Science.gov

Sample records for doe west coast

  1. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  2. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  3. Installation and Initial Operation of DOE's 449-MHz Wind Profiling Radars on the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Shaw, William J.; Morris, Victor R.; Wilczak, J. M.; White, A. B.; Ayers, Tom; Jordan, Jim; King, Clark W.

    2015-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has recently completed the installation of three new wind profiling radars on the Washington and Oregon coasts. These systems operate at a frequency of 449 MHz and provide mean wind profiles to a height of roughly 8 km, with the maximum measurement height depending on time-varying atmospheric conditions. This is roughly half the depth of the troposphere at these latitudes. Each system is also equipped with a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), which provides a measure of the temperature profile to heights of approximately 2 km. Other equipment deployed alongside the radar includes a surface meteorological station and GPS for column water vapor. This project began in fiscal year 2014, starting with equipment procurements and site selection. In addition, environmental reviews, equipment assembly and testing, site access agreements, and infrastructure preparations have been performed. Finally, with equipment deployment with data collection and dissemination, the primary tasks of this project have been completed. The three new wind profiling radars have been deployed at airports near Coos Bay, OR, and Astoria, OR, and at an industrial park near Forks, WA. Data are available through the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory Data Display website, and will soon be made available through the DOE Atmosphere to Electrons data archive and portal as well.

  4. 77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of Information Collection..., Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS published a... regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and...

  5. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY31 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM and...

  6. 77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC223 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15... the action was effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast...

  7. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC705 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and 5 AGENCY... effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

  8. 75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY83 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

  9. 75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY08 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9..., and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM and 2182 kHz...

  10. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  11. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  12. 76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than... minimum size requirements for the commercial salmon fishery. This action corrects the incorrect...

  13. 76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery... Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Secretarial review. Amendment 16... Taylor at 562-980-4039. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The ocean salmon fisheries in the exclusive...

  14. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  15. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  16. 77 FR 20337 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Advance Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding... quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Trawl...

  17. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  18. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010...

  19. 77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces 5 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These... measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2, 2012), NMFS announced the commercial...

  20. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through 11 AGENCY... inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial fisheries in... salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and recreational fisheries...

  1. 76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 5...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces 22 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries... closing date of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011 annual management measures or until...

  2. 77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces 11 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries... INFORMATION: Background In the 2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May...

  3. 75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2011 salmon seasons opening... and landing restrictions, and minimum lengths for salmon taken in the U.S. exclusive economic...

  4. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY: National... Fisheries announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified the... measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial...

  5. 78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... management measures for the 2013 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2014 salmon seasons opening earlier than May 1, 2014. Specific fishery management measures vary by fishery...

  6. 78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In the 2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77...

  7. 76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May 1, 2012. Specific fishery management measures vary by fishery...

  8. 78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 Through 34... 23 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial and recreational salmon fisheries in the area from the U.S./Canada Border to the U.S./Mexico Border. DATES:...

  9. 77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... fishery management measures for the 2012 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2013 salmon seasons opening earlier than May 1, 2013. Specific fishery management measures vary...

  10. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Tribal Fishery for... coastal treaty Indian tribes' rights to harvest Pacific Coast groundfish. Washington coastal treaty Indian... rights in the area covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) can request...

  11. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the commercial Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan...

  12. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period Extension...; Amendment 16-5; and Amendment 23 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). The... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts of...

  13. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516), including, among other species, darkblotched.... Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, and revised rebuilding...

  14. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial, recreational and tribal Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended...

  15. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial... economic zone (EEZ) and state waters off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, as authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). These specifications include the level of...

  16. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial and recreational Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to...

  17. Roots and Branches: Contemporary Essays by West Coast Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Howard, Ed.

    Celebrating the vitality and diversity of West Coast writing, this book is a collection of 35 essays by writers based in California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Loosely organized around the ideas that West Coast writers often look to their roots elsewhere and that they pursue new directions as varied as their roots, the collection presents a…

  18. Roots and Branches: Contemporary Essays by West Coast Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Howard, Ed.

    Celebrating the vitality and diversity of West Coast writing, this book is a collection of 35 essays by writers based in California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Loosely organized around the ideas that West Coast writers often look to their roots elsewhere and that they pursue new directions as varied as their roots, the collection presents a…

  19. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  20. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  1. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries off the Coasts of Washington, Oregon, and...

  4. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National... Conservation and Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries off the Coasts of Washington, Oregon,...

  5. 76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California...

  6. 76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens...

  7. 75 FR 67032 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY68 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization... ``Initial Issuance Final Rule''). In addition, that rule restructured the entire Pacific Coast...

  8. INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  9. INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  10. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  11. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...

  12. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  13. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E; Nordström, Jonas; Risén, Emma; Malmström, Maria E; Gröndahl, Fredrik

    2017-09-22

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

  14. CAUSE Resiliency (West Coast) Experiment Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    context for the emergency response in all locations was a major Cascadian subduction zone earthquake off the coast of Oregon of magnitude 9.0. A...was developed around a large Cascadian subduction zone earthquake of Magnitude 9.0. This provided context for the time slices chosen for the vignettes...and incidents in their jurisdiction. An earthquake in the Cascadian subduction zone is an example of one such potential eventuality that is revisited

  15. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  16. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  17. 77 FR 65639 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non... October 4, 2012. This action is authorized by regulations implementing the Pacific Coast Groundfish... available for harvest to other sectors of the trawl fishery. For 2012 the Washington Coast treaty tribes...

  18. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations of...

  19. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations of...

  20. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations of...

  1. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations of...

  2. US west coast revisited: An aeromagnetic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zietz, I.; Johnson, P.R. ); Bond, K.R. )

    1990-04-01

    A new compilation of magnetic data for the western conterminous United States and offshore areas provides significant information about crustal units and structures in the region. Features shown on the compilation include a magnetic quiet zone along the coast and two lineaments inland. The magnetic quiet zone correlates with the accretionary prism at the western edge of the North American plate and overlies subducted ocean crust; abrupt termination of ocean-floor magnetic anomalies at, or a short distance east of, the toe of the accretionary prism is an inferred effect subduction-induced low-temperature metamorphism of the ocean crust. The Puget Lowlands-San Joaquin lineament is an alignment of high-intensity magnetic anomalies that in the south, and possibly also in the north, are cause by bodies of mafic-ultramafic rocks accreted to North America during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The lineup of the highs and the inferred lineup of the causative bodies may reflect fundamental structures that control Mesozoic and Tertiary evolution of the continental margin. The Mojave Desert lineament, a distinctive chain of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in southern California, coincides partly with a zone of Mesozoic intrusions and the Cenozoic San Andreas fault system, but is likely to be older than both in origin and may reflect a Mesozoic or older crustal discontinuity.

  3. Paleogeographic Study of the West Florida Panhandle Coast and Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. L.; Donoghue, J. F.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Hatchett, L.; Clark, R. R.

    2001-12-01

    The dominant factors in the evolution of a passive margin shelf and coast are sea-level change and fluvial-marine sediment transport processes. On many U.S. coasts, beach nourishment sand has become an increasingly scarce and expensive resource. A regional sand search has recently been undertaken to identify offshore targets for beach nourishment sand along the western Florida Panhandle coast. A major task of the project has been the development of a conceptual model for finding potential nourishment sand. The modeling work has involved the collection of existing data, including published literature, sediment samples, sub-bottom seismic data, and paleogeographic analyses. Paleogeography was recognized as a potentially powerful tool for use in identifying shelf sand bodies, because they are products of sea-level change and shelf evolution. As part of the project, a more detailed study has been undertaken to acquire and assemble all available paleogeographic and paleoshoreline data for the western Florida shelf. These data include studies of the Quaternary paleogeography of the Panhandle coast, still-stand paleoshorelines, high-resolution bathymetry, global and eustatic sea-level curves, beach ridge systems, coastal river and inlet retreat paths, and barrier island evolution. The data have been compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) database from which maps of the shelf paleogeography can be created, representing selected periods in the Quaternary evolution of the West Florida Panhandle coast and margin.

  4. 78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC397 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... INFORMATION: This action is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and the...

  5. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  6. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation...

  11. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation...

  12. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation...

  13. 78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast... River in Parker, Arizona for the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals. This temporary safety...

  14. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  15. Decadal Variability of West Coast Marine Stratus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobellis, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Williams, P.

    2013-12-01

    Low frequency variability of West Coast summertime marine stratus clouds are investigated using six decades of observations at several coastal airport locations. The magnitude and direction of long-term trends in summertime marine stratus occurrence along the California coast depends strongly on the cloud base height threshold used to distinguish low clouds from higher clouds. In this study, marine stratus clouds are defined as having cloud base at or below 1000 meters. Using this threshold, a decreasing trend in marine stratus cloud frequency was found for Southern California during the 1950-2012 period. No significant trends were found in Northern California. When averaged over the summer season, the cloud data reveal that coastal stratus has substantial variation on multi-year time scales with typical changes of 10-15% from year to year and 5-7% from decade to decade. Low stratus cloud cover varies over long distances with coherent anomalies that extend from southern California to Oregon. The most important correlated modes of SST with cloud cover anomalies, via a canonical correlation analysis contains both local and remote SST linkages. The first mode is correlated with the PDO and also to Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns and coastal upwelling. There is also a linkage to sea surface temperature anomalies in the low latitude Pacific, suggesting that tropical-extratropical interactions may be involved in driving West Coast cloud cover.

  16. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  17. Does the geoid drift west?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, G. E.; Parker, R. L.; Zumberge, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1970 Hide and Malin noted a correlation of about 0.8 between the geoid and the geomagnetic potential at the Earth's surface when the latter is rotated eastward in longitude by about 160 degrees and the spherical harmonic expansions of both functions are truncated at degree 4. From a century of magnetic observatory data, Hide and Malin inferred an average magnetic westward drift rate of about 0.27 degrees/year. They attributed the magnetic-gravitational correlation to a core event at about 1350 A.D. which impressed the mantle's gravity pattern at long wavelengths onto the core motion and the resulting magnetic field. The impressed pattern was then carried westward 160 degrees by the nsuing magnetic westward drift. An alternative possibility is some sort of steady physical coupling between the magnetic and gravitational fields (perhaps migration of Hide's bumps on the core-mantle interface). This model predicts that the geoid will drift west at the magnetic rate. On a rigid earth, the resulting changes in sea level would be easily observed, but they could be masked by adjustment of the mantle if it has a shell with viscosity considerably less than 10 to the 21 poise. However, steady westward drift of the geoid also predicts secular changes in g, the local acceleration of gravity, at land stations. These changes are now ruled out by recent independent high-accuracy absolute measurements of g made by several workers at various locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  18. Gaining more access is focus on West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1988-03-14

    A Beaufort Sea wildcat off the tantalizing Arctic National Wildlife Refuge highlights U.S. West Coast exploration/development action this year. Targeting the same structure tapped by the only wildcat drilled on ANWR's coastal Plain, the Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production offshore well may give more clues as to the potential of North America's most prospective and most controversial untapped petroleum province. Elsewhere in Alaska, firming oil prices have spurred a modest revival in wildcatting. But a steep decline in Alaskan oil production will likely begin in the early 1990s. Burgeoning production from new platforms and expanded steamflood projects will boost California output in the next few years. Longer term prospects for Offshore California, however, remain clouded by environmental opposition to development and leasing. Elsewhere in the Far West, Shell Oil Co. has returned to Washington, ARCO is stepping up action in Oregon and independents' discovery of new pay in the Railroad Valley area is spurring renewed interest in Nevada.

  19. 77 FR 47322 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures. SUMMARY: This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast...

  20. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast GIS data repository to estimate percent change in the area of rocky intertidal habitat in 10 cm increments with eustatic sea level rise. The analysis was conducted at the scale of the four Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) ecoregions located along the continental west coast of the United States (CONUS). Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map data were used to identify rocky shoreline. Such stretches of shoreline were extracted for each of the four ecoregions and buffered by 100 m to include the intertidal and evaluate the potential area for upland habitat migration. All available LiDAR topobathy DEMs from Digital Coast were extracted using the resulting polygons and two rasters were synthesized from the results, a 10 cm increment zone raster and a non-planimetric surface area raster for zonal summation. Current rocky intertidal non-planimetric surface areas for each ecoregion were computed between Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) levels established from published datum sheets for tidal stations central to each MEOW ecoregion. Percent change in non-planimetric surface area for the same relative ranges were calculated in 10 cm incremental steps of eustatic S

  1. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast GIS data repository to estimate percent change in the area of rocky intertidal habitat in 10 cm increments with eustatic sea level rise. The analysis was conducted at the scale of the four Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) ecoregions located along the continental west coast of the United States (CONUS). Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map data were used to identify rocky shoreline. Such stretches of shoreline were extracted for each of the four ecoregions and buffered by 100 m to include the intertidal and evaluate the potential area for upland habitat migration. All available LiDAR topobathy DEMs from Digital Coast were extracted using the resulting polygons and two rasters were synthesized from the results, a 10 cm increment zone raster and a non-planimetric surface area raster for zonal summation. Current rocky intertidal non-planimetric surface areas for each ecoregion were computed between Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) levels established from published datum sheets for tidal stations central to each MEOW ecoregion. Percent change in non-planimetric surface area for the same relative ranges were calculated in 10 cm incremental steps of eustatic S

  2. Winter extreme precipitation along the North American west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael D.

    Most extreme precipitation events that occur along the North American west coast are associated with winter atmospheric river (AR) events, causing flooding, landslides, extensive property damage, and loss of life. The studies contained within this dissertation use a combination of NCDC precipitation observations, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, a 10-model ensemble of historical and future CMIP5 climate model simulations, and an NCEP-NCAR reanalysis driven regionally downscaled WRF model simulation to characterize the synoptic evolution of AR events along the North American west coast, the spatial variability of precipitation along the coast and inland, and changes in AR intensity and frequency that are expected by the end of the 21st century. Most regional flooding events are associated with precipitation periods of 24 hours or less, and two-day precipitation totals identify nearly all major events. Precipitation areas of major events are generally narrow, roughly 200 km in width, and most are associated with ARs. Composite evolutions indicate negative anomalies in sea-level pressure and upper-level height in the central Pacific, high-pressure anomalies over the southwest U.S., large positive 850-hPa temperature anomalies along the coast and offshore, and enhanced precipitable water and integrated water vapor fluxes in southwest- to northeast-oriented swaths. A small subset of extreme precipitation events over the southern portion of the domain is associated with a very different synoptic evolution: a sharp trough in northwesterly flow and post-cold-frontal convection. High precipitable water values are more frequent during the summer but are not associated with heavy precipitation because of upper-level ridging over the eastern Pacific and weak onshore flow that limits upward vertical velocities. Global climate models have sufficient resolution to simulate synoptic features associated with AR events, such as high values of vertically integrated vapor transport (IVT

  3. 75 FR 12729 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU95 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY...

  4. What's Happening on the West Coast? The National Ocean Policy, EBM and Ocean Governance on the West Coast of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    A robust update on the latest ocean governance developments in the West Coast region of the U.S. will be provided, highlighting implementation of the National Ocean Policy and ongoing dialog among federal, state and tribal entities and coastal stakeholders at a range of scales. The link between ecosystem-based management (EBM) as a guiding principle and meaningful management outcomes will discussed, guided by the latest ocean policy priorities from local, state, tribal and regional scales in the West Coast. The West Coast Regional Planning Body has been recently initiated under the framework provided by the National Ocean Policy, bringing together a formal partnership of state and tribal governments with federal agencies in a way never before achieved in the region. The newly reformed West Coast Ocean Partnership builds upon efforts of the West Coast Governors Alliance on Ocean Health to continue to address priority ocean policy topics, while other regional efforts are identifying data, science and tools to support an EBM approach. All of these will be discussed in detail, providing both up-to-date reports on the latest West Coast activities, while illustrating lessons learned from past regional efforts and exactly how EBM has been effectively integrated. The West Coast of the U.S. is a unique region in terms of geographic scale, governance structure and history of innovative ocean management approaches. Using opportunities provided by recent state, tribal, regional and national policy initiatives, the West Coast has undertaken a range of activities to better coordinate ocean management while enhancing dialogs to support it. This presentation will provide a concise summary of current efforts, demonstrating how policy is being translated into significant action and highlighting opportunities to build on successful outcomes to date.

  5. What's Happening on the West Coast? The National Ocean Policy, EBM and Ocean Governance on the West Coast of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    A robust update on the latest ocean governance developments in the West Coast region of the U.S. will be provided, highlighting implementation of the National Ocean Policy and ongoing dialog among federal, state and tribal entities and coastal stakeholders at a range of scales. The link between ecosystem-based management (EBM) as a guiding principle and meaningful management outcomes will discussed, guided by the latest ocean policy priorities from local, state, tribal and regional scales in the West Coast. The West Coast Regional Planning Body has been recently initiated under the framework provided by the National Ocean Policy, bringing together a formal partnership of state and tribal governments with federal agencies in a way never before achieved in the region. The newly reformed West Coast Ocean Partnership builds upon efforts of the West Coast Governors Alliance on Ocean Health to continue to address priority ocean policy topics, while other regional efforts are identifying data, science and tools to support an EBM approach. All of these will be discussed in detail, providing both up-to-date reports on the latest West Coast activities, while illustrating lessons learned from past regional efforts and exactly how EBM has been effectively integrated. The West Coast of the U.S. is a unique region in terms of geographic scale, governance structure and history of innovative ocean management approaches. Using opportunities provided by recent state, tribal, regional and national policy initiatives, the West Coast has undertaken a range of activities to better coordinate ocean management while enhancing dialogs to support it. This presentation will provide a concise summary of current efforts, demonstrating how policy is being translated into significant action and highlighting opportunities to build on successful outcomes to date.

  6. First report of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" in west coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Espinosa-Martínez, Deborah V; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker, Ingeborg

    2016-10-01

    We report the first case of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" detected in Amblyomma mixtum ticks on humans on the west coast of Mexico. This is the most western record of "Ca. R. amblyommii" in the Western Hemisphere, representing the first record for the western coast of the Americas. Even if the record is far from the previously known locations for the species it does not represent a new record regarding temperature, precipitation and topographic parameters. Since "Ca. R. amblyommii" antibodies have been detected in patients suspected of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and the tick A. mixtum has been associated with humans, it is important to consider "Ca. R. amblyommii" as a potential risk for the human population that has not been considered at risk before.

  7. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon...

  8. Holocene Glacial Retreat at Walgreen Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, J.; Johnson, J.; Castex, M.; Wittmann, H.; Smith, J.; Lisker, F.; Gohl, K.; Spiegel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Walgreen Coast of West Antarctica represents one of the most rapidly changing sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). With the fastest ice streams in the whole Antarctic, the WAIS is characterised by rapid thinning and grounding line retreat. Airborne and satellite-based short-term observations show a doubling of the negative net mass balance between 1996-2006 (Rignot et al., 2008). Furthermore, because the WAIS is largely grounded below sea level, continued inland thinning and grounding line retreat could result in rapid ice sheet collapse, which would raise global sea level by between 3-5 m. However, due to remoteness and challenging accessibility, onshore data is limited to a few isolated nunataks making it difficult to assess the long-term evolution of the glacial dynamics along Walgreen Coast. To address this we present new data from two key areas of the Walgreen Coast; the Kohler Range and the Pine Island Bay. Our 10Be surface exposure ages from erratic boulders in the Kohler Range are the first and reveal that this area became ice-free between 8.3 and 12.3 ka. This implies a long-term thinning rate of 3.3 cm/yr and agrees with similar data published from glaciers eastward. Our ages are also consistent with recent deglaciation models which suggest strong thinning after 15 ka and off-shore sediments shows a concurrent lateral ice-shelf front retreat. Our results suggest an ice-cover at least 300 m thicker in the Kohler Range during the early Holocene and that subsequent average thinning occurred on rates one order of magnitude slower than recent satellite measurements show. This implies that the recent trend in ice-sheet thinning results from a recent dynamic changes rather than a response to long-term thinning. To further constrain the lateral deglaciation history along the eastern Walgreen Coast, namely the Pine Island Glacier, we collected additional samples from a chain of islands, located flow-parallel and downstream of the ice-shelf front. We

  9. History of petroleum exploration in California and the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.E.

    1991-03-01

    California's main oil and gas basins consist of the inland Sacramento and San Joaquin and the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Maria basins adjacent to the coast and extending offshore. The state's total oil production to 1991 is approximately 22.8 billion bbls. Producing formations range in age from basement Jurassic to Pleistocene, but production is mainly from thick multiple sand zones of Miocene and Pliocene age. The first oil discovery was in the eastern Ventura basin in 1875. By the turn of the century, 22 fields, including several giants in the San Joaquin Valley, had been discovered by drilling near oil seepages. The most important event of the 1920s was the discovery of several giant oil fields in the Los Angeles basin, drilled on topographic highs suggestive of underlying anticlines. State production rapidly increased to 850,000 BOPD, or 40% of all US production. The 1930s saw the advent of the reflection seismograph, responsible for the state's largest oil field (Wilmington) in the Lost Angeles basin and the state's largest gas field (Rio Vista) in the Sacramento basin. A number of important fields were found under the San Joaquin Valley floor. Geological thinking in the late 1930s and 1940s resulted in the discovery of large stratigraphic traps in the San Joaquin Valley (e.g., East Coalinga) and at Santa Maria from fractured shale, plus two new small producing basins, the Cuyama and the Salinas. Offshore exploration, consisting of seismic work, ocean-bottom sampling, and coreholing, revealed the presence of a number of anticlines in the Ventura basin, paralleling the Santa Barbara coast. The first offshore discovery was made in 1959 on state lands followed by several major fields on federal lands in the late 1960s. Elsewhere along the West Coast, exploration in Oregon and Washington has yielded only minor gas.

  10. 75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY79 Fisheries Off West Coast...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon and... fishery in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast (California, Oregon, and...

  11. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon and... fishery in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast (California, Oregon, and...

  12. 75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of... the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast (California, Oregon, and Washington) in...

  13. When Does the Coast Guard’s Flag Come Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    WHEN DOES THE COAST GUARD’S FLAG COME FORWARD? A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College...are those of the student author and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other...leaders and the general public. In turn, this may lead to an increased budget that will permit the Coast Guard to operate more effectively, providing even

  14. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  15. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  16. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 660 - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 2 Table 2 to Part 660 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 660—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...

  17. "Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community…

  18. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80 ...

  19. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80 ...

  20. "Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community…

  1. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  2. Oil and gas development in West Coast in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, T.D.

    1988-10-01

    Drilling activity in the West Coast region in 1987 showed little improvement over 1986, as crude oil and gas prices remained low. A total of 208 exploratory wells were drilled, with explorationists logging 5 new-field discoveries and an overall success rate of 26%. Exploration activity in offshore California continued to decline in 1987 with only 3 new wildcats drilled and no reported discoveries. Operators meanwhile concentrated their efforts on the development of the giant Point Arguello and Point Pedernales fields and continued their efforts to obtain necessary permits to bring on-line the additional reserves discovered in the early 1980s. Exploration activity in the onshore California basins increased slightly in 1987 with 195 wells drilled compared to 189 in 1986. Explorationists scored 49 discoveries consisting of 5 new fields, 13 new pools, and 32 extensions. Drilling activity in Oregon and Washington continued to decline in 1987 with only 10 exploratory wells, 2 fewer than in 1986. Seven of these wells were completed as gas producers at Mist field in Oregon. Geothermal activity in California increased by 22% in 1987, halting the downward trend set over the past few years. Activity was again concentrated at The Geysers field with the completion of 39 new wells in 1987. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Dynamic stability of coral reefs on the west Australian coast.

    PubMed

    Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ C; Bancroft, Kevin P; Beckley, Lynnath E; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N; Friedman, Kim J; Gilmour, James P; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Kobryn, Halina T; Moore, James A Y; Nutt, Christopher D; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P; Wilson, Shaun K

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10-35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs.

  4. Review of the twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting.

    PubMed

    Barry, Sheila M; Melar, Marta; Gallay, Philippe; Hope, Thomas J

    2005-11-17

    Every year the Cancer Research Institute from University of California at Irvine organizes the West Coast Retrovirus Meeting where participants have a chance to discuss the latest progress in understanding the pathology of retroviruses. The 12th meeting was held at the Hyatt Regency Suites in Palm Springs, California from October 6th to October 9th 2005, with the major focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. Philippe Gallay from The Scripps Research Institute and Thomas J. Hope from Northwestern University organized the meeting, which covered all the steps involved in the lifecycle of retroviruses with an emphasis on virus:host interactions. The trend in research appeared to be on the restriction of viral infection, both by the endogenous, cellular restriction factors, as well as by the potential antimicrobial compounds of known or unknown mechanisms. Additionally, new stories on the inevitable feedback from the host immune system were presented as well. HIV still represents a challenge that an army of motivated people has been working on for over 20 years. And yet, the field has not reached the plateau in knowledge nor enthusiasm, which was proven again in October 2005 in Palm Springs.

  5. Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs. PMID:23922829

  6. Satellite Shows West Coast "June Gloom" and Actinoform clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NOAA's GOES-15 satellite captured the southern California "June Gloom" on June 10, 2013. That's a weather pattern that creates cloudy, overcast skies and cool temperatures. The "June Gloom" of low lying stratus clouds form over the ocean and can be pushed to coastal areas by wind. It usually happens off the west coast of California during the late spring and early summer. As for the "seam" of blue within the "June Gloom," it appears to be actinoform clouds, a seam in the marine stratocumulus aka "June Gloom" of southern California. Actinoform clouds and marine stratus in general are only marginally stable. Sometimes the cloud deck spontaneously dissolves along a line by drizzling out the moisture. This seam is an unusually long curve that is not identified with a coastline or a weather front. Dennis Chesters/Rob Gutro NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. REFERENCES en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinoform_cloud en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Gloom NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. 77 FR 22679 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management...

  8. 77 FR 24634 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), is intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management...

  9. The West Coast Experiment - An overview. [for mesoscale wind, wave and ocean surface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemdin, O. H.

    1980-01-01

    The West Coast Experiment was conducted in the Southern California Bight during March-April 1977 for the purpose of investigating the mesoscale variability of waves, wind, and surface temperature and to demonstrate the validity and level of usefulness of airborne remote sensing techniques in the investigation of oceanographic processes. This paper presents the large-scale view of the West Coast Experiment and provides a summary of the major results.

  10. Intra-seasonal sea level variability along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhage, Laxmikant; Strub, P. Ted

    2016-11-01

    The importance of local versus distant forcing is studied for the wind-driven intra-seasonal (30-120 day) sea level anomaly (SLA) variations along the west coast of India. Significant correlations of altimeter-derived SLA on the west coast are found with the mid-basin SLA east of Sri Lanka and SLA as far as Sumatra and the equator, with increased lags, connecting with the remote forcing from the equator in the form of reflected Rossby waves. The highest correlations between SLA on the west coast and winds are found with the winds at the southern tip of India. Coherence calculations help to identify the importance of a narrow band (40-60 day) for the interactions of winds with the intra-seasonal SLA variations. A multivariate regression model, along with the coherences within this narrower band, suggest the lags of SLA on the west coast with winds to range from 0 to 2 days with the local forcing to 11-13 days with the forcing along south east coast of India. Hovmöller diagrams illustrate the propagation of signals by estimating phase speed for Rossby waves (57 cm/s) across the Indian Ocean from Sumatra and Coastal Trapped Waves (CTWs) along the west coast of India (178 cm/s). Propagation from the south-east coast of India is not as robust as Rossby waves from Sumatra.

  11. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  12. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  17. Preliminary meteorological results for 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, H.F.

    1993-01-04

    This memo documents preliminary meteorological results from the 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment, a joint US/UK radar ocean imaging experiment. Measurements of wind speed and direction are reported for both phases of the experiment covering the periods from June 7--13 and from June 19--25. The measurements were obtained using a Campbell Scientific CR10 Datalogger and R. M. Young model 03001-5 anemometer and wind wane. The anemometer has a resolution of 0.1 m/s and the wind vane 1[degrees], but motion of the ship platform reduces the precision of the direction measurements to [+-]10[degrees]. Data were downloaded to an IBM PC-AT for final storage and analysis. The anemometer was mounted at a height of 10 meters above the mean water surface on top of a mast located at the bow of the Royal Marine Auxiliary Service (R.M.A.S.) tug, [open quotes]Cairn[close quotes]. The Cairn was moored at the center of the experiment site at 57[degrees]7.13755[close quote] N, 5[degrees]44.88521[close quote] W in the Sound of Sleat. nominally 200 meters from the ship track. Wind velocity and direction were recorded at a sample rate of 0.2 Hz, and the averaged value was output every 10 minutes from approximately 2 hours before the start of the first run to 2 hours after the end of the last run. Data are plotted in the following pages in 2 formats for a quick visual summary of the daily wind conditions. The top plot gives wind velocity (m/s) and direction (degrees true) vs. time given in minutes relative to the start of the first run which is designated as [open quotes]T[close quotes]. The lower plot gives a polar plot of the same data with velocity on the radial axis and direction on the azimuthal axis. The final two plots give a summary of the wind speed vs. direction for phase 1 (June 7--13) and phase 2 (June 19--25).

  18. Macrofauna associated with temporary Sabellaria alveolata reefs on the west coast of Cotentin (France).

    PubMed

    Schlund, Erika; Basuyaux, Olivier; Lecornu, Billie; Pezy, Jean-Philippe; Baffreau, Alexandrine; Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The polychaete Sabellaria alveolata (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important ecosystem engineer building reef structures which add to the topographic complexity in colonized areas. In Europe, the most extensive reef formation is located in the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel (France). Since 2006, Sabellaria bio-constructions have developed on hard substrates along the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula between Champeaux and Saint-Germain-sur-Ay on the northern part of the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel. In this sector, two distinct types of bio-construction can be distinguished: platforms and reefs. The aim of this study is to analyse the patterns of the associated macrofauna on these platforms and reefs, as well as outside, and test for a correlation between the presence of Sabellaria bio-constructions and the richness of the benthic macrofauna. Univariate analyses are used to compare the macrofauna on four sites (Champeaux, Lingreville, Blainville-sur-Mer and Saint-Germain-sur-Ay). The results show a higher taxonomic richness on the platform-type than on the reef-type structures, and also a higher taxonomic richness outside the bio-construction areas. This suggests that, on the examined sites, the presence of S. alveolata bio-constructions does not contribute to higher levels of benthic macrofaunal richness on hard substrates. Temporary bio-constructions along this coast exhibit reefs of interest at some sites as well as in very small zones which merit special attention.

  19. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

  20. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

  1. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  2. Pollutant Transport During the Spring Months to the West Coast of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. G.; Lamarque, J.

    2002-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) 2K2 field campaign, April 22 to May 19 2002, a wide range of chemical species were measured over the west coast of the U.S. and adjacent Pacific Ocean. Both aircraft and ground-based measurements were made. The MOZART chemical transport model driven by forecast meteorological fields was used to provide forecasts of chemical species (ozone, CO, NOx and PAN) and inert diagnostic species during the ITCT campaign. The diagnostic species provided tracers of rapid transport to the west coast of the U.S. from emission regions located in North America (over both the U.S. and Mexico), eastern Asia (including emissions from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources), the eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer and Europe. Recirculation of pollution from North America had very little effect on free-tropospheric concentrations off the west coast of the U.S. The eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer also had little impact in the free troposphere. The west coast was most directly affected by biomass burning sources and anthropogenic emission sources over Eastern Asia with occasional evidence of rapid transport from European sources. Deep and strong tropopause folds were also forecast to influence the west coast of the U.S. during ITCT, and in at least one instance were verified by the measurements. During this talk we further explore the long-range transport of pollutants to the west coast of the U.S. during spring 2002, as well as in other years over the last decade.

  3. Learning about geological events in Vendée (west coast of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretaudeau, Florence; Lavigne, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Our 70 pupils, aged from 17 to 18 had discovered an area of the west coast of France : Vendée. We studied rocks in order to tell the geological story of this area. Several characteristics were looked at : sedimentary and metamorphics rocks, minerals, fault, folding, unconformability... We took advantage of this geological journey to look at biodiversity in different ecosystems : rocky coast, dune, wood.

  4. 33 CFR 96.470 - How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? 96.470 Section 96.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? At least every 12 months, the...

  5. 33 CFR 96.470 - How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? 96.470 Section 96.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? At least every 12 months, the...

  6. 33 CFR 96.470 - How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? 96.470 Section 96.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? At least every 12 months, the...

  7. 33 CFR 96.470 - How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? 96.470 Section 96.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? At least every 12 months, the...

  8. 33 CFR 96.470 - How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? 96.470 Section 96.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... How does the Coast Guard terminate an organization's authorization? At least every 12 months, the...

  9. Characteristics of autumn-winter extreme precipitation on the Norwegian west coast identified by cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, U.; Sorteberg, A.

    2012-08-01

    Extremely high autumn and winter precipitation events on the European west coast are often driven by low-pressure systems in the North Atlantic. Climate projections suggest the number and intensity of these events is likely to increase far more than the mean precipitation. In this study we investigate the autumn-winter extreme precipitation on the Norwegian west coast and the connection between its spatial distribution and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns using the k-means cluster analysis. We use three relatively high resolved downscalings of one global coupled model: the Arpège global atmospheric model (stretched grid with 35-km horizontal resolution over Norway) and the WRF-downscaled Arpège model (30 and 10-km) for the 30-year periods of 1961-1990 and 2021-2050. The cluster analysis finds three main SLP patterns responsible for extreme precipitation in different parts of the country. The SLP patterns found are similar to the NAO positive pattern known to strengthen the westerly flow towards European coast. We then apply the method to investigate future change in extreme precipitation. We find an increase in the number of days with extreme precipitation of 15, 39 and 35% in the two simulations (Arpège 35-km and WRF 30 and 10-km, respectively). We do not find evidence of a significant change in the frequency of weather patterns between the present and the future periods. Rather, it is the probability of a given weather pattern to cause extreme precipitation which is increased in the future, probably due to higher temperatures and an increased moisture content of the air. The WRF model predicts the increase in this probability caused by the most important SLP patterns to be >50%. The Arpège model does not predict such a significant change because the general increase in extreme precipitation predicted is smaller, probably due to its coarser resolution over ocean which leads to smoother representation of the low pressure systems.

  10. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  11. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...This action would implement a cost recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program, which is a catch share program and type of limited access privilege program (LAPP), as required by the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA). This action includes regulations that affect all trawl rationalization program sectors (Shorebased Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program, Mothership Coop Program, and Catcher/Processor Coop Program) managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP).

  12. Higher Educational Needs of the Lower West Coast [Florida].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

    This study reports the higher educational needs of the persons living in lower west Florida counties from Manatee to Collier, identifies the most feasible course of action to meet those needs and assesses the consequences ensuing from adding to the state university system. Chapters cover access to public higher education, expansion of the state…

  13. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Vessels off the West Coast. Fishing by vessels of Canada under the 1981 Treaty Between the Government of...

  14. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. Fishing by vessels of Canada under the 1981 Treaty Between the Government of...

  15. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

  16. 78 FR 49190 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BD47 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason...

  17. Characterization of a West Nile Virus Isolate from a Human on the Gulf Coast of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Granwehr, Bruno P.; Li, Li; Davis, Charles T.; Beasley, David W. C.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic characterization of a human cerebrospinal fluid West Nile virus isolate from Beaumont, Texas, revealed several nucleotide changes and amino acid substitutions that differentiated it from all other North American strains isolated to date, suggesting that isolates from the Texas Gulf Coast may form a unique genetic group among North American strains. PMID:15528747

  18. 76 FR 58720 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA709 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  19. 75 FR 42610 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XX54 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  20. 78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC783 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  1. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  2. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  3. 77 FR 50952 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC166 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  4. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

  5. 77 FR 15973 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...) to modify retention limits for swordfish harvested in the U.S. West Coast-based deep-set tuna... limits of swordfish captured in the DSLL fishery as follows: if a vessel without an observer onboard uses...

  6. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources.

  7. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  8. 76 FR 55865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Notice of Availability for Secretarial Amendment 1 to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Notice of Availability for Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has prepared Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish...

  9. (The role of zooplankton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight): California Basin Study: DOE west coast basin program: Progress report 4, (June 1987--June 1988)

    SciTech Connect

    Small, L.F.; Huh, Chih-An

    1988-06-01

    The overall objective of our research, within the structure of the DOE CaBS (California Basin Study) program, is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of selected metabolically active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. One focus of our study is to examine the role of zooplankton and micronekton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight, with particular reference to C, N and certain radionuclides and trace metals. A second focus is to examine these same radionuclides and trace metals in other reservoirs besides the zooplankton (i.e., in seawater, sediment trap material and bottom sediments). Knowledge of the rates, routes and reservoirs of these nuclides and metals should lead to a cogent model for these elements in Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. Our zooplankton C and N data, in conjunction with primary production, microbiological and sediment flux data from colleagues in the program, should also lead ultimately to a model of C and N cycling in the basins. 33 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. 78 FR 579 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ...This final rule establishes the 2013-2014 harvest specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) and the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). This final rule also revises the collection of management measures in the groundfish fishery regulations that are intended to keep the total catch of each groundfish species or species complex within the harvest specifications.

  11. Reproductive toxicity of seafood contaminants: Prospective comparisons of Swedish east and west coast fishermen's families

    PubMed Central

    Axmon, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Cohorts comprising fishermen's families on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs). Their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. The rationale for this was that the cohorts residing on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of POPs, whereas their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. Among the reproductive outcomes investigated are included both male and female parameters, as well as couple fertility and effects on the fetus. A range of exposure measures, including both questionnaire assessments of fish consumption and biomarkers, have been used. The most consistent findings of the studies are those related to the fetus, where a decreased birth weight was found across all measures of exposure, which is in agreement with studies from other populations. Some markers for male reproduction function, i.e. sperm motility, sperm chromatin integrity, and Y:X chromosome ratio, were associated with POP exposure, whereas others, such as sperm concentration and semen volume, were not. With respect to couple fertility and female reproductive parameters, no support was given for associations with POP exposure. Although some associations may have been affected by beneficial effects of essential nutrients in seafood, the overall findings are meaningful in the context of reproductive toxicity and support the usefulness of the epidemiological design. PMID:18507855

  12. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary Pacific Whiting Season for the Shore... announces the suspension of the Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery primary season for the shore-based sector... reinstated until 0001 hours June 15, 2010, at which time the primary season for the shore-based sector...

  13. 75 FR 26702 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... amendments to a fishery management plan; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendments 20 and 21 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish...

  14. Atmospheric nutrient deposition to the west coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyaga, Justine M.; Cramer, Michael D.; Neff, Jason C.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is an important source of nutrients to many ecosystems, but is of particular importance to plant nutrition in areas where nutrients are scarce. Nutrient containing aerosols enter the atmosphere through industrial and agricultural activities, wildfires, and the production of terrigenous and marine aerosols. In this study, we collected bulk rain precipitation along the Atlantic coast of South Africa in a coastal “strandveld” vegetation region. This region is relatively remote from significant anthropogenic influences and is downwind of a highly productive and stormy portion of the Atlantic. Samples were collected over 12 months at sites along a 17 km downwind transect from the shoreline and analyzed for N, P, Na, Ca, Mg and K. Annual total N and total P fluxes of 4.8 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 0.16 kg ha-1 yr-1 are low compared to global averages. In contrast, fluxes of Na were 88.7 kg ha-1 yr-1, 16.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Ca, 12.1 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Mg and 5.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for K; rates that are higher than most other measurements elsewhere in the world. Dissolved organic N represented ca. 71% of the N flux while 43% of the P flux was in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP). These results combined with the high fluxes of Na and Mg strongly suggest that marine aerosols are important contributors to nutrient deposition at this site.

  15. [Intestinal parasitoses in the Mahajanga region, west coast of Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Buchy, P

    2003-03-01

    A study on human intestinal parasites was carried out from November 1996 until January 1997, in Mahajanga's hospital, on the western coast of Madagascar. We collected the faeces from 401 patients and the sera from 112 of them. Faecal examination using direct examination and MIF method revealed that 67.6% of the stools contained at least one parasite. The frequency of the protozoa was high (47.7%). The prevalence of the nematodosis reached 23.4%. Hymenolepis nana, Taenia saginata or solium and Schistosoma mansoni were less frequent (respectively 2.5%, 0.75% and 3.7%). More than 50% of the sera contained antibodies anti-Ascaris lumbricoides and anti-Strongyloides stercoralis. Serology by IFI using Schistosoma antigen was positive in 15.2% of the cases. The serological and microscopical exams showed that Entamoeba histolytica was present in this region and that amoebiasis should be considered as one of the etiologies of diarrhoea. The study pointed out also the frequency of the transmitted fecal infections. Preventive measures as water distribution, sanitary installations, hygiene education should be implemented.

  16. Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

  17. Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

  18. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  19. Cenozoic history of the west coast margin, Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Cycles of emergence and submergence caused by tectonic movements and glacio-eustatic sea-level changes have left a strong signature on the geologic record of Jamaica's west coat margin. The fault-bounded Hanover Block controlled sites of Early Eocene to late Middle Miocene bank, slope and deep water carbonate sedimentation. Uplift in the Late Middle Miocene resulted in subaerial exposure of the limestones, with the formation of distinctive karst topograpy. Downfaulting of an extensive coastal block occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene, with glacio-eustatic sea-level changes becoming superimposed on tectonic events. Lower than present sea-levels are recorded by submerged terraces, a downed river valley, cliff and sea-level notch. The latter may correspond with late-Pleistocene interstadial sea-level positions of c.-18m. below present. Higher-than-present sea levels created a series of terraces, some underlain by Pleistocene reef, though levels have been affected by tectonic movements. The downfaulted block is veneered by thick terrestrial clays and gravels of Pleistocene age, succeeded by Holocene peat, and at the beach margin, carbonate sands. Radiometric dating of buried peat indicates that upward growth of the wetland surface was accompanied by landward migration of the beach across the wetland during the last 4000 years of the Holocene transgression.

  20. 77 FR 28497 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...NMFS issues this final rule for the 2012 Pacific whiting fishery under the authority of the Pacific Whiting Act of 2006, the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP), and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson- Stevens Act). This final rule establishes: The tribal allocation of 48,556 metric tons of Pacific whiting for 2012; provisions associated with the reapportionment of unused tribal whiting to the non-tribal fishery in 2012; and final allocations of Pacific whiting to the non- tribal sector for 2012.

  1. PTSD reactions and coping responses of East Coast and West Coast American Airlines flight attendants after September 11: a possible psychological contagion effect?

    PubMed

    Lating, Jeffrey M; Sherman, Martin F; Lowry, Jenny L; Everly, George S; Peragine, Traci F

    2004-12-01

    Psychological reactions and functional coping of East Coast and West Coast-based flight attendants were compared after the attacks on September 11. Demographics and standardized questionnaires were sent in June 2002 to approximately 26,000 flight attendants. The 2,050 returned surveys were separated into East Coast-based flight crews (513 from Boston, New York, and Washington, DC) and West Coast-based flight crews (353 from Los Angeles and San Francisco). Despite demographic differences between the flight crews, most notably that the East Coast members were more than twice as likely to know someone who perished in the wake of September 11, there was no difference between them regarding probable PTSD (19.1% and 18.3%, respectively) or life functioning. We suggest that a psychological contagion effect occurred in this at-risk group of workers in the war on terrorism. Public health implications, including multicomponent treatment interventions, are suggested.

  2. 78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...This action revises several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations in response to a court order requiring the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to reconsider the initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) to the shorebased individual fishing quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery. Additionally, NMFS concludes after review of public comments and the record as a whole, that the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council's) recommendation to maintain the existing initial allocations of whiting is consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA), the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (Groundfish FMP), and other applicable law. This final rule will affect the transfer of quota share (QS) and individual bycatch quota (IBQ) between QS accounts in the shorebased IFQ fishery, and severability of catch history assignments (CHAs) in the mothership fishery, both of which will be allowed on specified dates, with the exception of widow rockfish. Widow rockfish is no longer an overfished species and transfer of QS for this species will be reinstated pending reconsideration of the allocation of widow rockfish QS in a future action. The divestiture period for widow rockfish QS in the IFQ fishery will also be delayed indefinitely.

  3. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...This action proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program regulations and requests comments on NMFS' preliminary conclusion that the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council's) selection of the no action alternative regarding the reconsideration of initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) is consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA), the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), and other applicable law.. This action is necessary to comply with a court order requiring NMFS to reconsider the initial allocation of whiting to the shorebased individual fishing quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery. These proposed regulatory changes would affect the transfer of quota share (QS) and individual bycatch quota (IBQ) between QS accounts in the shorebased IFQ fishery, and severability of catch history assignments in the mothership fishery, both of which would be allowed on specified dates with the exception of widow rockfish. Widow rockfish is no longer an overfished species and transfer of QS for this species will be reinstated pending reconsideration of the allocation of widow rockfish QS in a future action. The divestiture period for widow rockfish QS in the IFQ fishery is also proposed to be delayed indefinitely.

  4. Plummeting crude prices hurt West Coast work, but several projects start up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1987-06-08

    The U.S. West Coast this year will see the nation's first commercial offshore arctic production and the start-up of oil flow from the controversial Santa Maria basin off California. An even bigger controversy involves the best remaining U.S. petroleum prospect-the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The collapse in oil prices in 1986 has crippled drilling on the West Coast. The region always has had to contend with lower prices for lesser quality crudes and some of the highest operating costs in the U.S. But as oil prices continue to show stability, action will rebound in the two states that furnish more than one third of U.S. oil production.

  5. Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Johnston, B; Twogood, R; Wieting, M; Yorkey, T; Robey, H; Whelan, D; Nagele, R

    1993-01-05

    The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

  6. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  7. Seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance off the west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Biastoch, Arne; BöNing, Claus; Caputi, Nick; Meyers, Gary

    2008-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current, a warm, poleward flowing eastern boundary current, dominates the surface circulation off the west coast of Australia and has profound influence on regional marine ecosystem and fisheries recruitment. In this study, the seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance in the Leeuwin Current region are analyzed by using an eddy-resolving numerical model simulation, as a first step to quantify the climate impacts on regional ocean thermodynamics and marine ecosystem. The volume transport and heat advection of the Leeuwin Current are stronger during the austral winter on the seasonal cycle and are stronger during a La Nina event on the interannual scale. On both seasonal and interannual timescales, the mixed layer heat budget off the west coast of Australia is predominantly balanced between the variations of the Leeuwin Current heat advection and heat flux across the air-sea interface. On the interannual timescale, the variation of the Leeuwin Current heat advection tends to lead that of the air-sea (latent) heat flux by two months, which is likely a reflection of advection timescales of the Leeuwin Current and its eddy field. The interannual variation of the average February-April sea surface temperature off the west coast of Australia, which is crucial for the larval settlement of western rock lobster, is mostly influenced by the Leeuwin Current heat advection as well as the ocean memory from the previous austral winter, with the air-sea heat exchange playing a buffering role.

  8. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recruitment dynamics of two ecosystem engineers could drive shellfish populations in U.S. west coast estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of burrowing shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis are important members of intertidal mudflat communities in US West coast estuaries. Both species act as ecosystem engineers and influence the presence of other structured habitats and suspension ...

  10. Recruitment dynamics of two ecosystem engineers could drive shellfish populations in U.S. west coast estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of burrowing shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis are important members of intertidal mudflat communities in US West coast estuaries. Both species act as ecosystem engineers and influence the presence of other structured habitats and suspension ...

  11. Characterizing and predicting along-coast and diurnal marine stratus variability on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Updike, A.; Nuss, W.

    2016-12-01

    Marine stratus and fog characterizes much of the U.S. West Coast during summer months, which impacts on a variety of coastal activities, such as aviation and firefighting, as well as on coastal climates. Predicting diurnal clearing and smaller scale spatial variability remain challenging. This study utilizes a trajectory-based approach to examine the diurnal and spatial evolution of marine layer properties that result in along coast variations in the formation and dissipation of marine stratus. The 13 km RAP and 32 km NAM analyses are used to examine 2 and 3 dimensional air parcel trajectories during a period of large time and spatial variability in the marine stratus near the Monterey and San Francisco Bay areas as illustrated in Fig. 1. The overall goal is to relate key changes in marine layer properties that lead to clearing versus clouds so that these signals can be used in more robust forecast techniques. The evolution of marine layer temperature, dewpoint, depth, and surface interaction are examined to highlight the most important processes responsible for these diurnal and small spatial scale variations in marine stratus.

  12. 75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...); air quality; biological resources; climate change/greenhouse gases; cultural resources; geology and... Recycling Group Project in West Sacramento, Yolo County, CA AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the development of the West Coast Recycling...

  13. Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the central west coast of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Gupta, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    The problem of environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides still evokes major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment and in human tissues. In developing countries like India organochlorine insecticides, especially DDT are extensively being used in agriculture and vector control programs. Few data are available on their levels of concentration from the seas around India. Persistent pesticides residues can be expected to accumulate in marine sediments. However, very little data on this are available along the Indian coast. An attempt has been made in the present communication to identify and quantify some of the chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments collected from different region along the central west coast of India. This is a part of our ongoing project to monitor and map pollutants within the exclusive economic zone of India.

  14. Calibrating Geochemical Proxies in an Aragonite Stalagmite from the West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, N.; Henderson, G. M.; Yadava, M. G.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Indian Monsoon is a major component of the global climatic system. Reconstruction of its past behaviour from stalagmites could be a powerful approach to understand its operation in varied climate states. Such records from the west coast would be valuable for the information they might impart about rainfall intensity and composition as air-masses first move onto the continent from the Arabian Sea, providing important constraints for other sites further inland. Carbonate rocks are sparse on the west coast, however, limiting availability of potential stalagmite sites. Here we report δ18O, δ13C and trace element analyses on the only stalagmite so far reported from the west coast. The sample grew from 1666 to 1997 AD in north Karnataka and is formed of aragonite, rather than calcite which is more commonly used for speleothem paleoclimate reconstruction. We aim to assess the use of aragonite geochemistry for paleoclimate reconstruction in general, and the rainfall at this particular site. Findings include: 1) Carbonate forming in the cave today appears to be in oxygen-isotope equilibrium, but the stalagmite has a kinetic overprint which is influenced by the slope of the growing surface of the sample. This local control on δ18O makes its use for reconstruction challenging. 2) Trace element measurements may provide more robust indicators of local paleoclimate. 3) High resolution sampling of 11 annual growth layers capture a strong seasonal record controlled by prior aragonite precipitation (PAP). PAP, similar to PCP, is a promising proxy for seasonal dryness or seasonal change in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in this cave.

  15. Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Prather, K.; Cayan, D.

    2011-01-01

    CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

  16. Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. Martin; Prather, Kim; Cayan, Dan

    2011-10-01

    CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

  17. ShakeAlert—An earthquake early warning system for the United States west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-08-29

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with several partners, has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  18. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds.

  19. Alaska dominates exploration and development activity on U. S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1991-04-08

    Alaska's accelerating exploration and development activity is setting the pace for the U.S. West Coast. Continued wildcatting in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea--albeit hamstrung by permitting problems--significant new development projects on the North Slope, and the most ambitious lease sale schedule in years highlight Alaskan action in 1991. California highlights include expansion of massive steamflood projects in San Joaquin Valley giant heavy oil fields and start-up of the long-delayed Point Arguello project. There is little of note in the Pacific Northwest outside extension of the Mist gas complex in Oregon.

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer.

  1. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  2. Climatology of Long-Range Transport of Asian Dust on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, J.; Spackman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Dust aerosols affect climate by directly absorbing radiation and indirectly by forming cloud particles. Once incorporated into clouds, dust has been shown to enhance precipitation formation from in situ measurements, such as those during the CalWater field campaign (2009-2011) along the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. Large discrepancies exists between global aerosol models that simulate the dust in the atmosphere and its impact on climate. Further, about 25% of the global dust burden originates from Asia, thus a better understanding of where and how Asian dust is transported in the atmosphere is needed, particularly with projected increases in dust emissions in mind. Asian dust is typically transported to the U.S. in the spring, but not many long-term studies of this phenomenon exist. Our results show Asian dust transport varies significantly from year-to-year and at various locations along the U.S. west coast. Observations from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) LIDAR network in Japan and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network along the U.S. West Coast were analyzed in the context of HYSPLIT trajectory analyses to investigate trans-Pacific Asian dust transport from 2002-2011. Similar to previous studies, the ratio of iron to calcium from IMPROVE soil was used to estimate Asian dust concentrations at multiple sites in California, Oregon, and Washington. Asian dust estimated from IMPROVE exhibited maximum concentrations in the spring (Apr-May) on the U.S. west coast, while non-Asian dust peaked late summer (Aug-Sep). Because Asian dust is typically transported in the mid-troposphere (2-4 km), the highest concentrations of Asian dust were typically observed at higher elevation sites, such as in the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. California experienced larger influences from Asian dust compared to Oregon or Washington, likely due to large-scale synoptic patterns and higher elevation IMPROVE

  3. Factors influencing the long-term dynamics of larval sea lice density at east and west coast locations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Harte, Anna J; Bowman, Alan S; Salama, Nabeil K G; Pert, Campbell C

    2017-03-21

    Sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) are marine copepods that parasitize finfish, and in cases of high infestation can result in severe epithelial damage and mortality. In Scotland, 2 species of sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, pose a significant economic burden to the marine Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry and potentially impact wild salmonids. The purpose of this study was to determine how the density of pelagic sea lice is affected by external variables, in order to improve our understanding of sea lice dynamics. Long-term data from 2 sampling sites on the east and west coasts of Scotland were modelled independently in conjunction with environmental and anthropogenic variables. Statistical analysis identified that at the east coast site, the most influential factor affecting lice density was salinity. On the west coast, salinity, rainfall and farmed salmon production year were most influential. Molecular and morphological techniques also showed that the individuals recorded on the east coast were C. elongatus, a generalist copepod parasite, whereas only the salmonid-specific L. salmonis were found on the west. These results reiterate the role of environmental factors in influencing sea lice dynamics, and that salmonids are the primary hosts of sea lice on the west coast, but there could be non-salmonid host species as well as salmonid species influencing east coast sea lice densities.

  4. On the importance of Sri Lanka for sea-level variability along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J. P., Jr.; Pillathu Moolayil, M.

    2015-12-01

    Earlier studies have illustrated the strong influence of remote forcing from the equator and the Bay of Bengal on the sea-level variability off the west coast of India, especially at the seasonal timescale. More recently, Suresh et al. [2013] demonstrated with a simple, linear, continuously-stratified (LCS) model that the equatorial zonal winds contribute to more than 60% of intraseasonal sea-level variability along the Indian west coast. In the present study, we quantify the contributions from various processes to the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at different timescales with the help of a LCS model through both idealized and realistic sensitivity experiments. We demonstrate that remote forcing dominates the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at intraseasonal to interannual timescales. Sri Lanka and the southern tip of India play an important role on Indian west coast sea-level variability at all timescales for two reasons: First, the geometry of the coast favors a strong alongshore wind-stress forcing of coastal Kelvin waves across timescales there. Second, Sri Lanka interacts with low-order meridional mode equatorial Rossby waves forced by equatorial winds or southern Bay of Bengal wind- stress curl. This interaction of coastal waveguide with equatorial waveguide creates a new pathway for the equatorial signals to arrive at the west coast of India, alternative to the "classical" coastal waveguide around the rim of the Bay of Bengal. Reference: Suresh, I., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, W. Han, J. McCreary, F. Durand, and P. M. Muraleedharan (2013), Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5740-5744, doi:10.1002/2013GL058312.

  5. Classification of atmospheric river events on the U.S. west coast using a trajectory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, J. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Waugh, D. W.; Wong, S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Fung, I. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate transport pathways of water vapor associated with landfalling atmospheric river (AR) events that result in precipitation along the west coast of the U.S. for winter of 1997-2010. The water vapor transport pathways are determined by computing back-trajectories with a trajectory model using the MERRA reanalysis dataset. The majority of AR events (about 86%) over the west coast of the U.S. are associated with three trajectory types. We designate the first type as Ascending near landfall and of Tropical Origin (AT), the second type as Ascending near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (AE), and the third type as Descending or parallel near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (DE). The magnitude and spatial distribution of precipitation of a given AR event are found to be strongly determined by the mixture of its type of trajectories. AR events composed of both AT and AE trajectories have more frequent and intense precipitation over a broad region of the western U.S. (particularly in the northern California) than AR events dominated by a single trajectory type (AT) or other combinations (e.g. AT and DE). In addition, different patterns of trajectory types among AR events are closely linked to the location and the shape of potential vorticity intrusions near the tropopause, which emphasizes that lower tropospheric air is interacting with upper tropospheric air during the developing rainfall system.

  6. The ecology of the seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Zieman, J.C.; Zieman, R.T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1989-09-01

    This report summarizes information on the ecology of seagrass meadows on the west coast of Florida, from south of Tampa Bay to Pensacola. This area contains more than 3500 ha of seagrass beds, dominated by three species, Thalasia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Beds occur both on the shallow, zero-energy Continental Shelf and in inshore bays and estuaries. Species ecology, distribution, biomass, and productivity of these dominant seagrass species are discussed. Seagrass beds support a very diverse and abundant algal flora and fauna, and these organisms, and seagrass detritus form the base of a productive food chain. Seagrass beds are important nursery areas providing both cover and food, for a number of commercial and sports fishery species. Along the west Florida coast, estuarine grass beds are noticeably more stressed and impacted by human activities than the more pristine nearshore beds. Urban development and dredging and filling are the major threates to seagrass beds in this region. 500 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V.M. |; Beaty, T.W.; Daniels, R.C.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

  8. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Phung, Chee-Chean; Yu, Fred Tuh Yit; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sabah, situated in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands’ biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state) representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29), followed by Tiga Island (25), Mantanani Besar Island (24) and Gaya Island (23). However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast. PMID:28769672

  9. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Phung, Chee-Chean; Yu, Fred Tuh Yit; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Sabah, situated in one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands' biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state) representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29), followed by Tiga Island (25), Mantanani Besar Island (24) and Gaya Island (23). However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast.

  10. A New U.S. West Coast Network of Atmospheric River Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Wilczak, J. M.; Ayers, T. E.; King, C. W.; Jordan, J. R.; Shaw, W. J.; Flaherty, J. E.; Morris, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    The West Coast of North America is the gateway to winter storms forming over the Pacific Ocean that deliver most of the precipitation and water supply to the region. Satellites are capable of detecting the concentrated water vapor in these storms (a.k.a. atmospheric rivers) over the oceans, but because of the complex emissivity of land surfaces, fail to do so over land. In addition, these storms often are accompanied by a baroclinically induced low-level jet that drives the moisture up the windward slopes of coastal and inland mountain ranges and produces orographically enhanced precipitation. To date, satellites cannot resolve this important feature. NOAA's Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov) has developed the concept of an atmospheric river observatory (ARO); a collection of ground-based instruments capable of detecting and monitoring the water vapor transport in the low-level jet region. With funding provided by the California Department of Water Resources and U.S. Department of Energy, HMT has installed a picket fence of AROs along the U.S. West Coast. In addition, HMT has developed an award-winning water vapor flux tool that takes advantage of the data collected by the AROs to provide situational awareness and decision support for end users. This tool recently has been updated to include operational weather prediction output. The ARO network and water vapor flux tool will be described in this presentation.

  11. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the West Coast of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W.; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg−1, significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of 134Cs and 137Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ∼2 Bq kg−1. Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain 137Cs exactly at the detection limit level and 134Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of 134Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

  12. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the west coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-02-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg(-1), significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs and (137)Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ∼2 Bq kg(-1). Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain (137)Cs exactly at the detection limit level and (134)Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of (134)Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern.

  13. Sub-Kilometer Scale Basal Roughness of the Siple Coast Ice Streams, West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Peters, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    The anastomosing series of dynamic, basally lubricated ice streams found on the Siple Coast of West Antarctica play an important role in regulating the mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Geological controls on lubrication, elucidated by gravity, magnetics and seismic data, have proven important in understanding the evolution of these features. An additional indicator of basal properties, the basal roughness of ice sheets, may be an indicator of crustal geology and glacial modification, as well as a controlling parameter on ice dynamics and subglacial hydrology. For the Siple Coast ice streams, Fourier analysis of > 5 kilometer morphology (Siegert et al. 2004) revealed a correlation between ice streams and low bed roughness. Coherent high resolution data allows analysis of along track roughness at tens of meters resolution (Peters et al. 2005), however these data are limited in coverage. We extend roughness estimates into to the hundreds-of-meters length scale, using both frequency domain and autocorrelation methods, using incoherent 60 MHz radio echo sounding data collected between 1991 and 1996 on a five kilometer grid. The data cover the Bentley Subglacial Trench, Bindschadler Ice Stream, Siple Dome and the onset region of Kamb Ice Stream. SAR-processed coherent sounding data collected in 2001 are used to confirm these methods. We test for confinement of ice stream rapid basal motion to distinct morphological provinces; assess the hypothesis that marine sediments blanket much of interior of the basal WAIS; and look for correlation between ice flow and textural anisotropy.

  14. Interannual to multidecadal climate forcings on groundwater resources of the U.S. West Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velasco, Elzie M; Gurdak, Jason J.; Dickinson, Jesse; Ferre, T.P.A; Corona, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe U.S. West Coast, including the Pacific Northwest and California Coastal Basins aquifer systems.Study focusGroundwater response to interannual to multidecadal climate variability has important implications for security within the water–energy–food nexus. Here we use Singular Spectrum Analysis to quantify the teleconnections between AMO, PDO, ENSO, and PNA and precipitation and groundwater level fluctuations. The computer program DAMP was used to provide insight on the influence of soil texture, depth to water, and mean and period of a surface infiltration flux on the damping of climate signals in the vadose zone.New hydrological insights for the regionWe find that PDO, ENSO, and PNA have significant influence on precipitation and groundwater fluctuations across a north-south gradient of the West Coast, but the lower frequency climate modes (PDO) have a greater influence on hydrologic patterns than higher frequency climate modes (ENSO and PNA). Low frequency signals tend to be preserved better in groundwater fluctuations than high frequency signals, which is a function of the degree of damping of surface variable fluxes related to soil texture, depth to water, mean and period of the infiltration flux. The teleconnection patterns that exist in surface hydrologic processes are not necessarily the same as those preserved in subsurface processes, which are affected by damping of some climate variability signals within infiltrating water.

  15. Morphometric and molecular analysis of mackerel (Rastrelliger spp) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Darlina, M N; Masazurah, A R; Jayasankar, P; Jamsari, A F J; Siti, A M N

    2011-09-16

    Mackerel (Scombridae; Rastrelliger) are small commercially important pelagic fish found in tropical regions. They serve as a cheap source of animal protein and are commonly used as live bait. By using a truss morphometrics protocol and RAPD analysis, we examined morphological and genetic variation among 77 individual mackerel that were caught using long lines and gillnets at 11 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Nineteen morphometric traits were evaluated and genetic information was estimated using five 10-base RAPD random primers. Total DNA was extracted from muscle tissue. Morphometric discriminant function analysis revealed that two morphologically distinct groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta and a single group of R. brachysoma can be found along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. We also found that the head-related characters and those from the anterior part of the body of Rastrelliger spp significantly contribute to stock assessment of this population. RAPD analysis showed a trend similar to that of the morphometric analysis, suggesting a genetic component to the observed phenotypic differentiation. These data will be useful for developing conservation strategies for these species.

  16. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniskern, Tara A.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Farnsworth, Katherine L.; Wheatcroft, Robert A.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2011-05-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West

  17. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kniskern, T.A.; Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West

  18. Chemical and biological impacts of ocean acidification along the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Carter, Brendan; Bednaršek, Nina; Hales, Burke; Chan, Francis; Hill, Tessa M.; Gaylord, Brian; Sanford, Eric; Byrne, Robert H.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Greeley, Dana; Juranek, Lauren

    2016-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the west coast of North America is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) within the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we adapt the multiple linear regression approach to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast Ocean Acidification (WCOA) cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012, and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast, with the lowest values (37-55 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions off southern Oregon and northern California and higher values (51-63 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Coastal dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations are also elevated due to a natural remineralized component (Cbio), which represents carbon accumulated through net respiration in the seawater that has not yet degassed to the atmosphere. Average surface Canth is almost twice the surface remineralized component. In contrast, Canth is only about one third and one fifth of the remineralized component at 50 m and 100 m depth, respectively. Uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since the preindustrial period so that undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the shell dissolution of living pteropods. Our data show that the most severe biological impacts occur in the nearshore waters, where corrosive waters are closest to the surface. Since the pre-industrial times, pteropod shell dissolution has, on average, increased approximately 19-26% in both nearshore and offshore waters.

  19. Source location impact on relative tsunami strength along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, L.; Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, A. J.; Arcas, D.; Flick, R. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    Tsunami propagation simulations are used to identify which tsunami source locations would produce the highest amplitude waves on approach to key population centers along the U.S. West Coast. The reasons for preferential influence of certain remote excitation sites are explored by examining model time sequences of tsunami wave patterns emanating from the source. Distant bathymetric features in the West and Central Pacific can redirect tsunami energy into narrow paths with anomalously large wave height that have disproportionate impact on small areas of coastline. The source region generating the waves can be as little as 100 km along a subduction zone, resulting in distinct source-target pairs with sharply amplified wave energy at the target. Tsunami spectral ratios examined for transects near the source, after crossing the West Pacific, and on approach to the coast illustrate how prominent bathymetric features alter wave spectral distributions, and relate to both the timing and magnitude of waves approaching shore. To contextualize the potential impact of tsunamis from high-amplitude source-target pairs, the source characteristics of major historical earthquakes and tsunamis in 1960, 1964, and 2011 are used to generate comparable events originating at the highest-amplitude source locations for each coastal target. This creates a type of "worst-case scenario," a replicate of each region's historically largest earthquake positioned at the fault segment that would produce the most incoming tsunami energy at each target port. An amplification factor provides a measure of how the incoming wave height from the worst-case source compares to the historical event.

  20. Coastal sea level variability in the US West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurapov, Alexander L.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.; Myers, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Sea level variability along the US West Coast is analyzed using multi-year time series records from tide gauges and a high-resolution regional ocean model, the base of the West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS). One of the metrics utilized is the frequency of occurrences when model prediction is within 0.15 m from the observed sea level, F. A target level of F = 90% is set by an operational agency. A combination of the tidal sea level from a shallow water inverse model, inverted barometer (IB) term computed using surface air pressure from a mesoscale atmospheric model, and low-pass filtered sea level from WCOFS representing the effect of coastal ocean dynamics (DYN) provides the most straightforward approach to reaching levels F>80%. The IB and DYN components each add between 5 and 15% to F. Given the importance of the DYN term bringing F closer to the operational requirement and its role as an indicator of the coastal ocean processes on scales from days to interannual, additional verification of the WCOFS subtidal sea level is provided in terms of the model-data correlation, standard deviation of the band-pass filtered (2-60 days) time series, the annual cycle amplitude, and alongshore sea level coherence in the range of 5-120-day periods. Model-data correlation in sea level increases from south to north along the US coast. The rms amplitude of model sea level variability in the 2-60-day band and its annual amplitude are weaker than observed north of 42 N, in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast region. The alongshore coherence amplitude and phase patterns are similar in the model and observations. Availability of the multi-year model solution allows computation and analysis of spatial maps of the coherence amplitude. For a reference location in the Southern California Bight, relatively short-period sea level motions (near 10 days) are incoherent with those north of the Santa Barbara Channel (in part, due to coastal trapped wave scattering and/or dissipation). At a

  1. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?

    PubMed Central

    Foppa, Ivo M; Spielman, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Results Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0) suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Conclusion Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined. PMID:17498307

  2. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  3. Plesionika sanctaecatalinae Wicksten, 1983 (Crustacea Decapoda Caridea Pandalidae) from off the west coast of Pacific Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E

    2016-05-17

    A large series of specimens of Plesionika sanctaecatalinae was obtained during sampling operations off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula in 2012 and 2014 (TALUD cruises). This material was examined and compared to the original description, the holotype and two paratypes. Although the fresh material fit well with the type material examined, some discrepancies were noted in the illustrations of the original description, particularly regarding scaphocerite and the telson, and new illustrations are provided. The series of sample available from the TALUD cruises allow to increase considerably the number of localities known for this species in the California Current area. A series of unpublished records corresponding to material examined in the original description but not listed in details, allows for further increase of the number of reported localities where P. sanctaecatalinae has been collected. Its vertical distribution in the water column, however, remains unclear due to the fact that no discrete samples are available for this species.

  4. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: West Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    Knowledge of current marine pollution research and monitoring programs is an important factor in planning and guiding future national efforts to control such pollution. To supplement these reports on Federal activities, NMPPO published a series of reports in 1980 on non-federally funded marine pollution research and monitoring activities in various regions. The following document presents an update of one of these reports. It presents an inventory of the non-federally funded research and monitoring projects for the West Coast region of the United States. It is one in a series of four updates that will collectively provide an updated inventory of non-federally funded projects for all the coastal regions of the United States.

  5. Population dynamics and reproductive patterns of boltenia echinata (Ascidicea) on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, I.; Lundälv, T.

    Two populations of Boltenia echinata on the Swedish west coast were studied over a 10-year period by stereo-photographic recording of subtidal, vertical rock wallsat a depth of 20 m. Supplemental sampling was carried out over a one-year period. On the sheltered population decreased in numbers with an explosive increase in Ciona intestinalis. Another, exposed population displayed a similar response at the increase of annual ascidians ( Ascidiella scabra, A. aspersa and Corella parallelogramma). Variations in recruitment were influenced by interference competition, while adults were affected to a lesser extent. Recruitment and mortality at the exposed locality were twice as high as at the sheltered locality whereas the mean annual mortality pattern was similar. Adult mortality was related to physical factors (mainly temperature), imposing stresses of different magnitudes on the two populations. Settling and recruitment was observed throghout the year. No relation was found between the presence of incubating embryos or larvae in the atrial cavity and settling.

  6. An operational model for the West Iberian coast: products and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, M.; Riflet, G.; Chambel, P.; Fernandes, L.; Fernandes, R.; Juliano, M.; Campuzano, F.; de Pablo, H.; Neves, R.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents the structure and application of a regional scale operational modelling tool for the West Iberian coast. The forecasting suite includes nested hydrodynamic models forced with up-to-date meteorological forecast data and large scale model results as lateral boundary conditions. The present status of the system and its recent upgrades are reviewed, offering a general description of the main components of the system: circulation model, qualitative and quantitative validation methodology and type of results. Seasonal differences in temperature, salinity and current velocity fields are illustrated with model results, and the validation shows a satisfactory reproduction of the top and deep layers thermodynamics. The system provides boundary forcing for a number of local scale model applications via downscaling of the solution, and its potential for products and services for both scientific and coastal management activities is discussed here.

  7. An operational model for the West Iberian coast: products and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, M.; Riflet, G.; Chambel, P.; Fernandes, L.; Fernandes, R.; Juliano, M.; Campuzano, F.; de Pablo, H.; Neves, R.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the structure and application of a regional scale operational modelling tool for the West Iberian coast, and discusses its potential for products and services for both scientific and coastal management activities. The forecasting suite includes nested hydrodynamic models forced with up-to-date meteorological forecast data and large-scale model results. The present status of the system and its recent upgrades are reviewed, offering a general description of the main components of the system: the forcing data, the circulation model, the model outputs and the validation methodology of model results. Seasonal differences in temperature, salinity and current velocity fields are illustrated and show satisfactory reproduction of the top and deep layer thermodynamics. The system provides boundary forcing for a number of local-scale model applications via downscaling of the solution and enables potential products and services from which civil society will benefit.

  8. Earthquake studies on Canada’s west coast; Pacific Geoscience Centre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, G. C.; Riddihough, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    On a global scale, Canada's west coast lies within the zone of a seismicity that stretches around the Pacific Ocean. In plate tectonic terms, it is dominated by the same right-lateral shearing between the Pacific and American plates that is responsible for the seismicity of California. However, in southern British Columbia the interaction is further complicated. Between the San Andreas fault in California and the Queen Charlotte fault off British Columbia, the Pacific and American plates are separated by the small independent Juan de Fuca plate system. This is spreading away from the Pacific plate and converging with the margin of the Pacific Northwest. The resulting Cascade volcanic chain and its extension into southern British Columbia are the topograhic expression of its subduction. 

  9. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

    2006-10-01

    Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

  10. Landslides in West Coast Metropolitan Areas: The Role of Extreme Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biasutti, Michela; Seager, Richard; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides represent a pervasive issue in areas where extreme rainfall intersects complex terrain. A farsighted management of landslide risk requires assessing how landslide hazard will change in coming decades and thus requires, inter alia, that we understand what rainfall events are most likely to trigger landslides and how global warming will affect the frequency of such weather events. We take advantage of 9 years of landslide occurrence data compiled by collating Google news reports and of a high-resolution satellite-based daily rainfall data to investigate what weather triggers landslide along the West Coast US. We show that, while this landslide compilation cannot provide consistent and widespread monitoring everywhere, it captures enough of the events in the major urban areas that it can be used to identify the relevant relationships between landslides and rainfall events in Puget Sound, the Bay Area, and greater Los Angeles. In all these regions, days that recorded landslides have rainfall distributions that are skewed away from dry and low-rainfall accumulations and towards heavy intensities. However, large daily accumulation is the main driver of enhanced hazard of landslides only in Puget Sound. There, landslide are often clustered in space and time and major events are primarily driven by synoptic scale variability, namely "atmospheric rivers" of high humidity air hitting anywhere along the West Coast, and the interaction of frontal system with the coastal orography. The relationship between landslide occurrences and daily rainfall is less robust in California, where antecedent precipitation (in the case of the Bay area) and the peak intensity of localized downpours at sub-daily time scales (in the case of Los Angeles) are key factors not captured by the same-day accumulations. Accordingly, we suggest that the assessment of future changes in landslide hazard for the entire the West Coast requires consideration of future changes in the

  11. Increasing background ozone during spring on the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Daniel; Price, Heather; Parrish, David; Goldstein, Allen; Harris, Joyce

    2003-06-01

    Using a 15-year record of O3 from Lassen Volcanic National Park, a rural elevated site in northern California, data from two aircraft campaigns conducted in 1984 and 2002 over the eastern North Pacific, and observations spanning 18 years from five U.S. west coast, marine boundary layer sites, we show that O3 in air arriving from the Eastern Pacific in spring has increased by approximately 10 ppbv, i.e. 30% from the mid 1980s to the present. This positive trend in O3 correlates with the increasing trend in global nitrogen oxide emissions, which is especially pronounced in Asia. As spring is the season of strongest transport of Asian emissions to the Pacific, we conclude that the emission trend is the most likely cause of the O3 trend.

  12. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  13. Non-syndromal oro-facial clefts in the Canterbury/ West Coast region, 1960-2000.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Esson, Ian

    2005-09-01

    The paper-based clinical assessment notes from Christchurch Hospital Cleft Clinic were transferred to electronic form in 2002. This enabled analysis of the types of non-syndromal orofacial clefts presenting within the Canterbury and West Coast region over a 41 year period. The incidence of oro-facial clefting was similar to that described in previous New Zealand studies, but higher than that found in United Kingdom studies. Orthodontists providing care in the cleft clinics in New Zealand have begun to investigate the use of a standardised electronic national database of patients presenting with oro-facial clefts. It is expected that this could provide the basis for a more detailed, robust and standardised database for future analysis.

  14. New residence times of the Holocene reworked shells on the west coast of Bohai Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhiwen; Wang, Fu; Li, Jianfen; Marshall, William A.; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xingyu; Tian, Lizhu; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Shelly cheniers and shell-rich beds found intercalated in near-shore marine muds and sandy sediments can be used to indicate the location of ancient shorelines, and help to estimate the height of sea level. However, dating the deposition of material within cheniers and shell-rich beds is not straightforward because much of this material is transported and re-worked, creating an unknown temporal off-set, i.e., the residence time, between the death of a shell and its subsequent entombment. To quantify the residence time during the Holocene on a section of the northern Chinese coastline a total 47 shelly subsamples were taken from 17 discrete layers identified on the west coast of Bohai Bay. This material was AMS 14C dated and the calibrated ages were systematically compared. The subsamples were categorized by type as articulated and disarticulated bivalves, gastropod shells, and undifferentiated shell-hash. It was found that within most individual layers the calibrated ages of the subsamples got younger relative to the amount of apparent post-mortem re-working the material had been subject to. For examples, the 14C ages of the bivalve samples trended younger in this order: shell-hash → split shells → articulated shells. We propose that the younger subsample age determined within an individual layer will be the closest to the actual depositional age of the material dated. Using this approach at four Holocene sites we find residence times which range from 100 to 1260 cal yrs, with two average values of 600 cal yrs for the original 14C dates older than 1 ka cal BP and 100 cal yrs for the original 14C dates younger than 1 ka cal BP, respectively. Using this semi-empirical estimation of the shell residence times we have refined the existing chronology of the Holocene chenier ridges on the west coast of Bohai Bay.

  15. Evaluation of multilocus marker efficacy for delineating mangrove species of West Coast India

    PubMed Central

    Saddhe, Ankush Ashok; Jamdade, Rahul Arvind

    2017-01-01

    The plant DNA barcoding is a complex and requires more than one marker(s) as compared to animal barcoding. Mangroves are diverse estuarine ecosystem prevalent in the tropical and subtropical zone, but anthropogenic activity turned them into the vulnerable ecosystem. There is a need to build a molecular reference library of mangrove plant species based on molecular barcode marker along with morphological characteristics. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL and matK) and four promising complementary barcodes (ITS2, psbK-psbI, rpoC1 and atpF-atpH) in 14 mangroves species belonging to 5 families from West Coast India. Data analysis was performed based on barcode gap analysis, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), TaxonDNA (BM, BCM), Poisson Tree Processes (PTP) and General Mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC). matK+ITS2 marker based on GMYC method resolved 57.14% of mangroves species and TaxonDNA, ABGD, and PTP discriminated 42.85% of mangrove species. With a single locus analysis, ITS2 exhibited the higher discriminatory power (87.82%) and combinations of matK + ITS2 provided the highest discrimination success (89.74%) rate except for Avicennia genus. Further, we explored 3 additional markers (psbK-psbI, rpoC1, and atpF-atpH) for Avicennia genera (A. alba, A. officinalis and A. marina) and atpF-atpH locus was able to discriminate three species of Avicennia genera. Our analysis underscored the efficacy of matK + ITS2 markers along with atpF-atpH as the best combination for mangrove identification in West Coast India regions. PMID:28817640

  16. Climatic and Anthropogenic Controls on Correlated Discharge from US West Coast Rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; Kniskern, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Most river basins along the US West Coast are generally small, less than 15,000 km2, and tend to flood quickly following rain events. The storm systems that deliver rain to the coastal mountain ranges are considerably larger than the river basins such that multiple basins receive precipitation within hours of each other. Subsequently, these proximal rivers often disperse freshwater and sediment to the coastal ocean at relatively the same time. Many conceptual and numerical models of coastal processes may underestimate the delivery, dispersal and burial of sediment on the continental shelves as they often assume point source delivery of water and sediment from a single river. The reality seems to speak to the fact that a collection of smaller river basins may be synchronously delivering sediment all along a stretch of coastline. Hydrologic records from 62 coastal watersheds stretching along the US west coast from the Canadian to the Mexican border were acquired from the USGS river gauging network, this included over 100 gauging stations with records varying in length. This data mining effort allowed for a detailed analysis of the timing of flood peaks to the actual coastlines, rather than just correlation between gauging stations. Distinct coastal groupings were found that have rivers that deliver freshwater and sediment to the continental shelves at the same time, indicating plume mixing and different oceanic hydrodynamic regimes than would be indicated by traditional coastal sediment transport models. Also seen were larger scale climatic controls on the watershed relationships and alteration of the flood signals due to anthropogenic changes within the watershed. Extensive flood control networks, differences in population centers and floodplain modification within these basins all contributed to unexpected deviations from the correlation patterns.

  17. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  18. Port Eliza cave: North American West Coast interstadial environment and implications for human migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Wilson, M. C.; Nagorsen, D. W.; Nelson, D. E.; Driver, J. C.; Wigen, R. J.

    2003-06-01

    The timing of Late Pleistocene glacial advance, retreat, relative sea level and environmental viability between 25 and 12.5 ka ( 14C yrs BP) remain a key issue in the feasibility of a coastal migration route for the first North Americans. This is discussed on the basis of stratigraphic, radiometric and faunal data for Port Eliza cave, a raised sea cave, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ice cover is indicated by the occurrence of 2 m of laminated clay, representing deposition in a subglacial lake. From immediately below this clay a diverse vertebrate fauna of marmot, vole, marten, cervid and various species of birds and fish was recovered, yielding ages of 18-16 ka. These dates and others from the region show that ice cover on the outer coast was brief, from ca 15.5-14 ka. The fish species indicate that relative sea level was close to the cave and that salmon runs were likely present. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna is consistent with a cool, open parkland environment with maximum summer temperatures cooler than present; these conditions lasted until at least 16 ka. With a diverse fauna and favorable climate, humans could have survived here on a mixed marine-terrestrial diet, confirming the viability of the coastal migration hypothesis for this portion of the route.

  19. Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic “weak type” orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.

    2009-11-01

    The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

  20. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  1. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  2. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run

  3. Chemical and Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Carter, B.; Bednarsek, N.

    2015-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al. (2008) to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data set from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast with the lowest values (40-45 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Canth contributes an average of about 70 % of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface relative to what would be expected from physical circulation and exchange with a preindustrial atmosphere alone. In contrast, Canth contributes an average of about 31%, and 16% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon at 50 m depth, and at 100 m depth respectively. The remaining contributions are either due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or respiration processes that occurs locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the biological communities.

  4. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under the fisheries jurisdiction of the Canada more than 12 nautical miles from the baseline from which... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...

  5. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under the fisheries jurisdiction of the Canada more than 12 nautical miles from the baseline from which... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...

  6. Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

  7. Modulation of atmospheric rivers near Alaska and the U.S. West Coast by northeast Pacific height anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, Bryan D.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Maloney, Eric D.; Nardi, Kyle M.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause wide-ranging impacts upon landfall at high northern latitudes, but comparatively little is known about the dynamics supporting these ARs in contrast to their midlatitude counterparts. Here ARs near the U.S. West Coast and the Gulf of Alaska during 1979-2015 are compared. ARs are found to occur in both regions with similar frequency, but with different seasonality. Composited atmospheric conditions from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications data set reveal that a broad height anomaly over the northeast Pacific is influential to AR activity in both regions. When a positive height anomaly exists over the northeast Pacific, AR activity is often deflected poleward toward Alaska, while the U.S. West Coast experiences a decrease in AR activity. The opposing relationship also applies; that is, AR activity is decreased near Alaska and increased along the U.S. West Coast in the presence of a negative height anomaly. Quantitatively, nearly 79% of Gulf of Alaska ARs are associated with a positive northeast Pacific height anomaly and 86% of U.S. West Coast ARs are associated with a negative anomaly. Results suggest that this relationship applies across a range of time scales, to include subseasonal and interannual, not just with respect to individual transient waves. Both ARs and height anomalies are found to be associated with Rossby wave breaking, thereby dynamically linking AR activity with broader North Pacific dynamics.

  8. Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

  9. Population structure of the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum on the west coast of the United States

    Treesearch

    S. Prospero; E.M. Hansen; N.J. Grünwald; J. Britt; L.M. Winton.

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is a devastating pathogen in native forests in California and southwestern Oregon and in nursery crops in California, Oregon and Washington. In this study we analyzed the population structure of P. ramorum in the west coast (CA, OR, and WA) of the United States by screening 579 isolates recovered...

  10. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  11. Exhumation history along the eastern Amundsen Sea coast, West Antarctica, revealed by low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, Julia; Kamp, Peter J. J.; Mukasa, Samuel B.; Kleber, Michel; Lisker, Frank; Gohl, Karsten; Kuhn, Gerhard; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    West Antarctica experienced a complex tectonic history, which is still poorly documented, in part due to extensive ice cover. Here we reconstruct the Cretaceous to present thermotectonic history of Pine Island Bay area and its adjacent coasts, based on a combination of apatite and zircon fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology. In addition, we report petrographic information for the catchments of Pine Island, Thurston Island, and Thwaites glaciers. Our data suggest that the underlying bedrock of the Pine Island and Thwaites Glacier catchments are very different and vary from granitoids to (Cenozoic?) volcanogenic sequences and low-grade metamorphics. Our thermochronology data show that the upper crustal rocks of Pine Island Bay experienced very rapid cooling during the late Cretaceous. We attribute this rapid cooling of basement rocks and associated reduction in mean elevation to tectonic denudation driven by gravitational collapse of the Cretaceous orogen along the proto-Pacific Gondwana margin. Rapid Cretaceous crustal cooling was followed by very slow cooling during the Cenozoic, with no erosional response—within the limits of thermochronological methods—to the onset of glaciation and subsequent climatic changes. Cenozoic rifting within the West Antarctic Rift appears to have had little effect on erosion processes around Pine Island Bay; instead, our data suggest Cenozoic crustal tilting toward Pine Island Trough, a major geomorphic feature previously suggested to be a branch of the rift system.

  12. A Numerical Simulation (Study) of a Strong West Coast December 2014 Winter Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smelser, I.; Xu, L.; Amerault, C. M.; Baker, N. L.; Satterfield, E.; Chua, B.

    2016-12-01

    From December 10 through December 13, 2014, a powerful winter storm swept across the western US coastal states bringing widespread power outages, numerous downed trees and power lines, heavy rains, flooding and even a tornado in the Los Angeles basin. This windstorm was the strongest since October 2009, and was similar to classic wind storms such as the 1962 Columbus Day Storm (Read, 2015).The storm started developing over the Pacific Ocean north of Hawaii on Nov. 30, and formed an atmospheric river that eventually stretched from Hawaii to the west coast. The storm initially hit the Pacific Northwest on Dec. 9th and then split. The highest precipitation amounts started in British Colombia and moved south along the coast. By the Dec. 11th, the highest precipitation amounts were near San Francisco (CA). The peak wind gust (14.4 ms-1) for Monterey (CA) occurred at 1116Z on Dec. 11th while the heaviest 6-hr precipitation (42.9 mm) occurred between 18Z on Dec. 11th to 00Z on Dec. 12th. By Dec. 12th, the storm was centered over Southern California.This storm was poorly forecast by many operational NWP models even 2-3 days in advance (Mass, 2014). The NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) showed considerably variability between successive model runs, and significant differences existed between Environment Canada, UK Met Office and ECMWF model forecasts. To study this extreme weather event, we used the Navy global (NAVGEM) and mesoscale (COAMPS®) NWP models, and compared the resulting forecasts to observations, satellite imagery and ECMWF (TIGGE) forecasts. NAVGEM, with Hybrid 4DVar, was run with a resolution of 31 km, and generated the boundary conditions for COAMPS® 4DVar and forecasts, that were run with triple-nested grids of 27, 9, and 3 km. The MesoWest data from the University of Utah were used for forecast verification, and to locate the times of highest precipitation and wind speed for different points along the coast. Both the online API and the python module were

  13. Progress on physical circulation and ecosystem modeling in the COAST and WEST programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    High resolution physical circulation and ecosystem models have been applied to study the mesoscale shelf flow field and ecosystem response off Oregon and northern California in the regions of the COAST and WEST field experiments. Localized, regional domains that extend approximately 400-600 km alongshore and 200-300 km offshore are utilized to allow high horizontal grid resolutions of 1-2 km. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is used for Oregon while the ROMS model is used for northern California. The Oregon ecosystem model is a five component nitrogen-based NNPZD model. In the most basic, workhorse configuration, periodicity conditions are used at the alongshore boundaries, allowing the specification of well-posed problems. For these shelf flows, where the mesoscale behavior is dominated by the interaction of wind-driven currents with variable shelf topography, that approximation leads to model results that generally show good agreement with observations. Open boundary conditions have also been developed to allow the application of spatially-variable forcing obtained from a high resolution mesoscale atmospheric model. In addition, off Oregon a data assimilation system utilizing HF-radar surface current measurements and a sequential optimal interpolation scheme is being utilized to improve estimates of the circulation. These models have been applied to the spring and summer 2001 time periods of the COAST and WEST field experiments. The modeled mesoscale shelf flow field off Oregon is strongly influenced by interactions with Heceta Bank while the flow off northern California is affected in a major way by Point Reyes. The structure of model sea surface temperature fields reflects the shelf flow interaction with these topographic features and is in good qualitative agreement with comparable satellite-measured fields. New information on the three-dimensional time-dependent nature of the velocity, temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy fields, tested with model

  14. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  15. Reported traumatic injuries among West Coast Dungeness crab fishermen, 2002–2014

    PubMed Central

    Case, Samantha; Bovbjerg, Viktor; Lucas, Devin; Syron, Laura; Kincl, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercial fishing is a high-risk occupation. The West Coast Dungeness crab fishery has a high fatality rate; however, nonfatal injuries have not been previously studied. The purpose of this report was to describe the characteristics of fatal and nonfatal traumatic occupational injuries and associated hazards in this fleet during 2002–2014. Materials and methods Data on fatal injuries were obtained from a surveillance system managed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Data on nonfatal injuries were manually abstracted from Coast Guard investigation reports and entered into a study database. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise demographics, injury characteristics, and work processes performed. Results Twenty-eight fatal and 45 nonfatal injuries were reported between 2002 and 2014 in the Dungeness crab fleet. Most fatalities were due to vessel disasters, and many nonfatal injuries occurred on-deck when fishermen were working with gear, particularly when hauling the gear (47%). The most frequently reported injuries affected the upper extremities (48%), and fractures were the most commonly reported injury type (40%). The overall fatality rate during this time period was 209 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers and the rate of nonfatal injury was 3.4 per 1,000 full-time equivalent workers. Conclusions Dungeness crab fishermen are at relatively high risk for fatal injuries. Nonfatal injuries were limited to reported information, which hampers efforts to accurately estimate nonfatal injury risk and understand fishing hazards. Further research is needed to identify work tasks and other hazards that cause nonfatal injuries in this fleet. Engaging fishermen directly may help develop approaches for injury prevention. PMID:26726891

  16. Reported traumatic injuries among West Coast Dungeness crab fishermen, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Case, Samantha; Bovbjerg, Viktor; Lucas, Devin; Syron, Laura; Kincl, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Commercial fishing is a high-risk occupation. The West Coast Dungeness crab fishery has a high fatality rate; however, nonfatal injuries have not been previously studied. The purpose of this report was to describe the characteristics of fatal and nonfatal traumatic occupational injuries and associated hazards in this fleet during 2002-2014. Data on fatal injuries were obtained from a surveillance system managed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Data on nonfatal injuries were manually abstracted from Coast Guard investigation reports and entered into a study database. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise demographics, injury characteristics, and work processes performed. Twenty-eight fatal and 45 nonfatal injuries were reported between 2002 and 2014 in the Dungeness crab fleet. Most fatalities were due to vessel disasters, and many nonfatal injuries occurred on-deck when fishermen were working with gear, particularly when hauling the gear (47%). The most frequently reported injuries affected the upper extremities (48%), and fractures were the most commonly reported injury type (40%). The overall fatality rate during this time period was 209 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers and the rate of nonfatal injury was 3.4 per 1,000 full-time equivalent workers. Dungeness crab fishermen are at relatively high risk for fatal injuries. Nonfatal injuries were limited to reported information, which hampers efforts to accurately estimate nonfatal injury risk and understand fishing hazards. Further research is needed to identify work tasks and other hazards that cause nonfatal injuries in this fleet. Engaging fishermen directly may help develop approaches for injury prevention.

  17. The morphology and migration of transverse bars off the west-central Florida coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, G.; Brooks, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    A series of migrating shore-normal sandbars with wavelengths of 75-120 m and heights up to 2 m have been identified off the northern tip of Anna Maria Island, a barrier island on the west-central Florida coast. Similar features have been described elsewhere since the 1930s and termed 'transverse bars'. The transverse bars identified off Anna Maria Island are found for about 3 km along the coast and extend 4 km offshore, well outside the normal surf-zone width. No cusps or any other associated beach expression is evident despite the fact that the bars come to within about 75 m of the beach. Sediments on the crests of the bars are a well-sorted fine quartz sand, whereas sediments in the troughs are a poorly sorted coarse carbonate shell hash. Historical aerial photographs and repeated high-resolution bathymetric surveys provide a means of quantifying the migration of the transverse bars. Analyses of orthorectified aerial photographs from the early 1940s through the mid 1990s clearly show movement or migration taking place in the bar field. In the 40-yr period from 1951 to 1991, the southern edge of the bar field moved 200-350 m to the south, with an average long-term migration rate of 8 m/yr. Repeated bathymetric surveys over an 8-month period give an average short-term migration rate of 21 m/yr to the south. Wave and current measurements suggest that southerly winds associated with the passage of cold fronts drive near-bed currents to the south that are strong enough to initiate sediment transport and cause the southerly migration of the transverse bars.

  18. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  19. Relative and Geocentric Sea Level Rise Along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgette, R. J.; Watson, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    The rate of sea level change relative to the land along the West Coast of the U.S. varies over a range of +5 to -2 mm/yr, as observed across the set of long-running tide gauges. We analyze tide gauge data in a network approach that accounts for temporal and spatial correlations in the time series of water levels observed at the stations. This analysis yields a set of rate estimates and realistic uncertainties that are minimally affected by varying durations of observations. The analysis has the greatest impact for tide gauges with short records, as the adjusted rate uncertainties for 2 to 3 decade duration tide gauges approach those estimated from unadjusted century-scale time series. We explore the sources of the wide range of observed relative sea level rates through comparison with: 1) estimated vertical deformation rates derived from repeated leveling and GPS, 2) relative sea level change predicted from models of glacial isostatic adjustment, and 3) geocentric sea level rates estimated from satellite altimetry and century-scale reconstructions. Tectonic deformation is the dominant signal in the relative sea level rates along the Cascadia portion of the coast, and is consistent with along-strike variation in locking behavior on the plate interface. Rates of vertical motion are lower along the transform portion of the plate boundary and include anthropogenic effects, but there are significant tectonic signals, particularly in the western Transverse Ranges of California where the crust is shortening across reverse faults. Preliminary analysis of different strategies of estimating the magnitude of geocentric sea level rise suggest significant discrepancies between approaches. We will examine the implications of these discrepancies for understanding the process of regional geocentric sea level rise in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, and associated projected impacts.

  20. Butyltins in water, biofilm, animals and sediments of the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Bhosle, Narayan B; Garg, Anita; Jadhav, Sangeeta; Harjee, Ranjita; Sawant, Subhash S; Venkat, K; Anil, A C

    2004-11-01

    Biofilm, fish, oyster, mussel, clam, surface seawater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment samples were collected from marine and/or estuarine waters of the west coast of India. These samples were analysed for butyltin derivatives such as dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT). The concentrations DBT plus TBT varied between 2.4 and 8.3, 163 and 363 ng/l, 5 and 2853 ng/g dry wt in the SPM, seawater and sediment samples, respectively, of the Marmugao harbour. The values of DBT plus TBT ranged between 0.60 and 29, 123 and 242 ng/l and 1.4 and 65 ng/g dry wt in SPM, water and sediment samples, respectively, collected from the Mandovi estuary. In the Dona Paula Bay the DBT plus TBT varied from 10 to 89 ng/l in surface seawater, and TBT from 10 to 513 ng/g in biofilm samples. For the coastal sediment samples the concentration of DBT plus TBT ranged between 36 and 133 ng/g dry wt of sediment. For the animal samples the DBT plus TBT ranged between 58 and 825 ng/g dry wt of the tissue. Mussel tissues contained the highest amount of DBT plus TBT (825 ng/g dry wt tissue), whereas highest TBT concentration was recorded in the oyster (732 ng/g dry wt). TBT was generally the most abundant butyltin compound in most of the samples suggesting fresh inputs and/or less degradation of TBT. A wide range of the observed butyltin concentrations suggests the presence of localized areas of contamination. Leaching of tributyltin-containing antifouling paints from the ocean going ships, fishing and recreational boats, barges, and the inputs of TBT from the Goa shipyard and dry dock facility situated in the harbour are the probable sources of the DBT and TBT in the samples of the west coast of India. Higher levels of TBT were observed in biofilm relative to that in the surrounding seawater. When fed on TBT contaminated biofilm of the diatom Navicula subinflata, butyltin concentrations in the clam Paphia malabarica increased over the period of feeding suggesting the importance of

  1. The puzzle of high heads beneath the West Cumbrian coast, UK: a possible solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John H.; Barker, John A.

    2016-03-01

    A region of high heads within the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG; a fractured crystalline rock) beneath the coastal plain of West Cumbria, England (UK), is identified as a possible relic left over by the Late Devensian ice sheet. It was found during investigations in the 1990s. Contemporary modelling work failed to produce a satisfactory explanation of the high heads compatible with the `cold recharge' isotopic signature of the groundwater. This study has reassessed the original hydraulic testing results. By plotting density-adjusted heads versus their depth below the water table in the immediate vicinity of the borehole in which they were measured, a depth profile resembling a `wave' was revealed with a peak value located at 1,100 m depth. The possibility that this wave represents relic heads from the last major ice sheet has been assessed using one-dimensional mathematical analysis based on a poroelastic approach. It is found that a wet-based ice sheet above the West Cumbrian coast was probably thick enough and sufficiently long-lasting to leave such relic heads providing that the hydraulic diffusivity of the BVG is in the order of 10-6 m s-1. Initial assessment 20 years ago of the long-interval slug tests suggested that such low values are not likely. More recent interpretation argues for such low values of hydraulic diffusivity. It is concluded that ice sheet recharge is the most likely cause of the raised heads, that the BVG contains significant patches of very low conductivity rock, and that long-interval single-hole tests should be avoided in fractured crystalline rock.

  2. Rain- vapour isotopic interaction over the south-west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palliyil Ravisankar, Lekshmy; Madhavan, Midhun; Rengaswamy, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Boundary layer water vapor isotopic composition (δv) is an important factor that controls the isotopic composition of evaporation flux and modulating the δ18O of tree ring cellulose through plant physiological cycle. But due to the difficult sampling procedure for water vapor, δv has rarely been quantified. Since many simple isotopic models require δvas an input, mostly we assume that the water vapor is in isotopic equilibrium with δof monthly rain (δr). Here we present simultaneous observations of water vapour (~ 300 samples) and rainfall (~200 samples) isotopic ratios from two stations in the south-west coast of India (both the stations are located in the west of Western Ghats), sampled during April- October, 2012. Daily rain water and water vapour (cryogenic trapping method) were collected according to the IAEA protocol and the isotopic analyses (D and 18O) were done using a Thermo Fisher Delta V+ Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We observe that, water vapour and rain are close to the equilibrium values during pre monsoon (April-May, ɛ = δr - δv= 8.9 ± 1.4 ), summer monsoon (June-September, ɛ = 9.0 ± 1.8 ) and North- East (NE) monsoon (October, ɛ = 7.9 ± 2.9 ) seasons. However, some individual rain events show more deviations from the equilibrium values. NE monsoon rainfall and water vapour are isotopically more depleted in 18O compared to the pre monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, in which the depletion is more in rain (~4 ) compared to water vapour (~2 ). This is because of the 18O enrichment of ground level vapour due to local evapo- transpiration (stations are at the leeward side of the Ghats), while rainfall is directly formed from the NE monsoon clouds which is more depleted in 18O. These results will be useful for the interpretation of δ18O of tree rings from south west.

  3. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, P K; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G S; Asokan, D P K

    2006-05-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis was sampled from relatively clean and contaminated sites along the Kartanata-Kerala coast (south west coast of India) to study the tissue concentration of trace metals and biological responses to stress (biomarkers) such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration, micronucleus (MN) test, hemic neoplasia (HN), Chromotest (Ames test) and comet assay. In general, mean tissue concentrations of toxic trace metals collected from 25 sampling sites were found to be below the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible concentration given for seafood. The digestive gland extract of mussels from all 25 sampling sites showed negative reaction for mutagenic activity (Ames test) in the absence of metabolic activation. Very low levels of chromosomal aberration, SCE, MN, HN and comet cells were observed in mussels collected from both the urban associated and relatively clean sites. This study seems to indicate that that the coastal waters of Karnataka and Kerala are minimally contaminated with genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals.

  4. Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Costa, Priya M.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2010-07-01

    Diatom communities are influenced by environmental perturbations, such as the monsoon system that impact the niche opportunities of species. To discern the influence of the monsoon system on diatom community structure, we sampled during two consecutive post-monsoons (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon at Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports along the central west coast of India. Characteristic temporal shifts in diatom community structure were observed across the sampling periods; these were mainly driven by temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen saturation. The nutrient-poor pre-monsoon period supported low abundance yet high species richness and diversity of diatoms. Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, Thalassiosira, Triceratium, Pleurosigma, Skeletonema and Surirella were the most dominant genera. Both the post-monsoon periods, following dissimilar monsoon events, were dominated by Skeletonema costatum, but differed in some of the residual species . Thalassiosira and Thalassionema spp. dominated mostly during post-monsoon I whereas Triceratium and Pleurosigma spp. dominated during post-monsoon II. To understand the underlying ecological mechanisms involved in such dynamics, we focus on the dominant diatom species in post-monsoon periods, S. costatum, that contributes up to 60% to total diatom cell numbers. This research is relevant in light of the fluctuating monsoon regimes over the Asian continent, the confounding effects of anthropogenic eutrophication and the resulting cascading effects on trophic web dynamics.

  5. Hydrocarbons in seawater and sediment from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Tahir, N.M.; Wei, L.K. )

    1994-10-01

    The Straits of Malacca, along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the busiest waterways in the world with about 2000 vessels passing through it per month, of which about 25 percent are oil tankers of varying sizes. In the course of their passage, the practices of tanker ballasting and pumping of bilges by non-tanker vessels result in considerable pollution in these waters. Collisions and groundings also cause oil spills in Malaysian waters. Oil contaminants not only pollute the high seas but also affects the near-coastal waters. Marine oil pollution, in particular that of near-coastal waters, may also be attributed to land-based activities such as the utilisation of petroleum related products, the direct discharge of untreated municipal and industrial wastes containing refined and partly weathered oils to sewers and rivers, and the discharge of effluents from refineries and other similar sources. There is, at present, little information available on the total hydrocarbon concentrations (THCs) in water and sediments in these waters. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of hydrocarbons in water and sediments along the near-coastal areas of the Straits of Malacca. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  7. Seasonal biomass and energy content in seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.; Hall, M.O.; Riechert, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal collections were made over a 16 month period in seven seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida. The seagrass component accounted for at least 45% of the total biomass and Thalassia testudinum was the dominant species. The 15 month mean of total biomass at six sites that were dominated year around by T. testudinum from Tampa Bay to Cedar Key, Florida was 385 g dry weight m/sup 2/ or 1.42 tons dry weight/acre. The drift and attached seaweed components showed seasonal fluctuations in terms of species and biomass. Of the six open water sites, only one site, characterized by depressed salinity, showed significant differences in seasonal biomass for T. testudinum using a nested ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test for variance. Available kilocalories ranged from a 16 month low of 344 to a high of 1837 kcal/m/sup 2/ with the highest biomass and caloric values occurring in the late spring and summer.

  8. Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ananda, K; Sridhar, K R

    2002-10-01

    Because mangrove plant species are a valuable source of useful metabolites, their endophytes have gained more importance. Randomly sampled surface-sterilized whole root segments of four mangrove plant species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata, and Sonneratia caseolaris from the mangroves of Udyavara (Karnataka) on the west coast of India, were characterized for fungal communities by direct plating, damp chamber, and bubbling chamber incubation methods. The richness of endophytic fungal species from whole root segments after direct plating and damp chamber incubation was greatest for R. mucronata than for other plants (18 vs. 8-13). Incubation of whole root segments in bubbling chambers yielded conidia of two freshwater hyphomycetes: Mycocentrospora acerina (in Avicennia officinalis) and Triscelophorus acuminatus (in R. mucronata and in S. caseolaris). Surface-sterilized whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata sampled from the mid-tide level on direct plating yielded more fungi than that of the root segments sampled from low-tide and high-tide levels. The greatest number of isolates, species richness, and diversity of fungi were shown by the whole root segments of R. mucronata from the mid-tide level. Rarefaction indices also revealed the highest expected number of species out of 150 random isolations from the mid-tide level samples of whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata. The present study showed that fungi in mangrove roots are composed of a consortium of soil, marine, and freshwater fungi.

  9. Velocities of Thwaites Glacier and smaller glaciers along the Marie Byrd Land coast, West Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosanova, C.E.; Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferrigno, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Average velocities for time intervals ranging from <1 to 15 years were measured by tracking ice-surface patterns on sequential Landsat and European Remote-sensing Satellite synthetic aperture radar images. Velocities of Thwaites Glacier range from 2.2 km a-1 above the grounding line to 3.4 km a-1 at the limit of measurements on Thwaites Glacier ice tongue. The glacier increases in velocity by about 1 km a-1 where it crosses the grounding line. Over the period 1984-93, Thwaites Glacier ice tongue accelerated by about 0.6 km a-1. Velocities of the floating part of several minor glaciers and some ice shelves are also determined: Land Glacier, 1.7-1.9 km a-1; DeVicq Glacier, 0.7-1.1 km a-1; Dotson Ice Shelf, 0.2-0.5 km a-1; Getz Ice Shelf, 0.2-0.8 km a-1; and Sulzberger Ice Shelf, 0.01-0.02 km a-1. The high velocities along the Marie Byrd Land coast are consistent with the high precipitation rates over West Antarctica and, for some of the glaciers, the lack of buttressing ice shelves.

  10. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes.

  11. Food and habitat resource partitioning between three estuarine fish species on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1983-12-01

    In 1978 the food and habitat resource partitioning of three small and common fish species, viz. Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) and Pungitius pungitius (L.) were studied in river Broälven estuary on the Swedish west coast (58°22'N, 11°29'E). The area was divided into three habitats, based on environmental features. In July, September, and October stomach contents and size distribution of each species present were analysed. In July there was high food and habitat overlap between the species. Interference interactions probably occurred between some size classes of P. microps and the other two species. P. pungitius was exposed to both intra- and interspecific interactions. In September the food and habitat overlaps between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were high, while both had low food and habitat overlaps in relation to P. microps. Interactions between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were probably influenced by more severe abiotic conditions in one habitat, which caused lower abundances there, and higher abundances in the other two habitats. In October no interactions were observed. These results indicate that competition for food at least temporarily determines the species distribution in a temperate estuary, and that estuarine fish populations are sometimes food limited.

  12. Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida.

    PubMed

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer M; Keller, Martha; Kinsel, Michael J; Johnson, Christine K; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet G; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-04-01

    Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality.

  13. Long-term study of 99Tc in the marine environment on the Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, P; Ellmark, C; Gäfvert, T; Mattsson, S; Roos, P; Holm, E; Erlandsson, B

    2003-01-01

    The activity concentration of (99)Tc in brown seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) and seawater were analysed in samples collected in 1991, 1995 and 2001 at several stations along the Swedish west coast. In addition to these locations, a well-defined site (Särdal, 56.76 degrees N, 12.63 degrees E) was included with (99)Tc activity concentration data in seaweed from 1967 to 2000. Over the years, the major source of (99)Tc in the coastal waters of western Sweden has been the radioactive liquid discharge from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Sellafield (UK) transported via ocean currents in the North Sea. The (99)Tc activity concentration in seaweed at the Särdal site increased from approximately 30 Bq kg(-1) up to 230 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) between 1997 and 2000 due to the Sellafield EARP (Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant) discharges in 1995-1996, yielding an approximate transport time of 4-5 years between the Irish Sea and the Kattegat. Due to the very sharp gradient in (99)Tc concentration between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, (99)Tc is presently one of the best transit tracers for the recent ventilation events in the Baltic Sea.

  14. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  15. Exposure history determines pteropod vulnerability to ocean acidification along the US West Coast.

    PubMed

    Bednaršek, N; Feely, R A; Tolimieri, N; Hermann, A J; Siedlecki, S A; Waldbusser, G G; McElhany, P; Alin, S R; Klinger, T; Moore-Maley, B; Pörtner, H O

    2017-07-03

    The pteropod Limacina helicina frequently experiences seasonal exposure to corrosive conditions (Ωar  < 1) along the US West Coast and is recognized as one of the species most susceptible to ocean acidification (OA). Yet, little is known about their capacity to acclimatize to such conditions. We collected pteropods in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) that differed in the severity of exposure to Ωar conditions in the natural environment. Combining field observations, high-CO2 perturbation experiment results, and retrospective ocean transport simulations, we investigated biological responses based on histories of magnitude and duration of exposure to Ωar < 1. Our results suggest that both exposure magnitude and duration affect pteropod responses in the natural environment. However, observed declines in calcification performance and survival probability under high CO2 experimental conditions do not show acclimatization capacity or physiological tolerance related to history of exposure to corrosive conditions. Pteropods from the coastal CCE appear to be at or near the limit of their physiological capacity, and consequently, are already at extinction risk under projected acceleration of OA over the next 30 years. Our results demonstrate that Ωar exposure history largely determines pteropod response to experimental conditions and is essential to the interpretation of biological observations and experimental results.

  16. Butyltins in the sediments of Kochi and Mumbai harbours, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Bhosle, Narayan B; Garg, Anita; Harji, Ranjita; Jadhav, Sangeeta; Sawant, Subhash S; Krishnamurthy, Venkat; Anil, Chandrashekar

    2006-02-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected from various locations in the Mumbai and Kochi harbours, west coast of India, to assess the presence of butyltin compounds. Tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) varied from 16 to 16,816 ng/g dry wt. and from undetected to 469 ng/g dry wt., respectively, of the sediment in Kochi harbour. In Mumbai harbour, the values of TBT and DBT ranged between 4.5 and 1193 ng/g dry wt. and from undetected to 131 ng/g dry wt. of the sediments, respectively. The concentrations of both TBT and DBT showed strong seasonal variation probably due to the effect of tides and currents. Nevertheless, the levels of butyltin compounds were generally higher at sites influenced by shipping activities such as navigation, dry dock and ship-building activities. The presence of DBT indicates the abiotic or microbiological degradation of TBT. Compared to TBT, DBT was relatively less abundant, suggesting either fresh inputs of TBT and/or less degradation of TBT. The concentrations of TBT showed significant positive relationships with organic carbon and lipid, implying that both lipophilic and ionic interactions were probably involved in controlling the abundance of TBT at these sediments. The observed levels of butyltin compounds are much higher than those required to induce toxic effects on marine organisms, suggesting that these sediments were contaminated with butyltin compounds.

  17. Giant fossil mass wasting off the coast of West India: The Nataraja submarine slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvès, Gérôme; Huuse, Mads; Clift, Peter D.; Brusset, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    We use two-dimensional pre-stack depth migrated seismic reflection profiles and seafloor bathymetry to describe the continental margin structure and a massive mass-transport deposit off the west coast of India. This giant slide runs from the Gujurat-Saurashtra margin to the Laxmi Basin. It is over 330 km long, a maximum of 190 km wide and its run-out basal gradient is 1.2°. We name this giant mass wasting deposit the Nataraja Submarine Slide. This slide covers 49 ± 16 ×103 km2 and represents a volume of 19 ×103 ± 4 ×103 km3, making it the second by volume of any passive margin landslide/mass-transport deposit. Seismic facies analysis allows the internal structure of the mass-transport deposit to be described as far as the toe. This slide has been able to circumvent massive seamounts, thus highlighting the capacity of the flow and its potential energy during emplacement in a funnel between the slope of the Western Indian passive margin and the Laxmi Ridge. Stratigraphically, the emplacement of the Nataraja Slide predates the main pulse of sedimentation during the late Miocene-Recent associated with the Indus Fan but follows rapid sedimentation across S and SE Asia during the Early-Middle Miocene. The margin architecture at the head of this slide is associated with a gravity-controlled fold and thrust belt that may have caused slope steepening and triggering of the slide.

  18. Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

    2013-11-15

    The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000 nmol l(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Commercially Important Oysters from Goa, Central-West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Ansari, Zakir A

    2016-12-01

    The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg(-1)) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites). Moreover, significant (p < 0.05) variations were observed for all the metals concentrations among the species, seasons and sites. The high concentrations of Cd and Cu in tissues of edible oyster pose a threat to human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring, people awareness and a stringent government policy should be implemented to mitigate the metal pollution along the studied sites.

  20. Effects of changing forest land definitions on forest inventory on the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Azuma, David L; Gray, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    A key function of forest inventory is to detect changes in the area of forest land over time, yet different definitions of forest land are used in different regions of the world. Changes in the definition of forest intended to improve international consistency can affect the ability to quantify true changes over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a definitional change from relative stocking to canopy cover on the area classified as forest land and its relationship to species and forest density in California, Oregon, and Washington. Both western Juniper and ponderosa pine will yield higher estimates of forest land area using a canopy cover definition in comparison to a stocking-based definition, with the difference being most pronounced where land is marginally forested. The change in definition may result in an additional 146,000 ha of forest land identified on the West Coast. Measuring marginal forest lands with both metrics for the first cycle after implementation should make it possible to distinguish real change from definitional change.

  1. Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast.

    PubMed

    Keller, Aimee A; Fruh, Erica L; Johnson, Melanie M; Simon, Victor; McGourty, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    As marine debris levels continue to grow worldwide, defining sources, composition, and distribution of debris, as well as potential effects, becomes increasingly important. We investigated composition and abundance of man-made, benthic marine debris at 1347 randomly selected stations along the US West Coast during Groundfish Bottom Trawl Surveys in 2007 and 2008. Anthropogenic debris was observed in 469 tows at depths of 55-1280 m. Plastic and metallic debris occurred in the greatest number of hauls followed by fabric and glass. Mean density was 67.1 items km(-2) throughout the study area but was significantly higher south of 36 degrees 00'N latitude. Mean density significantly increased with depth, ranging from 30 items km(-2) in shallow (55-183 m) water to 128 items km(-2) in the deepest depth stratum (550-1280 m). Debris densities observed along the US West Coast were comparable to those seen elsewhere and provide a valuable backdrop for future comparisons.

  2. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does harvest in west slope Douglas-fir increase peak flow in small forest streams?

    Treesearch

    Jack. Rothatcher

    1973-01-01

    Logging in Douglas-fir has only minor effect on major peak streamflows that occur when soils are thoroughly wet. Exceptions are the early fall storms following the dry summers characteristic of the west coast climate. At this time, peak streamflow from unlogged areas may be less than from the harvested area because the soil in the unlogged area is drier and has greater...

  4. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  5. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  6. Abundance and Size Distribution of the Sacoglossan Elysia viridis on Co-Occurring Algal Hosts on the Swedish West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Finn A.; Toth, Gunilla B.

    2014-01-01

    Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp.) at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host. PMID:24647524

  7. Siple Coast ice streams reorganization following the reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, P.; Bougamont, M. H.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ice streams in Antarctica account for most of the ice volume discharged to the ocean, and their flow variability greatly influences the mass balance of the ice sheet. Today, the Siple Coast region is the only one in West Antarctica to experience a positive mass balance of 36 Gt/yr, as a consequence of the stagnation of Kamb Ice Stream 170 years ago as well as the ongoing slowdown of Whillans Ice Stream. However, this positive trend could be temporary, as reconstructions of past flow show that the Siple Coast ice streams have experienced significant flow variability over the past millennia, with episodes of stagnation typically followed by reactivation on a centennial timescale. The impact that this internally induced variability may have on the future mass balance remains unknown. Here, we use the three-dimensional ice sheet model CISM to study the flow variability of the Ross ice streams over a 250 year period, during which the basal properties controlling ice flow evolve according to the distribution of meltwater in a dynamic, regional hydrological system, coupled to a subglacial till layer. To obtain realistic initial flow conditions, we assimilate the 1997 velocity data available for this region. During the forward simulation, all ice streams undergo dynamic changes, traced to persistently weak bed conditions beneath the tributaries of the currently dormant Kamb Ice Stream. This source of regional instability propagates into the catchments of Whillans as well as Bindschadler ice streams within decades, and re-organizes the flow of all the Ross ice streams within two centuries. Ice piracy from Kamb Ice Stream prolongs the fast flow on Whillans Ice Stream, maintaining its trunk active during the first modeled century. At the same time, ice piracy into the catchment of Bindschadler ice stream reactivates the relict Siple Ice Stream, which significantly reduces the mass balance for this region. The trunk of Kamb Ice Stream reactivates last (during the second half

  8. Real-time Tsunami Warning Operations at the NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P.; Huang, P.; Crowley, H.; Ferris, J.; Hale, D.; Knight, W.; Medbery, A.; Nyland, D.; Preller, C.; Turner, B.; Urban, G.

    2007-12-01

    The West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, provide tsunami warning services for a large portion of the world's coasts. The WCATWC has primary responsibility for providing tsunami detection, warnings, and forecasts to Canada, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all U.S. States except Hawaii. WCATWC also acts as back-up for the PTWC, requiring the center to constantly monitor global tsunami activities by rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential. The Centers' goals are to issue initial messages as quickly as possible to alert those near the source to potential danger (assuming there is any), and to follow that with a reasonable forecast of impact level. With these goals in mind, a Watchstander's initial action is based entirely on estimates of tsunami potential from the earthquake's source parameters. The course of action for the first message is determined primarily by the earthquake's magnitude, location, tsunami history, tsunami travel time, estimated threat based on pre-computed models, and pre-set criteria. Supplemental messages, if necessary, are based on wave observations and forecasts generated from hydrodynamic models (which are calibrated with near real-time observations). In April 2006, the WCATWC increased staff level so that the Center can be staffed 24/7 with two watchstanders. Since then, the Center's response time for events within the primary area-of-responsibility has decreased to less than 5 minutes. In order to illustrate the WCATWC's real time tsunami warning operational environment, tsunami warning operation timelines for several tsunamigenic earthquakes - including the September 12 southern Sumatra 8.4 and the January 13 Kuril Island 8.1 earthquakes - are provided. The timelines highlight the key parameters and observations that guide tsunami warning operations chronicling the event through: 1) initial alarm, 2

  9. Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210

  10. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  11. Predicted deep-sea coral habitat suitability for the U.S. West coast.

    PubMed

    Guinotte, John M; Davies, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled.

  12. Assessment of mangroves from Goa, west coast India using DNA barcode.

    PubMed

    Saddhe, Ankush Ashok; Jamdade, Rahul Arvind; Kumar, Kundan

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are salt-tolerant forest ecosystems of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions. They are among most productive, diverse, biologically important ecosystem and inclined toward threatened system. Identification of mangrove species is of critical importance in conserving and utilizing biodiversity, which apparently hindered by a lack of taxonomic expertise. In recent years, DNA barcoding using plastid markers rbcL and matK has been suggested as an effective method to enrich traditional taxonomic expertise for rapid species identification and biodiversity inventories. In the present study, we performed assessment of available 14 mangrove species of Goa, west coast India based on core DNA barcode markers, rbcL and matK. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in rbcL (97.7 %) and matK (95.5 %) region. The two candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (rbcL, matK) yielded barcode gaps. Our results clearly demonstrated that matK locus assigned highest correct identification rates (72.09 %) based on TaxonDNA Best Match criteria. The concatenated rbcL + matK loci were able to adequately discriminate all mangrove genera and species to some extent except those in Rhizophora, Sonneratia and Avicennia. Our study provides the first endorsement of the species resolution among mangroves using plastid genes with few exceptions. Our future work will be focused on evaluation of other barcode markers to delineate complete resolution of mangrove species and identification of putative hybrids.

  13. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). PMID:26904626

  14. VOC Composition of Air Masses Transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, B.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Huebler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) operated onboard a NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiment in 2002. Enhancements of acetone (CH3COCH3), methanol (CH3OH), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and in some cases benzene were observed in air masses that were impacted by outflow from Asia. The enhancement ratios with respect to carbon monoxide are compared to emission factors for fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, which gives some insight into the sources responsible for the pollution. The observed mixing ratios for acetone, methanol and in particular acetonitrile were generally reduced in the marine boundary layer, suggesting the presence of an ocean uptake sink. The ocean uptake of acetonitrile was found to be particularly efficient in a zone with upwelling water off of the U.S. west coast. Reduced mixing ratios of acetone and methanol were observed in a stratospheric intrusion. This observation gives some information about the lifetime of these VOCs in the stratosphere. Enhanced concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed in air masses that were impacted by urban sources in California. The ratio between the concentrations of benzene, toluene and higher aromatics indicated the degree of photochemical oxidation. PTR-MS only gives information about the mass of the ions produced by proton-transfer reactions between H3O+ and VOCs in the instrument. The identification of VOCs was confirmed by coupling a gas-chromatographic (GC) column to the instrument and post-flight GC-PTR-MS analyses of canister samples collected during the flights.

  15. Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

  16. Maritime-continental contrasts of cloud condensation nuclei in the west coast of the Korean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K.; Hudson, J. G.; Yum, S. S.; Choi, B.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were made at the Korea Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Observatory (KGAWO) (36.32 \\deg N, 126.19 \\deg E) on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula, south of Seoul, from April 30 to May 22, 2004. This location - 500 km distance from China across the Yellow Sea - provides a unique opportunity to monitor the influence of east China's rapidly growing industrial and human activities as well as the local Korean pollution. CCN were measured with the two Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometers. Condensation Nuclei (CN) were also measured with a TSI 3010 counter. On some foggy days fog droplets (2 - 50 micrometer diameter) were measured with an FSSP-100. For the whole period air masses were divided into 10 maritime and 12 continental regimes according to Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT4) results. Preliminary analyses showed that the average CCN concentration at 1% supersaturation of the continental air masses was 6573 cm-3, which almost doubled the maritime average concentration of 2758 cm-3. Average total particle (i.e., CN) concentration was higher and showed similar contrast between the continental and maritime air masses (8594 cm-3 vs. 4872 cm-3). These concentrations were significantly higher than those measured in some other parts of the earth atmosphere. For example, CCN measurements in marine environment but with continental influences showed 1411 cm-3 in Florida and 1023 cm-3 in northeast Atlantic. These are even lower than the maritime CCN concentrations in this study. Therefore, maritime in this study is only in a relative sense. An Asian Dust (AD) event occurred on May 4. CN and CCN concentrations on this day, 10880 and 8835 cm-3, respectably, were higher than the average continental concentrations. However, one non-AD day also showed as high concentrations. Much more detailed analyses and comparisons will be made and presented at the conference.

  17. Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

  18. The Contribution of Occult Precipitation to Nutrient Deposition on the West Coast of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3-, NH4+ and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation. PMID:26017747

  19. Assessing Sustainable Developments in a Coastal Region: the Garolim Bay in the West Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Garolim Bay is a semi-enclosed bay located in the west coast of Korea and has a spring tidal range over 6 m. It is well known for vast tidal flats and healthy ecosystems that supports high productive and diverse marine lives. Due to its large tidal range it was considered favorable site for the construction of tidal power plant and went through controversies over decades. Local fishermen depending on their livelihood over generations strongly opposed the construction, so did the most environmental groups. They argued that construction of the tidal barrage at the entrance of the bay will reduce the tidal range resulting in increase of mud content of bottom sediments and disruption of marine lives. On the other hand, the power generation industry and some local residents supported the construction arguing that the tidal power is renewable energy and contributes to reduction of CO2 emission along with economic benefits from tourists' sightseeing of the tidal power plant. The application of the tidal power plant construction at the Garolim Bay was not approved by the Korean government due to the concerns of environmental impacts on the marine lives of the Garolim Bay region. This study briefly reviews developments associated with the tidal power plant construction in the Garolim Bay and considers how to approach the assessment of the sustainable development of the coastal region of the Garolim Bay in accordance with UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2030 with appropriate goals, targets and monitoring indicators. It will be of keen interests to policy makers of central and local governments as well as local residents to monitor and find out the benefits pursuing SDG in the Garolim Bay where conflicts of interests among stakeholders persisted, and may exemplify the case for other regions of similar situations.

  20. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  1. GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

  2. CALWATER-2 An Experiment Exploring the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Spackman, J.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States are: 1) Atmospheric rivers (ARs), which deliver much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and 2) Aerosols--from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents--which can modulate western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. A set of science investigations, called CalWater 2, have been proposed over the next several years to fill these gaps including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data over regions offshore of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between December 2014 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period, including a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) that was proposed in the context of CalWater 2. A broad 5-year vision of an interagency effort to address these science gaps will be presented, and informal input into this planning is being solicited through this presentation, including consideration of potential synergistic connections to other relevant activities. The CalWater 2 white paper was prepared by a team of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists

  3. A modeling system for predicting the impact of severe storms on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P. L.; Ormondt, M. V.; O'Reilly, B.; Hoover, D.; Hapke, C. J.; Eshleman, J.; Ruggiero, P.; Elias, E.; Erikson, L. H.; Collins, B. D.; Guza, R. T.; Adams, P. N.; Thomas, J.

    2009-12-01

    Storm hazards on the U.S. West Coast are generally thought of as being less severe than the more dramatic hurricane impacts that affect the Gulf of Mexico and East Coasts. However, the magnitude, duration and economic and societal impacts of West Coast storms can still be substantial. Storms during the 1982-83 El Niño winter resulted in 36 casualties and over $1.2 billion in damage to the State of California, and current research suggests that increasing storm intensity, frequency, and wave heights will increase coastal-hazards risks on the West Coast for the foreseeable future. To begin to address the increased risk, the U.S. Geological Survey is leading the development of a modeling system for forecasting the impact of winter storms along the U.S. West Coast. A prototype has been developed for Southern California and is being tested with a hypothetical extreme winter storm scenario designed by atmospheric scientists. The modeling system has been designed to be run operationally or with prescribed scenarios, and utilizes atmospheric forcing information with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models to provide detailed prediction of ocean currents, deep-water and near-shore wave heights, coastal wave runup, and the resulting total water levels on beaches and cliffed coastlines. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also provided. The modeling system utilizes an integrated, nested structure whereby regional wave and water level models are driven by boundary conditions derived from a global wave model, regional seas and swell data from an extensive wave buoy network, a global tide model from satellite altimetry, and atmospheric pressure and wind forecasts. Wave parameters and water levels from the regional models drive local, high resolution cross-shore profile models and 2D-morphological models. Data from these models, in turn, provide boundary conditions for a Bayesian cliff failure model. This paper

  4. Description of a new species of clupeid fish, Amblygaster indiana (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae), off Eraviputhenthurai, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Mary, Anthonipillai Arockia; Balasubramanian, Thngavelu; Selvaraju, Shanker; Shiny, Anthonipillai

    2017-03-28

    A new species, Amblygaster indiana sp. nov., is described from 12 specimens collected from fish landing centers and fish markets at Eraviputhenthurai, west coast of India. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of Amblygaster by its larger size and very deep body, 8 circular-shaped pre-pelvic scutes, different gill rakers counts, large eyes, 40 lateral scales, and peculiar gap between the left and right frontoparietal striae on the top of the head. The new species has been seasonally captured with A. sirm in Eraviputhenthurai and also other coastal waters of the south west coast of India. The proportions of A. indiana sp. nov. and A. sirm in fish catches are approximately 1 to 20. Gillnets and shore seines are used to catch Amblygaster spp. along the Eraviputhenthurai coast and along the coastal zones of south west coasts of India.

  5. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, a coastal site on the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, Elgar

    We report here the observations of the aerosol studies carried-out for three years (2000-2002) at Dona-Paula, Goa (15.456°N, 73.801°E), a coastal site on the west coast of India. Aerosol optical depths were measured using a five channel sunphotometer with wavelengths at 440, 500, 675, 870 and 936 nm. The site enjoys a tropical climate and is under the influence of the strong southwest or summer monsoon and weak northeast or winter monsoon. Being a coastal station land-sea breeze play an important role in the variations of the aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Arabian Sea. The mean aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) at 500 and 870 nm are 0.46 (±0.15) and 0.23 (±0.097), respectively, while the Angstrom exponent is 1.31 (±0.347). The aerosol properties over the site showed a distinct seasonal variations, with high values of AOT observed during summer, with mean values of 0.48 (±0.15) and 0.26 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively, while during the winter relatively low values were observed, with mean value of 0.41 (±0.14) and 0.19 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively. The values of Angstrom exponents observed at the site suggest that the aerosol comprise mostly of the small size particles, with relatively larger particles being observed during summer than winter. An anti-correlation is observed between the inter-annual variations in the aerosol loading and the rainfall over Goa. Aerosol properties show diurnal variations, with comparatively lower values of AOT being observed in the evening. These diurnal variations are within a limit of 10% of the average values observed for the day. Seasonal patterns in the diurnal variations of aerosol optical depths have been observed. Considering the effect of the meteorological parameters over the aerosol, it is observed that the AOT is positively correlated with water vapor column, however the wind is found to aid in the reduction of aerosol load over Goa. It can be inferred from the weak

  6. West-Coast Wide Expansion and Testing of the Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Grapenthin, R.; Melgar, D.; Aranha, M. A.; Allen, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) was developed in collaboration between the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and New Mexico Tech for real-time Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). G-larmS has been in continuous operation at the BSL since 2014 using event triggers from the ShakeAlert EEW system and real-time position time series from a fully triangulated network consisting of BARD, PBO and USGS stations across northern California (CA). G-larmS has been extended to include southern CA and Cascadia, providing continuous west-coast wide coverage. G-larmS currently uses high rate (1 Hz), low latency (< 5 s), accurate positioning (cm level) time series data from a regional GPS network and P-wave event triggers from the ShakeAlert EEW system. It extracts static offsets from real-time GPS time series upon S-wave arrival and performs a least squares inversion on these offsets to determine slip on a finite fault. A key issue with geodetic EEW approaches is that unlike seismology-based algorithms that are routinely tested using frequent small-magnitude events, geodetic systems are not regularly exercised. Scenario ruptures are therefore important for testing the performance of G-larmS. We discuss results from scenario events on several large faults (capable of M>6.5) in CA and Cascadia built from realistic 3D geometries. Synthetic long-period 1Hz displacement waveforms were obtained from a new stochastic kinematic slip distribution generation method. Waveforms are validated by direct comparison to peak P-wave displacement scaling laws and to PGD GMPEs obtained from high-rate GPS observations of large events worldwide. We run the scenarios on real-time streams to systematically test the recovery of slip and magnitude by G-larmS. In addition to presenting these results, we will discuss new capabilities, such as implementing 2D geometry and the applicability of these results to GPS enhanced tsunami warning systems.

  7. Modeling studies of impacts from the Guinea Highlands in relation to tropical cyclogenesis along the West African coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, C. Forbes; Chiao, Sen

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three separate events of tropical cyclogenesis (TC-genesis) off the West African coast between the years of 2006 and 2008 were performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the processes that take place during the transition of an African easterly wave (AEW) and any associated mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) as they progress from continental West Africa into the maritime environment of the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Three tropical cyclones that were associated with AEWs and related MCSs over continental West Africa that progressed off the coast, later achieving at least tropical storm (TS) strength, were selected to be investigated. The three tropical cyclones were: TS Debby (2006), Hurricane Helene (2006), and TS Josephine (2008). The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was utilized to conduct numerical model simulations beginning 72 h prior to each system's AEW being classified as a tropical depression (TD). Results demonstrated that the model was able to recapture the evolution of each MCS in association with AEWs during all three events. The sensitivity experiments of the impact of topography (i.e., Guinea Highlands) suggested that the elevation of the Guinea Highlands plays a significant role in relation to TC-genesis, even though the highest peaks of the Guinea Highlands are only approximately 1,300 m. Simulation results supported that topographical blocking and northwest deflection of strong southwest winds from the Atlantic played an important role in the enhancement of low-level cyclonic circulation. Without the presence of the Highlands, wind speeds associated with each circulation by simulation's end were either weaker or the simulation failed to generate a circulation completely. As the MCSs developed along the coast, they became phase locked in the downstream flow of an AEW as it exited the West African coast. The MCS in each event acted as a catalyst for TC-genesis with the associated AEW. Without the

  8. Morphological variation in the hydromedusa genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, John T.; Larson, R. J.

    1980-11-01

    Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

  9. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  10. Anomalous Ocean Warming off the U.S. West Coast in 2014 and its Impacts on Marine Ecosystem and Seabird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y.; Farrara, J. D.; Bjorkstedt, E.; Enright, W.; Fisher, J. L.; Peterson, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Exceptionally warm ocean temperatures developed across a wide area off the U.S. west coast in 2014. Observations from a suite of platforms (e.g., ship, mooring, glider) were used to document this anomalous warming. Positive heat content anomalies approaching 109 Joules occurred at a number of locations along the coast for much of the latter half of 2014. Spatially, the warming manifested itself strongly in the two leading modes of variability in the heat content in the extra-tropical eastern Pacific. One mode represents the coastal warming from late 2014 to early 2015, while the other mode resembles the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) peaking from late 2013 to early 2014. Lagged correlations between the mooring temperature in Monterey Bay and satellite sea surface height suggest that the coastal warming was associated with the warming over a much larger region in the northeast Pacific Ocean probably due to anomalous atmospheric heating. Impacts of this U.S. west coastal warming on the marine ecosystem and seabird will be described.

  11. Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

    2012-12-01

    Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal

  12. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  13. Coastal hazards projections on the U.S. West Coast using a dynamic water level modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Foxgrover, A. C.; O'Neill, A.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies of future coastal flooding vulnerability consider sea level rise and tides only, typically applying a bath-tub type approach that omits key physical-forcing factors that elevate flood levels during storm events such as waves, surge and fluvial discharge. Here we present a new modeling approach that considers all the relevant factors that contribute to elevated water levels for open coast and embayment settings along the U.S. West Coast during projected 21stcentury storms. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) is a numerical modeling system developed to predict coastal flooding due to both SLR and plausible 21st century storms for active-margin settings like the U.S. West Coast. CoSMoS applies a predominantly deterministic framework that encompasses large geographic scales (100s to 1000s of kilometers) yet models flood extents to a local resolution (2 m) so that storm related changes in water levels at the shore can be resolved. In the latest iteration of CoSMoS applied to San Francisco Bay, efforts were made to incorporate water level fluctuations in response to trapped coastal waves, low pressure systems, ocean swell energy penetrating through the Golden Gate, locally wind-generated waves, and backflow induced by river discharge. The end product is a web-based tool (www.prbo.org/ocof) where users can assess variations in flood extent, maximum flood depth, maximum current velocities and wave heights in response to a number of potential SLR and storm combinations, providing direct support for adaptation and management decisions. Future efforts in Southern California will feature a dynamic coastal DEM that evolves over decadal time scales to provide updated boundary conditions for future storm simulations.

  14. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  15. Review of "the Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" and "the Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS".

    PubMed

    Cairns, J Scott

    2006-01-11

    Two recent meetings held on the west coast of the USA highlighted current work being done in the field of retrovirology and AIDS. The meetings, "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" (Palm Springs CA; October 6-8, 2005), and the "Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS" (Portland OR; September 21-24) covered a broad range of topics. The highlights covered here are not meant to be inclusive but reflect presentations of interest in the identification and development of new HIV therapies and the role played by animal models in their development.

  16. 77 FR 36192 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The ACL...-aside for incidental landings in other CPS fisheries. This final rule is intended to conserve and manage... the estimated biomass for Pacific mackerel to the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council)...

  17. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... http://www.pcouncil.org/ . Background The Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP and its implementing regulations at title 50 in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 660, subparts C through G, regulate... retention regulations at 50 CFR 660.231(b)(3)(iv) to read as follows: ``75 lb (34 kg) dressed weight...

  18. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  19. Vegetation phenology gradients along the west and east coasts of Greenland from 2001 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mojtaba; Hansen, Birger Ulf; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Abermann, Jakob; Lund, Magnus; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Elberling, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation phenology along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Greenland, and to examine local and regional climatic drivers. Time-series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed to obtain various phenological metrics for the period 2001-2015. MODIS-derived land surface temperatures were corrected for the sampling biases caused by cloud cover. Results indicate significant differences between West and East Greenland, in terms of both observed phenology during the study period, as well as the climatic response. The date of the start of season (SOS) was significantly earlier (24 days), length of season longer (25 days), and time-integrated NDVI higher in West Greenland. The sea ice concentration during May was found to have a significant effect on the date of the SOS only in West Greenland, with the strongest linkage detected in mid-western parts of Greenland.

  20. Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

  1. Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

  2. Microdistribution within a population of Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in Little Killary, west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, A.; Keegan, B. F.

    1998-03-01

    Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), like many other infaunal ophiuroids, has a penchant for gregariousness. In Little Killary, a small embayment on the west coast of Ireland, it colonises an extensive tract of sandy inshore ground (ca 7 m depth), at densities of 150-200 individuals/m2. In the course of a two-year study, variation in regular suction-sampling returns prompted a detailed study of the species distribution pattern. Towards this end, 256 contiguous and stratified core samples were taken along a line of transect, in May 1995. These showed randomness with respect to the population at large, but exposed an aggregated distribution for juveniles and adults separately, at different levels within the sediment. Juveniles formed wide, ‘loose’ patches in the surficial deposit, while adults formed smaller, denseer patches deeper within the sediment. It remains to be seen what this approach may expose, when applied in different seasons, or during different phases of the species life cycle.

  3. Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

  4. Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sangeeta; Bhosale, Darshana; Bhosle, Narayan

    2011-10-01

    Organotins, especially tributyltins (TBT) are highly toxic to many marine organisms. These compounds are introduced in marine waters by ship trafficking, ship scrapping activities, as antifouling compounds and sewage disposal. Marine fishes, crustaceans and molluscans are easily prone to organotins contamination. In view of this, a baseline monitoring study was conducted in order to establish the levels of organotins in edible marine fishes, bivalves, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from Mumbai, Goa and Karwar on the west coast of India. At these locations average organotin concentration found in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs was 108, 852, 179, 70 and 89 ng Sn g(-1)dw, respectively. In all the samples butyltins dominated over phenyltins. The levels of organotins suggest that all the organisms were contaminated with organotins and their consumption may pose health problems to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  6. Biological observations on the bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus from deep waters off the south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; White, W T; Bineesh, K K; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

    2013-05-01

    Biological data are presented for the poorly known bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea at depths of 200-500 m off the south-west coast of India. One hundred and sixty-two individuals, which ranged from 120 to 366 mm total length (L(T)), were collected for this study. Size-at-maturity (L₅₀) for females and males was estimated at 252 and 235 mm L(T), respectively. The reproductive mode of B. hispidus was aplacental viviparity, which is the rarest reproductive mode within the Scyliorhinidae and is considered to be the most advanced of the three reproductive modes occurring within this family. Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed B. hispidus feeds on a variety of prey, primarily fishes.

  7. Hourly storm characteristics along the U.S. West Coast: Role of atmospheric rivers in extreme precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamjiri, M. A.; Dettinger, M. D.; Ralph, F. M.; Guan, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Gridded hourly precipitation observations over the conterminous U.S., from 1948 to 2002, are analyzed to determine climatological characteristics of storm precipitation totals. Despite generally lower hourly intensities, precipitation totals along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) are comparable to those in southeast U.S. (SEUS). Storm durations, more so than hourly intensities, strongly modulate precipitation-total variability over the USWC, where the correlation coefficients between storm durations and storm totals range from 0.7 to 0.9. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) contribute 30-50% of annual precipitation on the USWC and make such large contributions to extreme storms that 60-100% of the most extreme storms, i.e., storms with precipitation-total return intervals longer than 2 years, are associated with ARs. These extreme storm totals are more strongly tied to storm durations than to storm hourly or average intensities, emphasizing the importance of AR persistence to extreme storms on the USWC.

  8. Developing erosion models for integrated coastal zone management: a case study of The New Caledonia west coast.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Pascal; Printemps, Julia; Mangeas, Morgan; Luneau, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The tropical climate and human pressures (mining industry, forest fires) cause significant sediment inputs into the New Caledonia lagoon and are a major cause of degradation of the fringing reefs. The erosion process is spatially characterized on the west coast of New Caledonia to assess potential sediment inputs in the marine area. This paper describes the methodologies that are used to map soil sensitivity to erosion using remote sensing and a geographic information system tool. A cognitive approach, multi-criteria evaluation model and Universal Soil Loss Equation are implemented. This article compares the relevance of each model in order to spatialize and quantify potential erosion at catchment basin scale. These types of studies provide valuable results for focusing on areas subject to erosion and serve as a decision-making tool for the minimization of lagoon vulnerability to the natural and human dynamics on the level of the catchment basins. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

  10. Variation of Ca, Sr, Ba and Mg in the otolith of mudskipper in west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sarimin, A S; Ghaffar, M A; Mohamed, C A R

    2009-02-01

    A study on elemental composition in the otolith of giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, was done from June to October 2003. Specimens were obtained from the mangrove areas of Kuala Selangor, Sepang and Melaka in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 70 sagitta otoliths were analyzed to detect variation of Sr, Ba and Mg, replacing the natural chemical composition of the otolith, which is the calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The average ratio of Sr:Ca was 0.11 x 10(-4), Ba:Ca was 5.7 x 10(-3) and Mg:Ca was 0.2 x 10(-3). Strong correlation (R > 0.8) between fish body size and otolith weight ofmudskipper (p < 0.01) also found during this study.

  11. Metamorphic waters from the pacific tectonic belt of the west coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1970-01-01

    Waters unusually rich in ammonia, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrocarbons are found in more than 100 localities along the Pacific coast of the United States. The waters are believed to be products of low-grade metamorphism of marine sediments. The marine sedimentary rocks would have to be tectonically emplaced below crystalline rocks in many places. Mercury are deposits are probably also products of the low-grade metamorphism.

  12. Ground-water quality of coastal aquifer systems in the West Coast Basin, Los Angeles County, California, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Reichard, Eric G.; Crawford, Steven M.; Everett, Rhett; Newhouse, Mark W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2004-01-01

    The extensive use of ground water throughout the Central and West Coast Basins of Los Angeles County during the first half of the 20th century resulted in declining water levels, widespread seawater intrusion, and deterioration of water quality along most reaches of the coast. In order to control seawater intrusion in the West Coast Basin, freshwater is injected into a series of wells at two seawater barrier projects. In order to better understand the processes of seawater intrusion and the efficiency of current barrier operation, data were collected from multiple-well monitoring sites installed by the U.S. Geological Survey, from local observation wells, and from production wells. The occurrence and areal extent of native, saline, and recently injected ground water near the coast were defined through the collection and analysis of inorganic and isotopic water-quality data and geophysical logs. Most water in the West Coast Basin with a dissolved-solids concentration less than 500 milligrams per liter generally has a sodium-bicarbonate to sodium/calcium-bicarbonate character. Water with a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter also contains variable amounts of calcium and sodium, but chloride is predominant. Most of these high-dissolved-solids wells are perforated in the Upper aquifer systems; several have dissolved-chloride values near that of seawater. Elevated chloride concentrations were measured at many wells in both the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the barrier projects. Although water levels have increased in many wells over the last 30 years, some of the wells do not show a corresponding decrease in dissolved chloride. A detailed assessment of saline ground water was provided by examining the ratios of chloride to bromide, iodide, and boron. Seawater-freshwater mixing lines were constructed using all three ratios. These ion ratios also identify water affected by mixing with injected imported water and oil

  13. Dynamical Modeling of Land-Sea Breeze (LSB) Hodograph Rotation along the Guinean Coast of West African

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    This study has examined the dynamics of LSB rotation along the Guinea coast of West Africa. The earlier observational study shows the occurrence of LSB throughout the year with seasonal variability in the region. While LSB circulation formed everywhere along the Guinean coasts, the hodographs exhibited both theoretically expected CR as well as "anomalous" CounterCoriolis ACR. Due to the complex, non-linear nature of LSB, numerical modeling presented the only possible method by which to understand the underlying dynamics of this mesoscale phenomenon. A numerical simulation was therefore performed using WRF and subsequently evaluated for accuracy using local observations. Observed and simulated daily hodographs were compared and an evaluation methodology was used to assess the ability of WRF to capture LSB kinematics. The diurnal evolution of modelled and observed onshore winds were found to be in good agreement. However, WRF offered no options for examining the underlying dynamics of LSB, the original WRF-ARW code was adjusted to allow for the extraction of the individual components of the horizontal momentum equations from the solver. Generally, the terms found to have significant contribution to the total momentum balance over the region included pressure gradient (separated into surface and synoptic components), advection, and horizontal and vertical diffusion. Since the selected region is close to the equator, Coriolis term generally did not have significant effects on the LSB circulation. The direction of rotation was found to be a result of a complex interaction between surface and synoptic pressure gradients, advection, and horizontal and vertical diffusions. Real case simulation showed a complex pattern of CR and ACR regions along the coastline of West Africa. The regions over water appear to be dominated by ACR, while the regions over land showed more CR. This can likely be attributed to the variation of surface roughness due the landscape and urbanization.

  14. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Nio. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Nio of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Nio did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Nio winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Nio is principally linked to the El Nio Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Nio), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-07-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Niño. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Niño of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Niño did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Niño winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Niño is principally linked to the El Niño Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Niño), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

  16. Brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolic compounds in North American west coast bald eaglet (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-10-15

    We report on the identity, characterization, and spatial trends of several brominated flame retardants and hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) organohalogen contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling plasma collected from sites along the west coast of North America. Samples were from four southwestern British Columbia (BC) locations, a reference site in northern BC (Fort St. James; FSJ), and from Santa Catalina Island, CA (SCI), an area of high DDT and PCB contamination. Mean concentrations of sigma polybrominated diphenyl ether (sigma PBDE (8 congeners monitored); 1.78-8.49 ng/g), sigma OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma OH-PCB (30 congeners monitored); 0.44-0.87 ng/g), and sigma OH-PBDE (14 congeners monitored; 0.31-0.92 ng/g) were similar in eaglets from southwestern BC yet lower than for SCl and significantly higher than for FSJ. Dominant PBDE congeners were BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100, but SCl eaglets also contained low levels of higher brominated congeners. 4-OH-CB187 and 4'-OH-CB202 accounted for 65-100% of sigma OH-PCB in all BC eaglets, with 4'-OH-CB202 as well as 3'-OH-CB138 and 4-OH-CB146 dominating in SCl eaglets. Ostensibly of biogenic origin, 6'-OH-BDE49 and 6-OH-BDE47 were found in BC nestlings. Only 4'-OH-BDE49 (2.10 ng/g) was found in SCl eaglets. MeO-PBDEs and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were not found in any birds, but the polybrominated biphenyl BB101 was detected in southwestern BC samples. This study demonstrates that west coast North American bald eagles contain previously unreported organohalogens, which have the potential to impact the health and survival of these raptors.

  17. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels.

  18. Distribution of Sargassum muticum on the North West coast of Spain: Relationships with urbanization and community diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incera, Mónica; Olabarria, Celia; Cacabelos, Eva; César, Javier; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2011-04-01

    Invasions are common in coastal marine environments where proximity to urban areas should influence the number of non-native organisms due to the likelihood of unintentional introductions from urban centers. Invasive species are widely recognised as important agents of global change, and can colonize new habitats and even cause local extinction of native species. This study was focused on the invasive marine macroalga Sargassum muticum, a problematic invasive species on the West coast of America and in European waters. An intensive survey was carried out along the Galician coast (North West of Spain) from March to August 2008 to determine the current distribution of this species, and its relationship with level of urbanization and native macroalgal diversity. We sampled the presence of S. muticum and native macroalgae in the mid and low intertidal zones of twenty rocky shores distributed along ten rias. Rias were grouped into high and scarcely urbanized based on their population density. Results indicated that S. muticum was present in nine out of the ten rias, confirming its presence in most of the intertidal rocky shores of Galicia twenty years after it was first observed. The presence of S. muticum was not related to the degree of urbanization of the rias, and its distribution and abundance did not seem to be influenced by diversity or functional groups of native algae. In addition, there was a great variability in the percentage cover, number and length of individuals amongst localities and rias suggesting that both large-scale and local processes may play a role in the distribution of this species. This study highlights the importance of future research into the distribution and impact of introduced algae and proves the urgent need for monitoring programmes and increasing efforts to prevent and control new introductions.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  20. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009–10 El Niño. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009–10 winter was similar to the last significant El Niño of 1997–98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009–10 El Niño did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997–98 and two significant non-El Niño winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009–10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997–98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009–10 El Niño is principally linked to the El Niño Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Niño), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

  1. Environmental Relationship of Benthic Fauna in the Near Shore Waters off Gulf of Kutch, North West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Bhat, U. G.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken for a period of two years from December 2010 to May 2012.Studying the benthos of Gulf of Kutch near shore waters is also useful in understanding changes in biological diversity of Gujarat coast. The use of benthos in aquatic ecological research is especially effective in assessing long term changes and detecting input from diffuse sources. The benthos reflects the effects organic enrichment by responding through detectable changes in population dynamics on a time scale of months to years. This is in contrast to plankton which shows a more immediate change to point sources with no long term consequences to the populations (Gray et al 1992). Benthoses were collected from 6 stations on regular basis and were identified. Altogether 60 species belonging to 39 families were identified and placed taxonomically during the course of investigation with sediment samples. Benthic environmental relationship species were observed and recorded. Our studies of monthly comparisons have become an interesting and popular approach in ecology and environmental relationships in the past a number of studies have been conducted on the ecology of macro benthic populations of Gulf of Kutch near shore. My research helps in Gulf of Kutch of the west coast of India has become an important economic asset of the country serving commercial navigation and the fishing sector with environmental relation of benthos in the Gulf of Kutch Gujarat. India.

  2. Distribution of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) off the west coast of Mexico and notes on its morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Michel E.; Papiol, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A large series of specimens of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata; Benthesicymidae) was collected during an extensive survey of deep-water invertebrate fauna off western Mexico. In total, 61 males and 122 females (M:F ratio = 1:2) from 44 sampling stations were examined, considerably increasing the number of known specimens and sampling localities for this species which is widely distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The collection is the largest available for this species to date and presents first records from off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and a slight increase of the northernmost record within the Gulf of California. On the whole, females grew larger than males. The petasma of males of different sizes and the female thelycum of Benthesicymus tanneri are illustrated. The petasma of Benthesicymus tanneri presents a ventrolateral crescent-shape process otherwide found only in Benthesicymus tirmiziae Crosnier, 1978 and in Benthesicymus bartletti S.I. Smith, 1882. A key to the four species of Benthesicymus presently known from the eastern Pacific is presented. PMID:25632254

  3. The Gold Coast Nationalist Reaction to the Controversy over Higher Education in Anglophone West Africa and Its Impact on Decision Making in the Colonial Office, 1945-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emudong, Charles Peter

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates that nationalist pressure, especially from the Gold Coast (Ghana), was the crucial force behind the British Colonial Office's decision to promote higher education in Anglophone West Africa. It places the issues of establishing African universities into the context of an evolving colonial policy of neocolonialism. (SLD)

  4. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  5. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

  6. 75 FR 78229 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Department of the Navy Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft...) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) Section 4332... regulations (32 CFR part 775), and the Marine Corps Environmental Compliance and Protection Manual, which is...

  7. Urban Agglomeration and Extension in Northern Coast of West Java: A Transformation into Mega Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Octifanny, Y.; Hudalah, D.

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, at least three neighbouring metropolitan areas in the northwestern part of the island have been merging with each other: Jakarta Metropolitan Area (Jabodetabek), Bandung Metropolitan Area (Bandung Raya), and Cirebon Metropolitan Area (Ciayumajakuning). It is expected to be the first island-based mega-conurbation. This paper explores the potential emergence of mega region as a ground study, where mega region can be used for economic, logistic, transportation development. Authors use scoring analysis from economic and demographic indicators. The outcomes found a new and larger formation of city-region in the northern coast road networks (Pantura) - specifically western part of Java Island.

  8. Game Times and Higher Winning Percentages of West Coast Teams of the National Football League Correspond With Reduced Prevalence of Regular Season Injury.

    PubMed

    Brager, Allison J; Mistovich, Ronald J

    2017-02-01

    Brager, AJ and Mistovich, RJ. Game times and higher winning percentages of west coast teams of the National Football League correspond with reduced prevalence of regular season injury. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 462-467, 2017-West coast teams of the National Football League are more statistically likely to win home night games against east coast opponents. The alignment of game times with daily rhythms of alertness is thought to contribute to this advantage. This study aims to determine whether rates of turnovers and injuries during the regular season, putative measures of mental and physical fatigue, impact winning percentages. Regular season schedules and rates of turnovers for each of the 32 teams were obtained from Pro-Football-Reference. We developed our own metric of injury risk for each position obtained from depth charts and regular season schedules. This metric compared cumulative weeks on injury reserve with cumulative time zone travel. West coast teams traveled 4 times as often as east coast teams. However, teams traveling eastward won twice as many games. There was no relationship between the extent and direction of travel and number of turnovers. Losing teams had more turnovers. The offensive and defensive lines in Central Time (CT) were placed on injury reserve 4 times as often as offensive and defensive lines in Pacific Time (PT). Injury prevalence in CT vs. PT was most prominent midseason. Plotting midseason game time relative to biological time revealed that PT teams play games closer to endogenous peaks in alertness, whereas CT teams play games closer to endogenous troughs in alertness. Overall, closer alignment of game time with the endogenous "alerting" signal may protect west coast teams from fatigue-related injuries and suggests for modified strength and conditioning programs.

  9. Measurements of elemental composition in background aerosol on the west coast of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öblad, M.; Selin, E.

    Concentrations of 14 elements in long distance transported aerosol have been measured in a rural site on the W coast of Sweden. The measurements were made during one winter and two summer periods, 1981-1984. Sampling was made with a dichotomous virtual impactor. Element analysis was made by photon induced X-ray fluorescence. The element concentrations were related to air mass trajectories. A strong dependence of the concentration variations with air mass history is found for most elements, in particular Pb, S, V, Zn and Cl. Median concentrations for the 14 elements in the two size fractions are reported and compared with previous measurements in central Sweden at the same latitude. Significant deviations are found for S and V. Concentrations of particulate S have proven to be very insensitive to locally produced SO 2 emissions. This makes measurements of fine particulate S on the Swedish W coast an excellent tool for checking the S transport from other countries to Sweden. The ratios Br/Pb in fine particles and the coarse/fine ratios for particulate lead have, together with air mass trajectories, been used to suggest source areas for automotive lead. The soil derived elements, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn, also demonstrate variations with air mass trajectories. Enrichment factors for coarse particles of Ca, Mn and Ti with iron as a reference show variations that we believe are typical for the soil of the source area.

  10. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Abhijit; Nigam, Rajiv

    2014-04-01

    Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15-3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50-60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150-1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50-60 m. Within 150-1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (>1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

  11. Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Diop, Mamadou; Touré, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2014-09-15

    The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE WEST COAST IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  13. THE WEST COAST IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  14. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño on West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Niño winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Niño in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Niño shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Niño winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Niño show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid

  15. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded along the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, U; Stein, J E; Tilbury, K L; Meador, J P; Sloan, C A; Clark, R C; Chan, S L

    1994-05-02

    The concentrations of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, chlordanes) and essential (e.g. zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g. mercury, lead, arsenic) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991 at sites from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, AK, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, WA, and San Francisco Bay, CA. The majority of animals were stranded at sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. The gray whale has the unique feeding strategy among Mysticeti of filtering sediments to feed on benthic (bottom dwelling) invertebrates. Thus, the wide geographical distribution of the stranded whales allowed (1) an initial assessment of whether concentrations of chemical contaminants in these whales exhibited region specific differences and (2) whether toxic chemicals that accumulate in sediments may have contributed to the mortality and stranding of gray whales near the more polluted urban areas. Analyses for chlorinated hydrocarbons in blubber from 22 animals showed no apparent significant differences among stranding sites. The concentrations of sigma PCBs and sigma DDEs in blubber, for example, ranged from 120 to 10,000 and 9 to 2100 p.p.b. (ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Additionally, analyses of chlorinated hydrocarbons and selected elements in liver (n = 10) also showed no apparent significant differences between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at more pristine sites (Alaska, Washington outer coast and Strait of Juan de Fuca and Strait of Georgia). For example, the concentrations of sigma PCBs and sigma DDEs in liver ranged from 79 to 1600 and 7 to 280 p.p.b., respectively, and the concentrations of the toxic elements, mercury and lead ranged from 9 to 120 and 20 to 270 p.p.b., respectively. Analyses of stomach contents revealed low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons, but high concentrations (wet

  16. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  17. The West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Forecast Model Project and Associated Sea Level Data Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, W.; Crowley, H.; Ferris, J.; Hale, D.; Urban, G.; Whitmore, P.

    2007-12-01

    Forecast (hydrodynamic) modeling is a necessary component in the refinement of tsunami warnings. Model results predict coastal regions likely to be impacted by either non-threatening or by destructive waves. They are used to predict the time of landfall and impact level, and play a role in hazard assessment. Model output data are integrated into the operational environment, where they are scaled and refined in real time with a new sea level analysis tool known as TideView. Over the last two years the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) forecast model project has grown to include use in hazard assessment on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is also undergoing an upgrade to include inundation boundary conditions, increased use of nested finer meshes, more graphical output options for watch standers, and more flexible input of real time sea level data. The objective of this project is to provide warning center personnel with immediate, widespread tsunami amplitude forecasts based on pre-computed models and sea level observations. The TideView sea level data analysis software, developed at the WCATWC, enables warning center personnel to mesh observed tsunami information with the forecast model. The software also provides an easy method to compare observed waves with predicted tide and estimated tsunami arrival times, as well as digitally filter the tsunami signal. TideView interacts with the center's geographical information system and message generation software. This talk summarizes numerical and operational enhancements to the WCATWC forecast model and sea level analysis tools. Several examples from the Kuril Islands Tsunami of 11-15-06 will be given, along with a preview of new graphical outputs available to watch standers.

  18. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  19. Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

    2010-12-01

    Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due

  20. What is the variability in US west coast winter precipitation during strong El Niño events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Chen, Mingyue

    2016-12-01

    Motivated by the fact that the spatial pattern of the observed precipitation anomalies during 2015/16 winter (a year of strong El Niño) over the west coast of the US and that of the El Niño composite precipitation pattern had considerable differences, the variability in the winter precipitation during strong El Niño events is assessed. The analysis is based on a set of hindcasts (1982-2011) and real-time forecasts (2012-2015) from NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2), and the following aspects for seasonal mean precipitation variability were examined: (1) the mean signal during strong El Niño based on the composite analysis, and further, the variability from the composite on an event-to-event basis; (2) probability of occurrence for precipitation anomalies to be opposite to the signal (inferred as the composite mean); (3) the probability to have precipitation anomaly in different categories varying from wet to dry; and (4) variations in the characteristics of precipitation from OND, NDJ, to DJF (early to late boreal winter). The results show that the model forecasted seasonal mean precipitation composite for strong El Niño was similar to the linear regression signal with the Niño 3.4 index in observations, with negative anomalies over the Pacific Northwest and positive anomalies over California. However, although in response to an El Niño event, the California precipitation PDF was shifted towards positive values relative to the climatological PDF, the overlap between climatological PDF and the PDF for El Niño events was considerable. This is because of the large variability in seasonal mean outcomes of precipitation from one forecast to another, and therefore, chances to have precipitation anomalies with their sign opposite to the composite El Niño signal remain appreciable. In this paradigm, although the seasonal mean precipitation during 2015/16 winter over the west coast of the US differed from the mean signal for a strong El Niño event, the

  1. Variability in growth, development and reproduction of the non-native seaweed Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae) on the Irish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Julia; Stengel, Dagmar B.

    2010-12-01

    This study compared seasonal growth, development and reproduction of the invasive brown macroalga Sargassum muticum in habitats with different wave exposure on the Irish west coast. Three field sites with different degrees of wave exposure were chosen for monthly observations to reflect different habitats that were characteristic of the Irish west coast. Growth and receptacle development differed considerably between sites. Growth and receptacle development was lower at the most sheltered site. Here, S. muticum showed signs of early fragmentation in April/May during the two years of investigation (2007 and 2008), whilst the population at an exposed site developed normally and plants grew to a maximum average length of 163 cm by July, with the onset of fragmentation in August. Sargassum muticum in a tide pool exhibited a similar seasonal growth cycle as plants at the exposed open shore site. Overall growth however was stunted, with plants reaching a maximum length of only 30-40 cm in July. Receptacle development was also inhibited at the sheltered site, with a maximum of only 10% of plants found to be fertile during spring and summer 2008, while plants at the exposed site and the tide pool exhibited 100% plant fertility by August. An extensive occurrence of the native epiphyte Pylaiella littoralis on S. muticum was noticed during field sampling at the sheltered study site which may have contributed to inhibited development of S. muticum observed in this area. Seasonal biomass production, photosynthetic activity and plant/frond ratio development were contrasted between Sargassum muticum at the open shore and the tide pool. Sargassum muticum biomass production in the tide pool was 3.5 times lower than that of plants on the open shore. Receptacle development and seasonal photosynthetic activity were similar for tide pool and open shore plants, irrespective of morphological differences. Highest photosynthetic rates (fluorescence yield, Yo) were measured during active

  2. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Risien, C.M.; Strub, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    We form a new ‘blended’ data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55–70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993–31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  3. Biomarker pigment signatures in Cochin back water system - A tropical estuary south west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneeshkumar, N.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2012-03-01

    Sedimentary biomarker pigments around Cochin estuary situated in the southwest coast of India were determined by HPLC. Fucoxanthin, an indicator of diatom was observed to be the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the estuary. Dinoflagellate derived carotenoid pigment peridinin was confined in the southern part of estuary and zeaxanthin pigment indicative of cyanobacteria were more found in sites influenced by anthropogenic activities. One compound having close similarity to fucoxanthin was also detected. Alloxanthin (cryptophyceae), chl b (green algae), canthaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and peridinin isomer were also detected by spectra and corresponding algal class were identified. The highest concentration of chl a (11.01 μg g-1) found near to the anthropogenic affected area while the lowest chl a (0.65 μg g-1) was recorded in industrial area. Degradation products of chl a, such as pheophorbide and pheophytin were observed and principal mode of mechanism of degradation were derived. Higher pheopigments content than chl a, reflects a density trapping of dead cells and early degradation of phytopigments from grazing activities.

  4. Distribution and character of upper mesozoic subduction complexes along the west coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.L.; Blake, M.C.; Bailey, E.H.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Structurally complex sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks characterize a nearly continuous narrow band along the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico to southern Alaska. They occur in two modes: (1) as complexly folded but coherent sequences of graywacke and argillite that locally exhibit blueschist-grade metamorphism, and (2) as melanges containing large blocks of graywacke, chert, volcanic and plutonic rocks, high-grade schist, and limestone in a highly sheared pelitic, cherty, or sandstone matrix. Fossils from the coherent graywacke sequences range in age from late Jurassic to Eocene; fossils from limestone blocks in the melanges range in age from mid-Paleozoic to middle Cretaceous. Fossils from the matrix surrounding the blocks, however, are of Jurassic, Cretaceous, and rarely, Tertiary age, indicating that fossils from the blocks cannot be used to date the time of formation of the melanges. Both the deformation of the graywacke, with accompanying blueschist metamorphism, as well as the formation of the melanges, are believed to be the result of late Mesozoic and early Tertiary subduction. The origin of the melanges, particularly the emplacement of exotic tectonic blocks, is not understood. ?? 1978.

  5. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risien, C. M.; Strub, P. T.

    2016-03-01

    We form a new ‘blended’ data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55-70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993-31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set.

  6. Black Carbon Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer on the West Coast of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; Namwoonde, A.; Feron, A.; Gaimoz, C.; Cazaunau, M.; Hanghome, M.; Broccardo, S. P.; Walton, N.; Klopper, D.; Burger, R.; Desboeufs, K. V.; Siour, G.; Junkermann, W.; Maenhaut, W.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous measurements, since 2012, at the Henties Bay Aerosol Observatory (HBAO; 22°S, 14°05'E), Namibia, show that, during the austral wintertime, transport of black carbon aerosols occurs at low-level into the marine boundary layer towards the South East Atlantic coast. This is ahead of the dry season peak for southern Africa (August to October), when biomass burning aerosols outflow into the free troposphere above the stratocumulus clouds. The concentration of black carbon equivalent associated with this low-level transport is of the order of 100-150 ng m-3. Assuming that they are related to biomass burning, a particle mass concentration of 5-7 µg m-3 and to a number concentration of 300-400 cm-3 is estimated. These values are sufficiently high to enable them, by entrainment, to cause an almost doubling of the cloud optical depth as well as an increase of approximately 40% in cloud reflectivity with respect to pristine conditions. Their direct radiative effect is negligible.

  7. Recent deformation along the offshore Malibu Coast, Dume, and related faults west of Point Dume, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sorlien, C.C.; Dartnell, P.; Sliter, R.W.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wong, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Offshore faults west of Point Dume, southern California, are part of an important regional fault system that extends for about 206 km, from near the city of Los Angeles westward along the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains and through the northern Channel Islands. This boundary fault system separates the western Transverse Ranges, on the north, from the California Continental Borderland, on the south. Previous research showed that the fault system includes many active fault strands; consequently, the entire system is considered a serious potential earthquake hazard to nearby Los Angeles. We present an integrated analysis of multichannel seismic- and high-resolution seismic-reflection data and multibeam-bathymetric information to focus on the central part of the fault system that lies west of Point Dume. We show that some of the main offshore faults have cumulative displacements of 3-5 km, and many faults are currently active because they deform the seafloor or very shallow sediment layers. The main offshore fault is the Dume fault, a large north-dipping reverse fault. In the eastern part of the study area, this fault offsets the seafloor, showing Holocene displacement. Onshore, the Malibu Coast fault dips steeply north, is active, and shows left-oblique slip. The probable offshore extension of this fault is a large fault that dips steeply in its upper part but flattens at depth. High-resolution seismic data show that this fault deforms shallow sediment making up the Hueneme fan complex, indicating Holocene activity. A structure near Sycamore knoll strikes transversely to the main faults and could be important to the analysis of the regional earthquake hazard because the structure might form a boundary between earthquake-rupture segments.

  8. Relationship between the Southeast Pacific Anticyclone and the upwelling favorable winds along the west coast of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems maintains high productive fisheries and marine ecosystems. In particular, the influence of the Southeast Pacific Anticyclone (SPA) results in predominantly southerly winds that sustain the Humboldt Upwelling System (HUS) along the west coast of South America. Under this classical picture, paleoclimatic reconstructions of winds using coastal marine sediments have often assumed that an increase in upwelling favorable winds equals to an intensified SPA through geostrophic adjustment. On the other hand, climate projections under warming scenarios show an increase of the upwelling intensity at the HUS south of 35ºS. Nevertheless, connection between changes in the SPA and upwelling favorable winds has not been considered in detail and Bakuńs hypothesis (i.e. alongshore winds intensified by strengthening the land-sea thermal difference in upwelling regions) has concentrated more attention. We use reanalysis data (CFSR), as well as historical and future simulations of 27 models of the CMIP5 project to investigate the relationship between the SPA and the upwelling favorable winds at several latitudes along the HUS during the upwelling season (Dec-Jan-Feb). Results show a significant relationship between the intensity of the SPA and the upwelling favorable winds south of 35ºS, but not further north. No significant relationship at lower latitudes is probably due to the frequent occurrence of a synoptic low-level jet, which is forced by an alongshore pressure gradient. Composite of the reanalysis data reveal that an increase of upwelling favorable winds at 30ºS is accompanied by an intensified SPA and an increment of the synoptic variability at the coast. In contrast, an increase of upwelling favorable winds at higher latitudes (south of 35ºS) is mainly due to a displacement of the SPA and a decrease of the synoptic variability at the coast is observed. The CMIP5 models show a positive tendency of the SPA intensity which produces an

  9. Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8–D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8–D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 1–5 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8–D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8–D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8–D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes. PMID:22164222

  10. Persistent landfalling atmospheric rivers over the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Ashley E.; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    Landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) are linked to heavy precipitation and extreme flooding, and are well known along the western coast of North America. The hydrological impacts of ARs upon landfall are correlated with their duration and magnitude. In order to improve the forecast of these hydrologically significant landfalling events, a better understanding of how they differ from other landfalling events must be established through an investigation of the mechanisms leading to their development prior to landfall. A subset of persistent landfalling AR events between 30°N and 50°N is identified in 3-hourly Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis and validated against existing data sets. These events are identified as features in the low troposphere with high moisture transport and extended geometry that persist over a limited region of the coastline for longer than 63 h (85th percentile of AR duration). A composite analysis shows that persistent events have distinct thermodynamical and dynamical characteristics compared to all AR events. They are characterized by greater moisture content, suggestive of Pineapple Express-type events, a perturbed upper level jet and anticyclonic overturning of potential vorticity contours associated with anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking. Moreover, the location of the Rossby wave breaking is shifted inland compared to all AR events. Analogue analysis of the 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies is used to find nonpersistent events with similar dynamical characteristics to persistent events. Despite their similarity to persistent events, nonpersistent analogues show very little shift toward longer duration. A comparison of the development of persistent and nonpersistent analogues shows that persistent events have much greater moisture content.

  11. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  12. Characterisation and Comparison of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Extracted from Different Mangrove Species in Cochin estuary (South West Coast of India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolakkal Antony, R.

    2016-02-01

    The samples are collected from Malippuram (10.020 N, 76.210 E), Cochin estuary (South West Coast of India). The area contains various mangrove species, in which we have collected 4 common species (Acanthus Ilicifolis, Avicennia Marina, Avcennia Officianalis and Acrosticum Aurum) among the dominant species in the area. The leaves of these collected samples were freeze dried, grinded and extracted with solvents using standard protocols. The organic layer separated is used for analysing hydrocarbon (n-alkanes and n-alkenes) using Column Chromatography. Recent study (Gireeshkumar et al., 2015) revealed that, long-chain n-alkanes derived from higher plants predominated the inner part of the estuary, while short-chain n-alkanes derived from planktonic sources predominated the bar mouth region. Mangroves are one among the world's most productive ecosystem and form an important part of the coastal and estuarine environment. Living at the interface between land and sea, the mangrove plants have morphological and physiological adaptations to survive in harsh saline environment. Mangroves produce organic carbon well in excess of the ecosystem requirement and contribute significantly to global carbon cycle. They have enormous ecological value. This is the first report of n-alkanes and n-alkenes from these major species in the study area. The qualitative aspects of this study completed and the quantitative aspect is in progress. The stem and root of the collected samples are preserved for future extraction studies.

  13. Hourly storm characteristics along the U.S. West Coast: Role of atmospheric rivers in extreme precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamjiri, Maryam A.; Dettinger, Michael; Ralph, F. Martin; Guan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Gridded hourly precipitation observations over the conterminous U.S., from 1948 to 2002, are analyzed to determine climatological characteristics of storm precipitation totals. Despite generally lower hourly intensities, precipitation totals along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) are comparable to those in southeast U.S. (SEUS). Storm durations, more so than hourly intensities, strongly modulate precipitation-total variability over the USWC, where the correlation coefficients between storm durations and storm totals range from 0.7 to 0.9. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) contribute 30–50% of annual precipitation on the USWC and make such large contributions to extreme storms that 60–100% of the most extreme storms, i.e., storms with precipitation-total return intervals longer than 2 years, are associated with ARs. These extreme storm totals are more strongly tied to storm durations than to storm hourly or average intensities, emphasizing the importance of AR persistence to extreme storms on the USWC.

  14. E/V Nautilus Mapping and ROV Dives Reveal Hundreds of Vents along the West Coast of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R.; Raineault, N.; Embley, R. W.; Merle, S. G.; Girguis, P. R.; Irish, O.; Lubetkin, M.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Cormier, M. H.; Caldow, C.; Freedman, R.; Gee, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus has mapped more than 30,000 km2 of seafloor off the west coast of the United States between July 2015 and September 2016. The 30 kHz EM302 multibeam mapping system collects water column data in addition to bathymetry and backscatter. Examination of the water column data revealed hundreds of distinct vertical features, presumably plumes of methane gas released from the seafloor. While seafloor reservoirs of methane are thought to contribute 5-10% of the global discharge, inventories of seafloor methane seeps are poorly constrained due to the lack of data such as the distribution and abundance of seafloor gas plumes. The results of mapping efforts reveal an unexpected number of methane seeps. ROV dives were then used to provide geological context to the seeps and associated unique biological communities. Altogether these findings contribute significantly to our baseline inventory of seeps along the continental margins of the United States. The presence of unexpectedly large numbers of methane seeps on the US Pacific, Gulf and Atlantic margins may influence the management of human extraction activities on the margin seabed.

  15. Variability in nitrogen uptake and fixation in the oligotrophic waters off the south west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomey, L. J.; Waite, A. M.; Pez, V.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.

    2007-04-01

    The results presented in this study provide the first broad-scale regional characterisation of the phytoplankton-nitrogen dynamics across the continental shelf between the Abrolhos Islands and Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. We demonstrate key features of N-uptake, including nitrate and ammonium uptake and N fixation, across the dominant current systems of the west coast of Australia during a 2-week period in spring-summer. The surface waters of the region were N impoverished with low phytoplankton biomass. Nitrate and ammonium uptake rates were among the lowest on record, and f-ratios were high compared to other oligotrophic systems ( f-ratio ˜0.5 throughout), indicating an equal preference for nitrate and ammonium uptake. Areas of high phytoplankton biomass were most likely fuelled by nitrate transported into the euphotic zone during temporally short bursts of upwelling on ˜weekly, rather than monthly time scales. When upwelling had relaxed, phytoplankton productivity was largely maintained by microbial regeneration in the euphotic zone. A large proportion (20-60%) of the phytoplankton biomass was comprised of picoplankton and nanoplankton cyanobacteria. However, rates of N 2 fixation were 2 orders of magnitude lower than dissolved inorganic N uptake, indicating that N 2-fixation did not significantly contribute to phytoplankton productivity during the study.

  16. Food web of the intertidal rocky shore of the west Portuguese coast - Determined by stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Catarina; Mendonça, Vanessa; Narciso, Luís; Madeira, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of food web structure, energy pathways and trophic linkages is essential for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Isotopic analysis was performed on food web components of the rocky intertidal ecosystem in four sites along the Portuguese west coast. The aim was to 1) determine the general food web structure, 2) estimate the trophic level of the dominant organisms and 3) track the incorporation of organic carbon of different origins in the diet of the top consumers. In this food web, fish are top consumers, followed by shrimp. Anemones and gastropods are intermediate consumers, while bivalves and zooplankton are primary consumers. Macroalgae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus, Codium sp. and phytoplankton are the dominant producers. Two energy pathways were identified, pelagic and benthic. Reliance on the benthic energy pathway was high for many of the consumers but not as high as previously observed in subtidal coastal food webs. The maximum TL was 3.3, which is indicative of a relatively short food web. It is argued that the diet of top consumers relies directly on low levels of the food web to a considerable extent, instead of on intermediate levels, which shortens the trophic length of the food web.

  17. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    PubMed Central

    Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E.; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites. PMID:27812424

  18. Coastal hazards along the U.S. West Coast during the 2015-16 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Hoover, D.; Hubbard, D. M.; Snyder, A.; Ludka, B. C.; Allan, J. C.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Ruggiero, P.; Gallien, T.; Gabel, L.; McCandless, D.; Weiner, H. M.; Cohn, N.; Anderson, D. L.; Serafin, K.

    2016-12-01

    The variability of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation is the dominant driver of inter-annual coastal hazards risk across the Pacific Basin, with the Eastern North Pacific region typically subjected to elevated waves and water levels during the El Niño end member of that climate cycle. Based on climate indices stretching back 145 years, the 2015-16 El Niño was one of the three strongest events ever recorded, along with 1982-83 and 1997-98. By analyzing the last several decades of wave and water level data coupled with the behavior of 29 beaches scattered across the U.S. West Coast, we show that oceanographic forcing and coastal response was unprecedented for many locations during the winter of 2015-16. Winter beach erosion across the study area was 76% above normal, and most beaches in California eroded beyond historical extremes. However, damages across the region were mitigated by anomalously large beach sand volumes at the onset of the El Niño event, driven by unusually low-wave energy conditions in the preceding years, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Nevertheless, if severe El Niño events become more common in the future as some studies suggest, this coastal region, home to over 25 million people, may become increasingly vulnerable to coastal hazards independent of projected sea level rise.

  19. A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with crests >1 km high is the surface expression of an active out-of-sequence fault zone, recently referred to as a splay fault. Such faults are potentially tsunamigenic. This type of fault zone separates the relatively rigid rock of the margin framework from the anelastic accreted sediment prism. Seafloor relief of the ridge exceeds that of similar age accretionary prism ridges indicating preferential slip along the splay fault zone. The greater slip may derive from Quaternary subduction of the Patton Murray hot spot ridge that extends 200 km toward the east across the north Pacific. Estimates of tsunami repeat times from paleotsunami studies indicate that the Semidi segment could be near the end of its current inter-seismic cycle. GPS records from Chirikof Island at the shelf edge indicate 90% locking of plate interface faults. An earthquake in the shallow Semidi subduction zone could generate a tsunami that will inundate the US west coast more than the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes because the Semidi continental slope azimuth directs a tsunami southeastward.

  20. Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

    The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

  1. Health of Chinese illegal immigrants who arrived by boat on the West Coast of Canada in 1999.

    PubMed

    Allan, G Michael; Szafran, Olga

    2005-10-01

    This was a retrospective review and descriptive analysis of the findings from the medical screening examinations conducted on the illegal migrants from Fujian Province of China (n = 589) who arrived on four boats on the West Coast of Canada between June 14 and September 9, 1999. The Canadian Navy conducted a screening medical exam of the illegal migrants, with Health Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada providing suggestions on the format of the exam. The illegal Chinese migrants were predominantly young, male adults. The most prevalent medical conditions detected were dermatological (55.2%), dental problems (25%), trauma (9.2%), urogenital (7.6%), and head/neck (6.6%). Recently induced trauma was more prevalent among females (20.5%) than males (6.5%). One case of community-acquired pneumonia was identified and later diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Physicians dealing with illegal migrants should look for unusual physical findings and have a higher clinical suspicion regarding infectious diseases (tuberculosis, scabies) and abuse. Future encounters with illegal migrants should include standardized immigration screening exams, with adequate history taking and follow-up.

  2. A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with crests >1 km high is the surface expression of an active out-of-sequence fault zone, recently referred to as a splay fault. Such faults are potentially tsunamigenic. This type of fault zone separates the relatively rigid rock of the margin framework from the anelastic accreted sediment prism. Seafloor relief of the ridge exceeds that of similar age accretionary prism ridges indicating preferential slip along the splay fault zone. The greater slip may derive from Quaternary subduction of the Patton Murray hot spot ridge that extends 200 km toward the east across the north Pacific. Estimates of tsunami repeat times from paleotsunami studies indicate that the Semidi segment could be near the end of its current inter-seismic cycle. GPS records from Chirikof Island at the shelf edge indicate 90% locking of plate interface faults. An earthquake in the shallow Semidi subduction zone could generate a tsunami that will inundate the US west coast more than the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes because the Semidi continental slope azimuth directs a tsunami southeastward.

  3. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  4. Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prabhakar R

    2013-10-15

    Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress.

  5. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found.

  6. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  8. Spatial and temporal variations of wave energy in the nearshore waters of the central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of wave power potential at different water depths and time is required for identifying a wave power plant location. This study examines the variation in wave power off the central west coast of India at water depths of 30, 9 and 5 m based on waverider buoy measured wave data. The study shows a significant reduction ( ˜ 10 to 27 %) in wave power at 9 m water depth compared to 30 m and the wave power available at 5 m water depth is 20 to 23 % less than that at 9 m. At 9 m depth, the seasonal mean value of the wave power varied from 1.6 kW m-1 in the post-monsoon period (ONDJ) to 15.2 kW m-1 in the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS) period. During the Indian summer monsoon period, the variation of wave power in a day is up to 32 kW m-1. At 9 m water depth, the mean annual wave power is 6 kW m-1 and interannual variations up to 19.3 % are observed during 2009-2014. High wave energy ( > 20 kW m-1) at the study area is essentially from the directional sector 245-270° and also 75 % of the total annual wave energy is from this narrow directional sector, which is advantageous while aligning the wave energy converter.

  9. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Josefine; Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  10. Habitat characteristics promoting high density and condition of juvenile flatfish at nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedemaecker, F.; Brophy, D.; O'Connor, I.; Comerford, S.

    2012-10-01

    Coastal zones are essential nursery habitats for most juvenile flatfish species. Understanding the habitat requirements promoting high abundance and growth of juvenile flatfish is important for evaluating nursery habitat quality. The present study aimed to assess nursery ground quality for the most common flatfish species: dab (Limanda limanda) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), in Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland. Monthly surveys were carried out in the period after peak settlement over two years. Variability in flatfish density and Fulton's K condition was explained in relation to biotic and abiotic habitat characteristics, differing within and between distinct nursery grounds. Dab were concentrated in deeper waters, were negatively associated with shrimp densities and salinity and their abundance showed a decrease from June to September combined with interannual variation. Plaice densities were highly associated with shallower depths and high polychaete and shrimp densities and were negatively related with increased macroalgal cover and organic content. Most of the variability in Fulton's condition was explained by the same set of variables for both species; year and densities of crab and malacostracans. This analysis revealed important ecological mechanisms allowing the co-existence of two flatfish species in nursery grounds. However, high quality nursery grounds for dab and plaice differed and anthropogenic and climatic impacts on flatfish nurseries are likely to have a different impact on plaice and dab populations. Knowledge gained about the quality of nursery habitat for commercially important fish species provides a basis for mapping essential flatfish habitats to inform management plans for coastal areas.

  11. Dynamic population trends observed in the deep-living Pacific flatnose, Antimora microlepis, on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Peter H.; Keller, Aimee A.; Simon, Victor

    2017-04-01

    As fisheries managers attempt to incorporate ecosystem-based considerations into decision making, it is important to understand the role that non-target species play in the ecosystems that support commercial fisheries. For some deep-water groundfishes, basic information on biology and population dynamics is extremely limited. This study presents findings on the spatial distribution, growth trends, and relative abundance of the Pacific flatnose, Antimora microlepis, using data collected from 2003 to 2015 by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey (WCGBTS). We observed a 67% increase in mean fork-length over the study period reflecting the advancement of strong year-classes from the early 2000s that currently dominate the population as a whole. Catch-weighted depth increased significantly as these cohorts migrated to deeper waters of the continental slope. Although catch per unit effort remained relatively constant, this demographic shift suggests that episodic recruitment may affect the resilience of this stock to fishing mortality over time. A notable decrease in the percentage of females observed after 2012 seemed to indicate the movement of large, older females to depths beyond the 1280 m limit of the survey. Otolith weight provided a useful proxy for age in growth models for this species.

  12. Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M; Mercer, James A

    2011-02-01

    Measurements (1994-2007) from four cabled-to-shore hydrophone systems located off the North American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traffic noise (25-50 Hz) collected in the past decade to measurements made over 1963-1965 with the same in-water equipment at the same sites. An increase of roughly 10 dB over the band 25-40 Hz at one site has already been reported [Andrew et al., Acoust. Res. Lett. Online 3(2), 65-70 (2002)]. Newly corrected data from the remaining three systems generally corroborate this increase. Simple linear trend lines of the contemporary traffic noise (duration 6 to 12+ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady, or decreasing. These results confirm the prediction by Ross that the rate of increase in traffic noise would be far less at the end of the 20th century compared to that observed in the 1950s and 1960s.

  13. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

    2014-02-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

  14. The indigenous Sea Gypsy divers of Thailand's west coast: measurement of carbon monoxide in the breathing air.

    PubMed

    Gold, D; Geater, A; Aiyarak, S; Juengpraert, W

    1999-07-01

    Approximately 400 indigenous divers live and work on Thailand's west coast. They dive with surface supplied air from primitive compressor units mounted on open boats which measure from seven to 11 meters in length. It was suspected that carbon monoxide was present in the breathing air of at least the gasoline-driven compressor units. To determine the presence of carbon monoxide gas in the breathing air, compressed air from the compressor was pumped through the diver air supply hose through a plenum (monitoring) chamber established on the boat. After a compressor warm-up of 15 minutes, the diving air was measured with the boat at eight different bearings to the wind, each 45 degrees apart at intervals of five minutes. Three of the four gasoline-driven compressor units tested showed presence of carbon monoxide in the breathing air. One diesel-driven unit showed a very low concentration of carbon monoxide (3-4 ppm) and six diesel-driven units showed no detectable carbon monoxide. Although not tested, diesel exhaust emissions could also enter the breathing air by the same route. A locally made modification to the compressor air intake was designed and successfully tested on one gasoline-driven compressor unit. An information sheet on the hazards of carbon monoxide as well as on the modification has been developed for distribution among the villages.

  15. Potential Sedimentary Evidence of Two Closely Spaced Tsunamis on the West Coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Rushdy, Ibnu; Moena, Abudzar; Yolanda, Irvan P.

    2016-04-01

    Recent research in the coastal regions of Aceh, Indonesia, an area that was largely affected by the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami, suggests the possibility that two closely spaced tsunamis occurred at the turn of the 14th to 15th century (Meltzner et al., 2010; Sieh et al., 2015). Here, we present evidence of two buried sand layers in the coastal marshes of West Aceh, possibly representing these penultimate predecessors of the 2004 tsunami. We discovered the sand layers in an until recently inaccessible area of a previously studied beach ridge plain about 15 km North of Meulaboh, West Aceh. Here, the 2004 tsunami left a continuous, typically a few cm thick sand sheet in the coastal hinterland in low-lying swales that accumulate organic-rich deposits and separate the sandy beach ridges. In keeping with the long-term progradation of the coastline, older deposits have to be sought after further inland. Using a hand auger, the buried sand layers were discovered in 3 cores in a flooded and highly vegetated swale in about 1 km distance to the shoreline. The pair of sand layers occurs in 70-100 cm depth and overlies 40-60 cm of dark-brown peat that rests on the basal sand of the beach ridge plain. The lower sand layer is only 1-6 cm thick, whereas the upper layer is consistently thicker, measuring 11-17 cm, with 8-14 cm of peat in between sand sheets. Both layers consist of massive, grey, medium sand and include plant fragments. They show very sharp upper and lower boundaries clearly distinguishing them from the surrounding peat and indicating an abrupt depositional event. A previously developed age model for sediments of this beach ridge plain suggest that this pair of layers could indeed correlate to a nearby buried sand sheet interpreted as tsunamigenic and deposited soon after 1290-1400AD (Monecke et al., 2008). The superb preservation at this new site allows the clear distinction of two depositional events, which, based on a first

  16. GLORIA mosaic of west coast U. S. Exclusive Economic Zone, southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range side-scan sonar system GLORIA was used to produce digitally enhanced mosaics of the sea floor of the entire US Exclusive Economic Zone. The data resolution, about 50 x 50 m, provides a mesoscale reconnaissance that reveals the continuity and extent of bottom features, some of which were previously unrecognized. The transform continental margin from the Mendocino Escarpment to the US-Mexican border is cut by numerous submarine canyons and gullies of varied size and complexity. The number, size, and extent of gullies appear directly related to the underlying bed-rock geology. Surprisingly, relatively few slumps and slump scarps are apparent. Submarine fans characterize the basins adjacent to the margin in this sector. The fans vary in size and complexity: relatively small, immature fans of the borderland basins, such as Redondo and Hueneme; fans intermediate in size and age, such as Arguello and Farallon; and large, relatively mature fans, such as Monterey and Delgada. Most fans have well-defined depositional lobes at the distal reach of a single channel. Distributary channels are not apparent on all fans, and on some (e.g., Monterey Fan), the single channel can be seen in seismic reflection profiles to have originated on or close to the basement, directly below its present position. The older depositional lobes that have been identified on the fan systems are adjacent to the present main channel, which implies that channel avulsion is not always a process that accompanies fan growth. Seamounts are prominent features in the region, ranging in number from hundreds in the Baja Seamount province to tens in the region west of San Francisco. The gradient of increasing numbers of exposed seamounts and volcanic ridges from north to south is a direct result of decreasing sediment supply from the continent to the south.

  17. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-03-01

    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 μm), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  18. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  19. DOE West Coast Basin program, California Basin Study: Progress report 4, (July 1986-June 1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Small, L.F.; Huh, Chih-An

    1987-06-01

    The overall objective of our research is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of selected metabolically active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. One focus is to examine the role of zooplankton and micronekton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight, with particular reference to C, N and certain radionuclides and trace metals. A second focus is to examine these same radionuclides and trace metals in other reservoirs besides the zooplankton (i.e., in seawater, sediment trap material and bottom sediments). Knowledge of the rates, routes and reservoirs of these nuclides and metals should lead to a cogent model for these elements in Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. California Basin study (CaBS): DOE west coast basin program

    SciTech Connect

    Small, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of our research continues to be elucidation of the transport pathways and transformations of organic matter in the California Basins region, with particular reference to the role of macrozooplankton in upper waters. We have concentrated on C and N pathways and fluxes to data, and will continue to investigate these further (seasonal aspects, and the role of zooplankton carnivory in zooplankton-medicated C and N flux, for example).

  1. Green house emissions, inventories and evaluation of marine environment visa vis offshore oil field development activities Bombay high (west coast) upstream petroleum sector, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, J.S.; Ahmed, S.; Negi, C.V.S.; Nainwal, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Wide use of petroleum products contributes significant amount of emission to the global environment and hence maintaining emission inventories are of great importance while assessing the global green house emissions. The present paper describes a brief account of green house emission and inventories for CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, HC particulate and SO{sub 2} emissions generated due to upstream petroleum sector activities viz. discharges of gaseous emission, combustion of Natural Gas anti HSD from production and drilling facilities of Bombay offshore area located in Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) west coast of India. Besides, authors have also given an account on west coast marine base line status including impact of oil field activities on marine ecosystem.

  2. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-02-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  3. Sclerochronology of Holocene oyster shells (Crassostrea gigas) from the West Coast of Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, C.; Koeniger, P.; Wang, H.; Frechen, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sclerochronology, the study of periodic increments in skeletal organisms, can decipher the life history and environmental records preserved in fossil shells. Although there have been a number of studies that apply isotopic analyses to shells in open ocean and fresh water, investigations for brackish environments are rare. One of the common inhabitants in estuaries is the Crassostrea oyster. Kirby et al. (1998) demonstrated a close correspondence between the ligamental increments of convex and concave bands and yearly ^18O cycles; Andrus and Crowe (2000) found a close correspondence between translucent growth bands on the cross-section of the hinge and yearly ^18O cycles. They conclude that the morphological features on hinge and growth bands on the cross-section are formed annually and can be used to determine accurately age and growth rate in this species. However, Surge et al. (2001) could not find that these morphologic features have seasonal significance in the C. virginica shells. Therefore, these concave ridges are not reliable independent proxies of seasonality. These studies were carried out with C. virginica shells; none was studied with nature C. gigas, which was widely distributed along the Pacific coastal area. C. gigas has been introduced from its native home to all over the world, ranging from North America to Australia and Europe; it has become an important commercial harvest in many of these places. Buried Holocene oyster shells of C. gigas were sampled from a huge buried oyster reef on the West of Bohai Sea, China. One of these shells was selected for high resolution micro-sampling and stable isotope analyses testing the assumption that C. gigas ligamental increments are annual in nature. We analyzed 236 consecutive samples from the shell to show that morphologic features both on hinge and cross-section are annual by comparing them to the ^18O profiles. We tested the assumption that the morphologic features of C.gigas are delineated by convex tops

  4. Possible magmatic underplating beneath the west coast of India and adjoining Dharwar craton: Imprint from Archean crustal evolution to breakup of India and Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Utpal; Das, Ritima; Rai, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    The shear wave velocity of the crust along a ∼660 km profile from the west to the east coast of South India is mapped through the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity. The profile, consisting of 38 broadband seismic stations, covers the Archean Dharwar craton, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, and rifted margin and escarpment. The Moho is mapped at a depth of ∼40 km beneath the mid-Archean Western Dharwar Craton (WDC), Cuddapah Basin (CB), and the west and east coasts formed through the rifting process. This is in contrast with a thin (∼35 km) crust beneath the late-Archean Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). Along the profile, the average thickness of the upper, middle and lower crust is ∼4 km, 12 ± 4 km and 24 ± 4 km respectively. Above the Moho, we observe a high-velocity layer (HVL, Vs > 4 km/s) of variable thickness increasing from 3 ± 1 km beneath the EDC to 11 ± 3 km beneath the WDC and the CB, and 18 ± 2 km beneath the west coast of India. The seismic wave velocity in this layer is greater than typical oceanic lower crust. We interpret the high-velocity layer as a signature of magmatic underplating due to past tectonic processes. Its significant thinning beneath the EDC may be attributed to crustal delamination or relamination at 2.5 Ga. These results demonstrate the dual signature of the Archean Dharwar crust. The change in the geochemical character of the crust possibly occurred at the end of Archean when Komatiite volcanism ceased. The unusually thick HVL beneath the west coast of India and the adjoining region may represent underplated material formed due to India-Madagascar rifting, which is supported by the presence of seaward dipping reflectors and a 85-90 Ma mafic dyke in the adjoining island.

  5. Satellite sea surface temperatures along the West Coast of the United States during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific marine heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentemann, Chelle L.; Fewings, Melanie R.; García-Reyes, Marisol

    2017-01-01

    From January 2014 to August 2016, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts were significantly warmer than usual, reaching a maximum SST anomaly of 6.2°C off Southern California. This marine heat wave occurred alongside the Gulf of Alaska marine heat wave and resulted in major disturbances in the California Current ecosystem and massive economic impacts. Here we use satellite and blended reanalysis products to report the magnitude, extent, duration, and evolution of SSTs and wind stress anomalies along the West Coast of the continental United States during this event. Nearshore SST anomalies along the entire coast were persistent during the marine heat wave, and only abated seasonally, during spring upwelling-favorable wind stress. The coastal marine heat wave weakened in July 2016 and disappeared by September 2016.

  6. Observations of organic trace gases during ITCT: Characterization of sources, background, and long-range transport to the US West coast and eastern Pacific atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Donnelly, S.; Stroud, V.; Schauffler, S.; Johnson, K.; Schwaller, N.; Hubler, G.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAA ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) mission examined the processes that impact the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and along the West Coast of the United States. The mission took place during April - May, 2002, when long-range transport to the US West Coast from downwind sources in Asia and beyond is most favorable. As part of the atmospheric chemistry payload on the NOAA P3 aircraft, whole air samples were collected for analysis of a variety of organic trace gases, including methane, NMHC, halocarbons, organic nitrates, and selected sulfur species. Mission flight tracks were designed to examine regions characteristic of the background atmosphere, and regions impacted by specific point sources, larger urban sources, and long-range transport. In this presentation we summarize the organic trace gas measurements and relationships from the whole air samples, characterize signatures of emissions from the west coast urban areas, and identify signatures of long-range trans-Pacific transport.

  7. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  8. Numerical study of sea fogs off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula using a Single Column Model coupled with WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Yum, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Sea fog is a weather phenomenon that usually occurs below a marine boundary layer. Over the past several decades, efforts have been made to understand clearly the physical mechanisms of formation, evolution and dissipation of sea fogs using numerical modeling. Recently, 3D numerical simulations with a very high horizontal and vertical resolution have been carried out using mesoscale models to identify the influences of the turbulent mixing within PBL, radiative cooling at the fog top, even aerosols, on the formation of sea fogs. However, expensive computation cost is a big concern for these 3D model simulations with high resolution. Alternatively approach is to use a 1D model, i.e., single column model. However, a typical 1D model does not resolve the horizontal advection and pressure gradient force and therefore it is limited to radiation fog studies. More recent approach is to couple a 1D model with a 3D model to compensate for the limitation of a 1D model. In this study, WRFV3.1.1 is used as a 3D model and Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) is employed as a 1D model. For the 3D simulation, three nested domains of 18 km, 6 km, 2 km are used along with 64 layers in the vertical. Horizontal advections of heat and moisture, geostrophic winds and vertical motion produced every hour from WRFV3.1.1 are provided as an external forcing into the 1D model, CLUBB. CLUBB is designed for studying stable boundary layer as well as convective boundary layer and also supports sophisticated double moment microphysics (e.g., Khairoutdinov and Kogan scheme, and Morrison scheme). Several sea fog events observed in the eastern part of the Yellow Sea near the west coast of Korea are simulated and the effects of radiative cooling and turbulence are examined and a sensitivity tests of microphysics are done using CLUBB. Detailed results will be presented in the conference.

  9. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-05-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2) fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway followed by photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16-25° W, 17-24° N). This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Islands towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled to cover differing oceanic regions such as upwelling and oligotrophic regimes. In 2007, additionally, four days were sampled at high resolution of one sample per hour to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2. Our results indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas oceanic N2 fixation could not be identified as a source for atmospheric H2 during these two cruises. The variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and also affected by a varying origin of air masses. This means for future investigations that only measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of an atmospheric diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. Nevertheless, measurements of atmospheric H2 mixing ratios, which are

  10. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-12-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (N2) to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2) fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway besides photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16-25° W, 17-24° N). This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. Besides this a diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2 was investigated. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008, respectively. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Island towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled. In 2007 additionally four days were sampled with a high resolution of one sample per hour. Our results clearly indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas N2 fixation could not be identified as a H2 source during these two cruises. With our experimental setup we could demonstrate that variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced and biased by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and the origin of air masses. This means for further investigations that just measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of a diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. However, measurements of H2 mixing ratios, which are easy to conduct online during ship cruises could be a helpful tool

  11. Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources.

  12. Environmental magnetism and excursion record of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in marine cores, West Coast South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, F. E.; Wilson, G. S.; Party, Shipboard

    2009-04-01

    Homologous ARM susceptibility (κARM) and magnetic susceptibility (κ) records from u-channel samples of five short cores (TAN0712 cores 14, 15, 17, 23, 27) record the Pleistocene - Holocene transition off the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Cores were collected in water depths ranging from 880-2817 m. Cores 14, 15 and 17 are situated along the north levee of Moeraki Canyon. Cores 15 and 17 are kasten cores that record a relatively homogeneous concentration of single domain (SD) grains. Core 14 is a piston core slightly closer to the edge of Moeraki Canyon. From end of core (EOC) at 3.2 m to 0.75 m, the dominance of κ indicates coarse, multi-domain (MD) magnetic grains; however, low κ units (10-20 cms thick) occur at a mean interval of 0.71 m (n=3). Cores 23 and 27 are situated on the north-west margin of Milford Basin. Variations in magnetic mineral concentration in core 23 occur approximately every 26 cm. Fast Fourier Transform analysis confirms the 26 cm cycle, although it has relatively low spectral power. Core 27 also has a short interval of variable concentration. This variation in 'magnetisability' is inferred to result from fluctuating carbonate concentrations during the glacial period leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three longer piston cores (27, 23, 14) contain a coarse MD interval ranging from 0.35-1 m in thickness, which we infer to represent influx of outwash at the termination of the LGM. Overlying this interval, all five cores display a consistent SD signal inferred to represent hemipelagic sedimentation during the Holocene. Possible geomagnetic excursions are recorded in four of the cores. An inclination transition to 34.2∘ combined with a 180∘ declination transition and NRM intensity low at 0.35-0.39 m in core 17 suggests a true geomagnetic excursion. Core 15 also has inclination shallowing and an intensity low at 0.45 m. An older excursion in core 27 at 2.54-2.69 m and in core 14 at ~2.8 m may correlate. The

  13. Active Subduction on Both Coasts of Costa Rica Does not Represent an Important Tsunami Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2007-05-01

    Costa Rica, on the southern terminus of the Middle American Trench is being affected by active subduction on both, along the Pacific coast as well as on its Caribbean coast. Three main subduction segments can be recognized along the Pacific coast: 1) under northwestern Costa Rica, off Papagayo Gulf and Nicoya peninsula, the Cocos plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate; 2) under southern Costa Rica (Osa and Burica peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under the Panama Block and 3) in the central Pacific coast (between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under a shear zone that marks the transition between the Caribbean and the Cocos plate. Along the Caribbean coast, south of Puerto Limon, the Caribbean plate subducts under the Panama block. Large subduction earthquakes occur under the Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limon. Most of the rupture area of these large events lies below land so the deformation of the ocean floor is minimal and therefore the tsunamis they generate are small. No large subduction earthquakes occur under the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica due to the subduction of small sea mounts that act as small asperities without potential to accumulate large amounts of slip. For this reason the region between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas is not an important tsunamigenic zone.

  14. Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high

  15. Bacterial production, glucosidase activity and particle-associated carbohydrates in Dona Paula bay, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, P. V.; Bhosle, N. B.

    2008-11-01

    Size-fractionated bacterial production, abundance and α- and β- glucosidase enzyme activities were studied with respect to changes in hydrography, total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen ratio (POC:PON), 1.5 M NaCl-soluble and 10 mM EDTA-soluble carbohydrates (Sal-PCHO and CPCHO) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) in the surface waters from July 1999-2000 at a shallow coastal station in Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India. The bulk of the total bacterial production and glucosidase activity were associated with particles (75% and >80%, respectively). Total bacterial production was linearly correlated to chlorophyll a ( r = 0.513; p < 0.05) whereas enzyme activity was significantly correlated to TSM (α-glucosidase: r = 0.721 ( p < 0.001); β-glucosidase: r = 0.596 ( p < 0.01)). Both α-glucosidase ( r = 0.514; p < 0.05) and β-glucosidase enzymes ( r = 0.598; p < 0.01) appeared to be involved in the degradation of CPCHO and Sal-PCHO, respectively. Changes in α-glucosidase/β-glucosidase ratios highlighted the varying composition of particulate organic matter. The bacterial uptake of 14C-labeled bacterial extracellular carbohydrate measured over 11 days showed a strong linear correlation between 14C-uptake and bacterial production using tritiated thymidine. The turnover rate of 14C-labeled carbohydrate-C was 0.52 d -1, higher than the estimated annual mean potential carbohydrate carbon turnover rate of 0.33 ± 0.2 d -1. Our study suggests that carbohydrates derived from sediments may serve as an important alternative carbon source sustaining the bacterial carbon demand in the surface waters of Dona Paula Bay.

  16. Interaction Of Mesoscale Convective Systems With The Land - Sea Breezes Along The Guinea Coast Of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.; Fink, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    1-3 hourly METARS/SYNOP observation data of wind (speed and direction), air temperature over land, covering the period 1983-2012, were used in order to characterize land-sea breezes (LSB) over five coastline stations (Abidjan, Accra, Lomé, Cotonou and Ikeja-Lagos) in the Guinean Coast, West Africa. In additional to this, 8 years (2003-2010) sea surface temperature (SST) data from adjacent Atlantic Ocean and monthly METARS/SYNOP observation data of precipitation (1983-2012) were also used. Based on wind speed and direction, the wind roses of all months over all stations have been plotted. These wind roses reveal that, globally, the northerly winds occurred rarely for the months of February, March, and April at Cotonou (Benin Republic).This is seen for other stations (Lomé and Accra). The night/morning time northerly winds appear at all stations, except Accra where there is no northerly wind or is very weak. According to the stations basis, the period of that night/morning northerly winds varies, except in summer period (July - September), where the normal s/w monsoon winds can weaken override at all stations. Set criteria based on the diurnal reversal of wind direction, and the thermal gradient necessary to drive the wind circulation, was used to identify land-sea breeze days. On station-wide basis, sea-breezes occur, at least all period of year, but less frequent in the summer months, where the minimum value of monthly mean temperature gradient is observed for selected stations.

  17. A statistical description on the wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights off the US West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Local and remote wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights (SSHs) off the US West Coast (USWC) are described with statistical and analytical models. The wind transfer functions are statistically derived from surface wind stress at National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys, located within 50 km from the shoreline, and detided SSHs (SSH anomalies; SSHAs) at shoreline tide gauges for 15 years (1995 to 2009) using linear regression in the frequency domain. A two-dimensional analytical model constrained by the coastal boundary provides a dynamical framework to interpret the data-derived statistical model. Although both transfer functions agree well at low frequency [ σ ≤ 0.4 cycles per day (cpd)], they appear to be inconsistent at high frequency ( σ ≥ 0.8 cpd; e.g., diurnal and its harmonic frequencies) because of incoherent signals between wind stress and SSHAs as well as their low signal-to-noise ratios. A multivariate regression analysis using wind stress at multiple wind buoys is implemented with a modified expectation maximization. The cross-validated skill increases and becomes saturated as the number of regression basis functions increases, demonstrating the influence of local and remote winds. The skill computed from all available winds off the USWC has a maximum as 0.1 in southern California, 0.2 to 0.3 in central California, and 0.3 to 0.5 in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The residual SSHAs, incoherent components with all available coastal wind stress off the USWC, still contain poleward propagating signals, considered as components forced by remote winds outside of the domain.

  18. Radium-226, 232Th, and 40K distribution in the environment of Kaiga of south west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Somashekarappa, H M; Avadhani, D N; Mahesh, H M; Narayana, Y; Siddappa, K

    2001-05-01

    Systematic studies on gamma radiation level and the distribution of natural radionuclides were carried out under a pre-operational survey for the establishment of baseline data on background radiation level and the distribution of radio-nuclides in the environment of Kaiga, in the south west coast of India, where a nuclear power reactor of 235 MWe has just been commissioned. The external gamma absorbed dose rates prevailing in the region were measured using a portable plastic scintillometer. Soil samples from 18 stations were collected from depth intervals of 0-5, 5-10, and 10-25 cm and analyzed for their 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry employing a 90 cc PGT HpGe detector coupled to an EG&G ORTEC 8K multichannel analyzer. The activity of 226Ra was found to vary between 15.5-61.2 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 31.3 Bq kg(-1), that of 232Th varies between 11.4-41.9 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 27.5 Bq kg(-1) and of 40K between 78.3-254.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 159.9 Bq kg(-1) in 0-5 cm soil profiles of the region. The contributions of 238U, 232Th, and 40K to the total gamma absorbed dose rate were 39.9%, 40.7%, and 16.0%, respectively. The gamma absorbed dose rate in air estimated using the results of activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K are found to compare well with that of the direct measurement. The results of the study were compared with the literature values reported for other environs of the country as well as the world, and conclusions are drawn.

  19. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Anne; Adams, Rachel I; Cross, Hugh B; Bruns, Thomas D

    2009-03-01

    The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and the question of whether A. phalloides is an invasive species remains unanswered. We developed four novel loci and used these in combination with the EF1α and IGS loci to explore the phylogeography of the species. The data provide strong evidence for a European origin of North American populations. Genetic diversity is generally greater in European vs. North American populations, suggestive of a genetic bottleneck; polymorphic sites of at least two loci are only polymorphic within Europe although the number of individuals sampled from Europe was half the number sampled from North America. Endemic alleles are not a feature of North American populations, although alleles unique to different parts of Europe were common and were discovered in Scandinavian, mainland French, and Corsican individuals. Many of these endemic European haplotypes were found together at single sites in California. Early collections of A. phalloides dated prior to 1963 and annotated using sequences of the ITS locus proved to be different species of Amanita. The first Californian collections that we confirmed as A. phalloides were made from the Del Monte Hotel (now the Naval Postgraduate School) in Monterey, and on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, in 1938 and in 1945. These historical data are used in combination with data on A. phalloides' current distribution to estimate a rate of spread for A. phalloides in California. Many species of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have been introduced across and among continents, but with this evidence, the death cap becomes the only known invasive EM fungus in

  20. Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

    2009-04-01

    We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kawser; Mehedi, Yousuf; Haque, Rezaul; Mondol, Pulakesh

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8 ± 8.55 to 98.5 ± 6.49, 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.859 ± 0.2 and 4.66 ± 1.17 to 6.77 ± 2.1 μg/g, respectively. Significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) in heavy metal concentrations have been observed among the mud crab, mudskipper and gastropod. However, heavy metal burdens did not vary significantly among the hermit and horseshoe crabs. In mud crab, horseshoe crab and gastropod, heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the sequence: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hermit crab and mudskipper contained heavy metals in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Fe and Zn concentrations were found significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in macrobenthos. The lead (Pb) concentration found in the edible portion of macrobenthos exceeded the international permissible limits certified by the WHO. Bioconcentration factors >1.00 obtained for Fe (17.05 in mudskipper) and Cd (1.87 in gastropod) indicated that these metals were highly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in benthic fauna of Sundarbans. The findings of this study refer to the potential impact of heavy metals in the mangrove ecosystem of Bangladesh.

  2. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  3. Studies on phyto-and-zooplankton composition and its relation to fish productivity in a west coast fish pond ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwan Soon; Shin, Hyun Woung

    2007-04-01

    A fish pond ecosystem on the west coast of Korea was studied for biotic and abiotic factors. The occurrence rate of phytoplankton at the embanked fish farm was 84 times higher to that of shore waters. Phytoplankton species which occurred during the study period were categorized into Cyanophyta, Dinophyta and Bacillariophyta with a total of 26 subgeneric taxa (22 species of Dinophyta, 2 species of Bacillariophyta and 2 species of Cyanophyta). The total cell density during the study period ranged from16 x 103 to 13.59 x 10(5) cells l(-1). As for the zooplankton, the monthly density ranged from 26 - 8.684 x 10(3) cells m(-3) with an average of 126.0 x 10(3) cells m(-3) for April. In the case of May, it ranged from 41 - 3.331 x 10(3) cells m(-3) and its average of 50.3 x 10(3) cells m(-3) which was comparatively less. The varying environmental factors in Seosan embankment A, B and Chonsu Bay waters could have affected the fish farm. According to the results, the concentration of inorganic nitrogen was 0.067-0.106 (average: 0.083) mg l(-1) and the concentration of organic nitrogen was 0.008-0.022 (average: 0.014) mgl(-1). Also due to the release of brackish water at Seosan embankment A and B, the inorganic nitrogen showed an increasing trend. The survival rate of Sabastes schlegeli, and Acanthopagrus schlegeli was high in stations 2H and I (20.87%, 33%) and relatively low in stations 2B to 2F.

  4. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate organic matter in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Pratirupa; Karapurkar, S. G.; Shenoy, D. M.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; Maya, M. V.; Naik, H.; Varik, S.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The spatio-temporal variations of the δ13C and δ15N of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), along with ancillary chemical and hydrographic parameters, have been examined monthly for one year (October 2010 to September 2011) at a total of seven stations to refine the understanding of SPOM sources and biogeochemical pathways in the tropical Zuari Estuary, west coast of India. The dynamic nature of C and N cycling in estuaries is reflected in the isotopic variation of SPOM as a function of space and time. The results exhibit marked seasonality, with the autochthonous component and the terrestrial component being the major SPOM sources during periods of low and high river discharges, respectively. Spatially, enrichments of δ13C and δ15N from the head (δ13C = - 29.6‰, δ15N = 1.78‰, C/N = 7.09) to the mouth (δ13C = - 20.9‰, δ15N = 5.77‰, C/N = 6.12) of the estuary indicate downstream reduction of terrigenous influence. The mean C:N ratios varied between 4 and 9 over the study period with low values during the monsoon, in spite of large terrestrial input, which can be attributed to microbial modification of terrestrial SPOM. A significant positive correlation of δ13C with salinity suggests the reliability of δ13C as a biogeochemical tracer for organic matter provenance. Carbon:chlorophyll plots reveal suppressed autochthonous production during the southwest monsoon which may be attributed to the rapid flushing time, light-limitation due to cloud cover and high water-column turbidity.

  5. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  6. A comparative study of US EPA 1996 and 1999 emission inventories in the west Gulf of Mexico coast region, USA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Jen; Ho, Thomas C; Chu, Hsing-wei; Yang, Heng; Mojica, Martha J; Krishnarajanagar, Nagesh; Chiou, Paul; Hopper, Jack R

    2005-06-01

    Emission inventory is one of the required inputs to air quality models. To assist in the urban and regional modeling efforts, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criterion pollutants, and the precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM). In December 2002, EPA released the 1999 NEI estimates (NEI99), which represent the most recent national emission data. However, the data sets are not in model-ready format for air quality simulations. This present work converts the NEI99 Final Version 2 data sets into Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format and processes the data using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling system to generate a gridded emission inventory in a domain covering the west Gulf Coast Region, USA. The spatial and diurnal emission characteristics of the gridded emission inventories are then assessed and compared with those of the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96). The NEI99 database contains more complete emission records in both area and point sources. It is also found that NEI99 data exhibit greater emissions with respect to point and mobile sources but smaller emissions with respect to area sources when compared to the corresponding gridded NET96 data in the same study domain. The most distinct differences between the NEI99 and NET96 databases are CO emission of mobile sources, SO2 emissions of point sources, and VOC/PM/NH3/NOx emissions of area and non-road sources. The gridded NEI99 data show low VOC/NOx ratios (<2-5) in the urban areas of the study domain.

  7. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international

  8. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, K. Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Benson, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the “jeopardy” standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  9. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding

  11. Towards improving the reliability of future regional climate projections: A bias-correction method applied to precipitation over the west coast of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valved, A.; Barstad, I.; Sobolowski, S.

    2012-04-01

    The early winter of 2011/2012 in the city of Bergen, located on the west coast of Norway, was dominated by warm, wet and extreme weather. This might be a glimpse of future average climate conditions under continued atmospheric warming and an enhanced hydrological cycle. The extreme weather events have resulted in drainage/sewage problems, landslides, flooding property damage and even death. As the Municipality plans for the future they must contend with a growing population in a geographically complex area in addition to any effects attributable to climate change. While the scientific community is increasingly confident in the projections of large scale changes over the mid - high latitudes this confidence does not extend to the local - regional scale where the magnitude and even direction of change may be highly uncertain. Meanwhile it is precisely these scales that Municipalities such as Bergen require information if they are to plan effectively. Thus, there is a need for reliable, local climate projections, which can aid policy makers and planners in decision-making. Current state of the art regional climate models are capable of providing detailed simulations on the order of 1 or 10km. However, due to the increased computational demands of these simulations, large ensembles, such as those used for GCM experiments, are often not possible. Thus, greater detail, under these circumstances, does not necessarily correspond to greater reliability. One way to deal with this issue is to apply a statistical bias correction method where model results are fitted to observationally derived probability density functions (pdfs). In this way, a full distribution of potential changes may be generated which are constrained by known, observed data.This will result in a shifted model distribution with mean and spread that more closely follows observations. In short, the method temporarily removes the climate signals from the model run working on the different percentiles, fits the

  12. Contrasting sedimentation patterns in two semi-enclosed mesotidal bays along the west and south coasts of Korea controlled by their orientation to the regional monsoon climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Chang, Tae Soo; Jang, Dae Geon

    2016-11-01

    Sedimentation patterns of tidal flats along the Korean west coast have long been known to be largely controlled by the monsoon climate. On the other hand, much less is known about the effect of the monsoon on sedimentation in coastal embayments with mouths of different geographic orientations. Good examples are Hampyeong and Yeoja bays along the west and south coasts, respectively. Both have narrow entrances, but their mouths open toward the northwest and the south, respectively. With mean tidal ranges of 3.46 and 3.2 m, respectively, the two bays experience similar tidal regimes and are hence excellent candidates to compare the effect of different exposure to the same regional monsoon climate on their respective sediment distribution patterns. The winter monsoon, in particular, is characterized by strong northwesterly winds that directly impact the west coast, but blow offshore along the south coast. For the purpose of this study, surficial sediment samples were collected from intertidal and subtidal flats of the two bays, both in summer and winter. Grain-size analyses were carried out by sieving (sand fraction) and Sedigraph (mud fraction). In the case of Yeoja Bay, the sediments consist mostly of mud (mean grain sizes of 5.4 to 8.8 phi). Seasonal changes are very subtle, the sediments being slightly coarser in summer when silt-dominated sediments are supplied by two streams to the northern parts of the bay in response to heavy rainfall. With the exception of the deeper tidal channels, Yeoja Bay is characterized by a thick mud blanket the year round, which is modulated by processes associated with the summer monsoon that predominantly blows from the east. Textural parameters suggest severely restricted sediment mixing on the subtidal and intertidal flats, the overall low energy situation preventing sands from reaching the tidal flats. The sediments of Hampyeong Bay, by contrast, are characterized by a distinct shoreward fining trend. Mean grain sizes average

  13. Contrasting sedimentation patterns in two semi-enclosed mesotidal bays along the west and south coasts of Korea controlled by their orientation to the regional monsoon climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Chang, Tae Soo; Jang, Dae Geon

    2017-08-01

    Sedimentation patterns of tidal flats along the Korean west coast have long been known to be largely controlled by the monsoon climate. On the other hand, much less is known about the effect of the monsoon on sedimentation in coastal embayments with mouths of different geographic orientations. Good examples are Hampyeong and Yeoja bays along the west and south coasts, respectively. Both have narrow entrances, but their mouths open toward the northwest and the south, respectively. With mean tidal ranges of 3.46 and 3.2 m, respectively, the two bays experience similar tidal regimes and are hence excellent candidates to compare the effect of different exposure to the same regional monsoon climate on their respective sediment distribution patterns. The winter monsoon, in particular, is characterized by strong northwesterly winds that directly impact the west coast, but blow offshore along the south coast. For the purpose of this study, surficial sediment samples were collected from intertidal and subtidal flats of the two bays, both in summer and winter. Grain-size analyses were carried out by sieving (sand fraction) and Sedigraph (mud fraction). In the case of Yeoja Bay, the sediments consist mostly of mud (mean grain sizes of 5.4 to 8.8 phi). Seasonal changes are very subtle, the sediments being slightly coarser in summer when silt-dominated sediments are supplied by two streams to the northern parts of the bay in response to heavy rainfall. With the exception of the deeper tidal channels, Yeoja Bay is characterized by a thick mud blanket the year round, which is modulated by processes associated with the summer monsoon that predominantly blows from the east. Textural parameters suggest severely restricted sediment mixing on the subtidal and intertidal flats, the overall low energy situation preventing sands from reaching the tidal flats. The sediments of Hampyeong Bay, by contrast, are characterized by a distinct shoreward fining trend. Mean grain sizes average

  14. Late Pleistocene coastal loess deposits of the central west coast of North America: Terrestrial facies indicators for marine low-stand intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Grathoff, Georg H.; Reckendorf, Frank; Percy, David; Price, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal loess deposits measured in sea cliffs, bay cliffs, road cuts and boreholes (62 sites) are compiled for the states of Washington, Oregon, and California in the central west coast of North America (1700 km in length). The loess-enriched deposits are recognized by (1) substantial abundances of silt (30-90% by weight) and (2) depositional settings in uplifted marine terraces or dune fields that are situated well above alluvial floodplains at the coast. Total loess thickness above the MIS5a marine terrace, or 80 ± 20 ka basal TL age, ranges from 0.1 to 8.0 m in 46 dated sites. Loess deposits reach maximum thickness (5-8 m) in the vicinities of glacial outwash plains in the highest latitudes. Loess thickness in the middle and lower latitudes increases with proximity to 1) large river mouths (>3 × 106 mt yr-1 modern suspended sediment discharge) and 2) broad shelf widths (>10 km distance from 0 to -100 m depth). Coastal loess deposits dated by TL or radiocarbon (37 samples) range from ˜250 to 11 ka in age, but generally fall into the MIS4-2 marine low-stand intervals (32 dates between 77-15 ka). The coastal loess facies represent marine low-stand intervals in coastal Quaternary sequences from the central west coast of North America.

  15. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of west coast versus east coast-produced broccoli through sensory analysis of quality rating factors and nutritionally important metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production trials and germplasm evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) developed for eastern U.S. production conditions have identified lines and cultivars that are better adapted to more stressful, variable East Coast environments. As a part of this work sponsored by the USDA SCIR...

  16. Saving West Coast salmon

    Treesearch

    Robert T. Lackey

    2008-01-01

    Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia are in serious trouble. South of the Canadian/United States border, most runs are less than 10 percent of their pre-1850 levels and over two dozen are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Similarly, several runs in British Columbia are listed under...

  17. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Does stand density affect mating system and population genetic structure in coast live oak?

    Treesearch

    Kathryn Beals; Richard S. Dodd

    2006-01-01

    Coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) is a major species at risk in the current Phytophthora ramorum epidemic in California’s oak woodlands. To search effectively for resistant genotypes, it is imperative to have an understanding of the existing host population genetic structure in these forests, and how its reproductive capacity may...

  19. Constraining regional scale carbon budgets at the US West Coast using a high-resolution atmospheric inverse modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeckede, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Vickers, D.; Turner, D.; Law, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study presented is embedded within the NACP (North American Carbon Program) West Coast project ORCA2, which aims at determining the regional carbon balance of the US states Oregon, California and Washington. Our work specifically focuses on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability, aiming at improving our understanding of e.g. drought stress and stand age on carbon sources and sinks in complex terrain with fine-scale variability in land cover types. The ORCA2 atmospheric inverse modeling approach has been set up to capture flux variability on the regional scale at high temporal and spatial resolution. Atmospheric transport is simulated coupling the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) with the STILT (Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport) footprint model. This setup allows identifying sources and sinks that influence atmospheric observations with highly resolved mass transport fields and realistic turbulent mixing. Terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes are simulated at spatial resolutions of up to 1km and subdaily timesteps, considering effects of ecoregion, land cover type and disturbance regime on the carbon budgets. Our approach assimilates high-precision atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements and eddy-covariance data from several sites throughout the model domain, as well as high-resolution remote sensing products (e.g. LandSat, MODIS) and interpolated surface meteorology (DayMet, SOGS, PRISM). We present top-down modeling results that have been optimized using Bayesian inversion, reflecting the information on regional scale carbon processes provided by the network of high-precision CO2 observations. We address the level of detail (e.g. spatial and temporal resolution) that can be resolved by top-down modeling on the regional scale, given the uncertainties introduced by various sources for model-data mismatch. Our results demonstrate the importance of accurate modeling of carbon-water coupling, with the

  20. Looking inside out: tracing internal moisture and salinity changes in dunes on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Ciaran; Bourke, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Coastal sand dune systems are some of the most physically dynamic landscapes; their susceptibility to geomorphic change is rooted in a host of interconnected processes and feedbacks. Soil moisture and salinity are two fundamental environmental variables capable of exerting a geomorphic influence but have not been thoroughly investigated in coastal dunes. In northwest Europe, coastal dunes are predominantly sediment-limited systems with reduced capacities to avoid severe morphological changes arising from storms. Climatic changes over the next century are predicted to manifest in more frequent and intense storms with the potential to enact severe geomorphic change in coastal settings. A lack of data pertaining to internal dune hydrosaline dynamics suggests we are missing part of the bigger picture. We conducted a pilot study of moisture and salinity dynamics within the upper 50 cm of the vadose zone in a vegetated dune system at Golden Strand, Achill Island on the west coast of Ireland. Golden Strand is a roughly 800 m long embayed sandy beach, backed by vegetated dunes that protect a low-lying machair grassland. A study transect was established across this dune-machair system, perpendicular to the shore. Innovative instrumentation in the form of capacitance probes and internal dune thermochrons were deployed to sample at 10 cm depth intervals at a sampling rate of 10 minutes and coupled with on-site rainfall data. Results indicate that dune moisture tracks rainfall inputs up to 30 cm depth. Antecedent moisture at depth was found to influence infiltration of water through the dune profile. Salinity within the study transect decreased with distance from the beach, suggesting that salt spray is the primary salt delivery mechanism in the dune system. We also noted that moisture and salinity below 30 cm depth failed to respond to rainfall events of varying intensities. Relatively constant moisture and salinity were observed at all depths within the machair. Predictions

  1. Seasonal Patterns of Flood, Wind, and Wave Coherence Along the US West Coast: Implications for Sediment Dispersal and Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniskern, T. A.; Warrick, J. A.; Farnsworth, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Small rivers with mountainous catchments account for over half of the terrigenous material delivered to the coastal ocean. Dispersal, deposition, and cycling of sediments and associated nutrients ultimately influence shelf carbon budgets. Recent work on collision margins revealed that these small rivers flood during energetic ocean conditions, creating conditions conducive to dispersal of sediments via multiple sediment transport mechanisms. Furthermore, the relative timing of the peak flood and peak wave conditions influences dispersal and depositional patterns. Our study sought to identify patterns of fluvial and oceanic coherence along the US west coast by analyzing 10 years (1996-2006) of NOAA buoy, Climate Prediction Center storm track, and USGS gauge data. Discharge, buoy data, and storm tracks for the Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara rivers and their adjacent shelves revealed temporal and spatial coherence patterns of wave event and flood magnitude, frequency, and timing. The seasonal period of energetic waves for each river-shelf system began 1-2 months earlier than the flood season (November) and extended 1 month beyond the end of flood season (May). There was also a seasonal disconnect in the timing of peak wave energy (December) and peak floods (January to February). Peak flood activity occurred in January on the Umpqua and Eel Rivers, and in February for the Salinas and Santa Clara Rivers. Flooding and wave events were more frequent and greater in magnitude on the Eel and Umpqua river shelves. The Salinas and Santa Clara rivers displayed lower fluvial inputs, but Salinas River shelf wave events were greater in magnitude. The magnitude and timing of peak waves and peak discharges during floods varied characteristically for each river-shelf system. Peak discharge and peak wave magnitude during floods generally decreased from December to May, indicating that dispersal and depositional patterns vary over the season. Additionally, the timing between

  2. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts

  3. Circulation changes and teleconnections between glacial advances on the west coast of New Zealand and extended spells of drought years in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, P. D.; Sturman, A. P.; Fitzharris, B. B.; Mason, S. J.; Owens, I. F.

    1997-11-01

    Twentieth century changes in the terminal position of the Franz Josef Glacier on the west coast of New Zealand are compared with an area-averaged mean annual rainfall series for the summer rainfall region of South Africa. Distinctive teleconnections are evident in an out-of-phase relationship between the two series, each of which exhibits an oscillation of 18-20 years. Periods of glacial advance are shown to coincide with extended dry spells in South Africa, when drought years are prevalent.Reconstructed pressure anomaly fields are presented for periods of advance and recession of the glacier and for the inter-decadal wet and dry spells in South Africa. In both cases major regional atmospheric circulation adjustments take place in a quasi-regular fashion over time to produce an enhancement in westerly airflow during the periods of drought in Africa and glacial advance on the west coast of New Zealand. Extended wet periods and glacial recession are likewise shown to be associated with an enhancement of easterly components of the circulation. Changes in precipitation, temperature and moisture transport are examined and associations with the Southern Oscillation Index are investigated.Franz Josef glacial advances are shown to occur 4-5 years after the onset of enhanced south-westerly airflow on to the west coast of New Zealand. Advances occur on average 4 years after the onset of extended dry spells in South Africa. Similar atmospheric circulation anomalies in the respective sectors of the Southern Hemisphere and adjustments in the locations of the positions of the ridges in standing wave three are responsible for this correspondence.

  4. Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-06-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock.

  5. Assessment of potential biological activities and distributions of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in sediments of the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seungyeon; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-02-01

    The west coast of Korea has experienced environmental deterioration for more than half a century. In the present study, we specifically aimed to: i) evaluate potential toxicities of contaminants in sediments that cause effects mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER); ii) determine spatio-temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APs); and iii) identify causes of greater potencies of samples. From 2010 to 2014, sediments were collected from 12 major estuarine and coastal regions along the west coast of South Korea. In vitro cell bioassays were performed to determine AhR- and ER-mediated potencies using H4IIE-luc and MVLN cells, respectively. Fifteen PAHs and six APs in sediments were identified by GC/MSD. Results of bioassays generally showed a low-to-moderate degree of contamination, however, greater AhR- and ER-mediated potencies were measured at some locations. Concentrations of PAHs and APs varied among locations, which indicated that sources were independently affected by the surrounding environment (e.g., industrial complex and cities). Results of bioassays were generally well correlated with concentrations of putative causative chemicals. Benzo[k]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the major AhR agonists, explaining approximately 30% of the bioassay-derived benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP-EQ). Unknown AhR and ER agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the present study provides baseline information on chemical contaminations and potential toxicity of sediments in a fairly wide geographical region of the west coast of South Korea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and

  7. Aspects of the biology of the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei (Proscylliidae: Carcharhiniformes) from the south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Pillai, N G K

    2012-08-01

    Biological data are presented for the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea off the south-west coast of India. A total of 549 individuals, from 101 to 257 mm total length (L(T)) and 2·2 to 56 g, were collected. The L(T) at first maturity (L(T50)) of females and males was estimated at 183 and 170 mm, respectively, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that E. radcliffei feeds primarily on crustaceans.

  8. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages.

  9. Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, C.J.; Reid, J.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Easton, Dean E.; Kochman, H.I.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the

  10. Exploration of a haloarchaeon, Halostagnicola larsenii, isolated from rock pit sea water, West Coast of Maharashtra, India, for the production of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, P P; Kulkarni, S O; Kanekar, S P; Shouche, Y; Jani, K; Sharma, A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to isolate haloarchaea from rock pit sea water, West Coast of India and to explore their potential in the production of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) which converts light energy into electrical energy. Haloarchaeal strains were isolated from rock pit sea water samples collected from Rock garden, Malvan, West Coast of India. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all the 11 strains were identified as Halostagnicola larsenii. All the strains require at least 1·5 mol l(-1) NaCl for growth; grow optimally in the range of 3·5-5·2 mol l(-1) NaCl. BR was detected in all the strains ranging from 0·035 to 0·258 g l(-1) . All 11 strains showed conversion of light energy into electrical energy in the range of 0·7-44·2 mV, when exposed to sunlight. A haloarchaeon, Hst. larsenii is isolated from rock pit sea water and demonstrated to have BR that converted light energy into electrical energy. The present investigation is presumably the first report of the isolation of Hst. larsenii from low salinity environment and its potential in production of BR. The haloarchaeon could be explored for the generation of electrical energy. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  12. Paleo-tsunami and land-level change evidence from the west coast of South Andaman, Andman Nicobar Island, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Shishikura, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, Mw 9.3 provided an ideal opportunity to understand the pattern of paleoseismic event and paleo-tsunami deposition in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The present investigation carried out along the west coast of Andaman Island around Collinpur village (N11°39´56.9´´ and E92°44´31.3´´) revealed excellent evidences pointing towards land-level change and tsunami deposition during recent historic past. Sedimentary records studied from the geo-slicer and trench sections collected along transect across stable beach ridges and swales between the ridges (N11°41'38″, E92°35'52″) revealed distinct change in depositional environments which have been attributed to tectonic activity. In total we excavated 4 trenches and collected 9 geo-slicer sections. We present here our preliminary results and interpretations. Based on sedimentary structures, grain size and nature of contact and colour, sedimentary units from the trenches and geoslicers were classified into seven units (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) from bottom to top. The bottom most unit a is marked by poor laminations of fine silty-sand and peaty material suggestive of inter-tidal to marshy environment. This is overlain by 30 cm thick unit b - comprising coarse sand with gravel fragments (corals, shells, rock clasts etc.) in the swale and coarse sandy deposits along with broken shells, peaty material and rip-up clasts of underlying soil on the back-limb of the beach ridge. The sharp-erosive contact with the underlying and overlying sedimentary unit, distinct variation in grain marked assorted fragments, broken shell; peaty material suggests deposition by tsunami wave during recent geological past. Overlying unit c marked by partially developed peaty layer suggests marshy environment at or above mean sea level indicative of a probable uplift (?) which occurred during Event I accompanied with tsunami waves. Unit d with finer deposits comprised of silty-clay suggests

  13. Effectiveness of loess in rejuvenating soil and ecosystem properties in a high leaching environment, West Coast, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, A.; Almond, P. C.; Condron, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    In the absence of major disturbances, humid terrestrial ecosystems tend over long time scales towards deficiency of biogeochemically accessible nutrients. This phenomenon has been implicated in ecosystem retrogression. Aeolian deposition has been shown to be an important mitigating effect on nutrient depletion in soils and ecosystems of old landsurfaces (e.g. Hawaii, Amazon Basin). Significant nutrient loss has been demonstrated on surfaces as young as Holocene age in very high leaching environments (>2,000 mm/a) and ecosystem retrogression has been reported for landsurfaces formed ca. 100 ka. The aim of this study is to quantify the capacity of actively accumulating loess to replenish nutrient pools in soils and ecosystems in a super-humid, temperate environment on the west coast of the South Island, New Zealand. The study area, a sequence of Holocene dune ridges under a conifer (podocarp) rainforest, combines a loess flux gradient downwind of a braided riverbed on a 6,500 y old dune ridge and, distal from the loess source, an adjacent chronosequence of dune ridges (170-6,500 y BP age range). Pedogenesis is very rapid with Spodosols developing after 1,000 y under a thick organic root mat. Our approach is based on the principle that if loess deposition has rejuvenating effects on soils or ecosystems, then it will result in soils or ecosystems of a given age having properties consistent with those on a younger, less leached landsurface. How much younger determines the strength of the rejuvenating effect. We sampled and analysed soils, to a depth of 1 m by standard methods to determine total profile masses of important macro nutrients, conducted a vegetation survey and sampled tree foliage of fully expanded, fresh leaves of sunlit branches. Along the loess gradient, foliar nutrient P concentrations in two main canopy species increased according to a power law towards the river, corresponding to an inverse logarithmic increase in loess flux rate from 0 at 1,000 m

  14. Seasonal and regional variability in dissolved and particulate iron fluxes via glacial runoff along the West Greenland coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, K.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Harrold, Z.; Liu, L.; Dieser, M.; Cameron, K. A.; Christner, B. C.; Junge, K.

    2012-12-01

    Subglacial weathering, due to biogeochemical and physical weathering processes, can affect the chemical evolution of subglacial waters and release dissolved and particulate iron via glacial runoff. Iron is a growth limiting nutrient and plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of coastal and marine waters. More recently, dissolved and colloidal iron derived from subglacial sources have been considered an important contributor of Fe fluxes to the ocean; however, their dependency on lithology, grain size, and microbial activity is not well understood. This study characterizes the solute chemistry, in particular iron mineralogy and dissolved iron concentrations, released from beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), from two locations along the West Greenland coast, Thule (76°N, 68°W) and Kangerlussuaq (67°N, 50°W). We hypothesize that the subglacial lithology has a control on Fe fluxes from the GrIS to coastal and marine systems. The underlying bedrock in Thule is the Precambrian Dundas and Narssarssuk sedimentary formations which include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The bedrock in Kangerlussuaq is dominated by Archean granodioritic gneiss and amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Supra and subglacial meltwater samples were collected directly in front of the Ice Sheet over an entire melt season in 2011 (North River, Thule) and 2012 (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River, Kangerlussuaq). In situ parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity were recorded in order to interpret meltwater chemistry. Dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) species were fixed immediately and analyzed within 24 hours after sampling in the field laboratory using a spectrophotometer and 10 cm cell. Total dissolved iron (FeT) of different size fractions (<0.22 and <0.05 μm) of iron were determined back in the home laboratory using reaction cell ICP MS. Preliminary results demonstrate that subglacial meltwater of North River has average Fe

  15. Analyzing the 1604 Quanzhou Tsunami Event by using Impact Intensity Analysis and Discovering the Potential Tsunami Threat along the West Coast of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Wu, T. R.; Tsai, Y. L.; Li, P. Y.; Lee, C. J.; Ko, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    The event of 1604 Quanzhou earthquake induced a moderate tsunami with no significant damage report. However, the tsunami propagated over the Taiwan Strait and arrived in Hsinchu, Taiwan. Considering that half of the tsunami source region was in the inland area and the earthquake magnitude (Mw=7.5~8.0) was moderate, the tsunami signal was relatively large. This phenomenon also indicated that the tsunami was able to reach Taiwan with a small energy decaying rate. In this paper, we reconstructed the scenario which matched the historical records of the 1604 Quanzhou event, and further analyzed the sensitivity of location and magnitude to the wave height in Taiwan. We discovered that moving the source region offshore, the tsunami wave height increased on the north-western coast of Taiwan with dense population nowadays. In order to have thorough understanding of the potential threat tsunami can pose to the west coast of Taiwan, we performed impact intensity analysis (IIA). The IIA covered the region of Taiwan Strait and entire part of the South China Sea. The results showed that the potential tsunami threat of the northern part of the coast came mainly from the Quanzhou area, and the southern part would face the threat from the north segment of Manila Trench and the submarine landslide originating from the southwestern continental slope.

  16. Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America.

    PubMed

    Mantooth, Kristie; Hadziabdic, Denita; Boggess, Sarah; Windham, Mark; Miller, Stephen; Cai, Guohong; Spatafora, Joseph; Zhang, Ning; Staton, Meg; Ownley, Bonnie; Trigiano, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and by 1991 had quickly spread throughout most of the native ranges of C. florida and C. nuttalli. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 93 D. destructiva isolates using 47 microsatellite loci developed from the sequenced genome of the type strain of D. destructiva. Clone-corrected data indicated low genetic diversity and the presence of four genetic clusters that corresponded to two major geographic areas, the eastern United States and the Pacific Northwest, and to the two collection time periods when the isolates were collected (pre- and post-1993). Linkage disequilibrium was present in five out of six subpopulations, suggesting that the fungus only reproduced asexually. Evidence of population bottlenecks was indicated across four identified genetic clusters, and was probably the result of the limited number of founding individuals on both coasts. These results support the hypothesis that D. destructiva is an exotic pathogen with independent introductions on the east and west coasts of North America. We also tested the cross-amplification of these microsatellite primers to other Discula species. Genomic DNA from 17 isolates of four other Discula species and two isolates of Juglanconis species (formerly Melanconis species) were amplified by 17 of 47 primer pairs. These primers may be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of these Discula species.

  17. Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Sarah; Windham, Mark; Miller, Stephen; Cai, Guohong; Spatafora, Joseph; Zhang, Ning; Staton, Meg; Ownley, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and by 1991 had quickly spread throughout most of the native ranges of C. florida and C. nuttalli. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 93 D. destructiva isolates using 47 microsatellite loci developed from the sequenced genome of the type strain of D. destructiva. Clone-corrected data indicated low genetic diversity and the presence of four genetic clusters that corresponded to two major geographic areas, the eastern United States and the Pacific Northwest, and to the two collection time periods when the isolates were collected (pre- and post-1993). Linkage disequilibrium was present in five out of six subpopulations, suggesting that the fungus only reproduced asexually. Evidence of population bottlenecks was indicated across four identified genetic clusters, and was probably the result of the limited number of founding individuals on both coasts. These results support the hypothesis that D. destructiva is an exotic pathogen with independent introductions on the east and west coasts of North America. We also tested the cross-amplification of these microsatellite primers to other Discula species. Genomic DNA from 17 isolates of four other Discula species and two isolates of Juglanconis species (formerly Melanconis species) were amplified by 17 of 47 primer pairs. These primers may be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of these Discula species. PMID:28746379

  18. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  19. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  20. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  1. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to Sea Level Rise using LiDAR Topobathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast G...

  2. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to Sea Level Rise using LiDAR Topobathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast G...

  3. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004

  4. Identifying and assessing the role of warm air advection (Atmospheric Rivers) along the west coast of Greenland comparing various reanalyses for the period 2000-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, William; Shupe, Matthew; Compo, Gilbert P.

    2017-04-01

    Neff et al. (2014) examined the 2012 summer Greenland melt episode and compared it to the last episode in 1889 using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR, Compo et al. 2011). A key factor in both 2012 and 1889 was the presence of an Atmospheric River (AR) that transported warm air over the Atlantic Ocean and thence to the west coast of Greenland. ARs are thin filaments of high-moisture air occurring at frontal boundaries and represent an efficient poleward transport mechanism for warm moist air (Newell et al. 1992) to the Arctic (Bonne et al. 2015; Neff et al. 2014) and the Antarctic (Gorodetskaya et al. 2014). The cases in 1889 and 2012 share a similar synoptic situation with lows just south and/or west of Baffin Island and highs to the southeast of Greenland. Although the details in the position of the moisture plumes are different, they both produce an anomaly in integrated water vapor (IWV) just off the southwest coast of Greenland suggesting this location as a key diagnostic location for potential AR impact on west Greenland. As part of a long-term goal to assess the frequency of such events that affect the surface energy budget of Greenland back to 1871 using the 20CR, we have compared in more detail transport signatures using 20CR, ERA-I, and NCEP-NCAR reanalyses for the period 2000-2012. In particular, we used reanalysis data at 50oW, 60oN, which lies just off the southwest coast of Greenland. These data included wind speed and direction, integrated precipitable water vapor (IWV), and specific humidity (q) at 850 hPa (which is a nominal height for the southerly coastal jet identified in previous AR events (Neff et al. 2014).) We found substantial agreement in the various reanalyses in terms of wind direction and speed distributions. We found IWV spatial distributions during southerly wind speed and IWV maxima that range from "blobs" to well-organized transport events. Using compositing techniques we also have examined the subsequence evolution of

  5. The effects of marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on ambient PM2.5 along the west coast of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2015-02-01

    This work uses PM2.5 data and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling to explore the effects of two marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations along the west coast of the United States (US); California's (CA) Ocean-Going Vessel Clean Fuel Regulation (CA-CFR) implemented in July 2009 and the North American Emissions Control Area (NA-ECA) implemented in August 2012. Data from 31 chemically speciated PM2.5 monitors along the US west coast were analyzed and 9 sites with strong linear correlations between vanadium and nickel were selected for PMF modeling. The 9 sites were modeled independently and for 8 sites, 3 in CA and 5 in Washington State (WA), a well-defined factor linked to marine vessel residual fuel oil (RFO) combustion was identified. For these 8 sites, model results were subdivided into three time periods; a three year period prior to implementation of the CA-CFR, a three year period after the CA-CFR but prior to the NA-ECA, and a one year period after implementation of the NA-ECA. Marine vessel PM2.5 distributions were compared between the three time periods to determine if statistically significant reductions had occurred. Comparing marine vessel PM2.5 for the three years before and after CA-CFR implementation, all CA sites indicated statistically significant reductions, with reductions in annualized average marine vessel PM2.5 from 30 to 52% (0.09-0.78 μg/m3). Comparing marine vessel PM2.5 for the three years before NA-ECA implementation and the 1 year after, 2 of 5 WA sites indicated statistically significant reductions in annualized average impacts (45-50%, 0.12-0.23 μg/m3) and 1 of 3 sites in CA (46%, 0.04 μg/m3). These results demonstrate that marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on the west coast of the US have been effective at reducing PM2.5 impacts from marine vessel RFO combustion at some locations, with the implementation of the CA-CFR showing more success than the NA-ECA. The greater observed success of the CA-CFR is, to some extent

  6. [Malaria serology test: what contribution does it make in an endemic country such as Ivory Coast?

    PubMed

    Goran-Kouacou, Amah Patricia Victorine; Dou, Gonat Serge; Zika, Kalou Dibert; Adou, Adjoumanvoulé Honoré; Yéboah, Oppong Richard; Aka, Rita Ahou; Hien, Sansan; Siransy, Kouabla Liliane; N'Guessan, Koffi; Djibangar, Tariam Agnès; Dassé, Séry Romuald; Adoubryn, Koffi Daho

    2017-01-01

    Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in endemic countries such as Ivory Coast. However, this examination has been regularly performed in the parasitology laboratory at the Training and Research Unit of Medical Sciences in Abidjan. Our study aimed to highlight the contribution of malaria serology test in our endemic country context. We conducted a retrospective study of malaria serology test using Falciparum-Spot IF (bioMerieux) kit for the detection of IgG antiplasmodial antibodies. It included all malaria serology tests performed from January 2007 to February 2011 and whose results were available in the registry. In total, 136 patients were selected. The average age of patients was 36,3 years, ranging from 1 to 81 years, and sex ratio was 0,97. Indications for malaria serology test were varied and dominated by splenomegaly (49.3%), cytopenias (14.7%), indeterminate fever (13.2%). Almost all of the patients (98.5%) had antiplasmodial antibodies with high medium titer of 1057,35IU/ml. There was no link between age and Ab titer, which was higher in cytopenias, prolonged fevers and the splenomegaly. Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in routine clinical practice provided in our endemic area because, whatever the reason of the prescription, titers were high.

  7. Migration patterns of the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum on the West Coast of the United States of America

    Treesearch

    S. Prospero; N.J. Grünwald; L.M. Winton; E.M. Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum (oomycetes) is the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight on trees, shrubs, and woody ornamentals in the forests of coastal California and southwestern Oregon and in nurseries of California, Oregon, and Washington. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure of P. ramorum on the West...

  8. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-08-07

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Théel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Théel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009.

  9. Substantial changes in hemocyte parameters of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun-Ki; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Lee, Hee-Jung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-07-15

    Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred off the west coast of Korea, we determined sub-lethal effects of the spilled oil on hemocyte parameters of Ruditapes philippinarum in the damaged areas. Clams in the spilled sites displayed unusually high proportion of granulocytes, which may result in higher phagocytosis capacity and reactive oxygen species production. Hemocytes in clams from the polluted sites also displayed less DNA damage and mortality than in the control site, possibly due to a faster phagocytosis of the impaired cells. Glycogen, the major energetic reserve, was depleted in clams from the spilled sites, potentially due to energetic consumption for maintenance of a large pool of granulocytes, detoxification processes and oxidative stress. Modified hemocyte parameters in clams in the spilled area, may reflect sub-lethal physiological stresses caused by the residual oils in the sediment, in conjunction with environmental modifications such as food availability and pathogens pattern.

  10. Determination of in situ biomass and energetics in seagrass beds on the west coast of Florida. Topical report, May 1982-January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Gulf Coastal region of Florida supports extensive grass beds that almost continuously cover the shallow (1-5m) depths from Apalachicola Bay to Anclote Bay and in Tampa Bay. Attached and drift benthic seaweeds occur as well and may have higher energetic yields than the seagrasses. The shallow and continuous beds offer a possible source for plant biomass use in methane production, if sufficient material is available throughout the year and the energetics are high enough. Triweekly samplings at three sites around Tampa Bay and bimonthly samplings at four sites along the west coast of Florida showed highest biomass occurring during the spring through fall months. The available biomass of combined attached and drift seagrasses and seaweeds was lower than that predicted when compared with terrestrial crops. Naturally occurring seagrass and seaweed beds do not have sufficient biomass to justify harvesting for biogass production, although energetics levels are high.

  11. Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Vethamony, P; Mani Murali, R; Fernandes, B

    2015-02-15

    The concentrations of seven trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn) in three sediment cores were analysed to assess the depositional trends of metals and their contamination level in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India. All sediment cores showed enrichment of trace metals in the upper part of core sediments and decrease in concentration with depth, suggesting excess of anthropogenic loading (including mining activities) occurred during the recent past. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images distinguished the shape, size and structure of particles derived from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources in core sediments. The geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) values indicate that Mandovi estuary is 'moderately polluted' with Pb, whereas 'unpolluted to moderately polluted' with Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn. The comparative analysis of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn were highly enriched in the Mandovi estuary compared to all other Indian estuaries.

  12. Linkage between speciation of Cd in mangrove sediment and its bioaccumulation in total soft tissue of oyster from the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Gadi, Subhadra Devi; Bardhan, Pratirupa

    2016-05-15

    This study established a mechanistic linkage between Cd speciation and bioavailability in mangrove system from the west coast of India. High bioaccumulation of Cd was found in the oyster (Crassostrea sp.) even at low Cd loading in the bottom sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd in the oyster gradually increased with the increasing concentrations of water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate/bicarbonate forms of Cd in the sediments. Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide phase was found to control Cd bioavailability in the sediment system. Cd-associated with sedimentary organic matter was bioavailable and organic ligands in the sediments were poor chelating agents for Cd. This study suggests that bioaccumulation of Cd in oyster (Crassostrea sp.) depends not on the total Cd concentration but on the speciation of Cd in the system.

  13. Artificial Recharge Of Urban Wastewater, The Key Component In The Development Of An Industrial Town On The Arid West Coast Of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A.; du Toit, I.

    1996-01-01

    Atlantis, an industrial town on the somewhat bleak and undeveloped west coast of South Africa, is entirely dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. With a population of more than 67,000 people and about 140 factories, Atlantis requires a reliable supply of potable water of about 1.5×106m3/a. The demand is met through artificial recharge of a local, shallow, sandy aquifer that supplies the town's water. A well designed stormwater drainage system and scientifically based water-quality management strategy allow for the recharge of all urban stormwater runoff and treated domestic sewage effluent. Extensive research and sound planning have meant that no water is wasted, for even the water that is unacceptable for recharge in the main aquifer is recharged in strategic localities to counter saline intrusion. The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme serves as a good example of what can be achieved when hydrogeologists, engineers, and urban managers integrate their skills.

  14. The December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0, earthquake and the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    Long-term seismic activity prior to the December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0 earthquake was investigated using the Harvard CMT catalogue. It is observed that before this great earthquake, there exists an accelerating moment release (AMR) process with the temporal scale of a quarter century and the spatial scale of 1 500 km. Within this spatial range, the M W=9.0 event falls into the piece-wise power-law-like frequency-magnitude distribution. Therefore, in the perspective of the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation, the failure to forecast/predict the approaching and/or the size of this earthquake is not due to the physically intrinsic unpredictability of earthquakes.

  15. Applications of a new ecosystem model to study the dynamics of phytoplankton and nutrients in the Ariake Sea, west coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh Hang, Nguyen Thi; Cao Don, Nguyen; Araki, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present the development and application of a new ecosystem model coupled with a hydrodynamic model to describe the important physical, chemical and biological processes of an ecosystem in the marine environment, the Ariake Sea in the west coast of Kyushu, Japan. The model was calibrated and validated using in-situ field measurements from various monitoring stations in the sea. The presented results covered the period from January 1991 to December 2000. The results showed that chlorophyll- a, nutrients and dissolved oxygen levels varied seasonally in response to weather and boundary condition. Through this study, the model was shown to be able to handle the flooding and drying processes that usually exist and play an essential role over the estuarine-tidal flats of the sea.

  16. The Evacuation and Relocation of the West Coast Japanese during World War II--How It Happened

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-05

    significant problems facing the evacuees returning to the Pacific Coast was the availability of housing. A network of hostels and cooperation with the...between December 23, 1942 and March 14, 1943. 131 BIBLIOGRAPHY A,,. . :ir Leonard J The Price of Prejudice. Utah State University . The Faculty...Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1989. Conrot, Maisie & Richard. Executive Order 9066. Los Angelos: California Historical Society

  17. Interaction of the Marine Atmosphere, Coastal Topography and Sea Surface Temperature on Marine Fog Distribution Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.; Mejia, J.; Koracin, D. R.; McEvoy, D.

    2014-12-01

    ICOADS ship observations for 1950-2007 were used to examine the distribution of marine fog along the West Coast of North America between 20°N and 50°N. Quarterly (June-August, JJA; Sept-Nov, SON; Dec-Feb, DJF; March-May, MAM) long-term means were obtained and gridded using a 1°x 1° degree-arc mesh. The ship observation includes a subjective assessment of the weather that is codified into 100 categories. The most important and relevant are deep fog at the time of observation with the visibility less than or equal to 1 km. The most frequent deep fog is during JJA, with the highest values in the grid points closest to shore. There is a general fog frequency maximum along the coast between 34°N - 44°N that decreases offshore. More frequent occurrences tend to occur at major capes. The maximum JJA occurrences are at Cape Blanco and Pt Arena. In contrast, deep fog is infrequent along Baja California. In SON, deep fog occurrences are lowest with a narrower coastal maximum. In DJF, there is a broad, uneven fog maximum along the coast between 35°N-39°N. The frequency of deep fog occurrence is intermediate in MAM, with a weak, broad area north of 35°N. The distribution of the occurrence of deep fog in JJA is determined by a three way interaction between the atmosphere, the land and the ocean. The southbound marine layer is channeled by the coastal mountains and interacts with land topography via hydraulic dynamics. The marine layer flow accelerates on the downwind side of major capes, forces greater wind driven upwelling and colder sea surface temperatures along the coast of Southern Oregon and Northern California. However, the fast southbound winds are largely free of marine fog. Marine fog tends to occur along the inner coast when the southbound winds decay or reverse direction for 1-3 days, with the densest fog downwind of a major cape where the sea surface temperatures are lowest.

  18. High mortality of blue, humpback and fin whales from modeling of vessel collisions on the U.S. West Coast suggests population impacts and insufficient protection

    PubMed Central

    Calambokidis, John; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Mortality from collisions with vessels is one of the main human causes of death for large whales. Ship strikes are rarely witnessed and the distribution of strike risk and estimates of mortality remain uncertain at best. We estimated ship strike mortality for blue humpback and fin whales in U.S. West Coast waters using a novel application of a naval encounter model. Mortality estimates from the model were far higher than current minimum estimates derived from stranding records and are closer to extrapolations adjusted for detection probabilities of dead whales. Our most conservative model estimated mortality to be 7.8x, 2.0x and 2.7x the U.S. recommended limit for blue, humpback and fin whales, respectively, suggesting that death from vessel collisions may be a significant impediment to population growth and recovery. Comparing across the study area, the majority of strike mortality occurs in waters off California, from Bodega Bay south and tends to be concentrated in a band approximately 24 Nm (44.5 km) offshore and in designated shipping lanes leading to and from major ports. While some mortality risk exists across nearly all West Coast waters, 74%, 82% and 65% of blue, humpback and fin whale mortality, respectively, occurs in just 10% of the study area, suggesting conservation efforts can be very effective if focused in these waters. Risk is highest in the shipping lanes off San Francisco and Long Beach, but only a fraction of total estimated mortality occurs in these proportionally small areas, making any conservation efforts exclusively within these areas insufficient to address overall strike mortality. We recommend combining shipping lane modifications and re-locations, ship speed reductions and creation of ‘Areas to be Avoided’ by vessels in ecologically important locations to address this significant source of whale mortality. PMID:28827838

  19. Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Warneke, C.; Hudson, P. K.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Nicks, D. K., Jr.; Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Schauffler, S. M.; Stroud, V.; Johnson, K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were observed in air masses that had been transported from Asia. The hydrocarbon composition of the air masses indicated that the highest CO levels were related to fossil fuel use. During the flights on 5 and 17 May and other days, the levels of several biomass-burning indicators increased with altitude. This was true for acetonitrile (CH3CN), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the ratio of acetylene (C2H2) to propane (C3H8), and, on May 5, the percentage of particles measured by the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) instrument that were attributed to biomass burning based on their carbon and potassium content. An ensemble of back-trajectories, calculated from the U.S. west coast over a range of latitudes and altitudes for the entire ITCT 2K2 period, showed that air masses from Southeast Asia and China were generally observed at higher altitudes than air from Japan and Korea. Emission inventories estimate the contribution of biomass burning to the total emissions to be low for Japan and Korea, higher for China, and the highest for Southeast Asia. Combined with the origin of the air masses versus altitude, this qualitatively explains the increase with altitude, averaged over the whole ITCT 2K2 period, of the different biomass-burning indicators.

  20. CalWater Field Studies Designed to Quantify the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D.; Spackman, J. R.; DeMott, P.; Dettinger, M.; Fairall, C.; Leung, R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S.; Waliser, D.; White, A. B.; Cordeira, J.; Martin, A.; Helly, J.; Intrieri, J.

    2016-07-01

    The variability of precipitation and water supply along the U.S. West Coast creates major challenges to the region’s economy and environment, as evidenced by the recent California drought. This variability is strongly influenced by atmospheric rivers (AR), which deliver much of the precipitation along the U.S. West Coast and can cause flooding, and by aerosols (from local sources and transported from remote continents and oceans) that modulate clouds and precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods, both now and under changing climate conditions.To address these gaps a group of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers have created an interdisciplinary research effort, with support from multiple agencies. From 2009-2011 a series of field campaigns (CalWater 1) collected atmospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements in California and associated modeling and diagnostic studies were carried out. Based on remaining gaps, a vision was developed to extend these studies offshore over the Eastern North Pacific and to enhance land based measurements from 2014-2018 (CalWater 2). The data set and selected results from CalWater 1 are summarized here. The goals of CalWater-2, and measurements to date, are then described. CalWater is producing new findings and exploring new technologies to evaluate and improve global climate models and their regional performance and to develop tools supporting water and hydropower management. These advances also have potential to enhance hazard mitigation by improving near-term weather prediction and subseasonal and seasonal outlooks.

  1. High mortality of blue, humpback and fin whales from modeling of vessel collisions on the U.S. West Coast suggests population impacts and insufficient protection.

    PubMed

    Rockwood, R Cotton; Calambokidis, John; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Mortality from collisions with vessels is one of the main human causes of death for large whales. Ship strikes are rarely witnessed and the distribution of strike risk and estimates of mortality remain uncertain at best. We estimated ship strike mortality for blue humpback and fin whales in U.S. West Coast waters using a novel application of a naval encounter model. Mortality estimates from the model were far higher than current minimum estimates derived from stranding records and are closer to extrapolations adjusted for detection probabilities of dead whales. Our most conservative model estimated mortality to be 7.8x, 2.0x and 2.7x the U.S. recommended limit for blue, humpback and fin whales, respectively, suggesting that death from vessel collisions may be a significant impediment to population growth and recovery. Comparing across the study area, the majority of strike mortality occurs in waters off California, from Bodega Bay south and tends to be concentrated in a band approximately 24 Nm (44.5 km) offshore and in designated shipping lanes leading to and from major ports. While some mortality risk exists across nearly all West Coast waters, 74%, 82% and 65% of blue, humpback and fin whale mortality, respectively, occurs in just 10% of the study area, suggesting conservation efforts can be very effective if focused in these waters. Risk is highest in the shipping lanes off San Francisco and Long Beach, but only a fraction of total estimated mortality occurs in these proportionally small areas, making any conservation efforts exclusively within these areas insufficient to address overall strike mortality. We recommend combining shipping lane modifications and re-locations, ship speed reductions and creation of 'Areas to be Avoided' by vessels in ecologically important locations to address this significant source of whale mortality.

  2. Variations in chemical composition and particle size of dune sediments along the west coast of Jutland, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saye, Samantha E.; Pye, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Geochemical and textural variations in frontal dune sediments along the western coast of Jutland, Denmark, have been investigated in order to identify possible sediment 'provinces' and transport pathways. An understanding of sediment sources and sinks is important for both for an understanding of the nature of sedimentary environments and for applied coastal engineering and management purposes. Four coastal sectors were identified on the basis of geochemical composition. One sector is compositionally different from the other three units, having higher concentrations of the trace elements Ni, Cr, V, Sc, Zn, Pb, Ba, Zr and many rare earth elements. Dune sediments on this section of coast also have higher Al 2O 3 to K 2O ratios and lower Al 2O 3 to Fe 2O 3 ratios, reflecting a lower content of feldspar and higher content of heavy minerals. It is inferred that different, or additional, sediment source(s) have supplied sediment to this section of coast. Beach nourishment has contributed to the observed compositional differences, but previous data obtained from the Lodbjerg area indicate that aeolian sands on this section of coast naturally have a relatively high Si, Fe and Ti content, reflecting high quartz / feldspar ratio and relatively high content of heavy minerals, compared with those on other sections of the coast. Frontal dunes along the most northern section show high abundances of K 2O, Rb and Ba, reflecting a relatively high K-feldspar content derived from local sources. Alongshore trends were also identified in the mean particle size and sorting of the frontal dunes, although there is no direct correspondence with the observed geochemical differences. Three coastal units can be identified on the basis of particle size. Frontal dune sediments in the middle section are relatively coarser and less well-sorted than those to the north and south, probably reflecting both the addition of beach nourishment material and greater exposure to strong westerly winds, which

  3. Review of cattle ticks (Acari, Ixodida) in Ivory Coast and geographic distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, an emerging tick in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Boka, O M; Achi, L; Adakal, H; Azokou, A; Yao, P; Yapi, Y G; Kone, M; Dagnogo, K; Kaboret, Y Y

    2017-04-01

    The exotic tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was discovered in Ivory Coast in 2007 and then gradually in other countries in West Africa. It is known to induce significant losses in farming and to replace other species of the same genus. In order to contribute to improve health and productivity of cattle in Ivory Coast regarding the emergence of this dreaded tick, a study was conducted to determine the current geographic distribution of the tick R. (B.) microplus and review cattle ticks in general. To this end, 23,460 ticks were collected from 180 farms located throughout the country. Ten species of ticks belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus (including those of the subgenus Boophilus), Hyalomma and Ambyomma were identified. It was found that the exotic tick R. (B.) microplus has invaded the entire Ivorian territory and is now the main cattle tick (63.6% of ticks collected), followed by Amblyomma variegatum that remains still dominant in the North. The population of indigenous species of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) is in drastic decline.

  4. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, West Pensacola quadrangle, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Marvin A.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the West Pensacola topographic map are floodmarks elevations left by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the eastern shore of Perdido Bay in the vicinity of West Pensacola, Florida. Most of the damage in this area was due to minor flooding and high winds. Still water elevations ranged from about 5 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum in the sheltered areas to about 7.5 feet in areas subject to wind setup. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  5. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae.

  6. Glacial isostatic adjustment in response to changing Late Holocene behaviour of ice streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, Grace A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; King, Matt A.; Clarke, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    The Siple Coast region of Antarctica contains a number of fast-flowing ice streams, which control the dynamics and mass balance of the region. These ice streams are known to undergo stagnation and reactivation cycles, which lead to ice thickness changes that may be sufficient to excite a viscous solid Earth response (glacial isostatic adjustment; GIA). This study aims to quantify Siple Coast ice thickness changes during the last 2000 yr in order to determine the degree to which they might contribute to GIA and associated present-day bedrock uplift rates. This is important because accurate modelling of GIA is necessary to determine the rate of present-day ice-mass change from satellite gravimetry. Recently-published reconstructions of ice-stream variability were used to create a suite of kinematic models for the stagnation-related thickening of Kamb Ice Stream since ˜1850 AD, and a GIA model was used to predict present-day deformation rates in response to this thickening. A number of longer-term loading scenarios, which include the stagnation and reactivation of ice streams across the Siple Coast over the past 2000 yr, were also constructed, and used to investigate the longer term GIA signal in the region. Uplift rates for each of the ice loading histories, based on a range of earth models, were compared with regional GPS-observed uplift rates and an empirical GIA estimate. We estimate Kamb Ice Stream to have thickened by 70-130 m since stagnation ˜165 years ago. Modelled present-day vertical motion in response to this load increase peaks at -17 mm yr-1 (i.e. 17 mm yr-1 subsidence) for the weakest earth models tested here. Comparison of the solid Earth response to ice load changes throughout the last glacial cycle, including ice stream stagnation and reactivation across the Siple Coast during the last 2000 yr, with an empirical GIA estimate suggests that the upper mantle viscosity of the region is greater than 1 × 1020 Pa s. When upper mantle viscosity values of

  7. Stratigraphic And Lithofacies Study Of Distal Rain-Triggered Lahars: The Case Of West Coast Of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulas, M.; Chunga, K.; Peña Carpio, E.; Falquez Torres, D. A.; Alcivar, R., Sr.; Lopez Coronel, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The central zone of the coast of Ecuador at the north of Manabí Province, on the area comprised between Salango and Jama communities, is characterized by the presence of whitish to grey, centimeters to meters thick, consolidated to loose distal ash deposits. Recent archeological studies on Valdivia (3500 BC) and Manteña (800-1500 AC - Harris et al. 2004) civilizations remains link this deposits with the intense eruptive phases that afflicted Ecuador 700-900 years ago (Usselman, 2006). Stratigraphic evidences and bibliographic datations of paleosols (Estrada, 1962; Mothes and Hall, 2008), allowed to estimate that these deposits are linked with the 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa and the following eruptions of Cotopaxi. According to the Smith and Lowe classification (1991), the deposits outcropping on the coast (located at a distance greater than 160 km from the volcanic vents), varied from whitish to grey, loose to weakly consolidated, massive to weakly stratified, centimeters to meters thick, coarse to fine ash matrix layers (diluite streamflow facies) to massive, large angular to sub-rounded siltitic blocks-rich and coarse to medium ash matrix deposits (debris flow facies). These types of lithofacies are associated to a rain-triggered lahar (De Belizal et al., 2013). The presence in some stratigraphic sections of sharp contacts, laminated layers of very fine ash, and also cm-thick sand and silt layers between the ash beds of the same deposits permit to understand that the different pulses were generated in short periods and after a long period. Structures like water pipes imply that the lahar went into the sea (Schneider, 2004), and allow the reconstruction of the paleotopographic condition during the emplacement of these deposits. This study focuses on the characterization of these types of deposits, permit to understand the kind of risk that may affect the towns located on the coast of Ecuador after VEI 4 to 6 eruptions on short time and within years.

  8. A test of the hypothesis on the Guyana and the West-African Shield assembly: New Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic results from French Guyana and Ivory-Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastien, N.; Sebastien, N.; yan, C.; Gilbert, F.; Andre, P.; Andre, P.; Max, V.; yao, D.

    2001-12-01

    In the last 3 decades the hypotheis of a Paleoproterozoic supercontinent has been debated. It is generally accepted that the supercontinent assembly was initiated with the groupment of Guyana and West-African shields. However, the existing paleomagnetic database is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively sufficient to precise when this assembly began. In order to better understand the paleogeographic evolution of the Guyana and West African shields, a total of 59 sites of granitoids and metavolcanic rocks were sampled (33 from French Guyana and 26 from Ivory-Coast). Rock magnetic, petrographic and paleomagnetic measurements were carried out on this collection Both automorphous magnetite and hematite are identified as the main magnetic remanent carriers and characteristic magnetic components were isolated. These paleomagnetic directions are distinct from both the present Earth field and the local Early Jurassic ones. Positive reversal tests are also observed for the two age-groups from French Guyana. Based on above arguments, the magnetic remanence can be consiered as the primary Paleoproterozoic magnetization. Four mean poles are therefore calculated, named A, B for French Guyana and C1, C2 for Ivory-Coast: A: lambdaA = -62oN, phiA = 61oE, k=18, A95 =10o, N =15; B: lambdaB = -5oN, phiB = 50oE, k= 26, A95 = 18o, N = 5 ; C1: lambdaC1 = -82oN, phiC1 = 292oN, k = 28, A95 = 13o, N = 6 ; C2: lambdaC2 = -25oN, phiC2 = 83oE, k= 11, A95 = 16o, N = 9. 40Ar/39Ar data suggest a magnetization age ranging from 2.04 to 1.97 Ga and 2.10 to 2.00 Ga for the poles from for the French Guyana and Ivory-Coast, respectively. Two Paleoproterozoic APWPs are proposed for these two shields. The comparison of these two paths confirms that the two cratons were intergrated to a same block at about 2.00 Ga and, however, separated before 2.02 Ga. This hypothesis is supported by field geological and tectonic observations. Nevertheless, more paleomagnetic and geochronological constaints are needed

  9. Tracing the sources of water using stable isotopes: first results along the Mangalore-Udupi region, south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Lambs, L; Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K

    2011-10-15

    The Mangalore and Udupi region on the south-west coast of India is characterized by small west-flowing rivers (150-250 km in length) originating in the Western Ghats (up to 1940 meters above sea level (m asl)) and joining the Arabian Sea. The area experiences a humid tropical climate with frequent, high-intensity rainfall (4000 mm annual average). Nevertheless, there is a shortage of water during the peak dry season immediately before the onset of monsoon because of a rapid fall in the groundwater level. From the humid high-altitude forests to the intense agriculture in the coastal area, there is an urgent need to understand the movement of water between evapotranspiration, rainfall, river systems and the groundwater compartments in order to achieve better water resource management. Demographic pressure on the area with over half a million inhabitants and industrial activity strongly influence this fragile ecosystem. The coastal area is characterized by shallow open wells, which are particularly sensitive to pollution and eutrophication. Stable water isotopes ((18)O and deuterium) were used for the first time in this region to determine the isotopic characteristics of the different waters. There is a clear seasonal difference in the isotopic ratios and d-excess values between the summer and winter monsoon periods, with a predominance of lighter isotopes in the latter period. No significant variations in isotopic ratios were observed in relation to altitude because of the possible role of mist formation at high altitude. Greater d-excess values were observed in the west-flowing streams than in rivers flowing east on account of the moist westerly oceanic winds and water vapour recycling.

  10. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2017-05-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  11. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  12. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Havik, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region.

  13. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Havik, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  14. Can an eel be a flatfish? Observations on enigmatic asymmetrical heterenchelyids from the Guinea coast of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Martinez, C M; Stiassny, M L J

    2017-08-01

    Morphological asymmetry is described in the heterenchelyid mud eel Pythonichthys cf. macrurus from inshore coastal waters of Guinea, West Africa. The intensity of asymmetry differs between two examined specimens, with the more extreme case exhibiting strong asymmetry in both external and internal features, including unilateral depigmentation, reductive degeneration and embedding of a blind-side eye, skewed jaws with reduced dentition and tooth loss. The extent and nature of asymmetry suggests that this individual probably lived primarily on its left lateral side, not unlike sinistral pleuronectiform flatfishes. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  16. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  17. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  18. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.324 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  19. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  20. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  1. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  2. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  3. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT: OPTIONS TO PROTECT, RESTORE, ANE ENHANCE SALMON ALONG THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  4. 76 FR 70362 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Amendment 13 to the Coastal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Plan; Annual Catch Limits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accountability measures (AMs) and other provisions regarding preventing and ending overfishing and rebuilding... interpretation of the new statutory requirements for specifying ACLs at such levels that overfishing does...

  5. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT: OPTIONS TO PROTECT, RESTORE, ANE ENHANCE SALMON ALONG THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  6. GFS water vapor forecast error evaluated over the 2009-2010 West Coast cool season using the MET/MODE object analyses package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, W. L.; Sukovich, E.; Tollerud, E. I.; Jensen, T.; Yuan, H.; Wick, G. A.; Bullock, R.; Hmt-Dtc Collaboration Project

    2010-12-01

    Research over the last decade and a half confirms that the vast majority of West Coast cool-season extreme precipitation events are due to the landfall of intense wind-driven streams of concentrated water vapor associated with extratropical cyclones called atmospheric rivers (ARs). Accurate prediction of the effects of ARs as they come ashore depends on accurate numeric modeling of integrated water vapor (IWV) over the Northeast Pacific (NEP). Quantifying the uncertainty in this forecast field is an important step toward understanding the causes of uncertainty in West Coast extreme event forecasts. To this end GFS (Global Forecast System) model output obtained in real time of the fields needed to calculate IWV were archived and analyzed. GFS was used because it is well known, it covers our area of interest, and the output is readily available to the community. To estimate forecast uncertainties we used an object-based method that allows quantitative comparisons of object location, size, shape, and intensity. In particular, we used MODE, the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation. MODE is an object-based verification tool from the MET (Model Evaluation Tools) package developed and supported by the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC). This package of verification tools is readily available and intended to provide the community with a common software package incorporating the latest advances in forecast verification. We describe results from two studies conducted as part of the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT)—DTC collaboration project. The studies are based upon Northeast Pacific (NEP) data collected during the 2009-2010 cool season. In the first study we focus on verifying GFS-analysis IWV against satellite-observed IWV throughout the NEP. Specifically, IWV GFS analysis objects are compared with 12-hour composite, satellite-derived Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) observational objects. Then we incorporate MODE object attributes related to object

  7. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India).

    PubMed

    Mohandass, Chellandi; Kumar, S Jaya; Ramaiah, N; Vethamony, P

    2010-10-01

    Bacterial indicators in relation to tidal variations were studied at five locations for over 2 days covering three tidal cycles in the southwestern region of Gulf of Kachchh, India. Tidal flow here is predominantly in the east west direction and can transport particles up to 32 km. Tidal amplitude appears to play a prominent role in abundance, distribution, and dispersal of coliform bacteria examined during this study. Shallow depths, clayey sediments, strong currents, and higher tidal amplitudes appear to rise by an order of magnitude in total bacterial abundance up to 2.4 x 10(4) ml(-1) due to their resuspension from the churned up sediments. Dispersal of allochthonous microflora far into coastal marine regions appears to be governed by the strong tidal amplitude in this region.

  8. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-21

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leading to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Furthermore, better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.

  9. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leading to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.

  10. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  11. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-03-03

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known.

  12. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  13. 76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...Pursuant to Section 102(2)(c) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as implemented by the Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] parts 1500- 1508), the Department of the Navy (Navy) announces its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental consequences associated with providing facilities and functions to homebase the F-35C Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft on the West Coast of the United States. Under this proposal, a total of seven active-duty F/A-18C Hornet aircraft squadrons and one fleet replacement squadron (FRS) will progressively transition from F/A-18C Hornet aircraft to the more advanced F-35C JSF beginning in 2015. This transition will occur as a one-for-one replacement. The aging FA-18C Hornet aircraft are expected to be replaced with F-35C aircraft by 2025. The Navy will evaluate two basing options (plus a no action alternative) to efficiently and economically transition the F-35C aircraft into the fleet. This basing action is consistent with past Navy strike-fighter homebasing actions. Dates and Addresses: Public scoping meetings are scheduled to receive oral and/or written comments on environmental concerns that should be addressed in the EIS, as follows: 1. Tuesday, February 15, 2011, at the Southwest High School, 2001 Ocotillo Drive, El Centro, CA 92243 (located in Imperial County, California). 2. Thursday, February 17, 2011, at Lemoore Senior Center, 789 South Lemoore Avenue (18th Avenue), Lemoore, CA (located in Kings County, California). Each meeting will occur from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. The meetings will be an open house format with informational displays and materials available for public review. The public will have an opportunity to submit written comments on environmental concerns that should be addressed in the U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast Homebasing EIS. Navy staff will be present at these open houses to answer

  14. Albedo patterns and gypsum generation in the central Namib Desert - Land, sea and air interactions on an arid West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Helms, D. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1992-01-01

    In the central Namib Desert, dune-free surfaces are separated abruptly from a sea of yellow and red sand dunes at the Kuiseb River canyon. The off-white hues of the dune-free area result from anomalously high surficial gypsum enrichment. Satellite imagery indicates that the gypsum surfaces are associated with lower surface maximum temperatures than those of the darker dune surfaces to the south. One of various sources of sulfate for the gypsum bodies is oceanic H2S, supplied to desert land-surfaces by regular fog incursions. Since fog events are widespread along the coast, the question of anomalous gypsum accumulations north of the dune sea arises. Satellite imagery, in conjunction with more detailed handheld photography from the space shuttle, indicates that the penetration of fog inland is significantly greater over the gypsum surfaces than it is over the dunes. It is postulated that the thermal gradient between these surfaces generates a heat low centered over the northern part of dune sea and that this enhances fog and H2S advection on its north side onto the nearby dune-free zone. In such a system, gypsum/caliche surfaces reinforce advection of fog over themselves in a positive feedback mode.

  15. A new climate index controlling winter wave activity along the Atlantic coast of Europe: The West Europe Pressure Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelle, Bruno; Dodet, Guillaume; Masselink, Gerd; Scott, Tim

    2017-02-01

    A pioneering and replicable method based on a 66-year numerical weather and wave hindcast is developed to optimize a climate index based on the sea level pressure (SLP) that best explains winter wave height variability along the coast of western Europe, from Portugal to UK (36-52°N). The resulting so-called Western Europe Pressure Anomaly (WEPA) is based on the sea level pressure gradient between the stations Valentia (Ireland) and Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands). The WEPA positive phase reflects an intensified and southward shifted SLP difference between the Icelandic low and the Azores high, driving severe storms that funnel high-energy waves toward western Europe southward of 52°N. WEPA outscores by 25-150% the other leading atmospheric modes in explaining winter-averaged significant wave height, and even by a largest amount the winter-averaged extreme wave heights. WEPA is also the only index capturing the 2013/2014 extreme winter that caused widespread coastal erosion and flooding in western Europe.

  16. CHANS: The Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Karenia brevis on the West Florida Coast and its Relationship to Precipitation and River Discharge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlbeck, N.; Hitchcock, G. L.; Kirkpatrick, G. J.

    2016-02-01

    A project sponsored through the Coupled Natural and Human Systems program has examined relationships between harmful algal blooms, environmental factors, and the associated human health and economic impacts in coastal communities. Linkages between bloom dynamics and river discharge have been previously studied over intervals of a few years or less. Here a record of Karenia brevis data spanning 20 years along the West Florida Coast was utilized to examine spatial and temporal patterns during five major bloom events. Approximately 63,000 cell count measurements from 1994-2013 were analyzed to define the time series of a `center of mass' location for each bloom event. This approach provides a complementary perspective to the work of Moanga et al (2015) which included an ArcGIS hotspot analysis to define areas of high cell counts. The center of mass analysis corroborated patterns of bloom movement and development in the hotspot analysis, and revealed previously unrecorded patterns. Cell counts were evaluated with rainfall and river discharge data to define possible monthly and seasonal linkages at the mouths of five West Florida estuaries. Correlations between discharge and K. brevis abundance within 10 km of the estuary mouths indicated a very weak, yet positive, relationship with lags of 1 to 4 months. Maximum discharge lagged seasonal precipitation in individual watersheds by one to several months. An analysis of aggregated monthly cell counts and discharge rates indicated patterns of seasonal maxima with differences in median cell counts varying by as much as an order of magnitude. These relationships suggest a possible riverine effect on cell counts that is minor relative to peak abundances, but a potential important influence on bloom dynamics and worthy of further investigation.

  17. The distribution of the invasive non-native gastropod Crepidula fornicata in the Milford Haven Waterway, its northernmost population along the west coast of Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Katrin; Richardson, Christopher A.; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2015-12-01

    The invasive non-native gastropod Crepidula fornicata is well established in the Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) in south-west Wales, UK, since its first introduction to this ria in 1953. Whilst it reaches high densities within the MHW and has extended its range to the south of this ria, there has been very little northward expansion. Here, we report findings of a series of intertidal and subtidal surveys in 2009 and 2010 where we monitored the population density and the vertical distribution of C. fornicata at its northern range limit in Wales (the MHW). We also characterised the composition of the surface substrata of the seabed in the MHW to provide some insight into how the availability of certain settlement substrata may limit its distribution along the west coast of Britain. We found locally very dense aggregations (maximum 2748 ± 3859 individuals m-2, mean ± SD) in the shallow subtidal and low intertidal of the MHW. Subtidally, highest densities were found in areas of high gravel content (grain sizes ~16-256 mm), suggesting that the availability of this substrata type is beneficial for its establishment at a site. In the intertidal, on the other hand, high gravel content was indicative of low C. fornicata abundance, possibly because gravelly shores are an indicator of very exposed conditions that, at least in the intertidal, may result in high levels of early post-settlement mortality and low recruitment. C. fornicata was absent from the entrance of the MHW, possibly due to the lack of suitable settlement substrata. The presence of substantial populations in the MHW suggests that C. fornicata's population growth and potential expansion in Welsh coastal waters is not fully limited by prevailing environmental conditions in the region, but that other processes may affect its local distribution.

  18. The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2010-10-01

    Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Sørkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among zooplankton was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher zooplankton numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks’ preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from

  19. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    DOE PAGES

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; ...

    2015-10-21

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leadingmore » to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Furthermore, better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.« less

  20. Variability of fresh- and salt-water marshes characteristics on the west coast of France: a spatio-temporal assessment.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Sébastien; David, Valérie; Brahmia, Amel; Dupuy, Christine; Laniesse, Thomas; Parinet, Bernard; Pouget, Frederic; Rousseau, Frederic; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Robin, François-Xavier

    2011-08-01

    The degradation of water quality and the multiple conflicts of interest between users make marsh restoration very important. A Water Quality Evaluation System (WQES) was developed for river systems by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Some form of biologically-based, habitat-specific reference standard seems absolutely essential for wise management and stewardship of marsh ecosystems. The goal of this study was to develop a statistical method to define and to characterize a water body typology for drained marshes of the Charente-Maritime wetlands on the French Atlantic coast, placing particular emphasis on environmental factors as hydraulic functioning, human activities and pedological substratum. The Charente-Maritime marshes represent a good field study because of his high diversity of types of marshes and of anthropogenic activities in a restrictive area thus erasing spatial climatic effect (latitude effect). The statistical method developed here had permitted to define and characterize 12 different water bodies, 7 in freshwater (F1 to F7) and 5 in salt water marshes for the Charente-Maritime area. This typology demonstrated an important link between the size catchment area, nitrate concentrations, and leaching of precipitation from cultured soils. Even though the Charente-Maritime marshes are strongly impacted by humans, they may still retain the ability to remove nitrate. The increasing gradient of water renewal in the freshwater marshes from F1 to F7 explained the decreasing gradient of eutrophication. A better management of the hydrodynamic of the marshes can avoid eutrophication risk on the coastal sea area. Reliance on the WFD parameter set necessarily placed limits on the kinds of interpretations that could be made and on the study's potential contribution to the basic science of marshes. Ecologically-based insights regarding both external flows (links between ecosystems, meta-ecosystem theory) and internal flows (structure of the planktonic