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Sample records for doe nasa mod-1 wind

  1. Control and stabilization of the DOE/NASA Mod-1 two megawatt wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, R. S.; Bowler, C. E. J.; Piwko, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the controls design, performance simulation process and specialized dynamic considerations for the DOE/NASA Mod 1 wind turbine generator (WTG). It shows controls, structural and utility interface considerations of the wind turbine generator and shows how a wind turbine generator can be integrated with a synchronous power system. Differences with respect to fossil or hydro generation and their implications are vital to long-term WTG reliability and availability and acceptance by utilities and consumers. The paper describes the control performance requirements to provide stable pitch and excitation control with drivetrain torsional dynamics, and the control of power swing stability and utility feeder voltage due to wind gusts.

  2. Acoustic noise generation by the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of measurements taken over the past year of the acoustic emissions from the DOE/NASA MOD-1 Wind Turbine show the maximum acoustic energy is concentrated in the low frequency range, often below 100 Hz. The temporal as well as the frequency characteristics of the turbine sounds have been shown to be important since the MOD-1 is capable of radiating both coherent and incoherent noise. The coherent sounds are usually impulsive and are manifested in an averaged frequency domain plot as large numbers of discrete energy bands extending from the blade passage frequency to beyond 50 Hz on occasion. It is these impulsive sounds which are identified as the principal source of the annoyance to a dozen families living within 3 km of the turbine. The source of the coherent noise appears to be the rapid, unsteady blade loads encountered as the blade passes through the wake of the tower structure. Annoying levels are occasionally reached at nearby homes due to the interaction of the low frequency, high energy peaks in the acoustic impulses and the structural modes of the homes as well as by direct radiation outdoors. The peak levels of these impulses can be enhanced or subdued through complete propagation.

  3. Experience and Assessment of the DOE/NASA Mod-1 2000 Kw Wind Turbine Generator at Boone, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. L.; Shaltens, R. K.; Poor, R. H.; Barton, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The Mod 1 program objectives are defined. The Mod 1 wind turbine is described. In addition to the steel blade operated on the wind turbine, a composite blade was designed and manufactured. During the early phase of the manufacturing cycle of Mod 1A configuration was designed that identified concepts such as partial span control, a soft tower, and upwind teetered rotors that were incorporated in second and third generation industry designs. The Mod 1 electrical system performed as designed, with voltage flicker characteristics within acceptable utility limits.

  4. Experience and assessment of the DOE-NASA Mod-1 2000-Kilowatt wind turbine generator at Boone, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. L.; Shaltenc, R. K.; Poor, R. H.; Barton, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The Mod 1 program objectives are defined. The Mod 1 wind turbine is described. In addition to the steel blade operated on the wind turbine, a composite blade was designed and manufactured. During the early phase of the manufacturing cycle of Mod 1A configuration was designed that identified concepts such as partial span control, a soft tower, and upwind teetered rotors that were incorporated in second and third generation industry designs. The Mod 1 electrical system performed as designed, with voltage flicker characteristics within acceptable utility limits. Power output versus wind speed equaled or exceeded design predictions. The wind turbine control system was operated successfully at the site and remotely from the utility dispatcher's office. During wind turbine operations, television interference was experienced by the local residents. As a consequence, operations were restricted. Although not implemented, two potential solutions were identified. In addition to television interference, a few local residents complained bout objectionable sound, particularly the 'thump' as the blade passed behind the tower. To eliminate objections, the sound generation level was reduced by 10 dB by reducing the rotor speed from 35 rpm to 23 rpm. Bolts in the drive train fractured. A solution was identified but not implemented. The public reaction toward the Mod 1 wind turbine program was overwhelmingly favorable.

  5. The General Electric MOD-1 wind turbine generator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poor, R. H.; Hobbs, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, installation and checkout of MOD-1, a megawatt class wind turbine generator which generates utility grade electrical power, is described. A MOD-1/MOD-1A tradeoff study is discussed.

  6. Acoustical measurements of DOE/NASA MOD-0 wind turbine at Plum Brook Station, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Etter, C.L.; Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E.; Linn, C.; Garrelts, R.

    1983-06-01

    This report documents the evaluation of low-frequency acoustic emissions associated with the operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-0 wind turbine generator located at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. These measurements were taken as part of a joint SERI/NASA Brook Station, Ohio. These measurements were taken as part of a joint SERI/NASA effort to study acoustic noise generation by utility-sized wind turbines. The machine-operating conditions closely simulated the operation of the larger DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine installed near Boone, NC, in both its design downwind configuration and theoretical upwind mode. Measurement results indicated that acoustic impulses characteristic of the MOD-1 turbine were detectable only with a downwind configuration and a 35-rpm rotor speed, a situation which parallels a 23-rpm rotor speed operation on the MOD-1. Under the available meteorological conditions, no impulses were detected during downwind 23 rpm or by wind-induced noise, indicating a severe limitation of the microphone configuration used in these tests.

  7. Acoustic noise associated with the MOD-1 wind turbine: its source, impact, and control

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E.; Hemphill, R.R.; Etter, C.L.; Garrelts, R.L.; Linn, N.C.

    1985-02-01

    This report summarizes extensive research by staff of the Solar Energy Research Institute and its subcontractors conducted to establish the origin and possible amelioration of acoustic disturbances associated with the operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine installed in 1979 near Boone, North Carolina. Results have shown that the source of this acoustic annoyance was the transient, unsteady aerodynamic lift imparted to the turbine blades as they passed through the lee wakes of the large, cylindrical tower supports. Nearby residents were annoyed by the low-frequency, acoustic impulses propagated into the structures in which the complainants lived. The situation was aggravated further by a complex sound propagation process controlled by terrain and atmospheric focusing. Several techniques for reducing the abrupt, unsteady blade load transients were researched and are discussed in the report.

  8. DOE/NASA wind turbine data acquisition. Part 1: Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strock, O. J.

    1980-01-01

    Large quantities of data were collected, stored, and analyzed in connection with research and development programs on wind turbines. The hardware configuration of the wind energy remote data acquisition system is described along with its use on the NASA/DOE Wind Energy Program.

  9. Fatigue impact on Mod-1 wind turbine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Fatigue is a key consideration in the design of a long-life Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) system. This paper discusses the fatigue aspects of the large Mod-1 horizontal-axis WTG design starting with the characterization of the environment and proceeding through the design. Major sources of fatigue loading are discussed and methods of limiting fatigue loading are described. NASTRAN finite element models are used to determine dynamic loading and internal cyclic stresses. Recent developments in determining the allowable fatigue stress consistent with present construction codes are discussed relative to their application to WTG structural design.

  10. Fiberglass composite blades for the 2 MW Mod-1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batesole, W. R.

    In mid-1979, NASA contracted with Kaman Aerospace Corporation for the design, manufacture, and ground testing of two 100 foot composite rotor blades intended for operation on the Mod-1 wind turbine. The Mod-1 blades have been completed and are currently stored at the Kaman facility. The design, tooling, fabrication, and testing phases which have been carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Discussed are differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes. Also included is a description of the lightning protection system installed in the blades, and its development program. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production. Finally, cost drivers are identified relative to future designs.

  11. Fiberglass composite blades for the 2 MW Mod-1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batesole, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    In mid-1979, NASA contracted with Kaman Aerospace Corporation for the design, manufacture, and ground testing of two 100 foot composite rotor blades intended for operation on the Mod-1 wind turbine. The Mod-1 blades have been completed and are currently stored at the Kaman facility. The design, tooling, fabrication, and testing phases which have been carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Discussed are differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes. Also included is a description of the lightning protection system installed in the blades, and its development program. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production. Finally, cost drivers are identified relative to future designs.

  12. The NASA-LeRC wind turbine sound prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Since regular operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine began in October 1979 about 10 nearby households have complained of noise from the machine. Development of the NASA-LeRC with turbine sound prediction code began in May 1980 as part of an effort to understand and reduce the noise generated by MOD-1. Tone sound levels predicted with this code are in generally good agreement with measured data taken in the vicinity MOD-1 wind turbine (less than 2 rotor diameters). Comparison in the far field indicates that propagation effects due to terrain and atmospheric conditions may be amplifying the actual sound levels by about 6 dB. Parametric analysis using the code has shown that the predominant contributions to MOD-1 rotor noise are: (1) the velocity deficit in the wake of the support tower; (2) the high rotor speed; and (3) off column operation.

  13. Mod 1 wind turbine generator failure modes and effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was directed primarily at identifying those critical failure modes that would be hazardous to life or would result in major damage to the system. Each subsystem was approached from the top down, and broken down to successive lower levels where it appeared that the criticality of the failure mode warranted more detail analysis. The results were reviewed by specialists from outside the Mod 1 program, and corrective action taken wherever recommended.

  14. DOE/NASA Lewis large wind turbine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the large wind turbine activities managed by NASA is given. These activities include resuls from the first and second generation field machines (Mod-0A, -1, and -2), the status of the Department of Interior WTS-4 machine for which NASA is responsible for technical management, and the design phase of the third generation wind turbines (Mod-5).

  15. MOD-1 Wind Turbine Generator Analysis and Design Report, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The MOD-1 detail design is appended. The supporting analyses presented include a parametric system trade study, a verification of the computer codes used for rotor loads analysis, a metal blade study, and a definition of the design loads at each principal wind turbine generator interface for critical loading conditions. Shipping and assembly requirements, composite blade development, and electrical stability are also discussed.

  16. Mod-1 wind turbine generator analysis and design report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The activities leading to the completion of detail design of the MOD-1 wind turbine generator are described. Emphasis is placed on the description of the design as it finally evolved. However, the steps through which the design progressed are also traced in order to understand the major design decisions.

  17. Background and system description of the Mod 1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, E. H.

    1978-01-01

    The Mod-1 wind turbine considered is a large utility-class machine, operating in the high wind regime, which has the potential for generation of utility grade power at costs competitive with other alternative energy sources. A Mod-1 wind turbine generator (WTG) description is presented, taking into account the two variable-pitch steel blades of the rotor, the drive train, power generation/control, the Nacelle structure, and the yaw drive. The major surface elements of the WTG are the ground enclosure, the back-up battery system, the step-up transformer, elements of the data system, cabling, area lighting, and tower foundation. The final system weight (rotor, Nacelle, and tower) is expected to be about 650,000 pounds. The WTG will be capable of delivering 1800 kW to the utility grid in a wind-speed above 25 mph.

  18. Wind profile measurements at the Mod-1 site at Boone, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.D.

    1980-06-18

    Three components of the wind field, temperature and pressure were measured by means of tethered balloon-borne sondes from the surface to 175 m (577 ft) and by means of a nacelle mounted system, from the surface to hub height of 43 m (140 ft). Measurements were taken over a ten day period at the Mod-1 Site in Boone, NC. Composite wind profiles are presented for different flow and stability regimes. The most extreme shears, on the order of .3 s/sup -1/, were found between 10 m (33 ft) and hub height. Individual profiles of wind and temperature show the effect of nocturnal cooling and accompanying surface stratification on the intensity of thw wind shear. Gustiness measured in terms of departures of one and two standard deviations above and below the mean, occurs at all heights across the rotor of the Mod-1 machine. Most frequent gustiness, however, occurs at and below hub height with periods up to 8 secs. Similar fluctuations are observed in the vertical component of the velocity field and in the direction of the horizontal wind. The depth of the shearing layer is critically related to hub height and rotor radius. The depth of the shearing layer appears to vary most significantly with thermal stratification; strong surface inversions producing shallow intense shearing layers; adiabatic conditions reflecting only topographically induced shear. For a given site and a given generator, hub height should be guided by the depth of the mean shear layer under adiabatic conditions plus the radius of the rotor.

  19. Synchronization of the DOE/NASA 100-kilowatt wind turbine generator with a large utility network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The DOE/NASA 100 kilowatt wind turbine generator system was synchronized with a large utility network. The system equipments and procedures associated with the synchronization process were described. Time history traces of typical synchronizations were presented indicating that power and current transients resulting from the synchronizing procedure are limited to acceptable magnitudes.

  20. Cold Weather Wind Turbines: A Joint NASA/NSF/DOE Effort in Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Bubenheim, David; Chiang, Erick; Goldman, Peter; Kohout, Lisa; Norton, Gary; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Renewable energy sources and their integration with other power sources to support remote communities is of interest for Mars applications as well as Earth communities. The National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been jointly supporting development of a 100 kW cold weather wind turbine through grants and SBIRs independently managed by each agency but coordinated by NASA. The NSF grant addressed issues associated with the South Pole application and a 3 kW direct drive unit is being tested there in anticipation of the 100 kW unit operation. The DOE-NREL contract focused on development of the 100 kW direct drive generator. The NASA SBIR focused on the development of the 100 kW direct drive wind turbine. The success of this effort has required coordination and team involvement of federal agencies and the industrial partners. Designs of the wind turbine and component performance testing results will be presented. Plans for field testing of wind turbines, based on this design, in village energy systems in Alaska and in energy production at the South Pole Station will be discussed. Also included will be a discussion of terrestrial and space use of hybrid energy systems, including renewable energy sources, such as the wind turbine, to support remote communities.

  1. Summary of NASA/DOE Aileron-Control Development Program for Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The development of aileron-control for wind turbines is discussed. Selected wind tunnel test results and full-scale rotor test results are presented for various types of ailerons. Finally, the current status of aileron-control development is discussed. Aileron-control was considered as a method of rotor control for use on wind turbines based on its potential to reduce rotor weight and cost. Following an initial feasibility study, a 20 percent chord aileron-control rotor was fabricated and tested on the NASA/DOE Mod-0 experimental wind turbine. Results from these tests indicated that the 20 percent chord ailerons regulated power and provided overspeed protection, but only over a very limited windspeed range. The next aileron-control rotor to be tested on the Mod-0 had 38 percent chord ailerons and test results showed these ailerons provided overspeed protection and power regulation over the Mod-0's entire operational windspeed range.

  2. DOE large horizontal axis wind turbine development at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linscott, B. S.

    Large wind turbine activities managed by NASA Lewis are reviewed. These activities include results from the first and second generation field machines (Mod-OA, -1, and -2), the status of the Department of Interior WTS-4 machine for which NASA is responsible for technical management, and the design phase of the third generation wind turbines (Mod-5).

  3. DOE large horizontal axis wind turbine development at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linscott, B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Large wind turbine activities managed by NASA Lewis are reviewed. These activities include results from the first and second generation field machines (Mod-OA, -1, and -2), the status of the Department of Interior WTS-4 machine for which NASA is responsible for technical management, and the design phase of the third generation wind turbines (Mod-5).

  4. The Federal Wind Program at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, D. H.; Linscott, B. S.

    1983-09-01

    There are several ongoing large wind system development projects directed toward meeting the technology requirements for utility applications. The first generation technology machines, Mod-OA and Mod-1, have successfully completed their planned periods of experimental operation. Disposition of these machines is nearly complete. The second generation machines, Mod-2's, continue experimental operation at Goodnoe Hills, WA, and Medicine Bow, Wy. Design and engineering development of third generation, Mod-5, machines is underway. Initial experimental operation of Mod-5 is planned for DOE in late 1984 or early 1985. An overview of these project activities is presented. In addition to these projects, NASA also is conducting research on large horizontal axis wind turbines. The four main areas of experimental research are: (1) aerodynamics; (2) structural dynamics and aeroelasticity; (3) composite and hybrid composite materials; and (4) multiple system interaction. Key research activities and results are described. The continuing need for future wind turbine research and technology development is explored.

  5. Executive summary: Mod-1 wind turbine generator analysis and design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Activities leading to the detail design of a wind turbine generator having a nominal rating of 1.8 megawatts are reported. Topics covered include (1) system description; (2) structural dynamics; (3) stability analysis; (4) mechanical subassemblies design; (5) power generation subsystem; and (6) control and instrumentation subsystem.

  6. Performance and load data from Mod-0A and Mod-1 wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data, together with supporting analysis, are presented on the power conversion performance and blade loading of large, horizontal-axis wind turbines tested at electric utility sites in the U.S. Four turbine rotor configurations, from 28 to 61 meters in diameter, and data from five test sites are included. Performance data are presented in the form of graphs of power and system efficiency versus free-stream wind speed. Deviations from theoretical performance are analyzed statistically. Power conversion efficiency averaged 0.34 for all tests combined, compared with 0.31 predicted. Round blade tips appeared to improve performance significantly. Cyclic blade loads were normalized to develop load factors which can be used in the design of rotors with rigid hubs.

  7. Implementation of a Trailing-Edge Flap Analysis Model in the NASA Langley CAMRAD.MOD1/Hires Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Continual advances in rotorcraft performance, vibration and acoustic characteristics are being sought by rotary-wing vehicle manufacturers to improve efficiency, handling qualities and community noise acceptance of their products. The rotor system aerodynamic and dynamic behavior are among the key factors which must be addressed to meet the desired goals. Rotor aerodynamicists study how airload redistribution impacts performance and noise, and seek ways to achieve better airload distribution through changes in local aerodynamic response characteristics. One method currently receiving attention is the use of trailing-edge flaps mounted on the rotor blades to provide direct control of a portion of the spanwise lift characteristics. The following work describes the incorporation of a trailing-edge flap model in the CAMRAD.Mod1/FHUS comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. The CAM-RAD.Mod1/HIRES analysis consists of three separate executable codes. These include the comprehensive trim analysis, CAMRAD.Mod1, the Indicial Post-Processor, IPP, for high resolution airloads, and AIRFOIL, which produces the rotor airfoil tables from input airfoil section characteristics. The modifications made to these components permitting analysis of flapped rotor configurations are documented herein along with user instructions detailing the new input variables and operational notes.

  8. DOE/NASA Mod-0 100KW wind turbine test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Wind Turbine demonstrates the capability of automatic unattended operation, including startup, achieving synchronism, and shutdown as dictated by wind conditions. During the course of these operations, a wealth of engineering data was generated. Some of the data which is associated with rotor and machine dynamics problems encountered, and the machine modifications incorporated as a solution are presented. These include high blade loads due to tower shadow, excessive nacelle yawing motion, and power oscillations. The results of efforts to correlate measured wind velocity with power output and wind turbine loads are also discussed.

  9. Power train analysis for the DOE/NASA 100-kW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Gold, H.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in explaining variations of power experienced in the on-line operation of a 100 kW experimental wind turbine-generator is reported. Data are presented that show the oscillations tend to be characteristic of a wind-driven synchronous generator because of low torsional damping in the power train, resonances of its large structure, and excitation by unsteady and nonuniform wind flow. The report includes dynamic analysis of the drive-train torsion, the generator, passive driveline damping, and active pitch control as well as correlation with experimental recordings. The analysis assumes one machine on an infinite bus with constant generator-field excitation.

  10. Operational results for the experimental DOE/NASA Mod-OA wind turbine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    The Mod-OA wind turbine project which was to gain early experience in the operation of large wind turbines in a utility environment is discussed. The Mod-OA wind turbines were a first generation design, and even though not cost effective, the operating experience and performance characteristics had a significant effect on the design and development of the second and third generation machines. The Mod-OA machines were modified as a result of the operational experience, particularly the blade development and control system strategy. The results of study to investigate the interaction of a Mod-OA wind turbine with an isolated diesel generation system are discussed. The machine configuration, its advantages and disadvantages and the machine performance and availability are discussed.

  11. The DOE/NASA wind turbine data acquisition system. Part 3: Unattended power performance monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halleyy, A.; Heidkamp, D.; Neustadter, H.; Olson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Software documentation, operational procedures, and diagnostic instructions for development version of an unattended wind turbine performance monitoring system is provided. Designed to be used for off line intelligent data acquisition in conjunction with the central host computer.

  12. GE MOD-1 noise study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Noise studies of the MOD-1 Wind Turbine Generator are summarized, and a simple mathematical noise is presented which is adequate to correlate the sound levels found near the machine. A simple acoustic measure is suggested for use in evaluating far field sound levels. Use of this measure as input to a currently available sound complaint prediction program is discussed. Results of a recent statistical survey relative to the far field variation of this acoustic measure because of atmospheric effects are described.

  13. Data acquisition and analysis in the DOE/NASA Wind Energy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Four categories of data systems, each responding to a distinct information need are presented. The categories are: control, technology, engineering and performance. The focus is on the technology data system which consists of the following elements: sensors which measure critical parameters such as wind speed and direction, output power, blade loads and strains, and tower vibrations; remote multiplexing units (RMU) mounted on each wind turbine which frequency modulate, multiplex and transmit sensor outputs; the instrumentation available to record, process and display these signals; and centralized computer analysis of data. The RMU characteristics and multiplexing techniques are presented. Data processing is illustrated by following a typical signal through instruments such as the analog tape recorder, analog to digital converter, data compressor, digital tape recorder, video (CRT) display, and strip chart recorder.

  14. Applications of the DOE/NASA wind turbine engineering information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Spera, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A statistical analysis of data obtained from the Technology and Engineering Information Systems was made. The systems analyzed consist of the following elements: (1) sensors which measure critical parameters (e.g., wind speed and direction, output power, blade loads and component vibrations); (2) remote multiplexing units (RMUs) on each wind turbine which frequency-modulate, multiplex and transmit sensor outputs; (3) on-site instrumentation to record, process and display the sensor output; and (4) statistical analysis of data. Two examples of the capabilities of these systems are presented. The first illustrates the standardized format for application of statistical analysis to each directly measured parameter. The second shows the use of a model to estimate the variability of the rotor thrust loading, which is a derived parameter.

  15. Design and initial testing of a one-bladed 30-meter-diameter rotor on the NASA/DOE mod-O wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, R. D.; Ensworth, C. B. F.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a one-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine has been of interest to wind turbine designers for many years. Many designs and economic analyses of one-bladed wind turbines have been undertaken by both United States and European wind energy groups. The analyses indicate significant economic advantages but at the same time, significant dynamic response concerns. In an effort to develop a broad data base on wind turbine design and operations, the NASA Wind Energy Project Office has tested a one-bladed rotor at the NASA/DOE Mod-O Wind Turbine Facility. This is the only known test on an intermediate-sized one-bladed rotor in the United States. The 15.2-meter-radius rotor consists of a tip-controlled blade and a counterweight assembly. A rigorous test series was conducted in the Fall of 1985 to collect data on rotor performance, drive train/generator dynamics, structural dynamics, and structural loads. This report includes background information on one-bladed rotor concepts, and Mod-O one-bladed rotor test configuration, supporting design analysis, the Mod-O one-blade rotor test plan, and preliminary test results.

  16. Utility operational experience on the NASA/DOE MOD-0A 200-kW wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, J. C.; Robbins, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mod-0A 200 wind turbine was designed and fabricated as part of the Federal Wind Energy Program. Early wind turbine operation and performance data were obtained while gaining initial experience in the operation of large, horizontal axis wind turbines in typical utility environments. The Mod-0A wind turbine was turned over to the Town of Clayton Light and Water Plant, Clayton, NM, for utility operation and on December 31, 1978, the machine had completed ten months of utility operation. The machine is described and the recent operational experience at Clayton, NMis documented.

  17. Testing of a one-bladed 30-meter-diameter rotor on the DOE/NASA Mod-O wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensworth, C. B. F., III; Corrigan, R. D.; Berkowitz, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were conducted on the DOE/NASA Mod-O 200-kW horizontal-axis wind turbine in a one-bladed rotor configuration. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance, loads, and dynamic characteristics of a one-bladed rotor, and then to compare these parameters with those of an aerodynamically similar two-bladed rotor configuration. Test operations showed that this intermediate-size (15.2-m radius) one-bladed rotor configuration can be operated successfully. Test results show that the one-bladed rotor had cyclic blade loads comparable to those of a two-bladed rotor. A moderate power penalty equivalent to a reduction in windspeed of 1 m/sec occurred with the one-bladed rotor when operated at a rotor speed 50 percent higher than that of the two-bladed rotor.

  18. AMELIA Tests in NASA Wind Tunnel

    NASA Video Gallery

    This report from "This Week @ NASA" describes recent aerodynamic tests of a subscale model of the Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics, or "AMELIA," in a NASA wind tunnel. The...

  19. The NASA-LeRC wind turbine sound prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development of the wind turbine sound prediction code began as part of an effort understand and reduce the noise generated by Mod-1. Tone sound levels predicted with this code are in good agreement with measured data taken in the vicinity Mod-1 wind turbine (less than 2 rotor diameters). Comparison in the far field indicates that propagation effects due to terrain and atmospheric conditions may amplify the actual sound levels by 6 dB. Parametric analysis using the code shows that the predominant contributors to Mod-1 rotor noise are (1) the velocity deficit in the wake of the support tower, (2) the high rotor speed, and (3) off-optimum operation.

  20. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  1. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-06-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  2. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Norman W. Schaeffler, a NASA aerospace research engineer, describes how wind tunnels work and how aircraft designers use them to understand aerodynamic forces at low speeds. Learn the advantage...

  3. DOE Wind Program Update: June 4, 2006;

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    The DOE Wind Program Update provides WindPower Conference attendees with information about recent DOE events, including Assistant Secretary Karsner, a wind turbine blade test facility CRADA, and 2005 Wind Energy Award recipients.

  4. World Wind: NASA's Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2007-12-01

    infrastructure. The open-source community plays a crucial role in advancing virtual globe technology. This world community identifies, tracks and resolves technical problems, suggests new features and source code modifications, and often provides high-resolution data sets and other types of user-generated content, all while extending the functionality of virtual globe technology. NASA World Wind is one example of open source virtual globe technology that provides the world with the ability to build any desired functionality and make any desired data accessible.

  5. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  6. Wind measurement accuracy for the NASA scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David G.; Oliphant, Travis

    1997-09-01

    The NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) is designed to make measurements of the normalized radar backscatter coefficient ((sigma) o) of the ocean's surface. The measured (sigma) o is a function of the viewing geometry and the surface roughness due to wind-generated waves. By making multiple measurements of the same location from different azimuth angles it is possible to retrieve the near-surface wind speed and direction with the aid of a Geophysical Model Function (GMF) which relates wind and (sigma) o. The wind is estimated from the noisy (sigma) o measurements using maximum likelihood techniques. The probability density of the measured (sigma) o is assumed to be Gaussian with a variance that depends on the true (sigma) o and therefore the wind through the GMF and the measurements from different azimuth angles are assumed independent in estimating the wind. In order to estimate the accuracy of the retrieved wind, we derive the Cramer-Reo (CR) bound for wind estimation from scatterometer measurements. We show that the CR bound can be used as an error bar on the estimated wind. The role of geophysical modeling error in the GMF is considered and shown to play a significant role in the wind accuracy. Estimates of the accuracy of NSCAT measurements are given along with other scatterometer geometries and types.

  7. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  8. NASA World Wind: Infrastructure for Spatial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The world has great need for analysis of Earth observation data, be it climate change, carbon monitoring, disaster response, national defense or simply local resource management. To best provide for spatial and time-dependent information analysis, the world benefits from an open standards and open source infrastructure for spatial data. In the spirit of NASA's motto "for the benefit of all" NASA invites the world community to collaboratively advance this core technology. The World Wind infrastructure for spatial data both unites and challenges the world for innovative solutions analyzing spatial data while also allowing absolute command and control over any respective information exchange medium.

  9. NASA Glenn Wind Tunnel Model Systems Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.; Roeder, James W.; Stark, David E.; Linne, Alan A.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes criteria for the design, analysis, quality assurance, and documentation of models that are to be tested in the wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report presents two methods for computing model allowable stresses on the basis of the yield stress or ultimate stress, and it defines project procedures to test models in the NASA Glenn aeropropulsion facilities. Both customer-furnished and in-house model systems are discussed. The functions of the facility personnel and customers are defined. The format for the pretest meetings, safety permit process, and model reviews are outlined. The format for the model systems report (a requirement for each model that is to be tested at NASA Glenn) is described, the engineers responsible for developing the model systems report are listed, and the timetable for its delivery to the project engineer is given.

  10. NASA World Wind: A New Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.; Gaskins, T.; Bailey, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes are well into their first generation, providing increasingly rich and beautiful visualization of more types and quantities of information. However, they are still mostly single and proprietary programs, akin to a web browser whose content and functionality are controlled and constrained largely by the browser's manufacturer. Today Google and Microsoft determine what we can and cannot see and do in these programs. NASA World Wind started out in nearly the same mode, a single program with limited functionality and information content. But as the possibilities of virtual globes became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information visualization, we were also getting in the way. Many users want to provide World Wind functionality and information in their programs, not ours. They want it in their web pages. They want to include their own features. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential of the technology be truly realized. World Wind therefore changed its mission: from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating one program, we create components to be used in any number of programs. World Wind is NASA open source software. With the source code being fully visible, anyone can readily use it and freely extend it to serve any use. Imagery and other information provided by the World Wind servers is also free and unencumbered, including the server technology to deliver geospatial data. World Wind developers can therefore provide exclusive and custom solutions based on user needs.

  11. Bibliography of NASA-related publications on wind turbine technology 1973-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    1995-01-01

    A major program of research and development projects on wind turbines for generating electricity was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1973 to 1988. Most of these projects were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as a major element of its Federal Wind Energy Program. One other large-scale wind turbine project was sponsored by the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of Interior (DOI). The peak years for wind energy work at Lewis were 1979-80, when almost 100 engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel were involved. From 1988 their conclusion in 1995, NASA wind energy activities have been directed toward the transfer of technology to commercial and academic organizations. Wind energy activities at NASA can be divided into two broad categories which are closely related and often overlapping: (1) Designing, building, and testing a series of 12 large-scale, experimental, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT's); and (2) conducting supporting research and technology (SR&T) projects. The purpose of this bibliography is to assist those active in the field of wind energy in locating the technical information they need on wind power planning, wind loads, turbine design and analysis, fabrication and installation, laboratory and field testing, and operations and maintenance. This bibliography contains approximately 620 citations of publications by over 520 authors and co-authors. Sources are: (1) NASA reports authored by government grantee, and contractor personnel, (2) papers presented by attendees at NASA-sponsored workshops and conferences, (3) papers presented by NASA personnel at outside workshops and conferences, and (4) outside publications related to research performed at NASA/ DOE wind turbine sites.

  12. Comparison Between Field Data and NASA Ames Wind Tunnel Data

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this analysis is to compare the measured data from the NASA Ames wind tunnel experiment to those collected in the field at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) with the same turbine configuration. The results of this analysis provide insight into what measurements can be made in the field as opposed to wind tunnel testing.

  13. Probability distribution of wind retrieval error for the NASA scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leotta, Daniel F.; Long, David G.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) is a spaceborne scatterometer scheduled to be deployed in the mid-1990s. An analysis of the wind retrieval error distribution for wind estimates based on backscatter measurements made by the NSCAT instrument is presented. The results are based on an end-to-end simulation of the scatterometer instrument and data processing. In general, the distribution of the wind speed error, when normalized, is independent of the true wind speed and direction. The wind speed error can be characterized by a normal distribution. The wind direction error is independent of the true wind speed, but depends on the true wind direction. Details for wind vectors with true wind speeds from 3 m/s to 33 m/s and true wind directions from 0 to 360 deg are presented.

  14. NASA presentation. [wind energy conversion systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a wind energy system is outlined that supplies reliable energy at a cost competitive with other energy systems. A government directed industry program with strong university support is recommended that includes meteorological studies to estimate wind energy potentials and determines favorable regions and sites for wind power installations. Key phases of the overall program are wind energy conversion systems, meteorological wind studies, energy storage systems, and environmental impact studies. Performance testing with a prototype wind energy conversion and storage system is projected for Fiscal 1977.

  15. ERDA-NASA wind energy project ready to involve users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R.; Puthoff, R.; Savino, J.; Johnson, W.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA contribution to the Wind Energy Project is discussed. NASA is responsible for the following: (1) identification of cost-effective configurations and sizes of wind-conversion systems, (2) the development of technology needed to produce these systems, (3) the design of wind-conversion systems that are compatible with user requirements, particularly utility networks, and (4) technology transfer obtained from the program to stimulate rapid commercial application of wind systems. Various elements of the NASA program are outlined, including industry-built user operation, the evaluation phase, the proposed plan and schedule for site selection and user involvement, supporting research and technology (e.g., energy storage), and component and subsystem technology development.

  16. Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development at NASA Langley Research Center for NASA Space-Based 3-D Winds Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Koch, Grady J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the 20-plus years of pulsed transmit laser development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to enable a coherent Doppler wind lidar to measure global winds from earth orbit. We briefly also discuss the many other ingredients needed to prepare for this space mission.

  17. The NASA Lewis large wind turbine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Baldwin, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The program is directed toward development of the technology for safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable large wind turbines that have the potential to generate a significant amount of electricity at costs competitive with conventional electric generation systems. In addition, these large wind turbines must be fully compatible with electric utility operations and interface requirements. Advances are made by gaining a better understanding of the system design drivers, improvements in the analytical design tools, verification of design methods with operating field data, and the incorporation of new technology and innovative designs. An overview of the program activities is presented and includes results from the first and second generation field machines (Mod-OA, -1, and -2), the design phase of the third generation wind turbine (Mod-5) and the advanced technology projects. Also included is the status of the Department of Interior WTS-4 machine.

  18. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.

  19. NASA Lewis Wind Tunnel Model Systems Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.; Haller, Henry C.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes criteria for the design, analysis, quality assurance, and documentation of models or test articles that are to be tested in the aeropropulsion facilities at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The report presents three methods for computing model allowable stresses on the basis of the yield stress or ultimate stress, and it gives quality assurance criteria for models tested in Lewis' aeropropulsion facilities. Both customer-furnished model systems and in-house model systems are discussed. The functions of the facility manager, project engineer, operations engineer, research engineer, and facility electrical engineer are defined. The format for pretest meetings, prerun safety meetings, and the model criteria review are outlined Then, the format for the model systems report (a requirement for each model that is to be tested at NASA Lewis) is described, the engineers that are responsible for developing the model systems report are listed, and the time table for its delivery to the facility manager is given.

  20. NASA World Wind Near Real Time Data for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Innovation requires open standards for data exchange, not to mention ^access to data^ so that value-added, the information intelligence, can be continually created and advanced by the larger community. Likewise, innovation by academia and entrepreneurial enterprise alike, are greatly benefited by an open platform that provides the basic technology for access and visualization of that data. NASA World Wind Java, and now NASA World Wind iOS for the iPhone and iPad, provides that technology. Whether the interest is weather science or climate science, emergency response or supply chain, seeing spatial data in its native context of Earth accelerates understanding and improves decision-making. NASA World Wind open source technology provides the basic elements for 4D visualization, using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) protocols, while allowing for customized access to any data, big or small, including support for NetCDF. NASA World Wind includes access to a suite of US Government WMS servers with near real time data. The larger community can readily capitalize on this technology, building their own value-added applications, either open or proprietary. Night lights heat map Glacier National Park

  1. Implementation and evaluation of the new wind algorithm in NASA's 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Manobianco, John T.; Schumann, Robin S.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Applied Meteorology Unit's implementation and evaluation of the wind algorithm developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on the data analysis processor (DAP) of NASA's 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler (DRWP). The report also includes a summary of the 50 MHz DRWP characteristics and performance and a proposed concept of operations for the DRWP.

  2. Accessing Wind Tunnels From NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Jeff; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Ames wind tunnel customers are one of the first users of the Information Power Grid (IPG) storage system at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division. We wanted to be able to store their data on the IPG so that it could be accessed remotely in a secure but timely fashion. In addition, incorporation into the IPG allows future use of grid computational resources, e.g., for post-processing of data, or to do side-by-side CFD validation. In this paper, we describe the integration of grid data access mechanisms with the existing DARWIN web-based system that is used to access wind tunnel test data. We also show that the combined system has reasonable performance: wind tunnel data may be retrieved at 50Mbits/s over a 100 base T network connected to the IPG storage server.

  3. User Interface Technology Transfer to NASA's Virtual Wind Tunnel System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, Andries

    1998-01-01

    Funded by NASA grants for four years, the Brown Computer Graphics Group has developed novel 3D user interfaces for desktop and immersive scientific visualization applications. This past grant period supported the design and development of a software library, the 3D Widget Library, which supports the construction and run-time management of 3D widgets. The 3D Widget Library is a mechanism for transferring user interface technology from the Brown Graphics Group to the Virtual Wind Tunnel system at NASA Ames as well as the public domain.

  4. NASA's Newest SeaWinds Instrument Breezes Into Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    One of NASA's newest Earth-observing instruments, the SeaWinds scatterometer aboard Japan's Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (Adeos) 2--now renamed Midori 2--has successfully transmitted its first radar data to our home planet, generating its first high-quality images.

    From its orbiting perch high above Earth, SeaWinds on Midori 2 ('midori' is Japanese for the color green, symbolizing the environment) will provide the world's most accurate, highest resolution and broadest geographic coverage of ocean wind speed and direction, sea ice extent and properties of Earth's land surfaces. It will complement and eventually replace an identical instrument orbiting since June 1999 on NASA's Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat) satellite. Its three- to five-year mission will augment a long-term ocean surface wind data series that began in 1996 with launch of the NASA Scatterometer on Japan's first Adeos spacecraft.

    Climatologists, meteorologists and oceanographers will soon routinely use data from SeaWinds on Midori 2 to understand and predict severe weather patterns, climate change and global weather abnormalities like El Nino. The data are expected to improve global and regional weather forecasts, ship routing and marine hazard avoidance, measurements of sea ice extent and the tracking of icebergs, among other uses.

    'Midori 2, its SeaWinds instrument and associated ground processing systems are functioning very smoothly,' said Moshe Pniel, scatterometer projects manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. 'Following initial checkout and calibration, we look forward to continuous operations, providing vital data to scientists and weather forecasters around the world.'

    'These first images show remarkable detail over land, ice and oceans,' said Dr. Michael Freilich, Ocean Vector Winds Science Team Leader, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. 'The combination of SeaWinds data and measurements from other instruments on Midori 2 with data from other

  5. Theoretical and experimental power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    A method for calculating the output power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines is presented. Modifications to the airfoil characteristics and the momentum portion of classical blade element-momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident at low tip-speed ratios where aerodynamic stall can occur as the blade experiences high angles of attack. Output power calculated using the modified theory is compared with measured data for several large wind turbines. These wind turbines range in size from the DOE/NASA 100 kW Mod-0 (38 m rotor diameter) to the 2000 kW Mod-1 (61 m rotor diameter). The calculated results are in good agreement with measured data from these machines.

  6. NASA's Newest SeaWinds Instrument Breezes Into Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    One of NASA's newest Earth-observing instruments, the SeaWinds scatterometer aboard Japan's Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (Adeos) 2--now renamed Midori 2--has successfully transmitted its first radar data to our home planet, generating its first high-quality images.

    From its orbiting perch high above Earth, SeaWinds on Midori 2 ('midori' is Japanese for the color green, symbolizing the environment) will provide the world's most accurate, highest resolution and broadest geographic coverage of ocean wind speed and direction, sea ice extent and properties of Earth's land surfaces. It will complement and eventually replace an identical instrument orbiting since June 1999 on NASA's Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat) satellite. Its three- to five-year mission will augment a long-term ocean surface wind data series that began in 1996 with launch of the NASA Scatterometer on Japan's first Adeos spacecraft.

    Climatologists, meteorologists and oceanographers will soon routinely use data from SeaWinds on Midori 2 to understand and predict severe weather patterns, climate change and global weather abnormalities like El Nino. The data are expected to improve global and regional weather forecasts, ship routing and marine hazard avoidance, measurements of sea ice extent and the tracking of icebergs, among other uses.

    'Midori 2, its SeaWinds instrument and associated ground processing systems are functioning very smoothly,' said Moshe Pniel, scatterometer projects manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. 'Following initial checkout and calibration, we look forward to continuous operations, providing vital data to scientists and weather forecasters around the world.'

    'These first images show remarkable detail over land, ice and oceans,' said Dr. Michael Freilich, Ocean Vector Winds Science Team Leader, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. 'The combination of SeaWinds data and measurements from other instruments on Midori 2 with data from other

  7. Offshore wind measurements using Doppler aerosol wind lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2014-06-01

    The latest flight demonstration of Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is presented. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the improvement of DAWN system since the previous flight campaign in 2012 and the capabilities of DAWN and the latest airborne wind profiling algorithm APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) developed at LaRC. The comparisons of APOLO and another algorithm are discussed utilizing two and five line-of-sights (LOSs), respectively. Wind parameters from DAWN were compared with ground-based radar measurements for validation purposes. The campaign period was June - July in 2013 and the flight altitude was 8 km in inland toward Charlotte, NC, and offshores in Virginia Beach, VA and Ocean City, MD. The DAWN system was integrated into a UC12B with two operators onboard during the campaign.

  8. Offshore Wind Measurements Using Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The latest flight demonstration of Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is presented. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the improvement of DAWN system since the previous flight campaign in 2012 and the capabilities of DAWN and the latest airborne wind profiling algorithm APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) developed at LaRC. The comparisons of APOLO and another algorithm are discussed utilizing two and five line-of-sights (LOSs), respectively. Wind parameters from DAWN were compared with ground-based radar measurements for validation purposes. The campaign period was June - July in 2013 and the flight altitude was 8 km in inland toward Charlotte, NC, and offshores in Virginia Beach, VA and Ocean City, MD. The DAWN system was integrated into a UC12B with two operators onboard during the campaign.

  9. Nuclear rocket propulsion technology - A joint NASA/DOE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and the DOE have initiated critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for SEI human and robotic missions to the moon and to Mars. The activities and project plan of the interagency project planning team in FY 1990 and 1991 are summarized. The project plan includes evolutionary technology development for both nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  10. TRAC-BD1/MOD1 user's guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R G

    1985-11-01

    Code assessment studies and specific code applications have provided insight into the effective use of the TRAC-BWR series of codes. This document reports the experience gained from the studies and serves to assist the user in the effective application of the TRAC-BD1/MOD1 computer code. This document stresses the user's perspective relative to approprite use of the TRAC-BD1/MOD1 code and is considered an adjunct to other documentation provided with the code.

  11. Manned Certification Tests of the Modernized MK 16 MOD 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    the UBA inspiratory hose. Twenty-four divers using six modernized MK 16 MOD 1 UBAs performed 63 dives: 20 each at 130 feet of sea water ( fsw ) for 30...minutes and 150 fsw for 35 minutes, and 23 at 300 fsw for 20 minutes (40, 45 and 91 msw). Decompression was according U.S. Navy Diving Manual...7 Oxygen Control Comparison with Legacy MK 16 MOD 1 ............................................ 7 Dives to 130 fsw

  12. DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview '83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is presented. The background and objectives of the project are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30% fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod seals, and low cost heat exchanges.

  13. Plans and status of the NASA-Lewis Research Center wind energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R.; Puthoff, R.; Savino, J.; Johnson, W.

    1975-01-01

    Wind energy is investigated as a source of energy. The wind energy program that is managed by the NASA-Lewis Research Center is described. The Lewis Research Center's Wind Power Office, its organization, plans, and status are discussed. Major elements of the wind power project included are: an experimental 100 kW wind-turbine generator; first generation industry-built and user-operated wind turbine generators; and supporting research and technology tasks.

  14. Hurricane Frances as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and SeaWinds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows Hurricane Frances as captured by instruments onboard two different satellites: the AIRS infrared instrument onboard Aqua, and the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT. Both are JPL-managed instruments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction over the ocean.

    The red vectors in the image show Frances' surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. The background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface as viewed in the infrared by AIRS, with cooler areas pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red. The color scale on the right gives the temperatures in degrees Kelvin. (The top of the scale, 320 degrees Kelvin, corresponds to 117 degrees Fahrenheit, and the bottom, 180 degrees K is -135 degrees F.) The powerful circulation of this storm is evident from the combined data as well as the development of a clearly-defined central 'eye'. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the light blue areas reveal the cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm. In cloud-free areas the infrared signal comes from Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures.

    The power of the SeaWinds scatterometer data set lies in its ability to generate global maps of wind speed and direction, giving us a snapshot of how the atmosphere is circulating. Weather prediction centers, including the Tropical Prediction Center - a branch of NOAA that monitors the creation of ocean-born storms, use scatterometer data to help it 'see' where these storms are brewing so that warnings can be issued and the storms, with often erratic motions, can be tracked.

    While the SeaWinds instrument isn't designed to gather hurricane data, having difficulty seeing the surface in heavy rain, it's data can be used in combination with other data sets to give us an insight into these storms. In

  15. ERDA/NASA 100 kilowatt mod-o wind turbine operations and performance. [at the NASA Plum Brook Station, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Richards, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA/NASA 100 kW Mod-0 wind turbine is operating at the NASA Plum Brook Station near Sandusky, Ohio. The operation of the wind turbine has been fully demonstrated and includes start-up, synchronization to the utility network, blade pitch control for control of power and speed, and shut-down. Also, fully automatic operation has been demonstrated by use of a remote control panel, 50 miles from the site, similar to what a utility dispatcher might use. The operation systems and experience with the wind turbine loads, electrical power and aerodynamic performance obtained from testing are described.

  16. Comparison of the NASA Common Research Model European Transonic Wind Tunnel Test Data to NASA Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Melissa B.; Quest, Jurgen; Rudnik, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National Transonic Facility and in the European Transonic Facility. Force and moment, surface pressure, wing bending and twist, and surface flow visualization data were obtained in all three facilities but only the force and moment, surface pressure and wing bending and twist data are presented herein.

  17. Comparison of the NASA Common Research Model European Transonic Wind Tunnel Test Data to NASA Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Melissa; Quest, Juergen; Rudnik, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National Transonic Facility and in the European Transonic Facility. Force and moment, surface pressure, wing bending and twist, and surface flow visualization data were obtained in all three facilities but only the force and moment and surface pressure data are presented herein.

  18. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: A Joint NASA/DOE/DOD Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the joint NASA/DOE/DOD workshop on nuclear thermal propulsion are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: nuclear thermal propulsion programs; Rover/NERVA and NERVA systems; Low Pressure Nuclear Thermal Rocket (LPNTR); particle bed reactor nuclear rocket; hybrid propulsion systems; wire core reactor; pellet bed reactor; foil reactor; Droplet Core Nuclear Rocket (DCNR); open cycle gas core nuclear rockets; vapor core propulsion reactors; nuclear light bulb; Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF); mission analysis; propulsion and reactor technology; development plans; and safety issues.

  19. DOE/NASA automotive Stirling engine project - Overview 86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and modifications thereto, have accumulated over 15,000 hr of test time, including 1100 hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

  20. NASA/DOE automotive Stirling engine project. Overview 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Beremand, D.G.; Shaltens, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and midifications thereto, have accumulated over 15 000 hr of test time, including 1100 hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

  1. NASA/DOE automotive Stirling engine project: Overview 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and modifications thereto, have accumulated over 15,000 hr of test time, including 1100hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

  2. DOE-EPRI distributed wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP III)

    SciTech Connect

    McGowin, C.; DeMeo, E.; Calvert, S.

    1997-12-31

    In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP). The goal of the program is to evaluate prototype advanced wind turbines at several sites developed by U.S. electric utility companies. Two six MW wind projects have been installed under the TVP program by Central and South West Services in Fort Davis, Texas and Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, Vermont. In early 1997, DOE and EPRI selected five more utility projects to evaluate distributed wind generation using smaller {open_quotes}clusters{close_quotes} of wind turbines connected directly to the electricity distribution system. This paper presents an overview of the objectives, scope, and status of the EPRI-DOE TVP program and the existing and planned TVP projects.

  3. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National... scoping and prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm... scoping is for NASA to obtain public comments on construction and operation of the wind farm. The...

  4. Anywhere the Wind Blows does Really Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram

    2014-05-01

    The variation of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) has been explained at coarse scales with variation of forcing variables among climate regions and associated biomes, at the intermediate, mesoscale, with differences among dominating vegetation types and conditions, and at the misoscale with heterogeneity of the eddy covariance footprint properties. Wind is rarely considered in analysis of surface fluxes for its effects on periodic budgets of water and carbon. In many regions conditions change frequently between maritime and continental depending on wind velocity (VW) and direction. In these regions, water and carbon fluxes may respond to mesoscale weather patterns extending maritime influences far inland. Using eddy-covariance data from Sardinia, we show that daytime net carbon exchange (NEE) of a mixed pasture-woodland (grass-wild olive) ecosystem (Detto et al., 2006; Montaldo et al., 2008) increased with VW, especially during summer-dry conditions. As VW increased, the air, humidified over sea, remains relatively moist and cool to a greater distance inland, reaching only ~50 km during slow Saharan Sirocco wind but >160 km during mostly Mistral wind (4 m/s) from Continental Europe. A 30% lower vapor pressure deficit (D) associated with high VW (average 2 kPa at 4 m/s), allowed a 50% higher canopy stomatal conductance (gc) and, thus, photosynthesis. However, because gc and D have opposite effects on evapotranspiration (Ee), Ee was unaffected by VW. Thus, higher NEE during summertime Mistral reflects increased ecosystem water-use efficiency (We) and a departure from a costly carbon-water tradeoff. Yet many regions often experience high velocity winds, attention is typically focused on the capacity of strong winds to fan regional fires, threatening human habitation and natural habitats, and reducing Carbon storage (C), NEE and latent heat flux. However, depending on their origin, high velocity winds can bring continental air to the coast (e.g., Santa Ana winds

  5. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Demoz, Belay B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  6. An overview of DOE's wind turbine development programs

    SciTech Connect

    Laxson, A.S.; Hock, S.M.; Musial, W.D. ); Goldman, P.R. )

    1992-12-01

    The development of technologically advanced, higher efficiency wind turbines continues to be a high priority of the US wind industry. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting and sponsoring a range of programs aimed at assisting the wind industry with system design, development, and testing. The overall goal is to develop systems that can compete with conventional electric generation at $0.05/kWh at 5.8 m/s (13 mph sites) by the mid-1990s, and with fossil-fuel-based generators $0.04/kWh at 5.8 m/s sites by the year 2000. These goals will be achieved through several programs. The Value Engineered Turbine (VET) Program will promote the rapid development of US capability to manufacture wind turbines to take advantage of near-term market opportunities. These value-engineered turbines will stem from units with known and well-documented records of performance. The Advanced Wind Turbine Program will assist US industry to develop and integrate advanced technologies into utility-grade wind turbines for the near term (1993--1995), and to develop a new generation of innovative turbines for the year 2000. The Utility Wind Turbine Performance Verification Program, a collaborative agreement between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and DOE, will deploy and evaluate commercial-prototype wind turbines in typical utility operating environments to provide a bridge from development programs currently under way to commercial purchases of utility-grade wind turbines.

  7. Comparison of FPS-16 radar/jimsphere and NASA's 50-MHz radar wind profiler turbulence indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the wind and turbulent regions from the surface to 16 km by the FPS-11 radar/jimsphere system are reported with particular attention given to the use of these turbulence and wind assessments to validate the NASA 50-MHz radar wind profiler. Wind profile statistics were compared at 150-m wavelengths, a wavelength validated from 20 jimspheres, simultaneously tracked by FPS-16 and FPQ-14 radar, and the resulting analysis of auto spectra, cross-spectra, and coherence squared spectra of the wind profiles. Results demonstrate that the NASA prototype wind profiler is an excellent monitoring device illustrating the measurements of the winds within 1/2 hour of launch zero.

  8. Wind Tunnel and Propulsion Test Facilities: An Assessment of NASA's Capabilities to Serve National Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Gritton, Eugene C.; Mesic, Richard; Steinberg, Paul; Johnson, Dana J.

    2004-01-01

    This monograph reveals and discusses the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) wind tunnel and propulsion test facility management issues that are creating real risks to the United States' competitive aeronautics advantage.

  9. Aeroacoustic Codes For Rotor Harmonic and BVI Noise--CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a status of non-CFD aeroacoustic codes at NASA Langley Research Center for the prediction of helicopter harmonic and Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. The prediction approach incorporates three primary components: CAMRAD.Mod1 - a substantially modified version of the performance/trim/wake code CAMRAD; HIRES - a high resolution blade loads post-processor; and WOPWOP - an acoustic code. The functional capabilities and physical modeling in CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES will be summarized and illustrated. A new multi-core roll-up wake modeling approach is introduced and validated. Predictions of rotor wake and radiated noise are compared with to the results of the HART program, a model BO-105 windtunnel test at the DNW in Europe. Additional comparisons are made to results from a DNW test of a contemporary design four-bladed rotor, as well as from a Langley test of a single proprotor (tiltrotor) three-bladed model configuration. Because the method is shown to help eliminate the necessity of guesswork in setting code parameters between different rotor configurations, it should prove useful as a rotor noise design tool.

  10. The EPRI/DOE Utility Wind Turbine Performance Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, S.; Goldman, P.; DeMeo, E.; McGowin, C.; Smith, B.; Tromly, K.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Utility Wind Turbine Performance Verification Program (TVP). This paper provides an overview of the TVP, its purpose and goals, and the participating utility projects. Improved technology has significantly reduced the cost of energy from wind turbines since the early 1980s. In 1992, turbines were producing electricity for about $0.07--$0.09/kilowatt-hour (kWh) (at 7 m/s [16 mph sites]), compared with more than $0.30/kWh in 1980. Further technology improvements were expected to lower the cost of energy from wind turbines to $0.05/kWh. More than 17,000 wind turbines, totaling more than 1,500 MW capacity, were installed in the US, primarily in California and Hawaii. The better wind plants had availabilities above 95%, capacity factors exceeding 30%, and operation and maintenance costs of $0.01/kWh. However, despite improving technology, EPRI and DOE recognized that utility use of wind turbines was still largely limited to turbines installed in California and Hawaii during the 1980s. Wind resource assessments showed that other regions of the US, particularly the Midwest, had abundant wind resources. EPRI and DOE sought to provide a bridge from utility-grade turbine development programs under way to commercial purchases of the wind turbines. The TVP was developed to allow utilities to build and operate enough candidate turbines to gain statistically significant operating and maintenance data.

  11. Aeroacoustic Codes for Rotor Harmonic and BVI Noise. CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES: Methodology and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This document details the methodology and use of the CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES codes, which were developed at NASA Langley Research Center for the prediction of helicopter harmonic and Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. CANMAD.Mod1 is a substantially modified version of the performance/trim/wake code CANMAD. High resolution blade loading is determined in post-processing by HIRES and an associated indicial aerodynamics code. Extensive capabilities of importance to noise prediction accuracy are documented, including a new multi-core tip vortex roll-up wake model, higher harmonic and individual blade control, tunnel and fuselage correction input, diagnostic blade motion input, and interfaces for acoustic and CFD aerodynamics codes. Modifications and new code capabilities are documented with examples. A users' job preparation guide and listings of variables and namelists are given.

  12. Assessment of Atmospheric Winds Aloft during NASA Space Shuttle Program Day-of-Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Leach, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Natural Environments Branch at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Marshall Space Flight Center monitors the winds aloft at Kennedy Space Center in support of the Space Shuttle Program day of launch operations. High resolution wind profiles are derived from radar tracked Jimsphere balloons, which are launched at predetermined times preceding the launch, for evaluation. The spatial (shear) and temporal (persistence) wind characteristics are assessed against a design wind database to ensure wind change does not violate wind change criteria. Evaluations of wind profies are reported to personnel at Johnson Space Center.

  13. DOE/SNL-TTU scaled wind farm technology facility :

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; White, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    The proposed DOE/Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility (SWiFT) hosted by Texas Tech University at Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, will provide a facility for experimental study of turbine-turbine interaction and complex wind farm aerodynamics. This document surveys the current status of wind turbine wake and turbine-turbine interaction research, identifying knowledge and data gaps that the proposed test site can potentially fill. A number of turbine layouts is proposed, allowing for up to ten turbines at the site.

  14. Northeast Utilities' participation in the Kaman/NASA wind power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotker, M.

    1975-01-01

    The role of Northeast Utilities in the Kaman/NASA large wind generator study is reviewed. The participation falls into four principal areas: (1) technical assistance; (2) economic analysis; (3) applications; and (4) institutional and legal. A model for the economic viability of wind power is presented.

  15. Plans and status of the NASA-Lewis Research Center wind energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R.; Puthoff, R.; Savino, J.; Johnson, W.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes that portion of the national five-year wind energy program that is being managed by the NASA-Lewis Research Center for the ERDA. The Lewis Research Center's Wind Power Office, its organization and plans and status are briefly described. The three major elements of the wind energy project at Lewis are the experimental 100 kW wind-turbine generator; the first generation industry-built and user-operated wind turbine generators; and the supporting research and technology tasks which are each briefly described.

  16. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Tompkins, Daniel M.; Stremel, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75 scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14x22 and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40x80 low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.

  17. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Jospeh A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Stremel, Paul M.; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75% scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14'x22' and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40'x80' low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.

  18. DOE/NREL Advanced Wind Turbine Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C P; Smith, B; Laxson, A; Thresher, B; Goldman, P

    1993-05-01

    The development of technologically advanced, high-efficiency wind turbines continues to be a high-priority activity of the US wind industry. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute), sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine Program to assist the wind industry in the development of a new class of advanced wind turbines. The initial phase of the program focused on developing conceptual designs for near-term and advanced turbines. The goal of the second phase of this program is to use the experience gained over the last decade of turbine design and operation combined with the latest existing design tools to develop a turbine that will produce energy at $0.05 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) in a 5.8-m/s (13-mph) wind site. Three contracts have been awarded, and two more are under negotiation in the second phase. The third phase of the program will use new innovations and state-of-the-art wind turbine design technology to produce a turbine that will generate energy at $0.04/kWh in a 5.8-m/s wind site. Details of the third phase will be announced in early 1993.

  19. Rationale for wind-borne missile criteria for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J R; Murray, R

    1999-09-01

    High winds tend to pick up and transport various objects and debris, which are referred to as wind-borne missiles or tornado missiles, depending on the type of storm. Missiles cause damage by perforating the building envelope or by collapsing structural elements such as walls, columns or frames. The primary objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to provide a basis for wind-borne or tornado missile criteria for the design and evaluation of DOE facilities, and (2) to provide guidelines for the design and evaluation of impact-resistant missile barriers for DOE facilities The first objective is accomplished through a synthesis of information from windstorm damage documentation experience and computer simulation of missile trajectories. The second objective is accomplished by reviewing the literature, which describes various missile impact tests, and by conducting a series of impact tests at a Texas Tech University facility to fill in missing information.

  20. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bounds, John Alan

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  1. Development of the NASA High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Gerald; Carswell, James; Schaubert, Dan; McLinden, Matthew; Vega, Manuel; Perrine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the development and recent field deployments of the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), which was funded under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) [1]. HIWRAP is a dual-frequency (Ka- and Ku-band), dual-beam (300 and 400 incidence angles), conical scanning, Doppler radar system designed for operation on the NASA high-altitude (65,000 ft) Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). It utilizes solid state transmitters along with a novel pulse compression scheme that results in a system with compact size, light weight, less power consumption, and low cost compared to radars currently in use for precipitation and Doppler wind measurements. By combining measurements at Ku- and Ka-band, HIWRAP is able to image winds through measuring volume backscattering from clouds and precipitation. In addition, HIWRAP is also capable of measuring surface winds in an approach similar to SeaWinds on QuikScat. To this end, HIWRAP hardware and software development has been completed. It was installed on the NASA WB57 for instrument test flights in March, 2010 and then deployed on the NASA Global Hawk for supporting the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field campaign in August-September, 2010. This paper describes the scientific motivations of the development of HIWRAP as well as system hardware, aircraft integration and flight missions. Preliminary data from GRIP science flights is also presented.

  2. Experimental Investigations of the NASA Common Research Model in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and NASA Ames 11-Ft Transonic Wind Tunnel (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. M.; Dittberner, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5 million for five different configurations at both wind tunnels. Force and moment, surface pressure and surface flow visualization data were obtained in both facilities but only the force and moment data are presented herein. Nacelle/pylon, tail effects and tunnel to tunnel variations have been assessed. The data from both wind tunnels show that an addition of a nacelle/pylon gave an increase in drag, decrease in lift and a less nose down pitching moment around the design lift condition of 0.5 and that the tail effects also follow the expected trends. Also, all of the data shown fall within the 2-sigma limits for repeatability. The tunnel to tunnel differences are negligible for lift and pitching moment, while the drag shows a difference of less than ten counts for all of the configurations. These differences in drag may be due to the variation in the sting mounting systems at the two tunnels.

  3. NASA wind shear flight test in situ results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives in developing the NASA in situ windshear detection algorithm were to provide a measurement standard for validation of forward-look sensors under development, and to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to operate with a suitably low nuisance alert rate. It was necessary to know exactly how the algorithm was implemented and what parameters and filtering were used, in order to be able to fully test its effectiveness and correlate in situ results with forward-look sensor data.

  4. Development of a global backscatter model for NASA's laser atmospheric wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, David; Collins, Laurie; Mach, Douglas; Mcnider, Richard; Song, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    During the Contract Period April 1, 1989, to September 30, 1992, the Earth Systems Science Laboratory (ESSL) in the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) conducted a program of basic research on atmospheric backscatter characteristics, leading to the development of a global backscatter model. The ESSL research effort was carried out in conjunction with the Earth System Observing Branch (ES43) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, as part of NASA Contract NAS8-37585 under the Atmospheric Dynamics Program at NASA Headquarters. This research provided important inputs to NASA's GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) program, especially in the understanding of global aerosol life cycles, and to NASA's Doppler Lidar research program, especially the development program for their prospective space-based Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS).

  5. Wind tunnel productivity status and improvement activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last three years, a major effort has been underway to re-engineering the way wind tunnel testing is accomplished at the NASA Langley Research Center. This effort began with the reorganization of the LaRC and the consolidation of the management of the wind tunnels in the Aerodynamics Division under one operations branch. This paper provides an overview of the re-engineering activities and gives the status of the improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and customer satisfaction that have resulted from the new ways of working.

  6. Science Goals and Mission Objectives of Nasa's Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Wayman E.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge of the global wind field is widely recognized as fundamental to advancing our understanding and prediction of the total Earth system. Yet, because wind profiles are primarily measured by land-based rawinsondes, the oceanic areas (covering three quarters of the Earth's surface) and many regions of the less developed southern hemisphere land areas are poorly observed. The gap between our requirements for wind data and their availability continues to widen. For example, as faster computers become available to model the atmosphere with ever increasing resolution and sophistication, our ability to model the atmosphere will be hampered by a lack of data, particularly wind profiles. In order to address this important deficiency in wind observations, NASA plans to construct the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) instrument, with deployment tentatively scheduled between 2002 and 2005 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. Addressed here is the importance of wind measurements for advancing our understanding and prediction of the total Earth System. The current characteristics of the LAWS instrument under study are also summarized.

  7. Summary of NASA-Lewis Research Center solar heating and cooling and wind energy programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is planning to construct and operate a solar heating and cooling system in conjunction with a new office building being constructed at Langley Research Center. The technology support for this project will be provided by a solar energy program underway at NASA's Lewis Research Center. The solar program at Lewis includes: testing of solar collectors with a solar simulator, outdoor testing of collectors, property measurements of selective and nonselective coatings for solar collectors, and a solar model-systems test loop. NASA-Lewis has been assisting the National Science Foundation and now the Energy Research and Development Administration in planning and executing a national wind energy program. The areas of the wind energy program that are being conducted by Lewis include: design and operation of a 100 kW experimental wind generator, industry-designed and user-operated wind generators in the range of 50 to 3000 kW, and supporting research and technology for large wind energy systems. An overview of these activities is provided.

  8. Large-Scale Wind Turbine Testing in the NASA 24.4m (80) by 36.6m(120) Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.; Imprexia, Cliff (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center in California provides a unique capability to test large-scale wind turbines under controlled conditions. This special capability is now available for domestic and foreign entities wishing to test large-scale wind turbines. The presentation will focus on facility capabilities to perform wind turbine tests and typical research objectives for this type of testing.

  9. Real-Gas Flow Properties for NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    A computational algorithm has been developed which can be employed to determine the flow properties of an arbitrary real (virial) gas in a wind tunnel. A multiple-coefficient virial gas equation of state and the assumption of isentropic flow are used to model the gas and to compute flow properties throughout the wind tunnel. This algorithm has been used to calculate flow properties for the wind tunnels of the Aerothermodynamics Facilities Complex at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which air, CF4. He, and N2 are employed as test gases. The algorithm is detailed in this paper and sample results are presented for each of the Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex wind tunnels.

  10. 78 FR 28842 - Searchlight Wind Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0413)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Area Power Administration Searchlight Wind Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0413) AGENCY... Searchlight Wind Energy, LLC (Searchlight) to interconnect its proposed Searchlight Wind Energy Project... Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement ] (EIS) for Searchlight Wind Energy Project...

  11. The DOE/NASA SRG110 Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Richardson, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for NASAs Science Mission Directorate for potential surface and deep space missions. The SRG110 is one of two new radioisotope power systems (RPSs) currently being developed for NASA space missions, and is capable of operating in a range of planetary atmospheres and in deep space environments. It has a mass of approximately 27 kg and produces more than 125We(dc) at beginning of mission (BOM), with a design lifetime of fourteen years. Electrical power is produced by two (2) free-piston Stirlings convertor heated by two General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The complete SRG110 system is approximately 38 cm x 36 cm and 76 cm long. The SRG110 generator is being designed in 3 stages: Engineering Model, Qualification Generator, and Flight Generator. Current plans call for the Engineering Model to be fabricated and tested by October 2006. Completion of testing of the Qualification Generator is scheduled for mid-2009. This development is being performed by Lockheed Martin, Valley Forge, PA and Infinia Corporation, Kennewick, WA under contract to the Department of Energy, Germantown, Md. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio is providing independent testing and support for the technology transition for the SRG110 Program.

  12. An evaluation and assessment of flow quality in selected NASA wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.; Owen, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in a number of NASA wind tunnels to measure disturbance levels and spectra in their respective settling chambers, test sections, and diffusers to determine the sources of their disturbances. The present data supplements previous results in other NASA tunnels and adds to the ongoing acquisition of a disturbance level data base. The present results also serve to explain flow related sources which cause relatively large disturbance amplitudes at discrete frequencies. The installation of honeycomb, screens, and acoustic baffles in or upstream of the settling chamber can significantly reduce the disturbance levels.

  13. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements on the NASA Common Research Model in the NASA 11-ft Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The luminescence lifetime technique was used to make pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) measurements on a 2.7% Common Research Model in the NASA Ames 11ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. PSP data were obtained on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing and horizontal tail, as well as one side of the fuselage. Data were taken for several model attitudes of interest at Mach numbers between 0.70 and 0.87. Image data were mapped onto a three-dimensional surface grid suitable both for comparison with CFD and for integration of pressures to determine loads. Luminescence lifetime measurements were made using strobed LED (light-emitting diode) lamps to illuminate the PSP and fast-framing interline transfer cameras to acquire the PSP emission.

  14. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed 100-kW wind power system are presented. Stresses in the shank areas of the 19-m (62.5-ft) blades are given for static, rated, and overload conditions. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. A teetering rotor will probably be required in order to achieve a long service life in a large wind turbine exposed to periodic overload conditions.

  15. DAWN Coherent Wind Profiling Lidar Flights on NASA's DC-8 During GRIP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Creary, Garfield A.; Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Trieu, Bo C.; Yu, Jirong

    2011-01-01

    Almost from their invention, lasers have been used to measure the velocity of wind and objects; over distances of cm to 10s of km. Long distance (remote) sensing of wind has been accomplished with continuous-wave (CW), focused pulsed, and collimated pulsed lasers; with direct and coherent (heterodyne) optical detection; and with a multitude of laser wavelengths. Airborne measurement of wind with pulsed, coherent-detection lidar was first performed in 1971 with a CW CO2 laser1, in 1972 with a pulsed CO2 laser2, in 1993 with a pulsed 2-micron laser3, and in 1999 with a pulsed CO2 laser and nadir-centered conical scanning4. Of course there were many other firsts and many other groups doing lidar wind remote sensing with coherent and direct detection. A very large FOM coherent wind lidar has been built by LaRC and flown on a DC-8. However a burn on the telescope secondary mirror prevented the full demonstration of high FOM. Both the GRIP science product and the technology and technique demonstration from aircraft are important to NASA. The technology and technique demonstrations contribute to our readiness for the 3D Winds space mission. The data analysis is beginning and we hope to present results at the conference.

  16. Altitude Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center: An Interactive History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    When constructed in the Early 1940s, the Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center was the nation's only wind tunnel capable of studying full scale engines under realistic flight conditions. It played a significant role in the development of the first U.S. jet engines as well as technologies such as the afterburner and variable-area nozzle. In the late 1950s, the tunnels interior components were removed so that hardware for Project Mercury could be tested in altitude conditions. In 1961, a portion of the tunnel was converted into one of the country's first large vacuum tanks and renamed the Space Power Chamber (SPC). SPC was used extensively throughout the 1960s for the Centaur rocket program. This multimedia piece allows one to interactively learn about the Altitude Wind Tunnel facility. and the research performed there. The piece contains: (1) A chronological history of the AWT from its construction during World War II and the testing of early jet engines, through the Mercury and Centaur programs of the 1960s and up to the final use of the building for the Microwave Systems laboratory. (2) Photographic surveys of the facility in it wind tunnel, vacuum tank and final configurations. (3) Browsable gallery of over 200 captioned photographs and video clips.(4) A nine minute documentary of the AWT produced by NASA in 1961 (5) Links to over 70 reports and publications related to AWT research and the history of the NACA.

  17. Orion Capsule and Launch Abort System (LAS) installed in the NASA Glenn 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Orion Capsule and Launch Abort System (LAS) installed in the NASA Glenn 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel for testing. This test is an Aero Acoustic test of the LAS. Pictured is the calibration of the model's angle of attack

  18. Simulation of Ground Winds Time Series for the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, Stanley I.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of wind time series based on power spectrum density (PSD) and spectral coherence models for ground wind turbulence is described. The wind models, originally developed for the Shuttle program, are based on wind measurements at the NASA 150-m meteorological tower at Cape Canaveral, FL. The current application is for the design and/or protection of the CLV from wind effects during on-pad exposure during periods from as long as days prior to launch, to seconds or minutes just prior to launch and seconds after launch. The evaluation of vehicle response to wind will influence the design and operation of constraint systems for support of the on-pad vehicle. Longitudinal and lateral wind component time series are simulated at critical vehicle locations. The PSD model for wind turbulence is a function of mean wind speed, elevation and temporal frequency. Integration of the PSD equation over a selected frequency range yields the variance of the time series to be simulated. The square root of the PSD defines a low-pass filter that is applied to adjust the components of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of Gaussian white noise. The first simulated time series near the top of the launch vehicle is the inverse transform of the adjusted FFT. Simulation of the wind component time series at the nearest adjacent location (and all other succeeding next nearest locations) is based on a model for the coherence between winds at two locations as a function of frequency and separation distance, where the adjacent locations are separated vertically and/or horizontally. The coherence function is used to calculate a coherence weighted FFT of the wind at the next nearest location, given the FFT of the simulated time series at the previous location and the essentially incoherent FFT of the wind at the selected location derived a priori from the PSD model. The simulated time series at each adjacent location is the inverse Fourier transform of the coherence weighted FFT. For a selected

  19. Evaluation of flow quality in two large NASA wind tunnels at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.; Owen, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing of low drag airfoils and basic transition studies at transonic speeds are designed to provide high quality aerodynamic data at high Reynolds numbers. This requires that the flow quality in facilities used for such research be excellent. To obtain a better understanding of the characteristics of facility disturbances and identification of their sources for possible facility modification, detailed flow quality measurements were made in two prospective NASA wind tunnels. Experimental results are presented of an extensive and systematic flow quality study of the settling chamber, test section, and diffuser in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel and the Ames 12 foot pressure wind tunnel. Results indicate that the free stream velocity and pressure fluctuation levels in both facilities are low at subsonic speeds and are so high as to make it difficult to conduct meaningful boundary layer control and transition studies at transonic speeds.

  20. Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States (Highlights); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This is a four-part Wind Vision project, consisting of Wind Vision Highlights, Executive Summary, a Full Report, and Appendix. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program, in close cooperation with the wind industry, led a comprehensive analysis to evaluate future pathways for the wind industry. The Wind Vision report updates and expands upon the DOE's 2008 report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, and defines the societal, environmental, and economic benefits of wind power in a scenario with wind energy supplying 10% of national end-use electricity demand by 2020, 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050.

  1. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  2. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John; Saunders, John

    2014-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  3. Historical Overview and Recent Improvements at the NASA Glenn Research Center 8x6 9x15 Wind Tunnel Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussling, Joseph John

    2015-01-01

    A brief history of the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) and 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio is presented along with current capabilities and plans for future upgrades within the facility.

  4. Highlights of NASA/DOE photovoltaics market assessment visit to Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A NASA/DOE sponsored photovoltaic market assessment team composed of representatives of NASA-Lewis Research Center, DHR, Inc., and Associates in Rural Development, Inc. recently conducted a month-long study in Colombia (June 28 - July 23). The team contacted government officials and private sector representatives in Bogota and Cali, and visited rural development and agricultural sites in the departments of Cundinamarca, Caldas, Valle, and chada to determine the potential market for American photovoltaic products in the Colombia agricultural and rural sectors.

  5. Uncertainty Analysis of NASA Glenn's 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Julia E.; Hubbard, Erin P.; Walter, Joel A.; McElroy, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine the measurement uncertainty of the Mach Number of the 8- by 6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper details the analysis process used, including methods for handling limited data and complicated data correlations. Due to the complexity of the equations used, a Monte Carlo Method was utilized for this uncertainty analysis. A summary of the findings are presented as pertains to understanding what the uncertainties are, how they impact various research tests in the facility, and methods of reducing the uncertainties in the future.

  6. Transverse vorticity measurements in the NASA Ames 80 x 120 wind tunnel boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, John F.; Bhol, D. G.; Bramkamp, F. D.; Klewicki, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    The MSU compact four-wire transverse vorticity probe permits omega(sub z)(t) measurements in a nominally 1 sq mm domain. Note that a conventional coordinate system is used with x and y in the streamwise and normal directions respectively. The purpose of this investigation was to acquire time series data in the same access port at the ceiling of the 80 ft x 120 ft wind tunnel (NASA Ames Research Center) as earlier used by the Wallace group from the University of Maryland and to compare the present results with those of the three-component vorticity probe used in that earlier study.

  7. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithms for the Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Ray, Taylor J.

    2013-01-01

    Two versions of airborne wind profiling algorithms for the pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. Each algorithm utilizes different number of line-of-sight (LOS) lidar returns while compensating the adverse effects of different coordinate systems between the aircraft and the Earth. One of the two algorithms APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) estimates wind products using two LOSs. The other algorithm utilizes five LOSs. The airborne lidar data were acquired during the NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010. The wind profile products from the two algorithms are compared with the dropsonde data to validate their results.

  8. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  9. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy projects implemented in Alaska. The first, a sustainable technology energy partnerships (STEP) wind energy deployment project in Kotzebue will install 6 AOC 15/50 wind turbines and connect to the existing village diesel grid, consisting of approximately 1 MW average load. It seeks to develop solutions to the problems of arctic wind energy installations (transport, foundations, erection, operation, and maintenance), to establish a wind turbine test site, and to establish the Kotzebue Electric Association as a training and deployment center for wind/diesel technology in rural Alaska. The second project, a large village medium-penetration wind/diesel system, also in Kotzebue, will install a 1-2 MW windfarm, which will supplement the AOC turbines of the STEP project. The program will investigate the impact of medium penetration wind energy on power quality and system stability. The third project, the Alaska high-penetration wind/diesel village power pilot project in Wales will install a high penetration (80-100%) wind/diesel system in a remote Alaskan village. The system will include about 180 kW installed wind capacity, meeting an average village load of about 60 kW. This program will provide a model for high penetration wind retrofits to village diesel power systems and build the capability in Alaska to operate, maintain, and replicate wind/diesel technology. The program will also address problems of: effective use of excess wind energy; reliable diesel-off operation; and the role of energy storage.

  10. Enabling Advanced Wind-Tunnel Research Methods Using the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busan, Ronald C.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Croom, Mark A.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Grafton, Sue B.; O-Neal, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Design of Experiment (DOE) testing methods were used to gather wind tunnel data characterizing the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments acting on a complex vehicle configuration with 10 motor-driven propellers, 9 control surfaces, a tilt wing, and a tilt tail. This paper describes the potential benefits and practical implications of using DOE methods for wind tunnel testing - with an emphasis on describing how it can affect model hardware, facility hardware, and software for control and data acquisition. With up to 23 independent variables (19 model and 2 tunnel) for some vehicle configurations, this recent test also provides an excellent example of using DOE methods to assess critical coupling effects in a reasonable timeframe for complex vehicle configurations. Results for an exploratory test using conventional angle of attack sweeps to assess aerodynamic hysteresis is summarized, and DOE results are presented for an exploratory test used to set the data sampling time for the overall test. DOE results are also shown for one production test characterizing normal force in the Cruise mode for the vehicle.

  11. 76 FR 2903 - Interconnection of the Proposed Hyde County Wind Energy Center Project (DOE/EIS-0461), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Area Power Administration Interconnection of the Proposed Hyde County Wind Energy Center Project (DOE/EIS-0461), and Proposed Crowned Ridge Wind Energy Center Project (DOE/EIS-0462) AGENCY: Western Area... statements (EISs) for the Hyde County Wind Energy Center Project and the Crowned Ridge Wind Energy...

  12. DARPA/ARFL/NASA Smart Wing second wind tunnel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Lewis B.; Martin, Christopher A.; West, Mark N.; Florance, Jennifer P.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Fleming, Gary A.

    1999-07-01

    To quantify the benefits of smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. Northrop Grumman Corp. built and tested two 16 percent scale wind tunnel models of a fighter/attach aircraft under the DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Materials and Structures Development - Smart Wing Phase 1. Performance gains quantified included increased pitching moment, increased rolling moment and improved pressure distribution. The benefits were obtained for hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy wires and spanwise wing twist effected by SMA torque tube mechanism, compared to convention hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the second wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley Research Center's 16 ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel in June 1998. Successful results obtained were: 1) 5 degrees of spanwise twist and 8-12 percent increase in rolling moment utilizing a single SMA torque tube, 2) 12 degrees of deflection, and 10 percent increase in rolling moment due to hingeless, contoured aileron, and 3) demonstration of optical techniques for measuring spanwise twist and deflected shape.

  13. Testing of the Crew Exploration Vehicle in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Borg, Stephen E.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Cole, Daniel R.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a strategic, multi-facility test program, subscale testing of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle was conducted in both legs of NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate aerodynamic and surface pressure data over a range of supersonic Mach numbers and reentry angles of attack for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. To provide initial information on boundary layer transition at supersonic test conditions, transition studies were conducted using temperature sensitive paint and infrared thermography optical techniques. To support implementation of these optical diagnostics in the Unitary Wind Tunnel, the experiment was first modeled using the Virtual Diagnostics Interface software. For reentry orientations of 140 to 170 degrees (heat shield forward), windward surface flow was entirely laminar for freestream unit Reynolds numbers equal to or less than 3 million per foot. Optical techniques showed qualitative evidence of forced transition on the windward heat shield with application of both distributed grit and discreet trip dots. Longitudinal static force and moment data showed the largest differences with Mach number and angle of attack variations. Differences associated with Reynolds number variation and/or laminar versus turbulent flow on the heat shield were very small. Static surface pressure data supported the aforementioned trends with Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack.

  14. DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Wing Second Wind Tunnel Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. B.; Martin, C. A.; West, M.; Florance, J. P.; Wieseman, C. D.; Burner, A. W.; Fleming, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    To quantify the benefits of smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology, Northrop Grumman Corp. (NGC) built and tested two 16% scale wind tunnel models (a conventional and a "smart" model) of a fighter/attack aircraft under the DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Materials and Structures Development - Smart Wing Phase 1. Performance gains quantified included increased pitching moment (C(sub M)), increased rolling moment (C(subl)) and improved pressure distribution. The benefits were obtained for hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and spanwise wing twist effected by SMA torque tube mechanisms, compared to conventional hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the second wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) 16ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) in June 1998. Successful results obtained were: 1) 5 degrees of spanwise twist and 8-12% increase in rolling moment utilizing a single SMA torque tube, 2) 12 degrees of deflection, and 10% increase in rolling moment due to hingeless, contoured aileron, and 3) demonstration of optical techniques for measuring spanwise twist and deflected shape.

  15. Compact, Engineered, 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Prototype: A New NASA Instrument Incubator Program Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Wang, Jinxue; Petros, Mulugeta

    2005-01-01

    A new project, selected in 2005 by NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) under the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), will be described. The 3-year effort is intended to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a packaged, rugged, compact, space-qualifiable coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) transceiver capable of future validation in an aircraft and/or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The packaged DWL will utilize the numerous advances in pulsed, solid-state, 2-micron laser technology at NASA s Langley Research Center (LaRC) in such areas as crystal composition, architecture, efficiency, cooling techniques, pulse energy, and beam quality. The extensive experience of Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (RSAS) in coherent lidar systems, in spacebased sensors, and in packaging rugged lidar systems will be applied to this project. The packaged transceiver will be as close to an envisioned space-based DWL system as the resources and technology readiness allow. We will attempt to facilitate a future upgrade to a coherent lidar system capable of simultaneous wind and CO2 concentration profile measurements. Since aerosol and dust concentration is also available from the lidar signal, the potential for a triple measurement lidar system is attractive for both Earth and Mars remote sensing. A key follow on step after the IIP will be to add a telescope, scanner, and software for aircraft validation. This IIP should also put us in a position to begin a parallel formulation study in the 2006-2007 timeframe for a space-based DWL demonstration mission early next decade.

  16. NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear propulsion technology planning: Summary of FY 1991 interagency panel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.; Doherty, Michael P.; Marshall, Albert; Bhattacharryya, Samit K.; Warren, John

    1992-01-01

    Interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) technical panels worked in 1991 to evaluate critical nuclear propulsion issues, compare nuclear propulsion concepts for a manned Mars mission on a consistent basis, and to continue planning a technology development project for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Panels were formed to address mission analysis, nuclear facilities, safety policy, nuclear fuels and materials, nuclear electric propulsion technology, and nuclear thermal propulsion technology. A summary of the results and recommendations of the panels is presented.

  17. Recent Advancements in the Infrared Flow Visualization System for the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbeff, Theodore J., II; Baerny, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    The following details recent efforts undertaken at the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels to design and deploy an advanced, production-level infrared (IR) flow visualization data system. Highly sensitive IR cameras, coupled with in-line image processing, have enabled the visualization of wind tunnel model surface flow features as they develop in real-time. Boundary layer transition, shock impingement, junction flow, vortex dynamics, and buffet are routinely observed in both transonic and supersonic flow regimes all without the need of dedicated ramps in test section total temperature. Successful measurements have been performed on wing-body sting mounted test articles, semi-span floor mounted aircraft models, and sting mounted launch vehicle configurations. The unique requirements of imaging in production wind tunnel testing has led to advancements in the deployment of advanced IR cameras in a harsh test environment, robust data acquisition storage and workflow, real-time image processing algorithms, and evaluation of optimal surface treatments. The addition of a multi-camera IR flow visualization data system to the Ames UPWT has demonstrated itself to be a valuable analyses tool in the study of new and old aircraft/launch vehicle aerodynamics and has provided new insight for the evaluation of computational techniques.

  18. Sources and levels of background noise in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    Background noise levels are measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel following installation of a sound-absorbent lining on the test-section walls. Results show that the fan-drive noise dominated the empty test-section background noise at airspeeds below 120 knots. Above 120 knots, the test-section broadband background noise was dominated by wind-induced dipole noise (except at lower harmonics of fan blade-passage tones) most likely generated at the microphone or microphone support strut. Third-octave band and narrow-band spectra are presented for several fan operating conditions and test-section airspeeds. The background noise levels can be reduced by making improvements to the microphone wind screen or support strut. Empirical equations are presented relating variations of fan noise with fan speed or blade-pitch angle. An empirical expression for typical fan noise spectra is also presented. Fan motor electric power consumption is related to the noise generation. Preliminary measurements of sound absorption by the test-section lining indicate that the 152 mm thick lining will adequately absorb test-section model noise at frequencies above 300 Hz.

  19. ARES I Aerodynamic Testing at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Wilcox, Floyd J.

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale force and moment and pressure models based on the outer mold lines of the Ares I design analysis cycle crew launch vehicle were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel from May 2006 to September 2009. The test objectives were to establish supersonic ascent aerodynamic databases and to obtain force and moment, surface pressure, and longitudinal line-load distributions for comparison to computational predictions. Test data were obtained at low through high supersonic Mach numbers for ranges of the Reynolds number, angle of attack, and roll angle. This paper focuses on (1) the sensitivity of the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics to selected protuberances, outer mold line changes, and wind tunnel boundary layer transition techniques, (2) comparisons of experimental data to computational predictions, and (3) data reproducibility. The experimental data obtained in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel captured the effects of evolutionary changes to the Ares I crew launch vehicle, exhibited good agreement with predictions, and displayed satisfactory within-test and tunnel-to-tunnel data reproducibility.

  20. Noise Whitening in Airborne Wind Profiling With a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Arthur, Grant E.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Two different noise whitening methods in airborne wind profiling with a pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. In order to provide accurate wind parameter estimates from the airborne lidar data acquired during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010, the adverse effects of background instrument noise must be compensated properly in the early stage of data processing. The results of the two methods are presented using selected GRIP data and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes.

  1. Overview 2003 of NASA Multi-D Stirling Convertor Code Development and DOE and NASA Stirling Regenerator R and D Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy; Ibrahim, Mounir; Simon, Terry; Mantell, Susan; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary

    2004-01-01

    This paper win report on continuation through the third year of a NASA grant for multi-dimensional Stirling CFD code development and validation; continuation through the third and final year of a Department of Energy, Golden Field Office (DOE), regenerator research effort and a NASA grant for continuation of the effort through two additional years; and a new NASA Research Award for design, microfabrication and testing of a "Next Generation Stirling Engine Regenerator." Cleveland State University (CSU) is the lead organization for all three efforts, with the University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. The Stirling Technology Company and Sun power, Inc. acted as unfunded consultants or participants through the third years of both the NASA multi-D code development and DOE regenerator research efforts; they win both be subcontractors on the new regenerator microfabrication contract.

  2. Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity and Wind from The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Tang, W.; Hayashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, the first Earth Science Decadal Survey mission, was launched January 31, 2015 to provide high-resolution, frequent-revisit global mapping of soil moisture. SMAP has two instruments, a polarimetric radiometer and a multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar. Both instruments operate at L-band frequencies (~ 1GHz) and share a single 6-m rotating mesh antenna, producing a fixed incidence angle conical scan at 40⁰ across a 1000-km swath and a 2-3 day global revisit. The SMAP SSS and ocean surface wind retrieval algorithm developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory leverages the QuikSCAT and Aquarius algorithms to account for the two-look geometry (fore and aft looks from the conical scan) and dual-polarization observations for simultaneous retrieval of SSS and wind speed. The retrieval algorithm has been applied to more than three months of SMAP radiometer data. Comparison with the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) wind speed suggests that the SMAP wind speed reaches an accuracy of about 0.7 ms-1. The preliminary assessment of the SMAP SSS products gridded at 50 km spatial resolution and weekly intervals is promising. The spatial patterns of the SSS agree well with climatological distributions, but exhibit several unique spatial and temporal features. The temporal evolutions of freshwater plumes from several major rivers, such as the Amazon, Niger, Congo, Ganges, and Mississippi, are all consistent with the timing of rainy and dry seasons, indicated in the SMAP's soil moisture products. Rigorous accuracy assessment will be performed by comparison with in situ SSS data from buoys and ARGO floats. The SMAP evaluation products will be released to the public prior to November 2015.

  3. Low-Disturbance Flow Characteristics of the NASA-Ames Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A unique, low-disturbance (quiet) supersonic wind tunnel has been commissioned at the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML) to support Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) research. Known as the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT), this tunnel is designed to operate at potential cruise Mach numbers and unit Reynolds numbers (Re) of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The need to better understand the receptivity of the transition phenomena on swept (HSCT) wings to attachment-line contamination and cross-flows has provided the impetus for building the LFSWT. Low-disturbance or "quiet" wind tunnels are known to be an essential part of any meaningful boundary layer transition research. In particular, the receptivity of supersonic boundary layers to wind tunnel disturbances can significantly alter the transition phenomena under investigation on a test model. Consequently, considerable effort has gone into the design of the LFSWT to provide quiet flow. The paper describes efforts to quantify the low-disturbance flows in the LFSWT operating at Mach 1.6, as a precursor to transition research on wing models. The research includes: (1) Flow measurements in both the test section and settling chamber of the LFSWT, using a full range of measurement techniques; (2) Study of the state of the test section boundary layer so far by using a single hot-wire mounted above the floor centerline, with and without boundary layer trips fitted at the test section entrance; (3) The effect of flow quality of unsteady supersonic diffuser flow, joint steps and gaps, and wall vibration.

  4. Lidar and Mission Parameter Trade Study of Space-Based Coherent Wind Measurement Centered on NASA's 2006 GWOS Wind Mission Study Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Frehlich, Rod G.

    2007-01-01

    The global measurement of vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds has been highly desired for many years by NASA, NOAA and the Integrated Program Office (IPO) implementing the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Systems (NPOESS). Recently the global wind mission was one of 15 missions recommended to NASA by the first ever NRC Earth Sciences Decadal Survey. Since before 1978, the most promising method to make this space-based measurement has been pulsed Doppler lidar. The favored technology and technique has evolved over the years from obtaining line-of-sight (LOS) wind profiles from a single laser shot using pulsed CO2 gas laser technology to the current plans to use both a coherent-detection and direct-detection pulsed Doppler wind lidar systems with each lidar employing multiple shot accumulation to produce an LOS wind profile. The idea of using two lidars (hybrid concept) entails coherent detection using the NASA LaRC-developed pulsed 2-micron solid state laser technology, and direct detection using pulsed Nd:YAG laser technology tripled in frequency to 355 nm wavelength.

  5. Analytical and physical modeling program for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, J. M.; Deidrich, J. H.; Groeneweg, J. F.; Povinelli, L. A.; Reid, L.; Reinmann, J. J.; Szuch, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An effort is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center to rehabilitate and extend the capabilities of the Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT). This extended capability will include a maximum test section Mach number of about 0.9 at an altitude of 55,000 ft and a -20 F stagnation temperature (octagonal test section, 20 ft across the flats). In addition, the AWT will include an icing and acoustic research capability. In order to insure a technically sound design, an AWT modeling program (both analytical and physical) was initiated to provide essential input to the AWT final design process. This paper describes the modeling program, including the rationale and criteria used in program definition, and presents some early program results.

  6. Overview of Selected Measurement Techniques for Aerodynamics Testing in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is given of selected measurement techniques used in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of aerospace vehicles operating at supersonic speeds. A broad definition of a measurement technique is adopted in this paper and is any qualitative or quantitative experimental approach that provides information leading to the improved understanding of the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics. On surface and off-surface measurement techniques used to obtain discrete (point) and global (field) measurements and planar and global flow visualizations are described, and examples of all methods are included. The discussion is limited to recent experiences in the UPWT and is. therefore, not an exhaustive review of existing experimental techniques. The diversity and high quality of the measurement techniques and the resultant data illustrate the capabilities of a around-based experimental facility and the key role that it plays in the advancement of our understanding, prediction, and control of supersonic aerodynamics.

  7. New Model Exhaust System Supports Testing in NASA Lewis' 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, James W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In early 1996, the ability to run NASA Lewis Research Center's Abe Silverstein 10- by 10- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10) at subsonic test section speeds was reestablished. Taking advantage of this new speed range, a subsonic research test program was scheduled for the 10x10 in the fall of 1996. However, many subsonic aircraft test models require an exhaust source to simulate main engine flow, engine bleed flows, and other phenomena. This was also true of the proposed test model, but at the time the 10x10 did not have a model exhaust capability. So, through an in-house effort over a period of only 5 months, a new model exhaust system was designed, installed, checked out, and made ready in time to support the scheduled test program.

  8. Low-speed wind-tunnel results for symmetrical NASA LS(1)-0013 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James C.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Barnwell, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    A wind-tunnel test has been conducted in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to evaluate the performance of a symmetrical NASA LS(1)-0013 airfoil which is a 13-percent-thick, low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was obtained from the thickness distribution of a 13-percent-thick, high-performance airfoil developed for general aviation airplanes. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.10 tp 0.37 over a Reynolds number range from about 0.6 to 12.0 X 10 to the 6th power. The angle of attack varied from about -8 to 20 degrees. The results indicate that the aerodynamic characteristics of the present airfoil are similar to, but slightly better than, those of the NACA 0012 airfoil.

  9. NASA Glenn 1-by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seablom, Kirk D.; Soeder, Ronald H.; Stark, David E.; Leone, John F. X.; Henry, Michael W.

    1999-01-01

    This manual describes the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 - by 1 -Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel and provides information for customers who wish to conduct experiments in this facility. Tunnel performance envelopes of total pressure, total temperature, and dynamic pressure as a function of test section Mach number are presented. For each Mach number, maps are presented of Reynolds number per foot as a function of the total air temperature at the test section inlet for constant total air pressure at the inlet. General support systems-such as the service air, combustion air, altitude exhaust system, auxiliary bleed system, model hydraulic system, schlieren system, model pressure-sensitive paint, and laser sheet system are discussed. In addition, instrumentation and data processing, acquisition systems are described, pretest meeting formats and schedules are outlined, and customer responsibilities and personnel safety are addressed.

  10. User manual for NASA Lewis 10 by 10 foot supersonic wind tunnel. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center and provides information for users who wish to conduct experiments in this facility. Tunnel performance operating envelopes of altitude, dynamic pressure, Reynolds number, total pressure, and total temperature as a function of test section Mach number are presented. Operating envelopes are shown for both the aerodynamic (closed) cycle and the propulsion (open) cycle. The tunnel test section Mach number range is 2.0 to 3.5. General support systems, such as air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, fuel system, and Schlieren system, are described. Instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems are also described. Pretest meeting formats and schedules are outlined. Tunnel user responsibility and personnel safety are also discussed.

  11. Uncertainty Analysis of the NASA Glenn 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Julia; Hubbard, Erin; Walter, Joel; McElroy, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents methods and results of a detailed measurement uncertainty analysis that was performed for the 8- by 6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The statistical methods and engineering judgments used to estimate elemental uncertainties are described. The Monte Carlo method of propagating uncertainty was selected to determine the uncertainty of calculated variables of interest. A detailed description of the Monte Carlo method as applied for this analysis is provided. Detailed uncertainty results for the uncertainty in average free stream Mach number as well as other variables of interest are provided. All results are presented as random (variation in observed values about a true value), systematic (potential offset between observed and true value), and total (random and systematic combined) uncertainty. The largest sources contributing to uncertainty are determined and potential improvement opportunities for the facility are investigated.

  12. Affordable Development and Demonstrationof a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE and Industry Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Joyner, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Formulation of Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy is Underway Involving NASA, DOE and Industry. In FY11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program.

  13. Overview of Supersonic Aerodynamics Measurement Techniques in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of selected measurement techniques used in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of aerospace vehicles operating at supersonic speeds. A broad definition of a measurement technique is adopted in this paper and is any qualitative or quantitative experimental approach that provides information leading to the improved understanding of the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics. On-surface and off-surface measurement techniques used to obtain discrete (point) and global (field) measurements and planar and global flow visualizations are described, and examples of all methods are included. The discussion is limited to recent experiences in the UPWT and is, therefore, not an exhaustive review of existing experimental techniques. The diversity and high quality of the measurement techniques and the resultant data illustrate the capabilities of a ground-based experimental facility and the key role that it plays in the advancement of our understanding, prediction, and control of supersonic aerodynamics.

  14. A quarter century of NASA wind-tunnel and flight experiments involving aeroservoelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Thomas E.; Perry, Boyd, III; Perry, Boyd, III

    1995-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) have played major roles in the development, demonstration, and validation of aeroservoelastic modeling, analysis, design, and testing methods. Many of their contributions resulted from their participation in wind-tunnel and flight-test programs aimed at demonstrating advanced active control concepts that interact with and/or exploit the aeroelastic characteristics of flexible structures. Other contributions are a result of their interest in identifying and solving adverse aeroservoelastic interactions that allow unique flight-test demonstrations or flight envelope clearance programs to be successfully completed. This paper provides an overview of some of the more interesting aeroservoelastic investigations conducted in the transonic dynamics tunnel (TDT) at LaRC and in flight at DFRC. Four flight-test projects are reviewed in this paper. These test projects were selected because of their contributions to the state-of-the-art in active controls technology (ACT) or because of the knowledge gained in further understanding the complex mechanisms that cause adverse aeroservoelastic interactions.

  15. Testing of the Trim Tab Parametric Model in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    In support of NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing technology development efforts, testing of Langley's Trim Tab Parametric Models was conducted in Test Section 2 of NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate quantitative aerodynamic data and qualitative surface pressure data for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. Six component force-and-moment data were measured on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations at Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5, angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg, and angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg. Configuration parameters investigated in this study were forebody shape, tab area, tab cant angle, and tab aspect ratio. Pressure Sensitive Paint was used to provide qualitative surface pressure mapping for a subset of these flow and configuration variables. Over the range of parameters tested, the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than varying tab aspect ratio relative to key aerodynamic performance requirements. Qualitative surface pressure data supported the integrated aerodynamic data and provided information to aid in future analyses of localized phenomena for trim tab configurations.

  16. Space Launch System Booster Separation Aerodynamic Testing in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Chan, David T.; Crosby, William A.

    2016-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a 0.009 scale model of the Space Launch System (SLS) was conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to characterize the aerodynamics of the core and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) during booster separation. High-pressure air was used to simulate plumes from the booster separation motors (BSMs) located on the nose and aft skirt of the SRBs. Force and moment data were acquired on the core and SRBs. These data were used to corroborate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations that were used in developing a booster separation database. The SRBs could be remotely positioned in the x-, y-, and z-direction relative to the core. Data were acquired continuously while the SRBs were moved in the axial direction. The primary parameters varied during the test were: core pitch angle; SRB pitch and yaw angles; SRB nose x-, y-, and z-position relative to the core; and BSM plenum pressure. The test was conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 4.25 and a unit Reynolds number of 1.5 million per foot.

  17. NASA airborne radar wind shear detection algorithm and the detection of wet microbursts in the vicinity of Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithms used in the NASA experimental wind shear radar system for detection, characterization, and determination of windshear hazard are discussed. The performance of the algorithms in the detection of wet microbursts near Orlando is presented. Various suggested algorithms that are currently being evaluated using the flight test results from Denver and Orlando are reviewed.

  18. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  19. NASA/SPAN and DOE/ESnet-DECnet transition strategy for DECnet OSI/phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Linda; Demar, Phil

    1991-01-01

    The technical issues are examined involved with the transition of very large DECnet networks from DECnet phase IV protocols to DECnet OSI/Phase V protocols. The networks involved are the NASA's Science Internet (NSI-DECnet) and the DOE's Energy Science network (ESnet-DECnet). These networks, along with the many universities and research institutions connected to them, combine to form a single DECnet network containing more than 20,000 transitions and crossing numerous organizational boundaries. Discussion of transition planning, including decisions about Phase V naming, addressing, and routing are presented. Also discussed are transition issues related to the use of non-DEC routers in the network.

  20. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation - Results of the NASA/DOE task team study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Borowski, Stanley; Motloch, Chet; Helms, Ira; Diaz, Nils; Anghaie, Samim; Latham, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops, six task teams were created to continue evaluation of various propulsion concepts, from which evolved an innovative concepts subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. This subpanel endeavored to evaluate each concept on a level technology basis, and to identify critical issues, technologies, and early proof-of-concept experiments. Results of the concept studies including the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter are presented.

  1. Wind Vision: Updating the DOE 20% Wind Energy by 2030 Report (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2014-04-01

    The 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report was developed as part of the Advanced Energy Initiative. Published in 2008, the report was largely based on information collected and analyzed in 2006. Much has changed since then, including shifts in technology, markets, and policy. The industry needs a new, clear, vision for wind power that is shared among stakeholders from the U.S. government, industry, academia, and NGO communities. At WINDPOWER 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy, in partnership with the American Wind Energy Association and the Wind Energy Foundation, launched a project to update the 20% report with new objectives. This conference poster outlines the elements of the new Wind Vision.

  2. Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    George, K.; Schweizer, T.

    2008-01-01

    This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

  3. Does the wind systematically energize or damp ocean eddies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Globally, mesoscale ocean eddies are a key component of the climate system, involved in transport and mixing of heat, carbon, and momentum. However, they represent one of the major challenges of climate modeling, as the details of their nonlinear dynamics affect all scales. Recent progress analyzing satellite observations of the surface ocean and atmosphere has uncovered energetic interactions between the atmospheric wind stress and ocean eddies that may change our understanding of key processes affecting even large-scale climate. Wind stress acts systematically on ocean eddies and may explain observed asymmetry in the distribution of eddies and details of their lifecycle of growth and decay. These findings provide powerful guidance for climate model development.

  4. Wind energy prospecting: socio-economic value of a new wind resource assessment technique based on a NASA Earth science dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.

  5. Assessment of TRAC-BD1/MOD1 using FIST data

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.H.; Connell, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This report is concerned with the assessment of the TRAC-BD1/MOD1 Code, developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The assessment was conducted using data from the FIST (Full Integral Simulation Test) facility, which is a BWR safety test facility which was built to investigate small break LOCA and operational transients in BWR's and to complement earlier large break LOCA test results from TLTA (Two-Loop Test Apparatus). 21 figs.

  6. Design and fabrication of composite blades for the Mod-1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batesole, W. R.; Gunsallus, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    The design, tooling, fabrication, quality control, and testing phases carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes are discussed as well as the lightning protection system installed in the blades. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production.

  7. Analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise. [NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot tunnel in simulating flight levels of fan noise. A previously developed theory for predicting rotor/turbulence interaction noise was refined and extended to include first-order effects of inlet turbulence anisotropy. This theory was then verified by carrying out extensive data/theory comparisons. The resulting model computer program was then employed to carry out a parametric study of the effects of fan size, blade number, and operating line on rotor/turbulence noise for outdoor test stand. NASA Ames wind tunnel, and flight inlet turbulence conditions. A major result of this study is that although wind tunnel rotor/turbulence noise levels are not as low as flight levels they are substantially lower than the outdoor test stand levels and do not mask other sources of fan noise.

  8. Status of TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Buxton, L.D.; Byers, R.K.; Dobranich, D.; Elrick, M.G.; Kmetyk, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Sandia's TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment program is part of a multi-faceted effort sponsored by the NRC to determine the ability of various systems codes to predict the detailed thermal/hydraulic response of LWRs during accident and off-normal conditions. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is being assessed against test data from various integral and separate effects experimental facilities. Results from our PKL natural circulation, NEPTUNUS pressurizer, B and W OTSG, Northwestern University condensing flow, and LOBI large break A1-04R and intermediate break B-RIM test analyses were reported at least year's WRSRIM; this paper presents the results of more recent work for Northwestern University perforated-plate CCFL, Dartmouth vertical tube countercurrent flow, LOFT large break L2-5, and Semiscale intermediate break S-IB-3, feedwater line break S-SF-3 and steamline break S-SF-5 tests. In the course of our TRAC-PF1/MOD1 assessment calculations, a number of coding, documentation and modeling inadequacies have been identified and reported to the code developers at LANL.

  9. Pressure-Sensitive Paint and Video Model Deformation Systems at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, G. E.; Burner, A. W.; DeLoach, R.

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) and video model deformation (VMD) systems have been installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center to support the supersonic wind tunnel testing requirements of the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The PSP and VMD systems have been operational since early 1996 and provide the capabilities of measuring global surface static pressures and wing local twist angles and deflections (bending). These techniques have been successfully applied to several HSR wind tunnel models for wide ranges of the Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack. A review of the UPWT PSP and VMD systems is provided, and representative results obtained on selected HSR models are shown. A promising technique to streamline the wind tunnel testing process, Modern Experimental Design, is also discussed in conjunction with recently-completed wing deformation measurements at UPWT.

  10. Dynamic blade loading in the ERDA/NASA 100 kW and 200 kW wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.; Janetzke, D. C.; Richards, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic blade loads, including aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial effects, are presented for two large horizontal-axis wind turbines: the ERDA-NASA 100 kW Mod-0 and 200 kw Mod-0A wind power systems. Calculated and measured loads are compared for an experimental Mod-0 machine in operation. Predicted blade loads are also given for the higher power Mod-0A wind turbine now being assembled for operation as part of a municipal power plant. Two major structural modifications have been made to the Mod-0 wind turbine for the purpose of reducing blade loads. A stairway within the truss tower was removed to reduce the impulsive aerodynamic loading caused by the tower wake on the downwind rotor blades. Also, the torsional stiffness of the yaw drive mechanism connecting the turbine nacelle to the tower was doubled to reduce rotor-tower interaction loads. Measured reductions in load obtained by means of these two modifications equaled or exceeded predictions.

  11. Visualization of Vgi Data Through the New NASA Web World Wind Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Kilsedar, C. E.; Zamboni, G.

    2016-06-01

    GeoWeb 2.0, laying the foundations of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) systems, has led to platforms where users can contribute to the geographic knowledge that is open to access. Moreover, as a result of the advancements in 3D visualization, virtual globes able to visualize geographic data even on browsers emerged. However the integration of VGI systems and virtual globes has not been fully realized. The study presented aims to visualize volunteered data in 3D, considering also the ease of use aspects for general public, using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). The new Application Programming Interface (API) of NASA, Web World Wind, written in JavaScript and based on Web Graphics Library (WebGL) is cross-platform and cross-browser, so that the virtual globe created using this API can be accessible through any WebGL supported browser on different operating systems and devices, as a result not requiring any installation or configuration on the client-side, making the collected data more usable to users, which is not the case with the World Wind for Java as installation and configuration of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is required. Furthermore, the data collected through various VGI platforms might be in different formats, stored in a traditional relational database or in a NoSQL database. The project developed aims to visualize and query data collected through Open Data Kit (ODK) platform and a cross-platform application, where data is stored in a relational PostgreSQL and NoSQL CouchDB databases respectively.

  12. Does Solar Wind also Drive Convection in Jupiter's Magnetosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, K. K.

    2001-05-01

    Using a simple model of magnetic field and plasma velocity, Brice and Ioannidis [1970] showed that the corotation electric field exceeds convection electric field throughout the Jovian magnetosphere. Since that time it has been tacitly assumed that Jupiter's magnetosphere is driven from within. If Brice and Ioannidis conjecture is correct then one would not expect major asymmetries in the field and plasma parameters in the middle magnetosphere of Jupiter. Yet, new field and plasma observations from Galileo and simultaneous auroral observations from HST show that there are large dawn/dusk and day/night asymmetries in many magnetospheric parameters. For example, the magnetic observations show that a partial ring current and an associated Region-2 type field-aligned current system exist in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. In the Earth's magnetosphere it is well known that the region-2 current system is created by the asymmetries imposed by a solar wind driven convection. Thus, we are getting first hints that the solar wind driven convection is important in Jupiter's magnetosphere as well. Other in-situ observations also point to dawn-dusk asymmetries imposed by the solar wind. For example, first order anisotropies in the Energetic Particle Detector show that the plasma is close to corotational on the dawn side but lags behind corotation in the dusk sector. Magnetic field data show that the current sheet is thin and highly organized on the dawn side but thick and disturbed on the dusk side. I will discuss the reasons why Brice and Ioannidis calculation may not be valid. I will show that both the magnetic field and plasma velocity estimates used by Brice and Ioannidis were rather excessive. Using more modern estimates of the field and velocity values I show that the solar wind convection can penetrate as deep as 40 RJ on the dawnside. I will present a new model of convection that invokes in addition to a distant neutral line spanning the whole magnetotail, a near

  13. Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Ziliang; Job, Joshua; Zhang, Xuesong; Nijim, Mais; Qin, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Geo-visualization is significantly changing the way we view spatial data and discover information. On the one hand, a large number of spatial data are generated every day. On the other hand, these data are not well utilized due to the lack of free and easily used data-visualization tools. This becomes even worse when most of the spatial data remains in the form of plain text such as log files. This paper describes a way of visualizing massive plain-text spatial data at no cost by utilizing Google Earth and NASA World Wind. We illustrate our methods by visualizing over 170,000 global download requests for satellite images maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Our visualization results identify the most popular satellite images around the world and discover the global user download patterns. The benefits of this research are: 1. assisting in improving the satellite image downloading services provided by USGS, and 2. providing a proxy for analyzing the "hot spot" areas of research. Most importantly, our methods demonstrate an easy way to geo-visualize massive textual spatial data, which is highly applicable to mining spatially referenced data and information on a wide variety of research domains (e.g., hydrology, agriculture, atmospheric science, natural hazard, and global climate change).

  14. Analysis of Dynamic Data from Supersonic Retropropulsion Experiments in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Codoni, Joshua R.; Berry, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental supersonic retropropulsion tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2 for a range of Mach numbers from 2.4 to 4.6. A 5-inch 70-degree sphere-cone forebody model with a 10-inch cylindrical aftbody experimental model was used which is capable of multiple retrorocket configurations. These configurations include a single central nozzle on the center point of the forebody, three nozzles at the forebody half-radius, and a combination of the first two configurations with no jets being plugged. A series of measurements were achieved through various instrumentation including forebody and aftbody pressure, internal pressures and temperatures, and high speed Schlieren visualization. Specifically, several high speed pressure transducers on the forebody and in the plenum were implemented to look at unsteady flow effects. The following work focuses on analyzing frequency traits due to the unsteady flow for a range of thrust coefficients for single, tri, and quad-nozzle test cases at freestream Mach 4.6 and angle of attack ranging from -8 degrees to +20 degrees. This analysis uses Matlab s fast Fourier transform, Welch's method (modified average of a periodogram), to create a power spectral density and analyze any high speed pressure transducer frequency traits due to the unsteady flow.

  15. Calibration of the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (1996 and 1997 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen

    2012-01-01

    There were several physical and operational changes made to the NASA Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel during the period of 1992 through 1996. Following each of these changes, a facility calibration was conducted to provide the required information to support the research test programs. Due to several factors (facility research test schedule, facility downtime and continued facility upgrades), a full test section calibration was not conducted until 1996. This calibration test incorporated all test section configurations and covered the existing operating range of the facility. However, near the end of that test entry, two of the vortex generators mounted on the compressor exit tailcone failed causing minor damage to the honeycomb flow straightener. The vortex generators were removed from the facility and calibration testing was terminated. A follow-up test entry was conducted in 1997 in order to fully calibrate the facility without the effects of the vortex generators and to provide a complete calibration of the newly expanded low speed operating range. During the 1997 tunnel entry, all planned test points required for a complete test section calibration were obtained. This data set included detailed in-plane and axial flow field distributions for use in quantifying the test section flow quality.

  16. Blockage Testing in the NASA Glenn 225 Square Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevier, Abigail; Davis, David; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A feasibility study is in progress at NASA Glenn Research Center to implement a magnetic suspension and balance system in the 225 sq cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel for the purpose of testing the dynamic stability of blunt bodies. An important area of investigation in this study was determining the optimum size of the model and the iron spherical core inside of it. In order to minimize the required magnetic field and thus the size of the magnetic suspension system, it was determined that the test model should be as large as possible. Blockage tests were conducted to determine the largest possible model that would allow for tunnel start at Mach 2, 2.5, and 3. Three different forebody model geometries were tested at different Mach numbers, axial locations in the tunnel, and in both a square and axisymmetric test section. Experimental results showed that different model geometries produced more varied results at higher Mach Numbers. It was also shown that testing closer to the nozzle allowed larger models to start compared with testing near the end of the test section. Finally, allowable model blockage was larger in the axisymmetric test section compared with the square test section at the same Mach number. This testing answered key questions posed by the feasibility study and will be used in the future to dictate model size and performance required from the magnetic suspension system.

  17. Acoustical evaluation of the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The test section of the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel was acoustically treated to allow the measurement of acoustic sources located within the tunnel test section under simulated free field conditions. The treatment was designed for high sound absorption at frequencies above 250 Hz and to withstand tunnel airflow velocities up to 0.2 Mach. Evaluation tests with no tunnel airflow were conducted in the test section to assess the performance of the installed treatment. This performance would not be significantly affected by low speed airflow. Time delay spectrometry tests showed that interference ripples in the incident signal resulting from reflections occurring within the test section average from 1.7 dB to 3.2 dB wide over a 500 to 5150 Hz frequency range. Late reflections, from upstream and downstream of the test section, were found to be insignificant at the microphone measuring points. For acoustic sources with low directivity characteristics, decay with distance measurements in the test section showed that incident free field behavior can be measured on average with an accuracy of +/- 1.5 dB or better at source frequencies from 400 Hz to 10 kHz. The free field variations are typically much smaller with an omnidirectional source.

  18. Application of Pressure-Based Wall Correction Methods to Two NASA Langley Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, V.; Everhart, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a description and status report on the implementation and application of the WICS wall interference method to the National Transonic Facility (NTF) and the 14 x 22-ft subsonic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. The method calculates free-air corrections to the measured parameters and aerodynamic coefficients for full span and semispan models when the tunnels are in the solid-wall configuration. From a data quality point of view, these corrections remove predictable bias errors in the measurement due to the presence of the tunnel walls. At the NTF, the method is operational in the off-line and on-line modes, with three tests already computed for wall corrections. At the 14 x 22-ft tunnel, initial implementation has been done based on a test on a full span wing. This facility is currently scheduled for an upgrade to its wall pressure measurement system. With the addition of new wall orifices and other instrumentation upgrades, a significant improvement in the wall correction accuracy is expected.

  19. Transient analysis of unbalanced short circuits of the ERDA-NASA 100 kW wind turbine alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Gilbert, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Unbalanced short-circuit faults on the alternator of the ERDA-NASA Mod-O100-kW experimental wind turbine are studied. For each case, complete solutions for armature, field, and damper-circuit currents; short-circuit torque; and open-phase voltage are derived directly by a mathematical analysis. Formulated results are tabulated. For the Mod-O wind turbine alternator, numerical calculations are given, and results are presented by graphs. Comparisons for significant points among the more important cases are summarized. For these cases the transients are found to be potentially severe. The effect of the alternator neutral-to-ground impedance is evaluated.

  20. Facility Upgrade/Replacement Tasks ('planned') at the NASA Glenn Research Center 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giriunas, Julius A.

    2012-01-01

    Facility upgrades and large maintenance tasks needed at the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel requires significant planning to make sure implementation proceeds in an efficiently and cost effective manner. Advanced planning to secure the funding, complete design efforts and schedule the installation needs to be thought out years in advance to avoid interference with wind tunnel testing. This presentation describes five facility tasks planned for implementation over the next few years. The main focus of the presentation highlights the efforts on possible replacement of the diesel generator and the rationale behind the effort.

  1. Computational Results for the KTH-NASA Wind-Tunnel Model Used for Acquisition of Transonic Nonlinear Aeroelastic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Wieseman, Carol D.; Eller, David; Ringertz, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    A status report is provided on the collaboration between the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden and the NASA Langley Research Center regarding the aeroelastic analyses of a full-span fighter configuration wind-tunnel model. This wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) in the summer of 2016. Large amounts of data were acquired including steady/unsteady pressures, accelerations, strains, and measured dynamic deformations. The aeroelastic analyses presented include linear aeroelastic analyses, CFD steady analyses, and analyses using CFD-based reduced-order models (ROMs).

  2. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA/DOE Task Team study

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. ); Borowski, S. . Lewis Research Center); Motloch, C. ); Helms, I. ); Diaz, N.; Anghaie, S. ); Latham, T. (United

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of the concepts on a level technological playing field,'' and to identify critical technologies, issues, and early proof-of-concept experiments. The concepts included the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter. The results of the studies by the panel will be provided. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Wind-tunnel investigation of effects of trailing-edge geometry on a NASA supercritical airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.81 to determine the effects of trailing-edge geometry on the aerodynamic characteristics of a NASA supercritical airfoil shape. Variations in trailing-edge thicknesses from 0 to 1.5 percent of the chord and a cavity in the trailing edge were investigated with airfoils with maximum thicknesses of 10 and 11 percent of the chord.

  4. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E J; Neill, A P

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, cold leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3 using the best-estimate computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-3 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. Results of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculation are found to be generally consistent with those reported, by members of the OECD LOFT Program Review Group, in the LP-SB-3 Comparison Report.'' Overall trends with respect to pressure histories, minimum primary system mass inventory and accumulator behaviour are reasonably well reproduced by TRAC-PF1/MOD1. 17 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Preliminary Computational Study for Future Tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot' x 7 foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, Jason M.; Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; WInski, Courtney S.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Commercial Supersonics Technology Project seeks to advance tools and techniques to make over-land supersonic flight feasible. In this study, preliminary computational results are presented for future tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot x 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel to be conducted in early 2016. Shock-plume interactions and their effect on pressure signature are examined for six model geometries. Near- field pressure signatures are assessed using the CFD code USM3D to model the proposed test geometries in free-air. Additionally, results obtained using the commercial grid generation software Pointwise Reigistered Trademark are compared to results using VGRID, the NASA Langley Research Center in-house mesh generation program.

  6. An analysis of maximum vertical gusts recorded at NASA's 150-meter ground winds tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. B.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical summary is presented of vertical wind speed data recorded at NASA's 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower Facility on Merritt Island, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. One year of continuous around-the-clock vertical wind speed measurements processed by the Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) is classified as a function of tower level (10, 18, 60, and 150 meters) and period of reference day, month, season: winter (October through March) and summer (April through September), and annual. Intensity, frequency, time of occurrence, prevailing conditions, etc., of the daily maximum vertical gusts (i.e., updraft and downdraft) are determined. The results are compared with the vertical gusts associated with the daily maximum horizontal gust. The intent of this summarization of vertical wind speed data is to provide a general description of wind flow in the lower 150 meters of the atmosphere for the identification of hazards involved in wind shear encounters relative to ascent and descent of the Space Shuttle and conventional aircraft.

  7. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  8. An analysis of sound absorbing linings for the interior of the NASA Ames 80 x 120-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; White, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    It is desirable to achieve low frequency sound absorption in the tests section of the NASA Ames 80X120-ft wind tunnel. However, it is difficult to obtain information regarding sound absorption characteristics of potential treatments because of the restrictions placed on the dimensions of the test chambers. In the present case measurements were made in a large enclosure for aircraft ground run-up tests. The normal impedance of the acoustic treatment was measured using two microphones located close to the surface of the treatment. The data showed reasonably good agreement with analytical methods which were then used to design treatments for the wind tunnel test section. A sound-absorbing lining is proposed for the 80X120-ft wind tunnel.

  9. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408) AGENCIES: Western Area... Service (Service), have, as joint lead agencies, prepared the Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft... wind energy development within Western's Upper Great Plains Customer Service Region (UGP Region),...

  10. 75 FR 2138 - Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Wyoming (DOE/EIS-0438)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... substantial natural resources conflicts. SWE's siting process for the wind turbine strings and associated... Area Power Administration Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Wyoming (DOE.... SUMMARY: Shell WindEnergy Inc. (SWE) applied to interconnect their proposed 300-megawatt (MW) Hermosa...

  11. How does geographic scale alter the utilization of wind and solar power in the USA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    A significant obstacle to the widespread use of wind and solar energy is the high variability. While this obstacle is significant for a small area, because of the possibility of low wind and solar energy production for a significant period every year, over larger areas renewable energy production can make use of the fact that there will always be wind or solar energy available somewhere in the domain. A key scientific question is how large does an area have to be such that wind and solar can supply significant electricity production without large shortages? Results will be presented from a study that exams whether the continental US has enough areal scale such that the weather can drive large-scale wind and solar deployment? The study uses assimilated hourly weather data for 2006-8 and hourly electric load projected from 2006-8 to 2030. An optimization model developed for this study evaluates the cost of the national system when taking into account not only the cost of wind turbines and solar panels but also the costs of building the electricity producing stations, building the transmission lines, allowing for transmission losses and the fuel burned in the dispatch-able generation. While some results from this study are intuitive, others give surprising insights relevant to planning energy systems of the future. We show that wind and solar energy utilization increases with domain size, while the total atmospheric carbon release and total system costs are subsequently reduced. We show that transmission constraints do not significantly alter the utilization of wind and solar deployment, however, transmission dramatically affect the areal locations of the wind and solar generation plants. A similar scaling for global land and adjacent coastal areas, with no transmission constraints, shows that wind and solar energy systems are most effective on large geographic areas. The optimization model will be explained in greater detail and key results will be shared.

  12. Fan Rig Noise Spectral Correction for NASA 9'x 15' Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schifer, Nick; Brown, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. Fan noise testing, however, requires a significant support system including a drive mechanism to turn the fan, a device to smooth the flow into the fan, and a stand to raise the fan off the ground each of which has the potential to create its own noise. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise was then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9x15 LSWT setup in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery that characterizes fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and speed. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise. A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  13. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  14. The NASA/MSFC global reference atmospheric model: MOD 3 (with spherical harmonic wind model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Fletcher, G. R.; Gramling, F. E.; Pace, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements to the global reference atmospheric model are described. The basic model includes monthly mean values of pressure, density, temperature, and geostrophic winds, as well as quasi-biennial and small and large scale random perturbations. A spherical harmonic wind model for the 25 to 90 km height range is included. Below 25 km and above 90 km, the GRAM program uses the geostrophic wind equations and pressure data to compute the mean wind. In the altitudes where the geostrophic wind relations are used, an interpolation scheme is employed for estimating winds at low latitudes where the geostrophic wind relations being to mesh down. Several sample wind profiles are given, as computed by the spherical harmonic model. User and programmer manuals are presented.

  15. Pratt & Whitney Two Dimensional HSR Nozzle Test in the NASA Lewis 9- By 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel: Aerodynamic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.; Jones, Christopher W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a test that was conducted jointly by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines and NASA Lewis Research Center. The test was conducted in NASA's 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT). The test setup, methods, and aerodynamic results of this test are discussed. Acoustical results are discussed in a separate paper by J. Bridges and J. Marino.

  16. DOE: Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Daniel, EPRI; Tuohy, Aidan, EPRI; Deb, Sidart, LCG Consulting; Jampani, Srinivas, LCG Consulting; Kirby, Brendan, Consultant; King, Jack, Consultant

    2011-11-29

    Wind power development in the United States is outpacing previous estimates for many regions, particularly those with good wind resources. The pace of wind power deployment may soon outstrip regional capabilities to provide transmission and integration services to achieve the most economic power system operation. Conversely, regions such as the Southeastern United States do not have good wind resources and will have difficulty meeting proposed federal Renewable Portfolio Standards with local supply. There is a growing need to explore innovative solutions for collaborating between regions to achieve the least cost solution for meeting such a renewable energy mandate. The DOE-funded project 'Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets' aims to evaluate the benefits of coordination of scheduling and balancing for Southwest Power Pool (SPP) wind transfers to Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) Balancing Authorities (BAs). The primary objective of this project is to analyze the benefits of different balancing approaches with increasing levels of inter-regional cooperation. Scenarios were defined, modeled and investigated to address production variability and uncertainty and the associated balancing of large quantities of wind power in SPP and delivery to energy markets in the southern regions of the SERC. The primary analysis of the project is based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) simulations of the SPP-SERC regions as modeled for the year 2022. The UC/ED models utilized for the project were developed through extensive consultation with the project utility partners, to ensure the various regions and operational practices are represented as accurately as possible realizing that all such future scenario models are quite uncertain. SPP, Entergy, Oglethorpe Power Company (OPC), Southern Company, and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) actively participated in the project providing input data for the models

  17. Wind tunnel measurements of the tower shadow on models of the ERDA/NASA 100 KW wind turbine tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.; Wagner, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed wind speed profile measurements were made in the wake of 1/25 scale and 1/48 scale tower models to determine the magnitude of the speed reduction (the tower shadow). The 1/25 scale tower modeled closely the actual wind turbine including the service stairway and the equipment elevator rails on one face. The 1/48 scale model was made of all tubular members. Measurements were made on the 1/25 scale model with and without the stairway and elevator rails, and on the 1/48 all tube model without stairs and rails. The test results show that the stairs and rails were a major source of wind flow blockage. The all tubular 1/48 scale tower was found to offer less resistance to the wind than the 1/25 scale model that contained a large number of square sections. Shadow photos are included to show the extent of the blockage offered to the wind from various directions.

  18. M2-F1 mounted in NASA Ames Research Center 40x80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    After the first attempted ground-tow tests of the M2-F1 in March 1963, the vehicle was taken to the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, for wind-tunnel testing. During these tests, Milt Thompson and others were in the M2-F1 to position the control surfaces for each test. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C

  19. Adjoint Method and Predictive Control for 1-D Flow in NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ardema, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling method and a new optimal control approach to investigate a Mach number control problem for the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. The flow in the wind tunnel is modeled by the 1-D unsteady Euler equations whose boundary conditions prescribe a controlling action by a compressor. The boundary control inputs to the compressor are in turn controlled by a drive motor system and an inlet guide vane system whose dynamics are modeled by ordinary differential equations. The resulting Euler equations are thus coupled to the ordinary differential equations via the boundary conditions. Optimality conditions are established by an adjoint method and are used to develop a model predictive linear-quadratic optimal control for regulating the Mach number due to a test model disturbance during a continuous pitch

  20. The development of a 3-D laser velocimeter for the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Adams, Wendell G.; Crespi, Pierre H.; Houser, Michael J.; Inenaga, Andrew S.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an orthogonal, three-dimensional laser velocimeter with in situ sizing (LVIS) system for a high-Reynolds-number facility, the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure wind tunnel (LTPT), is discussed. Special attention is paid to the laser velocimeter seeding subsystems, while all other subsystems are approached from the users standpoint. The evaluation of the LVIS system leads to the conclusion that seeding of large scale pressure wind tunnels remains a problem, while using the polydispersed seeding requires further investigation. A Cassegrain mirror receiver optics may be successfully implemented in lieu of similar lens systems. General agreement is observed between the mean velocity LVIS measurements as compared to conventional pitot and hot-wire data.

  1. The NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear rocket propulsion project - FY 1991 status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning and critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative missions to the moon and to Mars. Interagency agreements are being negotiated between NASA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense for joint technology development activities. This paper summarizes the activities of the NASA project planning team in FY 1990 that led to the draft Nuclear Propulsion Project Plan, outlines the FY 1991 Interagency activities, and describes the current status of the project plan.

  2. Space Launch System Liftoff and Transition Aerodynamic Characterization in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Erickson, Gary E.; Paulson, John W.; Tomek, William G.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A 1.75% scale force and moment model of the Space Launch System was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to quantify the aerodynamic forces that will be experienced by the launch vehicle during its liftoff and transition to ascent flight. The test consisted of two parts: the first was dedicated to measuring forces and moments for the entire range of angles of attack (0deg to 90deg) and roll angles (0 deg. to 360 deg.). The second was designed to measure the aerodynamic effects of the liftoff tower on the launch vehicle for ground winds from all azimuthal directions (0 deg. to 360 deg.), and vehicle liftoff height ratios from 0 to 0.94. This wind tunnel model also included a set of 154 surface static pressure ports. Details on the experimental setup, and results from both parts of testing are presented, along with a description of how the wind tunnel data was analyzed and post-processed in order to develop an aerodynamic database. Finally, lessons learned from experiencing significant dynamics in the mid-range angles of attack due to steady asymmetric vortex shedding are presented.

  3. Development of the NASA-Ames low disturbance supersonic wind tunnel for transition research up to Mach 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; King, Lyndell S.; Reda, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    A unique, low-disturbance supersonic wind tunnel is being developed at NASA-Ames to support supersonic laminar flow control research at cruise Mach numbers of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The distinctive aerodynamic features of this new quiet tunnel will be a low-disturbance settling chamber, laminar boundary layers on the nozzle walls and steady supersonic diffuser flow. Furthermore, this new wind tunnel will operate continuously at uniquely low compression ratios (less than unity). This feature allows an existing non-specialist compressor to be used as a major part of the drive system. In this paper, we highlight activities associated with drive system development, the establishment of natural laminar flow on the test section walls, and instrumentation development for transition detection. Experimental results from an 1/8th-scale model of the supersonic wind tunnel are presented and discussed in association with theoretical predictions. Plans are progressing to build the full-scale wind tunnel by the end of 1993.

  4. TRAC-PF1 MOD1 post test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E J

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, hot leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-1. using the best-estimate'' computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-1 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. 24 refs., 66 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Summary of NASA Lewis Research Center solar heating and cooling and wind energy programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans for the construction and operation of a solar heating and cooling system in conjunction with a office building being constructed at Langley Research Center, are discussed. Supporting research and technology includes: testing of solar collectors with a solar simulator, outdoor testing of collectors, property measurements of selective and nonselective coatings for solar collectors, and a solar model-systems test loop. The areas of a wind energy program that are being conducted include: design and operation of a 100-kW experimental wind generator, industry-designed and user-operated wind generators in the range of 50 to 3000 kW, and supporting research and technology for large wind energy systems. An overview of these activities is provided.

  6. Results of the NASA Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Operational Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre', Robert E., Jr.; Decker, Ryan K.; Leahy, Frank B.; Huddleston, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the new Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT). The goal of the OAT was to verify the data quality of the new DRWP against the performance of the previous DRWP in order to use wind data derived by the new DRWP for space launch vehicle operations support at the Eastern Range. The previous DRWP was used as a situational awareness asset for mission operations to identify rapid changes in the wind environment that weather balloons cannot depict. The Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch assessed data from the new DRWP collected during Jan-Feb 2015 against a specified set of test criteria. Data examination verified that the DRWP provides complete profiles every five minutes from 1.8-19.5 km in vertical increments of 150 m. Analysis of 49 concurrent DRWP and balloon profiles presented root mean square wind component differences around 2.0 m/s. Evaluation of the DRWP's coherence between five-minute wind pairs found the effective vertical resolution to be Nyquist-limited at 300 m for both wind components. In addition, the sensitivity to rejecting data that do not have adequate signal was quantified. This paper documents the data, quality control procedures, methodology, and results of each analysis.

  7. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  8. Investing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funds to Advance Capability, Reliability, and Performance in NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Goerge H.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) is implementing five significant ground-based test facility projects across the nation with funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The projects were selected as the best candidates within the constraints of the ARRA and the strategic plan of ATP. They are a combination of much-needed large scale maintenance, reliability, and system upgrades plus creating new test beds for upcoming research programs. The projects are: 1.) Re-activation of a large compressor to provide a second source for compressed air and vacuum to the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at the Ames Research Center (ARC) 2.) Addition of high-altitude ice crystal generation at the Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory Test Cell 3, 3.) New refrigeration system and tunnel heat exchanger for the Icing Research Tunnel at the Glenn Research Center, 4.) Technical viability improvements for the National Transonic Facility at the Langley Research Center, and 5.) Modifications to conduct Environmentally Responsible Aviation and Rotorcraft research at the 14 x 22 Subsonic Tunnel at Langley Research Center. The selection rationale, problem statement, and technical solution summary for each project is given here. The benefits and challenges of the ARRA funded projects are discussed. Indirectly, this opportunity provides the advantages of developing experience in NASA's workforce in large projects and maintaining corporate knowledge in that very unique capability. It is envisioned that improved facilities will attract a larger user base and capabilities that are needed for current and future research efforts will offer revenue growth and future operations stability. Several of the chosen projects will maximize wind tunnel reliability and maintainability by using newer, proven technologies in place of older and obsolete equipment and processes. The projects will meet NASA's goal of

  9. The Real-Time Wall Interference Correction System of the NASA Ames 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert

    1998-01-01

    An improved version of the Wall Signature Method was developed to compute wall interference effects in three-dimensional subsonic wind tunnel testing of aircraft models in real-time. The method may be applied to a full-span or a semispan model. A simplified singularity representation of the aircraft model is used. Fuselage, support system, propulsion simulator, and separation wake volume blockage effects are represented by point sources and sinks. Lifting effects are represented by semi-infinite line doublets. The singularity representation of the test article is combined with the measurement of wind tunnel test reference conditions, wall pressure, lift force, thrust force, pitching moment, rolling moment, and pre-computed solutions of the subsonic potential equation to determine first order wall interference corrections. Second order wall interference corrections for pitching and rolling moment coefficient are also determined. A new procedure is presented that estimates a rolling moment coefficient correction for wings with non-symmetric lift distribution. Experimental data obtained during the calibration of the Ames Bipod model support system and during tests of two semispan models mounted on an image plane in the NASA Ames 12 ft. Pressure Wind Tunnel are used to demonstrate the application of the wall interference correction method.

  10. Optically Based Flame Detection in the NASA Langley 8-ft High- Temperature Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Two optically based flame-detection systems have been developed for use in NASA Langley's 8-Foot High-Temperature Tunnel (8-ft HTT). These systems are used to detect the presence and stability of the main-burner and pilot-level flames during facility operation. System design considerations will be discussed, and a detailed description of the system components and circuit diagrams will be provided in the Appendices of this report. A more detailed description of the manufacturing process used in the fabrication of the fiber-optic probes is covered in NASA TM-2001-211233.

  11. Wind tunnel wall interference investigations in NAE/NRC High Reynolds Number 2D Facility and NASA Langley 0.3m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Y. Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Mineck, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a NAE/NRC and NASA cooperative program on two-dimensional wind-tunnel wall-interference research, aimed at developing the technology for correcting or eliminating wall interference effects in two-dimensional transonic wind-tunnel investigations. Both NASA Langley and NAE facilities are described, along with a NASA-designed and fabricated airfoil model. It is shown that data from the NAE facility, corrected for wall interference, agree with those obtained from the NASA tunnel, which has adaptive walls; the comparison of surface pressure data shows that the flowfield conditions in which the model is investigated appear to be nearly identical under most conditions. It is concluded that both approaches, posttest correction and an adaptive wall, adequately eliminate the tunnel-wall interference effects.

  12. Development of a Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver; and Plans for Flights on NASA's DC-8 and WB-57 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a recently completed effort to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a compact lidar transceiver for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to permit study of the laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for global coherent Doppler lidar measurement of winds in the future. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz compact transceiver was also designed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 and WB-57 aircraft. The WB-57 flights will present a more severe environment and will require autonomous operation of the lidar system. The DC-8 lidar system is a likely component of future NASA hurricane research. It will include real-time data processing and display, as well as full data archiving. We will attempt to co-fly on both aircraft with a direct-detection Doppler wind lidar system being prepared by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  13. Modernization and Activation of the NASA Ames 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmak, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) was modernized to improve performance, capability, productivity, and reliability. Automation systems were installed in all three UPWT tunnel legs and the Auxiliaries facility. Major improvements were made to the four control rooms, model support systems, main drive motors, and main drive speed control. Pressure vessel repairs and refurbishment to the electrical distribution system were also completed. Significant changes were made to improve test section flow quality in the 11-by 11-Foot Transonic leg. After the completion of the construction phase of the project, acceptance and checkout testing was performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the modernized facility. A pneumatic test of the tunnel circuit was performed to verify the structural integrity of the pressure vessel before wind-on operations. Test section turbulence, flow angularity, and acoustic parameters were measured throughout the tunnel envelope to determine the effects of the tunnel flow quality improvements. The new control system processes were thoroughly checked during wind-off and wind-on operations. Manual subsystem modes and automated supervisory modes of tunnel operation were validated. The aerodynamic and structural performance of both the new composite compressor rotor blades and the old aluminum rotor blades was measured. The entire subsonic and supersonic envelope of the 11-by 11-Foot Transonic leg was defined up to the maximum total pressure.

  14. Exploratory study to induce fan noise in the test section of the NASA Langley full-scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ver, I. L.; Hayden, R. E.; Myles, M. M.; Murray, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Measures to reduce the intensity of fan noise in the NASA Langley 30 ft x 60 ft subsonic wind tunnel were sought. Measurements were first performed to document existing aerodynamic and acoustic conditions. The purpose of these experiments was to (1) obtain the transfer function between the sound power output of the fan and the sound pressure on the test platform, (2) evaluate the sound attenuation around the tunnel circuit, (3) measure simultaneously the flow profile and the turbulence spectrum of the inflow to the fan and the noise on the test platform, and (4) perform flow observations and identify secondary noise sources. Subsequently, these data were used to predict (1) the relative contribution of the major aerodynamic parameters to total fan noise and (2) the effect of placing a dissipative silencer in the collector duct upstream of the fan. Promising noise control measures were identified and recommendations were made on how to evaluate them.

  15. An Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Rotorcraft Airfoils in the NASA Ames Eleven-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Five full scale rotorcraft airfoils were tested in the NASA Ames Eleven-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel for full scale Reynolds numbers at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.07. The models, which spanned the tunnel from floor to ceiling, included two modern baseline airfoils, the SC1095 and SC1094 R8, which have been previously tested in other facilities. Three advanced transonic airfoils, designated the SSC-A09, SSC-A07, and SSC-B08, were tested to confirm predicted performance and provide confirmation of advanced airfoil design methods. The test showed that the eleven-foot tunnel is suited to two-dimensional airfoil testing. Maximum lift coefficients, drag coefficients, pitching moments, and pressure coefficient distributions are presented. The airfoil analysis codes agreed well with the data, with the Grumman GRUMFOIL code giving the best overall performance correlation.

  16. A new 3D LDV system for the NASA Ames 6 x 6 ft. wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, F. K.; Orngard, G. M.; Mcdevitt, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    An obvious extension of wind tunnel laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is currently mainly limited to two-component measurements, would involve the measurement of three simultaneous velocity components. The present paper is concerned with an approach to reduce the degree of optical complexity involved in the design of a three-dimensional (3D) LDV system, taking into account the use of polarization separation. Such a system, utilizing polarization as well as color separation, has been designed and tested in a 6 x 6 foot supersonic wind tunnel. The considered instrument was designed for the on line measurement of three mean velocity components, turbulence levels, and shear stresses on a number of models under a wide variety of test conditions. Attention is given to optical details, data reduction, and sample application.

  17. Supersonic Retropropulsion Experimental Results from the NASA Ames 9- x 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic retropropulsion was experimentally examined in the Ames Research Center 9x7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach 1.8 and 2.4. The experimental model, previously designed for and tested in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach 2.4, 3.5 and 4.6, was a 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody with a 9.55-in long cylindrical aftbody. The forebody was designed to accommodate up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, one on the model centerline and the other three on the half radius spaced 120-deg apart. Surface pressure and flow visualization were the primary measurements, including high-speed data to investigate the dynamics of the interactions between the bow and nozzle shocks. Three blowing configurations were tested with thrust coefficients up to 10 and angles of attack up to 20-deg. Preliminary results and observations from the test are provided

  18. NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1993-01-01

    The 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at Lewis Research Center is available for use by qualified researchers. This manual contains tunnel performance maps which show the range of total temperature, total pressure, static pressure, dynamic pressure, altitude, Reynolds number, and mass flow as a function of test section Mach number. These maps are applicable for both the aerodynamic and propulsion cycle. The 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is an atmospheric facility with a test section Mach number range from 0.36 to 2.0. General support systems (air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, infrared system, laser system, laser sheet system, and schlieren system are also described as are instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems. Pretest meeting formats are outlined. Tunnel user responsibility and personal safety requirements are also stated.

  19. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) represents the next evolutionary step in cryogenic liquid rocket engines. Deriving its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core, the NTR can generate high thrust at a specific impulse of approx. 900 seconds or more - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. In FY'11, as part of the AISP project, NASA proposed a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) effort that envisioned two key activities - "Foundational Technology Development" followed by system-level "Technology Demonstrations". Five near-term NTP activities identified for Foundational Technology Development became the basis for the NCPS project started in FY'12 and funded by NASA's AES program. During Phase 1 (FY'12-14), the NCPS project was focused on (1) Recapturing fuel processing techniques and fabricating partial length "heritage" fuel elements for the two candidate fuel forms identified by NASA and the DOE - NERVA graphite "composite" and the uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten "cermet". The Phase 1 effort also included: (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Mission Analysis and Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary plan for DDT&E was outlined by GRC, the DOE and industry for NASA HQ that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce development costs, the GTD and FTD tests use a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 or 16.5 klbf) engine. Both engines use graphite composite fuel and a "common" fuel element design that is scalable to higher thrust (approx. 25 klbf) engines by increasing the number of elements in a larger diameter core that can produce greater thermal power output. To keep the FTD mission cost down, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered along with

  20. Background noise levels measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.; Kee-Bowling, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    The acoustic capability of the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel has been significantly improved by reducing the background noise levels measured by in-flow microphones. This was accomplished by incorporating streamlined microphone holders having a profile developed by researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center. These new holders were fabricated for fixed mounting on the tunnel wall and for an axially traversing microphone probe which was mounted to the tunnel floor. Measured in-flow noise levels in the tunnel test section were reduced by about 10 dB with the new microphone holders compared with those measured with the older, less refined microphone holders. Wake interference patterns between fixed wall microphones were measured and resulted in preferred placement patterns for these microphones to minimize these effects. Acoustic data from a model turbofan operating in the tunnel test section showed that results for the fixed and translating microphones were equivalent for common azimuthal angles, suggesting that the translating microphone probe, with its significantly greater angular resolution, is preferred for sideline noise measurements. Fixed microphones can provide a local check on the traversing microphone data quality, and record acoustic performance at other azimuthal angles.

  1. Wind Erosion Regimes and the Evolution of the Surface of Mars Studied with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J.; Leovy, C.

    2004-12-01

    A billion year integration of Mars orbital parameters and the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model are combined to investigate the long-term erosional history of the surface of Mars. In agreement with findings of Robert Haberle et al., we find that the distribution of potential surface erosion by wind is robust with respect to orbital parameter variations. Potential erosion is strongest: (1) in storm tracks following the edges of the seasonal polar caps, (2) in regions of low surface elevation, (3) in regions of strong cross-equatorial solstice flows at moderate to high obliquity. It follows that maximum long-term erosion rates occur throughout most of the northern plains, in Acidalia and portions of Amazonis and Utopia, and in the Hellas basin. We also investigate the sensitivity of wind erosion to changes in global mean surface pressure and find, as expected, very high sensitivity. For example, if global mean surface pressure were to increase from the current 6 mb to 40 mb, model potential erosion rates increase by more than one order of magnitude. In this regime, potential erosion rates are sufficiently high that several km of easily eroded fine regolith could be removed in a time span of 100 million years. Possible observational consequences of these results will be discussed.

  2. An Experimental Study of the Ground Transportation System (GTS) Model in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L.; Ross, James C.; Heineck, James T.; Walker, Stephen M.; Driver, David M.; Zilliac, Gregory G.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 1/8-scale Ground Transportation System (GTS) model was studied experimentally in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel. Designed for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the GTS model has a simplified geometry with a cab-over-engine design and no tractor-trailer gap. As a further simplification, all measurements of the GTS model were made without wheels. Aerodynamic boattail plates were also tested on the rear of the trailer to provide a simple geometry modification for computation. The experimental measurements include body-axis drag, surface pressures, surface hot-film anemometry, oil-film interferometry, and 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV). The wind-averaged drag coefficient with and without boattail plates was 0.225 and 0.277, respectively. PIV measurements behind the model reveal a significant reduction in the wake size due to the flow turning provided by the boattail plates. Hot-film measurements on the side of the cab indicate laminar separation with turbulent reattachment within 0.08 trailer width for zero and +/- 10 degrees yaw. Oil film interferometry provided quantitative measurements of skin friction and qualitative oil flow images. A complete set of the experimental data and the surface definition of the model are included on a CD-ROM for further analysis and comparison.

  3. Model Deformation Measurements of Sonic Boom Models in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Garbeff, Theodore J.; Heineck, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The deformations of two sonic-boom models were measured by stereo photogrammetry during tests in the 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The models were geometrically similar but one was 2.75 times as large as the other. Deformation measurements were made by simultaneously imaging the upper surfaces of the models from two directions by calibrated cameras that were mounted behind windows of the test section. Bending and twist were measured at discrete points using conventional circular targets that had been marked along the leading and trailing edges of the wings and tails. In addition, continuous distributions of bending and twist were measured from ink speckles that had been applied to the upper surfaces of the model. Measurements were made at wind-on (M = 1.6) and wind-off conditions over a range of angles of attack between 2.5 deg. and 5.0 deg. At each condition, model deformation was determined by comparing the wind-off and wind-on coordinates of each measurement point after transforming the coordinates to reference coordinates tied to the model. The necessary transformations were determined by measuring the positions of a set of targets on the rigid center-body of the models whose model-axes coordinates were known. Smoothly varying bending and twist measurements were obtained at all conditions. Bending displacements increased in proportion to the square of the distance to the centerline. Maximum deflection of the wingtip of the larger model was about 5 mm (2% of the semispan) and that of the smaller model was 0.9 mm (1% of the semispan). The change in wing twist due to bending increased in direct proportion to distance from the centerline and reached a (absolute) maximum of about -1? at the highest angle of attack for both models. The measurements easily resolved bending displacements as small as 0.05 mm and bending-induced changes in twist as small as 0.05 deg.

  4. Seismic Coupling of Short-Period Wind Noise Through Mars' Regolith for NASA's InSight Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teanby, N. A.; Stevanović, J.; Wookey, J.; Murdoch, N.; Hurley, J.; Myhill, R.; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Pike, W. T.

    2016-11-01

    NASA's InSight lander will deploy a tripod-mounted seismometer package onto the surface of Mars in late 2018. Mars is expected to have lower seismic activity than the Earth, so minimisation of environmental seismic noise will be critical for maximising observations of seismicity and scientific return from the mission. Therefore, the seismometers will be protected by a Wind and Thermal Shield (WTS), also mounted on a tripod. Nevertheless, wind impinging on the WTS will cause vibration noise, which will be transmitted to the seismometers through the regolith (soil). Here we use a 1:1-scale model of the seismometer and WTS, combined with field testing at two analogue sites in Iceland, to determine the transfer coefficient between the two tripods and quantify the proportion of WTS vibration noise transmitted through the regolith to the seismometers. The analogue sites had median grain sizes in the range 0.3-1.0 mm, surface densities of 1.3-1.8 g cm^{-3}, and an effective regolith Young's modulus of 2.5^{+1.9}_{-1.4} MPa. At a seismic frequency of 5 Hz the measured transfer coefficients had values of 0.02-0.04 for the vertical component and 0.01-0.02 for the horizontal component. These values are 3-6 times lower than predicted by elastic theory and imply that at short periods the regolith displays significant anelastic behaviour. This will result in reduced short-period wind noise and increased signal-to-noise. We predict the noise induced by turbulent aerodynamic lift on the WTS at 5 Hz to be ˜2×10^{-10} ms^{-2} Hz^{-1/2} with a factor of 10 uncertainty. This is at least an order of magnitude lower than the InSight short-period seismometer noise floor of 10^{-8} ms^{-2} Hz^{-1/2}.

  5. The Acoustic Environment of the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel is an acoustic testing facility with a long history of aircraft propulsion noise research. Due to interest in renovating the facility to support future testing of advanced quiet engine designs, a study was conducted to document the background noise level in the facility and investigate the sources of contaminating noise. The anechoic quality of the facility was also investigated using an interrupted noise method. The present report discusses these aspects of the noise environment in this facility.

  6. NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1993-01-01

    This manual describes the 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Research Center and provides information for users who wish to conduct experiments in this atmospheric facility. Tunnel variables such as pressures, temperatures, available tests section area, and Mach number ranges (0.05 to 0.20) are discussed. In addition, general support systems such as air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, laser system, flow visualization system, and model support systems are described. Instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems are also discussed.

  7. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 US/Japanese PWR conservative LOCA prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, G E; Fisher, J E

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of a 200%, double-ended, cold-leg-break, loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) calculation using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 computer code. The reactor system represented a typical United States/Japanese pressurized water reactor with a 15 x 15 fuel bundle arrangement 12-ft long, four loops, and cold-leg Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) Systems. Conservation boundary and initial conditions were used. Reactor power was 102% of the 3250 MWt rated power, decay heat was set to 120% of American Nuclear Society Standard 5.1, highest core lifetime values for power peaking and fuel stored energy were used, and the LOCA occurred simultaneously with a loss of offsite power. Best estimate assumptions were used for the break flow model, fuel rod heat transfer and metal-water reaction correlations, and steady-state fuel temperature profiles. A flow blockage model, having the capability to account for the effects of cladding ballooning or rupturing, was not used. Except for these best estimate assumptions, the boundary and initial conditions were consistent with those used in licensing calculations. Maximum fuel rod temperatures were 1380 K (2020/sup 0/F) and 1040 K (1410/sup 0/F) on the hottest evaluation model rod and hottest best estimate rod, respectively. The high reported values or fuel cladding temperature were a direct consequence of the conservative boundary and initial conditions used for the calculation, primarily the 2% overpower condition, the core decay heat assumption, and the degraded ECCS. The calculation demonstrated successful core reflooding before 1478 K (2200/sup 0/F) cladding temperature was exceeded on any fuel rod. 7 refs., 47 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Current Background Noise Sources and Levels in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen; Soderman, Paul; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Background noise measurements were made of the acoustic environment in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements were acquired subsequent to the 40x80 Aeroacoustic Modernization Project, which was undertaken to improve the anechoic characteristics of the 40x80's closed test section as well as reduce the levels of background noise in the facility. The resulting 40x80 anechoic environment was described by Soderman et. al., and the current paper describes the resulting 40x80 background noise, discusses the sources of the noise, and draws comparisons to previous 40x80 background noise levels measurements. At low wind speeds or low frequencies, the 40x80 background noise is dominated by the fan drive system. To obtain the lowest fan drive noise for a given tunnel condition, it is possible in the 40x80 to reduce the fans' rotational speed and adjust the fans' blade pitch, as described by Schmidtz et. al. This idea is not new, but has now been operationally implemented with modifications for increased power at low rotational speeds. At low to mid-frequencies and at higher wind speeds, the dominant noise mechanism was thought to be caused by the surface interface of the previous test section floor acoustic lining. In order to reduce this noise mechanism, the new test section floor lining was designed to resist the pumping of flow in and out of the space between the grating slats required to support heavy equipment. In addition, the lining/flow interface over the entire test section was designed to be smoother and quieter than the previous design. At high wind speeds or high frequencies, the dominant source of background noise in the 40x80 is believed to be caused by the response of the in-flow microphone probes (required by the nature of the closed test section) to the fluctuations in the freestream flow. The resulting background noise levels are also different for probes of various

  9. How Well Does the S-Web Theory Predict In-Situ Observations of the Slow Solar Wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linker, J.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2014-12-01

    The S-Web theory provides a physical explanation for the origin and properties of the slow solar wind, particularly its composition. The theory proposes that magnetic reconnection along topologically complex boundaries between open and closed magnetic fields on the sun releases plasma from closed magnetic field regions into the solar wind at latitudes away from the heliospheric current sheet. Such a wind would have elevated charge states compared to the fast wind and an elemental composition resembling the closed-field corona. This theory is currently being tested using time-dependent, high-resolution, MHD simulations, however comparisons to in-situ observations play an essential role in testing and understanding slow-wind release mechanisms. In order to determine the relationship between S-Web signatures and the observed, slow solar wind, we compare plasma data from the ACE and Ulysses spacecraft to solutions from the steady-state models created at Predictive Science, Inc., which use observed magnetic field distributions on the sun as a lower boundary condition. We discuss the S-Web theory in light of our results and the significance of the S-Web for interpreting current and future solar wind observations. This work was supported, in part, by the NASA TR&T and SR&T programs.

  10. Wind Tunnel Testing of the NASA-DFRC Flutterometer using a Two DOF Wing Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Flutter of an aeroelastic structure is potentially destructive aeroelastic instability. This phenomenon has motivated research within the aeroelastic community to develop methods that can accurately predict aeroelastic instabilities. The Flutterometer method used herein, and as developed by NASA DFRC, is based upon the mu method which has been coupled with wavelet filtering processes in estimating aeroelastic models from flight data. The approach leads to a methodology to predict the occurrence of flutter boundaries, and may prove to reliably predict flutter boundaries during flight tests. An analytical model is used as the first estimate of the aeroelastic structural dynamics, and uncertainty operators are introduced into the system to model variations between the theoretical system and the physical system. The modelling uncertainties are then updated from experimental data. Although the model used did not work well with this particular experiment, a sensitivity analysis was additionally performed and improvements suggested.

  11. Aerosol properties derived from airborne sky radiance and direct beam measurements in recent NASA and DoE field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and airmass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance observations.

  12. Aerosol Properties Derived from Airborne Sky Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent NASA and DoE Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions.The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE (Department of Energy)-sponsored TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013) experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and air-mass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance

  13. Collected Papers on Wind Turbine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    R and D projects on electricity generating wind turbines were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1973 to 1988. Most projects were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a major element of its Federal Wind Energy Program. Another large wind turbine project was by the Bureau of Reclamation of the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI). From 1988 to 1995, NASA wind energy activities have been directed toward the transfer of technology to commercial and academic organizations. As part of these technology transfer activities, previously unpublished manuscripts have been assembled and presented here to share the wind turbine research results with the wind energy community. A variety of wind turbine technology topics are discussed: Wind and wake models; Airfoil properties; Structural analysis and testing; Control systems; Variable speed generators; and acoustic noise. Experimental and theoretical results are discussed.

  14. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  15. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  16. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  17. Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Zong, Ziliang; Job, Joshua; Zhang, Xuesong; Nijim, Mais; Qin, Xiao

    2012-10-09

    Geo-visualization is significantly changing the way we view spatial data and discover information. On the one hand, a large number of spatial data are generated every day. On the other hand, these data are not well utilized due to the lack of free and easily used data-visualization tools. This becomes even worse when most of the spatial data remains in the form of plain text such as log files. This paper describes a way of visualizing massive plain-text spatial data at no cost by utilizing Google Earth and NASAWorld Wind. We illustrate our methods by visualizing over 170,000 global download requests for satellite images maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Our visualization results identify the most popular satellite images around the world and discover the global user download patterns. The benefits of this research are: 1. assisting in improving the satellite image downloading services provided by USGS, and 2. providing a proxy for analyzing the hot spot areas of research. Most importantly, our methods demonstrate an easy way to geovisualize massive textual spatial data, which is highly applicable to mining spatially referenced data and information on a wide variety of research domains (e.g., hydrology, agriculture, atmospheric science, natural hazard, and global climate change).

  18. Supersonic Retropropulsion Test 1853 in NASA LaRC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.

    2014-01-01

    A supersonic retropropulsion experiment was conducted in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2 at Mach numbers of 2.4, 3.5, and 4.6. Intended as a code validation effort, this study used pretest computations to size and refine the model such that tunnel blockage and internal flow separations were minimized. A 5-in diameter 70 degree sphere-cone forebody, which can accommodate up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, followed by a 9.55 inches long cylindrical aft body was selected for this test after computational maturation. The primary measurements for this experiment were high spatial-density surface pressures. In addition, high speed schlieren video and internal pressures and temperatures were acquired. The test included parametric variations in the number of nozzles utilized, thrust coefficients (roughly 0 to 4), and angles of attack (-8 to 20 degrees). The run matrix was developed to also allow quantification of various sources of experimental uncertainty, such as random errors due to run-to-run variations and systematic errors due to flowfield or model misalignments. To accommodate the uncertainty assessment, many runs and replicates were conducted with the model at various locations within the tunnel and with model roll angles of 0, 60, 120, and 180 degrees. This test report provides operational details of the experiment, contains a review of trends, and provides all schlieren and pressure results within appendices.

  19. Check Calibration of the NASA Glenn 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (2014 Test Entry)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Aaron; Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Arrington, E. Allen

    2016-01-01

    A check calibration of the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) was conducted in May/June 2014 using an array of five supersonic wedge probes to verify the 1999 Calibration. This check calibration was necessary following a control systems upgrade and an integrated systems test (IST). This check calibration was required to verify the tunnel flow quality was unchanged by the control systems upgrade prior to the next test customer beginning their test entry. The previous check calibration of the tunnel occurred in 2007, prior to the Mars Science Laboratory test program. Secondary objectives of this test entry included the validation of the new Cobra data acquisition system (DAS) against the current Escort DAS and the creation of statistical process control (SPC) charts through the collection of series of repeated test points at certain predetermined tunnel parameters. The SPC charts secondary objective was not completed due to schedule constraints. It is hoped that this effort will be readdressed and completed in the near future.

  20. Supersonic Retropropulsion Experimental Results from the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Edquist, Karl T.; Player, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    A new supersonic retropropulsion experimental effort, intended to provide code validation data, was recently completed in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2 over the Mach number range from 2.4 to 4.6. The experimental model was designed using insights gained from pre-test computations, which were instrumental for sizing and refining the model to minimize tunnel wall interference and internal flow separation concerns. A 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody with a roughly 10-in long cylindrical aftbody was the baseline configuration selected for this study. The forebody was designed to accommodate up to four 4:1 area ratio supersonic nozzles. Primary measurements for this model were a large number of surface pressures on the forebody and aftbody. Supplemental data included high-speed Schlieren video and internal pressures and temperatures. The run matrix was developed to allow for the quantification of various sources of experimental uncertainty, such as random errors due to run-to-run variations and bias errors due to flow field or model misalignments. Preliminary results and observations from the test are presented, while detailed data and uncertainty analyses are ongoing.

  1. Sources, paths, and concepts for reduction of noise in the test section of the NASA Langley 4x7m wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is investigating the feasibility of modifying the 4x7m Wind Tunnel at the Langley Research Center to make it suitable for a variety of aeroacoustic testing applications, most notably model helicopter rotors. The amount of noise reduction required to meet NASA's goal for test section background noise was determined, the predominant sources and paths causing the background noise were quantified, and trade-off studies between schemes to reduce fan noise at the source and those to attenuate the sound generated in the circuit between the sources and the test section were carried out. An extensive data base is also presented on circuit sources and paths.

  2. DOE/NREL Wind Farm Monitoring: Annual Report, July 2000-July 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. W.

    2002-04-01

    The Wind Program and the wind power industry currently do not have the ability to accurately assess ancillary service burdens or benefits of wind-powered electricity. This evaluation can help in determining if efforts should be expended in beginning to examine possible mitigation strategies by including detailed data analysis from two wind farm facilities.

  3. Performance tests for the NASA Ames Research Center 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Giddings, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of initial tests conducted to assess the performance of the NASA Ames 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel. The features of the tunnel are described and two aspects of tunnel operation are discussed. The first is an assessment of the steady mainstream and boundary layer flows and the second deals with oscillating mainstream and boundary layer flows. Experimental results indicate that in steady flow the test section mainstream velocity is uniform in the flow direction and in cross section. The freestream turbulence intensity is about 0.2 percent. With minor exceptions the steady turbulent boundary layer generated on the top wall of the test section exhibits the characteristics of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer generated on a flat plate. The tunnel was designed to generate sinusoidal oscillating mainstream flows. Experiments confirm that the tunnel produces sinusoidal mainstream velocity variations for the range of frequencies (up to 15 Hz). The results of this study demonstrate that the tunnel essentially produces the flows that it was designed to produce.

  4. A three-dimensional orthogonal laser velocimeter for the NASA Ames 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Cooper, Donald L.

    1995-01-01

    A three-component dual-beam laser-velocimeter system has been designed, fabricated, and implemented in the 7-by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The instrument utilizes optical access from both sides and the top of the test section, and is configured for uncoupled orthogonal measurements of the three Cartesian coordinates of velocity. Bragg cell optics are used to provide fringe velocity bias. Modular system design provides great flexibility in the location of sending and receiving optics to adapt to specific experimental requirements. Near-focus Schmidt-Cassegrain optic modules may be positioned for collection of forward or backward scattered light over a large solid angle, and may be clustered to further increase collection solid angle. Multimode fiber optics transmit collected light to the photomultiplier tubes for processing. Counters are used to process the photomultiplier signals and transfer the processed data digitally via buffered interface controller to the host MS-DOS computer. Considerable data reduction and graphical display programming permit on-line control of data acquisition and evaluation of the incoming data. This paper describes this system in detail and presents sample data illustrating the system's capability.

  5. Using C-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Signatures to Improve Convective Wind Forecasting at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amiot, Corey G.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Roeder, William P.; McNamara, Todd M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) is the organization responsible for monitoring atmospheric conditions at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center (CCAFS/KSC) and issuing warnings for hazardous weather conditions when the need arises. One such warning is issued for convective wind events, for which lead times of 30 and 60 minutes are desired for events with peak wind gusts of 35 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-1) and 50 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-2), respectively (Roeder et al. 2014).

  6. Fixed pitch rotor performance of large horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.; Corrigan, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental fixed pitch wind turbine performance data is presented for both the DOE/NASA Mod-0 and the Danish Gedser wind turbines. Furthermore, a method for calculating the output power from large fixed pitch wind turbines is presented. Modifications to classical blade element momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident in high winds (low tip speed ratios) where aerodynamic stall occurs as the blade experiences high angles of attack.

  7. NASA Glenn Research Center Experience Using DOE Midwest Region Super ESPC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zala, Laszlo F.

    2000-01-01

    The energy crisis of 1973 prompted the Federal Government and private industry to look into alternative methods to save energy. At the same time the constant reduction of operations and maintenance funds during the last 5 years forced Glenn Research Center (GRC) to look for alternative funding sources to meet the mandate to reduce energy consumption. The Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) was chosen as a viable source of facility improvement funding that can create larger project scope and help replace aging, inefficient equipment. This paper describes Glenn's participation in the Department of Energy (DOE) Super ESPC program. This program provided Glenn cost savings in the performance of energy audits, preparation of documents, evaluation of proposals, and selection of energy service company (ESCO).

  8. Independent code assessment at BNL in FY 1982. [TRAC-PF1; RELAP5/MOD1; TRAC-BD1

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, P.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Jo, J.H.; Neymotin, L.; Slovik, G.; Yuelys-Miksis, C.

    1982-01-01

    Independent assessment of the advanced codes such as TRAC and RELAP5 has continued at BNL through the Fiscal Year 1982. The simulation tests can be grouped into the following five categories: critical flow, counter-current flow limiting (CCFL) or flooding, level swell, steam generator thermal performance, and natural circulation. TRAC-PF1 (Version 7.0) and RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14) codes were assessed by simulating all of the above experiments, whereas the TRAC-BD1 (Version 12.0) code was applied only to the CCFL tests. Results and conclusions of the BNL code assessment activity of FY 1982 are summarized below.

  9. Comparison of propeller cruise noise data taken in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel with other tunnel and flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James

    1989-01-01

    The noise of advanced high speed propeller models measured in the NASA 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel has been compared with model propeller noise measured in another tunnel and with full-scale propeller noise measured in flight. Good agreement was obtained for the noise of a model counterrotation propeller tested in the 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel and in the acoustically treated test section of the Boeing Transonic Wind Tunnel. This good agreement indicates the relative validity of taking cruise noise data on a plate in the 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel compared with the free-field method in the Boeing tunnel. Good agreement was also obtained for both single rotation and counter-rotation model noise comparisons with full-scale propeller noise in flight. The good scale model to full-scale comparisons indicate both the validity of the 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel data and the ability to scale to full size. Boundary layer refraction on the plate provides a limitation to the measurement of forward arc noise in the 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel at the higher harmonics of the blade passing tone. The sue of a validated boundary layer refraction model to adjust the data could remove this limitation.

  10. Comparison of propeller cruise noise data taken in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel with other tunnel and flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1989-01-01

    The noise of advanced high speed propeller models measured in the NASA 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel has been compared with model propeller noise measured in another tunnel and with full-scale propeller noise measured in flight. Good agreement was obtained for the noise of a model counterrotation propeller tested in the 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel and in the acoustically treated test section of the Boeing Transonic Wind Tunnel. This good agreement indicates the relative validity of taking cruise noise data on a plate in the 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel compared with the free-field method in the Boeing tunnel. Good agreement was also obtained for both single rotation and counter-rotation model noise comparisons with full-scale propeller noise in flight. The good scale model to full-scale comparisons indicate both the validity of the 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel data and the ability to scale to full size. Boundary layer refraction on the plate provides a limitation to the measurement of forward arc noise in the 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel at the higher harmonics of the blade passing tone. The use of a validated boundary layer refraction model to adjust the data could remove this limitation.

  11. 75 FR 60102 - South Dakota PrairieWinds Project (DOE/EIS-0418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... capacity wind- powered energy generation facility that would feature 101 wind turbine generators... feature 101 wind turbine generators; 6,000 square-foot operations and maintenance building and fence... facilities around the United States. Bat mortality from collisions with turbines would likely occur....

  12. Highlights of NASA/DOE photovoltaic market assessment visit to Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A broad range of agricultural, rural development, and other power applications in various regions of Morocco were examined to determine the potential market for photovoltaic products in Moroccan development. The primary focus of the study was the agriculture sector which accounts for approximately 17% of the country's GNP. The country has a clear need for reliable remote power systems, but does not have the financial resources to invest in the relatively high capital cost PV equipment. A modest potential for PV use was identified in nonagricultural rural services, such as refrigerators for rural clinics and rural radio-telephones. The main potential for PV in Morocco in the next five years lies mainly in the telecommunications sector. Applications include rural TV sets, TV repeater stations, microwave relay stations, and railroad, marine, and airline signalling. Market size estimates were derived from development and expansion plans. At an average customer cost for complete installed systems from $18/Wp to $30/Wp the total potential market value is estimated in the range of $6.6 to $11 million over the 1981-1986 period.

  13. Uncertainties in modelling and scaling of critical flows and pump model in TRAC-PF1/MOD1

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Yu, Wen-Shi

    1987-01-01

    The USNRC has established a Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology to quantify the uncertainty in the prediction of safety parameters by the best estimate codes. These codes can then be applied to evaluate the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 version was selected as the first code to undergo the CSAU analysis for LBLOCA applications. It was established through this methodology that break flow and pump models are among the top ranked models in the code affecting the peak clad temperature (PCT) prediction for LBLOCA. The break flow model bias or discrepancy and the uncertainty were determined by modelling the test section near the break for 12 Marviken tests. It was observed that the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code consistently underpredicts the break flow rate and that the prediction improved with increasing pipe length (larger L/D). This is true for both subcooled and two-phase critical flows. A pump model was developed from Westinghouse (1/3 scale) data. The data represent the largest available test pump relevant to Westinghouse PWRs. It was then shown through the analysis of CE and CREARE pump data that larger pumps degrade less and also that pumps degrade less at higher pressures. Since the model developed here is based on the 1/3 scale pump and on low pressure data, it is conservative and will overpredict the degradation when applied to PWRs.

  14. Synchronization of the ERDA-NASA 100 LkW wind turbine generator with large utility networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Gilbert, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The synchronizing of a wind turbine generator against an infinite bus under random conditions is studied. With a digital computer, complete solutions for rotor speed, generator power angle, electromagnetic torque, wind turbine torque, wind turbine blade pitch angle, and armature current are obtained and presented by graphs.

  15. Flight and full-scale wind-tunnel comparison of pressure distributions from an F-18 aircraft at high angles of attack. [Conducted in NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Lanser, Wendy R.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure distributions were obtained at nearly identical fuselage stations and wing chord butt lines in flight on the F-18 HARV at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and in the NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft. The static pressures were measured at the identical five stations on the forebody, three stations on the left and right leading-edge extensions, and three spanwise stations on the wing. Comparisons of the flight and wind-tunnel pressure distributions were made at alpha = 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg/59 deg. In general, very good agreement was found. Minor differences were noted at the forebody at alpha = 45 deg and 60 deg in the magnitude of the vortex footprints and a Mach number effect was noted at the leading-edge extension at alpha = 30 deg. The inboard leading edge flap data from the wind tunnel at alpha = 59 deg showed a suction peak that did not appear in the flight data. This was the result of a vortex from the corner of the leading edge flap whose path was altered by the lack of an engine simulation in the wind tunnel.

  16. Comparison of acoustic data from a 102 mm conic nozzle as measured in the RAE 24-foot wind tunnel and the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.; Mckie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative program between the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), England, and the NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to compare acoustic measurements made in the RAE 24-foot wind tunnel and in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The acoustic measurements were made in both facilities using the same 102 mm conical nozzle supplied by the RAE. The nozzle was tested by each organization using its respective jet test rig. The mounting hardware and nozzle exit conditions were matched as closely as possible. The data from each wind tunnel were independently analyzed by the respective organization. The results from these tests show good agreement. In both facilities, interference with acoustic measurement is evident at angles in the forward quadrant.

  17. Aeroacoustic Characterization of the NASA Ames Experimental Aero-Physics Branch 32- by 48-Inch Subsonic Wind Tunnel with a 24-Element Phased Microphone Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costanza, Bryan T.; Horne, William C.; Schery, S. D.; Babb, Alex T.

    2011-01-01

    The Aero-Physics Branch at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes a 32- by 48-inch subsonic wind tunnel for aerodynamics research. The feasibility of acquiring acoustic measurements with a phased microphone array was recently explored. Acoustic characterization of the wind tunnel was carried out with a floor-mounted 24-element array and two ceiling-mounted speakers. The minimum speaker level for accurate level measurement was evaluated for various tunnel speeds up to a Mach number of 0.15 and streamwise speaker locations. A variety of post-processing procedures, including conventional beamforming and deconvolutional processing such as TIDY, were used. The speaker measurements, with and without flow, were used to compare actual versus simulated in-flow speaker calibrations. Data for wind-off speaker sound and wind-on tunnel background noise were found valuable for predicting sound levels for which the speakers were detectable when the wind was on. Speaker sources were detectable 2 - 10 dB below the peak background noise level with conventional data processing. The effectiveness of background noise cross-spectral matrix subtraction was assessed and found to improve the detectability of test sound sources by approximately 10 dB over a wide frequency range.

  18. A Compendium of Wind Statistics and Models for the NASA Space Shuttle and Other Aerospace Vehicle Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Adelfang, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    The wind profile with all of its variations with respect to altitude has been, is now, and will continue to be important for aerospace vehicle design and operations. Wind profile databases and models are used for the vehicle ascent flight design for structural wind loading, flight control systems, performance analysis, and launch operations. This report presents the evolution of wind statistics and wind models from the empirical scalar wind profile model established for the Saturn Program through the development of the vector wind profile model used for the Space Shuttle design to the variations of this wind modeling concept for the X-33 program. Because wind is a vector quantity, the vector wind models use the rigorous mathematical probability properties of the multivariate normal probability distribution. When the vehicle ascent steering commands (ascent guidance) are wind biased to the wind profile measured on the day-of-launch, ascent structural wind loads are reduced and launch probability is increased. This wind load alleviation technique is recommended in the initial phase of vehicle development. The vehicle must fly through the largest load allowable versus altitude to achieve its mission. The Gumbel extreme value probability distribution is used to obtain the probability of exceeding (or not exceeding) the load allowable. The time conditional probability function is derived from the Gumbel bivariate extreme value distribution. This time conditional function is used for calculation of wind loads persistence increments using 3.5-hour Jimsphere wind pairs. These increments are used to protect the commit-to-launch decision. Other topics presented include the Shuttle Shuttle load-response to smoothed wind profiles, a new gust model, and advancements in wind profile measuring systems. From the lessons learned and knowledge gained from past vehicle programs, the development of future launch vehicles can be accelerated. However, new vehicle programs by their very

  19. Full-scale S-76 rotor performance and loads at low speeds in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Vol. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter rotor test was conducted in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel with a four-bladed S-76 rotor system. Rotor performance and loads data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles-of-attack and thrust conditions at tunnel speeds ranging from 0 to 100 kt. The primary objectives of this test were (1) to acquire forward flight rotor performance and loads data for comparison with analytical results; (2) to acquire S-76 forward flight rotor performance data in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel to compare with existing full-scale 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test data that were acquired in 1977; (3) to evaluate the acoustic capability of the 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel for acquiring blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise in the low speed range and compare BVI noise with in-flight test data; and (4) to evaluate the capability of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test section as a hover facility. The secondary objectives were (1) to evaluate rotor inflow and wake effects (variations in tunnel speed, shaft angle, and thrust condition) on wind tunnel test section wall and floor pressures; (2) to establish the criteria for the definition of flow breakdown (condition where wall corrections are no longer valid) for this size rotor and wind tunnel cross-sectional area; and (3) to evaluate the wide-field shadowgraph technique for visualizing full-scale rotor wakes. This data base of rotor performance and loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies for full-scale, four-bladed, fully articulated rotor systems. Rotor performance and structural loads data are presented in this report.

  20. Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David; Turner, David; Evans, Keith; Demoz, Belay; Melfi, Harvey; Schwemmer, Geary; Cadirola, Martin; Ferrare, Richard; Goldsmith, John; Tooman, Tim; Wise, Stacy

    1998-01-01

    Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warming scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

  1. Characterization of the LGFSTF wind tunnel in preparation for the DOE/EPA hazardous chemical evaporation rate experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, J.; Walker, H.; Spicer, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy are conducting chemical evaporation rate experiments in the DOE`s Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) wind tunnel to determine the effect on evaporation rate of pool temperature and wind speed. Evaporation rates measured in these tests will be used to verify mathematical models used to define the source (gas) rate inputs to dispersion models. In preparation for the experiments the LGFSTF tunnel has been modified to provide for the simulation of an atmospheric boundary layer flow on the tunnel floor. This report describes work performed by the DOE Modeling Support Center at the University of Arkansas to define (characterize) the turbulence properties in the boundary layer of the (modified) wind tunnel test section. Hot wire anemometry measurements were made to characterize the boundary layer flow over the evaporation test pan. Mean velocity and turbulence statistics were measured along a verticle line (extending from 0.5 cm to 60 cm above the tunnel floor) located on the tunnel centerline immediately upwind of the evaporation pan. The x-direction mean velocity data were analyzed to estimate the applicable values of the surface roughness and friction velocity for four tunnel (variable frequency controller) speed settings: 15 Hz, 30 Hz, 45 Hz, and 60 Hz.

  2. NASA Ames Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) Tests of a 10 deg Cone at Mach 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.

    1997-01-01

    This work is part of the ongoing qualification of the NASA Ames Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) as a low-disturbance (quiet) facility suitable for transition research. A 10 deg cone was tested over a range of unit Reynolds numbers (Re = 2.8 to 3.8 million per foot (9.2 to 12.5 million per meter)) and angles of incidence (O deg to 10 deg) at Mach 1.6. The location of boundary layer transition along the cone was measured primarily from surface temperature distributions, with oil flow interferometry and Schlieren flow visualization providing confirmation measurements. With the LFSWT in its normal quiet operating mode, no transition was detected on the cone in the test core, over the Reynolds number range tested at zero incidence and yaw. Increasing the pressure disturbance levels in the LFSWT test section by a factor of five caused transition onset on the cone within the test core, at zero incidence and yaw. When operating the LFSWT in its normal quiet mode, transition could only be detected in the test core when high angles of incidence (greater than 5 deg) for cones were set. Transition due to elevated pressure disturbances (Tollmien-Schlichting) and surface trips produced a skin temperature rise of order 4 F (2.2 C). Transition due to cross flows on the leeward side of the cone at incidence produced a smaller initial temperature rise of only order 2.5 F (1.4 C), which indicates a slower transition process. We can conclude that these cone tests add further proof that the LFSWT test core is normally low-disturbance (pressure fluctuations greater than 0.1%), as found by associated direct flow quality measurements discussed in this report. Furthermore, in a quiet test environment, the skin temperature rise is sensitive to the type of dominant instability causing transition. The testing of a cone in the LFSWT provides an excellent experiment for the development of advanced transition detection techniques.

  3. Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing Capability Upgraded in NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center supports short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) tests in its 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9 x 15 LSWT). As part of a facility capability upgrade, a dynamic actuation system (DAS) was fabricated to enhance the STOVL testing capabilities. The DAS serves as the mechanical interface between the 9 x 15 LSWT test section structure and the STOVL model to be tested. It provides vertical and horizontal translation of the model in the test section and maintains the model attitude (pitch, yaw, and roll) during translation. It also integrates a piping system to supply the model with exhaust and hot air to simulate the inlet suction and nozzle exhausts, respectively. Hot gas ingestion studies have been performed with the facility ground plane installed. The DAS provides vertical (ascent and descent) translation speeds of up to 48 in./s and horizontal translation speeds of up to 12 in./s. Model pitch variations of +/- 7, roll variations of +/- 5, and yaw variations of 0 to 180 deg can be accommodated and are maintained within 0.25 deg throughout the translation profile. The hot air supply, generated by the facility heaters and regulated by control valves, provides three separate temperature zones to the model for STOVL and hot gas ingestion testing. Channels along the supertube provide instrumentation paths from the model to the facility data system for data collection purposes. The DAS is supported by the 9 x 15 LSWT test section ceiling structure. A carriage that rides on two linear rails provides for horizontal translation of the system along the test section longitudinal axis. A vertical translation assembly, consisting of a cage and supertube, is secured to the carriage. The supertube traverses vertically through the cage on a set of linear rails. Both translation axes are hydraulically actuated and provide position and velocity profile control. The lower flange on the supertube serves as the model interface to the DAS. The

  4. TRAC PF1/MOD1 calculations and data comparisons for mist feed and bleed and steam generator tube rupture experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Siebe, D.A.; Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the Integral System Test (IST) program initiated in June 1983 for the purpose of providing integral system test data on specific issues/phenomena relevant to post-small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, loss of feedwater and other transients in Babcock and Wilcox (BandW) plant designs. The Multi-Loop Integral System Test (MIST) facility is the largest single component in the IST program. MIST is a 2 /times/ 4 (two hot legs and steam generators (SGs), four cold legs and reactor coolant pumps) representation of lowered-loop reactor system of the BandW design. It is a full-height, full-pressure facility with 1/817 power and volume scaling. Two other integral experimental facilities are included in the IST program: test loops at the University of Maryland, College Park, and at SRI International (SRI-2). The objective of the IST tests is to generate high-quality experimental data to be used for assessing thermal-hydraulic safety computer codes. Efforts are under way at Los Alamos to assess TRAC-PF1/MOD1 against data from each of the IST facilities. Calculations and data comparisons for TRAC-PF1/MOD1 assessment are presented for two transients run in the MIST facility. These are MIST Test 330302, a feed and bleed test with delayed high-pressure injection; and Test 3404AA, an SG tube-rupture test with the affected SG isolated. Only MIST assessment results are presented in this paper. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculations completed to date for MIST tests are in reasonable agreement with the data from these tests. Reasonable agreement is defined as meaning that major trends are predicted correctly, although TRAC values are frequently outside the range of data uncertainty. We believe that correct conclusions will be reached if the code is used in similar applications despite minor code/model deficiencies. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Assessment of TRAC-PF1 and RELAP5/MOD1 codes with GE large-vessel blowdown test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, J. H.

    1983-06-01

    The large vessel blowdown Test No. 5801-15 was simulated with the TRAC-PF1 (Version 7.0) and RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14) codes. The test facility consisted of a pressure vessel, 49 in. in diameter by 14 ft long, a 2.5 in. diameter converging-diverging nozzle and a blowdown line connected to the center of the upper part of the vessel (elevation from the bottom of the vessel 10.5 ft). The vessel was filled with saturated water up to 5.5 ft at 1060 psia. The test was initiated by rupturing a disc attached at the end of the nozzle. Blowdown phenomena such as critical blowdown flow and the level swell during blowdown from a partially water filled vessel was studied. Understanding of these phenomena is essential for the analysis of Loss-of-Coolant and steam generator steam line break accidents.

  6. Results of the AFRSI rewaterproofing systems screening test in the NASA/Ames Research Center (ARC) 2 x 2-foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Kingsland, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 2x2-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to evaluate two AFRSI rewaterproofing systems and to investigate films as a means of reducing blanket joint distortion. The wind tunnel wall slot configuration influenced on the flow field over the test panel was investigated; primarily using oil flow data, and resulted in a closed slot configuration to provide a satisfactory screening environment flow field for the test. Sixteen AFRSI test panels, configured to represent the test system or film, were subjected to this screening environment (a flow field of separated and reattached flow at a freestream Mach numnber of 0.65 and q = 650 or 900 psf). Each condition was held until damage to the test article was observed or 55 minutes if no damage was incurred. All objectives related to AFRSI rewaterproofing and to the use of films to stiffen the blanket fibers were achieved.

  7. Flow quality studies of the NASA Lewis Research Center 8- by 6-foot supersonic/9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen; Pickett, Mark T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the existing flow quality in the NASA Lewis 8 by 6 Foot Supersonic/9 by 15 Foot Low speed Wind Tunnel. The information gathered from these studies was used to determine the types and designs of flow manipulators which can be installed to improve overall tunnel flow quality and efficiency. Such manipulators include honeycomb flow straighteners, turbulence reduction screens, corner turning vanes, and acoustic treatments. The types of measurements, instrumentation, and results obtained from experiments conducted at several locations throughout the tunnel loop are described.

  8. Comparison of options for reduction of noise in the test section of the NASA Langley 4x7m wind tunnel, including reduction of nozzle area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustically significant features of the NASA 4X7m wind tunnel and the Dutch-German DNW low speed tunnel are compared to illustrate the reasons for large differences in background noise in the open jet test sections of the two tunnels. Also introduced is the concept of reducing test section noise levels through fan and turning vane source reductions which can be brought about by reducing the nozzle cross sectional area, and thus the circuit mass flow for a particular exit velocity. The costs and benefits of treating sources, paths, and changing nozzle geometry are reviewed.

  9. Results of the NASA/MSFC FA-23 plume technology test program performed in the NASA/Ames unitary wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendershot, K. C.

    1977-01-01

    A 2.25% scale model of the space shuttle external tank and solid rocket boosters was tested in the NASA/Ames Unitary 11 x 11 foot transonic and 9 x 7 foot supersonic tunnels to obtain base pressure data with firing solid propellant exhaust plumes. Data system difficulties prevented the acquisition of any useful data in the 9 x 7 tunnel. However, 28 successful rocket test firings were made in the 11 x 11 tunnel, providing base pressure data at Mach numbers of 0.5, 0.9, 1.05, 1.2, and 1.3 and at plume pressure ratios ranging from 11 to 89.

  10. Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE fatigue database trends for wind turbine blade materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, John F.; Ashwill, Thomas D.; Wilson, Timothy J.; Sears, Aaron T.; Agastra, Pancasatya; Laird, Daniel L.; Samborsky, Daniel D.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents an analysis of trends in fatigue results from the Montana State University program on the fatigue of composite materials for wind turbine blades for the period 2005-2009. Test data can be found in the SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue of Composite Materials Database which is updated annually. This is the fifth report in this series, which summarizes progress of the overall program since its inception in 1989. The primary thrust of this program has been research and testing of a broad range of structural laminate materials of interest to blade structures. The report is focused on current types of infused and prepreg blade materials, either processed in-house or by industry partners. Trends in static and fatigue performance are analyzed for a range of materials, geometries and loading conditions. Materials include: sixteen resins of three general types, five epoxy based paste adhesives, fifteen reinforcing fabrics including three fiber types, three prepregs, many laminate lay-ups and process variations. Significant differences in static and fatigue performance and delamination resistance are quantified for particular materials and process conditions. When blades do fail, the likely cause is fatigue in the structural detail areas or at major flaws. The program is focused strongly on these issues in addition to standard laminates. Structural detail tests allow evaluation of various blade materials options in the context of more realistic representations of blade structure than do the standard test methods. Types of structural details addressed in this report include ply drops used in thickness tapering, and adhesive joints, each tested over a range of fatigue loading conditions. Ply drop studies were in two areas: (1) a combined experimental and finite element study of basic ply drop delamination parameters for glass and carbon prepreg laminates, and (2) the development of a complex structured resin-infused coupon including ply drops, for comparison studies of

  11. Installation and Initial Operation of DOE's 449-MHz Wind Profiling Radars on the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Shaw, William J.; Morris, Victor R.; Wilczak, J. M.; White, A. B.; Ayers, Tom; Jordan, Jim; King, Clark W.

    2015-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has recently completed the installation of three new wind profiling radars on the Washington and Oregon coasts. These systems operate at a frequency of 449 MHz and provide mean wind profiles to a height of roughly 8 km, with the maximum measurement height depending on time-varying atmospheric conditions. This is roughly half the depth of the troposphere at these latitudes. Each system is also equipped with a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), which provides a measure of the temperature profile to heights of approximately 2 km. Other equipment deployed alongside the radar includes a surface meteorological station and GPS for column water vapor. This project began in fiscal year 2014, starting with equipment procurements and site selection. In addition, environmental reviews, equipment assembly and testing, site access agreements, and infrastructure preparations have been performed. Finally, with equipment deployment with data collection and dissemination, the primary tasks of this project have been completed. The three new wind profiling radars have been deployed at airports near Coos Bay, OR, and Astoria, OR, and at an industrial park near Forks, WA. Data are available through the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory Data Display website, and will soon be made available through the DOE Atmosphere to Electrons data archive and portal as well.

  12. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Cameron; Capps, Scott

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  13. Servant Leadership: How does NASA Serve the Interests of Humankind in Aerospace Exploration and the Role STEM Plays in it?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides a description of technology efforts illustrative of NASA Glenn Research Center Core competencies and which exemplifies how NASA serves the interest of humankind in aerospace exploration. Examples are provided as talking points to illustrate the role that career paths in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) plays in the aforementioned endeavor.

  14. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations of Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP and HS3 Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  15. Cherokee Nation Enterprises Wind Energy Feasibility Study Final Report to U.S. DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Carol E. Wyatt

    2006-04-30

    CNE has conducted a feasibility study on the Chilocco property in north-central Oklahoma since the grant award on July 20, 2003. This study has concluded that there is sufficient wind for a wind farm and that with the Production Tax Credits and Green Tags, there will be sufficient energy to, not only cover the costs of the Nation’s energy needs, but to provide a profit. CNE has developed a wind energy team and is working independently and with industry partners to bring its renewable energy resources to the marketplace. We are continuing with the next phase in conducting avian, cultural and transmission studies, as well as continuing to measure the wind with the SoDAR unit. Cherokee Nation Enterprises, Inc. is a wholly-owned corporation under Cherokee Nation and has managed the Department of Energy grant award since July 20, 2003. In summary, we have determined there is sufficient wind for a wind farm at the Chilocco property where Cherokee Nation owns approximately 4,275 acres. The primary goal would be more of a savings in light of the electricity used by Cherokee Nation and its entities which totals an estimated eight million dollars per year. Cherokee Nation Enterprises (CNE), working independently and with industry partners, plans to bring its renewable energy resources into the marketplace through a well-documented understanding of our undeveloped resource. Our plan is to cultivate this resource in a way that will ensure the development and use for our energy will be in an environmentally and culturally acceptable form.

  16. Any Way the Wind Blows does Really Matter to Ecosystem Water Use Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram

    2015-04-01

    In many regions, atmospheric conditions change frequently with shifts of wind direction, extending maritime influences far inland or continental influences to coastal ecosystems. However, depending on their origin, high velocity winds can bring dry continental air to the coast (e.g., Santa Ana winds along the mid-eastern Pacific coast2-3) or cool maritime air far inland. In these regions, water and carbon fluxes may respond to meso- and macroscale weather patterns, yet the effects of wind direction have been explicitly considered only in footprint analyses, limited mostly to <1 km around instrumented towers and focusing on the relations between the characteristics of the contributing source/sink area and measured fluxes. Thus, no explicit link has been formulated between coarse-scale weather phenomena and wind properties that ultimately affect biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy. Using climate and ecosystem-scale data from Sardinia, our work shows that wind direction affects biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon but not water. Summer Mistral winds from continental Europe remain cool as they cross the island, but warmer Saharan Sirocco winds, arriving with similar vapour pressure deficit (D) but 30±16% higher specific humidity (Qa), heat up and lose humidity, trebling D only 50 km inland. Over a mixed pasture-woodland (grass-wild olive), while soil moisture was stable and limiting, daytime net carbon exchange (NEEd) averaged 2.3-fold higher (P<0.001) in Mistral than Sirocco days, reflecting the response of canopy conductance (gc) to variation of D. Because the product of gc and D encodes the key ecosystem compensatory mechanism, the reciprocal gc-D response maintained similar ecosystem evapotranspiration (Ee). Thus, summertime ecosystem water-use efficiency (We=NEEd/Ee), ~50% higher during Mistral days, reflected the Qa of sea air embarking the island. Broad alteration of dominance of maritime versus continental influences predicted with future

  17. Comparison between design and installed acoustic characteristics of NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel acoustic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    The test section of the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel was acoustically treated to allow the measurement of sound under simulated free-field conditions. The treatment was designed for high sound absorption at frequencies above 250 Hz and for withstanding the environmental conditions in the test section. In order to achieve the design requirements, a fibrous, bulk-absorber material was packed into removable panel sections. Each section was divided into two equal-depth layers packed with material to different bulk densities. The lower density was next to the facing of the treatment. The facing consisted of a perforated plate and screening material layered together. Sample tests for normal-incidence acoustic absorption were also conducted in an impedance tube to provide data to aid in the treatment design. Tests with no airflow, involving the measurement of the absorptive properties of the treatment installed in the 9- by 15-foot wind tunnel test section, combined the use of time-delay spectrometry with a previously established free-field measurement method. This new application of time-delay spectrometry enabled these free-field measurements to be made in nonanechoic conditions. The results showed that the installed acoustic treatment had absorption coefficients greater than 0.95 over the frequency range 250 Hz to 4 kHz. The measurements in the wind tunnel were in good agreement with both the analytical prediction and the impedance tube test data.

  18. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  19. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment: Semiscale Mod-2A intermediate break test S-IB-3

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetyk, L N

    1986-02-01

    The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment project at Sandia National Laboratories is part of an overall effort funded by the NRC to determine the ability of various system codes to predict the detailed thermal/hydraulic response of light water reactors during accident and off-normal conditions. The TRAC code is being assessed at SNLA against test data from various integral and separate effects test facilities. As part of this assessment matrix, an intermediate break test (S-IB-3), performed at the Semiscale Mod-2A facility, has been analyzed. Using an input model with a 3-D VESSEL component, the vessel and downcomer inventories during 3-IB-3 were generally well predicted, but the core heatup was underpredicted compared to data. An equivalent calculation with an all 1-D input model ran about twice as fast as our basecase analysis using a 3-D VESSEL in the input model, but the results of the two calculations diverged significantly for many parameters of interest, with the 3-D VESSEL model results in better agreement with data. 22 refs., 100 figs.

  20. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, S. K.; Sefcik, R. J.; Fittje, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B. G; Werner, J.; Weitzberg, A.; Joyner, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In FY'11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program A strategy was outlined by GRC and NASA HQ that included 2 key elements -"Foundational Technology Development" followed by specific "Technology Demonstration" projects. The "Technology Demonstration "element proposed ground technology demonstration (GTD) testing in the early 2020's, followed by a flight technology demonstration (FTD) mission by approx. 2025. In order to reduce development costs, the demonstration projects would focus on developing a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 -16.5 klb(f)) engine that utilizes a "common" fuel element design scalable to the higher thrust (approx. 25 klb(f)) engines used in NASA's Mars DRA 5.0 study(NASA-SP-2009-566). Besides reducing development costs and allowing utilization of existing, flight proven engine hard-ware (e.g., hydrogen pumps and nozzles), small, lower thrust ground and flight demonstration engines can validate the technology and offer improved capability -increased payloads and decreased transit times -valued for robotic science missions identified in NASA's Decadal Study.

  1. Results of the Updated NASA Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Operational Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre', Robert E., Jr.; Deker, Ryan K.; Leahy, Frank B.; Huddleston, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We present here the methodology and results of the Operational Acceptance Test (OAT) performed on the new Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP). On day-of-launch (DOL), space launch vehicle operators have used data from the DRWP to invalidate winds in prelaunch loads and trajectory assessments due to the DRWP's capability to quickly identify changes in the wind profile within a rapidly-changing wind environment. The previous DRWP has been replaced with a completely new system, which needs to undergo certification testing before being accepted for use in range operations. The new DRWP replaces the previous three-beam system made of coaxial cables and a copper wire ground plane with a four-beam system that uses Yagi antennae with enhanced beam steering capability. In addition, the new system contains updated user interface software while maintaining the same general capability as the previous system. The new DRWP continues to use the Median Filter First Guess (MFFG) algorithm to generate a wind profile from Doppler spectra at each range gate. DeTect (2015) contains further details on the upgrade. The OAT is a short-term test designed so that end users can utilize the new DRWP in a similar manner to the previous DRWP during mission operations at the Eastern Range in the midst of a long-term certification process. This paper describes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch's (MSFC NE's) analyses to verify the quality and accuracy of the DRWP's meteorological data output as compared to the previous DRWP. Ultimately, each launch vehicle program has the responsibility to certify the system for their own use.

  2. Modelling coastal low-level wind-jets: does horizontal resolution matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Raza; Tjernström, Michael; Svensson, Gunilla; Semedo, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric flows in coastal regions are impacted by land-sea temperature contrasts, complex terrain, shape of the coastline, among many things. Along the west coast of central North America, winds in the boundary layer are mainly from north or northwest, roughly parallel to the coastline. Frequently, the coastal low-level wind field is characterized by a sharp wind maximum along the coast in the lowest kilometre. This feature, commonly referred to as a coastal low-level jet (CLLJ), has significant impact on the climatology of the coastal region and affects many human activities in the littoral zone. Hence, a good understanding and forecasting of CLLJs are vital. This study evaluates the issue of proper mesoscale numerical model resolution to describe the physics of a CLLJ, and its impact on the upper ocean. The COAMPS® model is used for a summer event to determine the realism of the model results compared to observations, from an area of supercritical flow adjustment between Pt. Sur and Pt. Conception, California. Simulations at different model horizontal resolutions, from 54 to 2 km are performed. While the model produces realistic results with increasing details at higher resolution, the results do not fully converge even at a resolution of only few kilometres and an objective analysis of model errors do not show an increased skill with increasing resolution. Based on all available information, a compromise resolution appears to be at least 6 km. New methods may have to be developed to evaluate models at very high resolution.

  3. Status of the KTH-NASA Wind-Tunnel Test for Acquisition of Transonic Nonlinear Aeroelastic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Ringertz, Ulf; Stenfelt, Gloria; Eller, David; Keller, Donald F.; Chwalowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a status report on the collaboration between the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden and the NASA Langley Research Center regarding the design, fabrication, modeling, and testing of a full-span lighter configuration in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The goal of the test is to acquire transonic limit-cycle- oscillation (LCO) data, including accelerations, strains, and unsteady pressures. Finite element models (FEMs) and aerodynamic models are presented and discussed along with results obtained to date.

  4. NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Background Noise and Flow Survey Results Prior to FY05 Construction of Facilities Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel is a premier facility for model-scale testing of jet noise reduction concepts at realistic flow conditions. However, flow inside the open jet test section is less than optimum. A Construction of Facilities project, scheduled for FY 05, will replace the flow collector with a new design intended to reduce recirculation in the open jet test section. The reduction of recirculation will reduce background noise levels measured by a microphone array impinged by the recirculation flow and will improve flow characteristics in the open jet tunnel flow. In order to assess the degree to which this modification is successful, background noise levels and tunnel flow are documented, in order to establish a baseline, in this report.

  5. Tropospheric Wind Monitoring During Day-of-Launch Operations for National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Leach, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The Environments Group at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) monitors the winds aloft at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the countdown for all Space Shuttle launches. Assessment of tropospheric winds is used to support the ascent phase of launch. Three systems at KSC are used to generate independent tropospheric wind profiles prior to launch; 1) high resolution Jimsphere balloon system, 2) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) and 3) low resolution radiosonde system. Data generated by the systems are used to assess spatial and temporal wind variability during launch countdown to ensure wind change observed does not violate wind change criteria constraints.

  6. Instrumentation applications to Space Shuttle models and thermal protection system tiles tested in NASA-AMES wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F.; Brownson, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of the many wind-tunnel tests conducted in the course of the Space Shuttle development program are presented with emphasis on instrumentation applications. The examples of tests discussed include airframe aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating, aerodynamic noise, tile dynamic response, and tile loads. Many of the tests were conducted with standard wind-tunnel instrumentation. Most of the more unusual instrumentation requirements were related to the thermal protection system, where some pressure-sensor concepts were adapted to measure airloads on tiles. These measurements provided the only quantitative data that could be used to confirm the airload analysis procedure. Limited applications of computers to experimental control, in conjunction with data taken during Shuttle tests, have resulted in substantial benefits in overall test efficiency.

  7. USER-CUSTOMIZED ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING AND DECISION SUPPORT USING NASA WORLD WIND AND DOE GENIE PRO SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective environmental stewardship requires timely geospatial information about ecology and

    environment for informed environmental decision support. Unprecedented public access to high resolution

    imagery from earth-looking sensors via online virtual earth browsers ...

  8. Fluid dynamic research at NASA-Ames Research Center related to transonic wind tunnel design and testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhlstein, L., Jr.; Steinle, F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid dynamic research with the objective of developing new and improved technology in both test facility concepts and test techniques is being reported. A summary of efforts and results thus far obtained in four areas is presented. The four area are: (1) the use of heavy gases to obtain high Reynolds numbers at transonic speeds: (2) high Reynolds number tests of the C-141A wing configuration; (3) performance and flow quality of the pilot injector driven wind tunnel; and (4) integration time required to extract accurate static and dynamic data from tests in transonic wind tunnels. Some of the principal conclusions relative to each of the four areas are: (1) Initial attempts to apply analytical corrections to test results using gases with gamma other than 1.4 to simulate conditions in air show promise but need significant improvement; (2) for the C-141A configuration, no Reynolds number less than the full scale flight value provides an accurate simulation of the full scale flow; (3) high ratios of tunnel mass flow rate to injection mass flow rate and high flow quality can be obtained in an injector driven transonic wind tunnel; and (4) integration times of 0.5 to 1.0 sec may be required for static force and pressure tests, respectively, at some transonic test conditions in order to obtain the required data accuracy.

  9. Revalidation of the NASA Ames 11-by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel with a Commercial Airplane Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmak, Frank J.; Hudgins, M.; Hergert, D.; George, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 11-By 11-Foot Transonic leg of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) was modernized to improve tunnel performance, capability, productivity, and reliability. Wind tunnel tests to demonstrate the readiness of the tunnel for a return to production operations included an Integrated Systems Test (IST), calibration tests, and airplane validation tests. One of the two validation tests was a 0.037-scale Boeing 777 model that was previously tested in the 11-By 11-Foot tunnel in 1991. The objective of the validation tests was to compare pre-modernization and post-modernization results from the same airplane model in order to substantiate the operational readiness of the facility. Evaluation of within-test, test-to-test, and tunnel-to-tunnel data repeatability were made to study the effects of the tunnel modifications. Tunnel productivity was also evaluated to determine the readiness of the facility for production operations. The operation of the facility, including model installation, tunnel operations, and the performance of tunnel systems, was observed and facility deficiency findings generated. The data repeatability studies and tunnel-to-tunnel comparisons demonstrated outstanding data repeatability and a high overall level of data quality. Despite some operational and facility problems, the validation test was successful in demonstrating the readiness of the facility to perform production airplane wind tunnel%, tests.

  10. NASA and energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    NASA technology contributions to create energy sources include direct solar heating and cooling systems, wind generation of electricity, solar thermal energy turbine drives, solar cells, and techniques for locating, producing, and collecting organic materials for conversion into fuel.

  11. NASA Archives: UARS

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, produced in 1999, shows an artist concept of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, launched in 1991. UARS measured chemical compounds found in the ozone layer, wind and temper...

  12. Pretest Report for the Full Span Propulsive Wing/Canard Model Test in the NASA Langley 4 x 7 Meter Low Speed Wind Tunnel Second Series Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1986-01-01

    A full span propulsive wing/canard model is to be tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 4 x 7 meter low speed wind tunnel. These tests are a continuation of the tests conducted in Feb. 1984, NASA test No.290, and are being conducted under NASA Contract NAS1-17171. The purpose of these tests is to obtain extensive lateral-directional data with a revised fuselage concept. The wings, canards, and vertical tail of this second test series model are the same as tested in the previous test period. The fuselage and internal flow path have been modified to better reflect an external configuration suitable for a fighter airplane. Internal ducting and structure were changed as required to provide test efficiency and blowing control. The model fuselage tested during the 1984 tests was fabricated with flat sides to provide multiple wing and canard placement variations. The locations of the wing and canard are important variables in configuration development. With the establishment of the desired relative placement of the lifting surfaces, a typically shaped fuselage has been fabricated for these tests. This report provides the information necessary for the second series tests of the propulsive wing/canard model. The discussion in this report is limited to that affected by the model changes and to the second series test program. The pretest report information for test 290 which is valid for the second series test was published in Rockwell report NR 83H-79. This report is presented as Appendix 1 and the modified fuselage stress report is presented as Appendix 2 to this pretest report.

  13. Repair of Corrosion in Air Supply Piping at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 by 1 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Michael

    2000-01-01

    During a test at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 x 1 Supersonic Wing Tunnel, it was discovered that particles entrained in the air flow were damaging the pressure sensitive paint on a test article. An investigation found the source of the entrained particles to be rust on the internal surfaces of the air supply piping. To remedy the situation, the air supply line components made from carbon steel were either refurbished or replaced with new stainless steel components. The refurbishment process included various combinations of chemical cleaning, bead blasting, painting and plating.

  14. Transonic wind-tunnel investigation of the maneuver potential of the NASA supercritical wing concept, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallissy, J. B.; Ayers, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.975 with a variable-wing-sweep airplane model in order to evaluate a series of wings designed to demonstrate the maneuver potential of the supercritical airfoil concept. Both conventional and supercritical wing designs for several planform configurations were investigated with wing sweep angles from 16.0 deg to 72.5 deg, depending on Mach number and wing configuration. The supercritical wing configuration showed significant improvements over the conventional configurations in drag-divergence Mach number and in drag level at transonic maneuver conditions.

  15. Darwin's wind hypothesis: does it work for plant dispersal in fragmented habitats?

    PubMed

    Riba, Miquel; Mayol, Maria; Giles, Barbara E; Ronce, Ophélie; Imbert, Eric; van der Velde, Marco; Chauvet, Stéphanie; Ericson, Lars; Bijlsma, R; Vosman, Ben; Smulders, M J M; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2009-08-01

    Using the wind-dispersed plant Mycelis muralis, we examined how landscape fragmentation affects variation in seed traits contributing to dispersal. Inverse terminal velocity (Vt(-1)) of field-collected achenes was used as a proxy for individual seed dispersal ability. We related this measure to different metrics of landscape connectivity, at two spatial scales: in a detailed analysis of eight landscapes in Spain and along a latitudinal gradient using 29 landscapes across three European regions. In the highly patchy Spanish landscapes, seed Vt(-1)increased significantly with increasing connectivity. A common garden experiment suggested that differences in Vt(-1) may be in part genetically based. The Vt(-1) was also found to increase with landscape occupancy, a coarser measure of connectivity, on a much broader (European) scale. Finally, Vt(-1)was found to increase along a south-north latitudinal gradient. Our results for M. muralis are consistent with 'Darwin's wind dispersal hypothesis' that high cost of dispersal may select for lower dispersal ability in fragmented landscapes, as well as with the 'leading edge hypothesis' that most recently colonized populations harbour more dispersive phenotypes.

  16. Large Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thresher, R. W. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop held in Cleveland, July 28-30, 1981 are described. The workshop emphasized recent experience in building and testing large propeller-type wind turbines, expanding upon the proceedings of three previous DOE/NASA workshops at which design and analysis topics were considered. A total of 41 papers were presented on the following subjects: current and advanced large wind turbine systems, rotor blade design and manufacture, electric utility activities, research and supporting technology, meteorological characteristics for design and operation, and wind resources assessments for siting.

  17. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

  18. Simulation of flight-type engine fan noise in the NASA-Lewis 9 x 15 anechoic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, M. F.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A major problem in the measurement of aircraft engine fan noise is the difficulty of simulating, in a ground-based facility, the noise that occurs during flight. Flight-type noise as contrasted to the usual ground-static test noise exhibits substantial reductions in both (1) the time unsteadiness of tone noise and (2) the mean level of tones calculated to be nonpropagating or cut-off. A model fan designed with cut-off of the fundamental tone was acoustically tested in the anechoic wind tunnel under both static and tunnel flow conditions. The properties that characterize flight-type noise were progressively simulated with increasing tunnel flow. The distinctly lobed directivity pattern of propagating rotor/stator interaction modes was also observed. The results imply that the excess noise attributed to the ingestion of the flow disturbances that prevail near most static test facilities was substantially reduced with tunnel flow. The anechoic wind tunnel appears to be a useful facility for applied research on aircraft engine fan noise under conditions of simulated flight.

  19. Qualitative Assessment of the Acoustic Disturbance Environment in the NASA LaRC 20-Inch MACH 6 Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Hamilton, H. Harris

    2001-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on a 5-degree-half-angle cone with a flare in a conventional Mach 6 wind tunnel to examine the effect of facility noise on boundary layer transition. The effect of tunnel noise was inferred by comparing transition onset locations determined from the present test to that previously obtained in a Mach 6 quiet tunnel. Together, the two sets of experiments are believed to represent the first direct comparison of transition onset between a conventional and a quiet hypersonic wind tunnel using a common test model. In the present conventional hypersonic tunnel experiment, adiabatic wall temperatures were measured and heat transfer distributions were inferred on the cone flare model at zero degree angle of attack over a range of length Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 6) to 10 x 10(exp 6)) which resulted in laminar and turbulent flow. Wall-to-total temperature ratio for the transient heating measurements and the adiabatic wall temperature measurements were 0.69 and 0.86, respectively. The cone flare nosetip radius was varied from 0.0001 to 0.125-inch to examine the effects of bluntness on transition onset. At comparable freestream conditions the transition onset Reynolds number obtained on the cone flare model in the conventional "noisy" tunnel was approximately 25% lower than that measured in the low disturbance tunnel.

  20. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Wind Energy R&D Program: Impact of Selected Energy Technology Investments

    SciTech Connect

    Pelsoci, Thomas M.

    2010-06-01

    This benefit-cost analysis focuses on the DOE Wind Energy Program's public sector R&D investments and returns. The analysis accounts for the program's additionality – that is, comparing what has happened as a result of the program to what would have happened without it. The analysis does not address the return on the investments of private companies ("private returns"). Public returns on the program's investments from 1976 to 2008 are identified and analyzed using retrospective analysis.

  1. Simulation of Flight-Type Engine Fan Noise in the NASA-Lewis 9X15 Anechoic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, M. F.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Flight type noise as contrasted to the usual ground static test noise exhibits substantial reductions in the time unsteadiness of tone noise, and in the mean level of tones calculated to be nonpropagating or cut-off. A model fan designed with cuttoff of the fundamental tone was acoustically tested in the anechoic wind tunnel under both static and tunnel flow conditions. The properties that characterize flight type noise were progressively simulated with increasing tunnel flow. The distinctly lobed directivity pattern of propagating rotor/stator interaction modes was also observed. Excess noise attributed to the ingestion of the flow disturbances that prevail near most static test facilities is substantially reduced with tunnel flow.

  2. NASA Now: Microbes @ NASA: Early Earth Ecosystems

    NASA Video Gallery

    What may look like green slime growing on a pond is what scientists call a microbial mat! Why does NASA care about slime? Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communiti...

  3. Large, low cost composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gewehr, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    A woven roving E-glass tape, having all of its structural fibers oriented across the tape width was used in the manufacture of the spar for a wind turbine blade. Tests of a 150 ft composite blade show that the transverse filament tape is capable of meeting structural design requirements for wind turbine blades. Composite blades can be designed for interchangeability with steel blades in the MOD-1 wind generator system. The design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of the 150 ft blade are discussed.

  4. Signal processing for airborne doppler radar detection of hazardous wind shear as applied to NASA 1991 radar flight experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Radar data collected during the 1991 NASA flight tests have been selectively analyzed to support research directed at developing both improved as well as new algorithms for detecting hazardous low-altitude windshear. Analysis of aircraft attitude data from several flights indicated that platform stability bandwidths were small compared to the data rate bandwidths which should support an assumption that radar returns can be treated as short time stationary. Various approaches at detection of weather returns in the presence of ground clutter are being investigated. Non-coventional clutter rejection through spectrum mode tracking and classification algorithms is a subject of continuing research. Based upon autoregressive modeling of the radar return time sequence, this approach may offer an alternative to overcome errors in conventional pulse-pair estimates. Adaptive filtering is being evaluated as a means of rejecting clutter with emphasis on low signal-to-clutter ratio situations, particularly in the presence of discrete clutter interference. An analysis of out-of-range clutter returns is included to illustrate effects of ground clutter interference due to range aliasing for aircraft on final approach. Data are presented to indicate how aircraft groundspeed might be corrected from the radar data as well as point to an observed problem of groundspeed estimate bias variation with radar antenna scan angle. A description of how recorded clutter return data are mixed with simulated weather returns is included. This enables the researcher to run controlled experiments to test signal processing algorithms. In the summary research efforts involving improved modelling of radar ground clutter returns and a Bayesian approach at hazard factor estimation are mentioned.

  5. Characteristics of the NASA-Ames Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel for Unique Mach 1.6 Transition Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Flow quality measurements have been performed in the unique Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) to examine both mean and dynamic characteristics. The intent was to provide the necessary flow information about this ground test facility, to support meaningful transition research at Mach 1.6 and flight unit Reynolds numbers. This paper is intended to assist other experimentalists with similar goals of characterizing low-supersonic test environments. An array of instrumentation has been used to highlight the importance of proper selection of pressure instruments and data acquisition procedures. We conclude that the test section is low-disturbance (based on classical standards of pressure disturbances less than 0.1% with no specified data bandwidth), and has uniform flow. This is confirmation that the quiet design features of the LFSWT are effective. However, characterization of the test section flow over a 0.25k-5Ok bandwidth shows that the disturbance levels can be greater than classical standards particularly for stagnation pressures less than 9.5 psia (0.65 bar) with low stagnation temperatures. Variability of the flow disturbances in the settling chamber and test section is contained in a narrow frequency bandwidth below 5k Hz, which is associated with resonant frequencies from the pressure reduction system. So far, these disturbances have not impacted transition along the tunnel walls or a 10 degrees cone. However, continual vigilance is required to maintain a known low-disturbance environment for transition research in the LFSWT. Furthermore, the formation of standards for flow quality measurements is strongly recommended, so that transition research can be better isolated from tunnel disturbances.

  6. Experimental evaluation of two turning vane designs for high-speed corner of 0.1-scale model of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed altitude wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Boldman, D. R.; Shyne, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Two turning vane designs were experimentally evaluated for corner 1 (downstream of the test section) of a 0.1-scale model of the NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT). Vane A was a controlled-diffusion airfoil shape; vane B was a circular-arc airfoil shape. The vane designs were tested over corner inlet Mach numbers from 0.16 to 0.465. Several modifications in vane setting angle and vane spacing were also evaluated for vane A. The overall performance obtained from total pressure rakes indicated that vane B had a slightly lower loss coefficient than vane A. At Mach 0.35 (the design Mach number without the engine exhaust removal scoop), the loss coefficients were 0.150 and 0.178 for vanes B and A, respectively. Resetting the vane A angle by -5 deg. (vane A10) to turn the flow toward the outside corner reduced the loss coefficient to 0.119. The best configuration (vane A10) was also tested with a simulated engine exhaust removal scoop. The loss coefficient for that configuration was 0.164 at Mach 0.41 (the approximate design Mach number with the scoop).

  7. Acoustic Performance of the GEAE UPS Research Fan in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    A model advanced turbofan was acoustically tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel in 1994. The Universal Propulsion Simulator fan was designed and manufactured by General Electric Aircraft Engines, and included an active core, as well as bypass, flow paths. The fan was tested with several rotors featuring unswept, forward-swept and aft-swept designs of both metal and composite construction. Sideline acoustic data were taken with both hard and acoustically treated walls in the flow passages. The fan was tested within an airflow at a Mach number of 0.20, which is representative of aircraft takeoff/approach conditions. All rotors showed similar aerodynamic performance. However, the composite rotors typically showed higher noise levels than did corresponding metal rotors. Aft and forward rotor sweep showed at most modest reductions of transonic multiple pure tone levels. However, rotor sweep often introduced increased rotor-stator interaction tone levels. Broadband noise was typically higher for the composite rotors and also for the aft-swept metal rotor. Transonic MPT generation was reduced with increasing fan axis angle of attack (AOA); however, higher downstream noise levels did increase with AOA resulting in higher overall Effective Perceived Noise Level.

  8. Experimental evaluation of two turning vane designs for fan drive corner of 0.1-scale model of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed altitude wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldman, Donald R.; Moore, Royce D.; Shyne, Rickey J.

    1987-01-01

    Two turning vane designs were experimentally evaluated for corner 2 of a 0.1 scale model of the NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT). Corner 2 contained a simulated shaft fairing for a fan drive system to be located downstream of the corner. The corner was tested with a bellmouth inlet followed by a 0.1 scale model of the crossleg diffuser designed to connect corners 1 and 2 of the AWT. Vane A was a controlled-diffusion airfoil shape; vane B was a circular-arc airfoil shape. The A vanes were tested in several arrangements which included the resetting of the vane angle by -5 degrees or the removal of the outer vane. The lowest total pressure loss for vane A configuration was obtained at the negative reset angle. The loss coefficient increased slightly with the Mach number, ranging from 0.165 to 0.175 with a loss coefficient of 0.170 at the inlet design Mach number of 0.24. Removal of the outer vane did not alter the loss. Vane B loss coefficients were essentially the same as those for the reset vane A configurations. The crossleg diffuser loss coefficient was 0.018 at the inlet design Mach number of 0.33.

  9. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... would generate up to 500 megawatts of electricity from wind turbine generators (WTGs). The proposed... wind park and transmission tie-line facilities. To implement the RPMs, an Avian and Bat Protection Plan... lights on wind turbine generators per Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements. Per a RPM...

  10. Results of heat transfer tests of an 0.0175-scale space shuttle vehicle model 22 OTS in the NASA-Ames 3.5 foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH3), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, T. F.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Heat transfer data for the 0.0175-scale space shuttle vehicle 3 are presented. Interference heating effects were investigated by a model build-up technique of orbiter alone, tank alone, second, and first stage configurations. The test program was conducted in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 5.3 for nominal free stream Reynolds number per foot values of 1.5, and 5.0 million.

  11. NASA Planetary Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.; Kim, R.

    2004-12-01

    NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one

  12. The Wind-Wind Collision Region of the Wolf-Rayet Binary V444 Cygni: How Much Optical Line Emission Does It Produce?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Aaron; Auer, Lawrence H.; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Cardona, Octavio

    2001-12-01

    We model the emission-line profile variations that are expected to be produced by physical and wind eclipses in the Wolf-Rayet (W-R+O) binary system V444 Cyg. A comparison of the theoretical profiles with the He II 4686 Å line observed in V444 Cyg allows us to isolate the effects that are likely to be due to the wind-wind collision region in this particular line. We estimate that the wind-wind collision region contributes no more than ~12% of the equivalent width of the emission line, with smaller values during elongations, when part of the shock cone is being eclipsed by the O star. The upper limit implies a maximum contribution from the wind-wind collision region of ~1×1035 ergs s-1 to the total luminosity of He II 4686 Å line. Using the analytical solution of Cantó et al., we find that the bulk of this emission arises along the shock cone walls where the flow velocity is ~800 km s-1, at a distance of ~8 Rsolar from the O star's surface, and at θ=65°-75° from the line joining the centers of the two stars, with origin in the O star. The derived surface density of this region is σ=0.22 g cm-2, which, together with the He II 4686 Å luminosity, indicates that the thickness of the shock lies in the range 2-10×1010 cm and the total density is 1-6×1012 cm-3.

  13. Aeroacoustic Study of a 26%-Scale Semispan Model of a Boeing 777 Wing in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Burnside, Nathan J.; Soderman, Paul T.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Reinero, Bryan R.; James, Kevin D.; Arledge, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    An acoustic and aerodynamic study was made of a 26%-scale unpowered Boeing 777 aircraft semispan model in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for the purpose of identifying and attenuating airframe noise sources. Simulated approach and landing configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.12 and 0.24. Cruise configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.24 and 0.33. The research team used two Ames phased-microphone arrays, a large fixed array and a small traversing array, mounted under the wing to locate and compare various noise sources in the wing high-lift system and landing gear. Numerous model modifications and noise alleviation devices were evaluated. Simultaneous with acoustic measurements, aerodynamic forces were recorded to document aircraft conditions and any performance changes caused by the geometric modifications. Numerous airframe noise sources were identified that might be important factors in the approach and landing noise of the full-scale aircraft. Several noise-control devices were applied to each noise source. The devices were chosen to manipulate and control, if possible, the flow around the various tips and through the various gaps of the high-lift system so as to minimize the noise generation. Fences, fairings, tip extensions, cove fillers, vortex generators, hole coverings, and boundary-layer trips were tested. In many cases, the noise-control devices eliminated noise from some sources at specific frequencies. When scaled to full-scale third-octave bands, typical noise reductions ranged from 1 to 10 dB without significant aerodynamic performance loss.

  14. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of

  15. The Wind-Wind Collision Region of the Wolf-Rayet Binary V444 Cyg: How much optical line emission does it produce ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, A.; Auer, L. H.; Koenigsberger, G.; Cardona, O.

    2001-12-01

    We model the emission line profile variations that are expected to be produced by physical and wind eclipses in the Wolf-Rayet (WR+O) binary system V444 Cyg. A comparison of the theoretical profiles with the He II 4686 Å line observed in V444 Cyg allows us to isolate the effects that are likely to be due to the wind-wind collision region, in this particular line. We estimate that the WWC region contributes no more than ~ 12% of the equivalent width of the emission line, with smaller values during elongations, when part of the shock cone is being eclipsed by the O-star. The upper limit implies a maximum contribution from the wind-wind collision region of ~ 1.*E35 ergs s-1 to the total luminosity of He II 4686 Å line. Using the analytical solution of Cantó et al. (1996), we find that the bulk of this emission seems to be arising along the shock cone walls where the flow velocity is ~ 800 km s-1, at a distance of ~ 8 {Rsun }\\> from the O-star's surface, and at Θ =60-70o from the line joining the centers of the two stars, with origin in the O-star. The derived surface density of this region is σ =0.22 gr cm-2, which together with the He II 4686 Å luminosity, indicates that the thickness of the shock lies in the range 2-10 x 1010 cm and the total density is 1-6 x 1012 cm-3.

  16. NASA Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces NASA Quest as part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, which connects students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website where students can glimpse the various types of work performed at different NASA facilities and talk to NASA workers about the type of work they do. (ASK)

  17. An appraisal of the full geomagnetic vector in wind-blown sediments - does it have a future? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchinsky, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent progress in the relative paleointensity (RPI) studies of the loess and paleosol deposits of China demonstrate the applicability of the technique in some sections. The PRI record of the Lingtai section (Pan et al., 2001) is mostly comparable to the reference curves of Valet et al. (2005) and Channel et al. (2009). Climate driven chemical alterations of remnant magnetization signal is additionally suggested as an explanation to the intervals of dissimilarities. The newest results of Yang et al. (2012) reveal more complex situations. At the Baoji section, where pedogenesis is relatively weak, the RPI results might possibly suggest a reflection of global paleointensity variations. The record from the Xifeng section, where pedogenesis is stronger, does not reveal any interpretable results. Studies of the Luochuan section suggest that chemical remnant magnetization is strongly linked to the pedogenesis process implying serious constrains on the interpretation of the high resolution paleomagnetic records from the paleosol and the underlying loess intervals (Liu and Zhang, 2013). At the same time, recent paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic investigations indicate that the Alaskan loess is an excellent geomagnetic direction recorder in the upper Matuyama and Brunhes epoch (Evans et al., 2011). The fine structure of the geomagnetic field can be accurately evaluated for the intervals, which are reliably dated with modern techniques (Jensen, 2013). The strong magnetic signal carried by magnetite from the igneous rock sources overwrites complexities caused by the pedogenesis process, therefore our newly obtained Alaskan geomagnetic record is the first candidate for both reliable paleointensity data set from the wind-blown sediments and the fine structure of the full geoomagnetic vector (inclination, declination, RPI). High resolution geochronology and high latitude position of the Alaskan loess help resolving the fine features of the geomagnetic excursions which are

  18. A review of resonance response in large horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Field operation of the Mod-0 and Mod-1 wind turbines is described. Operational experience shows that 1 per rev excitation exists in the drive train, high aerodynamic damping prevents resonance response of the blade flatwise modes, and teetering the hub substantially reduces the chordwise blade response to odd harmonic excitation. These results can be used by designer as a guide to system frequency placement. In addition it is found that present analytical techniques can accurately predict wind turbine natural frequencies.

  19. Investigations of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS Integrated Space Shuttle Vehicle Jet-Plume Model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 by11-Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (IA80). Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results are documented of jet plume effects wind tunnel test of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS launch configuration space shuttle vehicle model in the 11 x 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This test involved cold gas main propulsion system (MPS) and solid rocket motor (SRB) plume simulations at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Integrated vehicle surface pressure distributions, elevon and rudder hinge moments, and wing and vertical tail root bending and torsional moments due to MPS and SRB plume interactions were determined. Nozzle power conditions were controlled per pretest nozzle calibrations. Model angle of attack was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg; model angle of sideslip was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg. Reynolds number was varied for certain test conditions and configurations, with the nominal freestream total pressure being 14.69 psia. Plotted force and pressure data are presented.

  20. Simulation and control engineering studies of NASA-Ames 40 foot by 80 foot/80 foot by 120 foot wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, J. G.; Jones, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The development and use of a digital computer simulation of the proposed wind tunnel facility is described. The feasibility of automatic control of wind tunnel airspeed and other parameters was examined. Specifications and implementation recommendations for a computer based automatic control and monitoring system are presented.

  1. MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator engineeringing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering drawings and the detailed mechanical and electrical design of a horizontal-axis wind turbine designed for DOE at the NASA Lewis Research Center and installed in Clayton, New Mexico are discussed. The drawings show the hub, pitch change mechanism, drive train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive system, tower, foundation, electrical power systems, and the control and safety systems.

  2. A model of rotationally-sampled wind turbulence for predicting fatigue loads in wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Empirical equations are presented with which to model rotationally-sampled (R-S) turbulence for input to structural-dynamic computer codes and the calculation of wind turbine fatigue loads. These equations are derived from R-S turbulence data which were measured at the vertical-plane array in Clayton, New Mexico. For validation, the equations are applied to the calculation of cyclic flapwise blade loads for the NASA/DOE Mod-2 2.5-MW experimental HAWT's (horizontal-axis wind turbines), and the results compared to measured cyclic loads. Good correlation is achieved, indicating that the R-S turbulence model developed in this study contains the characteristics of the wind which produce many of the fatigue loads sustained by wind turbines. Empirical factors are included which permit the prediction of load levels at specified percentiles of occurrence, which is required for the generation of fatigue load spectra and the prediction of the fatigue lifetime of structures.

  3. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  4. Support System Effects on the NASA Common Research Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the NASA Common Research Model was conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility for use in the Drag Prediction Workshop. As data from the experimental investigations was collected, a large difference in moment values was seen between the experimental and the computational data from the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This difference led to the present work. In this study, a computational assessment has been undertaken to investigate model support system interference effects on the Common Research Model. The configurations computed during this investigation were the wing/body/tail=0deg without the support system and the wing/body/tail=0deg with the support system. The results from this investigation confirm that the addition of the support system to the computational cases does shift the pitching moment in the direction of the experimental results.

  5. A forward speed effects study on jet noise from several suppressor nozzles in the NASA/Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beulke, M. R.; Clapper, W. S.; Mccann, E. O.; Morozumi, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    A test program was conducted in a 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to evaluate the effect of relative velocity on the jet noise signature of a conical ejector, auxiliary inlet ejector, 32 spokes and 104 tube nozzle with and without an acoustically treated shroud. The freestream velocities in the wind tunnel were varied from 0 to 103.6 m/sec (300 ft/sec) for exhaust jet velocities of 259.1 m/sec (850 ft/sec) to 609.6 m/sec (2000 ft/sec). Reverberation corrections for the wind tunnel were developed and the procedure is explained. In conjunction with wind tunnel testing the nozzles were also evaluated on an outdoor test stand. The wind tunnel microphone arrays were duplicated during the outdoor testing. The data were then extrapolated for comparisons with data measured using a microphone array placed on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) arc. Using these data as a basis, farfield to nearfield arguments are presented with regards to the data measured in the wind tunnel. Finally, comparisons are presented between predictions made using existing methods and the measured data.

  6. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  7. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  8. Does the magnetic field of a multipole stator winding drive flow of a ferrofluid in a cylindrical container?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Rinaldi, Carlos

    The flow of a ferrofluid in a stationary cylindrical container driven by a rotating magnetic field has received considerable attention since the inception of the field of ferrohydrodynamics. Much controversy has resulted regarding the existence, or lack thereof, of bulk flow under conditions of a rotating uniform magnetic field, which can be generated for example, using a two-pole stator winding. The original observations of flow at the interface showed counter-rotation of field and fluid, whereas recent observations of bulk flow using the ultrasound technique have shown co-rotation of field and fluid. Various theories have been advanced over the years to explain the observed phenomena, including the spin diffusion theory of Shliomis and the hypothesis that it is field non-uniformity, generated by non-ideal stator winding distributions, that actually drives the flow, as first proposed by Glazov. We have revisited this problem from an analytical perspective by solving the ferrohydrodynamic and magnetoquasistatic equations self-consistently for the case of ferrofluid in a cylindrical container, with and without an internal co-axial cylinder, and driven by the field generated by a multipole stator winding distribution. In such a winding increasing the number of poles results in increasingly non-uniform fields. It is shown that regardless of the number of poles in the stator winding the ferrohydrodynamic equations do not predict any flow in either geometry as long as the spin viscosity parameter is assumed to be zero. Velocity profiles are obtained for both geometries and arbitrary number of poles for the case of non-zero spin viscosity. It is shown that only for the case of a two-pole stator winding and ferrofluid constrained to the annular space between an inner and outer cylinder do the ferrohydrodynamic equations predict co-rotation of fluid and field close to the outer cylinder and counter-rotation of fluid and field close to the inner cylinder, in qualitative

  9. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  10. Wind power today

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  11. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pelayo, F. )

    1990-12-01

    An analysis of the OECD-LOFT-LP-SB-2 experiment making use of TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is described in the report. LP-SB2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3 inches equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR operating at full power. The experiment was performed on 14 July 1983 in the LOFT facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This analysis presents an evaluation of the code capability in reproducing the complex phenomena which determined the LP-SB-2 transient evolution. the analysis comprises the results obtained from two different runs. The first run is described in detail analysing the main variables over two time spans: short and longer term. Several conclusions are drawn and then a second run testing some of these conclusions is shown. All of the calculations were preformed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith under the auspices of an agreement between the UKAEA (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear Espanol (CSN). 16 refs., 64 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. TRAC-PF1/MOD1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic test facilities. The code features either a one- or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals, a two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field and solute tracking, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, optional reflood tracking capability for bottom-flood and falling-film quench fronts, and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) numerical algorithm is used in the one-dimensional hydrodynamics and permits this portion of the fluid dynamics to violate the material Courant condition. This technique permits large time steps and, hence, reduced running time for slow transients.

  13. World's Largest Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex, which houses two of the world's largest wind tunnels and has been used for testing experimental aircraft since 1944, is presented. This video highlights the structure and instrumentation of the 40 x 80 foot and 80 x 120 foot wind tunnels and documents their use in testing full scale aircraft, NASA's Space Shuttle and the XV-15 Tiltrotor aircraft.

  14. Comparison of UNL laser imaging and sizing system and a phase Doppler system for analyzing sprays from a NASA nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Research was conducted on characteristics of aerosol sprays using a P/DPA and a laser imaging/video processing system on a NASA MOD-1 air assist nozzle being evaluated for use in aircraft icing research. Benchmark tests were performed on monodispersed particles and on the NASA MOD-1 nozzle under identical lab operating conditions. The laser imaging/video processing system and the P/DPA showed agreement on a calibration tests in monodispersed aerosol sprays of + or - 2.6 micron with a standard deviation of + or - 2.6 micron. Benchmark tests were performed on the NASA MOD-1 nozzle on the centerline and radially at 0.5 inch increments to the outer edge of the spray plume at a distance 2 ft downstream from the exit nozzle. Comparative results at two operation conditions of the nozzle are presented for the two instruments. For the 1st case studied, the deviation in arithmetic mean diameters determined by the two instruments was in a range of 0.1 to 2.8 micron, and the deviation in Sauter mean diameters varied from 0 to 2.2 micron. Severe operating conditions in the 2nd case resulted in the arithmetic mean diameter deviating from 1.4 to 7.1 micron and the deviation in the Sauter mean diameters ranging from 0.4 to 6.7 micron.

  15. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  16. Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pijawka, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.

  17. The NASA/MSFC Coherent Lidar Technology Advisory Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) mission was proposed as a low cost technology demonstration mission, using a 2-micron, 100-mJ, 6-Hz, 25-cm, coherent lidar system based on demonstrated technology. SPARCLE was selected in late October 1997 to be NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) second earth-observing (EO-2) mission. To maximize the success probability of SPARCLE, NASA/MSFC desired expert guidance in the areas of coherent laser radar (CLR) theory, CLR wind measurement, fielding of CLR systems, CLR alignment validation, and space lidar experience. This led to the formation of the NASA/MSFC Coherent Lidar Technology Advisory Team (CLTAT) in December 1997. A threefold purpose for the advisory team was identified as: 1) guidance to the SPARCLE mission, 2) advice regarding the roadmap of post-SPARCLE coherent Doppler wind lidar (CDWL) space missions and the desired matching technology development plan 3, and 3) general coherent lidar theory, simulation, hardware, and experiment information exchange. The current membership of the CLTAT is shown. Membership does not result in any NASA or other funding at this time. We envision the business of the CLTAT to be conducted mostly by email, teleconference, and occasional meetings. The three meetings of the CLTAT to date, in Jan. 1998, July 1998, and Jan. 1999, have all been collocated with previously scheduled meetings of the Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds. The meetings have been very productive. Topics discussed include the SPARCLE technology validation plan including pre-launch end-to-end testing, the space-based wind mission roadmap beyond SPARCLE and its implications on the resultant technology development, the current values and proposed future advancement in lidar system efficiency, and the difference between using single-mode fiber optical mixing vs. the traditional free space optical mixing.

  18. Does the Precipitation of Solar Wind Plasma Cause the Ionospheric Upwellings Detected by MARSIS on the Dayside of Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieval, C.; Morgan, D. D.; Andrews, D. J.; Duru, F.; Gurnett, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) onboard the Mars Express spacecraft possesses an ionospheric mode, which is used for local and remote sounding measurements of the Martian topside ionosphere. Ideally, the sounding pulse transmitted by MARSIS gives a vertical reflection from the horizontally stratified ionosphere, down to the ionospheric peak. In practice, this is usually the case, however oblique reflections are also detected. These oblique reflections are often found in regions where the remanent crustal magnetic field is nearly vertical and the sources of reflections are often at a higher apparent altitude than the surrounding ionosphere for the same electron density level. There are recurring observations of such ionospheric upwellings during repeated passes of Mars Express above certain regions over time periods of tens of days. An increased ionospheric scale height seems to create these plasma bulges. A possible cause is a localized heating of the neutral atmosphere due to the entrance of solar wind plasma through the magnetic cusps. We test this explanation by using in situ measurements of electron energy distributions made by the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) onboard Mars Express. The statistical study considers dayside oblique echoes (solar zenith angle ≤ 90°) with spacecraft altitude ≤1100 km, for orbits with sufficient MARSIS data coverage and corresponding to a criterion of repetitive passes above a given region. We keep only oblique echoes which are no further below than 10 km in apparent altitude compared to the surrounding ionosphere (most of the cases), to ensure the echoes most likely come from near the vertical direction, at the time of closest approach. Finally we take the oblique echoes with simultaneous ASPERA-3 data, with short time intervals (up to 2 minutes) before and after the time of closest approach. This leaves 761 oblique echoes. The intervals are then manually

  19. Mod-2 wind turbine project assessment and cluster test plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment of the Mod-2 Wind Turbine project is presented based on initial goals and present results. Specifically, the Mod-2 background, project flow, and a chronology of events/results leading to Mod-2 acceptance is presented. After checkout/acceptance of the three operating turbines, NASA/LeRC will continue management of a two year test program performed at the DOE Goodnoe Hills test site. This test program is expected to yield data necessary for the continued development and optimization of wind energy systems. These test activities, the implementation of, and the results to date are also presented.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Turning Vane Designs for High-speed and Coupled Fan-drive Corners of 0.1-scale Model of NASA Lewis Research Center's Proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, Thomas F.; Moore, Royce D.; Shyne, Rickey J.; Boldman, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Two turning vane designs were experimentally evaluated for the fan-drive corner (corner 2) coupled to an upstream diffuser and the high-speed corner (corner 1) of the 0.1 scale model of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel. For corner 2 both a controlled-diffusion vane design (vane A4) and a circular-arc vane design (vane B) were studied. The corner 2 total pressure loss coefficient was about 0.12 with either vane design. This was about 25 percent less loss than when corner 2 was tested alone. Although the vane A4 design has the advantage of 20 percent fewer vanes than the vane B design, its vane shape is more complex. The effects of simulated inlet flow distortion on the overall losses for corner 1 or 2 were small.

  1. Results of tests OA63 and IA29 on an 0.015 scale model of the space shuttle configuration 140 A/B in the NASA/ARC 6- by 6-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.; Thornton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA/ARC 6- by 6-foot transonic wind tunnel from September 12 to September 28, 1973 on an 0.015-scale model of the space shuttle configuration 140 A/B. Surface pressure data were obtained for the orbiter for both launch and entry configuration at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.0. The surface pressures were obtained in the vicinity of the cargo bay door hinge and parting lines, the side of the fuselage at the crew compartment and below the OMS pods at the aft compartment. Data were obtained at angles of attack and sideslip consistent with the expected divergencies along the nominal trajectory. These tests were first in a series of tests supporting the orbiter venting analysis. The series will include tests in three facilities covering a total Mach number range from 0.6 to 10.4.

  2. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how they form. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  3. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  4. My Career at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibley, Ryan P.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the presenter at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. He describes what he does, the projects that he has worked on and the background that led him to his position. The presentation has many pictures of aircraft in flight

  5. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  6. Simulation investigation of the effect of the NASA Ames 80-by 120-foot wind tunnel exhaust flow on light aircraft operating in the Moffett field trafffic pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streeter, Barry G.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary study of the exhaust flow from the Ames Research Center 80 by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel indicated that the flow might pose a hazard to low-flying light aircraft operating in the Moffett Field traffic pattern. A more extensive evaluation of the potential hazard was undertaken using a fixed-base, piloted simulation of a light, twin-engine, general-aviation aircraft. The simulated aircraft was flown through a model of the wind tunnel exhaust by pilots of varying experience levels to develop a data base of aircraft and pilot reactions. It is shown that a light aircraft would be subjected to a severe disturbance which, depending upon entry condition and pilot reaction, could result in a low-altitude stall or cause damage to the aircraft tail structure.

  7. The effect of forward speed on J85 engine noise from suppressor nozzles as measured in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effect of forward speed on the exhaust noise from a conical ejector nozzle and three suppressor nozzles mounted behind a J85 engine was performed in a 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The nozzles were tested at three engine power settings and at wind tunnel forward speeds up to 91 m/sec (300 ft/sec). In addition, outdoor static tests were conducted to determine (1) the differences between near field and far field measurements, (2) the effect of an airframe on the far field directivity of each nozzle, and (3) the relative suppression of each nozzle with respect to the baseline conical ejector nozzle. It was found that corrections to near field data are necessary to extrapolate to far field data and that the presence of the airframe changed the far field directivity as measured statically. The results show that the effect of forward speed was to reduce the noise from each nozzle more in the area of peak noise, but the change in forward quadrant noise was small or negligible. A comparison of wind tunnel data with available flight test data shows good agreement.

  8. Flight effects on noise by the JT8D engine with inverted primary/fan flow as measured in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strout, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    A JT8D-17R engine with inverted primary and fan flows was tested under static conditions as well as in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel to determine static and flight noise characteristics, and flow profile of a large scale engine. Test and analysis techniques developed by a previous model and JT8D engine test program were used to determine the in-flight noise. The engine with inverted flow was tested with a conical nozzle and with a plug nozzle, 20 lobe nozzle, and an acoustic shield. Wind tunnel results show that forward velocity causes significant reduction in peak PNL suppression relative to uninverted flow. The loss of EPNL suppression is relatively modest. The in-flight peak PNL suppression of the inverter with conical nozzle was 2.5 PNdb relative to a static value of 5.5 PNdb. The corresponding EPNL suppression was 4.0 EPNdb for flight and 5.0 EPNdb for static operation. The highest in-flight EPNL suppression was 7.5 EPNdb obtained by the inverter with 20 lobe nozzle and acoustic shield. When compared with the JT8D engine with internal mixer, the inverted flow configuration provides more EPNL suppression under both static and flight conditions.

  9. Results of tests to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two potential aeromaneuvering orbit-to-orbit shuttle (AMOOS) vehicle configurations in the NASA-Ames 3.5 foot hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketter, F. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An aerodynamic wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) 3.5-foot hypersonic facility to provide data for use in obtaining experimental force and static stability characteristics of two potential aeromaneuvering orbit-to-orbit shuttle (AMOOS) vehicle configurations. The experimental data were compared with the aerodynamic characteristics estimated using Newtonian theory, thus establishing the usefulness of these predictions. The candidate AMOOS configurations selected for the wind tunnel tests were the AMOOS 5B and HB configurations. Two flap configurations were tested for each candidate - a forward or compression surface flap and an aft or expansion flap. Photographs and sketches of the two configurations with different control surfaces are shown. It was determined that Newtonian theory generally predicted the aerodynamics of the 5B configuration with acceptable accuracy for all expansion flap deflections and for compression flap deflections less than or equal to 10 degrees. Flow separation upstream of large compression flap deflections was detected from the experimental data.

  10. Wind turbine generator application places unique demands on tower design and materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kita, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The most relevant contractual tower design requirements and goal for the Mod-1 tower are related to steel truss tower construction, cost-effective state-of-the-art design, a design life of 30 years, and maximum wind conditions of 120 mph at 30 feet elevation. The Mod-1 tower design approach was an iterative process. Static design loads were calculated and member sizes and overall geometry chosen with the use of finite element computer techniques. Initial tower dynamic characteristics were then combined with the dynamic properties of the other wind turbine components, and a series of complex dynamic computer programs were run to establish a dynamic load set and then a second tower design.

  11. NASA Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Network includes nine NASA operated and partner operated stations covering North America, the west coast of South America, the Pacific, and Western Australia . A new station is presently being setup in South Africa and discussions are underway to add another station in Argentina. NASA SLR operations are supported by Honeywell Technical Solutions, Inc (HTSI), formally AlliedSignal Technical Services, The University of Texas, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

  12. Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests of a NASA supercritical airfoil with various high-lift systems. Volume 1: Data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, E.; Zierten, T.; Mahal, A.

    1977-01-01

    High-lift systems for a NASA, 9.3%, method for calculating the viscous flow about two-dimensional multicomponent airfoils was evaluated by comparing its predictions with test data. High-lift systems derived from supercritical airfoils were compared in terms of performance to high-lift systems derived from conventional airfoils. The high-lift systems for the supercritical airfoil were designed to achieve maximum lift and consisted of: a single-slotted flap; a double-slotted flap and a leading-edge slat; and a triple-slotted flap and a leading-edge slat. Agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results are also discussed.

  13. NASA Solve

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Solve lists opportunities available to the general public to contribute to solving tough problems related to NASA’s mission through challenges, prize competitions, and crowdsourcing activities...

  14. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  15. Large wind turbine siting handbook: television interference assessment. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, T B.A.; Sengupta, D L

    1983-01-01

    The rotating blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine can distort the video portion of a television signal and thereby interfere with TV reception in the vicinity of the machine. The nature of this interference is described and methods are presented for calculating the zone within which the interference may be severs. Specific results are given for the MOD-OA, MOD-1 and MOD-2 machines as functions of the TV frequency.

  16. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far-field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow base line and suppressor nozzles. Summary report. [conducted in the Boeing large anechoic test chamber and the NASA-Ames 40by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the Boeing large anechoic test chamber and the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel to study the near- and far-field jet noise characteristics of six baseline and suppressor nozzles. Static and wind-on noise source locations were determined. A technique for extrapolating near field jet noise measurements into the far field was established. It was determined if flight effects measured in the near field are the same as those in the far field. The flight effects on the jet noise levels of the baseline and suppressor nozzles were determined. Test models included a 15.24-cm round convergent nozzle, an annular nozzle with and without ejector, a 20-lobe nozzle with and without ejector, and a 57-tube nozzle with lined ejector. The static free-field test in the anechoic chamber covered nozzle pressure ratios from 1.44 to 2.25 and jet velocities from 412 to 594 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K. The wind tunnel flight effects test repeated these nozzle test conditions with ambient velocities of 0 to 92 m/s.

  17. Characterization of wind technology progress

    SciTech Connect

    Cadogan, J B; Parsons, B; Cohen, J M; Johnson, B L

    1996-07-01

    US DOE`s Wind Energy Program, NREL, and Sandia periodically re-evaluate the state of wind technology. Since 1995 marked the conclusion of a number of DOE-supported advanced turbine design efforts, and results from the next major round of research are expected near the latter part of the century, this paper discusses future trends for domestic wind farm applications (bulk power), incorporating recent turbine research efforts under different market assumptions from previous DOE estimates. Updated cost/performance projections are presented along with underlying assumptions and discussions of potential alternative wind turbine design paths. Issues on market valuation of wind technology in a restructured electricity market are also discussed.

  18. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  19. NASA Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prior, Edwin J.

    2003-01-01

    The political, economic, and enivronmental conditions of the twenty-first century demand new goals for NASA. These goals include the imaging of habitable extrasolar planets, expanded commercialization of low earth orbit, clean and rapid air transportation, environment protection, and distance learning. The presentation recommends strategies for pursuing these goals, and summarizes activities at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  20. Origins of NASA names

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. T.; Whiteley, S. H.; Karegeannes, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    Names are selected for NASA spaceflight projects and programs from various sources. Some have their foundations in mythology and astrology or legend and folklore. Some have historic connotations; others are based on a description of their mission, often resulting in an acronym. Included are names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. This study is limited to names of approved projects through 1974; it does not include names of numerous projects which have been or are being studied or projects that were canceled or postponed before reaching actual flight.

  1. NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel: 2014 and 2015 Cloud Calibration Procedures and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith F.; Acosta, Waldo J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Icing Research Tunnel cloud calibration: specifically, the cloud uniformity, liquid water content, and drop-size calibration results from both the January-February 2014 full cloud calibration and the January 2015 interim cloud calibration. Some aspects of the cloud have remained the same as what was reported for the 2014 full calibration, including the cloud uniformity from the Standard nozzles, the drop-size equations for Standard and Mod1 nozzles, and the liquid water content for large-drop conditions. Overall, the tests performed in January 2015 showed good repeatability to 2014, but there is new information to report as well. There have been minor updates to the Mod1 cloud uniformity on the north side of the test section. Also, successful testing with the OAP-230Y has allowed the IRT to re-expand its operating envelopes for large-drop conditions to a maximum median volumetric diameter of 270 microns. Lastly, improvements to the collection-efficiency correction for the SEA multi-wire have resulted in new calibration equations for Standard- and Mod1-nozzle liquid water content.

  2. Basics of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2012-09-01

    Preface; 1. The wind from the sun: an introduction; 2. Toolkit for space plasma physics; 3. Anatomy of the sun; 4. The outer solar atmosphere; 5. How does the solar wind blow?; 6. Structure and perturbations; 7. Bodies in the wind: dust, asteroids, planets and comets; 8. The solar wind in the universe; Index.

  3. Forward velocity effects on fan noise and the suppression characteristics of advanced inlets as measured in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel: Acoustic data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M. T.

    1981-01-01

    Forward velocity effects on the forward radiated fan noise and on the suppression characteristics of three advanced inlets relative to a baseline cylindrical inlet were measured in a wind tunnel. A modified JT15D turbofan engine in a quiet nacelle was the source of fan noise; the advanced inlets were a CTOL hybrid inlet, an STOL hybrid inlet, and a treated deflector inlet. Also measured were the static to flight effects on the baseline inlet noise and the effects on the fan noise of canting the baseline inlet 4 deg downward to simulate typical wing mounted turbofan engines. The 1/3 octave band noise data from these tests are given along with selected plots of 1/3 octave band spectra and directivity and full scale PNL directivities. The test facilities and data reduction techniques used are also described.

  4. Hypersonic aeroheating test of space shuttle vehicle configuration 3 (model 22-OTS) in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH20), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of hypersonic wind tunnel testing of an 0.0175 scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration are presented. Temperature measurements were made on the launch configuration, orbiter plus tank, orbiter alone, tank alone, and solid rocket booster alone to provide heat transfer data. The test was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers of 5.3 and 7.3 and at free-stream Reynolds numbers of 1.5 million, 3.7 million, 5.0 million, and 7.0 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -5 deg to 20 deg and side slip angles of -5 deg and 0 deg.

  5. Heat transfer phase change paint test (OH-42) of a Rockwell International SSV orbiter in the NASA/LRC Mach 8 variable density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R.; Creel, T. R., Jr.; Lawing, P.; Quan, M.; Dye, W.; Cummings, J.; Gorowitz, H.; Craig, C.; Rich, G.

    1973-01-01

    Phase change paint tests of a Rockwell International .00593-scale space shuttle orbiter were conducted in the Langley Research Center's Variable Density Wind Tunnel. The test objectives were to determine the effects of various wing/underbody configurations on the aerodynamic heating rates and boundary layer transition during simulated entry conditions. Several models were constructed. Each varied from the other in either wing cuff radius, airfoil thickness, or wing-fuselage underbody blending. Two ventral fins were glued to the fuselage underside of one model to test the interference heating effects. Simulated Mach 8 entry data were obtained for each configuration at angles of attack ranging from 25 to 40 deg, and a Reynolds number variation of one million to eight million. Elevon, bodyflap, and rudder flare deflections were tested. Oil flow visualization and Schlieren photographs were obtained to aid in reducing the phase change paint data as well as to observe the flow patterns peculiar to each configuration.

  6. Similarities and differences between the solar wind light noble gas compositions determined on Apollo 15 SWC foils and on NASA Genesis targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, N.; Bochsler, P.; Bühler, F.; Heber, V. S.; Grimberg, A.; Baur, H.; Horstmann, M.; Bischoff, A.; Wieler, R.

    2015-10-01

    We compare the solar wind (SW) He, Ne, and Ar compositions collected during the Apollo Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiments (1969-1972; Al- & Pt-foils) and the Genesis mission (2002-2004; so-called DOS targets considered here). While published SW 20Ne/22Ne and 36Ar/38Ar ratios of both data sets agree, differences exist in the 4He/3He, 4He/20Ne, and 20Ne/36Ar ratios. However, 20Ne/36Ar ratios from Apollo-16 Pt-foils, exclusively adopted as SW values by the SWC team, are consistent with the Genesis results. We investigate if the differences indicate a variability of the SW over the course of about 30 yr, or systematic biases of the two data sets, which were collected in different environments and measured several decades apart in different laboratories (University of Bern; ETH Zurich). New measurements of Apollo-15 SWC aluminum foils in Zurich generally agree with the original measurements performed in Bern. Zurich samples show slightly lower 4He concentrations suggesting a few percent of diffusive loss of 4He during storage of the foils. A 3% difference between the He isotopic ratios measured in Bern and in Zurich possibly represents an analytical bias between the laboratories. The low SW 4He/20Ne and 20Ne/36Ar ratios in Apollo-15 Al-foils compared to Genesis data are consistent with a mixture of Genesis-like SW and noble gases from small amounts of lunar dust. Our data suggest that the mean SW He, Ne, and Ar isotopic and elemental compositions have not significantly changed between the overall Apollo and Genesis mission collection periods.

  7. Development of an Outreach Program for NASA: "NASA Ambassadors"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebo, George R.

    1996-01-01

    It is widely known that the average American citizen has either no idea or the wrong impression of what NASA is doing. The most common impression is that NASA's sole mission is to build and launch spacecraft and that the everyday experience of the common citizen would be impacted very little if NASA failed to exist altogether. Some feel that most of NASA's efforts are much too expensive and that the money would be better used on other efforts. Others feel that most of NASA's efforts either fail altogether or fail to meet their original objectives. Yet others feel that NASA is so mired in bureaucracy that it is no longer able to function. The goal of the NASA Ambassadors Program (NAP) is to educate the general populace as to what NASA's mission and goals actually are, to re-excite the "man on the street" with NASA's discoveries and technologies, and to convince him that NASA really does impact his everyday experience and that the economy of the U.S. is very dependent on NASA-type research. Each of the NASA centers currently run a speakers bureau through its Public Affairs Office (PAO). The speakers, NASA employees, are scheduled on an "as available" status and their travel is paid by NASA. However, there are only a limited number of them and their message may be regarded as being somewhat biased as they are paid by NASA. On the other hand, there are many members of NASA's summer programs which come from all areas of the country. Most of them not only believe that NASA's mission is important but are willing and able to articulate it to others. Furthermore, in the eyes of the public, they are probably more effective as ambassadors for NASA than are the NASA employees, as they do not derive their primary funding from it. Therefore it was decided to organize materials for them to use in presentations to general audiences in their home areas. Each person who accepted these materials was to be called a "NASA Ambassador".

  8. Does Cloud Computing in the Atmospheric Sciences Make Sense? A case study of hybrid cloud computing at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Ayers, J. K.; Palikonda, R.; Vakhnin, A.; Dubois, R.; Murphy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The processing, storage and dissemination of satellite cloud and radiation products produced at NASA Langley Research Center are key activities for the Climate Science Branch. A constellation of systems operates in sync to accomplish these goals. Because of the complexity involved with operating such intricate systems, there are both high failure rates and high costs for hardware and system maintenance. Cloud computing has the potential to ameliorate cost and complexity issues. Over time, the cloud computing model has evolved and hybrid systems comprising off-site as well as on-site resources are now common. Towards our mission of providing the highest quality research products to the widest audience, we have explored the use of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) Cloud and Storage and present a case study of our results and efforts. This project builds upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with operating large and complex computing infrastructures in a reliable and cost effective manner to explore novel ways to leverage cloud computing resources in the atmospheric science environment. Our case study presents the project requirements and then examines the fit of AWS with the LaRC computing model. We also discuss the evaluation metrics, feasibility, and outcomes and close the case study with the lessons we learned that would apply to others interested in exploring the implementation of the AWS system in their own atmospheric science computing environments.

  9. Comparison of UNL laser imaging and sizing system and a phase/Doppler system for analyzing sprays from a NASA nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Aerosol spray characterization was done using a P/DPA and a laser imaging/video processing system on a NASA MOD-1 air-assist nozzle being evaluated for use in aircraft icing research. Benchmark tests were performed on monodispersed particles and on the NASA MOD-1 nozzle under identical laboratory operating conditions. The laser imaging/video processing system and the P/DPA showed agreement on calibration tests in monodispersed aerosol sprays of + or - 2.6 microns with a standard deviation of + or - 2.6 microns. Tests were performed on the NASA MOD-1 nozzle on the centerline and radially at one-half inch increments to the outer edge of the spray plume at a distance two feet (0.61 m) downstream from the exit of the nozzle. Comparative results at two operating conditions of the nozzle are presented for the two instruments. For the first case, the deviation in arithmetic mean diameters determined by the two instruments was in a range of 0.1 to 2.8 microns, and the deviation in Sauter mean diameters varied from 0 to 2.2 microns. Operating conditions in the second case were more severe which resulted in the arithmetic mean diameter deviating from 1.4 to 7.1 microns and the deviation in the Sauter mean diameters ranging from 0.4 to 6.7 microns.

  10. NASA Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, Mary (Editor); Wood, Jennifer (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter contains several articles, primarily on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and their activities, as well as the activities of NASA administrators. Other subjects covered in the articles include the investigation of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, activities at NASA centers, Mars exploration, a collision avoidance test on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The ISS articles cover landing in a Soyuz capsule, photography from the ISS, and the Expedition Seven crew.

  11. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  12. Wind Vision. A New Era for Wind Power in the United States (Executive Summary, Full Report, and Appendices); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-02

    The Wind Vision analysis demonstrates the economic value that wind power can bring to the nation, a value exceeding the costs of deployment. Wind’s environmental benefits can address key societal challenges such as climate change, air quality and public health, and water scarcity. Wind deployment can provide U.S. jobs, U.S. manufacturing, and lease and tax revenues in local communities to strengthen and support a transition of the nation’s electricity sector towards a low-carbon U.S. economy. The path needed to achieve 10% wind by 2020, 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050 requires new tools, priorities, and emphases beyond those forged by the wind industry in growing to 4.5% of current U.S. electricity demand. Consideration of new strategies and updated priorities as identified in the Wind Vision could provide substantial positive outcomes for future generations.

  13. The results of low-speed wind tunnel tests to investigate the effects of the NASA refan JT8D engine nacelles on the stability and control characteristics of the Boeing 727-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirkey, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    The results from two low-speed wind tunnel tests of the Boeing 727-200 airplane as configured with the NASA refan JT8D-109 turbofan engines are presented. The objective of these tests was to determine the effects of the refan installation on the low-speed stability and control characteristics of the 727 airplane. Four side nacelle locations were tested to insure that aerodynamic interactions of the nacelles and empennage would be optimized. The optimum location was judged to be the same as that of the production JT8D-9 engines; the current production engine mounts can be used for this location. Some small changes in the basic airplane characteristics are attributable to the refan nacelles. The flaps up longitudinal and lateral-directional stability are both slightly increased for low angles of attack and sideslip respectively. The longitudinal stability at stall is improved for both the flaps up and landing flap configurations. The high attitude characteristics of the basic airplane are not significantly altered by the refan nacelle installation. Directional control capability is not affected by the refan nacelles.

  14. Results of investigations of an 0.010-scale 140A/B configuration (model 72-OTS) of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter in the NASA/Langley Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrozzi, M. T.; Milam, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/Langley unitary plan wind tunnel on a sting mounted 0.010-scale outer mold line model of the 140A/B configuration of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle Vehicle. The primary test objectives were to obtain: (1) six component force and moment data for the mated vehicle at subsonic and transonic conditions, (2) effects of configuration build-up, (3) effects of protuberances, ET/orbiter fairings and attach structures, and (4) elevon deflection effects on wing bending moment. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data and base and balance cavity pressures were recorded over Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 2.86, 3.9, and 4.63 at a nominal Reynolds number of 20 to the 6th power per foot. Selected configurations were tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -10 deg to +10 deg. For all configurations involving the orbiter, wing bending, and torsion coefficients were measured on the right wing.

  15. Results of an investigation to determine local flow characteristics at the air data probe locations using an 0.030-scale model (45-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B (modified) in the NASA Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (OA161, A, B, C), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel test 0A161 of a 0.030-scale model 45-0 of the configuration 140A/B (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel facilities. The purpose of this test was to determine local total and static pressure environments for the air data probe locations and relative effectiveness of alternate flight-test probe configurations. Testing was done in the Mach number range from 0.30 to 3.5. Angle of attack was varied from -8 to 25 degrees while sideslip varied between -8 and 8 degrees.

  16. Wind Tails Near Chimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the rock 'Chimp' was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 72 (September 15). Fine-scale texture on Chimp and other rocks is clearly visible. Wind tails, oriented from lower right to upper left, are seen next to small pebbles in the foreground. These were most likely produced by wind action.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  17. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. Does absorption of ultraviolet B by stratospheric ozone and urban aerosols influence colon and breast cancer mortality rates? Contributions from NASA and NOAA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Edward D.; Garland, Frank C.; Mohr, Sharif B.; Grant, William B.; Garland, Cedric F.

    2005-08-01

    Although most ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is absorbed by stratospheric ozone, dense anthropogenic sulfate aerosols in the troposphere may further attenuate UVB in some regions. Mortality rates from colon and breast cancer tend to be much higher in areas with low levels of UVB radiation. These high rates may be due in part to inadequate cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D. Satellite data on atmospheric aerosols, stratospheric ozone, and cloud cover were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These data were combined with age-adjusted mortality rates from 175 countries reporting to the World Health Organization. Regression was used to assess the relationship of stratospheric ozone thickness, aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, average skin exposure, and a dietary factor with colon and breast cancer mortality rates. Solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, total cloud cover, and atmospheric aerosols had the strongest associations with mortality rates, apart from a strong influence of diet. Since 95% of circulating vitamin D is derived from current or stored products of photosynthesis, which may be nonexistent or minimal much of the year above 37°N or below 37°S, attenuation of UVB by atmospheric aerosols and clouds may have a greater than expected adverse effect on human health.

  8. Hot gas ingestion test results of a two-poster vectored thrust concept with flow visualization in the NASA Lewis 9- x 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.

    1990-01-01

    A 9.2 percent scale Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) hot gas ingestion model was designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR) and tested in the Lewis Research Center 9 x 15 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Hot gas ingestion, the entrainment of heated engine exhaust into the inlet flow field, is a key development issure for advanced short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft. Flow visualization from the Phase 1 test program, which evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, is covered. The Phase 2 test program evaluated the hot gas ingestion phenomena at higher temperatures and used a laser sheet to investigate the flow field. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/life improvement devices (LIDs) which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The model support system had four degrees of freedom - pitch, roll, yaw, and vertical height variation. The model support system also provided heated high-pressure air for nozzle flow and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The test was conducted at full scale nozzle pressure ratios and inlet Mach numbers. Test and data analysis results from Phase 2 and flow visualization from both Phase 1 and 2 are documented. A description of the model and facility modifications is also provided. Headwind velocity was varied from 10 to 23 kn. Results are presented over a range of nozzle pressure ratios at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzle temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. The results reported are for nozzle exhaust temperatures up to 1160 R. These results will contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, the total pressure recovery, the inlet temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane contours

  9. A review of large wind turbine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, H.; Lerner, J. I.

    Research areas in the design and operation of large wind turbines in the U.S. and Europe are detailed, with attention given to current and completed programs. Theoretical work in the U.S. is focused on aerodynamics of blades, structural dynamics, control systems, and safety through safe life design, redundancy, and quality assurance. Work is continuing on wind characteristics over the rotor disk and design criteria with regard to cost/benefits and tradeoffs involving various configurations and materials for the rotor blades, placement, pitch control, blade articulation, the tower, the drive train, the gear box, a quill shaft, generator type, and reliability and maintenance. Costing models are being developed. Test experience has been gained through the manufacture and operation of the five Mod 0A, one Mod-1, four Mod-2, and one WTS-4 wind turbines. The European work on blade loading, wind turbine dimensioning, materials, wind structure, environmental impacts, and economics are reviewed, together with the operational experience with the Gedser, two Nibe, the Tvind, and Growian machines. Several countries are also testing smaller wind turbines manufactured indigenously or imported.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. Flank solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we will summarize the results of the work performed under the 'Flank Solar Wind Interaction' investigation in support of NASA's Space Physics Guest Investigator Program. While this investigation was focused on the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind as observed by instruments on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft, it also represents the culmination of decades of research performed by scientists at TRW on the rich phenomenology of collisionless shocks in space.

  13. The Pattern of Complaints about Australian Wind Farms Does Not Match the Establishment and Distribution of Turbines: Support for the Psychogenic, ‘Communicated Disease’ Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon; St. George, Alexis; Waller, Karen; Cakic, Vince

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives With often florid allegations about health problems arising from wind turbine exposure now widespread, nocebo effects potentially confound any future investigation of turbine health impact. Historical audits of health complaints are therefore important. We test 4 hypotheses relevant to psychogenic explanations of the variable timing and distribution of health and noise complaints about wind farms in Australia. Setting All Australian wind farms (51 with 1634 turbines) operating 1993–2012. Methods Records of complaints about noise or health from residents living near 51 Australian wind farms were obtained from all wind farm companies, and corroborated with complaints in submissions to 3 government public enquiries and news media records and court affidavits. These are expressed as proportions of estimated populations residing within 5 km of wind farms. Results There are large historical and geographical variations in wind farm complaints. 33/51 (64.7%) of Australian wind farms including 18/34 (52.9%) with turbine size >1 MW have never been subject to noise or health complaints. These 33 farms have an estimated 21,633 residents within 5 km and have operated complaint-free for a cumulative 267 years. Western Australia and Tasmania have seen no complaints. 129 individuals across Australia (1 in 254 residents) appear to have ever complained, with 94 (73%) being residents near 6 wind farms targeted by anti wind farm groups. The large majority 116/129(90%) of complainants made their first complaint after 2009 when anti wind farm groups began to add health concerns to their wider opposition. In the preceding years, health or noise complaints were rare despite large and small-turbine wind farms having operated for many years. Conclusions The reported historical and geographical variations in complaints are consistent with psychogenic hypotheses that expressed health problems are “communicated diseases” with nocebo effects likely to play an

  14. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1992-01-01

    Aspects of the design and construction of the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory are discussed. The wind tunnel is to be used as part of the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP).

  15. NASA CONNECT: 'Glow with the Flow'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'Geometry and Algebra: Glow with the Flow' is the second of five programs in the 2000-2001 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes teh 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and tehcnology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site adn register http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'Geometry and Algebra: Glow with the Flow', students will learn about the force of drag and how NASA engineers use models and glowing paints to see how air flows over vehicles in a wind tunnel. Students will also discover how the blended wing body(BWB), a concept super jumbo jet that resembles a flying wing, will affect air travelers of the future. Students will observe NASA engineers using geometry and algebra when they measure and design models to be tested in wind tunnels. By conducting classroom and on-line activities, students will make connections between NASA research and the mathematics, science and technology they learn in their classroom.

  16. Results of a jet plume effects test on Rockwell International integrated space shuttle vehicle using a vehicle 5 configuration 0.02-scale model (88-OTS) in the 11 by 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (IA19), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of jet plume effects test IA19 using a vehicle 5 configuration integrated space shuttle vehicle 0.02-scale model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 x 11-foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel. The jet plume power effects on the integrated vehicle static pressure distribution were determined along with elevon, main propulsion system nozzle, and solid rocket booster nozzle effectiveness and elevon hinge moments.

  17. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  18. NASA Aeronautics Research: An Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is vital to the economic well-being and security of the United States. To support continued U.S. leadership in aviation, Congress and NASA requested that the National Research Council undertake a decadal survey of civil aeronautics research and technology (R&T) priorities that would help NASA fulfill its responsibility to preserve U.S. leadership in aeronautics technology. In 2006, the National Research Council published the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics. That report presented a set of six strategic objectives for the next decade of aeronautics R&T, and it described 51 high-priority R&T challenges--characterized by five common themes--for both NASA and non-NASA researchers. The National Research Council produced the present report, which assesses NASA's Aeronautics Research Program, in response to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155). This report focuses on three sets of questions: 1. How well does NASA's research portfolio implement appropriate recommendations and address relevant high-priority research and technology challenges identified in the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics? If gaps are found, what steps should be taken by the federal government to eliminate them? 2. How well does NASA's aeronautics research portfolio address the aeronautics research requirements of NASA, particularly for robotic and human space exploration? How well does NASA's aeronautics research portfolio address other federal government department/agency non-civil aeronautics research needs? If gaps are found, what steps should be taken by NASA and/or other parts of the federal government to eliminate them? 3. Will the nation have a skilled research workforce and research facilities commensurate with the requirements in (1) and (2) above? What critical improvements in workforce expertise and research facilities, if any, should NASA and the nation make to achieve the goals of NASA

  19. Wind Program Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Wind Program

    2012-05-24

    This fact sheet describes some of the accomplishments of DOE's Wind Program through its investments in technology development and market barrier reduction, and how those accomplishments are supporting the advancement of renewable energy generated using the United States' abundant wind resources.

  20. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  1. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Allamandola, Louis J; Benner, Steven A; Boss, Alan P; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G; Farmer, Jack D; Hedges, S Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M; Knoll, Andrew H; Liskowsky, David R; Meadows, Victoria S; Meyer, Michael A; Pilcher, Carl B; Nealson, Kenneth H; Spormann, Alfred M; Trent, Jonathan D; Turner, William W; Woolf, Neville J; Yorke, Harold W

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  2. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, David J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Benner, Steven A.; Boss, Alan P.; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hedges, S. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Liskowsky, David R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Meyer, Michael A.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Trent, Jonathan D.; Turner, William W.; Woolf, Neville J.; Yorke, Harold W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  3. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M

    2008-08-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  4. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenbacher, Don

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  5. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  6. Wind profiler signal detection improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, G. F.; Divis, Dale H.

    1992-01-01

    Research is described on potential improvements to the software used with the NASA 49.25 MHz wind profiler located at Kennedy Space Center. In particular, the analysis and results are provided of a study to (1) identify preferred mathematical techniques for the detection of atmospheric signals that provide wind velocities which are obscured by natural and man-made sources, and (2) to analyze one or more preferred techniques to demonstrate proof of the capability to improve the detection of wind velocities.

  7. Results of Experimental Investigations to Determine External Tank Protuberance Loads Using a 0.03-Scale Model of the Space Shuttle Launch Configuration (Model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA19OA/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA19OA) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA19OB). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline; (2) GO2 pressure line; (3) LO2 antigeyser line; (4) GH2 pressure line; (5) LH2 tank cable tray; (6) LO2 tank cable tray; (7) Bipod; (8) ET/SRB cable tray; and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above; 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements; Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures; and Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  8. Results of experimental investigations to determine external tank protuberance loads using a 0.03-scale model of the Space Shuttle launch configuration (model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC unitary plan wind tunnel, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA190A/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA190A) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA190B). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline, (2) GO2 pressure line, (3) LO2 antigeyser line, (4) GH2 pressure line, (5) LH2 tank cable tray, (6) LO2 tank cable tray, (7) Bipod, (8) ET/SRB cable tray, and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: (1) Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above. (2) 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements. (3) Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures. (4) Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  9. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon

  10. Does application of the Rosiwal Principle to lunar soils require that concentrations of solar-wind-implanted species be grain-size independent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A reconsideration of the application of the Rosiwal Principle to lunar soils indicates a flaw in arguments put forth previously by Criswell (1975). Specifically, by introducing a boundary condition which must exist at the lunar surface, it is shown that concentrations of solar-wind-implanted species showing a dependence on grain size may be able to develop in soils at concentration levels below those required for saturation of grain surfaces. As a result, observed grain-size-dependent concentrations of solar-wind species in lunar soils do not necessarily require the exposure time scales or solar-wind fluxes deduced from the arguments of Criswell.

  11. Nature and Variability of Coronal Streamers and Their Relationship to the Slow Speed Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strachan, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    NASA Grant NAGS12781 is a study on the "Nature and Variability of Coronal Streamers and their Relationship to the Slow Speed Wind." The two main goals of this study are to identify: I ) Where in the streamer structure does the solar wind originate, and 2 ) What coronal conditions are responsible for the variability of the slow speed wind. These goals are to be accomplished by carrying out the following activities: I ) Developing models for inferring the plasma outflow velocities in the extended solar corona based on UV spectroscopic and white light coronagraph data. 2 ) Producing UVCS Carrington Maps for the period around solar minimum 1996-1998. 3) Producing electron density profiles from the corresponding LASCO-C2 observations. 4) Identifying and selecting in situ data sets to be used for characterizing the solar wind from the streamers observed with UVCS. 5) Developing new visualization tools for using the UVCS synoptic data.

  12. Lewis Research Center studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA-Lewis program to study the anticipated performance of a wind turbine generator farm on an electric utility network is surveyed. The paper describes the approach of the Lewis Wind Energy Project Office to developing analysis capabilities in the area of wind turbine generator-utility network computer simulations. Attention is given to areas such as, the Lewis Purdue hybrid simulation, an independent stability study, DOE multiunit plant study, and the WEST simulator. Also covered are the Lewis mod-2 simulation including analog simulation of a two wind turbine system and comparison with Boeing simulation results, and gust response of a two machine model. Finally future work to be done is noted and it is concluded that the study shows little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus.

  13. IIP Update: A Packaged Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver. Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent Doppler wind lidar system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid Doppler wind lidar solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  14. Science Communication at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, Ellen R.

    2015-11-01

    Scientists usually excel in a particular discipline, but generally have a difficult time informing and engaging the public about what we do. From climate science to natural hazards risks, our science does affect people's lives. Within NASA, we have started science communications training, focusing on how to tell a clear story about not just what we do, but why we do it. This not only will help us better communicate to our stakeholders and the public, but also hopefully make for better communications within our diverse teams.

  15. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  2. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  3. Issues in NASA Program and Project Management: Focus on Project Planning and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics addressed include: Planning and scheduling training for working project teams at NASA, overview of project planning and scheduling workshops, project planning at NASA, new approaches to systems engineering, software reliability assessment, and software reuse in wind tunnel control systems.

  4. 7. VIEW WEST OF SCALE ROOM IN FULLSCALE WIND TUNNEL; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST OF SCALE ROOM IN FULL-SCALE WIND TUNNEL; SCALES ARE USED TO MEASURE FORCES ACTING ON MODEL AIRCRAFT SUSPENDED ABOVE. - NASA Langley Research Center, Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, 224 Hunting Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  5. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  6. NASA Ames aerospace systems directorate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Directorate is one of four research directorates at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Directorate conducts research and technology development for advanced aircraft and aircraft systems in intelligent computational systems and human-machine systems for aeronautics and space. The Directorate manages research and aircraft technology development projects, and operates and maintains major wind tunnels and flight simulation facilities. The Aerospace Systems Directorate's research and technology as it relates to NASA agency goals and specific strategic thrusts are discussed.

  7. Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, George D.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. The transmitter portion of the transceiver employs the high-pulse-energy, Ho:Tm:LuLiF, partially conductively cooled laser technology developed at NASA Langley. The transceiver is capable of 250 mJ pulses at 10 Hz. It is very similar to the technology envisioned for coherent Doppler lidar wind measurements from Earth and Mars orbit. The transceiver is coupled to the large optics and data acquisition system in the NASA Langley VALIDAR mobile trailer. The large optics consists of a 15-cm off-axis beam expanding telescope, and a full-hemispheric scanner. Vertical and horizontal vector winds are measured, as well as relative backscatter. The data acquisition system employs frequency domain velocity estimation and pulse accumulation. It permits real-time display of the processed winds and archival of all data. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Mary-land, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other sensors will be presented. A simulation and data product for wind measurement at Venus will be presented.

  8. Wind Profiling from a New Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection Doppler Lidar Transceiver during Wind Measurement Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Demoz, B.; Veneable, D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Maryland, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other lidars and other sensors will be presented.

  9. NASA DOE POD NDE Capabilities Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    This data book contains the Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) analyses of the nondestructive inspection data presented in the NTIAC, Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book, 3rd ed., NTIAC DB-97-02. DOEPOD is designed as a decision support system to validate inspection system, personnel, and protocol demonstrating 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes, a90/95. The test methodology used in DOEPOD is based on the field of statistical sequential analysis founded by Abraham Wald. Sequential analysis is a method of statistical inference whose characteristic feature is that the number of observations required by the procedure is not determined in advance of the experiment. The decision to terminate the experiment depends, at each stage, on the results of the observations previously made. A merit of the sequential method, as applied to testing statistical hypotheses, is that test procedures can be constructed which require, on average, a substantially smaller number of observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations.

  10. Investigation of a rare event where the polar ionospheric reverse convection potential does not saturate during a period of extreme northward IMF solar wind driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauer, C. Robert; Xu, Zhonghua; Maimaiti, M.; Ruohoneimi, J. Michael; Scales, Wayne; Hartinger, Michael D.; Nicolls, Michael J.; Kaeppler, Stephen; Wilder, Frederick D.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2016-06-01

    A variety of statistical studies have shown that the ionospheric polar potential produced by solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is linear for weak to moderate solar wind driving but becomes nonlinear during periods of very strong driving. It has been shown that this applies to the two-cell convection potential that develops during southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and also to the reverse convection cells that develop during northward IMF. This has been described as polar potential saturation, and it appears to begin when the driving solar wind electric field becomes greater than 3 mV/m. Utilizing measurements from the Resolute Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N), we examine ionospheric data near local noon within the reverse convection cells that developed during a period of very strong northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on 12 September 2014. During this period we measure the electric field within the throat of the reverse convection cells to be near 150 mV/m at a time when the IMF is nearly 28 nT northward. This is far in excess of the 30-40 mV/m expected for polar potential saturation of the reverse convection cells. In fact, the development of the electric field responds linearly to the IMF Bz component throughout this period of extreme driving. The conditions in the solar wind show the solar wind velocity near 600 km/s, number density near 20 ions/cm3, and the Alfvén velocity about 75 km/s giving an Alfvén Mach number of 8. A search of several years of solar wind data shows that these values occur together 0.035% of the time. These conditions imply a high plasma β in the magnetosheath. We believe that condition of high β along with high mass density and a strong merging electric field in the magnetosheath are the significant parameters that produce the linear driving of the ionospheric electric field during this unusual period of extreme solar wind conditions. A discussion of current theories to account for cross-polar cap

  11. Wind Tunnel Force Balance Calibration Study - Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    Wind tunnel force balance calibration is preformed utilizing a variety of different methods and does not have a direct traceable standard such as standards used for most calibration practices (weights, and voltmeters). These different calibration methods and practices include, but are not limited to, the loading schedule, the load application hardware, manual and automatic systems, re-leveling and non-re-leveling. A study of the balance calibration techniques used by NASA was undertaken to develop metrics for reviewing and comparing results using sample calibrations. The study also includes balances of different designs, single and multi-piece. The calibration systems include, the manual, and the automatic that are provided by NASA and its vendors. The results to date will be presented along with the techniques for comparing the results. In addition, future planned calibrations and investigations based on the results will be provided.

  12. Status of wind-energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Savino, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The utilization of wind energy is technically feasible as evidenced by the many past demonstrations of wind generators. The cost of energy from the wind has been high compared to fossil fuel systems. A sustained development effort is needed to obtain economical systems. The variability of the wind makes it an unreliable source on a short-term basis. However, the effects of this variability can be reduced by storage systems or connecting wind generators to fossil fuel systems, hydroelectric systems, or dispersing them throughout a large grid network. The NSF and NASA-Lewis Research Center have sponsored programs for the utilization of wind energy.

  13. NASA Jet Stream Study Lights up the Night Sky

    NASA Video Gallery

    In March 2012, NASA will launch five sounding rockets in approximately five minutes to measure 200-300 mile-per-hour winds at the edge of space. This mission, known as the Anomalous Transport Rocke...

  14. Time-Lapse Assembly of NASA Supersonic Model

    NASA Video Gallery

    Supersonic passenger airplanes are another step closer to reality as NASA and Lockheed Martin began the first high-speed wind tunnel tests for the Quiet Supersonic Technology, or QueSST, X-plane pr...

  15. Mated aerodynamic characteristics investigation for the 0.04 scale model TE 1065 (Boeing 747-100) of the 747 CAM and the 0.0405 scale model (43-0) of the space shuttle orbiter in the NASA Langley V/STOL transition research wind tunnel (CA8), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Aerodynamic force data are presented in tables and graphs for the NASA Langley V/STOL Transition Research Wind Tunnel tests on a 0.04 scale model of the 747 with a 0.0405 scale Orbiter space shuttle. The investigation included the effects of flap setting, stabilizer angle, elevator angle, ground proximity, and Orbiter tailcone fairing. Data were obtained in the pitch plane only. The test was run at M = 0.15, with a dynamic pressure of 35 psf. Six static pressures were measured on each side of the 747 CAM nose to determine the effects of the Orbiter on the 747 airspeed and altitude indicators.

  16. Results of a M = 5.3 heat transfer test of the integrated vehicle using phase-change paint techniques on the 0.0175-scale model 56-OTS in the NASA/Ames Research Center 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA/Ames Research Center 3.5-foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel to obtain supersonic heat-distribution data in areas between the orbiter and external tank using phase-change paint techniques. The tests used Novamide SSV Model 56-OTS in the first and second-stage ascent configurations. Data were obtained at a nominal Mach number of 5.3 and a Reynolds number per foot of 5 x 10 to the 6th power with angles of attack of 0 deg, +/- 5 deg, and sideslip angles of 0 deg and +/- 5 deg.

  17. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  18. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  19. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  20. An Overview of the NASA Aeronautics Test Program Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. leadership in aeronautics depends on ready access to technologically advanced, efficient, and affordable aeronautics test capabilities. These systems include major wind tunnels and propulsion test facilities and flight test capabilities. The federal government owns the majority of the major aeronautics test capabilities in the United States, primarily through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD), however an overarching strategy for management of these national assets was needed. Therefore, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2006 NASA established the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) as a two-pronged strategic initiative to: (1) retain and invest in NASA aeronautics test capabilities considered strategically important to the agency and the nation, and (2) establish a strong, high level partnership with the DoD Test Resources Management Center (TRMC), stewards of the DoD test and evaluation infrastructure. Since then, approximately seventy percent of the ATP budget has been directed to underpin fixed and variable costs of facility operations within its portfolio and the balance towards strategic investments in its test facilities, including maintenance and capability upgrades. Also, a strong guiding coalition was established through the National Partnership for Aeronautics Testing (NPAT), with governance by the senior leadership of NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) and the DoD's TRMC. As part of its strategic planning, ATP has performed or participated in many studies and analyses, including assessments of major NASA and DoD aeronautics test capabilities, test facility condition evaluations and market research. The ATP strategy has also benefitted from unpublished RAND research and analysis by Ant n et al. (2009). Together, these various studies, reports and assessments serve as a foundation for a new, five year strategic plan that will guide ATP through FY 2014. Our vision for the future is a balanced

  1. Working at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the author's educational and work background prior to working at NASA. It then presents an overview of NASA Dryden, a brief review of the author's projects while working at NASA, and some closing thoughts.

  2. NASA - Beyond Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Courtenay

    2016-01-01

    NASA is able to achieve human spaceflight goals in partnership with international and commercial teams by establishing common goals and building connections. Presentation includes photographs from NASA missions - on orbit, in Mission Control, and at other NASA facilities.

  3. Wind Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2008-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that provides an hourly simulation of a wind energy system, which includes a calculation of wind turbine output as a power-curve fit of wind speed.

  4. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This handbook is designed to promote a better understanding of NASA's interests and the process of doing business with NASA. The document is divided into the following sections: (1) this is NASA; (2) the procurement process; (3) marketing your capabilities; (4) special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; (6) sources of additional help; (7) listing of NASA small/minority business personnel; and (8) NASA organization chart.

  5. Delta WIND Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The science objectives of the WIND mission are to: 1) provide complete plasma, energetic particle, and magnetic field input for magnetospheric and ionospheric studies; 2) Determine the magnetospheric output to interplanetary space in the up-stream region; 3) Investigate basic plasma processes occurring in the near-Earth solar wind; and 4) Provide baseline ecliptic plane observations to be used in heliospheric latitudes from ULYSSES. The WIND science briefing is presented by George Diller, NASA public affairs; Dr. Robert L. Carovillano, Project Scientist for the Global Geospace Science Initiative, NASA Headquarters; Dr. Mario H. Acuna, Project Scientist for the WIND Project, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); Dr. Keith W. Ogilvie, Principle Investigator, Solar Wind Experiment at GSFC; Dr. Jean Louis Bougeret, Principle Investigator, Radio/Plasma Wave Experiment, Paris; and Dr. Eugeny Mazets, Co-Principle Investigator, Russian Gamma Ray Spectrometer Instrument, St. Pertersburg, Russia. Dr. Carovillano presents a cartoon slide of the Solar Terrestrial System and describes the Sun and the Magnetic field of the Earth. Dr. Acuna also presents a cartoon slide describing GEOTAIL, POLAR, WIND, SOHO, ULYSSES and Cluster which are the various tools used to study the complex solar terrestrial system. Dr. Ogilvie explains four particle and wave instruments on WIND. These instruments will be used to study the contributions and characteristics of plasma and plasma waves that occur in the solar wind. Dr. Bougeret explains the European participation in the WIND mission. He also shows a slide presentation of SOHO and the CLUSTER spacecraft. Dr. Mazets explains the main objective of the Transient Gamma Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) aboard the WIND spacecraft, which is to perform high resolution measurements of Gamma Ray Burst spectra and time histories, with emphasis on the search for line features in the energy spectra. The briefing ends with a question and answer period. See NONP-NASA

  6. The SeaWinds Scatterometer Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.; Graf, J.; Freilich, M.; Long, D.; Spencer, M.; Tsai, W.; Lisman, D.; Winn, C.

    1994-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer instrument is currently being developed by NASA/JPL, as part of the NASA EOS Program, for flight on the Hapanese ADEOS II mission in 1999. This Ku-band radar scatterometer will infer surface wind speed and direction by measuring the radar normalized backscatter cross-section over several different azimuth angles. This paper presents the design characteristics of and operational approach to the instrument itself.

  7. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  8. Comet Borrelly Slows Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Over 1300 energy spectra taken on September 22, 2001 from the ion and electron instruments on NASA's Deep Space 1 span a region of 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) centered on the closest approach to the nucleus of comet Borrelly. A very strong interaction occurs between the solar wind (horizontal red bands to left and right in figure) and the comet's surrounding cloud of dust and gas, the coma. Near Deep Space 1's closest approach to the nucleus, the solar wind picked up charged water molecules from the coma (upper green band near the center), slowing the wind sharply and creating the V-shaped energy structure at the center.

    Deep Space 1 completed its primary mission testing ion propulsion and 11 other advanced, high-risk technologies in September 1999. NASA extended the mission, taking advantage of the ion propulsion and other systems to undertake this chancy but exciting, and ultimately successful, encounter with the comet. More information can be found on the Deep Space 1 home page at http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/ds1/ .

    Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The California Institute of Technology manages JPL for NASA.

  9. The National Wind Energy Skills Assessment and Preparing for the Future Wind Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-07-10

    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. This presentation provides an overview of an NREL analysis of wind-focused education at American colleges and universities. The second part of the presentation discusses DOE/NREL workforce-related projects, such as the Wind Career Map, the Collegiate Wind Competition, and the Wind for Schools project.

  10. NASA/MSFC FY-84 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Compiler); Porter, F. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The two main areas of focus for NASA/MSFC's atmospheric research program are: (1) global scale processes (geophysical fluid processes, satellite Doppler lidar wind profiler, and satellite data analyses) and (2) mesoscale processes (atmospheric electricity (lightning), ground/airborne Doppler lidar wind measurements, and mesoscale analyses and space sensors). Topics within these two general areas are addressed.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.

  12. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  13. World Wind Tools Reveal Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed under NASA's Learning Technologies program as a tool to engage and inspire students, World Wind software was released under the NASA Open Source Agreement license. Honolulu, Hawaii based Intelesense Technologies is one of the companies currently making use of the technology for environmental, public health, and other monitoring applications for nonprofit organizations and Government agencies. The company saved about $1 million in development costs by using the NASA software.

  14. Erosion: Wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion refers to the detachment, transport and deposition of sediment by wind. It is a dynamic, physical process where loose, dry, bare soils are transported by strong winds. Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 an...

  15. Meteorology (Wind)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Wind speed at 50 m (m/s) The average and percent difference minimum and ... are given.   Percent of time for ranges of wind speed at 50 m (percent) Percentage [frequency] of time that wind ... be adjusted to heights from 10 to 300 meters using the Gipe power law. Wind speeds may be adjusted for different terrain by selecting from ...

  16. Venus: Interaction with Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C.; Luhmann, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-07-01

    The solar wind interaction with VENUS provides the archetypal interaction of a flowing magnetized PLASMA with a PLANETARY IONOSPHERE. Mars interacts with the solar wind in much the same way as does Venus, while the rotating plasma in the Saturnian magnetosphere is believed to interact similarly with its moon, Titan (see SATURN: MAGNETOSPHERE INTERACTION WITH TITAN). The interaction of the Jovian ...

  17. A 2025+ View of the Art of Wind Tunnel Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Department of Defense [DoD] or National Aeronautics and Space Administration [ NASA ]). The GTTC considered wind tunnel testing a foundational activity...requirement for wind tunnel hours, this workload is highly variable because of the cycles of major national programs. NASA recently reported in the Newport...Tunnel 16S (inactive); the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure (closed and probably to be demolished), Low Turbulence Pressure (closed), 30 3 60

  18. An Active Filter Primer, Mod 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Besse ith h mi sence t the terns, good, phase e for type s not assed is of 1 is phase nimal B Component... b 1 filte ed an ve fi i sti c out. ome e d! T the sign a vi ng ons a be e i s e; r con impo lter. ally xtent and he pr mos...probl bee re ne done i n pr there s i d e r s s i b 1 The deci the some imary t pr ems. n ar w. I with acti c are a t i o n e

  19. Results from investigations in three NASA/LaRC hypersonic wind tunnels on a .004 scale model space shuttle orbiter (model 13P-O) to determine real gas effects (LA78, LA87, LA88)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, J. W.; Klug, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results from tests in the NASA/CF4, 20 inch Mach 6 and the 22 inch Helium Tunnel consist of pressure measurements on the lower surfaces of the Rockwell Space Shuttle Orbiter. All data are in absolute pressures. Data were recorded with the model at a Mach number of 6 and 20 at angles of 10 deg to 30 deg.

  20. Development of large, horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, D. H.; Kennard, J.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop large, horizontal-axis wind turbines is discussed. The program is directed toward developing the technology for safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable large wind turbines that can generate a significant amount of electricity at costs competitive with those of conventional electricity-generating systems. In addition, these large wind turbines must be fully compatible with electric utility operations and interface requirements. Several ongoing projects in large-wind-turbine development are directed toward meeting the technology requirements for utility applications. The machines based on first-generation technology (Mod-OA and Mod-1) successfully completed their planned periods of experimental operation in June, 1982. The second-generation machines (Mod-2) are in operation at selected utility sites. A third-generation machine (Mod-5) is under contract. Erection and initial operation of the Mod-5 in Hawaii should take place in 1986. Each successive generation of technology increased reliability and energy capture while reducing the cost of electricity. These advances are being made by gaining a better understanding of the system-design drivers, improving the analytical design tools, verifying design methods with operating field data, and incorporating new technology and innovative designs. Information is given on the results from the first- and second-generation machines (Mod-OA, - 1, and -2), the status of the Department of Interior, and the status of the third-generation wind turbine (Mod-5).

  1. Transition heating rates determined on a 0.006 scale space shuttle orbiter model (no. 50-0) in the NASA/LaRC Mach 8 variable density wind tunnel test (OH14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, J.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained from wind tunnel tests of an .006-scale space shuttle orbiter model in the 18 in. Variable Density Wind Tunnel are presented. The tests, denoted as OH14, were performed to determine transition heating rates using thin skin thermocouples located at various locations on the space shuttle orbiter. The model was tested at M = 8.0 for a range of Reynolds numbers per foot varying from 1.0 to 10.0 million with angles-of-attack from 20 to 35 degrees incremented by 5 degrees.

  2. The winning edge. [NASA role in US aeronautics industry's competition with foreign suppliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Cecil C., III; Williams, Louis J.

    1988-01-01

    Aeronautics research at NASA is reviewed, stressing NASA's leading role in the development of technological advances. The Aircraft Energy Efficiency program for improving transport aircraft and the Natioanl Aerospace Plane program are examined. NASA research facilities and wind tunnels, and research in materials and structures and aviation safety and automation are discussed.

  3. Nasa Langley Research Center seventy-fifth anniversary publications, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The following are presented: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Charter; Exploring NASA's Roots, the History of NASA Langley Research Center; NASA Langley's National Historic Landmarks; The Mustang Story: Recollections of the XP-51; Testing the First Supersonic Aircraft: Memoirs of NACA Pilot Bob Champine; NASA Langley's Contributions to Spaceflight; The Rendezvous that was Almost Missed: Lunar Orbit Rendezvous and the Apollo Program; NASA Langley's Contributions to the Apollo Program; Scout Launch Vehicle Program; NASA Langley's Contributions to the Space Shuttle; 69 Months in Space: A History of the First LDEF; NACA TR No. 460: The Characteristics of 78 Related Airfoil Sections from Tests in the Variable-Density Wind Tunnel; NACA TR No. 755: Requirements for Satisfactory Flying Qualities of Airplanes; 'Happy Birthday Langley' NASA Magazine Summer 1992 Issue.

  4. Nature and Variability of Coronal Streamers and their Relationship to the Slow Speed Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strachan, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG5-12781 is a study on the "Nature and Variability of Coronal Streamers and their Relationship to the Slow Speed Wind." The two main goals of this study are to identify: 1) Where in the streamer structure does the solar wind originate, and 2) What coronal conditions are responsible for the variability of the slow speed wind. To answer the first question, we examined the mostly closed magnetic field regions in streamer cores to search for evidence of outflow. Preliminary results from the OVI Doppler dimming ratios indicates that most of the flow originates from the edges of coronal streamers but this idea should be confirmed by a comparison of the coronal plasma properties with in situ solar wind data. To answer the second question, the work performed thus far suggests that solar minimum streamers have larger perpendicular velocity distributions than do solar maximum streamers. If it can be shown that solar minimum streamers also produce higher solar wind speeds then this would suggest that streamers and coronal holes have similar solar wind acceleration mechanisms. The key to both questions lie in the analysis of the in situ solar wind data sets. This work was not able to be completed during the period of performance and therefore the grant was formally extended for an additional year at no cost to NASA. We hope to have final results and a publication by the end of the calendar year 2004. The SAO personnel involved in the research are Leonard Strachan (PI), Mari Paz Miralles, Alexander Panasyuk, and a Southern University student Michael Baham.

  5. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  6. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  7. NAWIG News: The Native American Wind Interest Group Newsletter, Spring 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  8. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  9. Results of pressure distribution tests of a 0.010-scale space shuttle orbiter model (61-0) in the NASA/ARC 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (test OH38), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, W. H.; Polek, T.

    1975-01-01

    Test results are presented of hypersonic pressure distributions at simulated atmospheric entry conditions. Pressure data were obtained at Mach numbers of 7.4 and 10.4 and Reynolds numbers of 3.0 and 6.5 million per foot. Data are presented in both plotted and tabulated data form. Photographs of wind tunnel apparatus and test configurations are provided.

  10. Results of investigations on an 0.015-scale 140A/B configuration of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter (model 49-O) in the NASA/Ames Research Center 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (OA36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, M. D.; Gillins, R. L.; Cleary, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The results of wind tunnel tests of the 140A/B configuration components are reported for the fuselage, canopy, elevons, bodyflaps, pods, engine nozzles, rudder, vertical tail, and wing. The test facility, and data reduction procedures are described. Test results for each component are graphed, and tabulated source data are included.

  11. Wind measurements for non-uniform wind fields from spaceborne scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, Chong-Yung; Li, Fuk K.

    1987-01-01

    Radar backscattering coefficient measurements by spaceborne scatterometers are presently simulated for the case of nonuniform wind fields, by means of a detailed numerical integration of the radar equation. The winds thus estimated are then compared with a nominal field which is defined as the average wind vector over the wind cell. The simulation results obtained for the NASA scatterometer are presented for cases of random wind fields whose spectra are consistent with the Seasat scatterometer sea surface wind spectrum. When the nonuniformity is small, system noise dominates the wind error; wind error degradation is therefore small for both perfect and imperfect coregistration cases. When it is relatively large, however, the wind error degradation persistently increases for both perfect and imperfect coregistrations.

  12. Wind for Schools Project Curriculum Brief (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report recommends expanding education to ensure a trained workforce to meet the projected growth of the wind industry and deployment. Although a few U.S. higher education institutions offer wind technology education programs, most are found in community and technical colleges, resulting in a shortage of programs preparing highly skilled graduates for wind industry careers. Further, the United States lags behind Europe (which has more graduate programs in wind technology design and manufacturing) and is in danger of relinquishing the economic benefits of domestic production of wind turbines and related components and services to European countries. DOE's Wind Powering America initiative launched the Wind for Schools project to develop a wind energy knowledge base among future leaders of our communities, states, and nation while raising awareness about wind energy's benefits. This fact sheet provides an overview of wind energy curricula as it relates to the Wind for Schools project.

  13. The DOE Next-Generation Drivetrain for Wind Turbine Applications: Gearbox, Generator, and Advanced Si/SiC Hybrid Inverter System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, William; Keller, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing results from the U.S. Department of Energy Next-Generation Wind Turbine Drivetrain Project. The drivetrain design reduces the cost of energy by increasing energy capture through drivetrain efficiency improvements; by reducing operation and maintenance costs through reducing gearbox failures; and by lowering capital costs through weight reduction and a series of mechanical and electronic innovations. The paper provides an overview of the drivetrain gearbox and generator and provides a deeper look into the power converter system. The power converter has a number of innovations including the use of hybrid silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) isolated baseplate switching modules. Switching energies are compared between SiC and Si PIN diodes. The efficiency improvement by use of the SiC diode in a three-level converter is also described. Finally, a brief discussion covering utility interconnect requirements for turbines is provided with a particular focus on utility events that lead to high transient torque loads on drivetrain mechanical elements.

  14. NASA's unique networking environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  15. Final Report 02-ERD-056 Active Load Control& Mitigation Using Microtabs: A Wind Energy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Nakafuji, D Y

    2003-02-24

    energy market penetration and improving the reliability of the nation's renewable electrical generation infrastructure. This project also provides enabling technologies for improving turbine efficiency and durability to support the DOE and NNSA missions of providing energy security and reliability without contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and for decreasing dependence on foreign fuel sources. In addition to wind generator applications, the realization of a ''smart'' controllable structure for load control using the microtab approach has the potential to revolutionize design of other complex systems. Driven by cost and safety, both passive and active flow control for steady and unsteady conditions have been actively investigated by NASA, DARPA, DOE and other research institutions for application on rotorcraft, UAVs, marine vessels and wind turbine applications. The potential to obtain revolutionary advances in aerodynamic hydrodynamic performance, safety, maneuverability and service life by decreasing loads is an attractive prospect across many industries.

  16. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, L. L.; Gower, G. L.; Morris, V. R.; Tomich, S. D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites.

  17. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell, L.L.; Gower, G.L.; Morris, V.R.; Tomich, S.D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites. 9 refs., 10 figs.,

  18. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  19. Building 1100--NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

  20. #NASATweetup @NASA_Langley

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Langley Research Center's first tweet-up involved a diverse group of more than 40 that included an astronaut's daughter, a physics student from Wisconsin, one of NASA's newest space camp crew ...

  1. The NASA Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Handbook, effective 13 September 1994, documents the NASA organization, defines terms, and sets forth the policy and requirements for establishing, modifying, and documenting the NASA organizational structure and for assigning organizational responsibilities.

  2. NASA Geodynamics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.

  3. NASA Now: Rocket Engineering

    NASA Video Gallery

    What’s the difference between fission and fusion? What are the applications & benefits of nuclear power & propulsion at NASA? How can NASA gain nuclear energy’s benefits for space exploration? ...

  4. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  5. NASA Now: Balloon Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Debbie Fairbrother discusses two types of high-altitude balloons that NASA is using to test scientific instruments and spacecraft. She also talks about the Ideal Gas Law a...

  6. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  7. NASA Keynote at the 2015 Trilateral SMA Conference, Frascati, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate some new directions within NASA's safety and mission function in response to changes in missions, technology, and practices. The presentation lists last year's highlights from NASA's human and robotic spaceflight missions, and discusses anticipated highlights for the coming year taken from existing Agency presentations. It will highlight changes to NASA's mission and the way NASA does business, as described in the 2014 strategic plan. It will then discuss how these changes pose challenges to trusted SMA practices, and provide some examples of initiatives NASA is taking action to address these challenges.

  8. Wind and Water?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03284 Wind and Water?

    The deposits within this crater show evidence of erosion by both wind and water. The region outside the crater is dominated by wind erosion.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.4N, Longitude 204.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Model Deformation Measurements at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.

    1998-01-01

    Only recently have large amounts of model deformation data been acquired in NASA wind tunnels. This acquisition of model deformation data was made possible by the development of an automated video photogrammetric system to measure the changes in wing twist and bending under aerodynamic load. The measurement technique is based upon a single view photogrammetric determination of two dimensional coordinates of wing targets with a fixed third dimensional coordinate, namely the spanwise location. A major consideration in the development of the measurement system was that use of the technique must not appreciably reduce wind tunnel productivity. The measurement technique has been used successfully for a number of tests at four large production wind tunnels at NASA and a dedicated system is nearing completion for a fifth facility. These facilities are the National Transonic Facility, the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley, and the 12-FT Pressure Tunnel at NASA Ames. A dedicated system for the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel is scheduled to be used for the first time for a test in September. The advantages, limitations, and strategy of the technique as currently used in NASA wind tunnels are presented. Model deformation data are presented which illustrate the value of these measurements. Plans for further enhancements to the technique are presented.

  10. Photovoltaic cell and array technology development for future unique NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, S.; Curtis, H.; Piszczor, M.; Surampudi, R.; Hamilton, T.; Rapp, D.; Stella, P.; Mardesich, N.; Mondt, J.; Bunker, R.; Nesmith, B.; Gaddy, E.; Marvin, D.; Kazmerski, L.

    2002-01-01

    A technology review committee from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Air Force Research Lab, was formed to assess solar cell and array technologies required for future NASA science missions.

  11. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 8FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. SAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS VA-118-B-10 LOOKING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  12. Results of flutter test OS6 obtained using the 0.14-scale wing/elevon model (54-0) in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter wing was tested in the Langley Research Center 16-Foot Transonic Dynamics Wind Tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and elevon buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between 0.3 and 1.1 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 54-0 was utilized for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  13. Results of flutter test OS7 obtained using the 0.14-scale space shuttle orbiter fin/rudder model number 55-0 in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter vertical tail was tested in a 16-foot transonic dynamic wind tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and rudder buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between .5 and 1.11 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 55-0 was used for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  14. History at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

  15. The NASA Clinic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip J.; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    NASA maintains on site occupational health clinics at all Centers and major facilities NASA maintains an on-site clinic that offers comprehensive health care to astronauts at the Johnson Space Center NASA deploys limited health care capability to space and extreme environments Focus is always on preventive health care

  16. NASA's educational programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  17. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A brochure that was designed to encourage contractors to do business with NASA is presented. The brochure is divided into six sections: (1) This is NASA; (2) The procurement process; (3) Marketing your capabilities; (4) Special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; and (6) Sources of additional help.

  18. Synchronization of wind turbine generators against an infinite bus under gusting wind conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Gilbert, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of synchronizing a wind turbine generator against an infinite bus are performed on a digital computer. In the digital simulation, wind gusts of different magnitudes and durations are hypothesized. Prior to the synchronization, differences of the frequency and phase position between voltages of the alternator and the bus are also included in the simulation. Solutions for rotor speed, generator power angle, electromagnetic torque, wind turbine torque, wind turbine blade pitch angle, and armature current are simulated and presented graphically. The ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine is used as a case study. The results so obtained will thus have immediate applications.

  19. Initial Assessment of Acoustic Source Visibility with a 24-Element Microphone Array in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of background noise were recently obtained with a 24-element phased microphone array in the test section of the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by120-Foot Wind Tunnel at speeds of 50 to 100 knots (27.5 to 51.4 m/s). The array was mounted in an aerodynamic fairing positioned with array center 1.2m from the floor and 16 m from the tunnel centerline, The array plate was mounted flush with the fairing surface as well as recessed in. (1.27 cm) behind a porous Kevlar screen. Wind-off speaker measurements were also acquired every 15 on a 10 m semicircular arc to assess directional resolution of the array with various processing algorithms, and to estimate minimum detectable source strengths for future wind tunnel aeroacoustic studies. The dominant background noise of the facility is from the six drive fans downstream of the test section and first set of turning vanes. Directional array response and processing methods such as background-noise cross-spectral-matrix subtraction suggest that sources 10-15 dB weaker than the background can be detected.

  20. Wind Energy Deployment Process and Siting Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2015-02-01

    Regardless of cost and performance, some wind projects cannot proceed to completion as a result of competing multiple uses or siting considerations. Wind energy siting issues must be better understood and quantified. DOE tasked NREL researchers with depicting the wind energy deployment process and researching development considerations. This presentation provides an overview of these findings and wind siting tools.