prospectively evaluated 335 patients, aged 15 years and older, admitted to our EMU over a 19-month period, assessing age at seizure onset, duration of seizures, gender, seizure diagnosis, presence of intellectual disabilities, presence of psychiatric illness, and possession of a toy stuffed animal in the EMU. Among all ages, patients who brought toy stuffed animals were not more likely to have PNES or both PNES and epilepsy than to have epilepsy alone. For those 18 and over, there was a significant difference but only after adjusting for all other patient characteristics, and absolute differences were small. Patients 18 and older with stuffed animals had a 3.21 (95% confidence interval = 1.58, 8.90) times greater odds of being diagnosed to have PNES or both PNES and epilepsy than to have epilepsy alone after adjusting for other patient characteristics (p = 0.022). We conclude that patient possession of toy stuffed animals in the EMU is not a reliable sign of PNES. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Bader, M S H

    2005-05-20

    A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a "full separation" approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). In the second stage, polyvalent cations (mainly TRU elements and their fission products except cesium along with aluminum and other toxic metals) are separated from the bulk of monovalent anions and cations (dominantly sodium nitrate) by a front-end LPP. In the third stage, MD is used first to concentrate sodium nitrate to near saturation followed by a rear-end LPP to precipitate and separate sodium nitrate along with the remaining minor species from the bulk of the aqueous phase. The LPP-MD hybrid system uses a small amount of an additive and energy to carry out the treatment, addresses multiple critical species, extracts an economic value from some of waste species, generates minimal waste with suitable disposal paths, and offers rapid deployment. As such, the LPP-MD could be a valuable tool for multiple needs across the DOE complex where no effective or economic alternatives are available.

  12. Spatial distribution of interstellar dust in the Sun's vicinity. Comparison with neutral sodium-bearing gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergely, J.-L.; Valette, B.; Lallement, R.; Raimond, S.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: 3D tomography of the interstellar dust and gas may be useful in many respects, from the physical and chemical evolution of the interstellar medium itself to foreground decontamination of the cosmic microwave background, or various studies of the environments of specific objects. However, while spectral data cubes of the galactic emission become increasingly precise, the information on the distance to the emitting regions has not progressed as well and relies essentially on the galactic rotation curve. Our goal here is to bring more precise information on the distance to nearby interstellar dust and gas clouds within 250 pc. Methods: We apply the best available calibration methods to a carefully screened set of stellar Strömgren photometry data for targets possessing a Hipparcos parallax and spectral type classification. We combine the derived interstellar extinctions and the parallax distances for about 6000 stars to build a 3D tomography of the local dust. We use an inversion method based on a regularized Bayesian approach and a least squares criterion, optimized for this specific data set. We apply the same inversion technique to a totally independent set of neutral sodium absorption data available for about 1700 target stars. Results: We obtain 3D maps of the opacity and the distance to the main dust-bearing clouds within 250 pc and identify in those maps well-known dark clouds and high galactic more diffuse entities. We calculate the integrated extinction between the Sun and the cube boundary and compare this with the total galactic extinction derived from infrared 2D maps. The two quantities reach similar values at high latitudes, as expected if the local dust content is satisfyingly reproduced and the dust is closer than 250 pc. Those maps show a larger high latitude dust opacity in the North compared to the South, reinforcing earlier evidences. Interestingly the gas maps do not show the same asymmetry, suggesting a polar asymmetry of the dust to gas

  13. Composition and Simulation of Tank WM-180 Sodium Bearing Waste at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jerry Dale

    2001-04-01

    The 1-million liters of sodium-bearing waste in the WM-180 tank at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center has been concentrated and will be the first to be processed, at its current composition, by vitrification to prepare the radioactive waste for disposition. The waste has been sampled and analyzed for cations, anions, and radionuclides in the liquid and in the small amount of solids that were entrained with the liquid during sampling. The analytical results have been evaluated and a non-radioactive simulant composition and preparation procedure developed and demonstrated to result in a clear solution. The evaluation and results are reported here. This simulant is suitable for performing laboratory and pilot-scale tests in order to develop the vitrification technology. The solids entrained from the tank with the liquid sample amount to 0.06% of the dissolved solids in the liquid. While their elemental and radionuclide composition was determined, qualitative characterization using x-ray diffraction was not possible. Because of the interest in the properties of solids that may be in the bottom of the WM-180 tank, for tank closure activities, thermodynamic modeling was performed of potential precipitates that may be in equilibrium with the solution. The results were used to derive a possible chemical composition of the solids.

  14. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  15. Sulfur Partitioning During Vitrification of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Darab, John G.; Graham, Dennis D.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.

    2001-07-31

    The sodium bearing tank waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains high concentrations of sulfur (roughly 5 mass% of SO3 on a nonvolatile oxide basis). The amount of sulfur that can be feed to the melter will ultimately determine the loading of SBW in glass produced by the baseline (low-temperature, joule-heated, liquid-fed, ceramic-lined) melter. The amount of sulfur which can be fed to the melter is determined by several major factors including: the tolerance of the melter for an immiscible salt layer accumulation, the solubility of sulfur in the glass melt, the fraction of sulfur removed to the off-gas, and the incorporation of sulfur into the glass up to it?s solubility limit. This report summarizes the current status of testing aimed at determining the impacts of key chemical and physical parameters on the partitioning of sulfur between the glass, a molten salt, and the off-gas.

  16. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  17. Sodium nitrate supplementation does not enhance performance of endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Bescós, Raúl; Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Galilea, Pedro A; Roig, Andreu; Drobnic, Franchek; Sureda, Antoni; Martorell, Miquel; Cordova, Alfredo; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2012-12-01

    Supplementation with inorganic nitrate has been suggested to be an ergogenic aid for athletes as nitric oxide donor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of inorganic sodium nitrate benefits well-trained athletes performing a 40-min exercise test in laboratory conditions. In addition, we investigated the effect of this supplement on plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and in nitrated proteins. Thirteen trained athletes participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They performed a 40-min cycle ergometer distance-trial test after two 3-d periods of dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (10 mg·kg of body mass) or placebo. Concentration of plasma nitrate (256 ± 35 μM) and nitrite (334 ± 86 nM) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after nitrate supplementation compared with placebo (nitrate: 44 ± 11 μM; nitrite: 187 ± 43 nM). In terms of exercise performance, there were no differences in either the mean distance (nitrate: 26.4 ± 1.1 km; placebo: 26.3 ± 1.2 km; P = 0.61) or mean power output (nitrate: 258 ± 28 W; placebo: 257 ± 28 W; P = 0.89) between treatments. Plasma ET-1 increased significantly (P < 0.05) just after exercise in nitrate (4.0 ± 0.8 pg·mL) and placebo (2.4 ± 0.4 pg·mL) conditions. This increase was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the nitrate group. Levels of nitrated proteins did not differ between treatments (nitrate: preexercise, 91% ± 23%; postexercise, 81% ± 23%; placebo: preexercise, 95% ± 20%; postexercise, 99% ± 19%). Sodium nitrate supplementation did not improve a 40-min distance-trial performance in endurance athletes. In addition, concentration of plasma ET-1 increased significantly after exercise after supplementation with sodium nitrate.

  18. Design and characterization of microporous zeolitic hydroceramic waste forms for the solidification and stabilization of sodium bearing wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yun

    During the production of nuclear weapon by the DOE, large amounts of liquid waste were generated and stored in millions of gallons of tanks at Savannah River, Hanford and INEEL sites. Typically, the waste contains large amounts of soluble NaOH, NaNO2 and NaNO3 and small amounts of soluble fission products, cladding materials and cleaning solution. Due to its high sodium content it has been called sodium bearing waste (SBW). We have formulated, tested and evaluated a new type of hydroceramic waste form specifically designed to solidify SBW. Hydroceramics can be made from an alumosilicate source such as metakaolin and NaOH solutions or the SBW itself. Under mild hydrothermal conditions, the mixture is transformed into a solid consisting of zeolites. This process leads to the incorporation of radionuclides into lattice sites and the cage structures of the zeolites. Hydroceramics have high strength and inherent stability in realistic geologic settings. The process of making hydroceramics from a series of SBWs was optimized. The results are reported in this thesis. Some SBWs containing relatively small amounts of NaNO3 and NaNO2 (SigmaNOx/Sigma Na<25 mol%) can be directly solidified with metakaolin. The remaining SBW having high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite (SigmaNOx/Sigma Na>25 mol%) require pretreatment since a zeolitic matrix such as cancrinite is unable to host more than 25 mol% nitrate/nitrite. Two procedures to denitrate/denitrite followed by solidification were developed. One is based on calcination in which a reducing agent such as sucrose and metakaolin have been chosen as a way of reducing nitrate and nitrite to an acceptable level. The resulting calcine can be solidified using additional metakaolin and NaOH to form a hydroceramic. As an alternate, a chemical denitration/denitrition process using Si and Al powders as the reducing agents, followed by adding metakaolin to the solution prepare a hydroceramic was also investigated. Si and Al not only are

  19. Characterization of Tank WM-189 Sodium-bearing Waste at INTEC, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2003-07-01

    Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center 300,000-gallon vessel WM-189 was filled in late 2001 with concentrated sodium bearing waste (SBW). Three airlifted liquid samples and a steam jetted slurry sample were obtained for quantitative analysis and characterization of WM-189 liquid phase SBW and tank heel sludge. Estimates were provided for most of the reported data values, based on the greater of (a) analytical uncertainty, and (b) variation of analytical results between nominally similar samples. A consistency check on the data was performed by comparing the total mass of dissolved solids in the liquid, as measured gravimetrically from a dried sample, with the corresponding value obtained by summing the masses of cations and anions in the liquid, based on the reported analytical data. After reasonable adjustments to the nitrate and oxygen concentrations, satisfactory consistency between the two results was obtained. A similar consistency check was performed on the reported compositional data for sludge solids from the steam jetted sample. In addition to the compositional data, various other analyses were performed: particle size distribution was measured for the sludge solids, sludge settling tests were performed, and viscosity measurements were made. WM-189 characterization results were compared with those for WM-180, and other Tank Farm Facility tank characterization data. A 2-liter batch of WM-189 simulant was prepared and a clear, stable solution was obtained, based on a general procedure for mixing SBW simulant that was develop by Dr. Jerry Christian. This WM-189 SBW simulant is considered suitable for laboratory testing for process development.

  20. Bone-specific poly(ethylene sodium phosphate)-bearing biodegradable nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yuya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    Chemotherapy is the most reliable treatment for osteoporosis and osseous metastases. To facilitate better drug delivery for bone treatments, a novel preparation of polymeric nanoparticles with high affinity to bone has been prepared. Two-step synthesis of cholesteryl-functionalized poly(ethylene sodium phosphate) (Ch-PEPn·Na) was performed via ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphoesters and the demethylation. The molecular weight of Ch-PEPn·Na could be well controlled by changing the ratio of cholesterol and cyclic phosphoesters. Because Ch-PEPn·Na exhibits an amphiphilic nature in aqueous media, Ch-PEPn·Na-bearing nanoparticles (PEPn·Na NPs) were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique. The size of the nanoparticles investigated in the current study is approximately 100nm, which was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Due to the presence of highly water-soluble polymer chains, dispersion of PEPn·Na NPs in aqueous media was stable for at least 1 week. Hemolytic activity of PEPn·Na NPs was found to be low and PEPn·Na NPs did not disintegrate mammalian cell membranes. Additionally, cytotoxicity of PEPn·Na NPs was not observed at concentrations below 100μg/mL. The adsorption of PEPn·Na NPs on hydroxyapatite (HAp) microparticles was studied in comparison with poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles (PEG NPs). Both PEPn·Na NPs and PEG NPs adsorbed well onto HAp microparticles in distilled water with binding equilibrium constants (KHAp) for PEPn·Na NPs and PEG NPs of 3.6×10(6) and 7.9×10(6), respectively. In contrast, only PEPn·Na NPs adsorbed onto HAp microparticles in a saline phosphate buffer. Moreover, the adsorption of PEPn·Na NPs onto HAp microparticles occurred even in the presence of 1.2mM calcium ions or low-pH media. The affinity of the nanoparticles to bovine bone slices was also studied, with the result that large quantities of adsorbed PEPn·Na NPs were observed on the slices by

  1. Bearing Change to Metal-On-Polyethylene for Ceramic Bearing Fracture in Total Hip Arthroplasty; Does It Work?

    PubMed

    Lee, Soong Joon; Kwak, Hong Suk; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the short-term to midterm results of reoperation with bearing change to metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) after ceramic bearing fracture in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty. Nine third-generation ceramic bearing fractures (6 heads and 3 liners) were treated with bearing change to MoP. Mean age at reoperation was 52.7 years. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years. During follow-up, 2 of 3 liner-fractured hips and 1 of 6 head-fractured hips showed radiologic signs of metallosis and elevated serum chromium levels. Re-reoperation with bearing rechange to a ceramic head was performed for the hips with metallosis. One liner-fractured hip had periprosthetic joint infection. Dislocation occurred in 3 hips. From our experience, bearing change to MoP is not a recommended treatment option for ceramic bearing fracture in total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  3. Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

  4. Laser fluorescence studies of the chemical interactions of sodium species with sulfur bearing fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, M.; Schofield, K.

    1983-01-01

    By using a large matrix of fuel rich and fuel lean H2/O2/N2 and fuel rich C2H2/O2/N2 flames, the behavior of sodium and its interactions with sulfur at high temperatures was extensively characterized. OH concentrations were measured for each flame using the previously validated laser induced fluorescence technique. Sodium atomic concentrations were obtained by the saturated laser fluorescence method. Measurements were made in the absence and presence of up to 2% sulfur. In oxygen rich systems sodium is depleted by NaO2 and NaOH formation. The relative amounts of each are controlled by the degree of nonequilibration of the flame radicals and by the temperature. The bond strength of NaO2 was established. For the first time, a complete understanding of the complex behavior of sodium in fuel lean H2/O2 flames has emerged and computer modeling has permitted various rate constants of Na, NaO2 and NaOH reactions to be approximately fixed.

  5. Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  6. Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan K.

    2002-01-02

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  7. A novel process for the recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite: sodium modification-direct reduction coupled process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-min; Yi, Ling-yun; Wang, Li-na; Chen, De-sheng; Wang, Wei-jing; Liu, Ya-hui; Zhao, Hong-xin; Qi, Tao

    2017-05-01

    A sodium modification-direct reduction coupled process was proposed for the simultaneous extraction of V and Fe from vanadium- bearing titanomagnetite. The sodium oxidation of vanadium oxides to water-soluble sodium vanadate and the transformation of iron oxides to metallic iron were accomplished in a single-step high-temperature process. The increase in roasting temperature favors the reduction of iron oxides but disfavors the oxidation of vanadium oxides. The recoveries of vanadium, iron, and titanium reached 84.52%, 89.37%, and 95.59%, respectively. Moreover, the acid decomposition efficiency of titanium slag reached 96.45%. Compared with traditional processes, the novel process provides several advantages, including a shorter flow, a lower energy consumption, and a higher utilization efficiency of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite resources.

  8. A Separate Pool of Cardiac Phospholemman That Does Not Regulate or Associate with the Sodium Pump

    PubMed Central

    Wypijewski, Krzysztof J.; Howie, Jacqueline; Reilly, Louise; Tulloch, Lindsay B.; Aughton, Karen L.; McLatchie, Linda M.; Shattock, Michael J.; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Fuller, William

    2013-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM), the principal quantitative sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart, regulates the cardiac sodium pump. Much like phospholamban, which regulates the related ATPase SERCA, PLM is reported to oligomerize. We investigated subpopulations of PLM in adult rat ventricular myocytes based on phosphorylation status. Co-immunoprecipitation identified two pools of PLM: one not associated with the sodium pump phosphorylated at Ser63 and one associated with the pump, both phosphorylated at Ser68 and unphosphorylated. Phosphorylation of PLM at Ser63 following activation of PKC did not abrogate association of PLM with the pump, so its failure to associate with the pump was not due to phosphorylation at this site. All pools of PLM co-localized to cell surface caveolin-enriched microdomains with sodium pump α subunits, despite the lack of caveolin-binding motif in PLM. Mass spectrometry analysis of phosphospecific immunoprecipitation reactions revealed no unique protein interactions for Ser63-phosphorylated PLM, and cross-linking reagents also failed to identify any partner proteins for this pool. In lysates from hearts of heterozygous transgenic animals expressing wild type and unphosphorylatable PLM, Ser63-phosphorylated PLM co-immunoprecipitated unphosphorylatable PLM, confirming the existence of PLM multimers. Dephosphorylation of the PLM multimer does not change sodium pump activity. Hence like phospholamban, PLM exists as a pump-inhibiting monomer and an unassociated oligomer. The distribution of different PLM phosphorylation states to different pools may be explained by their differential proximity to protein phosphatases rather than a direct effect of phosphorylation on PLM association with the pump. PMID:23532852

  9. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  10. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.; Lauerhass, L.; Olson, A.L.; Taylor, D.D.; Valentine, J.H.; Lockie, K.A.

    2002-01-16

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

  11. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Olson, Arlin Leland; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Valentine, James Henry; Lockie, Keith Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

  12. Exposure of RML scrapie agent to a sodium percarbonate-based product and sodium dodecyl sulfate renders PrPSc protease sensitive but does not eliminate infectivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prions, the causative agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are notoriously difficult to inactivate. Current decontamination recommendations by the World Health Organization include prolonged exposure to 1 N sodium hydroxide or > 20,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving. For decontamination of large stainless steel surfaces and equipment as in abattoirs, for example, these methods are harsh or unsuitable. The current study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate to inactivate prions. Samples of mouse brain infected with a mouse-adapted strain of the scrapie agent (RML) were exposed to a sodium percarbonate-based product (SPC-P). Treated samples were evaluated for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc)-immunoreactivity by western blot analysis, and residual infectivity by mouse bioassay. Results Exposure to a 21% solution of SPC-P or a solution containing either 2.1% or 21% SPC-P in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resulted in increased proteinase K sensitivity of PrPSc. Limited reductions in infectivity were observed depending on treatment condition. A marginal effect on infectivity was observed with SPC-P alone, but an approximate 2–3 log10 reduction was observed with the addition of SDS, though exposure to SDS alone resulted in an approximate 2 log10 reduction. Conclusions This study demonstrates that exposure of a mouse-adapted scrapie strain to SPC-P does not eliminate infectivity, but does render PrPSc protease sensitive. PMID:23311930

  13. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  14. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Techology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Kirkham, Robert John; Losinski, Sylvester John

    2001-09-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  15. Does taurine deficiency cause metabolic bone disease and rickets in polar bear cubs raised in captivity?

    PubMed

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail E; Rogers, Quinton R; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Hollis, Bruce E; Derocher, Andrew; Andersen, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Rickets and fractures have been reported in captive polar bears. Taurine (TAU) is key for the conjugation of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid unique to bears. Since TAU-conjugated UDCA optimizes fat and fat-soluble vitamin absorption, we asked if TAU deficiency could cause vitamin D malabsorption and lead to metabolic bone disease in captive polar bears. We measured TAU levels in plasma (P) and whole blood (WB) from captive and free-ranging cubs and adults, and vitamin D3 and TAU concentrations in milk samples from lactating sows. Plasma and WB TAU levels were significantly higher in cubs vs captive and free-ranging adult bears. Vitamin D in polar bear milk was 649.2 +/- 569.2 IU/L, similar to that found in formula. The amount of TAU in polar bear milk is 3166.4 +/- 771 nmol/ml, 26-fold higher than in formula. Levels of vitamin D in bear milk and formula as well as in plasma do not indicate classical nutritional vitamin D deficiency. Higher dietary intake of TAU by free-ranging cubs may influence bile acid conjugation and improve vitamin D absorption.

  16. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER WASTE FORMS FOR SODIUM BEARING WASTE AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C; Carol Jantzen, C

    2007-08-27

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) processing of Sodium Bearing Waste simulants was performed in December 2006 by THOR{sup sm} Treatment Technologies LLC (TTT) The testing was performed at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) pilot plant facilities in Golden, CO. FBSR products from these pilot tests on simulated waste representative of the SBW at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) were subsequently transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and leach testing. Four as-received Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) granular/powder samples and four High Temperature Filter (HTF) powder samples were received by SRNL. FBSR DMR samples had been taken from the ''active'' bed, while the HTF samples were the fines collected as carryover from the DMR. The process operated at high fluidizing velocities during the mineralization test such that nearly all of the product collected was from the HTF. Active bed samples were collected from the DMR to monitor bed particle size distribution. Characterization of these crystalline powder samples shows that they are primarily Al, Na and Si, with > 1 wt% Ca, Fe and K. The DMR samples contained less than 1 wt% carbon and the HTF samples ranged from 13 to 26 wt% carbon. X-ray diffraction analyses show that the DMR samples contained significant quantities of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} startup bed. The DMR samples became progressively lower in starting bed alumina with major Na/Al/Si crystalline phases (nepheline and sodium aluminosilicate) present as cumulative bed turnover occurred but 100% bed turnover was not achieved. The HTF samples also contained these major crystalline phases. Durability testing of the DMR and HTF samples using the ASTM C1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT) 7-day leach test at 90 C was performed along with several reference glass samples. Comparison of the normalized leach rates for the various DMR and HTF components was made with the reference glasses and

  17. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy Does Not Improve Hypotension Compared to Sodium Bicarbonate for Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study in a Swine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy Does Not Improve Hypotension Compared to Sodium Bicarbonate for Tricyclic Antidepressant ...Maria Castaneda, MS Abstract Objectives: Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are highly lipophilic medications used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder...Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy Does Not Improve Hypotension Compared to Sodium Bicarbonate for Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity: A Randomized, Controlled

  18. Long-term oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not improve serum albumin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Giungi, Stefania; Tazza, Luigi; Luciani, Giovanna

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis, a frequent event in hemodialysis patients, has been implicated as a potential cause of protein-energy malnutrition. Unfortunately, correction of metabolic acidosis by means of high bicarbonate concentration in the dialysate does not seem to lead to significant changes in nutritional parameters. The project was a single-arm, open-label, 12-month pilot study at a university-based tertiary care center aimed at evaluating whether correction of metabolic acidosis through long-term oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves serum albumin levels and other nutritional parameters in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Twenty highly acidotic hemodialysis patients patients were invited to consume an oral supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (1 g, thrice daily), for 12 months. Patients were followed at baseline and every month, until month 12. At each follow-up visit, dry body weight, BMI, blood pressure, presence of edema, venous bicarbonate, and serum albumin were measured. Total lymphocyte count, fasting total cholesterol and C-reactive protein were assessed every 2 months. At baseline and at 12 months, the subjective global assessment of nutritional status and the protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance normalized to actual body weight were determined. Plasma bicarbonate level rose from 18.1 +/- 2.7 to 22.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/l after 10 months (p = 0.001). Mean serum albumin levels were 3.8 +/- 0.2 mg/dl at baseline and 3.9 +/- 0.2 at the end of the study. Repeated measure ANOVA showed that there was no significant effect of bicarbonate treatment on serum albumin levels (p = 0.29), dry weight (p = 0.1), serum total cholesterol (p = 0.97), total lymphocyte count (p = 0.69), or C-reactive protein (p = 0.85). Mean subjective global assessment score was 4.53 +/- 0.37 at baseline and 4.58 +/- 0.54 at 12 months (p = 0.1). Mean nPNA (g/kg/day) was 0.86 +/- 0.05 at baseline and 0.85 +/- 0.08 at month 12. The present study demonstrates that long

  19. Does the Theory of Planned Behavior Predict Dietary Sodium Intake in Patients With Heart Failure?

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Lennie, Terry A; Dunbar, Sandra B; Pressler, Susan J; Moser, Debra K

    2016-10-18

    Sodium intake in heart failure (HF) is a crucial but poorly understood phenomenon. Theoretical models promote understanding and provide a context for rational appraisal of complex situations. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors were associated with sodium intake in HF patients using theory of planned behavior (TPB). In this study, patients' (N = 244) attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (tenets of the TPB) were assessed using the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire. Sodium intake was estimated objectively by 24-hr urinary sodium excretion (UNa). The average UNa was 3,811 mg. Subjective norms, gender, and New York Heart Association functional class were associated with sodium intake (p < .001). Thus, it is important for health care providers to clearly express their approval of following low-sodium diet to their HF patients, and include significant others in interventions to help patients develop/maintain a positive subjective norm to decrease sodium intake and reduce HF exacerbations.

  20. Does Replacing Sodium Excreted in Sweat Attenuate the Health Benefits of Physical Activity?

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin J; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-08-01

    International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86-100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40-60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20-90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5-1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20-90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3-10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. "Salty sweaters" may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their "salty sweat" condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  1. Does Para-chloroaniline Really Form after Mixing Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine?

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ekim Onur; Irmak, Özgür; Hür, Deniz; Yaman, Batu Can; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-03-01

    Mixing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with chlorhexidine (CHX) forms a brown-colored precipitate. Previous studies are not in agreement whether this precipitate contains para-chloroaniline (PCA). Tests used for analysis may demonstrate different outcomes. Purpose of this study was to determine whether PCA is formed through the reaction of mixing NaOCl and CHX by using high performance liquid chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. To obtain a brown precipitate, 4.99% NaOCl was mixed with 2.0% CHX. This brown precipitate was analyzed and compared with signals obtained from commercially available 4.99% NaOCl, 2% solutions, and 98% PCA in powder form. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses showed that brown precipitate does not contain free PCA. This study will be a cutoff proof for the argument on PCA formation from reaction of CHX and NaOCl. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low sodium intake does not impair renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Höhne, Claudia; Boemke, Willehad; Schleyer, Nora; Francis, Roland C; Krebs, Martin O; Kaczmarczyk, Gabriele

    2002-05-01

    Acute hypoxia causes hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis, often combined with increased diuresis and sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate excretion. With a low sodium intake, the excretion of the anion bicarbonate may be limited by the lower excretion rate of the cation sodium through activated sodium-retaining mechanisms. This study investigates whether the short-term renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis is impaired by a low sodium intake. Nine conscious, tracheotomized dogs were studied twice either on a low-sodium (LS = 0.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) or high-sodium (HS = 7.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) diet. The dogs breathed spontaneously via a ventilator circuit during the experiments: first hour, normoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.21); second to fourth hour, hypoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.1). During hypoxia (arterial PO2 34.4 +/- 2.1 Torr), plasma pH increased from 7.37 +/- 0.01 to 7.48 +/- 0.01 (P < 0.05) because of hyperventilation (arterial PCO2 25.6 +/- 2.4 Torr). Urinary pH and urinary bicarbonate excretion increased irrespective of the sodium intake. Sodium excretion increased more during HS than during LS, whereas the increase in potassium excretion was comparable in both groups. Thus the quick onset of bicarbonate excretion within the first hour of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis was not impaired by a low sodium intake. The increased sodium excretion during hypoxia seems to be combined with a decrease in plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II in LS as well as in HS dogs. Other factors, e.g., increased mean arterial blood pressure, minute ventilation, and renal blood flow, may have contributed.

  3. Does exposure to inhalation anesthesia gases change the ratio of X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing Sperms? A worth exploring project into an uncharted domain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Mckelvey, George; Kaminski, Edward; Zestos, Maria Markakis

    2016-09-01

    According to recent surveys performed in United States and India, anesthesia care providers were observed to have sired female offspring in a higher proportion than male offspring as their firstborn progeny; however, the reasons for the skew are not clear. Our hypothesis is that the underlying biological evidence may be elucidated by unraveling differences (if any) between the concentrations of X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms in the semen samples obtained from males exposed to varied levels of anesthetics in their lifetimes. Therefore, the objectives of the envisaged study would be to conduct a three-stage investigative study on in-vitro human semen samples to determine (a) X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms concentrations' ratio in male pediatric anesthesia care providers' semen samples, (b) changes in X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms concentrations' ratios between the pre-rotation and post-rotation semen samples of male medical student volunteers/observers, and (c) changes in X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms concentrations' ratios between the pre-operative and post-operative day-3 semen samples of male patients presenting for outpatient procedures under inhalational anesthesia. The expected outcomes would be (a) linear and positive correlation of the anesthetic gas usage (exposure) with increased X-bearing sperms/Y-bearing sperms ratio in post-anesthesia day 3 sample as compared to the baseline preoperative sample, (b) linear and positive correlation of the anesthetic gas usage (exposure) with increased X-bearing sperms/Y-bearing sperms ratio in post-rotation sample as compared to the baseline sample, and (c) observation of high X-bearing sperms/Y-bearing sperms ratio in the pediatric anesthesia care providers. In summary, effects (if any) of occupational or personal exposure to inhalational anesthetic gases on the X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms ratio is a worthy project wherein lots of questions that have arisen over decades could find

  4. Cod liver oil in sodium nitrite induced hepatic injury: does it have a potential protective effect?

    PubMed

    Sherif, I O; Al-Gayyar, M M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to sodium nitrites, a food additive, at high levels has been reported to produce reactive nitrogen and oxygen species that cause dysregulation of inflammatory responses and tissue injury. In this work, we examined the impact of dietary cod liver oil on sodium nitrite-induced inflammation in rats. Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawely rats were treated with 80 mg/kg sodium nitrite in presence/absence of 5 ml/kg cod liver oil. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. We measured hepatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL)-1β, C-reactive protein (CRP), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and caspase-3. Cod liver oil reduced sodium nitrite-induced hepatocyte damage. In addition, cod liver oil results in reduction of hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, CRP, TGF-β1, and caspase-3 when compared with the sodium nitrite group. Cod liver oil ameliorates sodium nitrite-induced hepatic injury via multiple mechanisms including blocking sodium nitrite-induced elevation of inflammatory cytokines, fibrosis mediators, and apoptosis markers.

  5. Does oral buffered sodium supplementation reduce nausea and vomiting during an ultramarathon?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2016-01-01

    This work examines whether nausea or vomiting during an ultramarathon are due to a fluid or electrolyte imbalance, and if these symptoms can be reduced through the use of buffered sodium supplements. Starters (n = 376) of a 161.3-km ultramarathon underwent body weight measurements, 74.5% completed a post-race questionnaire, and 53.0% also underwent a post-race blood draw. The incidence of nausea or vomiting progressively increased during the race, and affected 60% of runners overall. Weight change and rate of sodium intake in supplements or in buffered sodium supplements did not differ between those with and without nausea or vomiting. Post-race serum sodium concentration also did not differ between those with and without symptoms in the last race segment. We conclude that weight change, the rate of sodium intake in supplements or in buffered sodium supplements, and serum sodium concentration are not related to symptoms of nausea or vomiting during a 161-km ultramarathon.

  6. Does Mama Bear Always Serve the Porridge? Sex-Role Stereotyping in School Reading Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Margaret E.; Deffenbaugh, Sue

    Sex role stereotyping is the process by which people are defined by their sex rather than by their thoughts, feelings, interests, and abilities. It is the portrayal of people in typical situations as determined by their sex and does not allow either males or females to express the totality of their humanity. This paper discusses the problem of sex…

  7. Does delayed child-bearing increase the risk of levator injury in labour?

    PubMed

    Dietz, Hans P; Simpson, Judy M

    2007-12-01

    Levator trauma is common in parous women. We have recently found a relationship with age at first vaginal delivery in women seen before and after childbirth. To examine women presenting with symptoms of pelvic floor disorders for such an association. Eight hundred and one women were prospectively seen for an interview, clinical examination (including for levator integrity and function in 789 cases), multichannel urodynamic testing and pelvic floor ultrasound (including 3D imaging in 350 cases). Findings were tested for association with maternal age at first vaginal delivery, parity and operative vaginal delivery using logistic regression. Mean age was 55.3 years (range 17-90), with 79% complaining of stress urinary incontinence and 28% of symptoms of prolapse. Median vaginal parity was 2 (range 0-12); mean age at first vaginal delivery was 24 (range 14-39). Levator defects were found in 170 women (21.6%), 24% of the vaginally parous. Defects were more common on the right (86%) than left (45%) (P<0.0001). Women with levator trauma had a higher mean age (25.5 (SD 5.2) vs 23.5 (SD 4.5) years, P<0.0001). Regression modelling confirmed findings, demonstrating an increase in the odds of levator trauma of approximately 10% for every year of delay in child-bearing. Vaginal operative delivery was associated with a near-doubling of the odds of trauma. Increased maternal age is a risk factor for intrapartum pelvic floor trauma. The global trend towards delayed child-bearing may result in an increased prevalence of pelvic floor disorders in coming decades.

  8. Does sodium intake affect the relationship between blood pressure and vascular damage?

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Piotr; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Cwynar, Marcin; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Although the differences between central and peripheral blood pressure (BP) values have been known for decades, the consequences of decision making based on peripheral rather than central BP have only recently been recognized. Recently, a U-shaped relation between sodium intake and cardiovascular risk has been suggested. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT) and central and peripheral BP as well as the effect of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion on this relationship. The study included 182 subjects (mean age, 37.3 ±14.0 years, 92 men and 90 women) who were members of families randomly selected from one of the gminas (administrative regions) in southern Poland. In all patients, peripheral and central BP (using applanation tonometry), IMT, and 24-hour sodium excretion were measured. Hypertension was observed in 44.5% of the participants. The mean urinary sodium excretion was 243 ±81 mmol/d. IMT was significantly more correlated with central pulse pressure (PP) compared with peripheral PP (r = 0.54 vs r = 0.27; P <0.01). After multivariate adjustments, IMT remained significantly related to central systolic BP and central and peripheral PP. When the study group was divided according to the tertiles of sodium excretion, central PP was related to IMT only in the second and third tertiles. When the study group was divided according to sex and sex-specific median values of sodium excretion, IMT was associated with central PP only in subjects with sodium excretion exceeding the median values (both in men and women). IMT is more correlated with central than with peripheral BP. The association between IMT and central PP may be modulated by sodium intake. This hypothesis should be tested in larger studies.

  9. Cromolyn sodium does not prevent hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn and young lambs.

    PubMed

    Frantz, E G; Schreiber, M D; Soifer, S J

    1988-12-01

    Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension may be mediated by leukotrienes. Pulmonary mast cells produce leukotrienes, histamine and prostaglandin D2, and degranulate in response to hypoxia. Cromolyn sodium, a mast cell membrane stabilizing agent, may prevent hypoxia-induced mast cell degranulation. To investigate the role of mast cell products in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, we studied the haemodynamic responses to alveolar hypoxia before and during an intravenous infusion of 3-5 mg/min per kg of cromolyn sodium in 6 chronically instrumented, spontaneously breathing lambs. Since there are age-dependent differences in the response of the pulmonary circulation to some mast cell products, we studied the effects of cromolyn sodium on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn (4-7 days) and young lambs (15-18 days). During alveolar hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased by 68% (P less than 0.05) and 59% (P less than 0.05) in the newborn and young lambs, respectively. With alveolar hypoxia during cromolyn sodium infusion, mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased by 71% (P less than 0.05) and 42% (P less than 0.05) in the newborn and young lambs, respectively. Cromolyn sodium did blunt the hypoxia-induced release of histamine into the circulation. Because hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was not inhibited by cromolyn sodium in either age group, mast cell products are not important mediators of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Does HIV-1 mRNA 5'-untranslated region bear an internal ribosome entry site?

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Victoria V; Terenin, Ilya M; Khutornenko, Anastasia A; Andreev, Dmitri E; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Shatsky, Ivan N

    2016-02-01

    Unspliced human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mRNA is capped and therefore can be translated via conventional scanning mechanism. In addition, its 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) is thought to function as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) during G2/M-phase of cell cycle or when cap-dependent translation is inhibited. Recently, customary methods of internal initiation demonstrating have been challenged, and consequently existence of certain IRESs of cellular origin has been put under question. Since a precise knowledge of translation initiation mechanism used by HIV may be important for cure development, presence of the IRES in HIV-1 mRNA demands a careful reexamination using contemporary stringent criteria. The key point of our strategy is to compare translation efficiency of bicistronic mRNA bearing HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5' UTR in the intercistronic position to that of the corresponding capped monocistronic mRNA. This approach allows determination of internal initiation contribution into the overall level of particular mRNA translation. We found that both in cell-free systems and in cultured cells monocistronic mRNA with HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is translated significantly better than bicistronic one. Importantly, it is also true for G2/M-phase stalled cells or for cells under conditions of inhibited cap-dependent translation. Thus, in our hands contribution of internal ribosome entry into the overall level of translation driven by HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is negligible, and 5'-dependent scanning is a primary mechanism of its translation initiation.

  11. Does obesity influence early outcome of fixed-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Woo, Yew Lok; Chen, Yong Qiang Jerry; Lai, Mun Chun; Tay, Kheng Jin Darren; Chia, Shi-Lu; Lo, Ngai Nung; Yeo, Seng Jin

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a known major contributing risk factor for knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is also believed that obese unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) patients tend to have poorer outcome and possible early failure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the early outcome of obese UKA patients in a single institution. Patients who underwent fixed bearing medial UKA in between year 2005 and 2010 were included in this study. They were divided into four groups based on Body Mass Index (BMI): 25 kg/m(2) (Control); 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (Overweight); 30-34.9 kg/m(2) (Obese); >35 kg/m(2) (Severely Obese). Functional outcome was assessed using Knee Society Score (KSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and Short-form 36 (SF-36). One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to compare the four groups for quantitative variables. There were 673 patients in this study, no significant difference between the four BMI groups for gender and side of operated knee ( p > 0.05). The functional outcome of all four groups at 2 years were comparable (all p > 0.05). At a mean follow up of 5.4 (range 2.5, 8.5) years, 9 revision surgeries (1.3%) were identified. The mean duration from initial surgery to revision surgery was 49 months (Range 6, 90). Patients' pre-operative BMI did not influence the early outcome of UKA patients. However, patients with higher BMI had relatively lower functional score prior to the surgery and tended to be younger. This did not translate to early failure and the functional improvement was similar among all four groups.

  12. Grizzly bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  13. Moderate sodium restriction does not alter lower body negative pressure tolerance.

    PubMed

    Davrath, L R; Gotshall, R W; Tucker, A; Sadeh, W Z; Luckasen, G J; Downes, T R; Coonts, C C

    1999-06-01

    Space travel with exposure to microgravity leads to a significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance on return to Earth, for which countermeasures are only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of moderate dietary sodium restriction on tolerance to LBNP. Eight healthy men, age 25.1+/-1.3 yr, volunteered for the study. Subjects were exposed to presyncopal LBNP after consuming their "typical" diet (C) for 5 d and after consuming a sodium restricted (SR) diet for 5 d. Diet sequence was randomized and adherence was verified by 24-h urine collection on the 4th and 5th days of each diet. All subjects reached presyncope during the LBNP, regardless of diet. Urinary sodium excretion was 3390+/-950 mg on the C diet and 1174+/-560 mg on the SR diet. Urinary potassium was not different between the diets. Cumulative stress index scores were 655+/-460 (mm Hg x min) on the C diet and 639+/-388 (mm Hg x min) during SR. Cardiac volumes, BP and total peripheral resistance were not different at any stage of the LBNP between the diets, nor were catecholamines. Plasma renin activity, determined by radioimmunoassay, was significantly higher during SR at rest, and during all stages of LBNP in comparison with the control diet. Moderate dietary sodium restriction is not detrimental to orthostatic tolerance.

  14. Non-surgical treatment of Achilles rupture: Does duration in functional weight bearing orthosis matter?

    PubMed

    Aujla, Randeep; Kumar, Amit; Bhatia, Maneesh

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures is continually being debated. The success of non-surgical regimes is now evident yet there remains a high rate of surgery in the United States of America and Scandinavia. Recent studies have investigated functional outcome rather than complication rates as primary outcome but the current data are still sparse. We aimed to investigate whether there is any difference in functional outcomes between two dynamic regimes of differing durations for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. The patients in the two groups were matched for age, gender, follow-up duration and mechanism of injury. Forty-four patients were managed in a regime of 11 weeks and another 44 patients for 8 weeks. Demographics, injury details, complications and functional outcome were recorded. The validated Achilles Tendon Rupture Score (ATRS) was used to assess functional outcomes. Minimum follow-up was 1 year. The 11-week group had a mean age of 50.8 years (range: 27-80) with 36 (82%) males. The 8-week group had a mean age of 52.0 years (range: 32-77) with 36 (82%) males. The mean ATRS for the 11-week group was 76.0 (range: 8-100). The mean ATRS for the 8-week group was 76.1 (range: 30-100). There were no re-ruptures in the 11-week group and one in the 8-week group. There were three episodes of venous thromboembolism in the 11-week group and four in the 8-week group. A reduction in duration of dynamic rehabilitation for non-operative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture from 11 weeks to 8 weeks does not lead to a significant detriment in functional outcomes or complication rates. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, “evaporite” refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where “salt” can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  16. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  17. Novel papillomavirus isolated from the oral mucosa of a polar bear does not cluster with other papillomaviruses of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Hans; Rector, Annabel; Bertelsen, Mads F; Leifsson, Pall S; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-05-25

    Papillomatosis has been documented in several carnivores, and papillomavirus (PV) types have been characterized from lesions in a number of carnivore species: the canine oral PV (COPV), the Felis domesticus PV type 1 (FdPV-1) isolated from a Persian cat, the Procyon lotor PV type 1 (PlPV-1) isolated from a raccoon, the canine PV type 2 (CPV-2) from a dog's foot pad lesion and the canine PV type 3 (CPV-3) associated with a canine epidermodysplasia verruciformis - like disease. A tissue sample was taken from a papillomatous lesion on the oral mucosa of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Extracted DNA was used as a template for multiply primed rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and restriction enzyme analysis of the RCA product indicated the presence of papillomaviral DNA. The genome of this PV was cloned and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The Ursus maritimus PV type 1 (UmPV-1) genome counts 7582 basepairs and is smaller than that of other papillomaviruses from carnivore species. UmPV-1 contains the typical noncoding region NCR1, but unlike the carnivore PVs of the Lambda genus, UmPV-1 does not possess a second noncoding region NCR2. Phylogenetic analysis based on a nucleotide sequence alignment of the L1 ORF of UmPV-1 and 51 other PV types indicates that UmPV-1 does not cluster with any of the other carnivore PVs, but branches off near the root of the common branch of the genus Alphapapillomavirus.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Measurements of Plutonium-bearing Oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers Using Calorimetry and Gamma Isotopic Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-06-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely uses calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) for the accountability measurement of plutonium (Pu) bearing items. In the past 15 years, the vast majority of those items measured by Cal/Iso were contained in a thin-walled convenience can enclosed in another thin-walled outer container. However, LLNL has recently begun to use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers as well. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. In addition to the fact that the wall thickness of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers is much greater than that of other containers in our experience, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers appear to have larger thermal insulation characteristics. To date, we have derived Pu-mass values from Cal/Iso measurements of 74 different DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers filled with Pu-bearing oxide or mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide material. Both water-bath and air-bath calorimeters were used for these measurements and both use software to predict when thermal equilibrium is attained. Our experience has shown that after apparent equilibrium has been attained, at least one more complete cycle, and sometimes two or three more complete cycles, is required to gain a measure of true thermal equilibrium. Otherwise, the derived Pu-mass values are less than would be expected from a combination of previously measured Pu-bearing items and would contribute to increased loss in our inventory difference determinations. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from LLNL experience with measurements of Pu mass in Pu-bearing oxide or mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers using the Cal/Iso technique are included.

  19. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women?

    PubMed

    Schoppen, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Pérez-Granados, M; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Sarriá, B; Navas-Carretero, S; Pilar Vaquero, Ma

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium-rich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY). Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p < 0.0001). Insulin concentrations showed a significant time effect (p < 0.0001) and a significant water x time interaction (p < 0.021). At 120 min insulin levels with BMW-1 were significantly lower than with LMW (p = 0.022). Postprandial insulin concentrations showed significantly different patterns of mineral water intake depending on HOMA n-tiles (p = 0.016). Results suggests an increase in insulin sensitivity after BMWs consumption. This effect is more marked in the women, who have higher HOMA values. These waters should be considered part of a healthy diet in order to prevent insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease.

  20. [Does the consumption of salt and food rich in sodium influence blood pressure in infants?].

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabiana Pires; Machado, Sandra Helena

    2010-06-01

    This article verifies the consumption of salt and food rich in sodium and the blood pressure of schoolchildren of a private and a public school in the city of Barra do Ribeiro, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. It is a cross-sectional study with standardized methods of anthropometric and blood pressure measures. Parents and tutors answered a questionnaire about socio-economic conditions, family risk factors regarding hypertension and feeding habits of the student (frequency questionnaire). 81 students were evaluated, from those 42 (51.90%) medium age were 8.3 +/- 3.2 years. 45 (55.60%) studied in the private school and 36 (44.40%) in the public school. Findings show two children with systolic hypertension, both from the public school (p = 0.194), yet this may be found by chance. Similar fact may have occurred with the four cases of diastolic hypertension; being three of them from the private school. But there was not significant difference between the groups (p = 0.625). The medium consumption of salt found in this population was of 7.66 g (3098.81 mg or 133.86 mEq), which is above the recommended in the present literature. Canned food was related to be rich in sodium and to be associated with high levels of systolic blood pressure. In conclusion, as higher the salt consumption, higher the systolic blood pressure.

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-83) - Bear Creek Irrigation Siphon Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2002-06-19

    BPA proposes to fund the construction of a fish passage improvement project on Bear Creek in Grant County, Oregon with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Bear Creek enters the mainstem John Day River at river mile 258.5. At stream mile 0.3 Bear Creek crosses an irrigation diversion, entering Hall Ditch. At times Bear Creek is completely diverted into Hall Ditch. A second diversion from Bear Creek is located 200 feet below the area where Hall Ditch and Bear Creek intercept. As a result of these two diversions, in late summer Bear Creek is essentially dry at the project site. In addition, the diversions are fish barriers at low flow. The objectives for the proposed project include the following: prevent flow from Bear Creek (a Clean Water Act Section 303(d) listed stream for temperature) from mixing with Hall Ditch water; prevent fish from leaving Bear Creek and entering Hall Ditch; ensure fish passage at the project site; and upgrade an existing fish screen to National Marine Fisheries Service’s (NMFS) fish screen standards. A number of measures will be implemented to meet these project objectives. The proposed action would prevent mixing of Bear Creek and Hall Ditch waters, and prevent fish from entering Hall Ditch by siphoning (siphon bypass) Hall Ditch under Bear Creek. The proposed project will remove existing, older diversions and plug up the screened irrigation canal currently used by the landowner. The existing diversion structures will be replaced with a fish-friendly diversion. In addition, a NMFS-approved fish screen and a water meter will be installed in the abandoned canal to allow fish passage and monitor water withdrawal by the landowner.

  2. Electronic State of Sodium trans-[Tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (NKP-1339) in Tumor, Liver and Kidney Tissue of a SW480-bearing Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazevic, Amir; Hummer, Alfred A.; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Filipits, Martin; Cibin, Giannantonio; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Rompel, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Ruthenium complexes are promising candidates for anticancer agents, especially NKP-1339 (sodium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)]), which is on the edge to clinical applications. The anticancer mechanism seems to be tightly linked to the redox chemistry but despite progress in human clinical trials the in vivo Ru oxidation state and the coordination of Ru remains unclear. The Ru-based anticancer drug NKP-1339 was studied applying XANES (Cl K- and Ru L2,3-edges) in tumor, kidney and liver tissue of a SW480 bearing mouse. Based on coordination charge and 3D XANES plots containing a series of model compounds as well as pre-edge analysis of the ligand Cl K-edge it is suggested that NKP-1339 remains in its +III oxidation state after 24 hours and at least one of the four chlorido ligands remain covalently bound to the Ru ion showing a biotransformation from RuIIIN2Cl4 to RuIIIClx(N/O)6‑x (X = 1 or 2).

  3. Electronic State of Sodium trans-[Tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (NKP-1339) in Tumor, Liver and Kidney Tissue of a SW480-bearing Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Blazevic, Amir; Hummer, Alfred A.; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Filipits, Martin; Cibin, Giannantonio; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Rompel, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Ruthenium complexes are promising candidates for anticancer agents, especially NKP-1339 (sodium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)]), which is on the edge to clinical applications. The anticancer mechanism seems to be tightly linked to the redox chemistry but despite progress in human clinical trials the in vivo Ru oxidation state and the coordination of Ru remains unclear. The Ru-based anticancer drug NKP-1339 was studied applying XANES (Cl K- and Ru L2,3-edges) in tumor, kidney and liver tissue of a SW480 bearing mouse. Based on coordination charge and 3D XANES plots containing a series of model compounds as well as pre-edge analysis of the ligand Cl K-edge it is suggested that NKP-1339 remains in its +III oxidation state after 24 hours and at least one of the four chlorido ligands remain covalently bound to the Ru ion showing a biotransformation from RuIIIN2Cl4 to RuIIIClx(N/O)6−x (X = 1 or 2). PMID:28112202

  4. PCSK9-deficiency does not alter blood pressure and sodium balance in mouse models of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jean-Mathieu; Vaillant, Nathalie; Le May, Cédric; Calderon, Carolina; Brégeon, Jeremy; Prieur, Xavier; Hadchouel, Juliette; Loirand, Gervaise; Cariou, Bertrand

    2015-03-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is highly expressed in the kidney, where its function remains unclear. In vitro data suggested that PCSK9 could impair the trafficking of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC). Here, we aimed at determining the consequences of PCSK9-deficiency on blood pressure, sodium balance and ENaC function in vivo in mice. Blood pressure was measured using non-invasive tail-cuff system or radiotelemetry under basal conditions in male and female PCSK9(+/+) and PCSK9(-/-) mice, as well as in models of hypertension: l-NAME (2 mg/kg/day), angiotensin II (1 mg/kg/day) and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt in male mice only. Plasma and urine electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) were collected under basal conditions, after DOCA-salt and amiloride treatment. Renal expression of ENaC subunits was assessed by western blotting. PCSK9-deficiency did not alter both basal blood pressure and its increase in salt-insensitive (l-NAME) and salt-sensitive (Ang-II and DOCA-salt) hypertension models. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were increased by 2.8 fold in DOCA-salt-induced hypertension. The relative expression of the cleaved, active, 30-kDa αENaC subunit was significantly increased by 32% in kidneys of PCSK9(-/-) mice under basal, but not under high-Na(+) diet or DOCA-salt conditions. Amiloride increased urinary Na(+) excretion to similar level in both genotypes, indicating that ENaC activity was not affected by PCSK9-deficiency. Despite an increase of cleaved αENaC under basal condition, PCSK9(-/-) mice display normal sodium balance and blood pressure regulation. Altogether, these data are reassuring regarding the development of PCSK9 inhibitors in hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Structure and disorder in iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses and melts: High-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the effect of iron content on the structure (Si coordination environment and the degree of polymerization) of iron-bearing silicate melts and glasses is essential for studying their macroscopic properties and diverse geological processes in Earth's interior. Although the recent advances in high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques provide detailed structural information of a diverse iron-free oxide glasses with varying composition (e.g., Lee, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 2011, 108, 6847; Lee and Sung, Chem. Geol., 2008, 256, 326; Park and Lee, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2012, 80, 125; Lee et al., Phys. Rev., 103, 095501, 2009), their application to iron-bearing silicate glasses has a limited usefulness in resolving atomic configurations due to the effect of paramagnetic cation (i.e., Fe) on the NMR spectra. Here, we report the first ^{29}Si and ^{17}O NMR spectra for sodium-iron silicate glasses with varying iron content (Na_{2}O-Fe_{2}O_{3}-SiO_{2} glasses, up to 34.60 wt% Fe_{2}O_{3}), revealing previously unknown details of iron-induced changes in structure and disorder. While signal intensity decreases and peak width increases exponentially with increasing iron content [=Fe_{2}O_{3}/(Na_{2}O+Fe_{2}O_{3})], ^{29}Si MAS NMR spectra for sodium-iron silicate glasses present the slight peak shift and an asymmetrical peak broadening toward higher Q^{n} species with increasing iron content. This result implies an increase in the degree of polymerization with increasing iron content. Additionally, ^{29}Si spin-relaxation time (T_{1}) for the glasses decreases with increasing of iron content by several orders of magnitude. ^{17}O 3QMAS NMR spectra for the glasses show well-resolved non-bridging oxygen (NBO, Na-O-Si) and bridging oxygen (BO, Si-O-Si) even at relatively high iron content, providing the first direct experimental estimation of the degree of polymerization. In sodium-iron silicate glasses, the fraction of NBO decreases with increasing iron

  6. Does oxidative stress affect the activity of the sodium-proton exchanger?

    PubMed

    Bober, Joanna; Kedzierska, Karolina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Stachowska, Ewa; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Mazur, Olech; Staniewicz, Zdzisław; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) takes place in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Oxidative stress causes disorders in the activity of the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE). Studies on NHE in CRF produced results that are discrepant and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that oxidative stress had an effect on the activity of NHE. We enrolled 87 subjects divided into 4 groups: patients with CRF treated conservatively; patients with CRF hemodialyzed without glucose--HD-g(-); patients with CRF hemodialyzed with glucose--HD-g(+); controls (C). The activity of NHE, the rate of proton efflux V(max), Michaelis constant (Km), and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, an indicator of oxidative stress) in plasma, as well as the concentration of reduced glutathione in blood were determined. The concentration of TBARS was significantly higher in hemodialyzed patients before and after dialysis and in patients with CRF on conservative treatment in comparison with group C. TBARS in plasma correlated negatively with VpH(i)6.4 in group C and with V(max) and VpH(i)6.4 after HD in group HD-g(-). We found that the concentration of creatinine correlated with TBARS (p < 0.0001; r = +0.51) in the conservatively treated group. We observed a marked oxidative stress and decreased NHE activity when dialysis was done without glucose, whereas patients dialyzed with glucose demonstrated a relatively low intensity of oxidative stress.

  7. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion does not alter the slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    Santalla, Alfredo; Pérez, Margarita; Montilla, Manuel; Vicente, Lázaro; Davison, Richard; Earnest, Conrad; Lucía, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effects of pre-exercise sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics in seven professional road cyclists during intense exercise. One hour after ingesting either a placebo or NaHCO3 (0.3 g x kg body mass(-1)), each cyclist (age, 25 +/- 2 years; VO2max, 74.7 +/- 5.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- s) performed two bouts of 6 min duration at an intensity of 90% VO2max interspersed by 8 min of active recovery. Gas exchange and blood data (pH, blood lactate concentration and [HCO3-]) were collected during the tests. In both bouts, the slow component of VO2 was defined as the difference between end-exercise VO2 and the VO2 at the end of the third minute. No significant difference was found in the slow component of VO2 between conditions in the first (NaHCO3, 210 +/- 69 ml; placebo, 239 +/- 105 ml) or second trial (NaHCO3, 123 +/- 88 ml; placebo, 197 +/- 101 ml). In conclusion, pre-exercise NaHCO3 ingestion did not significantly attenuate the VO2 slow component of professional road cyclists during high-intensity exercise.

  8. A comparative study of the clinical efficacy of nedocromil sodium and placebo. How does cromolyn sodium compare as an active control treatment?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H J; Blumenthal, M; Brady, R; Braun, S; Lockey, R; Myers, D; Mansfield, L; Mullarkey, M; Owens, G; Ratner, P; Repsher, L; van As, A

    1996-04-01

    Nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are the only two currently available nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of asthma. Clinical differences between the two agents remain under continuous investigation with reports differentiating the two on the basis of atopy of the patient and reversibility of bronchoconstriction. This study investigated the efficacy of nedocromil sodium (4 mg, qid) for treatment of mild-to-moderate asthma in comparison to placebo using cromolyn sodium (2 mg, qid) as an active control treatment. Patients were primarily allergic asthmatics (with at least 15% reversibility) previously maintained on a regimen of regular bronchodilator therapy. During a 2-week run-in period, the patient's slow-release theophylline therapy was removed, and the patients were randomized to treatment after deterioration of asthma control (asthma symptom summary score of 3 for 7 of the 14 days). After 8 weeks of treatment, patients were returned to as occasion requires bronchodilator therapy, as per the 2-week baseline period. The results demonstrate that patients treated with nedocromil sodium showed statistically significant improvements during the primary time period (mean weeks 3 through 8) over placebo-treated patients as evidenced by all indexes of asthma symptoms, pulmonary function measures, and decreased bronchodilator reliance (p<0.05). Patients treated with cromolyn sodium demonstrated similar improvements over placebo-treated patients. Comparisons between nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium showed the two agents to be comparable in this group of primarily allergic patients with reversible disease. Between-group differences were noted for 3 of the 13 variables (nighttime asthma, FEV1, and forced expiratory flow rate between 25 % and 75% of the FVC) in favor of cromolyn sodium when the data were pooled during the primary time period. The number of patients missing 1 or more days from work/school/regular activity due to asthma was significantly

  9. Extending FEAST-METAL for analysis of low content minor actinide bearing and zirconium rich metallic fuels for sodium fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Aydın

    2011-07-01

    Computational models in FEAST-METAL fuel behaviour code have been upgraded to simulate minor actinide bearing zirconium rich metallic fuels for use in sodium fast reactors. Increasing the zirconium content to 20-40 wt.% causes significant changes in fuel slug microstructure affecting thermal, mechanical, chemical, and fission gas behaviour. Inclusion of zirconium rich phase reduces the fission gas swelling rate significantly in early irradiation. Above the threshold fission gas swelling, formation of micro-cracks, and open pores increase material compliancy enhance diffusivity, leading to rapid fuel gas swelling, interconnected porosity development and release of the fission gases and helium. Production and release of helium was modelled empirically as a function of americium content and fission gas production, consistent with previous Idaho National Laboratory studies. Predicted fuel constituent redistribution is much smaller compared to typical U-Pu-10Zr fuel operated at EBR-II. Material properties such as fuel thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and thermal expansion coefficient have been approximated using the available database. Creep rate and fission gas diffusivity of high zirconium fuel is lowered by an order of magnitude with respect to the reference low zirconium fuel based on limited database and in order to match experimental observations. The new code is benchmarked against the AFC-1F fuel assembly post irradiation examination results. Satisfactory match was obtained for fission gas release and swelling behaviour. Finally, the study considers a comparison of fuel behaviour between high zirconium content minor actinide bearing fuel and typical U-15Pu-6Zr fuel pins with 75% smear density. The new fuel has much higher fissile content, allowing for operating at lower neutron flux level compared to fuel with lower fissile density. This feature allows the designer to reach a much higher burnup before reaching the cladding dose limit. On the other

  10. Metabolic evidence that serosal sodium does not recycle through the active transepithelial transport pathway of toad bladder.

    PubMed

    Canessa, M; Labarca, P; Leaf, A

    1976-12-25

    The possibility that sodium from the serosal bathing medium "back diffuses" into the active sodium transport pool within the mucosal epithelial cell of the isolated toad bladder was examined by determining the effect on the metabolism of the tissue of removing sodium from the serosal medium. It was expected that if recycling of serosal sodium did occur through the active transepithelial transport pathway of the isolated toad bladder, removal of sodium from the serosal medium would reduce the rate of CO2 production by the tissue and enhance of stoichiometric ratio of sodium ions transported across the bladder per molecula of sodium transport dependent CO2 produced simultaneously by the bladder (JNa/JCO2). The data revealed no significant change in this ratio (17.19 with serosal sodium and 16.13 after replacing serosal sodium with choline). Further, when transepithelial sodium transport was inhibited (a) by adding amiloride to the mucosal medium, or (b) by removing sodium from the mucosal medium, subsequent removal of sodium from the serosal medium, or (c) addition of ouabain failed to depress the basal rate of CO2 production by the bladder [(a)rate of basal, nontransport related, CO2 production (JbCO2) equals 1.54 +/- 0.52 with serosal sodium and 1.54 +/- 0.37 without serosal sodium; (b) Jb CO2 equals 2.18 +/- 0.21 with serosal sodium and 2.09 +/- 0.21 without serosal sodium; (c) 1.14 +/- 0.26 without ouabain and 1.13 +/- 0.25 with ouabain; unite of JbCO2 are nmoles mg d.w.-1 min-1]. The results support the hypothesis that little, if any, recycling of serosal sodium occurs in the total bladder.

  11. Sodium hypochlorite with reduced surface tension does not improve in situ pulp tissue dissolution.

    PubMed

    De-Deus, Gustavo; de Berredo Pinho, Marco André; Reis, Claudia; Fidel, Sandra; Souza, Erick; Zehnder, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions with added wetting agents are advertised to dissolve necrotic tissue in root canals faster than their counterparts without a lowered surface tension. This was tested in the current study, and the null hypothesis formulated was that there was no difference between a commercially available NaOCl solution with a lowered surface tension (Chlor-XTRA; Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI) and a counterpart containing the same amount of available chlorine without added wetting agents regarding the soft tissue that remains in oval-shaped canals after mechanical preparation and irrigation. Formerly vital extracted teeth (N = 44, 22 pairs) with similar anatomy were radiographically paired and chemomechanically prepared. In 1 tooth from each pair, a 5.25% NaOCl solution with reduced surface tension was used; in the other, a pure, technical-grade NaOCl solution of 5.25% was used. The percentage of remaining pulp tissue (PRPT) was histologically assessed in root cross-sections. The non-Gaussian raw data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to verify the respective effect of the cross-section level and solution on the PRPT. The relationship between the cross-section level and the PRPT was estimated by the Spearman correlation test. The alpha-type error was set at 5%. The cross-section level significantly influenced the PRPT (P < .05), whereas the PRPT was not influenced by the solution used (P > .05). A significant inverse correlation was found between the cross-section level and the PRPT (P < .05, r = -0.330). The lower the distance to the apex, the higher the PRPT regardless of the solution used. Contrary to the advertised statement, the dental solution with a reduced surface tension did not dissolve vital pulp tissue in oval root canals any better than a conventional NaOCl solution of similar strength. Closer to the apex, pulp tissue dissolution is less efficient irrespective of the solution. Copyright © 2013 American

  12. Sodium selenite supplementation does not fully restore oxidative stress-induced deiodinase dysfunction: Implications for the nonthyroidal illness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Rohenkohl, Helena Cecin; Serrano, Tulio; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is marked by low T3 and high reverse T3 levels. The physiopathology is poorly understood but involves oxidative stress-induced disruption of the iodothyronine deiodinases, which activate or inactivate thyroid hormones. Selenium, an essential trace element, exerts antioxidant function mainly through the thioredoxin reductase (TRx) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) redox-regulating systems. We evaluated the effect of sodium selenite on IL6-induced disruption on deiodinase function. Cell lines expressing endogenous deiodinases type 1(D1), 2(D2) or 3(D3) (HepG2, MSTO, and MCF-7 cells, respectively) were used in an intact cell model that mimics the deiodination process under physiological conditions of substrate and cofactor, in the presence or not of IL6, with or without selenite. Deiodinase activity was quantified by the amount of iodine-125 in the medium (D1 and D2) or by ion-exchange chromatography (D3). Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring reactive species (RS), carbonyl content as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses. Results: IL6 induced ROS and carbonyl content in all 3 cell lines (all P<0.001). Increased ROS was paralleled by D1 and D2-decreased T3-production (P<0.01) and increased D3-catalyzed T3-inactivation (P<0.001). Selenite decreases the IL6-induced ROS and carbonyl content, while enhances Gpx and Trx activities. Nevertheless, it failed on restoring D1 or D2 function and only attenuates D3 activation (P<0.05). In conclusion, although sodium selenite reduces IL6-induced redox imbalance it does not fully repair deiodinase function. These results shed light on NTIS physiopathology and might explain why low T3 levels are unaffected by selenium supplementation in sick patients. PMID:26402162

  13. Sodium selenite supplementation does not fully restore oxidative stress-induced deiodinase dysfunction: Implications for the nonthyroidal illness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Rohenkohl, Helena Cecin; Serrano, Tulio; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2015-12-01

    Nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is marked by low T3 and high reverse T3 levels. The physiopathology is poorly understood but involves oxidative stress-induced disruption of the iodothyronine deiodinases, which activate or inactivate thyroid hormones. Selenium, an essential trace element, exerts antioxidant function mainly through the thioredoxin reductase (TRx) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) redox-regulating systems. We evaluated the effect of sodium selenite on IL6-induced disruption on deiodinase function. Cell lines expressing endogenous deiodinases type 1(D1), 2(D2) or 3(D3) (HepG2, MSTO, and MCF-7 cells, respectively) were used in an intact cell model that mimics the deiodination process under physiological conditions of substrate and cofactor, in the presence or not of IL6, with or without selenite. Deiodinase activity was quantified by the amount of iodine-125 in the medium (D1 and D2) or by ion-exchange chromatography (D3). Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring reactive species (RS), carbonyl content as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses. IL6 induced ROS and carbonyl content in all 3 cell lines (all P<0.001). Increased ROS was paralleled by D1 and D2-decreased T3-production (P<0.01) and increased D3-catalyzed T3-inactivation (P<0.001). Selenite decreases the IL6-induced ROS and carbonyl content, while enhances Gpx and Trx activities. Nevertheless, it failed on restoring D1 or D2 function and only attenuates D3 activation (P<0.05). In conclusion, although sodium selenite reduces IL6-induced redox imbalance it does not fully repair deiodinase function. These results shed light on NTIS physiopathology and might explain why low T3 levels are unaffected by selenium supplementation in sick patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical sympathectomy increases neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in tumor-bearing rats but does not influence cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, Lubica; Tillinger, Andrej; Sivakova, Ivana; Mikova, Lucia; Mravec, Boris; Bucova, Maria

    2015-01-15

    The sympathetic nervous system regulates many immune functions and modulates the anti-tumor immune defense response, too. Therefore, we studied the effect of 6-hydroxydopamine induced sympathectomy on selected hematological parameters and inflammatory markers in rats with Yoshida AH130 ascites hepatoma. We found that chemically sympathectomized tumor-bearing rats had significantly increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, leukocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although our findings showed that sympathetic denervation in tumor-bearing rats led to increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, that is an indicator of the disease progression, we found no significant changes in tumor growth and survival of sympathectomized tumor-bearing rats.

  15. Who does not reduce their sodium intake despite being advised to do so? A population segmentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Berenson, Julia; Moran, Andrew E; Pagán, José A

    2017-06-01

    Excessive sodium intake is linked to an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Although health care providers and other health professionals frequently provide counseling on healthful levels of sodium consumption, many people who consume sodium in excess of recommend levels still do not watch or reduce their sodium intake. In this study, we used a population segmentation approach to identify profiles of adults who are not watching or reducing their sodium intake despite been advised to do so. We analyzed sodium intake data in 125,764 respondents sampled in 15 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to identify and segment adults into subgroups according to differences in sodium intake behaviors. We found that about 16% of adults did not watch or reduce their sodium intake despite been told to do so by a health professional. This proportion varied substantially across the 25 different population subgroups identified. For example, about 44% of adults 18 to 44years of age who live in West Virginia were not reducing their sodium intake whereas only about 7.2% of black adults 65years of age and older with diabetes were not reducing their sodium intake. Population segmentation identifies subpopulations most likely to benefit from targeted and intensive public health and clinical interventions. In the case of sodium consumption, population segmentation can guide public health practitioners and policymakers to design programs and interventions that change sodium intake in people who are resistant to behavior change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synergistic ablation does not affect atrophy or altered myosin heavy chain expression in the non-weight bearing soleus muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, J. K.; Talmadge, R. J.; Gosselink, K. L.; Tri, P. N.; Roy, R. R.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the soleus muscle undergoes atrophy and alterations in myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition during non-weight bearing in the absence of synergists. Thirty-two female rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), synergistic ablation (ABL) of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles to overload the soleus muscle, hindlimb suspension (HLS), or a combination of synergistic ablation and hindlimb suspension (HLS-ABL). After 28 days of hindlimb suspension, soleus atrophy was more pronounced in HLS (58%) than in HLS-ABL (43%) rats. Compared to C rats, non-weight bearing decreased mixed and myofibrillar protein contents and Type I MHC 49%, 45%, and 7%, respectively, in HLS animals. In addition, de novo expression of fast Type IIx and Type IIb MHC (5% and 2%, respectively) was observed in HLS animals. Similarly, when compared to C rats, mixed and myofibrillar protein contents and Type I MHC decreased 43%, 46%, and 4%, respectively, in HLS-ABL animals. Also, de novo expression of Type IIx (4%) and IIb (1%) MHC was observed. Collectively, these data indicate that the loss of muscle protein and Type I MHC, and the de novo expression of Type IIx and Type IIb MHC in the rat soleus occur independently of the presence of synergists during non-weight bearing. Furthermore, these results confirm the contention that soleus mass and MHC expression are highly sensitive to alterations in mechanical load.

  17. Synergistic ablation does not affect atrophy or altered myosin heavy chain expression in the non-weight bearing soleus muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, J. K.; Talmadge, R. J.; Gosselink, K. L.; Tri, P. N.; Roy, R. R.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the soleus muscle undergoes atrophy and alterations in myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition during non-weight bearing in the absence of synergists. Thirty-two female rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), synergistic ablation (ABL) of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles to overload the soleus muscle, hindlimb suspension (HLS), or a combination of synergistic ablation and hindlimb suspension (HLS-ABL). After 28 days of hindlimb suspension, soleus atrophy was more pronounced in HLS (58%) than in HLS-ABL (43%) rats. Compared to C rats, non-weight bearing decreased mixed and myofibrillar protein contents and Type I MHC 49%, 45%, and 7%, respectively, in HLS animals. In addition, de novo expression of fast Type IIx and Type IIb MHC (5% and 2%, respectively) was observed in HLS animals. Similarly, when compared to C rats, mixed and myofibrillar protein contents and Type I MHC decreased 43%, 46%, and 4%, respectively, in HLS-ABL animals. Also, de novo expression of Type IIx (4%) and IIb (1%) MHC was observed. Collectively, these data indicate that the loss of muscle protein and Type I MHC, and the de novo expression of Type IIx and Type IIb MHC in the rat soleus occur independently of the presence of synergists during non-weight bearing. Furthermore, these results confirm the contention that soleus mass and MHC expression are highly sensitive to alterations in mechanical load.

  18. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Food label education does not reduce sodium intake in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristina S; Torpy, David J; Chapman, Ian M; Guha, Sanghamitra; Clifton, Peter M; Turner, Kirsty; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2013-09-01

    Sodium intake is high in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether urinary sodium excretion can be reduced by educating people with T2DM to read food labels and choose low sodium products. In a 3 month randomised controlled trial, 78 men (n=49) and women (n=29) with T2DM were recruited from a Diabetes Centre at a University teaching hospital. The intervention group was educated in a single session to use the nutrition information panel on food labels to choose products which complied with the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) guideline of <120 mg sodium/100 g food. The control group continued on their usual diet. The primary outcome measure was 24h urinary sodium excretion which was performed at baseline and 3 months. Data was analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance, independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlations. At 3 months mean urinary sodium excretion was unchanged in the intervention (174±13 mmol/24 h and 175±13 mmol/24 h) and control group (167±15mmol/24h and 161±13 mmol/24 h), and there was no between group difference (p>0.05). Sodium excretion was not reduced following the label reading education provided to this group of people with T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rebamipide does not interfere with the antitumor effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in human oral tumor-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shibamori, Masafumi; Sato, Masayuki; Uematsu, Naoya; Nakashima, Takako; Sato, Asuka; Yamamura, Yoshiya; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Ken; Sakurai, Kazushi

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that rebamipide, which suppresses reactive oxygen species, prevents chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers. However, anticancer action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is believed to be partially associated with generation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to determine whether rebamipide interferes with the antitumor action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The effect of rebamipide on tumor cell growth was investigated using a human oral squamous carcinoma cell line, HSC-2, in vitro and in vivo. Rebamipide showed no significant effect on cell or tumor growth in HSC-2 tumor-bearing nude mice. Influences of rebamipide on the antitumor action of radiotherapy and of chemotherapy with cisplatin or docetaxel were investigated using the same animal model. In radiotherapy, the tumor was treated with 2.5 Gy of X-rays for 5 days, and rebamipide (300 mg/kg p.o.) was administered during irradiation periods. In chemotherapy, tumor-bearing mice were treated once with cisplatin (8 mg/kg, i.v.) or docetaxel (15 mg/kg i.v.) and rebamipide (300 mg/kg p.o.) was administered for 5 days following the antitumor drug treatment. Rebamipide did not interfere with the antitumor action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A separate pool of cardiac phospholemman that does not regulate or associate with the sodium pump: multimers of phospholemman in ventricular muscle.

    PubMed

    Wypijewski, Krzysztof J; Howie, Jacqueline; Reilly, Louise; Tulloch, Lindsay B; Aughton, Karen L; McLatchie, Linda M; Shattock, Michael J; Calaghan, Sarah C; Fuller, William

    2013-05-10

    Phospholemman regulates the plasmalemmal sodium pump in excitable tissues. In cardiac muscle, a subpopulation of phospholemman with a unique phosphorylation signature associates with other phospholemman molecules but not with the pump. Phospholemman oligomers exist in cardiac muscle. Much like phospholamban regulation of SERCA, phospholemman exists as both a sodium pump inhibiting monomer and an unassociated oligomer. Phospholemman (PLM), the principal quantitative sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart, regulates the cardiac sodium pump. Much like phospholamban, which regulates the related ATPase SERCA, PLM is reported to oligomerize. We investigated subpopulations of PLM in adult rat ventricular myocytes based on phosphorylation status. Co-immunoprecipitation identified two pools of PLM: one not associated with the sodium pump phosphorylated at Ser(63) and one associated with the pump, both phosphorylated at Ser(68) and unphosphorylated. Phosphorylation of PLM at Ser(63) following activation of PKC did not abrogate association of PLM with the pump, so its failure to associate with the pump was not due to phosphorylation at this site. All pools of PLM co-localized to cell surface caveolin-enriched microdomains with sodium pump α subunits, despite the lack of caveolin-binding motif in PLM. Mass spectrometry analysis of phosphospecific immunoprecipitation reactions revealed no unique protein interactions for Ser(63)-phosphorylated PLM, and cross-linking reagents also failed to identify any partner proteins for this pool. In lysates from hearts of heterozygous transgenic animals expressing wild type and unphosphorylatable PLM, Ser(63)-phosphorylated PLM co-immunoprecipitated unphosphorylatable PLM, confirming the existence of PLM multimers. Dephosphorylation of the PLM multimer does not change sodium pump activity. Hence like phospholamban, PLM exists as a pump-inhibiting monomer and an unassociated oligomer. The distribution of different PLM

  2. DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin; Kohl, Paul A.

    2005-12-01

    The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.

  3. Oral ingestion of Streptococcus thermophilus does not affect mucositis severity or tumor progression in the tumor-bearing rat.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Katie L; Howarth, Gordon S; Lymn, Kerry A; Lawrence, Andrew; Butler, Ross N

    2011-07-15

    Preventative or adjunctive agents for the amelioration of small intestinal chemotherapy-induced mucositis are not currently available for clinical use. We have previously demonstrated that oral ingestion of Streptococcus thermophilus (TH-4) partially attenuated chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the rat. Here we assess the effects of TH-4 on small intestinal damage and tumor progression in tumor-bearing rats with experimentally-induced mucositis. Female Dark Agouti tumor-bearing (mammary adenocarcinoma) rats (n = 36; 139 ± 1 g) had small intestinal damage induced via the administration of methotrexate (MTX). Rats were administered MTX; (1.5 mg/kg intramuscular) or saline at 0 and 24 h; with daily gavage administration of TH-4 (109 cfu/mL) or skim milk from -48 to +96 h post-MTX. Rats were allocated to groups (n=9): saline control, TH-4 control, MTX control or TH-4+MTX. The non-invasive ( 13) C-sucrose breath test (SBT) was conducted prior to tumor inoculation, pre-MTX (-24 h) and prior to sacrifice (96 h) to monitor gut function. At sacrifice small intestinal segments were excised and assessed for sucrase and myeloperoxidase activity as well as histological damage. Irrespective of TH-4 treatment, MTX-treated rats had a significant decrease in bodyweight, SBT levels, sucrase and myeloperoxidase activity, and histological damage score (p < 0.05) compared to saline and TH-4 control rats. TH-4 treatment did not result in tumor progression (p > 0.05) but failed to alleviate mucositis indices. Although TH-4, at a dose of 109 cfu/mL, yielded neither protection nor amelioration of chemotherapy-induced mucositis, progression of mammary adenocarcinoma was unaffected.

  4. Does pragmatically structured outpatient dietary counselling reduce sodium intake in hypertensive patients? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Marcel; Ramsay, Tim; Bugeja, Ann; Edwards, Cedric; Fodor, George; Kirby, Anne; Magner, Peter; McCormick, Brendan; van der Hoef, Gigi; Wagner, Jessica; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2015-06-17

    Hypertension is highly prevalent among adults, and is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular events, in particular stroke. Decreasing sodium intake has the potential to prevent or delay the development of hypertension and improve blood pressure control, independently of blood pressure lowering drugs, among hypertensive patients. Despite guidelines recommending a low sodium diet, especially for hypertensive individuals, sodium intake remains higher than recommended. A recent systematic review indicated that the efficacious counselling methods described in published trials are not suitable for hypertension management by primary care providers in Canada in the present form. The primary reason for the lack of feasibility is that interventions for sodium restriction in these trials was not limited to counselling, but included provision of food, prepared meals, or intensive inpatient training sessions. This is a parallel, randomized, controlled, open-label trial with blinded endpoints. Inclusion criteria are adult patients with hypertension with high dietary sodium intake (defined as ≥ 100 mmol/day). The control arm will receive usual care, and the intervention arm will receive usual care and an additional structured counselling session by a registered dietitian, with four follow-up telephone support sessions over four weeks. The two primary outcomes are change in sodium intake from baseline, as measured by a change in 24-hour urinary sodium measurements at four weeks and one year. Secondary outcomes include change in blood pressure (as measured by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring), change in 24-hour urinary potassium, and change in body weight at the same time points. Though decreasing sodium intake has been reported to be efficacious in lowering blood pressure, there exists a gap in the evidence for an effective intervention that could be easily translated into clinical practice. If successful, our intervention would be suitable for outpatient

  5. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  6. Linear magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A linear magnetic bearing system having electromagnetic vernier flux paths in shunt relation with permanent magnets, so that the vernier flux does not traverse the permanent magnet, is described. Novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing having electromagnetic flux paths that bypass high reluctance permanent magnets. Particular novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing with a pair of axially spaced elements having electromagnets for establishing vernier x and y axis control. The magnetic bearing system has possible use in connection with a long life reciprocating cryogenic refrigerator that may be used on the space shuttle.

  7. Sodium Alginate (Gaviscon®) does not reduce apnoeas related to gastro-oesophageal reflux in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Spizzichino, Monica; Zama, Daniele; Aceti, Arianna; Mariani, Elisa; Legnani, Elena; Faldella, Giacomo

    2011-12-01

    Apnoea of prematurity (AOP) frequently recurs in preterm infants. We have previously shown that a significant but variable proportion of AOP is induced by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of sodium alginate in reducing the frequency of GOR-related AOP. Twenty-eight preterm infants with AOP were studied by a six-hour recording of combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring and polysomnography, including two three-hour postprandial periods: sodium alginate was given after one single meal named as drug-given (DG) meal, while the other as drug-free (DF). During 165h of registration, 715 apnoeas were recorded, 368 after-DG and 347 after-DF (p=.99); furthermore, 851 GOR episodes were detected, 315 after-DG and 536 after-DF (p=.001). No differences in the number of AOP were found between DG and DF. A significant reduction in the number of acid GORs and in acid exposure was found during DG, while the administration of sodium alginate didn't influence non-acid GOR indexes. The frequency of GOR-related apnoeas didn't differ between DG and DF. Sodium alginate doesn't reduce the total number of AOP nor GOR-related apnoeas. On the other hand, it reduces acid GOR features, while it had no effect on non-acid GOR indexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of iron content on the structure and disorder of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses: A high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-Im; Sur, Jung Chul; Lee, Sung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Despite its geochemical importance and implications for the properties of natural magmatic melts, understanding the detailed structure of iron-bearing silicate glasses remains among the outstanding problems in geochemistry. This is mainly because solid-state NMR techniques, one of the most versatile experimental methods to probe the structure of oxide glasses, cannot be fully utilized for exploring the structural details of iron-bearing glasses as the unpaired electrons in Fe induce strong local magnetic fields that mask the original spectroscopic features (i.e., paramagnetic effect). Here, we report high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR spectra of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses (Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2, Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.89 ± 0.04, thus containing both ferric and ferrous iron) with varying XFe2O3 [=Fe2O3/(Na2O + Fe2O3)], containing up to 22.9 wt% Fe2O3. This compositional series involves Fe-Na substitution at constant SiO2 contents of 66.7 mol% in the glasses. For both nuclides, the NMR spectra exhibit a decrease in the signal intensities and an increase in the peak widths with increasing iron concentration partly because of the paramagnetic effect. Despite the intrinsic difficulties that result from the pronounced paramagnetic effect, the 29Si and 17O NMR results yield structural details regarding the effect of iron content on Q speciation, spatial distribution of iron, and the extent of polymerization in the iron-bearing silicate glasses. The 29Si NMR spectra show an apparent increase in highly polymerized Q species with increasing XFe2O3 , suggesting an increase in the degree of melt polymerization. The 17O 3QMAS NMR spectra exhibit well-resolved non-bridging oxygen (NBO, Na-O-Si) and bridging oxygen (BO, Si-O-Si) peaks with varying iron concentration. By replacing Na2O with Fe2O3 (and thus with increasing iron content), the fraction of Na-O-Si decreases. Quantitative consideration of this effect confirms that the degree of polymerization is likely to

  9. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite-Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined Sodium Bearing Waste (HLW and/or LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzeck, Michael W.

    2005-06-27

    Zeolites are extremely versatile. They can adsorb liquids and gases and serve as cation exchange media. They occur in nature as well cemented deposits. The ancient Romans used blocks of zeolitized tuff as a building material. Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not a new idea, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made substances. The process under study is derived from a well known method in which metakaolin (an impure thermally dehydroxylated kaolinite heated to {approx}700 C containing traces of quartz and mica) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and reacted in slurry form (for a day or two) at mildly elevated temperatures. The zeolites form as finely divided powders containing micrometer ({micro}m) sized crystals. However, if the process is changed slightly and only just enough concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is added to the metakaolinite to make a thick crumbly paste and then the paste is compacted and cured under mild hydrothermal conditions (60-200 C), the mixture will form a hard ceramic-like material containing distinct crystalline tectosilicate minerals (zeolites and feldspathoids) imbedded in an X-ray amorphous hydrated sodium aluminosilicate matrix. Due to its lack of porosity and vitreous appearance we have chosen to call this composite a ''hydroceramic''.

  10. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG)-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Methods Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g) pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g), TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g) or whey protein (Wh, 30 g) in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA) concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE) was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Results All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG. PMID:22657838

  11. Hanford site sodium management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1995-09-25

    The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

  12. Serum sodium based modification of the MELD does not improve prediction of outcome in acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating clinical syndrome with a high mortality rate. The MELD score has been implied as a prognostic tool in ALF. Hyponatremia is associated with lethal outcome in ALF. Inclusion of serum sodium (Na) into the MELD score was found to improve its predictive value in cirrhotic patients. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine whether inclusion of serum Na improves the predictive value of MELD in ALF compared to established criteria. Methods In a prospective single center study (11/2006–12/2010), we recruited 108 consecutive ALF patients (64% females / 36% males), who met the criteria defined by the “Acute Liver Failure Study Group Germany”. Upon admission, clinical and laboratory data were collected, King’s College Criteria (KCC), Model of End Stage Liver Disease score (MELD), and serum sodium based modifications like the MELD-Na score and the United Kingdom Model of End Stage Liver Disease score (UKELD) were calculated and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed regarding the prediction of spontaneous recovery (SR) or non-spontaneous recovery (NSR; death or transplantation). Results Serum bilirubin was of no prognostic value in ALF, and Na also failed to predict NSR in ALF. The classical MELD score was superior to sodium-based modifications and KCC. Conclusions We validated the prognostic value of MELD-Na and UKELD in ALF. Classic MELD score calculations performed superior to KCC in the prediction of NSR. Serum Na and Na-based modifications of MELD did not further improve its prognostic value. PMID:23551795

  13. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves

    PubMed Central

    Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L.; Naylor, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± Sx) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2, torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco2 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco2 and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco2 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis. PMID:22754090

  14. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not... sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including...

  15. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  16. Gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission.

  17. How does live yeast differ from sodium bicarbonate to stabilize ruminal pH in high-yielding dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Marden, J P; Julien, C; Monteils, V; Auclair, E; Moncoulon, R; Bayourthe, C

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capacity of 2 dietary feed additives, sodium bicarbonate and live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Sc 47), in optimizing ruminal pH in dairy cows and to determine their modes of action. Three early lactating Holstein cows, fitted with ruminal cannulas, were allocated in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. They were given a total mixed ration as control diet (CD) at a daily feeding rate of 28.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow supplemented with 150 g/d of sodium bicarbonate (SBD) or 5 g/d of live yeast (YD) during a 21-d experimental period (14 d of diet adaptation, 4 consecutive days of measurement and sampling and 3 d of transition). The pH and redox potential (E(h)) were measured from 1 h before feeding to 8 h after feeding at 1-h intervals, and samples of ruminal fluid were taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after feeding for the determination of volatile fatty acids and lactate concentrations. Total tract apparent digestibility of the diet was also determined. Ruminal pH fluctuated between 6.53 at feeding and 5.57 at 5 h postfeeding. Mean pH was greater with SBD (6.21) and YD (6.14) compared with CD (5.94), showing that both additives had a pH stabilization effect. The E(h) varied from -88 mV at 1 h before feeding to -165 mV at 1 h after feeding. Mean E(h) and Clark's Exponent (rH) were lower with YD (-149 mV and 7.31, respectively) than with SBD (-137 mV and 7.85, respectively) and CD (-115 mV and 8.05, respectively), indicating that the yeast strengthened the reducing power of the milieu. Total volatile fatty acids were greater in SBD (95.3 mM) and YD (99.4 mM) compared with CD (85.3 mM). Acetate concentration was greater in SBD (60.8 mM) and YD (59.1 mM) compared with CD (53.2 mM). Propionate concentration was greater in YD (25.8 mM) than in SBD (20.0 mM) and CD (18.0 mM). Butyrate remained constant between diets. Mean total lactate concentrations were 16.5, 12.2, and 5.4 mM for CD, SBD, and YD, respectively, with a 67

  18. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    PubMed Central

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  19. Journal bearing

    DOEpatents

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  20. The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin does not prolong QT interval in a thorough QT (TQT) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empagliflozin is a potent, selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor in development as an oral antidiabetic treatment. This QT interval study assessed potential effects of empagliflozin on ventricular repolarisation and other electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters. Methods A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-dose, double-blind, five-period crossover study incorporating a novel double-placebo period design to reduce sample size, while maintaining full statistical power. Treatments: single empagliflozin doses of 25 mg (therapeutic) and 200 mg (supratherapeutic), matching placebo and open-label moxifloxacin 400 mg (positive control). Triplicate 12-lead ECGs of 10 second duration were recorded at baseline and during the first 24 hours after dosing. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline (MCfB) in the population heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTcN) between 1–4 hours after dosing. Results Thirty volunteers (16 male, 14 female, mean [range] age: 34.5 [18–52] years) were randomised. The placebo-corrected MCfB in QTcN 1–4 hours after dosing was 0.6 (90% CI: -0.7, 1.9) ms and -0.2 (-1.4, 0.9) ms for empagliflozin 25 mg and 200 mg, respectively, below the ICH E14 defined threshold of regulatory concern 10 ms. Assay sensitivity was confirmed by a placebo-corrected MCfB in QTcN 2–4 hours post-dose of 12.4 (10.7, 14.1) ms with moxifloxacin 400 mg. Empagliflozin tolerability was good for all volunteers; 23.3% experienced adverse events (AEs) with empagliflozin and 27.6% with placebo. The most frequent AE was nasopharyngitis. Conclusions/interpretation Single doses of empagliflozin 25 mg and 200 mg were not associated with QTcN prolongation and were well tolerated in healthy volunteers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01195675 PMID:23617452

  1. Sodium waste technology: A summary report. [Melt-drain-evaporation-calcination (MEDEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds.

  2. Does the 'Teddy Bear Hospital' enhance preschool children's knowledge? A pilot study with a pre/post-case control design in Germany.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Margraf-Stiksrud, Jutta; Badners, Larissa; Szerencsi, Andrea; Maier, Rolf F

    2014-10-01

    The 'Teddy Bear Hospital' is a medical students' project, which has been increasingly established in many countries. To evaluate this concept, we examined the effects of a German Teddy Bear Hospital on children's knowledge relating to their body, health and disease. Using a quasi-experimental pre/post design, we examined 131 preschool children from 14 German kindergartens with pictorial interview-based scales. The analysis of covariance revealed that the children who visited the Teddy Bear Hospital had a significantly better knowledge concerning their body, health and disease than the children from the control group. This German Teddy Bear Hospital is a good health education vehicle for preschool children. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Bearings Incorporating Deadband Rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, Guy V.

    1996-01-01

    Bearings in high-pressure turbopump redesigned to incorporate rollers allowing limited axial motion within small deadband. Does not permit radial deadband motion. Axial deadband motion used for rotor-thrust-balance control. Design eliminates some nonlinearities in dynamics of pump rotor and assists in suppressing vibrations at harmonics of frequency of rotation.

  4. Six months of disuse during hibernation does not increase intracortical porosity or decrease cortical bone geometry, strength, or mineralization in black bear (Ursus americanus) femurs.

    PubMed

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Bunnell, Kevin; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-07-22

    Disuse typically uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to bone loss which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases the risk of bone fracture. Previous studies suggest that bears can prevent bone loss during long periods of disuse (hibernation), but small sample sizes have limited the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the effects of hibernation on bone structure and strength in bears. Here we quantified the effects of hibernation on structural, mineral, and mechanical properties of black bear (Ursus americanus) cortical bone by studying femurs from large groups of male and female bears (with wide age ranges) killed during pre-hibernation (fall) and post-hibernation (spring) periods. Bone properties that are affected by body mass (e.g. bone geometrical properties) tended to be larger in male compared to female bears. There were no differences (p>0.226) in bone structure, mineral content, or mechanical properties between fall and spring bears. Bone geometrical properties differed by less than 5% and bone mechanical properties differed by less than 10% between fall and spring bears. Porosity (fall: 5.5+/-2.2%; spring: 4.8+/-1.6%) and ash fraction (fall: 0.694+/-0.011; spring: 0.696+/-0.010) also showed no change (p>0.304) between seasons. Statistical power was high (>72%) for these analyses. Furthermore, bone geometrical properties and ash fraction (a measure of mineral content) increased with age and porosity decreased with age. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse and age-related osteoporoses.

  5. GAS BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  6. Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel blockade by plant cannabinoids does not confer anticonvulsant effects per se.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J; Jones, Nicholas A; Smith, Imogen; Hill, Charlotte L; Williams, Claire M; Stephens, Gary J; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2014-04-30

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive, well-tolerated, anticonvulsant plant cannabinoid, although its mechanism(s) of seizure suppression remains unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of CBD and the structurally similar cannabinoid, cannabigerol (CBG), on voltage-gated Na(+) (NaV) channels, a common anti-epileptic drug target. CBG's anticonvulsant potential was also assessed in vivo. CBD effects on NaV channels were investigated using patch-clamp recordings from rat CA1 hippocampal neurons in brain slices, human SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma) cells and mouse cortical neurons in culture. CBG effects were also assessed in SH-SY5Y cells and mouse cortical neurons. CBD and CBG effects on veratridine-stimulated human recombinant NaV1.1, 1.2 or 1.5 channels were assessed using a membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dye high-throughput assay. The effect of CBG on pentyleneterazole-induced (PTZ) seizures was assessed in rat. CBD (10μM) blocked NaV currents in SH-SY5Y cells, mouse cortical neurons and recombinant cell lines, and affected spike parameters in rat CA1 neurons; CBD also significantly decreased membrane resistance. CBG blocked NaV to a similar degree to CBD in both SH-SY5Y and mouse recordings, but had no effect (50-200mg/kg) on PTZ-induced seizures in rat. CBD and CBG are NaV channel blockers at micromolar concentrations in human and murine neurons and recombinant cells. In contrast to previous reports investigating CBD, CBG had no effect upon PTZ-induced seizures in rat, indicating that NaV blockade per se does not correlate with anticonvulsant effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.

    1999-01-01

    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  8. Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  9. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  10. Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  11. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  12. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  13. Foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-11-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  14. Foil bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  15. Dietary sodium citrate supplementation does not improve upper-body anaerobic performance in trained wrestlers in simulated competition-day conditions.

    PubMed

    Aedma, Martin; Timpmann, Saima; Ööpik, Vahur

    2015-02-01

    Similarly to a wrestling match, upper-body intermittent sprint performance (UBISP) test elicits severe acidosis. This study aimed to determine whether sodium citrate (CIT) ingestion would help to better maintain peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) output across four consecutive UBISP tests simulating wrestling matches of a competition-day. In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover manner, 11 trained wrestlers ingested either placebo (PLC) or CIT (900 mg kg(-1)) within a 17-h supplementation period. Thereafter they completed four (T1-T4) 6-min UBISP tests interspersed with 30-min recovery periods. Compared with PLC, CIT supplementation resulted in a persistent increase (P < 0.05) in blood HCO3 (-) concentration and pH: pre-T1 25.6 % and 0.08 units, post-T4 39.1 % and 0.14 units, respectively. Post-T1 blood lactate concentration in CIT (16.1 ± 3.8 mmol L(-1)) was higher (P = 0.037) than that in PLC (13.7 ± 2.3 mmol L(-1)). Decrease in plasma volume across the supplementation period and UBISP tests was greater (P = 0.03) in PLC (-6.91 ± 4.37 %) than in CIT (-1.51 ± 4.34 %). There was an overall decrease (P = 0.028) in ratings of perceived exertion in CIT compared with PLC, but no between-trial difference (P > 0.05) in PP or MP in any UBISP test occurred. In trained wrestlers, CIT ingestion induces alkalosis, counteracts reduction in plasma volume, increases post-test blood lactate concentration and reduces perceived exertion, but does not improve PP or MP attained in consecutive UBISP tests simulating four wrestling matches of a competition-day.

  16. Sodium nitrate co-ingestion with protein does not augment postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in older, type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Burd, Nicholas A; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Senden, Joan M; Gijsen, Annemarie P; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-08-01

    The age-related anabolic resistance to protein ingestion is suggested to be associated with impairments in insulin-mediated capillary recruitment and postprandial muscle tissue perfusion. The present study investigated whether dietary nitrate co-ingestion with protein improves muscle protein synthesis in older, type 2 diabetes patients. Twenty-four men with type 2 diabetes (72 ± 1 yr, 26.7 ± 1.4 m/kg(2) body mass index, 7.3 ± 0.4% HbA1C) received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]leucine and ingested 20 g of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine- and l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled protein with (PRONO3) or without (PRO) sodium nitrate (0.15 mmol/kg). Blood and muscle samples were collected to assess protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. Upon protein ingestion, exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased in both groups (P < 0.001), resulting in 55 ± 2% and 53 ± 2% of dietary protein-derived amino acids becoming available in the circulation over the 5h postprandial period in the PRO and PRONO3 groups, respectively. Postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates based on l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine did not differ between groups (0.025 ± 0.004 and 0.021 ± 0.007%/h over 0-2 h and 0.032 ± 0.004 and 0.030 ± 0.003%/h over 2-5 h in PRO and PRONO3, respectively, P = 0.7). No differences in incorporation of dietary protein-derived l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine into de novo myofibrillar protein were observed at 5 h (0.016 ± 0.002 and 0.014 ± 0.002 mole percent excess in PRO and PRONO3, respectively, P = 0.8). Dietary nitrate co-ingestion with protein does not modulate protein digestion and absorption kinetics, nor does it further increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates or the incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into de novo myofibrillar protein in older, type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Bending fatigue of electron-beam-welded foils. Application to a hydrodynamic air bearing in the Chrysler/DOE upgraded automotive gas tubine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltsman, J. F.; Halford, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrodynamic air bearing with a compliment surface is used in the gas generator of an upgraded automotive gas turbine engine. In the prototype design, the compliant surface is a thin foil spot welded at one end to the bearing cartridge. During operation, the foil failed along the line of spot welds which acted as a series of stress concentrators. Because of its higher degree of geometric uniformity, electron beam welding of the foil was selected as an alternative to spot welding. Room temperature bending fatigue tests were conducted to determine the fatigue resistance of the electron beam welded foils. Equations were determined relating cycles to crack initiation and cycles to failure to nominal total strain range. A scaling procedure is presented for estimating the reduction in cyclic life when the foil is at its normal operating temperature of 260 C (500 F).

  18. Dietary sodium reduction does not affect circulating glucose concentrations in fasting children or adults: findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena M; Cobb, Paul; Saydah, Sharon; Zhang, Xuanping; de Jesus, Janet M; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-03-01

    Although evidence shows that reduced sodium intake lowers blood pressure, some studies suggest that sodium reduction may adversely affect insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. The objectives were to assess the effects of sodium reduction on glucose tolerance, evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the relevant scientific literature, and provide direction for future research. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science through August 2014. Both randomized and nonrandomized intervention trials were included in our meta-analyses. The effects of sodium reduction on glucose tolerance were evaluated in 37 articles, but because of a lack of comparable data, 8 trials were excluded from the meta-analyses. Participants were 10-79 y old, either primarily healthy or with hypertension. In meta-analyses of 20 randomized, crossover trials (n = 504 participants) and 9 nonrandomized crossover trials (n = 337), circulating glucose concentrations of fasting participants were not affected by reduction in sodium intake. In contrast, in meta-analyses of 19 of the 20 randomized, crossover trials (n = 494), fasting insulin concentrations were 9.53 pmol/L higher (95% CI: 5.04, 14.02 pmol/L higher) with sodium reduction. In 9 nonrandomized trials (n = 337), fasting insulin did not differ with reduced sodium intake. Results differed little when the analyses were restricted to studies with a low risk of bias and duration of ≥7 d. This meta-analysis revealed no evidence that, in trials with a short intervention and large reductions in sodium, circulating glucose concentrations differed between groups. Recommendations for future studies include extending intervention durations, ensuring comparability of groups at baseline through randomization, and assessing sodium intakes relevant to population sodium reduction. In addition, analyses on other metabolic variables were limited because of the number of trials reporting these outcomes and lack of consistency

  19. Dietary Sodium Reduction Does Not Affect Circulating Glucose Concentrations in Fasting Children or Adults: Findings from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis1234

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena M; Cobb, Paul; Saydah, Sharon; Zhang, Xuanping; de Jesus, Janet M; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although evidence shows that reduced sodium intake lowers blood pressure, some studies suggest that sodium reduction may adversely affect insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. Objectives: The objectives were to assess the effects of sodium reduction on glucose tolerance, evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the relevant scientific literature, and provide direction for future research. Methods: We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science through August 2014. Both randomized and nonrandomized intervention trials were included in our meta-analyses. The effects of sodium reduction on glucose tolerance were evaluated in 37 articles, but because of a lack of comparable data, 8 trials were excluded from the meta-analyses. Results: Participants were 10–79 y old, either primarily healthy or with hypertension. In meta-analyses of 20 randomized, crossover trials (n = 504 participants) and 9 nonrandomized crossover trials (n = 337), circulating glucose concentrations of fasting participants were not affected by reduction in sodium intake. In contrast, in meta-analyses of 19 of the 20 randomized, crossover trials (n = 494), fasting insulin concentrations were 9.53 pmol/L higher (95% CI: 5.04, 14.02 pmol/L higher) with sodium reduction. In 9 nonrandomized trials (n = 337), fasting insulin did not differ with reduced sodium intake. Results differed little when the analyses were restricted to studies with a low risk of bias and duration of ≥7 d. Conclusions: This meta-analysis revealed no evidence that, in trials with a short intervention and large reductions in sodium, circulating glucose concentrations differed between groups. Recommendations for future studies include extending intervention durations, ensuring comparability of groups at baseline through randomization, and assessing sodium intakes relevant to population sodium reduction. In addition, analyses on other metabolic variables were limited because of the number of

  20. Measuring environmental stress in East Greenland polar bears, 1892-1927 and 1988-2009: what does hair cortisol tell us?

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Rigét, F F; Sonne, C; Letcher, R J; Muir, D C G; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Eulaers, I; Jaspers, V L B; Eens, M; Covaci, A; Dietz, R

    2012-09-15

    Hair sampled from 96 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) over the periods 1892-1927 and 1988-2009 was analyzed for cortisol as a proxy to investigate temporal patterns of environmental stress. Cortisol concentration was independent of sex and age, and was found at significantly higher (p<0.001) concentrations in historical hair samples (1892-1927; n=8) relative to recent ones (1988-2009; n=88). In addition, there was a linear time trend in cortisol concentration of the recent samples (p<0.01), with an annual decrease of 2.7%. The recent hair samples were also analyzed for major bioaccumulative, persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There were no obvious POP related time trends or correlations between hair cortisol and hair POP concentrations. Thus, polar bear hair appears to be a relatively poor indicator of the animal's general POP load in adipose tissue. However, further investigations are warranted to explore the reasons for the temporal decrease found in the bears' hair cortisol levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  2. Intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride therapy does not reduce length of stay of alcohol-intoxicated patients in the emergency department: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Perez, Siegfried Rs; Keijzers, Gerben; Steele, Michael; Byrnes, Joshua; Scuffham, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    I.v. 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline) is frequently used to treat ED patients with acute alcohol intoxication despite the lack of evidence for its efficacy. The study aims to compare treatment with i.v. normal saline and observation with observation alone in ED patients with acute alcohol intoxication. A single-blind, randomised, controlled trial was conducted to compare a single bolus of 20 mL/kg i.v. normal saline plus observation with observation alone. One hundred and forty-four ED patients with uncomplicated acute alcohol intoxication were included. The study was conducted in one tertiary and one urban ED in Queensland, Australia. Primary outcome was ED length of stay (EDLOS). Secondary outcomes were treatment time, breath alcohol levels, intoxication symptom score, level of intoxication and associated healthcare costs. Both groups were comparable at baseline: blood alcohol content (BAC) was similar between treatment and control groups (0.20 % BAC vs 0.19 % BAC, P = 0.44) as were initial intoxication symptom scores (22.0 vs 22.3, P = 0.90). Both groups had a similar EDLOS (287 min vs 274 min, P = 0.89; difference 13 min [95% CI -37-63]) and treatment time (244 min vs 232 min, P = 0.94; difference 12 min [95% CI -31-55]). Change of breath alcohol levels, intoxication score and level of intoxication were not significantly different between the two groups. Patients in the treatment group had an additional healthcare cost of A$31.92 compared with control. I.v. normal saline therapy added to observation alone does not decrease ED length of stay compared with observation alone. Intoxication symptom scores and general state of intoxication were similar in both groups. The present study suggests that either approach is reasonable, but observation alone might be preferred as it is less resource intensive. © 2013 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and

  3. Analysis of an all-metallic resilient-pad gas-lubricated thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    A resilient-pad gas thrust bearing that does not contain any elastomers in the bearing assembly is described and analyzed. The bearing consists of sector-shaped pads mounted asymmetrically on resilient foil beams. The effects of bearing design parameters on performance are shown. Performance of a resilient-pad bearing is compared with that of a pivoted-pad bearing.

  4. Does Oil Rich in Alpha-Linolenic Fatty Acid Cause the Same Immune Modulation as Fish Oil in Walker 256 Tumor-Bearing Rats?

    PubMed

    Schiessel, Dalton Luiz; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Coelho de Castro, Isabela; Yamaguchi, Adriana A; Pequito, Danielle C T; Brito, Gleisson A P; Borghetti, Gina; Aikawa, Júlia; Nunes, Everson A; Naliwaiko, Kátia; Fernandes, Luiz C

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA n-3) have shown effects in reducing tumor growth, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) abundantly present in fish oil (FO). When these fatty acids are provided in the diet, they alter the functions of the cells, particularly in tumor and immune cells. However, the effects of α-linolenic fatty acid (ALA), which is the precursor of EPA and DHA, are controversial. Thus, our objective was to test the effect of this parental fatty acid. Non-tumor-bearing and tumor-bearing Wistar rats (70 days) were supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight of FO or Oro Inca® (OI) oil (rich in ALA). Immune cells function, proliferation, cytokine production, and subpopulation profile were evaluated. We have shown that innate immune cells enhanced phagocytosis capacity, and increased processing and elimination of antigens. Moreover, there was a decrease in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) by macrophages. Lymphocytes showed decreased proliferation capacity, increased cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8(+)) subpopulation, and increased TNF-α production. Oil rich in ALA caused similar immune modulation in cancer when compared with FO.

  5. Measuring environmental stress in East Greenland polar bears, 1892–1927 and 1988–2009: what does hair cortisol tell us?

    PubMed Central

    TØ, Bechshøft; Rigét, FF; Sonne, C; Letcher, RJ; Muir, DCG; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Eulaers; Jaspers, VLB; Eens, M; Covaci, A; Dietz, R

    2012-01-01

    Hair sampled from 96 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) over the periods 1892–1927 and 1988–2009 was analyzed for cortisol as a proxy to investigate temporal patterns of environmental stress. Cortisol concentration was independent of sex and age, and was found at significantly higher (p < 0.001) concentrations in historical hair samples (1892–1927; n = 8) relative to recent ones (1988–2009; n = 88). In addition, there was a linear time trend in cortisol concentration of the recent samples (p < 0.01), with an annual decrease of 2.7 %. The recent hair samples were also analyzed for major bioaccumulative, persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There were no obvious POP related time trends or correlations between hair cortisol and hair POP concentrations. Thus, polar bear hair appears to be a relatively poor indicator of the animal’s general POP load in adipose tissue. However, further investigations are warranted to explore the reasons for the temporal decrease found in the bears’ hair cortisol levels. PMID:22572112

  6. Sodium - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due to: Use of medicines ... overview Hepatorenal syndrome Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Ions Low sodium level Nephrotic syndrome Sweating Review ...

  7. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  8. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2 hours after meals, with a full glass of water. If you are using sodium bicarbonate for another reason, it may be taken with or without food. Do not take sodium bicarbonate on an overly full stomach.Dissolve sodium bicarbonate powder in at least 4 ounces (120 milliliters) of ...

  9. Sodium Azide

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to sodium azide by drinking the contaminated water. Following contamination of food with sodium azide, you could be exposed to sodium azide by eating the contaminated food. Following release of ... with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. ...

  10. System for testing bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, John C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed here is a system for testing bearings wherein a pair of spaced bearings provides support for a shaft on which is mounted a bearing to be tested, this bearing being mounted in a bearing holder spaced from and in alignment with the pair of bearings. The bearing holder is provided with an annular collar positioned in an opening in the bearing holder for holding the bearing to be tested. A screw threaded through the bearing holder into engagement with the annular collar can be turned to force the collar radially out of alignment with the pair of bearings to apply a radial load to the bearing.

  11. CUSHIONED BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A vibration damping device effective to dampen vibrations occurring at the several critical speeds encountered in the operation of a high-speed centrifuge is described. A self-centering bearing mechanism is used to protect both the centrifuge shaft and the damping mechanism. The damping mechanism comprises spaced-apant, movable, and stationary sleeve members arranged concentrically of a rotating shaft with a fluid maintained between the members. The movable sleeve member is connected to the shaft for radial movement therewith.

  12. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  13. Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

  14. Alaskan brown bears, humans, and habituation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas; Herrero, Stephen; DeBruyn, Terry D.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new paradigm for understanding habituation and the role it plays in brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations and interactions with humans in Alaska. We assert that 3 forms of habituation occur in Alaska: bear-to-bear, bear-to-human, and human-to-bear. We present data that supports our theory that bear density is an important factor influencing a bear’s overt reaction distance (ORD); that as bear density increases, overt reaction distance decreases, as does the likelihood of bear– human interactions. We maintain that the effects of bear-to-bear habituation are largely responsible for not only shaping bear aggregations but also for creating the relatively safe environment for bear viewing experienced at areas where there are high densities of brown bears. By promoting a better understanding of the forces that shape bear social interactions within populations and with humans that mingle with them, we can better manage human activities and minimize bear–human conflict.

  15. Advances In Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1994-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum reviews state of technology of magnetic bearings, focusing mainly on attractive bearings rather than repulsive, eddy-current, or Lorentz bearings. Attractive bearings offer greater load capacities and preferred for aerospace machinery.

  16. Alignment and operability analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump.

  17. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat...

  18. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat...

  19. Io's fast sodium: Implications for molecular and atomic atmospheric escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jody K.; Schneider, Nicholas M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent observational evidence for sodium-bearing molecular ions in the Io plasma torus has strong implications for the nature of Io's atmosphere (Schneider et al. 1991). We use a Monte Carlo model offast-sodium production to analyze high-resolution ground-based images of sodium emission. We find the observations can be explained if a significant fraction of Io's exobase is molecular, possible including a sodium-bearing molecule, Total sodium loss rates from Io imply a collisionally thick atmosphere. Most of the images indicate significant slow-down of the corotating plasma near Io.

  20. Modeling sulfate reduction in methane hydrate-bearing continental margin sediments: Does a sulfate-methane transition require anaerobic oxidation of methane?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malinverno, A.; Pohlman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfate-methane transition (SMT), a biogeochemical zone where sulfate and methane are metabolized, is commonly observed at shallow depths (1-30 mbsf) in methane-bearing marine sediments. Two processes consume sulfate at and above the SMT, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and organoclastic sulfate reduction (OSR). Differentiating the relative contribution of each process is critical to estimate methane flux into the SMT, which, in turn, is necessary to predict deeper occurrences of gas hydrates in continental margin sediments. To evaluate the relative importance of these two sulfate reduction pathways, we developed a diagenetic model to compute the pore water concentrations of sulfate, methane, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). By separately tracking DIC containing 12C and 13C, the model also computes ??13C-DIC values. The model reproduces common observations from methane-rich sediments: a well-defined SMT with no methane above and no sulfate below and a ??13C-DIC minimum at the SMT. The model also highlights the role of upward diffusing 13C-enriched DIC in contributing to the carbon isotope mass balance of DIC. A combination of OSR and AOM, each consuming similar amounts of sulfate, matches observations from Site U1325 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311, northern Cascadia margin). Without AOM, methane diffuses above the SMT, which contradicts existing field data. The modeling results are generalized with a dimensional analysis to the range of SMT depths and sedimentation rates typical of continental margins. The modeling shows that AOM must be active to establish an SMT wherein methane is quantitatively consumed and the ??13C-DIC minimum occurs. The presence of an SMT generally requires active AOM. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Teflon lubrication of liquid oxygen turbopump bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naerheim, Y.; Stocker, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Ball bearings with glass fiber reinforced Teflon ball retainers from hot-fired liquid oxygen turbopumps were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the extent of Teflon transfer and/or chemical reaction at the bearing surface. No Teflon, but metal fluorides could be found on the metal surface. This indicates that Teflon decomposes and reacts with the bearing steel to form fluorides. Hence, Teflon does not appear to function directly as a lubricant under these operating conditions.

  2. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  3. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  4. Oil exchange between ball bearings and cotton-phenolic ball-bearing retainers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, P. A.; Carre, D. J.; Bauer, R.

    1994-09-01

    Experiments have been performed that determine for the first time the transfer of oil between cotton-phenolic ball-bearing retainers and operating ball bearings. A full retainer exchanges oil with the metal parts of the bearing, probably by diffusional mixing. There is no net delivery of oil from the retainer to the metal parts of the bearing. A partially filled retainer (such as one that has been incompletely impregnated) absorbs oil from the bearing even during operation, thus drying the bearing. A fully-impregnated retainer does not deliver any significant amount of additional oil to the metal parts of a poorly lubricated bearing. The retainer will not prevent lubricant degradation and premature bearing failure under the conditions of these experiments.

  5. The degree of misreporting of the energy-adjusted intake of protein, potassium, and sodium does not differ among under-, acceptable, and over-reporters of energy intake.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    It is unclear whether misreporting of nutrient intakes differs according to energy reporting status. We examined misreporting of dietary protein, potassium, and sodium in under-, acceptable, and over-reporters of energy intake. Our hypothesis was that degree of misreporting of these three nutrients differs among under-, acceptable, and over-reporters. Participants were 1043 Japanese women aged 18 to 22 years. Self-reported dietary intake was obtained using a diet history questionnaire. Under-, acceptable, and over-reporters of energy intake were identified based on the ratio of self-reported energy intake to estimated energy requirement (<0.70 [17.2%], 0.70-1.30 [78.1%], and >1.30 [4.7%], respectively). Misreporting of dietary protein, potassium, and sodium was assessed against the corresponding biomarker-based estimate derived from 24-hour urinary excretion. On average, the degree of misreporting of intake of energy and the three nutrients varied considerably. Absolute intake (amount per day) of the three nutrients was under-reported in under-reporters of energy intake and over-reported in over-reporters compared with acceptable reporters. However, mainly because of high correlations between the ratio of self-reported energy intake to estimated energy requirement and the ratio of self-reported to biomarker-based estimates of absolute intake of three nutrients (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.64 for protein, 0.51 for potassium, and 0.37 for sodium), the degree of misreporting of the energy-adjusted intake of these nutrients based on the density method did not differ across categories of energy reporting status. In conclusion, these findings may lend support to the usefulness of adjustment for energy misreporting and the futility of merely excluding energy misreporters from analysis.

  6. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium nitrite at a level not in excess of 0.1 percent by weight thereof for authorized uses in cured... additive and its label or labeling shall bear adequate directions for use. (2) Sodium nitrite produced...

  7. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium nitrite at a level not in excess of 0.1 percent by weight thereof for authorized uses in cured... additive and its label or labeling shall bear adequate directions for use. (2) Sodium nitrite produced...

  8. Dalteparin sodium.

    PubMed

    Pineo, G F; Hull, R D

    2001-08-01

    Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which is highly correlated with body weight permitting the o.d. administration of the drug. Dalteparin sodium has been subjected to a large number of well-designed randomised clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on data from the randomised clinical trials, dalteparin sodium has been approved internationally for a wide spectrum of clinical indications (e.g., prevention of thromboembolic events after surgery). Dalteparin sodium has also been studied in randomised controlled trials in the maintenance of graft patentcy following peripheral vascular surgery, in place of warfarin for the long-term treatment of patients presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the prevention of upper extremity thrombosis in patients with indwelling portacath devices and in pregnant patients with a history of previous venous thromboembolism with or without thrombophilia. Dalteparin sodium has been compared with heparin for the prevention of thrombotic complications during haemodyalisis and haemofiltration. These studies have shown promising results but further work is required before dalteparin sodium can be recommended for these indications.

  9. Sodium MRI.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Sodium ((23)Na) imaging has a place somewhere between (1)H-MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Like MRS it potentially provides information on metabolic processes, but only one single resonance of ionic (23)Na is observed. Therefore pulse sequences do not need to code for a chemical shift dimension, allowing (23)Na images to be obtained at high resolutions as compared to MRS. In this chapter the biological significance of sodium in the brain will be discussed, as well as methods for observing it with (23)Na-MRI. Many vital cellular processes and interactions in excitable tissues depend on the maintenance of a low intracellular and high extracellular sodium concentration. Healthy cells maintain this concentration gradient at the cost of energy. Leaky cell membranes or an impaired energy metabolism immediately leads to an increase in cytosolic total tissue sodium. This makes sodium a biomarker for ischemia, cancer, excessive tissue activation, or tissue damage as might be caused by ablation therapy. Special techniques allow quantification of tissue sodium for the monitoring of disease or therapy in longitudinal studies or preferential observation of the intracellular component of the tissue sodium. New methods and high-field magnet technology provide new opportunities for (23)Na-MRI in clinical and biomedical research.

  10. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in...

  11. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following...

  12. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  13. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  14. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin...

  15. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A plain...

  16. Recovery of tungsten and molybdenum from sulfur--bearing material

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsko, J. E.; Acia, H. L.

    1984-11-13

    Tungsten and molybdenum are recovered from sulfur bearing material such as sulfide sludges by a pollution free process in which the sulfur bearing material is heated with agitation in an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate to form water soluble molybdenum and tungsten compounds without forming any appreciable amount of water soluble sulfur compounds. The reaction mixture is oxidized to convert partially reduced tungsten values or molybdenum values to sodium tungstate and sodium molybdate respectively. The liquid phase containing tungsten and molybdenum is separated from the solid phase containing free sulfur.

  17. Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; Rincon, Gonzalo; Meredith, Robert W; MacNeil, Michael D; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Cánovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25× for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads were assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3 species aligned to the polar bear genome. These data indicate that polar bears and brown bears share more SNP with each other than either does with black bears. Concatenation and coalescence-based analysis of consensus sequences of approximately 1 million base pairs of ultraconserved elements in the nuclear genome resulted in a phylogeny with black bears as the sister group to brown and polar bears, and all brown bears are in a separate clade from polar bears. Genotypes for 162 SNP loci of 336 bears from Alaska and Montana showed that the species are genetically differentiated and there is geographic population structure of brown and black bears but not polar bears.

  18. Comment on "Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage".

    PubMed

    Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Masami

    2013-03-29

    Based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, Hailer et al. (Reports, 20 April 2012, p. 344) suggested early divergence of polar bears from a common ancestor with brown bears and subsequent introgression. Our population genetic analysis that traces each of the genealogies in the independent nuclear loci does not support the evolutionary model proposed by the authors.

  19. Bearing Witness to Teaching and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author elucidates the idea of bearing witness to teaching and teachers. The orientation derives from a philosophical and field-based inquiry pivoting around the questions What does it mean to be a person in the world today? and What does it mean to be a person in the role of teacher? From 2012 to 2014, the author interacted…

  20. Chronic vitamin C deficiency promotes redox imbalance in the brain but does not alter sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 expression.

    PubMed

    Paidi, Maya D; Schjoldager, Janne G; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille

    2014-04-29

    Vitamin C (VitC) has several roles in the brain acting both as a specific and non-specific antioxidant. The brain upholds a very high VitC concentration and is able to preferentially retain VitC even during deficiency. The accumulation of brain VitC levels much higher than in blood is primarily achieved by the sodium dependent VitC transporter (SVCT2). This study investigated the effects of chronic pre-and postnatal VitC deficiency as well as the effects of postnatal VitC repletion, on brain SVCT2 expression and markers of oxidative stress in young guinea pigs. Biochemical analyses demonstrated significantly decreased total VitC and an increased percentage of dehydroascorbic acid, as well as increased lipid oxidation (malondialdehyde), in the brains of VitC deficient animals (p < 0.0001) compared to controls. VitC repleted animals were not significantly different from controls. No significant changes were detected in either gene or protein expression of SVCT2 between groups or brain regions. In conclusion, chronic pre-and postnatal VitC deficiency increased brain redox imbalance but did not increase SVCT2 expression. Our findings show potential implications for VitC deficiency induced negative effects of redox imbalance in the brain and provide novel insight to the regulation of VitC in the brain during deficiency.

  1. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  2. Restoration of bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Hanau, H.

    1977-01-01

    Process consisting of grinding raceways to oversize but original quality condition and installing new oversize balls or bearings restores wornout ball and roller bearings to original quality, thereby doubling their operating life. Evaluations reveal process results in restoration of 90% of replaced bearings at less than 50% of new-bearing costs.

  3. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  4. Cryogenic foil bearing turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Alston L.

    1993-01-01

    Cryogenic foil bearing turbopumps offer high reliability and low cost. The fundamental cryogenic foil bearing technology has been validated in both liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. High load capacity, excellent rotor dynamics, and negligible bearing wear after over 100 starts and stops, and over many hours of testing, were observed in both fluids. An experimental liquid hydrogen foil bearing turbopump was also successfully demonstrated. The results indicate excellent stability, high reliability, wide throttle-ability, low bearing cooling flow, and two-phase bearing operability. A liquid oxygen foil bearing turbopump has been built and is being tested at NASA MSFC.

  5. Introduction to ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of a ball bearing is to provide a relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between two structures, usually a shaft and a housing. For high rotational speeds (e.g., in gyroscope ball bearings) the purpose can be expanded to include rotational freedom with practically no wear in the bearing. This condition can be achieved by separating the bearing parts with a coherent film of fluid known as an elastohydrodynamic film. This film can be maintained not only when the bearing carries the load on a shaft, but also when the bearing is preloaded to position the shaft to within micro- or nano-inch accuracy and stability. Background information on ball bearings is provided, different types of ball bearings and their geometry and kinematics are defined, bearing materials, manufacturing processes, and separators are discussed. It is assumed, for the purposes of analysis, that the bearing carries no load.

  6. High efficiency magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Anand, Davinder K.; Kirk, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Research activities concerning high efficiency permanent magnet plus electromagnet (PM/EM) pancake magnetic bearings at the University of Maryland are reported. A description of the construction and working of the magnetic bearing is provided. Next, parameters needed to describe the bearing are explained. Then, methods developed for the design and testing of magnetic bearings are summarized. Finally, a new magnetic bearing which allows active torque control in the off axes directions is discussed.

  7. Abciximab does not inhibit the increase of thrombin generation produced in platelet-rich plasma in vitro by sodium arachidonate or tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Altman, Raul; Scazziota, Alejandra; Santoro, Silvina; Gonzalez, Claudio

    2005-07-01

    Aspirin and platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa blockers are currently used for acute coronary events, and in percutaneous coronary intervention for preventing further coronary outcomes, because they inhibit platelet function. Aspirin also inhibits thrombin generation (TG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by sodium arachidonate (AA). The effect of the platelet membrane GP IIb-IIIa (integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3)) blocker abciximab on thrombin generation was studied in vitro using PRP. Thirty healthy volunteers taking no medication, and 28 volunteers who had taken aspirin (160 mg/day for 3-4 days), were included in the protocol. Control or in vivo aspirinated PRP, stimulated or not by AA or tissue factor (TF), was investigated for the inhibitory effect of abciximab pre-incubated for 3 minutes. AA and TF added in vitro activated non-aspirinated PRP: lag-time (LT) and time to peak (TTP) were significantly shortened. Peak TG (PTG) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETG) were increased by AA but not TF; thus, AA seems to be more efficient than TF for TG in this system. Abciximab added in vitro to non-activated, non-aspirinated PRP had no effect on LT, TTP, or ETP, but caused a decrease in PTG that was not statistically significant. Abciximab (3 or 4 microg/mL) added in vitro to AA or TF-activated, non-aspirinated PRP produced no effect on TG, although in aspirinated platelets both LT and time to peak were prolonged. AA as well as TF added in vitro to PRP or in vivo aspirinated PRP increased TG, although AA seems to be more efficient in our assay system. Abciximab, which affects non-aspirinated, nonactivated PRP weakly, has no effect on AA or TF in activated control PRP or in vivo aspirinated PRP.

  8. Early chloride intake does not parallel that of sodium in extremely-low-birth-weight infants and may impair neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kermorvant-Duchemin, Elsa; Iacobelli, Silvia; Eleni-Dit-Trolli, Sergio; Bonsante, Francesco; Kermorvant, Christopher; Sarfati, Gilles; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard; Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Accurate data on the optimal chloride (Cl) intake in premature infants are scarce. The aim of the present study was to describe Cl intakes in the first 10 days of life and to assess the relations between high Cl intakes and corrected serum Cl level or markers of severe acidosis in infants <28 weeks' gestation. Retrospective cohort study including all of the infants <28 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit during a 3-year period and cared for from birth until day 10 or more. Fifty-six infants were included. Cumulative total Cl intakes reached 9.6 ± 3.7 mmol/kg at day 3 and 49.2 ± 13.5 mmol/kg at day 10. Inadvertent intakes (from intravenous fluids other than parenteral nutrition) represented on average 70% of total Cl intakes in the first 3 days. Difference between Cl and sodium intakes reached 7.8 ± 4.8 mmol/kg at day 10 and mainly originated from parenteral nutrition. By multivariate analysis, cumulative Cl intake >10 mmol/kg during the first 3 days was an independent risk factor of base excess <-10 mmol/L. Cumulative Cl intake >45 mmol/kg during the first 10 days was an independent risk factor of corrected chloremia >115 mmol/L and of base excess <-10 mmol/L. Cumulative Cl intake >10 mmol/kg during the first 3 days (ie, 3.3 mmol · kg (-1) · day(-1) on average) and >45 mmol/kg during the first 10 days (ie, 4.5 mmol · kg (-1) · day(-1) on average) may have unwanted metabolic consequences and should be avoided. Imbalance between electrolytes provided by the parenteral nutrition solution need to be detected and corrected.

  9. Dietary folate does not significantly affect the intestinal microbiome, inflammation or tumorigenesis in azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulphate-treated mice.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Amanda J; Behan, Nathalie A; Matias, Fernando M G; Green, Judy; Caldwell, Don; Brooks, Stephen P J

    2013-02-28

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Environmental factors including diet and the microflora influence disease outcome. Folate and homocysteine have been associated with IBD-mediated colon cancer but their roles remain unclear. We used a model of chemically induced ulcerative colitis (dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)) with or without the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) to determine the impact of dietary folic acid (FA) on colonic microflora and the development of colon tumours. Male mice (n 15 per group) were fed a FA-deficient (0 mg/kg), control (2 mg/kg) or FA-supplemented (8 mg/kg) diet for 12 weeks. Folate status was dependent on the diet (P< 0·001) and colitis-induced treatment (P= 0·04) such that mice with colitis had lower circulating folate. FA had a minimal effect on tumour initiation, growth and progression, although FA-containing diets tended to be associated with a higher tumour prevalence in DSS-treated mice (7-20 v. 0%, P= 0·08) and the development of more tumours in the distal colon of AOM-treated mice (13-83% increase, P= 0·09). Folate deficiency was associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia (P< 0·001) but homocysteine negatively correlated with tumour number (r - 0·58, P= 0·02) and load (r - 0·57, P= 0·02). FA had no effect on the intestinal microflora. The present data indicate that FA intake has no or little effect on IBD or IBD-mediated colon cancer in this model and that hyperhomocysteinaemia is a biomarker of dietary status and malabsorption rather than a cause of IBD-mediated colon cancer.

  10. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  12. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  13. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  14. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  15. Conservation of the Yellowstone grizzly bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Reid, Matthew M.

    1991-01-01

    We review literature relevant to the conservation of Yellowstone's grizzly bear population and appraise the bear's long-term viability. We conclude that the population is isolated and vulnerable to epidemic perturbation and that the carrying capacity of the habitat is likely to shift downward under conditions of climate change. Viability analyses based on the assumption that future habitats will closely resemble those existing at present have limited applicability; more information is needed on the autecology of important bear foods and on the implications of landscape-scale changes for bear population dynamics. Optimism over prospects of long-term persistence for Yellowstone's grizzly bears does not seem to be warranted and management of this population should be conservative and not unduly swayed on short-term positive trends.

  16. Investigating Science through Bears (and Teddy Bears).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karlene Ray

    1997-01-01

    Presents cooperative classroom projects using science as the initial basis for the study of bears. These projects may also involve other areas of the curriculum such as mathematics, art, and music. "Black Bear" activities include following a park ranger to study our National Parks and researching and building a full-sized brown bear…

  17. Investigating Science through Bears (and Teddy Bears).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karlene Ray

    1997-01-01

    Presents cooperative classroom projects using science as the initial basis for the study of bears. These projects may also involve other areas of the curriculum such as mathematics, art, and music. "Black Bear" activities include following a park ranger to study our National Parks and researching and building a full-sized brown bear…

  18. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  19. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate is... the label. (e) If a salt substitute as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section is used, the label shall bear the statement “___ added as a salt substitute”, the blank being filled in with the...

  20. Changes in volemia and natremia and onset of sodium appetite in sodium depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, M D; Chiaraviglio, E

    1977-08-01

    Rats depleted of sodium by the IP injection of 10% b.w. of isotonic glucose for 30 min, developed a specific sodium appetite. The blood volume decreased 16% of the control value immediately after the treatment, returning to normal levels 2 to 4 hr later. The plasma sodium concentration showed a sudden and significant decrease, returning to control value 10-12 hr after the dialysis. In contrast, the sodium appetite became evident 10-12 hr after dialysis and reached the highest volume of ingestion at the sixteenth hr when both volemia and natremia had returned to normal. Since the appearance of the sodium appetite was not initiated during the state of hypovolemia and hyponatremia, the results show that the decrease in plasma volume and sodium concentration of the intravascular fluid that occurs after acute sodium depletion by IPD does not initiate an immediate onset of the sodium appetite.

  1. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  2. Mechanical spin bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spin bearing assembly including, a pair of mutually opposing complementary bearing support members having mutually spaced apart bearing support surfaces which may be, for example, bearing races and a set of spin bearings located therebetween. Each spin bearing includes a pair of end faces, a central rotational axis passing through the end faces, a waist region substantially mid-way between the end faces and having a first thickness dimension, and discrete side surface regions located between the waist region and the end faces and having a second thickness dimension different from the first thickness dimension of the waist region and wherein the side surface regions further have respective curvilinear contact surfaces adapted to provide a plurality of bearing contact points on the bearing support members.

  3. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  4. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  5. 1-Way Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A one-way bearing is provided having sprags and rolling bearings both disposed between an inner and an outer race. The sprags may comprise three-dimensional sprags for preventing rotation in a non-preferential direction. The roll- ing bearings may comprise thrust rollers for transmitting axial, tilt, and radial loads between the inner and outer races.

  6. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  7. Physiologic responses of grizzly bears to different methods of capture.

    PubMed

    Cattet, Marc R; Christison, Katina; Caulkett, Nigel A; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2003-07-01

    The physiologic effects of two methods of capture, chemical immobilization of free-ranging (FR) bears by remote injection from a helicopter and physical restraint (PR) by leg-hold snare prior to chemical immobilization, were compared in 46 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) handled during 90 captures between 1999 and 2001. Induction dosages and times were greater for FR bears than PR bears, a finding consistent with depletion of, or decreased sensitivity to, catecholamines. Free-ranging bears also had higher rectal temperatures 15 min following immobilization and temperatures throughout handling that correlated positively with induction time. Physically restrained bears had higher white blood cell counts, with more neutrophils and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils, than did FR bears. This white blood cell profile was consistent with a stress leukogram, possibly affected by elevated levels of serum cortisol. Serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase were higher in PR bears that suggested muscle injury. Serum concentrations of sodium and chloride also were higher in PR bears and attributed to reduced body water volume through water deprivation and increased insensible water loss. Overall, different methods of capture resulted in different patterns of physiologic disturbance. Reducing pursuit and drug induction times should help to minimize increase in body temperature and alteration of acid-base balance in bears immobilized by remote injection. Minimizing restraint time and ensuring snare-anchoring cables are short should help to minimize loss of body water and prevent serious muscle injury in bears captured by leg-hold snare.

  8. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  9. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconducting bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.

    2000-02-01

    The physics and technology of superconducting bearings is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in rotating bearings. The basic phenomenology of levitational forces is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the theoretical models that can be used for conceptual understanding and calculations. The merits of various HTS bearing designs are presented, and the behaviour of HTS bearings in typical situations is discussed. The article concludes with a brief survey of various proposed applications for HTS bearings.

  11. Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kathryn; Jacob, Sharon E

    2010-01-01

    Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SHMG) is a preservative used in many commercially available products, including shampoos, conditioners, soaps, moisturizers, body sprays, baby wipes, room sprays, cleaning agents, and pesticides. It is in a class of chemicals known as formaldehyde-releasing preservatives. Notably, members of this class have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis, possibly due to the agents themselves, the formaldehyde they release, or both. Studies on SHMG in animals have demonstrated potential for sensitization and dermatitis, and formaldehyde-allergic patients have been reported to improve when products containing SHMG are avoided. Patients and providers need to be aware of this preservative.

  12. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  13. Bearings: Technology and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

  14. The Perceptual Characteristics of Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    PubMed

    St John, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Three experiments assessed potential changes in the rat's perception of sodium chloride (NaCl) during a state of sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sodium-sufficient rats licking a range of NaCl concentrations (0.028-0.89M) in 15s trials showed an inverted U-shaped concentration response function peaking at 0.281M. Depleted rats (furosemide) showed an identical function, merely elevated, suggesting altered qualitative or hedonic perception but no change in perceived intensity. In Experiment 2, sodium-depleted rats were tested with NaCl, sodium gluconate, and potassium chloride (KCl; 0.028-0.89M) similar to Experiment 1. KCl was licked at the same rate as water except for a slight elevation at 0.158; sodium gluconate and NaCl were treated similarly, but rats showed more licking for hypertonic sodium gluconate than hypertonic NaCl. Sodium-depleted rats were also tested with NaCl mixed in amiloride (10-300 μM). Amiloride reduced licking but did not alter the shape of the concentration-response function. Collectively, these results suggest that transduction of sodium by epithelial sodium channels (which are blocked by amiloride and are more dominant in sodium gluconate than NaCl transduction) is crucial for the perception of sodium during physiological sodium depletion. In Experiment 3, sodium-deplete rats were tested with NaCl as in Experiment 1 but after taste aversion conditioning to 0.3M NaCl or sucrose. Rats conditioned to avoid NaCl but not sucrose failed to express a sodium appetite, strongly suggesting that NaCl does not undergo a change in taste quality during sodium appetite-rats show no confusion between sucrose and NaCl in this paradigm. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of US Government 2016.

  15. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  16. Preparation of ammonium paratungstate from a sodium tungstate-sodium chloride phase

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, A.E.; Gomes, J.M.; Carnahan, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the tungstate-bearing sodium chloride phase can be a suitable feed material for preparing ammonium paratungstate (APT) by a modification to the present industrial solvent extraction process. A combined crossflow-countercurrent flow solvent extraction technique to extract tungsten is presented.

  17. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  18. Extending bearing life

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.

    1997-08-01

    Long-term bearing operation cannot be achieved unless proper handling, storage, installation, and maintenance procedures are followed. These factors can shorten--sometimes drastically--expected bearing service life. Failures are generally related to improper lubrication or installation and induced conditions. Most major bearing manufacturers offer technical assistance in inspection, evaluation, and reporting on bearings which have failed in service. Actual percentages associated with each failure category vary, depending on the source, but generally they are 70% from lubrication and installation, 20% from induced factors, and 10% from reaching their fatigue limit or design life. The paper describes lubricant-related failures and procedures for the correct handling, storage, installation, and maintenance.

  19. Damper bearing rotordynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1990-01-01

    High side loads reduce the life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) bearings. High stiffness damper seals were recommended to reduce the loads on the pump and turbine end bearings in the HPOTP. The seals designed for use on the pump end are expected to adequately reduce the bearing loads; the predicted performance of the planned turbine end seal is marginal. An alternative to the suggested turbine end seal design is a damper bearing with radial holes from the pressurized center of the turbopump rotor, feeding a smooth land region between two rough-stator/smooth-rotor annular seals. An analysis was prepared to predict the leakage and rotor dynamic coefficients (stiffness, damping, and added mass) of the damper bearing. Governing equations of the seal analysis modified to model the damper bearing; differences between the upstream conditions of the damper bearing and a typical annular seal; prediction of the damper bearing analysis; and assumptions of the analysis which require further investigation are described.

  20. Cylindrical bearing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Pirvics, J.

    1981-01-01

    Program CYBEAN computes behavior of rolling-element bearings including effects of bearing geometry, shaft misalinement, and temperature. Accurate assessment is possible for various outer-ring and housing configurations. CYBEAN is structured for coordinated execution of modules that perform specific analytical tasks. It is written in FORTRAN IV for use on the UNIVAC 1100/40 computer.

  1. Bearing fatigue investigation 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were investigated. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also investigated. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.

  2. Low cost lobed bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Separate sectors for each lobed area of the bearing are assembled into the bearing housing individually and bolted tightly against the housing inside diameter. The center of a grinding wheel and the center of the housing are offset, resulting in the desired inner radius and tilt of the sector.

  3. Passive Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic bearing for limited rotation devices requires no feedback control system to sense and correct shaft position. Passive Magnetic Torsion Bearing requires no power supply and has no rubbing parts. Torsion wire restrains against axial instability. Magnetic flux geometry chosen to assure lateral stability with radial restoring force that maintains alignment.

  4. OTV bearing deflection investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimer, B. L.; Diepenbrock, R. T.; Millis, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of the Bearing Deflectometer Investigation was to gain experience in the use of fiber optic displacement probe technology for bearing health monitoring in a liquid hydrogen turbo pump. The work specified in this Task Order was conducted in conjunction with Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory Contract F04611-86-C-0010. APD conducted the analysis and design coordination to provide a displacement probe design compatible with the XLR-134 liquid hydrogen turbo pump assembly (TPA). Specifications and requirements of the bearing deflectometer were established working with Mechanical Technology Instruments, Inc. (MTI). The TPA design accommodated positioning of the probe to measure outer race cyclic deflections of the pump inlet bearing. The fiber optic sensor was installed as required in the TPA and sensor output was recorded during the TPA testing. Data review indicated that no bearing deflection signature could be differentiated from the inherent system noise. Alternate sensor installations were not investigated, but might yield different results.

  5. Arcturus and the Bears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.

    2009-08-01

    Arcturus is the brightest star in Bootes. The ancient Greek name Arktouros means Bear Guard. The star, however, is not close to Ursa Maior (Big She-Bear) and Ursa Minor (Little She-Bear), as the name would suggest. This curious discrepancy could be explained by the star proper motion, assuming the name Bear Guard is a remote cultural heritage. The proper motion analysis could allow us to get an insight also into an ancient myth regarding Ursa Maior. Though we cannot explain scientifically such a myth, some interesting suggestions can be obtained about its possible origin, in the context of the present knowledge of the importance of the cult of the bear both during the Palaeolithic times and for several primitive populations of modern times, as shown by the ethnological studies.

  6. Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals in Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, T. V. V.; Clark, R. N.; Calvin, W. M.; Sherman, D. M.; Swayze, G. A.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals was found on the surface of the largest asteroid Ceres. The presence of ammonium-bearing clays suggests that Ceres has experienced a period of alteration by substantial amounts of an ammonium-bearing fluid. The presence of the ammonium-bearing clays does not preclude Ceres maintaining a volatile inventory in the core or in a volatile-rich zone at some distance below the surface. Telescopic observations of Ceres, using the 3.0 meter NASA Infrared telescope facility prompted this reevaluation of its surface mineralogy.

  7. Touchdown Ball-Bearing System for Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Edward P.; Price, Robert; Gelotte, Erik; Singer, Herbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The torque-limited touchdown bearing system (TLTBS) is a backup mechanical-bearing system for a high-speed rotary machine in which the rotor shaft is supported by magnetic bearings in steady-state normal operation. The TLTBS provides ball-bearing support to augment or supplant the magnetic bearings during startup, shutdown, or failure of the magnetic bearings. The TLTBS also provides support in the presence of conditions (in particular, rotational acceleration) that make it difficult or impossible to control the magnetic bearings or in which the magnetic bearings are not strong enough (e.g., when the side load against the rotor exceeds the available lateral magnetic force).

  8. Good bearings reduce downtime

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J.; Foster, J.

    1982-12-01

    Points out that a poorly maintained $100 bearing can hold up the operation of a $1-million conveyor. Of all the moving parts in a coal conveyor system, few cost less or last longer than anti-friction bearings. Most modern conveyor systems are equipped with 2 types of bearings: troughing idlers, spaced at regular intervals to support the conveyor belt as it travels throughout the system, and the adaptermounted spherical roller bearing pillow blocks that are used in the head, tail, bend and takeup pulleys that drive, alter the direction of, or regulate tension in the belt to allow for repairs or splicing. Explains how pillow blocks should handle radial or axial loads, how to mount bearings correctly, and how rings prevent infiltration. Concludes that by making certain that the proper bearing types are built into the system initially, or used as replacements in case of failures, paying close attention to installation procedures and devoting adequate time to maintenance, conveyor system bearings can provide decades of problem-free service.

  9. HTS magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Flögel-Delor, Uta; Rothfeld, Rolf; Wippich, Dieter; Riedel, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Radial HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) up to 200 mm size are developed and tested in prototype fast rotating machines to demonstrate the potential to replace conventional bearings. The individual rotational bearing components HTS and PM, their physical interaction and technology is reviewed. Characterisation experiments are conducted to understand the rotor dynamic behaviour. In terms of unbalance and critical speeds the suspended wheels and rotors compare favourably with conventional bearing devices. The rationale of our present bearing technology lies in the assembling of both low-speed magnetic bearings for centrifugal and wafer processing units up to 20,000 rpm as well as a high-speed optical mirror accelerated to rim speed of more than 500 m/s (174,000 rpm) confirming stable low-drag and low energy operation. Two new-type U shaped semicircle HTS bearings coupled each with a 6 W/80 K cryocooler of the Stirling type allow the contact-free operation of a Si wafer carrier in semiconductor wet processes.

  10. Magnetically-controlled bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed magnetic-lubricant ball-bearing assembly has permanently-magnetized bearing retainer fabricated of porous material. Pores of retainer are filled with ferrolubricant. Surface tension causes retainer to deliver sufficient lubricant to nonmagnetic ball bearings.

  11. Ball Bearing Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Load-deflection relationships for different types of elliptical contacts such as those found in a ball bearing are developed. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented. Ball bearings subjected to radial, thrust and combined ball loads are analyzed. A design criterion for fatigue life of ball bearings is developed. The section of a satisfactory lubricant, as well as describing systems that provide a constant flow of lubricant to the contact, is considered.

  12. Ball and Roller Bearings. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual provides a subject reference for ball and roller bearings. The following topics are included: (1) bearing nomenclature, (2) bearing uses, (3) bearing capacities, (4) shop area working conditions, (5) bearing removal, (6) bearing cleaning and inspection, (7) bearing replacement, (8) bearing lubrication, (9) bearing installation, (10)…

  13. Arkansas black bear hunter survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pharris, Larry D.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires were mailed to black bear (Ursus americanus) hunters in Arkansas following the 1980-84 bear seasons to determine participation, hunter success, and number of bears observed by hunters. Man-days of hunting to harvest a bear ranged from 148 to 671 and hunter success ranged from 0.4% to 2.2%. With the exception of 1980, number of permits issued, man-days of bear hunting, and bears harvested appear affected by hunting permit cost. 

  14. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 Ω m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 Ω m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 μV K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 μV K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  15. Roller bearing geometry design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  16. RUBBER BEARINGS FOR DOWN-HOLE PUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Bob Sullivan Mammoth Pacific, L.P.

    2005-09-07

    Synopsis of project activity: 1998--Awarded cost share grant from DOE. 1st Qtr 1999--Developed fail safe lubricating system. 2nd Qtr 1999--Performed first large scale test with nitrile based bearings. It failed due to material swelling. Failure was blamed on improper tolerance. 3rd Qtr 1999--Material tests were performed with autoclaves and exposure tests to Casa Diablo fluids. Testing of Viton materials began. Alternate bearing designs were developed to limit risk of improper tolerances. 4th Qtr 1999--Site testing indicated a chemical attack on the bearing material caused the test failure and not improper bearing tolerance. 1st Qtr 2000--The assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory was obtained in evaluating the chemical attack. The National Laboratory also began more elaborate laboratory testing on bearing materials. 2nd Qtr 2000--Testing indicated Viton was an inappropriate material due to degradation in Casa Diablo fluid. Testing of EPDM began. 3rd Qtr 2001--EPDM bearings were installed for another large scale test. Bearings failed again due to swelling. Further testing indicated that larger then expected oil concentrations existed in lubricating water geothermal fluid causing bearing failure. 2002-2003--Searched for and tested several materials that would survive in hot salt and oil solutions. Kalrez{reg_sign}, Viton{reg_sign}ETP 500 and Viton{reg_sign}GF were identified as possible candidates. 2003-2005--Kalrez{reg_sign}has shown superior resistance to downhole conditions at Casa Diablo from among the various materials tested. Viton ETP-500 indicated a life expectancy of 13 years and because it is significantly less expensive then Kalrez{reg_sign}, it was selected as the bearing material for future testing. Unfortunately during the laboratory testing period Dupont Chemical chose to stop manufacturing this specific formulation and replaced it with Viton ETP 600S. The material is available with six different fillers; three based on zinc oxide and three

  17. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  18. Surface Analysis of Bearings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-31

    standards, applied laser spectroscopy, laser chemistry, laser optoelectronics, phase conjugation and coherent imaging, solar cell physics, battery...of a thrust bearing raceway lubricated with sputter-deposited MoS2 (1 pim thick) after testing and failure, defined as a significant torque rise...200 gim 100 jgm Figure 3. SEM micrographs of a 440C steel thrust bearing raceway lubricated with sputter-deposited MoS2 (1 pum thick) after testing

  19. High speed hybrid bearing comprising a fluid bearing and a rolling bearing convected in series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of an antifriction bearing and a process by which its fatigue life may be extended. The method involves a rotating shaft supported by a fluid bearing and a rolling element bearing coupled in series. Each bearing turns at a fraction of the rotational speed of the shaft. The fluid bearing is preferably conical, thereby providing thrust and radial load support in a single bearing structure.

  20. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  1. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing for passively suspending a rotatable element subjected to axial and radial thrust forces is disclosed. The magnetic bearing employs a taut wire stretched along the longitudinal axis of the bearing between opposed end pieces and an intermediate magnetic section. The intermediate section is segmented to provide oppositely directed magnetic flux paths between the end pieces and may include either an axially polarized magnets interposed between the segments. The end pieces, separated from the intermediate section by air gaps, control distribution of magnetic flux between the intermediate section segments. Coaxial alignment of the end pieces with the intermediate section minimizes magnetic reluctance in the flux paths endowing the bearing with self-centering characteristics when subjected to radial loads. In an alternative embodiment, pairs of oppositely wound armature coils are concentrically interposed between segments of the intermediate section in concentric arcs adjacent to radially polarized magnets to equip a magnetic bearing as a torsion drive motor. The magnetic suspension bearing disclosed provides long term reliability without maintenance with application to long term space missions such as the VISSR/VAS scanning mirror instrument in the GOES program.

  2. Investigation of Pressurized Wave Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

    2003-01-01

    The wave bearing has been pioneered and developed by Dr. Dimofte over the past several years. This bearing will be the main focus of this research. It is believed that the wave bearing offers a number of advantages over the foil bearing, which is the bearing that NASA is currently pursuing for turbomachinery applications. The wave bearing is basically a journal bearing whose film thickness varies around the circumference approximately sinusoidally, with usually 3 or 4 waves. Being a rigid geometry bearing, it provides precise control of shaft centerlines. The wave profile also provides good load capacity and makes the bearing very stable. Manufacturing techniques have been devised that should allow the production of wave bearings almost as cheaply as conventional full-circular bearings.

  3. Fondaparinux sodium.

    PubMed

    Reverter, J C

    2002-03-01

    Fondaparinux (Org-31540 / SR-90107A) is a new drug chemically synthesized for treatment and prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease. Fondaparinux is a selective inhibitor of activated factor X. Its structure is the copy of the heparin pentasaccharide sequence, the shortest chain required for antithrombin inhibition of activated factor X without antithrombin action. Fondaparinux has no effect on coagulation tests and does not bind to platelet factor 4 or promote heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Fondaparinux inhibits thrombin generation and the growth of thrombi in in vitro and in vivo models. Phase I trials have shown a 100% bioavailability after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration, a rapid onset of action and an approximate half-life of 13.5 h. Fondaparinux is cleared as an active substance by the kidneys. In elderly patients, renal clearance is reduced and the half-life is longer. The phase II Pentathlon trial demonstrated significant dose-dependent reductions in the frequency of venous thromboembolism in total hip-replacement patients and the optimal dose was determined to be 2.5 mg s.c./24 h. Four phase III trials have evaluated fondaparinux starting 6 hours after surgery compared with enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism following orthopedic surgery in 7,344 patients. The risk of thrombosis was reduced by 50% with fondaparinux and no differences were observed in death or severe bleeding. In a phase II trial, similar efficacy and incidence of major bleeding were seen with fondaparinux s.c. compared with dalteparin s.c. in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the efficacy of fondaparinux during fibrinolytic therapy was assessed in 326 patients who had acute coronary syndromes of less than a 6 hour duration, showing a slight but statistically not significant advantage for fondaparinux over unfractionated heparin in the coronary angiographies. There is currently no antidote for fondaparinux.

  4. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  5. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Treesearch

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  6. Fault tolerant magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, E.H.; Sortore, C.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Williams, R.D.; Fedigan, S.J.; Aimone, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    A fault tolerant magnetic bearing system was developed and demonstrated on a large flexible-rotor test rig. The bearing system comprises a high speed, fault tolerant digital controller, three high capacity radial magnetic bearings, one thrust bearing, conventional variable reluctance position sensors, and an array of commercial switching amplifiers. Controller fault tolerance is achieved through a very high speed voting mechanism which implements triple modular redundancy with a powered spare CPU, thereby permitting failure of up to three CPU modules without system failure. Amplifier/cabling/coil fault tolerance is achieved by using a separate power amplifier for each bearing coil and permitting amplifier reconfiguration by the controller upon detection of faults. This allows hot replacement of failed amplifiers without any system degradation and without providing any excess amplifier kVA capacity over the nominal system requirement. Implemented on a large (2440 mm in length) flexible rotor, the system shows excellent rejection of faults including the failure of three CPUs as well as failure of two adjacent amplifiers (or cabling) controlling an entire stator quadrant.

  7. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  8. Tribology of alternative bearings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  9. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Alex T; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister

    2006-01-01

    liberated from fluoroacetate, citrate and fluorocitrate are calcium chelators and there are both animal and clinical data to support hypocalcaemia as a mechanism of fluoroacetate toxicity. However, the available evidence suggests the fluoride component does not contribute. Acute poisoning with sodium fluoroacetate is uncommon. Ingestion is the major route by which poisoning occurs. Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain are common within 1 hour of ingestion. Sweating, apprehension, confusion and agitation follow. Both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported and nonspecific ST- and T-wave changes are common, the QTc may be prolonged and hypotension may develop. Seizures are the main neurological feature. Coma may persist for several days. Although several possible antidotes have been investigated, they are of unproven value in humans. The immediate, and probably only, management of fluoroacetate poisoning is therefore supportive, including the correction of hypocalcaemia.

  10. Radial Clearance of Antifriction Bearings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The article concerns in detail the radial clearance of different antifriction bearings which belong to important parameters which influence the...longevity of the bearing to a certain extent. The effect of the influence of assembly and the wear on the radial clearance of different bearings, the...antifriction bearings operate and their respect in clearance and assembly can contribute substantially to decreasing the daily disproportionate bearing consumption for the repair and maintenance of different machines. (Author)

  11. Naproxen sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  12. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  14. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  15. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet Images Sodium content References Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the ...

  16. Low dietary sodium is anxiogenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Leshem, M

    2011-07-06

    It is commonly believed that salt intake is required solely to maintain mineralofluid balance, and that its excessive intake is pathophysiological. Yet, apart from the increased intake of sodium-rich foods caused by perinatal sodium loss, the determinants of human salt intake, its excess and persistence, are unknown. One suggestion is that high salt intake may be adaptive in coping with daily adversity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of low dietary sodium in models of depression and anxiety, on chronic mild stress (CMS), and on acute unpredictable stressors. We find that low dietary sodium exacerbates anxiety in the elevated maze and open field. However, it does not exacerbate modeled depression or anxiety in chronically and acutely stressed rats. We find that CMS-induced anhedonia reduces 1.5% NaCl as well as 5% sucrose intake. The reduction in NaCl intake is specific to depression insofar as it did not occur after repeated acute stressors. The reduction occurred despite sodium restriction. Thus while sodium restriction is anxiogenic, it does not exacerbate preexisting depression or anxiety in clearly demarcated behavioral models. These psychological dimensions of salt intake are only now being addressed experimentally, and the ramifications for its control, and for individuals vulnerable to depression or stress, require clarification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effective plasma volume in cirrhosis with ascites. Evidence that a decreased value does not account for renal sodium retention, a spontaneous reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a fall in GFR during drug-induced diuresis

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Fred L.; Ito, Sosuke; Reynolds, Telfer B.

    1969-01-01

    A reduction in effective (nonportal) plasma volume is considered the basis for renal sodium retention, a spontaneous reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a fall in GFR occurring during drug-induced diuresis in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. In the present study the concept of a reduced effective plasma volume in cirrhosis is challenged by two lines of evidence, even though effective plasma volume itself could not be measured. (a) Total plasma volume failed to rise in 10 patients with the spontaneous loss of ascites, the appearance of sodium in the urine, and a rise in GFR. Portal pressure remained constant in these patients as ascites left, suggesting that effective plasma volume had not increased while portal plasma volume decreased. (b) Reduction of GFR could not be prevented in five patients with cirrhosis and ascites while total plasma volume was prevented from falling with albumin infusions during drug-induced diuresis. Reduction of GFR during drug-induced diuresis in 15 patients with cirrhosis and ascites was completely reversed with saline infusion despite continued diuresis with the identical drugs, excluding drug nephrotoxicity as the cause for the reduced GFR. The ascites of cirrhosis might no longer be regarded as a cause of effective plasma volume contraction, stimulating renal sodium retention and a reduction in GFR. More likely, this form of ascites is a result of plasma volume expansion and sodium retention. The causes for renal sodium retention and a spontaneous reduction in GFR remain unknown. The cause for a fall in GFR during drug-induced diuresis also remains unknown, but effective plasma volume contraction and drug nephrotoxicity seem excluded. Images PMID:5771197

  18. Recovery of Iron from Chromium Vanadium-Bearing Titanomagnetite Concentrate by Direct Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyu; Zhou, Shengfan; Wang, Xuewen; Chen, Bianfang; Yang, Haoxiang; Wang, Saikui; Luo, Pengfei

    2016-10-01

    The recovery of iron from chromium vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrate was investigated by direct reduction, followed by magnetic separation. The results indicated that the metallization rate of iron can reach 98.9% at a temperature of 1200°C for a reduction duration of 60 min with the addition of 16% graphite powder and 0.5% sodium oxalate. Although the addition of borax, sodium carbonate and sodium oxalate to the chromium vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrate can all improve the metallization rate of iron, the effect of sodium oxalate was the best. Sodium oxalate not only increases the metallization rate of iron but also promotes the growth of metallic iron. After magnetic separating, the recovery of iron was 92.8% and the iron content of magnetic concentrate was 88.4%.

  19. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  20. Turbogear bearing analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cassolato, B.M.

    1997-04-01

    To optimize process energy efficiency, many plants are considering variable-speed electric motor drives with speed-increasing gears for centrifugal compressors. Variable-speed systems are much more complex than fixed-speed systems, especially when power and speed change independently across the compressor performance map, for example, from start-of-run to end-of-run. There are more mechanical design issues that impact reliable operation. Bearing analysis of turbogears subjected to these conditions is an important consideration. Many turbomachines have a simple bearing load characteristic comprised principally of the rotating assembly weight. Helical gear loads are more complex because of the influence of tooth geometry and torque magnitude. A force analysis is required to define parameters for a meaningful rotordynamic study, and evaluate tooth integrity and bearing performance.

  1. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  2. Solving bearing overheating problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jendzurski, T.

    1995-05-08

    Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.

  3. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  4. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  5. Modular gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  6. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... osmolality Urine sodium Treatment The cause of low sodium must be diagnosed and treated. If cancer is the cause of the condition, then radiation, chemotherapy , or surgery to remove the tumor may correct the sodium imbalance. Other treatments depend on the specific type ...

  7. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-03-01

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

  8. Improved pH buffering agent for sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. R.; Veeder, L. N.

    1969-01-01

    Sodium citrate/citric acid was found to be an effective buffer for pH control when used with sodium hypochlorite. The mixture does not corrode aluminum. The buffer appears to form a type of conversion coating that may provide corrosion-resistant properties to aluminum in other applications.

  9. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant

  10. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  11. No Sodium in Enceladus' Vapor Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Burger, M. H.; Johnson, R. E.; Kargel, J. S.; Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.; Dougherty, M.; Achilleos, N.

    2009-05-01

    The discovery of water vapor and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus fueled speculation that an internal ocean was the source. Alternatively, the source might be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions. The presence or absence of sodium chloride salt, expected in a long-lived ocean in contact with a rocky core, offers clues. While sodium has been detected in particles escaping Enceladus (Postberg et al., submitted), by far the vast majority of mass escapes in gaseous form. Here we report results from a groundbased spectroscopic search for atomic sodium near Enceladus which places an upper limit on the mixing ratio in the vapor plumes orders of magnitude below the expected ocean salinity. The low sodium content of escaping vapor, plus the small fraction of salt-bearing particles, argues against a scenario in which a deep, salty ocean fuels a near-surface geyser through cracks in the crust. The observed low-sodium vapor is consistent with a wide variety of alternative eruption hypotheses from liquid water or from ice, and offers significant constraints on each. The combination of Cassini and groundbased data may be insufficient to distinguish between these hypotheses.

  12. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB`s) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS`s) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS`s, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, the authors present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  13. Composite Bear Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Richard; Jara, Steve; Suffel, Susan

    2003-01-01

    To many national park campers and mountain climbers saving their foods in a safe and unbreakable storage container without worrying being attacked by a bear is a challenging task. In some parks, the park rangers have mandated that park visitors rent a bear canister for their food storage. Commercially available bear canisters are made of ABS plastic, weigh 2.8 pounds, and have a 180 cubic inch capacity for food storage. A new design with similar capacity was conducted in this study to reduce its weight and make it a stiffer and stronger canister. Two prototypes incorporating carbon prepreg with and without honeycomb constructions were manufactured using hand lay-up and vacuum bag forming techniques. A 6061-T6-aluminum ring was machined to dimensions in order to reinforce the opening area of the canister. Physical properties (weight and volume) along with mechanical properties (flexural strength and specific allowable moment) of the newly fabricated canisters are compared against the commercial ones. The composite canister weighs only 56% of the ABS one can withstand 9 times of the force greater. The advantages and limitations of using composite bear canisters will be discussed in the presentation.

  14. History of ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

  15. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  16. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  17. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  18. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  19. Teddy Bear Still Lifes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art activity for first-grade students in which the students draw their own still-life pictures, using teddy bears and balls as the subject matter. Explains that the students must include three objects, a line for the table, and overlap the shapes. (CMK)

  20. Teddy bear clinic.

    PubMed

    Creedon, C M

    1989-02-01

    1. The Shriners Institute in Boston developed a day to educate children about hospitals and the OR environment. 2. OR nurses have instituted extensive procedures and policies to allow potential patients the information they need to know their rights. 3. The most important instruction was for the children to ask those questions that they thought their teddy bears might ask.

  1. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  2. Optimal Synchronizability of Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, N. A. M.; Seybold, H.; Baram, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.

    2013-02-01

    Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with asymmetrically weighted couplings. Accordingly, these networks can exhibit optimal synchronization properties through fine-tuning of the local interaction strength as a function of node degree [Motter, Zhou, and Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016116 (2005)PLEEE81539-3755]. We show that, in analogy, the synchronizability of bearings can be maximized by counterbalancing the number of contacts and the inertia of their constituting rotor disks through the mass-radius relation, m˜rα, with an optimal exponent α=α× which converges to unity for a large number of rotors. Under this condition, and regardless of the presence of a long-tailed distribution of disk radii composing the mechanical system, the average participation per disk is maximized and the energy dissipation rate is homogeneously distributed among elementary rotors.

  3. Magnetic Bearings For Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Mendez, Antonio J.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents study of feasibility of magnetic bearings in turbopumps. Liquid-oxygen turbopump in space shuttle main engine selected for study. Other potential applications include manned and unmanned spacecraft, gas turbines for commercial and military aircraft, turbomachinery for petro-chemical and gas operations, suspension systems for precise machinery, and precise pointing and tracking systems.

  4. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  5. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... appear on the label. (c) If a salt substitute is used, the label shall bear the statement “___ added as a salt substitute”, the blank being filled in with the common name or names of the ingredient or ingredients used as a salt substitute. (d) Low sodium cheddar cheese is subject to § 105.69 of this chapter. ...

  6. Sodium in feline nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V

    2016-08-23

    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  7. Sodium efflux in plant roots: what do we really know?

    PubMed

    Britto, D T; Kronzucker, H J

    2015-08-15

    The efflux of sodium (Na(+)) ions across the plasma membrane of plant root cells into the external medium is surprisingly poorly understood. Nevertheless, Na(+) efflux is widely regarded as a major mechanism by which plants restrain the rise of Na(+) concentrations in the cytosolic compartments of root cells and, thus, achieve a degree of tolerance to saline environments. In this review, several key ideas and bodies of evidence concerning root Na(+) efflux are summarized with a critical eye. Findings from decades past are brought to bear on current thinking, and pivotal studies are discussed, both "purely physiological", and also with regard to the SOS1 protein, the only major Na(+) efflux transporter that has, to date, been genetically characterized. We find that the current model of rapid transmembrane sodium cycling (RTSC), across the plasma membrane of root cells, is not adequately supported by evidence from the majority of efflux studies. An alternative hypothesis cannot be ruled out, that most Na(+) tracer efflux from the root in the salinity range does not proceed across the plasma membrane, but through the apoplast. Support for this idea comes from studies showing that Na(+) efflux, when measured with tracers, is rarely affected by the presence of inhibitors or the ionic composition in saline rooting media. We conclude that the actual efflux of Na(+) across the plasma membrane of root cells may be much more modest than what is often reported in studies using tracers, and may predominantly occur in the root tips, where SOS1 expression has been localized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic-Bearing Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Poole, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Microcomputer-controlled magnetic-bearing test fixture used to develop approaches to design of controls for magnetic bearing actuators designed and constructed. Includes load cells connected to bar, in turn, connected through screw positioners to geared drive motors. Position of equivalent suspended element sensed by position sensors and controlled by drive motors. Provides control of gap in magnetic bearing and of current in electromagnet coil. Measurements made include magnetic-bearing gaps, magnetic flux in bearing gaps, and bearing forces. Approaches to linearization and control developed by use of fixture applicable to wide range of small-gap suspension systems.

  9. Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

  10. Bearing-Cartridge Damping Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggins, David G.; Scharrer, Joseph K.; Chen, Wei C.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed design for improved ball-bearing cartridge, damping seal in form of thin-layer fluid journal bearing incorporated into cartridge. Damping seal acts as auxiliary bearing, relieving bearing balls of significant portions of both static and dynamic bearing loads. Damping from seal reduces dynamic loads even further by reducing amplitude of vibrations in second vibrational mode of rotor, which mode occurs when rotor turning at nearly full operating speed. Intended for use in high-pressure-oxygen turbopump of Space Shuttle main engine, also applicable to other turbomachinery bearings.

  11. Lubricant effects on bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1986-01-01

    Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

  12. Renal sodium handling and sodium sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Frame, Alissa A.; Wainford, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of hypertension, which affects over 1 billion individuals worldwide, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The kidney, which governs sodium excretion via several mechanisms including pressure natriuresis and the actions of renal sodium transporters, is central to long term blood pressure regulation and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. The impact of renal sodium handling and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure in health and hypertension is a critical public health issue owing to the excess of dietary salt consumed globally and the significant percentage of the global population exhibiting salt sensitivity. This review highlights recent advances that have provided new insight into the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure, with a focus on genetic, inflammatory, dietary, sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress mechanisms that influence renal sodium excretion. Increased understanding of the multiple integrated mechanisms that regulate the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets and refine dietary guidelines designed to treat and prevent hypertension. PMID:28680820

  13. Does salt increase thirst?

    PubMed

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vygotsky and the Three Bears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczewski, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    Peggy Kulczewski, a kindergarten classroom teacher, remembers the day when students enjoyed a story she told them from the book "The Three Bears". The students' discussion about comparison of the bears was very helpful to the whole group.

  15. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  16. Compliant hydrodynamic fluid journal bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, E. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An air bearing structure is described that prevents destructive bending moments within the top foil. Welds are eliminated by mounting the top bearing foil in the bearing cartridge sleeve without using a space block. Tabs or pins at the end of the top bearing foil are restrained by slots or stops formed in the cartridge sleeve. These structural members are free to move in a direction normal to the shaft while being restrained from movement in the direction of shaft rotation.

  17. Externally Pressurized Journal Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, John H.

    1959-01-01

    Externally pressurized gas-lubricated bearings with multiple orifice feed are investigated. An analytical treatment is developed for a semi-cylindrical bearing with 9 orifices and for a cylindrical journal bearing with 192 radial and 24 axial orifices. Experiments are described on models of the two bearing configurations with specially designed fixtures which incorporate pneumatic loading and means for determining pressure profiles, gas flow and gap height. The correlation between theory and experiment is satisfactory.

  18. A self-lubricating bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved bearing structure is described which includes a permanently magnetized porous body filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant for extending the operational life of self-lubricating bearings. The bearing structure is characterized by a permanently magnetized retainer formed of a porous material and filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant, whereby the pores serve as lubricant reservoirs from which the lubricant continuously is delivered to a film disposed between contiguous bearing surfaces.

  19. Design of a compliant passive magnetic bearing for use in SIRTF's Tertiary Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, David M.; Brereton, Margot; Dill, Harry; Sullivan, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A proposed baseline design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility includes a Tertiary Mirror Assembly (TMA) which selectively redirects the telescope's converging science beam to each of several instruments. The TMA's mirror rotates on an axis coincident with the beam's axis, and is held steady during observation by a kinematic mount. A bearing has been designed whose compliance causes minimal interference with the precision of the kinematic mount, and which is well suited to the particular requirements of a cryogenic satellite such as SIRTF. The bearing suspends its rotor by taking advantage of the repulsion between a superconductor and a magnet. It potentially eliminates problems associated with mechanical bearings that arise in similar applications, such as lubricant loss or failure, bearing wear, and sensitivity to particulates, and does so without imposing the thermal load of a bearing heater or active magnetic bearing. The bearing shows promise of offering an alternative to ball bearings in cryogenic applications where some compliance is acceptable or advantageous.

  20. Design of a compliant passive magnetic bearing for use in SIRTF's Tertiary Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, David M.; Brereton, Margot; Dill, Harry; Sullivan, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A proposed baseline design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility includes a Tertiary Mirror Assembly (TMA) which selectively redirects the telescope's converging science beam to each of several instruments. The TMA's mirror rotates on an axis coincident with the beam's axis, and is held steady during observation by a kinematic mount. A bearing has been designed whose compliance causes minimal interference with the precision of the kinematic mount, and which is well suited to the particular requirements of a cryogenic satellite such as SIRTF. The bearing suspends its rotor by taking advantage of the repulsion between a superconductor and a magnet. It potentially eliminates problems associated with mechanical bearings that arise in similar applications, such as lubricant loss or failure, bearing wear, and sensitivity to particulates, and does so without imposing the thermal load of a bearing heater or active magnetic bearing. The bearing shows promise of offering an alternative to ball bearings in cryogenic applications where some compliance is acceptable or advantageous.

  1. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

  2. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  3. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2014-06-24

    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  4. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1977-01-01

    A bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing.

  5. Highly integrated magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, P.; Siegwart, R.; Herzog, R.

    1995-12-31

    Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB) have many advantages, compared to other bearing concepts. However, for many potential applications they are still too complicated and too expensive. In this paper the authors will present a new concept for active magnetic bearings with smaller dimensions, lower power consumption, and lower cost. To achieve this goal the system has been optimized in an overall mechatronic design. This led to new concepts for rotor, magnets, electronics and control. A single chip computer is used to reduce the number of electronic components. The switches of the voltage controlled power amplifier are driven directly by the PWM-unit of the single chip computer. Additionally, also the frequency inverter for the motor is driven directly by the PWM-unit. This leads to a minimum number of electronic components including the emergency power supply provided through energy recovered by the inverter. For development, calibration and error diagnostics a powerful serial link to a PC has been implemented. It works at a speed of 57.6 kBit/s and realizes a direct interface to MATLAB. This new configuration has been successfully applied to a small rotor system spinning at 60,000 rpm.

  6. Magnetic translator bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  7. The series hybrid bearing - A new high speed bearing concept.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Fleming, D. P.; Parker, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    The series-hybrid bearing couples a fluid-film bearing with a rolling-element bearing such that the rolling-element bearing inner race runs at a fraction of shaft speed. A series-hybrid bearing was analyzed and experiments were run at thrust loads from 100 to 300 lb and speeds from 4000 to 30,000 rpm. Agreement between theoretical and experimental speed sharing was good. The lowest speed ratio (ratio of ball bearing inner-race speed to shaft speed) obtained was 0.67. This corresponds to an approximate reduction in DN value of 1/3. For a ball bearing in a 3 million DN application, fatigue life would theoretically be improved by a factor as great as 8.

  8. Combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing is disclosed that allows for both radial and thrust axes control of an associated shaft. The combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing comprises a rotor and a stator. The rotor comprises a shaft, and first and second rotor pairs each having respective rotor elements. The stator comprises first and second stator elements and a magnet-sensor disk. In one embodiment, each stator element has a plurality of split-poles and a corresponding plurality of radial force coils and, in another embodiment, each stator element does not require thrust force coils, and radial force coils are replaced by double the plurality of coils serving as an outer member of each split-pole half.

  9. The bear that never was

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Herrero, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    From campfire stories to sensational books detailing gory attacks, Alaska's bears have long been maligned as deadly marauders capable of acquiring a taste for human flesh. Tall tales make for good storytelling but force bad reputations on the bears. When myth is compared to fact, the three North American's leading bear experts show that Alaska's three bear species are not the huge, unpredictable monsters they often are made out to be. Here, Smith, Amstrup, and Herrero examine the conventional wisdom people often hear regarding bears in the Great Land.

  10. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wasko, John; Pennell, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

  11. Designing the brawny gas bearing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a graphic technique for matching specific groove parameters to operating conditions in order to optimize the load carrying capacity of a herringbone-grooved bearing. Details are given on the optimization of the film thickness ratio, the groove width ratio, the groove angle, and the groove length ratio to obtain a maximum radial load capacity. The effect of the dimensionless bearing number on optimal groove configuration parameters is shown in diagrams. Curves are also plotted to compare the capacities of a herringbone-grooved bearing and a plain bearing, showing the former has a higher load capacity than the latter when the dimensionless bearing number is large.

  12. Bearing, gearing, and lubrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of selected NASA research programs on rolling-element and fluid-film bearings, gears, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication are reported. Advances in rolling-element bearing material technology, which have resulted in a significant improvement in fatigue life, and which make possible new applications for rolling bearings, are discussed. Research on whirl-resistant, fluid-film bearings, suitable for very high-speed applications, is discussed. An improved method for predicting gear pitting life is reported. An improved formula for calculating the thickness of elastohydrodynamic films (the existence of which help to define the operating regime of concentrated contact mechanisms such as bearings, gears, and cams) is described.

  13. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  14. Anti-backlash gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  15. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOEpatents

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1237 - Sodium metasilicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... good agricultural practices as an insecticide and fungicide, so long as the sodium metasilicate does... metasilicate in or on all food commodities when used in accordance with approved label rates and good agricultural practices as a plant desiccant, so long as the sodium metasilicate does not exceed 4% by weight in...

  17. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Tim; Thom, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based solvents, such as CFC-113 and 1,1,1, trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanism bearings. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change requiring the use of ODC-free cleaners for precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises; what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life? The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0 x 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90 C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing, the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition, the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  18. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Challenges in Treating Cardiovascular Disease: Restricting Sodium and Managing Hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Deborah J; Cody, Michael; Palmer, Biff F

    2017-08-01

    High sodium intake, whether via diet or drugs, augments cardiorenal risk. Regardless of its source, high sodium intake can both lead to hypertension and reduce the efficacy of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, which are currently guideline-recommended treatments for hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. Reducing sodium intake is therefore recommended to reduce the risk of adverse cardiorenal outcomes. An inverse relationship exists between sodium and potassium, with foods high in sodium being lower in potassium. Diets high in potassium have been associated with reducing hypertension and heart failure; however, optimal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor dosing is often limited by hyperkalemia, which can lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and increased mortality. Potassium binders are effective at reducing potassium levels. Although some use sodium as the potassium exchange ion, thus increasing sodium intake, a new potassium binder uses another exchange ion and therefore does not increase sodium intake. When treatment options require agents that may precipitate hyperkalemia, particularly in patients at high cardiorenal risk, drugs that do not add to the sodium load may be preferred. A literature search was conducted using PubMed; search terms included potassium, sodium, hyperkalemia, potassium binders, and the literature search focused on manuscripts published more recently since 2000. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gold-bearing skarns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.; Orris, Greta J.; Hammerstrom, Jane M.; Bliss, James D.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, a significant proportion of the mining industry's interest has been centered on discovery of gold deposits; this includes discovery of additional deposits where gold occurs in skarn, such as at Fortitude, Nevada, and at Red Dome, Australia. Under the classification of Au-bearing skarns, we have modeled these and similar gold-rich deposits that have a gold grade of at least 1 g/t and exhibit distinctive skarn mineralogy. Two subtypes, Au-skarns and byproduct Au-skarns, can be recognized on the basis of gold, silver, and base-metal grades, although many other geological factors apparently are still undistinguishable largely because of a lack of detailed studies of the Au-skarns. Median grades and tonnage for 40 Au-skarn deposits are 8.6 g/t Au, 5.0 g/t Ag, and 213,000 t. Median grades and tonnage for 50 byproduct and Au-skarn deposits are 3.7 g/t Au, 37 g/t Ag, and 330,000 t. Gold-bearing skarns are generally calcic exoskarns associated with intense retrograde hydrosilicate alteration. These skarns may contain economic amounts of numerous other commodities (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, As, Bi, W, Sb, Co, Cd, and S) as well as gold and silver. Most Au-bearing skarns are found in Paleozoic and Cenozoic orogenic-belt and island-arc settings and are associated with felsic to intermediate intrusive rocks of Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Native gold, electru, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth minerals, and magnetite or hematite are the most common opaque minerals. Gangue minerals typically include garnet (andradite-grossular), pyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite), wollastonite, chlorite, epidote, quartz, actinolite-tremolite, and (or) calcite.

  1. Renal Sodium- and Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase and Sodium Reabsorption in the Hypothyroid Rat

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Adrian I.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between net tubular reabsorption of sodium and renal microsomal sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase) was evaluated in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Tubular sodium reabsorption per gram of kidney was lower in thyroidectomized rats than in controls (186±14 vs. 246±12 μeq/min; P < 0.005) and was accompanied by a quantitatively similar reduction in Na-K-ATPase specific activity (49.4±2.4 vs. 65.8±2.3 μmol inorganic phosphate (Pt)/mg protein per h; P < 0.001). This decrement was present in both cortex and outer medulla, and was limited to Na-K-ATPase since other representative enzymes not involved in sodium transport (magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase [Mg-ATPase], glucose-6-phosphatase, 5′-nucleotidase) remained unchanged or increased in the hypothyroid animals. Conversely, Na-K-ATPase rose when sodium reabsorption increased in euthyroid rats treated with triiodothyronine. Subsequent experiments were performed to determine to what extent the decrease in Na-K-ATPase is due to lack of thyroid hormone per se or to an adaptive response to decreased reabsorptive sodium load. Triiodothyronine in concentrations of 10-12 to 10-5 M had no effect in vitro on microsomal Na-K-ATPase of either thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats. When hypothyroid rats were uninephrectomized or treated with methylprednisolone, sodium reabsorption per gram kidney increased markedly and was similar to that of intact controls. Despite persistence of the hypothyroid state, Na-K-ATPase specific activity also increased to levels not significantly different from euthyroid animals. These data suggest that decreased tubular sodium transport is a major determinant of the reduction in renal Na-K-ATPase in thyroid deficiency since the latter can be reversed by increasing sodium reabsorption during continuing hypothyroidism. Furthermore, the modest sodium leak of hypothyroid animals does not appear to

  2. Bearing Restoration by Grinding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-21

    with x-ray diffraction measurement. 4.4 Hardness 4.4.1 Hardness tests shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM E18 . 4.5 Surfane Finish 4.5.1 Surface...STA14DARDS INSTITUTE ANSI B46.1 Surface Texture AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS ASTrd E18 Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell Superficial Hardness of...Metallic Materials ASTM E112 Average Grain Size of Metals .. MILITARY MIL-B-197 Bearing, Rolling element, associated parts 3. REQUIREMENTS 3. 1

  3. Does education level affect the efficacy of a community based salt reduction program? - A post-hoc analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L; Hoes, Arno W; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-11

    Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. The China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS) was a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in 120 villages from five Northern Chinese provinces. The intervention comprised a village-wide health education program and availability of salt substitute at village shops. 24-h urine samples were collected among 1903 participants for primary evaluation of the intervention effect. A post-hoc analysis was done to explore for heterogeneity of intervention effects by education level using generalized estimating equations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and province. Daily salt intake was lower in intervention than in control at all educational levels with no evidence of a difference in the effect of the intervention across different levels of education. P value for the interaction term between education level and the intervention was 0.35. There was likewise no evidence of an interaction for effects of the intervention on potassium intake (p = 0.71), the sodium to potassium ratio (p = 0.07), or knowledge and behaviors related to salt (all p > 0.05). The study suggests that the effects of the intervention were achieved regardless of the level of education and that the intervention should therefore be broadly effective in rural Chinese populations. The trial was registered with clinicaltrial.gov ( NCT01259700 ).

  4. Description of a magnetic bearing test fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Poole, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A description of a microcomputer controlled magnetic bearing test fixture is presented. Parameters which are controlled are magnetic bearing current and gaps. Parameters which are measured are magnetic bearing gaps, magnetic flux in the bearing gaps, and bearing forces. The test fixture is configured for bearing elements similar to those used in a laboratory test model Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD).

  5. Development of hybrid bearing system with thrust superconducting magnetic bearing and radial active electromagnetic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolsky, R.; Pereira, A. S.; de Andrade, R.; David, D. F. B.; Santisteban, J. A.; Stephan, R. M.; Ripper, A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Strasser, T.

    A superconducting/electromagnetic hybrid bearing system is currently under development and test. This system consists of a thrust superconducting magnetic bearing and a double radial active electromagnetic bearing/motor devices. The thrust bearing has been designed using NdFeB permanent magnets levitating on a set of superconducting monoliths of YBCO, prepared by top seeded melt texturing technique, which supports the weight of the rotor. The bearing/motor devices were conceived as 4-pole 2-phase induction machine using stator windings for delivering torque and radial positioning simultaneously. Using this superconducting axial bearing and the active bearings for the rotor radial positioning, a fully levitating vertical-shaft inductive machine has been tested. The tests were successful in reaching a controlled levitation up to 6,300 rpm.

  6. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  7. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  8. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  9. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  10. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Timothy Raymond; Thom, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC ) based solvents, such as Freon and 1,1,1, Trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanisms. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change to new ODC-free cleaners for the precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0* 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  11. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Timothy Raymond; Thom, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC ) based solvents, such as Freon and 1,1,1, Trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanisms. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change to new ODC-free cleaners for the precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0* 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  12. Reduction in bearing size due to superconductors in magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dantam K.; Lewis, Paul; Dill, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept that reduces the size of magnetic bearings is assessed. The small size will enable magnetic bearings to fit into limited available bearing volume of cryogenic machinery. The design concept, called SUPERC, uses (high Tc) superconductors or high-purity aluminum conductors in windings instead of copper. The relatively high-current density of these conductors reduces the slot radial thickness for windings, which reduces the size of the bearings. MTI developed a sizing program called SUPERC that translates the high-current density of these conductors into smaller sized bearings. This program was used to size a superconducting bearing to carry a 500 lb. load. The sizes of magnetic bearings needed by various design concepts are as follows: SUPERC design concept = 3.75 in.; magnet-bias design concept = 5.25 in.; and all electromagnet design concept = 7.0 in. These results indicate that the SUPERC design concept can significantly reduce the size of the bearing. This reduction, in turn, reduces the weight and yields a lighter bearing. Since the superconductors have inherently near-zero resistance, they are also expected to save power needed for operation considerably.

  13. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  14. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  15. Prototype testing of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, David P.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Frommer, David A.; Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.

    1987-01-01

    The testing and evaluation of the performance of a magnetic bearing assembly for flywheel energy storage applications are discussed. The experimental set up for determining the passive radial stiffness, active radial stiffness, and curent force sensitivity of the coils follows the method developed by Frommer (1986). Magnetic bearings design should preclude saturation and current limiting in the desired operating range, so that the system will be linear. A larger linear range will lead to a more stable magnetic bearing.

  16. Prototype testing of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, David P.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Frommer, David A.; Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.

    1987-01-01

    The testing and evaluation of the performance of a magnetic bearing assembly for flywheel energy storage applications are discussed. The experimental set up for determining the passive radial stiffness, active radial stiffness, and curent force sensitivity of the coils follows the method developed by Frommer (1986). Magnetic bearings design should preclude saturation and current limiting in the desired operating range, so that the system will be linear. A larger linear range will lead to a more stable magnetic bearing.

  17. Robust and intelligent bearing estimation

    DOEpatents

    Claassen, John P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

  18. Does oral sodium bicarbonate therapy improve function and quality of life in older patients with chronic kidney disease and low-grade acidosis (the BiCARB trial)? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Witham, Miles D; Band, Margaret M; Littleford, Roberta C; Avenell, Alison; Soiza, Roy L; McMurdo, Marion E T; Sumukadas, Deepa; Ogston, Simon A; Lamb, Edmund J; Hampson, Geeta; McNamee, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic acidosis is more common with advancing chronic kidney disease, and has been associated with impaired physical function, impaired bone health, accelerated decline in kidney function and increased vascular risk. Although oral sodium bicarbonate is widely used to correct metabolic acidosis, there exist potential risks of therapy including worsening hypertension and fluid overload. Little trial evidence exists to decide whether oral bicarbonate therapy is of net benefit in advanced chronic kidney disease, particularly in older people who are most commonly affected, and in whom physical function, quality of life and vascular health are at least as important outcomes as decline in renal function. BiCARB is a multi-centre, double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial evaluating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of oral sodium bicarbonate in the management of older people with chronic kidney disease and severely reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) who have a mild degree of metabolic acidosis. The trial will recruit 380 patients from renal, Medicine for the Elderly, and primary care services across centres in the United Kingdom. Male and female patients aged 60 years and older with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), not on dialysis, and with serum bicarbonate concentrations <22 mmol/L will be eligible for participation. The primary clinical outcome for the trial is the between-group difference in the Short Physical Performance Battery score at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include muscle strength, quality of life measured using the EQ-5D score and KDQoL tools, cost effectiveness, renal function, presence of albuminuria and blood pressure. Markers of bone turnover (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and vascular health (B-type natriuretic peptide) will be measured. Participants will receive a total of 24 months of either bicarbonate or

  19. Evaluation of shuttle turbopump bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrane, K. F.; Kannel, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Because the high pressure turbopumps used on the space shuttle main engine (SSME) are high speed machines and rotor dynamics analysis of these units is very complicated, it was considered necessary to verify calculated turbomachinery shaft bearing loads by analysis of ball bearing load tracks. This report presents the methods used and the results of load track analysis on one set of bearings removed from a high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump which had been subjected to SSME static firing tests. This type of analysis was found useful in determining bearing operating conditions and for verifying rotor dynamics computer models.

  20. Series-hybrid bearing - An approach to extending bearing fatigue life at high speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Coe, H. H.; Fleming, D. P.; Parker, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fluid film bearing of hybrid device consists of orifice compensated annular thrust bearing and self-acting journal bearing. In series hybrid bearing, both ball bearing and annular thrust bearing carry full system thrust load, but two bearings share speed. Operation of system is stable and automatically fail-safe.

  1. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  2. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  3. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  4. The polar bear phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Maw, P.K. ); Lane, M.T.

    1990-02-01

    Results from measuring the thermal profile of polar bear pelts, reflectiveness of the pelts, and total thermal conversion data lead to the conclusion that the pelts from an ultra-efficient thermal diode for solar-thermal conversion. The transfer of the thermal energy from the surface of the fur to the skin where it is absorbed cannot be thermal, and therefore must be radiative. This process must have an efficiency of better than 90:0090 percent to account for measured values. The radiative transfer process is not known at present. To understand it, a detailed knowledge of the microscopic parameters of the pelts must be obtained. This is the current thrust of the polar solar research. If the process can be understood and synthesized,it will provide a major breakthrough in the area of solar-thermal energy conversion.

  5. Getting Your Political Bearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Being an instructional leader is important, but no one can be an instructional leader without a job. Political astuteness is key to survival in the principalship. The salient question, of course, is, How does one become politically astute? This process involves learning how to conscientiously and accurately keep a finger on the pulse of the…

  6. Does osteoarthritis of the knee also have a psychogenic component? Psycho-emotional treatment with a radio-electric device vs. intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate: an open-label, naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Fontani, Vania; Aravagli, Lucia; Mannu, Piero; Margotti, Matteo Lotti

    2010-01-01

    This study is to compare, in patients suffering of knee joint disorder, the effects of intra-articular injection of Sodium Hyaluronate, and those of a treatment aiming at the improvement of the emotional status carried out by means of a Radio Electric Device (REAC). 30 subjects were divided into two groups: 15 who preferred a non-drugs approach (Group A) and 15 who preferred an infiltrative treatment (Group B). The evaluations were expressed for both pain level and knee bending and extension. Group A showed significant decrease in pain, stiffness, joint noises and intra-articular effusion, and significant improvement in motion range, without any patients worsening. 8 patients showed complete disappearance of pain in Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS) evaluation, evident by a level of 0. The initial VAS results were between 8 and 4. One month after treatment's end, VAS results of the patients in Group A were between 3 and 0. Group B showed significant decrease in pain, stiffness, joint noises and intra-articular effusion, but no significant improvement in motion range; 2 of 15 patients showed worsening symptoms and no significant improvement in muscular hypotrophy. Initial VAS results were between 7 and 4. One month after treatment's end, VAS results were between 6 and 0.

  7. Introduction to magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skowronski, Lori; Bisese, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Multi-axis suspension has several advantages over single axis system, in that it provides control of an object with precision in two or three orthogonal axes. In this report, we discuss the primary use of magnetic-bearing suspension and it's relevance to what was formally known as NASA's Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS). This system is an experimental pointing system with applications for the space shuttle and the space station programs. The objectives behind this magnetic suspension research project are to provide insight to the use of the ASPS configuration, to control the solar panels of the space station. This is important to maintain the correct position of the panels in relation to the sun and orbiting space station for the continuous supply of solar energy. Since the panels are suspended, they can be aligned with minimum outside interference. The approach of using magnetic suspension technology guarantees mechanical isolation since there are no contacting surfaces. This isolation reduces vibration transmission and mechanical wear which in turn extends the life of the payload and of the carrier. It should be noted that ASPS has a high pointing accuracy along the line of 0.01 arc-second. This research will be done in a laboratory setting by incorporating five bearing stations and one motion control station. We will attempt to suspend an object of dead weight similar to that of a solar panel. The long term applications may include deep-space navigation, fire control in weapon systems, and an improved mass transit system.

  8. Sodium Salts in Ice Grains from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.; Brillantov, N.; Abel, B.; Beinsen, A.; Buck, U.; Srama, R.

    2009-04-01

    One key requirement for the formation of life precursors on Enceladus, is liquid water below its icy surface. Although measurements and model calculations for Enceladus plume source suggest temperatures close to the melting point, direct evidence for liquid water has not been produced so far. We present compositional measurements by Cassini's dust detector of ice particles emitted from Saturn's cryo-volcanic moon Enceladus into the E ring. Since sodium is considered as crucial indicator for an Enceladus ocean, our detection of sodium salts within the grains provide the first evidence for mineral enriched liquid water below the moon's icy surface. In nearly all particles detected in situ by the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) aboard the Cassini spacecraft, we found sodium (Na) in varying concentrations. Most spectra also show potassium (K) in lower abundance. In mass spectra that are particularly sodium rich, sodium salts (like NaCl and NaHCO3) are identified as Na bearing components. This is only possible if the plume source is liquid water that is or has been in contact with the rocky material of Enceladus' core. The abundance of minerals as well as the inferred basic pH value of those grains exhibit a compelling similarity with the predicted composition of an Enceladus ocean. The Na-rich ice particles likely are frozen ocean droplets expelled through the plumes into the E ring. From the compositional analysis, models for grain production and ejection can be derived which give new insights in plume dynamics and subsurface processes. They also allow the refinement of models for a water-rock-interaction at the bottom of the liquid layer.

  9. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  10. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  11. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate is usually not very toxic. However, if you swallow very large amounts, you may have symptoms. In this rare situation, long-term effects, even death, are possible if you do not receive quick and aggressive treatment.

  12. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy.

  13. [Disorders of sodium metabolism].

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Torres, D

    1991-08-01

    We do not know why sodium was chosen to fill the extracellular space while potassium occupies the intracellular area. The sodium/potassium pump was placed in charge of maintaining this separation. The usual sodium blood concentration, in vertebrates, and in all ages, ranges from 135 to 145 mmol/L, although it may decrease with age. The maintenance of its concentration within these limits, as well as the total amount locally deposited are regulated by an intertwined net of sensors and effectors found in the Central Nervous System, in the cardiovascular apparatus including the right auricle, in the kidneys and adrenal glands, or indirectly due to a number of factors which act on the sodium/potassium pump--for examples the thyroid hormone, the digestive system and the skin. The changes in the metabolism and regulation of water and sodium may cause an excess (hypernatremia) or a deficit (hyponatremia) in the concentration of sodium in plasma--either extreme can be fatal. The prompt correction of these changes should include treating the causes while taking into consideration the time they took to occur. The most frequent cause of these changes in children is diarrheal disease and its inadequate treatment. The correct administration of the oral rehydrating solution recommended by the World Health Organization can prevent fatal endings.

  14. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  15. Spherical-Bearing Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Computer program SPHERBEAN, developed to predict thermomechanical performance characteristics of double-row spherical roller bearings over wide range of operating conditions. Analysis allows six degrees of freedom for each roller and three for each half of an optionally split cage. Program capabilities provide sufficient generality to allow detailed simulation of both high-speed and conventional bearing operation.

  16. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  17. Lubrication of rolling element bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a broad survey of the lubrication of rolling-element bearings. Emphasis is on the critical design aspects related to speed, temperature, and ambient pressure environment. Types of lubrication including grease, jets, mist, wick, and through-the-race are discussed. The paper covers the historical development, present state of technology, and the future problems of rolling-element bearing lubrication.

  18. Corrosion-Resistant Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdankiewicz, E. M.; Linaburg, E. L.; Lytle, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    Self-lubricating bearing system withstands highly corrosive environment of wastewater-recycling unit. New bearings contain cobalt-based-alloy balls and races, graphite/polyimide polymer ball cages, and single integral polytetrafluoroethylene seals on wet sides. Materials and design prevent corrosion by acids and provide lubrication.

  19. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  20. Iron Phosphate Glasses for Vitrifying DOE High Priority Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.W.; Day, D.E.

    2004-03-29

    Iron phosphate glasses have been studied as an alternative glass for vitrifying Department of Energy (DOE) high priority wastes. The high priority wastes were the Low Activity Waste (LAW) and the High Level Waste (HLW) with high chrome content stored at Hanford, WA, and the Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These wastes were recommended by Tanks Focus Area since they were expected to require special attention when vitrified in borosilicate glasses. All three of these wastes have been successfully vitrified in iron phosphate glasses at waste loadings ranging from a low of 32 wt% for the high sulfate LAW to 40 wt% for the SBW to a high of 75 wt% for the high chrome HLW. In addition to these desirable high waste loadings, the iron phosphate glasses were easily melted, typically between 950 and 1200 C, in less than 4 hours in commercial refractory oxide containers. It is noteworthy that the chemical durability of both glassy and deliberately crystallized iron phosphate wasteforms not only met, but significantly exceeded, all current DOE chemical durability requirements as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). The high waste loading, low melting temperature, rapid furnace throughput (short melting time) and their outstanding chemical durability could significantly accelerate the clean up effort and reduce the time and cost of vitrifying these high priority wastes.

  1. Nonlinear control of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradeep, A. K.; Gurumoorthy, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a variety of nonlinear controllers for the magnetic bearing that ensure both stability and robustness. We utilize techniques of discontinuous control to design novel control laws for the magnetic bearing. We present in particular sliding mode controllers, time optimal controllers, winding algorithm based controllers, nested switching controllers, fractional controllers, and synchronous switching controllers for the magnetic bearing. We show existence of solutions to systems governed by discontinuous control laws, and prove stability and robustness of the chosen control laws in a rigorous setting. We design sliding mode observers for the magnetic bearing and prove the convergence of the state estimates to their true values. We present simulation results of the performance of the magnetic bearing subject to the aforementioned control laws, and conclude with comments on design.

  2. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  3. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. United States. A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P < 0.05). Premium brand users who purchased by pack in places outside Indian reservations paid the entire amount of the excise tax, together with an additional premium of 7-10 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.07-1.10, P < 0.05). In contrast, carton purchasers, generic brand users or those who were likely to make their purchases on Indian reservations paid only 30-83 cents per pack for every $1 tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.30-0.83, P < 0.05). Many smokers in the United States are able to avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Basic Expeditionary Airfield Resources (BEAR) Mission Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-02

    FL BEAR Holloman AFB, NM Kadena, JP McAlester, OK Diego Garcia Saipan Munitions Storage Location General WRM Storage Location Capabilities • BEAR...Global BEAR Management MSgt Pedro Ramos , Supt, Global BEAR E i t & S (2G MSgt) (Vacant), Global BEAR Systems and Readiness Management (2G MSgt

  5. Tibiofemoral conformity and kinematics of rotating-bearing knee prostheses.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, D D; Trice, M; Urquhart, A G; Colwell, C W

    2001-05-01

    Increasing tibiofemoral articular conformity theoretically increases articular contact area and reduces contact stresses in total knee arthroplasty. Fixed-bearing knee designs possess relatively low tibiofemoral conformity, in part to allow tibiofemoral rotation without generating excessive stresses at the articulation or the implant-bone interface. This study analyzed knee kinematics of mobile-bearing designs in a closed chain dynamic knee extension model in posterior cruciate-retaining design with high- and low tibiofemoral conformity and posterior cruciate-substituting designs with and without rotational constraint. Overall, for all conditions, the mobile-bearing insert rotated with the femur in the presence of tibiofemoral axial rotation. In addition, the correlation of bearing rotation with femoral rotation was stronger for the high-conformity and rotationally-constrained designs than for the low-conformity designs and strongest for the posterior cruciate-retaining high-conformity condition. Changes in conformity or rotational constraint did not appear to affect femoral roll back, tibiofemoral axial rotation, or varus-valgus angulation. The results suggest that mobile-bearing inserts rotate with the femur and increasing conformity or rotational constraint in mobile-bearing design knee prostheses does not affect knee kinematics adversely, at least under closed chain knee extension conditions in vitro.

  6. Bearing Strengths of Some Wrought-aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Wescoat, C

    1943-01-01

    Although a number of investigations of the bearing strength of aluminum alloys have been made, the problem remains one of considerable interest to the aircraft industry. For this reason it has seemed advisable to make additional tests of the commonly used aircraft alloys in an effort to establish a better basis for the selection of allowable bearing values. Current design practice does not recognize the effect of edge distance upon bearing strengths, and for this reason edge distance was one of the principal variables considered in this investigation. The increasing emphasis being placed upon permanent set limitations makes it essential that more information on bearing yield phenomena be obtained. The object of this investigation was to determine bearing yield and ultimate strengths of the following aluminum alloy products: 17S-T, 24S-T, Alclad 24S-T, 24S-RT, 52S-0, 52S-1/2H, 52S-H, 53S-T, and 61S-T extrusions. Ratios of these bearing properties to tensile properties were also determined.

  7. Effects of bearing cleaning and lube environment on bearing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    Running torque data of SR6 ball bearings are presented for different temperatures and speeds. The data are discussed in contrast to generally used torque prediction models and point out the need to obtain empirical data in critical applications. Also, the effects of changing bearing washing techniques from old, universally used CFC-based systems to CFC-free aqueous/alkaline solutions are discussed. Data on wettability, torque and lubricant life using SR3 ball bearings are presented. In general, performance is improved using the new aqueous washing techniques.

  8. Crawler Bearing Replacement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-28

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, ground support technicians monitor the progress as the B and D truck sections of crawler-transporter 2, or CT-2, are being raised up to prepare for installation of new roller bearing assemblies. Sections of the crawler’s large metal tracks have been removed. Work continues in high bay 2 to upgrade CT-2. The modifications are designed to ensure CT-2’s ability to transport launch vehicles currently in development, such as the agency’s Space Launch System, to the launch pad. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program office at Kennedy is overseeing the upgrades. For more than 45 years the crawler-transporters were used to transport the mobile launcher platform and the Apollo-Saturn V rockets and, later, space shuttles to Launch Pads 39A and B. For more information, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/ground/crawler-transporter. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  9. Crawler Bearing Replacement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-28

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a technician monitors the progress as the B and D truck sections of crawler-transporter 2, or CT-2, are raised up to prepare for installation of new roller bearing assemblies. Sections of the crawler’s large metal tracks have been removed. Work continues in high bay 2 to upgrade CT-2. The modifications are designed to ensure CT-2’s ability to transport launch vehicles currently in development, such as the agency’s Space Launch System, to the launch pad. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program office at Kennedy is overseeing the upgrades. For more than 45 years the crawler-transporters were used to transport the mobile launcher platform and the Apollo-Saturn V rockets and, later, space shuttles to Launch Pads 39A and B. For more information, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/ground/crawler-transporter. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  10. Crawler Bearing Replacement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-28

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the B and D truck sections of crawler-transporter 2, or CT-2, are being raised up to prepare for installation of new roller bearing assemblies. Sections of the crawler’s large metal tracks have been removed. Work continues in high bay 2 to upgrade CT-2. The modifications are designed to ensure CT-2’s ability to transport launch vehicles currently in development, such as the agency’s Space Launch System, to the launch pad. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program office at Kennedy is overseeing the upgrades. For more than 45 years the crawler-transporters were used to transport the mobile launcher platform and the Apollo-Saturn V rockets and, later, space shuttles to Launch Pads 39A and B. For more information, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/ground/crawler-transporter. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  11. Crawler Bearing Replacement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-28

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the B and D truck sections of crawler-transporter 2, or CT-2, have been raised up to prepare for installation of new roller bearing assemblies. Sections of the crawler’s large metal tracks have been removed. Work continues in high bay 2 to upgrade CT-2. The modifications are designed to ensure CT-2’s ability to transport launch vehicles currently in development, such as the agency’s Space Launch System, to the launch pad. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program office at Kennedy is overseeing the upgrades. For more than 45 years the crawler-transporters were used to transport the mobile launcher platform and the Apollo-Saturn V rockets and, later, space shuttles to Launch Pads 39A and B. For more information, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/ground/crawler-transporter. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  12. Magnetic Bearings at Draper Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondoleon, Anthony S.; Kelleher, William P.; Possel, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings, unlike traditional mechanical bearings, consist of a series of components mated together to form a stabilized system. The correct design of the actuator and sensor will provide a cost effective device with low power requirements. The proper choice of a control system utilizes the variables necessary to control the system in an efficient manner. The specific application will determine the optimum design of the magnetic bearing system including the touch down bearing. Draper for the past 30 years has been a leader in all these fields. This paper summarizes the results carried out at Draper in the field of magnetic bearing development. A 3-D radial magnetic bearing is detailed in this paper. Data obtained from recently completed projects using this design are included. One project was a high radial load (1000 pound) application. The second was a high speed (35,000 rpm), low loss flywheel application. The development of a low loss axial magnetic bearing is also included in this paper.

  13. SSME turbopump bearing analytical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Merriman, T.

    1980-01-01

    Three shuttle pump bearings operating under severe overspeed and shut-down conditions are evaluated. The specific parameters investigated include outer race stresses, cage stresses, cage-race drag, bearing heating, and crush loading. A quasi-dynamic version of the BASDAP computer code was utilized which involved the calculation of ball-race forces (inner and outer), contact pressures, contact dimensions, and contact angles as a function of (1) axial load, (2) radial load, and (3) centrifugal load on the bearing. Generally, radial loads on the order of 13,300 N (3000 pounds) per bearing or 26,700 N (6000 pounds) per bearing pair, could be expected to cause severe problems to any of the bearings with a 17,800 N (4000 pounds) axial load. Further, when possible temperature excursions are considered, even a load of 8900 N (2000 pounds) may be excessive. However, high momentary radial loads with a 3800 N (850 pounds) axial load would not be anticipated to cause catastrophic failure of the fuel pump bearing.

  14. Nonlinear seismic analysis of a large sodium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The bearings and seismic bumpers used in a large sodium pump of a typical breeder reactor plant may need to be characterized by nonlinear springs and gaps. Then, nonlinear seismic analysis utilizing the time-history method is an effective way to predict the pump behaviors during seismic events, especially at those bearing and seismic bumper areas. In this study, synthesized time histories were developed based on specified seismic response spectra. A nonlinear seismic analysis was then conducted and results were compared with those obtained by linear seismic analysis using the response spectrum method. In contrast to some previous nonlinear analysis trends, the bearing impact forces predicted by nonlinear analysis were higher than those obtained by the response spectrum method. This might be due to the larger gaps and stiffer bearing supports used in this specific pump. However, at locations distant from the impact source, the nonlinear seismic analysis has predicted slightly less responses than those obtained by linear seismic analysis. The seismically induced bearing impact forces were used to study the friction induced thermal stresses on the hydrostatic bearing and to predict the coastdown time of the pump. Results and discussions are presented.

  15. Consumer awareness of salt and sodium reduction and sodium labeling.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2012-09-01

    Reduction of dietary sodium by reduction of sodium in foods is a current industry target. Quantitative information on consumer knowledge of sodium and reduction of dietary sodium is limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize consumer knowledge and awareness of sodium and salt reduction in foods. Consumers (n = 489) participated in a quantitative internet survey designed to gather knowledge and attitudes towards dietary sodium, sodium in foods, and health. Eating habits and food consumption characteristics, knowledge of salt and sodium, and interest in health and wellness were probed. Saltiness believe and sodium knowledge indices were calculated based on correct responses to salt levels in food products. Kano analysis was conducted to determine the role of nutrition labels and satisfaction/dissatisfaction of foods. Consumers were aware of the presence of sodium in "salty" foods, and that sodium was part of salt. People who had a family history of certain diseases associated with a higher intake of dietary sodium did not necessarily have more knowledge of the relationship between sodium intake and a specific disease compared to consumers with no family history. Sodium content on the food label panel did not influence consumer dissatisfaction; however, sodium content did not necessarily increase consumer product satisfaction either. The addition of a healthy nutrient (that is, whole grain, fiber) into a current food product was appealing to consumers. For nutrient labeling, a "reduced" claim was more appealing to consumers than a "free" claim for "unhealthy" nutrients such as fat, sodium, and sugar. This study demonstrated the current state of consumer knowledge on sodium and salt reduction, and consumer perception of the relationship between diets high in sodium and many chronic diseases. Information that may contribute to consumer satisfaction on nutrition panel labeling was also determined. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Analysis of an arched outer-race ball bearing considering centrifugal forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A Newton-Raphson method of iteration was used in evaluating the radial and axial projection of the distance between the ball center and the outer raceway groove curvature center (V and W). Fatigue life evaluations were made. The similar analysis of a conventional bearing can be directly obtained from the arched bearing analysis by simply letting the amount of arching be zero (g = 0) and not considering equations related to the unloaded half of the outer race. The analysis was applied to a 150-mm angular contact ball bearing. Results for life, contact loads, and angles are shown for a conventional bearing (g = 0) and two arched bearings (g = 0.127 mm (0.005 in.), and 0.254 mm (0.010 in.)). The results indicate that an arched bearing is highly desirable for high speed applications. In particular, for a DN value of 3 million (20,000 rpm) and an applied axial load of 4448 N (1000 lb), an arched bearing shows an improvement in life of 306 percent over that of a conventional bearing. At 4.2 million DN (28,000 rpm), the corresponding improvement is 340 percent. It was also found for low speeds, the arched bearing does not offer the advantages that it does for high speed applications.

  17. Fluid Film Bearing Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of rocket engine turbopumps is being developed by industry through Government-directed contracts. These turbopumps will use fluid film bearings because they eliminate the life and shaft-speed limitations of rolling-element bearings, increase turbopump design flexibility, and reduce the need for turbopump overhauls and maintenance. The design of the fluid film bearings for these turbopumps, however, requires sophisticated analysis tools to model the complex physical behavior characteristic of fluid film bearings operating at high speeds with low viscosity fluids. State-of-the-art analysis and design tools are being developed at the Texas A&M University under a grant guided by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The latest version of the code, HYDROFLEXT, is a thermohydrodynamic bulk flow analysis with fluid compressibility, full inertia, and fully developed turbulence models. It can predict the static and dynamic force response of rigid and flexible pad hydrodynamic bearings and of rigid and tilting pad hydrostatic bearings. The Texas A&M code is a comprehensive analysis tool, incorporating key fluid phenomenon pertinent to bearings that operate at high speeds with low-viscosity fluids typical of those used in rocket engine turbopumps. Specifically, the energy equation was implemented into the code to enable fluid properties to vary with temperature and pressure. This is particularly important for cryogenic fluids because their properties are sensitive to temperature as well as pressure. As shown in the figure, predicted bearing mass flow rates vary significantly depending on the fluid model used. Because cryogens are semicompressible fluids and the bearing dynamic characteristics are highly sensitive to fluid compressibility, fluid compressibility effects are also modeled. The code contains fluid properties for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid nitrogen as well as for water and air. Other fluids can be handled by the code provided that the

  18. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  19. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  20. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  1. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  2. Hybrid Hydrostatic/Transient Roller Bearing Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed bearing assembly for shaft of high-speed turbopump includes both hydrostatic and rolling-element bearings. Rolling-element bearing unloaded at high speed by centrifugal expansion of outer race and transient retainer.

  3. High-Temperature, High-Load-Capacity Radial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenza, Andrew; Montague, Gerald; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan; Jansen, Ralph; Jansen, Mark; Ebihara, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A radial heteropolar magnetic bearing capable of operating at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C) has been developed. This is a prototype of bearings for use in gas turbine engines operating at temperatures and speeds much higher than can be withstood by lubricated rolling-element bearings. It is possible to increase the maximum allowable operating temperatures and speeds of rolling-element bearings by use of cooling-air systems, sophisticated lubrication systems, and rotor-vibration- damping systems that are subsystems of the lubrication systems, but such systems and subsystems are troublesome. In contrast, a properly designed radial magnetic bearing can suspend a rotor without contact, and, hence, without need for lubrication or for cooling. Moreover, a magnetic bearing eliminates the need for a separate damping system, inasmuch as a damping function is typically an integral part of the design of the control system of a magnetic bearing. The present high-temperature radial heteropolar magnetic bearing has a unique combination of four features that contribute to its suitability for the intended application: 1. The wires in its electromagnet coils are covered with an insulating material that does not undergo dielectric breakdown at high temperature and is pliable enough to enable the winding of the wires to small radii. 2. The processes used in winding and potting of the coils yields a packing factor close to 0.7 . a relatively high value that helps in maximizing the magnetic fields generated by the coils for a given supplied current. These processes also make the coils structurally robust. 3. The electromagnets are of a modular C-core design that enables replacement of components and semiautomated winding of coils. 4. The stator is mounted in such a manner as to provide stable support under radial and axial thermal expansion and under a load as large as 1,000 lb (.4.4 kN).

  4. Random bearings and their stability.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi Baram, Reza; Herrmann, Hans J

    2005-11-25

    Self-similar space-filling bearings have been proposed some time ago as models for the motion of tectonic plates and appearance of seismic gaps. These models have two features which, however, seem unrealistic, namely, high symmetry in the arrangement of the particles, and lack of a lower cutoff in the size of the particles. In this work, an algorithm for generating random bearings in both two and three dimensions is presented. Introducing a lower cutoff for the sizes of the particles, the instabilities of the bearing under an external force such as gravity, are studied.

  5. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2017-08-22

    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  6. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  7. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  8. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  9. Mercury Sodium Tail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This image from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft is stitched together from thousands of observations made over the past 4 years by the MASCS/UVVS instrument, which measures sunlight scattered off of Mercury tenuous atmosphere. Scattered sunlight gives the sodium a bright orange glow. This scattering process also gives sodium atoms a push - this "radiation pressure" is strong enough, during parts of Mercury's year, to strip the atmosphere and give Mercury a long glowing tail. Someone standing on Mercury's nightside at the right time of year would see a faint orange similar to a city sky illuminated by sodium lamps! Instrument: Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS)/Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19418

  10. High-speed motion picture camera experiments of cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed camera was used to investigate cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings. The length-diameter ratio of the bearing, the speeds of the shaft and bearing, the surface material of the shaft, and the static and dynamic eccentricity of the bearing were varied. The results reveal not only the appearance of gas cavitation, but also the development of previously unsuspected vapor cavitation. It was found that gas cavitation increases with time until, after many hundreds of pressure cycles, there is a constant amount of gas kept in the cavitation zone of the bearing. The gas can have pressures of many times the atmospheric pressure. Vapor cavitation bubbles, on the other hand, collapse at pressures lower than the atmospheric pressure and cannot be transported through a high-pressure zone, nor does the amount of vapor cavitation in a bearing increase with time. Analysis is given to support the experimental findings for both gas and vapor cavitation.

  11. APPLICATION II: Magnetic Bearing and Flywheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaichi, Hiroshi

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Superconducting magnetic bearing * Large bulk superconductor * Design * Centering device * Bearing performance * Flywheel system using bulk superconductors * Summary and prospects * References

  12. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  13. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  14. Gas bearing operates in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

  15. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  16. High-temperature bearing lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1968-01-01

    Synthetic paraffinic oil lubricates ball bearings at temperatures in the 600 degrees F range. The lubricant contains antiwear and antifoam additives, is thermally stable in the high temperature range, but requires protection from oxygen.

  17. Optimizing journal bearing bit performance

    SciTech Connect

    Moerbe, O.E.; Evans, W.

    1986-10-01

    This article explains that continuous progress in the field of rock bit technology has produced many new designs and improved features in the tri-cone rock bits used today. Much of the research and advancements have centered around journal bearing systems, seals and lubricants leading to greatly extended bearing life. These improved bearing systems, incorporated into both tooth and insert-type bits, have not only increased the effective life of a rock bit, but have also allowed greater energy levels to be applied. This, in turn, has allowed for higher rates of penetration and lower costs per foot of hole drilled. Continuous improvements in journal bearing bits allowing them to run longer and harder have required similar advancements to be made in cutting structures. In tooth bit designs, these improvements have been basically limited to the areas of gauge protection and to application of hardfacing materials.

  18. Making Connections with Teddy Bears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beougher, Cecile

    1994-01-01

    Presents a hands-on approach to developing connections between mathematics and other subject areas by using thematic webbing. Includes a sample brainstorming aid plus a sample web and thematic unit on teddy bears. (Contains 36 references.) (MKR)

  19. Flex bearing UUEC, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapper, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    This volume, Volume 2, of this Flex Bearing UUEC Final Report documents findings and data pertaining to Team B's tasks. Team B was organized as one of two sub-teams of the Unplanned/Unintended Event or Condition (UUEC) board established per InterOffice Memorandum (IOM) A100-FY93-072. Team A determined the cause of the unacceptable unbonds (referred to as 'heat-affect' unbonds), including the initial, light rust film, in the FSM #3 flex bearing was overheating of the Forward End Ring (FER) during cure, specifically in zone 8 of the mold. Team A's findings are documented in Volume 1 of this report. Team B developed flight rationale for existing bearings, based on absence or presence of an unpropitious unbond condition like that in FSM #3's flex bearing.

  20. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  1. ATM CMG bearing failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The cause or causes for the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2) were investigated. Skylab telemetry data were reviewed and presented in the form of parameter distributions. The theory that the problems were caused by marginal bearing lubrication was studied along with the effects of orbital conditions on lubricants. Bearing tests were performed to investigate the effect of lubricant or lack of lubricant in the ATM CMG bearings and the dispersion and migration of the lubricant. The vacuum and weightless conditions of space were simulated in the bearing tests. Analysis of the results of the tests conducted points to inadequate lubrication as the predominant factor causing the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2).

  2. Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

  3. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  4. Polyurethane retainers for ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of a new ball bearing retainer material is reported. A special composite polyurethane foam ball retainer has been developed that has virtually zero wear, is chemically inert to hydrocarbon lubricants, and stores up to 60 times as much lubricant per unit volume as the most commonly used retainer material, cotton phenolic. This new retainer concept shows promise of years of ball bearing operation without reoiling, based on life testing in high vacuum.

  5. Teddy bear in the heart.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, K Mahadevan; Krishnamanohar, S Rema

    2004-08-01

    In a patient with native aortic valve endocarditis, transoesphageal echocardiography yielded a teddy bear appearance which is not reported so far. A perivalvular abscess (right ear), the superior vena cava in cross section (left ear) and the dilated (post-stenotic) aortic root (face) made up the teddy bear. This was not a cuddlesome toy but an ominous sign. The genesis of perivalvular abscess as well as the role of transoesphageal echocardiography in its diagnosis and treatment are briefly reviewed.

  6. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  7. Simplified installation of thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sensenbaugh, N. D.

    1980-01-01

    Special handling sleeve, key to method of installing thrust bearings, was developed for assembling bearings on shaft of low-pressure oxygen turbo-pump. Method eliminates cooling and vacuum-drying steps which saves time, while also eliminating possibility of corrosion formation. Procedure saves energy because it requires no liquid nitrogen for cooling shaft and no natural gas or electric power for operating vacuum oven.

  8. Improved Superconducting Magnetic Rotary Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Royston, James

    1992-01-01

    Improved magnetic rotary bearings designed by exploiting properties of type-II superconducting materials. Depending on design and application, bearing provides fixed or adjustable compensation for lateral vector component of weight or other lateral load on rotor. Allows applied magnetic field to penetrate partially in clusters of field lines, with concomitant establishment of undamped circulating electrical currents within material. Type-II superconductors have critical magnetic fields and critical temperatures greater than type-I superconductors.

  9. Predicting Temperatures In Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, William R.; Hemmings, Brad R.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulations speed design studies. Analyses performed in two or three dimensions. Sizes and shapes of components approximated by zones or nodes connected by gridlines. From geometric information about grids and boundary conditions, properties of bearing and lubricant materials, and information supplied by users, thermal-analysis programs generate mathematical models for thermal transport. Thermal analysis of high-speed rolling contact bearings matured so much that computerized numerical simulations replace expensive time consuming full scale experiments.

  10. High Temperature Superconducting Bearings for Lunar Telescope Mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Mark; BuiMa, Ki; Cooley, Rodger; Mackey, Daniel; Meng, Ruling; Chu, Ching Wu; Chu, Wei Kan; Chen, Peter C.; Wilson, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A telescope to be installed on the lunar surface in the near future must work in a cold and dusty vacuum environment for long periods without on site human maintenance. To track stars, the drive mechanism must be capable of exceedingly fine steps and repeatability. Further, the use of lightweight telescopes for obvious economic benefits burdens the requirement for stable support and rotation. Conventional contact bearings and gear drives have numerous failure modes under such a restrictive and harsh environment. However, hybrid superconducting magnetic bearings (HSMB) fit in naturally. These bearings are stable, light, passive, and essentially frictionless, allowing high precision electronic positioning control. By passive levitation, the HSMB does not wear out and requires neither maintenance nor power. A prototype illustrating the feasibility of this application is presented.

  11. Hydrodynamic lubrication in nanoscale bearings under high shear velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunfei; Li, Deyu; Jiang, Kai; Yang, Juekuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Wang, Yujuan

    2006-08-01

    The setting up process in a nanoscale bearing has been modeled by molecular dynamics simulation. Contrary to the prediction from the classical Reynolds' theory, simulation results show that the load capacity of the nanoscale bearing does not increase monotonically with the operation speed. This is attributed to the change of the local shear rate, which will decrease with the shear velocity of the bearing as the shear velocity exceeds a critical value, i.e., the local shear rate has an upper limit. A simple nonlinear dynamic model indicates that the momentum exchange between the liquid and the solid wall is reduced with the shear velocity when the shear velocity is above a critical value. The weak momentum exchange results in a decrease of the local shear rate, which in turn causes a sharp increase of the slip length.

  12. SSME Long-life Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.; Murphy, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings for LH2 and LO2 service in turbopumps were studied as a means of improving speed and life capabilities. Four hybrid bearing configurations were designed with emphasis on achieving maximum stiffness and damping. Parallel load bearings were tested at steady-state and transient conditions with LH2 (externally fed) and LN2 (internally fed). The hydrostatic elements were tested with Freon 113 for empirical determination of dynamic characteristics. Tests using an eccentric journal for loading showed the externally and internally fed hydrostatic bearings to have significant separated coefficients of direct stiffness and damping. For the internally fed bearing, the strongly speed-dependent cross-coupling stiffness arising from fluid swirl, along with significant cross-coupling damping, resulted in low net effective stiffness and damping. The test method used can produce separated coefficients with a sufficiently elliptic journal orbit; otherwise, only net effective coefficients combining direct and cross-coupling terms can be determined. Testing with nonsynchronous excitation is recommended to avoid this restriction. Investigation of hard materials, including ceramics, is recommended as a means of eliminating the need for the rolling bearing for startup and shutdown support. The testing was performed in 1984 (LH2), 1985 (LN2) and 1985-86 (Freon).

  13. Comparison of analytical methods to determine sodium content of low-sodium foods.

    PubMed

    Ehling, Stefan; Tefera, Sebhat; Earl, Robert; Cole, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    U.S. nutrition labeling regulations require the declaration of sodium content on food products. Accurate and reproducible determination of Na in foods with low Na content (< 140 mg/serving) is challenging because of laboratory contamination. Within-laboratory performance of inductively coupled plasma/MS (ICP/MS), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), ion-selective electrode (ISE), and potentiometric titration of chloride ion were evaluated in 17 low-sodium foods. For 13 types of food, statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) exist between the within-day andlor interday means obtained by ICP/MS, FAAS, and ISE. Median within-day and interday precent RSD values were 2.7 and 6.1, 3.5 and 3.2, and 5.6 and 6.2%, respectively, by ICP/MS, FAAS, and ISE. The fewest matrix effects were found with ICP/MS, followed by FAAS, and ISE. FAAS gave higher results in a variety of matrixes when compared to ICP/MS and/or ISE. ISE did not perform well in fatty foods or at very low Na concentrations. Manufacturers' Nutrition Facts Panel sodium declarations exceeded levels found by analysis in > 70% of the foods. Analysis of chloride content does not produce reliable Na estimates in low-sodium foods, even when added sodium chloride is present. Methodological issues and contamination sources are discussed.

  14. Testing and Lubrication for Single Race Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, R.G.

    1998-03-04

    Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for single race bearing applications and one hybrid-material single race bearings were evaluated and compared against single race bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in stronglink mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, bearings lubricated with titanium carbide (TiC) on the balls, bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and bearings lubricated with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. The bearings were maintained in a preloaded state in bearing cartridges during cycling and vibration tests. Bearings with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings lubricated with Vydax and were the best performing candidate. All candidates were suitable for low preload applications. Bearings with TiC coated balls and bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers performed well at high preloads, though not as well as bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposition of MoS{sub 2}. Bearings with silicon nitride balls were not suitable for high preload applications.

  15. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and...

  16. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  17. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  18. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  19. The sodium zenocorona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    A recent narrow-band-filtered CCD image by Mendillo et al. (1990) has shown that a sodium corona, produced near Io, extends at least 400 Jupiter radii in the planet's equatorial plane. Isophotes indicate that the polar to equatorial extents are in about 1 to 3 proportions. The image can be reproduced by a model which includes both a high- and an intermediate-speed distribution, with source rates of 2.2 and 1.1 x 10 exp 26 atoms/s, respectively. The high-speed distribution was ejected from Io with a velocity tangential to the satellite orbit of 57 km/s (about 74 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 25 km/s. This distribution likely corresponds to a charge exchange source of plasma torus sodium ions which are neutralized in the near-Io atmosphere and are ejected relative to Jupiter with a corotational velocity (74 km/s) plus a thermal ion (25 km/s) Maxwellian distribution. The intermediate speed distribution was ejected from Io with a tangential speed near 20 km/s (37 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 12 km/s. This distribution corresponds to the same nonthermal sodium atoms earlier identified near Io in the sodium directional features (Pilcher et al., 1984).

  20. Io's Sodium Cloud (Clear Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. It was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, using a clear filter whose wavelength range was approximately 400 to 1100 nanometers. This picture differs in two main ways from the green-yellow filter image of the same scene which was released yesterday.

    First, the sky around Io is brighter, partly because the wider wavelength range of the clear filter lets in more scattered light from Io's illuminated crescent and from Prometheus' sunlit plume. Nonetheless, the overall sky brightness in this frame is comparable to that seen through the green-yellow filter, indicating that even here much of the diffuse sky emission is coming from the wavelength range of the green-yellow filter (i.e., from Io's Sodium Cloud).

    The second major difference is that a quite large roundish spot has appeared in Io's southern hemisphere. This spot -- which has been colored red -- corresponds to thermal emission from the volcano Pele. The green-yellow filter image bears a much smaller trace of this emission because the clear filter is far more sensitive to those relatively long wavelengths where thermal emission is strongest.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  1. Io's Sodium Cloud (Clear Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. It was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, using a clear filter whose wavelength range was approximately 400 to 1100 nanometers. This picture differs in two main ways from the green-yellow filter image of the same scene which was released yesterday.

    First, the sky around Io is brighter, partly because the wider wavelength range of the clear filter lets in more scattered light from Io's illuminated crescent and from Prometheus' sunlit plume. Nonetheless, the overall sky brightness in this frame is comparable to that seen through the green-yellow filter, indicating that even here much of the diffuse sky emission is coming from the wavelength range of the green-yellow filter (i.e., from Io's Sodium Cloud).

    The second major difference is that a quite large roundish spot has appeared in Io's southern hemisphere. This spot -- which has been colored red -- corresponds to thermal emission from the volcano Pele. The green-yellow filter image bears a much smaller trace of this emission because the clear filter is far more sensitive to those relatively long wavelengths where thermal emission is strongest.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.

    2010-02-01

    Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard. Hydrogen generation is of high interest and the Pu-bearing materials can be classed according to how much hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen generation by high-purity plutonium oxides packaged under conditions typical for actual 3013 materials is minimal, with very low generation rates and low equilibrium pressures. Materials with chloride salt impurities have much higher hydrogen gas generation rates and result in the highest observed equilibrium hydrogen pressures. Other materials such as those with high metal oxide impurities generate hydrogen at rates in between these extremes. The fraction of water that is converted to hydrogen gas as equilibrium is approached ranges from 0% to 25% under conditions typical of materials packaged to the 3013 Standard. Generation of both hydrogen and oxygen occurs when liquid water is present. The material and moisture conditions that result in hydrogen and oxygen generation for high-purity plutonium oxide and chloride salt-bearing plutonium oxide materials have been characterized. Other gases that are observed include nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.

  3. How Does Physical Activity Help Build Healthy Bones?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does physical activity help build healthy bones? Skip sharing on social ... Page Content ​​Bones are living tissue. Weight-bearing physical activity causes new bone tissue to form, and this ...

  4. Inhaled sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, C M; Ind, P W

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sodium metabisulphite have been studied in eight atopic subjects, three of whom had mild asthma. 2. Nedocromil sodium (4 mg, 7.8 X 10(-6) M), sodium cromoglycate (10 mg, 24.1 X 10(-6) M) and matched placebo were administered by identical metered dose inhalers 30 min before a dose-response to sodium metabisulphite (5-100 mg ml-1) was performed. 3. Maximum fall in sGaw after placebo pre-treatment was -43.9 +/- 3.3% baseline (mean +/- s.e. mean). At the same metabisulphite concentration maximum fall in sGaw after sodium cromoglycate was -13.0 +/- 3.6% and after nedocromil sodium was +4.3 +/- 6.8%. Nedocromil sodium prevented any significant fall in sGaw even after higher concentrations of metabisulphite. 4. Both nedocromil sodium, 4 mg, and sodium cromoglycate, 10 mg, inhibited sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction but nedocromil sodium was significantly more effective. Relative in vivo potency of the two drugs is broadly in line with other in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:2171616

  5. The influence of sodium carbonate on sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation and solubility in sodium aluminate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kali; Gerson, Andrea R.; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Smart, Roger St. C.

    1997-01-01

    Isothermal batch precipitation experiments have been carried out in synthetic Bayer liquors to investigate the effects of sodium carbonate concentration on both silica solubility and the crystallisation of sodium aluminosilicates. At both 90 and 160°C cancrinite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate of space group P6 3) is the stable solid phase. Sodalite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate with space group P4¯3n seed transforms to cancrinite at both these temperatures. A high concentration of sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor causes a decrease in the rate of conversion of sodalite to cancrinite. The solubility of both cancrinite and sodalite decreases as the concentration of sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor is increased. For instance at 90°C and with 40.0 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor after 13 days the sodium aluminosilicate concentration is 0.52 g dm -3 compared to 0.85 g dm -3 with 4.6 g dm -3 of sodium carbonate in solution. At 160°C the sodium aluminosilicate concentration is 0.47 g dm -3 with 40.0 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in solution after 13 days and 0.79 g dm -3 with 4.6 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in solution. Throughout all these experiments a progressive loss of carbonate from the sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation products was observed as a function of time.

  6. Application of computational fluid dynamics on cavitation in journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Marco; Schmidt, Marcus; Reinke, Peter; Nobis, Matthias; Redlich, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Journal bearings are applied in internal combustion engines due to their favourable wearing quality and operating characteristics. Under certain operating conditions damage of the journal bearing can occur caused by cavitation. The cavitation reduces the load capacity and leads to material erosion. Experimental investigations of cavitating flows in dimension of real journal bearing are difficult to realize or almost impossible caused by the small gap and transient flow conditions. Therefore numerical simulation is a very helpful engineering tool to research the cavitation behaviour. The CFD-Code OpenFOAM is used to analyse the flow field inside the bearing. The numerical cavitation model based on a bubble dynamic approach and requires necessary initial parameter for the calculation, such as nuclei bubble diameter, the number of nuclei and two empirical constants. The first part of this paper shows the influence of these parameters on the solution. For the adjustment of the parameters an experiment of Jakobsson et.al. [1] was used to validate the numerical flow model. The parameters have been varied according to the method Design of Experiments (DoE). With a defined model equation the parameters determined, to identify the parameter for CFD-calculations in comparison to the experimental values. The second part of the paper presents investigations on different geometrical changes in the bearing geometry. The effect of these geometrical changes on cavitation was compared with experimental results from Wollfarth [2] and Garner et.al. [3].

  7. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited. ...

  8. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  9. Journal gas bearing for curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, J. W.

    1969-01-01

    Optimizing bearing length and permissible axis curvature alleviates distortion of film gap of gas lubricated journal bearing in deployment mechanisms. Required bearing length is divided into two shorter bearings interconnected by links which allow satisfactory conformity with the bent, load-carrying member.

  10. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  11. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  12. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  13. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  14. Food labeling; nutrient content claims, definition of sodium levels for the term "healthy." Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-09-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations concerning the maximum sodium levels permitted for foods that bear the implied nutrient content claim "healthy." The agency is retaining the currently effective, less restrictive, "first-tier" sodium level requirements for all food categories, including individual foods (480 milligrams (mg)) and meals and main dishes (600 mg), and is dropping the "second-tier" (more restrictive) sodium level requirements for all food categories. Based on the comments received about technological barriers to reducing sodium in processed foods and poor sales of products that meet the second-tier sodium level, the agency has determined that requiring the more restrictive sodium levels would likely inhibit the development of new "healthy" food products and risk substantially eliminating existing "healthy" products from the marketplace. After reviewing the comments and evaluating the data from various sources, FDA has become convinced that retaining the higher first-tier sodium level requirements for all food products bearing the term "healthy" will encourage the manufacture of a greater number of products that are consistent with dietary guidelines for a variety of nutrients. The agency has also revised the regulatory text of the "healthy" regulation to clarify the scope and meaning of the regulation and to reformat the nutrient content requirements for "healthy" into a more readable set of tables, consistent with the Presidential Memorandum instructing that regulations be written in plain language.

  15. Wall pressure exerted by hydrogenation of sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Yon E.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Zimmerman, Mark D.

    2009-06-01

    Wall pressure exerted by the bulk expansion of a sodium aluminum hydride bed was measured as a function of hydrogen content. A custom apparatus was designed and loaded with sodium alanates at densities of 1.0, 1.1, and 1.16 g/cc. Four complete cycles were performed to identify variations in measured pressure. Results indicated poor correlation between exerted pressure and hydrogen capacity of the sodium alanate beds. Mechanical pressure due to the hydrogenation of sodium alanates does not influence full-scale system designs as it falls within common design factors of safety. Gas pressure gradients within the porous solid were identified and may limit reaction rates, especially for high aspect ratio beds.

  16. 43 CFR 3514.25 - When does my lease expire?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL... § 3514.25 When does my lease expire? (a) Sodium, sulphur, asphalt, and hardrock mineral leases expire at...

  17. Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF) was designed and built to evaluate compact, lightweight magnetic bearings for use in the SSME's (space shuttle main engine) liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen turbopumps. State of the art and tradeoff studies were conducted which indicated that a hybrid permanent magnet bias homopolar magnetic bearing design would be smaller, lighter, and much more efficient than conventional industrial bearings. A test bearing of this type was designed for the test rig for use at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (-320 F). The bearing was fabricated from state-of-the-art materials and incorporated into the CMBTF. Testing at room temperature was accomplished at Avcon's facility. These preliminary tests indicated that this magnetic bearing is a feasible alternative to older bearing technologies. Analyses showed that the hybrid magnetic bearing is one-third the weight, considerably smaller, and uses less power than previous generations of magnetic bearings.

  18. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  19. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  20. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-05-04

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

  1. Sodium-dependent magnesium uptake by ferret red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Flatman, P W; Smith, L M

    1991-01-01

    1. Magnesium uptake can be measured in ferret red cells incubated in media containing more than 1 mM-magnesium. Uptake is substantially increased if the sodium concentration in the medium is reduced. 2. Magnesium uptake is half-maximally activated by 0.37 mM-external magnesium when the external sodium concentration is 5 mM. Increasing the external sodium concentration increases the magnesium concentration needed to activate the system. 3. Magnesium uptake is increased by reducing the external sodium concentration. Uptake is half-maximum at sodium concentrations of 17, 22 and 62 nM when the external magnesium concentrations are 2, 5 and 10 mM respectively. 4. Replacement of external sodium with choline does not affect the membrane potential of ferret red cells over a 45 min period. 5. Magnesium uptake from media containing 5 mM-sodium is inhibited by amiloride, quinidine and imipramine. It is not affected by ouabain or bumetanide. Vanadate stimulates magnesium uptake but has no effect on magnesium efflux. 6. When cell ATP content is reduced to 19 mumol (1 cell)-1 by incubating cells for 3 h with 2-deoxyglucose, magnesium uptake falls by 50% in the presence of 5 mM-sodium and is completely abolished in the presence of 145 mM-sodium. Some of the inhibition may be due to the increase in intracellular ionized magnesium concentration ([Mg2+]i) from 0.7 to 1.0 mM which occurs under these conditions. 7. Magnesium uptake can be driven against a substantial electrochemical gradient if the external sodium concentration is reduced sufficiently. 8. These findings are discussed in terms of several possible models for magnesium transport. It is concluded that the majority of magnesium uptake observed in low-sodium media is via sodium-magnesium antiport. A small portion of uptake is through a parallel leak pathway. It is believed that the antiport is responsible for maintaining [Mg2+]i below electrochemical equilibrium in these cells at physiological external sodium concentration

  2. Hazard categorization and classification for the sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1994-08-30

    The Sodium Storage Facility is planned to be constructed in the 400 area for long term storage of sodium from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It will contain four large sodium storage tanks. Three of the tanks have a capacity of 80,000 gallons of sodium each, and the fourth will hold 52,500 gallons. The tanks will be connected by piping with each other and to the FFTF. Sodium from the FFTF primary and secondary Heat Transport Systems (HTS), Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to the facility, and stored there in a frozen state pending final disposition. A Hazard Classification has been performed in order to evaluate the potential toxic consequences of a sodium fire according to the provisions of DOE Order 5481.1B. The conclusion of these evaluations is that the Sodium Storage Facility meets the requirements of the lowest Hazard Category, i.e., radiological facility, and the Hazard Classification is recommended to be moderate.

  3. Respiratory rhythm generation during gasping depends on persistent sodium current.

    PubMed

    Paton, Julian F R; Abdala, Ana P L; Koizumi, Hidehiko; Smith, Jeffrey C; St-John, Walter M

    2006-03-01

    In severe hypoxia, homeostatic mechanisms maintain function of the brainstem respiratory network. We hypothesized that hypoxia involves a transition from neuronal mechanisms of normal breathing (eupnea) to a rudimentary pattern of inspiratory movements (gasping). We provide evidence for hypoxia-driven transformation within the central respiratory oscillator, in which gasping relies on persistent sodium current, whereas eupnea does not depend on this cellular mechanism.

  4. Emersion Testing of Phenix Reactor Components From Liquid Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Baque, F.

    2002-07-01

    The life extension of the Phenix LMFR involved the inspection of reactor vessel internal structures: among other techniques, a visual inspection was performed of the above core structure, fuel assembly heads and upper components. To make this inspection possible, a partial draining of the main vessel from primary liquid sodium was carried out (sodium at 180 and argon cover at 150 ). The test program aimed at obtaining further knowledge on the process of wetting of sodium - as pure metal - on Phenix Plant assembly heads - made of stainless steel -, as well as on the internal structure welding, was carried out from November 1998 to January 1999. The main results were as follows: - the sodium meniscus measured during sodium lowering against the non-wet vertical structures reaches 10 mm in height. On wetted structures, it reaches only 5.3 mm. - when sodium level decreases, the process if very regular. However, re-flooding is carried out in stages. - a difference of 0.2 mm between two heads altitudes is enough to observe successively each of the heads. - the quality of sodium does not modify the wetting process (in the range of cold trap temperature: 110-140 deg. C). - the influence of lighting is important. - the visibility limit of emerging electro-eroded cracks (from 0.17 to 1.0 mm) is at 0.20 mm. - the visibility of a horizontal welding, machined or not, is good when the lighting is sufficient. - the superficial flow of sodium only modifies the wetting process for the closest heads. A final test allowed to observe that the global inclination of the assembly head mock-up does not modify the wetting process. These experimental results were part of the feasibility demonstration of the visual inspection within the actual Phenix Plant that was undertaken in 2001. (authors)

  5. Introduction to sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Peters, Colin H; Ruben, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are present in many tissue types within the human body including both cardiac and neuronal tissues. Like other channels, VGSCs activate, deactivate, and inactivate in response to changes in membrane potential. VGSCs also have a similar structure to other channels: 24 transmembrane segments arranged into four domains that surround a central pore. The structure and electrical activity of these channels allows them to create and respond to electrical signals in the body. Because of their distribution throughout the body, VGSCs are implicated in a variety of diseases including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and neuropathic pain. As such the study of these channels is essential. This brief review will introduce sodium channel structure, physiology, and pathophysiology.

  6. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Magnetic bearings with zero bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic bearing operating without a bias field has supported a shaft rotating at speeds up to 12,000 rpm with the usual four power supplies and with only two. A magnetic bearing is commonly operated with a bias current equal to half of the maximum current allowable in its coils. This linearizes the relation between net force and control current and improves the force slewing rate and hence the band width. The steady bias current dissipates power, even when no force is required from the bearing. The power wasted is equal to two-thirds of the power at maximum force output. Examined here is the zero bias idea. The advantages and disadvantages are noted.

  8. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. 75 FR 22384 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... precision grade of a bearing does not influence whether the bearing is covered by one of the orders. The... precision grade. Next, we calculated the sum of the deviations (expressed as a percentage of the value of... Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From South Africa, 62 FR...

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Modification of Poly(Organophosphazenes), that Bear Both 2,2,2-Trifluoroethoxy and Phenoxy Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-18

    organophosphazenes) that Bear Both 2,2,2-Trifluoro- ethoxy and Phenoxy Groups N00014-91-J-1194 6. AUTHOR(S) Harry R. Allcock and Younq Baek Kim 7. PERFORMING...that bear varying ratios of phenoxy and 2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy groups have been synthesized by the reactions of (NPC12)n with sodium phenoxide, PhO...4132007 Technical Report No. 12 Synthesis, Characterization, and Modification of Poly(organophosphazenes) that Bear Both 2,2,2-Trifluoroethoxy and

  11. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  15. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  16. Solid Lubricated Rolling Element Bearings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-15

    gyro bearing balls (as received), at various SEM magnifications 16 • VVi 7. TMI TiC/ MoS2 sputtered 52100 gyro bearing inner and outer race...outer race ball path (MoS^ removed with Oakite 126 HD), at 800X SEM magnification and EDX scrutiny 21 12. TMI TiC/ MoS2 sputtered 52100...target (Reference 4) 23 14. Overall top view of a 5-station, 15 gyro component, planetary rotating sputtering fixture of TMI for TiC/ U ^-■ MoS2

  17. Physiologic evaluation of capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine in brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Asa; Arnemo, Jon M; Swenson, Jon E; Pringle, John; Brunberg, Sven; Nyman, Görel

    2011-03-01

    Physiologic variables during anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine were evaluated in 52 free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) darted from a helicopter and in six captive brown bears darted at a zoo. During anesthesia, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and pulse oximetry derived hemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected and immediately analyzed for evaluation of pulmonary gas exchange, acid-base status, and selected hematologic and plasma variables. At the end of anesthesia, atipamezole was administered intramuscularly at five times the medetomidine dose. Capture-induced hyperthermia and lactic acidemia were documented in free-ranging bears. Hypoxemia during anesthesia was documented in both free-ranging and captive bears. In free-ranging bears, rectal temperature, heart rate, lactate, hematocrit, and hemoglobin decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, pH, potassium, and glucose increased. Yearlings had a significantly higher heart rate, pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and glucose, and had a significantly lower rectal temperature, sodium, hematocrit, and hemoglobin when compared with subadult and adult brown bears. In conclusion, alterations in pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status in brown bears during anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine with the doses and capture methods used in this study were identified. Oxygen supplementation is recommended to counteract hypoxemia during anesthesia.

  18. An Assessment of Gas Foil Bearing Scalability and the Potential Benefits to Civilian Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years the term oil-free turbomachinery has been used to describe a rotor support system for high speed turbomachinery that does not require oil for lubrication, damping, or cooling. The foundation technology for oil-free turbomachinery is the compliant foil bearing. This technology can replace the conventional rolling element bearings found in current engines. Two major benefits are realized with this technology. The primary benefit is the elimination of the oil lubrication system, accessory gearbox, tower shaft, and one turbine frame. These components account for 8 to 13 percent of the turbofan engine weight. The second benefit that compliant foil bearings offer to turbofan engines is the capability to operate at higher rotational speeds and shaft diameters. While traditional rolling element bearings have diminished life, reliability, and load capacity with increasing speeds, the foil bearing has a load capacity proportional to speed. The traditional applications for foil bearings have been in small, lightweight machines. However, recent advancements in the design and manufacturing of foil bearings have increased their potential size. An analysis, grounded in experimentally proven operation, is performed to assess the scalability of the modern foil bearing. This analysis was coupled to the requirements of civilian turbofan engines. The application of the foil bearing to larger, high bypass ratio engines nominally at the 120 kN (approx.25000 lb) thrust class has been examined. The application of this advanced technology to this system was found to reduce mission fuel burn by 3.05 percent.

  19. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  20. Sodium-level-sensitive sodium channel Na(x) is expressed in glial laminate processes in the sensory circumventricular organs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiji; Hiyama, Takeshi Y; Shimizu, Hidetada; Kodama, Ryuji; Hayashi, Noriko; Miyata, Seiji; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Noda, Masaharu

    2006-03-01

    Na(x) is an atypical sodium channel that is assumed to be a descendant of the voltage-gated sodium channel family. Our recent studies on the Na(x)-gene-targeting mouse revealed that Na(x) channel is localized to the circumventricular organs (CVOs), the central loci for the salt and water homeostasis in mammals, where the Na(x) channel serves as a sodium-level sensor of the body fluid. To understand the cellular mechanism by which the information sensed by Na(x) channels is transferred to the activity of the organs, we dissected the subcellular localization of Na(x) in the present study. Double-immunostaining and immunoelectron microscopic analyses revealed that Na(x) is exclusively localized to perineuronal lamellate processes extended from ependymal cells and astrocytes in the organs. In addition, glial cells isolated from the subfornical organ, one of the CVOs, were sensitive to an increase in the extracellular sodium level, as analyzed by an ion-imaging method. These results suggest that glial cells bearing the Na(x) channel are the first to sense a physiological increase in the level of sodium in the body fluid, and they regulate the neural activity of the CVOs by enveloping neurons. Close communication between inexcitable glial cells and excitable neural cells thus appears to be the basis of the central control of the salt homeostasis.

  1. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-09-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE`s waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE`s waste management capabilities.

  2. A time delay controller for magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.

  3. DOE`s Phytoremediation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation contains an outline of the US DOE`s phytoremediation program. A brief overview of the goals, infrastructure, and results of the program is presented. Environmental contaminants addressed include chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals, radionuclides, inorganic wastes, and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. Studies of soil remediation using phytoextraction and water remediation using rhizofiltration are briefly described.

  4. Wave Journal Bearing. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin

    1995-01-01

    A wave journal bearing concept features a waved inner bearing diameter of the non-rotating bearing side and it is an alternative to the plain journal bearing. The wave journal bearing has a significantly increased load capacity in comparison to the plain journal bearing operating at the same eccentricity. It also offers greater stability than the plain circular bearing under all operating conditions. The wave bearing's design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. Three wave bearings are sensitive to the direction of an applied stationary side load. Increasing the number of waves reduces the wave bearing's sensitivity to the direction of the applied load relative to the wave. However, the range in which the bearing performance can be varied decreases as the number of waves increases. Therefore, both the number and the amplitude of the waves must be properly selected to optimize the wave bearing design for a specific application. It is concluded that the stiffness of an air journal bearing, due to hydrodynamic effect, could be doubled and made to run stably by using a six or eight wave geometry with a wave amplitude approximately half of the bearing radial clearance.

  5. Dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular mortality: controversy resolved?

    PubMed

    Alderman, Michael H; Cohen, Hillel W

    2012-06-01

    Universal reduction in sodium intake has long been recommended, largely because of its proven ability to lower blood pressure for some. However, multiple randomized trials have also demonstrated that similar reductions in sodium increase plasma renin activity and aldosterone secretion, insulin resistance, sympathetic nerve activity, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Thus, the health consequences of reducing sodium cannot be predicted by its impact on any single physiologic characteristic but will reflect the net of conflicting effects. Some 23 observational studies (>360,000 subjects and >26,000 end points) linking sodium intake to cardiovascular outcomes have yielded conflicting results. In subjects with average sodium intakes of less than 4.5 grams/day, most have found an inverse association of intake with outcome; in subjects with average intakes greater than 4.5 grams/day, most reported direct associations. Finally, in two, a "J-shaped" relation was detected. In addition, three randomized trials have found that heart failure subjects allocated to 1.8 g of sodium have significantly increased morbidity and mortality compared with those at 2.8 g. At the same time, a randomized study in retired Taiwanese men found that allocation to an average intake of 3.8 g improved survival compared with 5.3 g. Taken together, these data provide strong support for a "J-shaped" relation of sodium to cardiovascular outcomes. Sodium intakes above and below the range of 2.5 to 6.0 grams/day are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This robust body of evidence does not support universal reduction of sodium intake.

  6. Dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular mortality: controversy resolved?

    PubMed

    Alderman, Michael H; Cohen, Hillel W

    2012-07-01

    Universal reduction in sodium intake has long been recommended, largely because of its proven ability to lower blood pressure for some. However, multiple randomized trials have also demonstrated that similar reductions in sodium increase plasma renin activity and aldosterone secretion, insulin resistance, sympathetic nerve activity, serum cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Thus, the health consequences of reducing sodium cannot be predicted by its impact on any single physiologic characteristic but will reflect the net of conflicting effects. Some 23 observational studies (>360,000 subjects and >26,000 end points) linking sodium intake to cardiovascular outcomes have yielded conflicting results. In subjects with average sodium intakes of less than 4.5 g/day, most have found an inverse association of intake with outcome; in subjects with average intakes greater than 4.5 g/day, most reported direct associations. Finally, in two, a "J-shaped" relation was detected. In addition, three randomized trials have found that heart failure subjects allocated to 1.8 g of sodium have significantly increased morbidity and mortality compared with those at 2.8 g. At the same time, a randomized study in retired Taiwanese men found that allocation to an average intake of 3.8 g improved survival compared with 5.3 g. Taken together, these data provide strong support for a "J-shaped" relation of sodium to cardiovascular outcomes. Sodium intakes above and below the range of 2.5-6.0 g/day are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This robust body of evidence does not support universal reduction of sodium intake.

  7. Influence of the thrust bearing on the natural frequencies of a 72-MW hydropower rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupillard, S.; Aidanpää, J.-O.

    2016-11-01

    The thrust bearing is an essential element of a hydropower machine. Not only does it carry the total axial load but it also introduces stiffness and damping properties in the system. The focus of this study is on the influence of the thrust bearing on the lateral vibrations of the shaft of a 72-MW propeller turbine. The thrust bearing has a non-conventional design with a large radius and two rows of thrust pads. A numerical model is developed to estimate natural frequencies. Numerical results are analyzed and related to experimental measurements of a runaway test. The results show the need to include the thrust bearing in the model. In fact, the vibration modes are substantially increased towards higher frequencies with the added properties from the thrust bearing. The second mode of vibration has been identified in the experimental measurements. Its frequency and mode shape compare well with numerical results.

  8. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active-magnetic-bearing

  9. High performance rolling element bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursey, Jr., Roger W. (Inventor); Olinger, Jr., John B. (Inventor); Owen, Samuel S. (Inventor); Poole, William E. (Inventor); Haluck, David A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A high performance rolling element bearing (5) which is particularly suitable for use in a cryogenically cooled environment, comprises a composite cage (45) formed from glass fibers disposed in a solid lubricant matrix of a fluorocarbon polymer. The cage includes inserts (50) formed from a mixture of a soft metal and a solid lubricant such as a fluorocarbon polymer.

  10. Gradient Tempering Of Bearing Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parr, Richardson A.

    1991-01-01

    Gradient-tempering process increases fracture toughness and resistance to stress-corrosion cracking of ball-bearing races made of hard, strong steels and subject to high installation stresses and operation in corrosive media. Also used in other applications in which local toughening of high-strength/low-toughness materials required.

  11. Polar bear research in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, Geoff S.; Regehr, Eric V.; Simac, Kristin; Smith, Tom S.; Partridge, Steven T.; Bentzen, Torsten; Amstrup, Kristin S.; Douglas, David C.; Aars, Jon; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Aars, Jon; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Derocher, Andrew E.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 13th Working Meeting of the Polar Bear Specialist Group the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has seen the completion of many research projects and the start of many new ones. Much has been accomplished and yet we have new challenges awaiting us. This report summarises our focal questions and progress in those areas.

  12. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Treesearch

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  13. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  14. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Arnant P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  15. We still need Smokey Bear!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2001-01-01

    It was gratifying to see articles in recent issues of Fire Management Today clarifying the role of Smokey Bear in wildland fire management strategies (Baily 1999; Brown 1999). These articles clearly spelled out Smokey’s importance in reducing unplanned human-ignited wildland fires and rightly criticized attempts to detract from Smokey’s campaign (Williams 1995; see also Vogl 1973).

  16. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  17. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  18. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  19. Losses of Superconductor Journal Bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. H.; Hull, J. R.; Han, S. C.; Jeong, N. H.; Oh, J. M.; Sung, T. H.

    2004-06-01

    A high-temperature superconductor (HTS) journal bearing was studied for rotational loss. Two HTS bearings support the rotor at top and bottom. The rotor weight is 4 kg and the length is about 300 mm. Both the top and bottom bearings have two permanent magnet (PM) rings with an iron pole piece separating them. Each HTS journal bearing is composed of six pieces of superconductor blocks of size 35×25×10 mm. The HTS blocks are encased in a cryochamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. The inner spool of the cryochamber is made from G-10 to reduce eddy current loss, and the rest of the cryochamber is stainless steel. The magnetic field from the PM rings is < 10 mT on the stainless part. The rotational drag was measured over the same speed range at several chamber pressures. Results indicate that a chamber pressure of 0.4 mtorr is sufficiently low to minimize windage loss, and the 10 mT design criterion for the magnetic field on the stainless part of the cryochamber is too high.

  20. Technology advances for magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Steve; Hung, John Y.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art in magnetic bearing technology and applications, and some of advances under development through the joint efforts of Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International and Auburn University. Advances in the areas of nonlinear control systems design, digital controller implementation, and power electronics are discussed.

  1. Himalayan black bear mauling: offense or defense?

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagdeep Singh; Mohan, Chander; Sharma, Dev R

    2007-01-01

    The Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the Tibetan black bear, the Himalayan black bear, or the moon bear is a omnivorous mammal. This animal is declared threatened animal and rarely comes in human contact. Recent decrease in forest area has, however, increased the chances of bear-human interaction, hence causing injuries to humans. There is only one published report in English literature on Himalayan black bear mauling. We present 5 cases referred to our department over a period of 1 year.

  2. Active magnetic bearings give systems a lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Leo

    1992-07-01

    While the active magnetic bearings currently being used in such specialized applications as centrifugal compressors for natural gas pumps are more expensive than conventional bearings, they furnish improved machine service life, controlled damping of high-speed rotors to eliminate critical-speed vibrations, and the obviation of lubrication systems. Attention is presently given to magnetic bearings used by the electric power industry, homopolar magnetic radial and thrust bearings, weapon-system and gas turbine engine applications of magnetic bearings, and the benefits of magnetic bearings for energy-storage flywheels.

  3. TOOL ASSEMBLY WITH BI-DIRECTIONAL BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Longhurst, G.E.

    1961-07-11

    A two-direction motion bearing which is incorporated in a refueling nuclear fuel element trsnsfer tool assembly is described. A plurality of bi- directional bearing assembliesare fixed equi-distantly about the circumference of the transfer tool assembly to provide the tool assembly with a bearing surface- for both axial and rotational motion. Each bi-directional bearing assembly contains a plurality of circumferentially bulged rollers mounted in a unique arrangement which will provide a bearing surface for rotational movement of the tool assembly within a bore. The bi-direc tional bearing assembly itself is capable of rational motion and thus provides for longitudinal movement of the tool assembly.

  4. Characteristics of high-stiffness superconducting bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, M.; Tamada, N.; Fuchino, S.; Ishii, I.

    1996-07-01

    Magnetic bearings using a high-Tc superconductor have been studied. Generally the bearing makes use of the pinning effects to get the levitation force. The stiffness of the bearing, however, is extremely low as compared with industrial-scale conventional one. To improve the bearing stiffness the authors propose a disc-type repulsive superconducting thrust bearing with a slit for the restraint of the flux. Both theoretical and experimental evaluation on the load performance was carried out, and it is clarified that the proposed superconducting bearing has higher stiffness.

  5. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  6. Astronomy and Sodium Lighting,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    o-... 0 -23- rincreased Oxygen Atoms , Soodum Oxygen Atoms Peckg trom LPS Ligh t Level Limit Motel Br-ue Green...Yellow Orcrge Red Fig. 5 - San Jose 1979 with bPS street lights New Sodium Peaks frome Oxyge.n Atom’s HPS Oxygen Atoms Full Growth Light Level- 1990...Light LevelI 1979 Light Level I L Light Level - 0 Lmt Broad Specr ,,m Excess Li;hl SVoel Blue Gpen Yelloo Oro-’e Red Fig. 6 -- Sarn Jose with 11PS street

  7. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  8. Hybrid bearings for turbopumps and the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John F. (Inventor); Owens, Gregg R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In rocket engines power is usually obtained by burning fuel and oxidizer which are mixed, pressurized, and directed to a combustion chamber by means of turbopumps. Roller bearings are generally used in these turbopumps, but because of bearing demands hydrostatic bearings were proposed. The use of such bearings is quite feasible because during flight hydrostatic lubrication can reduce roller bearing wear. A disadvantage of such proposals is that during startup, acceleration, and shutdown high pressure fluids are not available for hydrostatic bearings. The fluid lubrication film is not always present in bearings of turbopumps. During these periods a second bearing is required to carry the load. This requirement suggests the use of hybrid bearings in rocket engine turbopumps. Such duplex bearings were provided, but when their inner races are keyed to the shaft or journal two of them are required. And such duplex bearings do not wear evenly. A hybrid hydrostatic-rolling element bearing was provided wherein the rolling element bearing is locked on the stationary housing rather than on the rotating journal.

  9. Hybrid bearings for turbopumps and the like

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justak, John F.; Owens, Gregg R.

    1993-01-01

    In rocket engines power is usually obtained by burning fuel and oxidizer which are mixed, pressurized, and directed to a combustion chamber by means of turbopumps. Roller bearings are generally used in these turbopumps, but because of bearing demands hydrostatic bearings were proposed. The use of such bearings is quite feasible because during flight hydrostatic lubrication can reduce roller bearing wear. A disadvantage of such proposals is that during startup, acceleration, and shutdown high pressure fluids are not available for hydrostatic bearings. The fluid lubrication film is not always present in bearings of turbopumps. During these periods a second bearing is required to carry the load. This requirement suggests the use of hybrid bearings in rocket engine turbopumps. Such duplex bearings were provided, but when their inner races are keyed to the shaft or journal two of them are required. And such duplex bearings do not wear evenly. A hybrid hydrostatic-rolling element bearing was provided wherein the rolling element bearing is locked on the stationary housing rather than on the rotating journal.

  10. Hybrid bearings for turbopumps and the like

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justak, John F.; Owens, Gregg R.

    1994-09-01

    In rocket engines power is usually obtained by burning fuel and oxidizer which are mixed, pressurized, and directed to a combustion chamber by means of turbopumps. Roller bearings are generally used in these turbopumps, but because of bearing demands hydrostatic bearings were proposed. The use of such bearings is quite feasible because during flight hydrostatic lubrication can reduce roller bearing wear. A disadvantage of such proposals is that during startup, acceleration, and shutdown high pressure fluids are not available for hydrostatic bearings. The fluid lubrication film is not always present in bearings of turbopumps. During these periods a second bearing is required to carry the load. This requirement suggests the use of hybrid bearings in rocket engine turbopumps. Such duplex bearings were provided, but when their inner races are keyed to the shaft or journal two of them are required. And such duplex bearings do not wear evenly. A hybrid hydrostatic-rolling element bearing was provided wherein the rolling element bearing is locked on the stationary housing rather than on the rotating journal.

  11. Short-bearing approximation for full journal bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocvirk, F W

    1952-01-01

    A short-bearing approximation of pressure distribution in the oil film is presented which is an extension of the pressure-distribution function of Michell and Cardullo and includes end-leakage effects. Equations giving applied load, attitude angle, location and magnitude of peak film pressure, friction, and required oil flow rate as functions of the eccentricity ratio are also given. The capacity number, a basic non dimensional quantity resulting from this analysis is the product of the Sommerfeld number and the square of the length-diameter ratio. Curves determined by this analysis are compared with previously published experimental data and theoretical curves of Sommerfeld and Cameron and Wood. Conclusions reached indicate that this approximation is of practical value for analysis of short bearings.

  12. Mobile bearing and fixed bearing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dolfin, Marco; Saccia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The mobile bearing (MB) concept in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was developed as an alternative to fixed bearing (FB) implants in order to reduce wear and improve range of motion (ROM), especially focused on younger patients. Unfortunately, its theoretical advantages are still controversial. In this paper we exhibit a review of the more recent literature available comparing FB and MB designs in biomechanical and clinical aspects, including observational studies, clinical trials, national and international registries analyses, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. Except for some minor aspects, none of the studies published so far has reported a significant improvement related to MBs regarding patient satisfaction, clinical, functional and radiological outcome or medium and long-term survivorship. Thus the presumed superiority of MBs over FBs appears largely inconsistent. The routine use of MB is not currently supported by adequate evidences; implant choice should be therefore made on the basis of other factors, including cost and surgeon experience. PMID:27162777

  13. Mobile bearing and fixed bearing total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Capella, Marcello; Dolfin, Marco; Saccia, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The mobile bearing (MB) concept in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was developed as an alternative to fixed bearing (FB) implants in order to reduce wear and improve range of motion (ROM), especially focused on younger patients. Unfortunately, its theoretical advantages are still controversial. In this paper we exhibit a review of the more recent literature available comparing FB and MB designs in biomechanical and clinical aspects, including observational studies, clinical trials, national and international registries analyses, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. Except for some minor aspects, none of the studies published so far has reported a significant improvement related to MBs regarding patient satisfaction, clinical, functional and radiological outcome or medium and long-term survivorship. Thus the presumed superiority of MBs over FBs appears largely inconsistent. The routine use of MB is not currently supported by adequate evidences; implant choice should be therefore made on the basis of other factors, including cost and surgeon experience.

  14. Sodium intake and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Alanna C; Ness, Roberta B

    2011-01-01

    Sodium consumption is a target for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure (BP) is well-established, but the relationship with CVD is less clear. This review focuses on studies investigating the association between sodium intake and CVD within five principal subgroups: age, underlying BP, gender, body size, and ethnicity. We conclude that sodium reduction results in decreased CVD risk in the general population, and some susceptible subgroups may especially benefit from preventive efforts. Older individuals, those with underlying elevated BP, and those with increased body size may benefit most, but men and women of all ages, ethnicities, and normotensives also experience reduced CVD risk in relation to lowered sodium intake. Public health policy to reduce sodium intake in the United States would have significant cost-savings, far greater than the cost of intervention, and would also result in a significant gain in quality-adjusted life years.

  15. Action of insecticidal N-alkylamides at site 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ottea, J.A.; Payne, G.T.; Soderlund, D.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Nine synthetic N-alkylamides were examined as inhibitors of the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)batrachotoxinin A 20{alpha}-benzoate (({sup 3}H)BTX-B) to sodium channels and as activators of sodium uptake in mouse brain synaptoneurosomes. In the presence of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom, the six insecticidal analogues were active as both inhibitors of ({sup 3}H)BTX-B binding and stimulators of sodium uptake. These findings are consistent with an action of these compounds at the alkaloid activator recognition site (site 2) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. The three noninsecticidal N-alkylamides also inhibited ({sup 3}H)BTX-B binding but were ineffective as activators of sodium uptake. Concentration-response studies revealed that some of the insecticidal amides also enhanced sodium uptake through a second, high-affinity interaction that does not involve site 2, but this secondary effect does not appear to be correlated with insecticidal activity. The activities of N-alkylamides as sodium channel activators were influenced by the length of the alkenyl chain and the location of unsaturation within the molecule. These results further define the actions of N-alkylamides on sodium channels and illustrate the significance of the multiple binding domains of the sodium channel as target sites for insect control agents.

  16. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  18. How do alternative bearing surfaces influence wear behavior?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ian C; Manley, Michael T

    2008-01-01

    Metal, ceramic, and polyethylene liners represent contemporary bearing choices for total joint replacement. Each has limitations in terms of design, sensitivity to manufacturing, and surgical placement. With polyethylene, larger femoral heads represent a design restriction and a potential wear issue. One side benefit is that polyethylene does not click, squeak, or create stripe wear. The attraction of hard-on-hard bearings (metal-on-metal, ceramic-on-ceramic) is that their typically ultra-low wear alleviates concerns with large femoral head designs. However, hard-on-hard bearings produce stripe wear due to the effects of the rigid liner edge. Slight subluxation (microseparation) during swing phase of gait can result in stripe wear on the ball and liner rim. In addition, high levels of implant wear with vertically placed cups can be anticipated. Currently, only alumina-on-alumina bearings can claim virtually no biologic risk. Thus, the role of laboratory studies is to isolate relevant aspects of performance by cup design and to predict the risk-benefit ratios in patients requiring total hip replacement.

  19. Bulls and bears: the stock market and clinical pathology research.

    PubMed

    Khong, T Y

    2009-09-01

    To analyse the level of funded research in clinical pathology in a recent bear and bull market to act as a predictor for future funding during the current global financial crisis. The level of funding for research published in three clinical pathology journals in 2005 and 2008 to coincide with the bear market of March 2000 to October 2002 and with the subsequent bull market to October 2007 was determined using a Medline query. Other parameters examined were the type of article, affiliation of the first author and the pathology subspecialty. Approximately 30% of publications were funded and did not differ between the 2 years studied. Original research papers were more likely to be funded than case reports or reviews. Research from university departments of pathology was more likely to be funded than from hospital pathology departments but there were more publications from hospital pathology departments. The proportion of research in the different subspecialties that was funded did not differ significantly between each other and between 2005 and 2008. Based on data from the previous bear market, which was the longest and deepest of the post 1950 era, and the subsequent bull market, which led to the all-time high in the Dow Jones Industrial Index, funding for clinical pathology research does not seem to be affected by bull or bear markets.

  20. A Preliminary Foil Gas Bearing Performance Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.; Bruckner, Robert J.; Howard, S. Adam

    2006-01-01

    Recent breakthrough improvements in foil gas bearing load capacity, high temperature tribological coatings and computer based modeling have enabled the development of increasingly larger and more advanced Oil-Free Turbomachinery systems. Successful integration of foil gas bearings into turbomachinery requires a step wise approach that includes conceptual design and feasibility studies, bearing testing, and rotor testing prior to full scale system level demonstrations. Unfortunately, the current level of understanding of foil gas bearings and especially their tribological behavior is often insufficient to avoid developmental problems thereby hampering commercialization of new applications. In this paper, a new approach loosely based upon accepted hydrodynamic theory, is developed which results in a "Foil Gas Bearing Performance Map" to guide the integration process. This performance map, which resembles a Stribeck curve for bearing friction, is useful in describing bearing operating regimes, performance safety margins, the effects of load on performance and limiting factors for foil gas bearings.