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Sample records for dolphin delphinus delphis

  1. Pulmonary angiomatosis and hemangioma in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded in Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Arbelo, Manuel; Sacchini, Simona; Quesada-Canales, Óscar; Andrada, Marisa; Rivero, Miguel; Fernández, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Vascular tumors and disorders, like angiomatosis, are rarely described in cetacean species. A retrospective histological study was carried out on lung samples from 35 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded in the Canary Islands coasts looking for morphological vascular changes and likely related causes. Twenty-five out of thirty-five (71%) common dolphins showed focal or multifocal angiomatosis-like lesions. A high association between this type of vascular proliferation and parasitic infestation was observed. In addition, a single pulmonary cavernous hemangioma not previously reported in common dolphins is presented.

  2. Bioaccumulation of trace element concentrations in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Sílvia S; Pereira, Andreia T; Costa, Élia; Torres, Jordi; Oliveira, Isabel; Bastos-Santos, Jorge; Araújo, Helder; Ferreira, Marisa; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-12-15

    The common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is one of the most abundant species in Atlantic Iberia, representing a potentially important tool to assess the bioaccumulation of trace elements in the Iberian marine ecosystem. Nine elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) were evaluated in 36 dolphins stranded in continental Portugal. Dolphins had increasing Hg concentrations (16.72μg·g(-1) ww, liver) compared with previous studies in Atlantic Iberia, whereas Cd concentrations (2.26μg·g(-1) ww, kidney) fell within reported ranges. The concentrations of some trace elements (including Cd and Hg) presented positive relationships with dolphin length, presence of parasites and gross pathologies. Common dolphins may help biomonitoring more offshore Atlantic Iberian areas in future studies, which would otherwise be difficult to assess.

  3. Intestinal helminth fauna of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and common dolphin Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Ruth; Giovannini, Anna; Raga, J Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2013-06-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 15 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and 6 short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean. Eight helminth species were found in bottlenose dolphin, i.e., the digeneans Synthesium tursionis, Brachycladium atlanticum, and Pholeter gastrophilus, the nematode Anisakis sp., and the cestodes Tetrabothrius forsteri, Diphyllobothrium sp., Strobilocephalus triangularis, and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. Brachycladium atlanticum, S. triangularis , and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids are new host records. No T. forsteri had previously been reported in Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins. Three species of helminths were recorded in the common dolphin, i.e., the digenean Synthesium delamurei (which was a new host record), and the cestodes T. forsteri and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. The intestinal helminth communities of bottlenose and common dolphins are depauperate, similar to that of other cetacean species, but those from bottlenose dolphins harbored a higher number of helminth species. This study supports the notion that oceanic cetaceans, such as common dolphins, have a comparatively poorer helminth fauna than that of neritic species, such as bottlenose dolphins, because the likelihood of parasite recruitment is decreased.

  4. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Finlay N; Abraham, Edward R; Berkenbusch, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows) in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline) was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures.

  5. Common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) habitat preferences using data from two platforms of opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, André E.; Sillero, Neftalí; Rodrigues, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Cetaceans are difficult to observe in the wild, and demand complex logistics for dedicated collection of biological data. As such, the distribution of most cetacean species is still poorly understood. Ecological niche models are useful in studying species distributions and their ecological determinants, and platforms of opportunity (e.g. commercial nautical operators) can provide an alternative source for that data in cetaceans. In this study, we modelled common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) habitat preferences using ecological niche modelling and presence data obtained from distinct platforms of opportunity in two different areas in the Portuguese coast (west and south mainland Portugal) for the period 2005-2007. Models from southern Portugal were projected to western Portugal and vice-versa, to check for robustness in predicting the species ecological niche. Our results show that data from platforms of opportunity can result in robust ecological models and provide extremely useful information on cetacean ecology. We found that common dolphins exhibit a patchy distribution pattern over the Portuguese coastline, and identified key habitats for their occurrence. The most important variable associated with this species' distribution was chlorophyll concentration which, given the results from previous research, we hypothesise reflects an ecological specialisation on pelagic schooling fish. Given that the most abundant schooling fish species in Portugal is increasingly overexploited and in constant decline, more attention should be given to the conservation of common dolphin in Portuguese waters.

  6. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  7. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) mass stranding event?

    PubMed

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell, Robert L; Clare, Frances C; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE.

  8. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay. PMID:27703709

  9. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Mason, Suzanne; Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-09-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay.

  10. Cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    PubMed

    Alonso-Farré, J M; Gonzalo-Orden, M; Barreiro-Vázquez, J D; Barreiro-Lois, A; André, M; Morell, M; Llarena-Reino, M; Monreal-Pawlowsky, T; Degollada, E

    2015-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to scan seven by-caught dolphin cadavers, belonging to two species: four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and three striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). CT and MRI were obtained with the animals in ventral recumbency. After the imaging procedures, six dolphins were frozen at -20°C and sliced in the same position they were examined. Not only CT and MRI scans, but also cross sections of the heads were obtained in three body planes: transverse (slices of 1 cm thickness) in three dolphins, sagittal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins and dorsal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins. Relevant anatomical structures were identified and labelled on each cross section, obtaining a comprehensive bi-dimensional topographical anatomy guide of the main features of the common and the striped dolphin head. Furthermore, the anatomical cross sections were compared with their corresponding CT and MRI images, allowing an imaging identification of most of the anatomical features. CT scans produced an excellent definition of the bony and air-filled structures, while MRI allowed us to successfully identify most of the soft tissue structures in the dolphin's head. This paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the head structures of common and striped dolphins and compares anatomical cross sections with CT and MRI scans, becoming a reference guide for the interpretation of imaging studies.

  11. Atypical panmixia in a European dolphin species (Delphinus delphis): implications for the evolution of diversity across oceanic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Moura, A E; Natoli, A; Rogan, E; Hoelzel, A R

    2013-01-01

    Despite the scarcity of geographical barriers in the ocean environment, delphinid cetaceans often exhibit marked patterns of population structure on a regional scale. The European coastline is a prime example, with species exhibiting population structure across well-defined environmental boundaries. Here we undertake a comprehensive population genetic study on the European common dolphin (Delphinus delphis, based on 492 samples and 15 loci) and establish that this species shows exceptional panmixia across most of the study range. We found differentiation only between the eastern and western Mediterranean, consistent with earlier studies, and here use approximate Bayesian computations to explore different scenarios to explain the observed pattern. Our results suggest that a recent population bottleneck likely contributed significantly to the differentiation of the Eastern Mediterranean population (in Greek waters). This interpretation is consistent with independent census data that suggest a sharp population decline in the recent past. The implication is that an unperturbed population may currently show panmixia across the full study range. This exception to the more typical pattern of population structure seen for other regional dolphin species (and for common dolphin populations elsewhere in the world) suggests particular ecological or life-history traits distinct to this species in European waters.

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain).

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Fernández, A; Gómez-Couso, H; Martínez-Cedeira, J A; Cacciò, S M; Ares-Mazás, E

    2014-05-28

    The ubiquitous protozoan parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium have been detected from many species of captive and free-living wildlife, representing most mammalian orders. Twenty species of marine mammals have been reported to inhabit Galician waters and the region has one of the highest rates of stranding in Europe. Evidence from stranding, reported by-catches and sightings, suggests that the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is the most abundant cetacean on the Galician coast (Northwest Spain). The objective of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize isolates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium obtained from common dolphins stranded in this area. Between 2005 and 2012, sections of large intestine from 133 common dolphins stranded along the Galician coast were collected by the personnel of the Galician Stranding Network (Coordinadora para o Estudo dos Mamíferos Mariños, CEMMA). Using direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU-rDNA, β-giardin genes and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 8 (6.0%) and 12 samples (9.0%), respectively. In two samples, co-infection by both parasites was observed. The molecular characterization revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A (genotypes A1 and A2) and B and Cryptosporidium parvum in these samples. This constitutes the first study in which the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium has been investigated in common dolphins on the European Atlantic coast, and it is also the first report of C. parvum in this host. Our findings indicate that these animals could act as reservoir of these waterborne parasites or could be victims of the contamination originated by anthropogenic activities.

  13. POPs in the South Latin America: Bioaccumulation of DDT, PCB, HCB, HCH and Mirex in blubber of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fraser's dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Durante, Cristian Alberto; Santos-Neto, Elitieri Batista; Azevedo, Alexandre; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Lailson-Brito, José

    2016-12-01

    Organic compounds, in particular organochlorines, are highly persistent compounds which accumulate in biotic and abiotic substrates. Marine mammals bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through diet. ∑PCB (26 PCB congeners), ∑DDT (pp-DDT, pp-DDD, pp-DDE), ∑HCH (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH), HCB and mirex were analyzed from samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue of common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, and Fraser's dolphins, Lagenodelphis hosei, obtained in 1999 and 2012. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of POPs to get baseline information on the current state of pollution by these compounds in these two species in South Atlantic. At the same time, to assess concentrations of POPs in relation to age, the total length and sexual maturity in common dolphins. Organochlorine pesticides dominated Fraser's dolphins, DDT being the most abundant, while PCBs were mostly present in common dolphins. In both species, the distributions of isomers or metabolites followed the order: β-HCH>δ-HCH>γ-HCH>α-HCH and pp-DDE>pp-DDD>pp-DDT. As for ∑PCB, the largest contribution was given by congeners of high molecular weight, particularly by hexa and hepta - CBs. Common dolphins did not show effects on sexual maturity, age and standard length in the concentration of organochlorines. The mean concentrations found in this study are lower compared to those reported in other studies performed in dolphins elsewhere. This study provides new information regarding levels of organochlorines in common dolphins for the Southwestern Atlantic.

  14. Identification of a Novel Cetacean Polyomavirus from a Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) with Tracheobronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Simon J.; St. Leger, Judy A.; Navarrete-Macias, Isamara; Nilson, Erica; Sanchez-Leon, Maria; Liang, Eliza; Seimon, Tracie; Jain, Komal; Karesh, William; Daszak, Peter; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2013-01-01

    A female short-beaked common dolphin calf was found stranded in San Diego, California in October 2010, presenting with multifocal ulcerative lesions in the trachea and bronchi. Viral particles suggestive of polyomavirus were detected by EM, and subsequently confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Full genome sequencing (Ion Torrent) revealed a circular dsDNA genome of 5,159 bp that was shown to form a distinct lineage within the genus Polyomavirus based on phylogenetic analysis of the early and late transcriptomes. Viral infection and distribution in laryngeal mucosa was characterised using in-situ hybridisation, and apoptosis observed in the virus-infected region. These results demonstrate that polyomaviruses can be associated with respiratory disease in cetaceans, and expand our knowledge of their diversity and clinical significance in marine mammals. PMID:23874559

  15. Identification of a novel cetacean polyomavirus from a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) with Tracheobronchitis.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Simon J; St Leger, Judy A; Navarrete-Macias, Isamara; Nilson, Erica; Sanchez-Leon, Maria; Liang, Eliza; Seimon, Tracie; Jain, Komal; Karesh, William; Daszak, Peter; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian

    2013-01-01

    A female short-beaked common dolphin calf was found stranded in San Diego, California in October 2010, presenting with multifocal ulcerative lesions in the trachea and bronchi. Viral particles suggestive of polyomavirus were detected by EM, and subsequently confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Full genome sequencing (Ion Torrent) revealed a circular dsDNA genome of 5,159 bp that was shown to form a distinct lineage within the genus Polyomavirus based on phylogenetic analysis of the early and late transcriptomes. Viral infection and distribution in laryngeal mucosa was characterised using in-situ hybridisation, and apoptosis observed in the virus-infected region. These results demonstrate that polyomaviruses can be associated with respiratory disease in cetaceans, and expand our knowledge of their diversity and clinical significance in marine mammals.

  16. Cetacean brain evolution: Dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) and common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) - An investigation with high-resolution 3D MRI.

    PubMed

    Oelschläger, H H A; Ridgway, S H; Knauth, M

    2010-01-01

    This study compares a whole brain of the dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) with that of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Kogia brain was scanned with a Siemens Trio Magnetic Resonance scanner in the three main planes. As in the common dolphin and other marine odontocetes, the brain of the dwarf sperm whale is large, with the telencephalic hemispheres remarkably dominating the brain stem. The neocortex is voluminous and the cortical grey matter thin but expansive and densely convoluted. The corpus callosum is thin and the anterior commissure hard to detect whereas the posterior commissure is well-developed. There is consistency as to the lack of telencephalic structures (olfactory bulb and peduncle, olfactory ventricular recess) and neither an occipital lobe of the telencephalic hemisphere nor the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle are present. A pineal organ could not be detected in Kogia. Both species show a tiny hippocampus and thin fornix and the mammillary body is very small whereas other structures of the limbic system are well-developed. The brain stem is thick and underlies a large cerebellum, both of which, however, are smaller in Kogia. The vestibular system is markedly reduced with the exception of the lateral (Deiters') nucleus. The visual system, although well-developed in both species, is exceeded by the impressive absolute and relative size of the auditory system. The brainstem and cerebellum comprise a series of structures (elliptic nucleus, medial accessory inferior olive, paraflocculus and posterior interpositus nucleus) showing characteristic odontocete dimensions and size correlations. All these structures seem to serve the auditory system with respect to echolocation, communication, and navigation.

  17. Three-dimensional modeling of hearing in Delphinus delphis.

    PubMed

    Aroyan, J L

    2001-12-01

    Physical modeling is a fertile approach to investigating sound emission and reception (hearing) in marine mammals. A method for simulation of hearing was developed combining three-dimensional acoustic propagation and extrapolation techniques with a novel approach to modeling the acoustic parameters of mammalian tissues. Models of the forehead and lower jaw tissues of the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, were created in order to simulate the biosonar emission and hearing processes. This paper outlines the methods used in the hearing simulations and offers observations concerning the mechanisms of acoustic reception in this dolphin based on model results. These results include: (1) The left and right mandibular fat bodies were found to channel sound incident from forward directions to the left and right tympanic bulla and to create sharp maxima against the lateral surfaces of each respective bulla; (2) The soft tissues of the lower jaw improved the forward directivity of the simulated receptivity patterns; (3) A focal property of the lower-jaw pan bones appeared to contribute to the creation of distinct forward receptivity peaks for each ear; (4) The reception patterns contained features that may correspond to lateral hearing pathways. A "fast" lens mechanism is proposed to explain the focal contribution of the pan bones in this dolphin. Similar techniques may be used to study hearing in other marine mammals.

  18. Molecular and Morphological Differentiation of Common Dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Southwestern Atlantic: Testing the Two Species Hypothesis in Sympatry

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Haydée A.; de Castro, Rocio Loizaga; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Crespo, Enrique A.; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) has always been controversial, with over twenty described species since the original description of the type species of the genus (Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758). Two species and four subspecies are currently accepted, but recent molecular data have challenged this view. In this study we investigated the molecular taxonomy of common dolphins through analyses of cytochrome b sequences of 297 individuals from most of their distribution. We included 37 novel sequences from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, a region where the short- and long-beaked morphotypes occur in sympatry, but which had not been well sampled before. Skulls of individuals from the Southwestern Atlantic were measured to test the validity of the rostral index as a diagnostic character and confirmed the presence of the two morphotypes in our genetic sample. Our genetic results show that all common dolphins in the Atlantic Ocean belong to a single species, Delphinus delphis. According to genetic data, the species Delphinus capensis is invalid. Long-beaked common dolphins from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean may constitute a different species. Our conclusions prompt the need for revision of currently accepted common dolphin species and subspecies and of Delphinus delphis distribution. PMID:26559411

  19. Molecular and Morphological Differentiation of Common Dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Southwestern Atlantic: Testing the Two Species Hypothesis in Sympatry.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Haydée A; de Castro, Rocio Loizaga; Secchi, Eduardo R; Crespo, Enrique A; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Lazoski, Cristiano; Solé-Cava, Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) has always been controversial, with over twenty described species since the original description of the type species of the genus (Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758). Two species and four subspecies are currently accepted, but recent molecular data have challenged this view. In this study we investigated the molecular taxonomy of common dolphins through analyses of cytochrome b sequences of 297 individuals from most of their distribution. We included 37 novel sequences from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, a region where the short- and long-beaked morphotypes occur in sympatry, but which had not been well sampled before. Skulls of individuals from the Southwestern Atlantic were measured to test the validity of the rostral index as a diagnostic character and confirmed the presence of the two morphotypes in our genetic sample. Our genetic results show that all common dolphins in the Atlantic Ocean belong to a single species, Delphinus delphis. According to genetic data, the species Delphinus capensis is invalid. Long-beaked common dolphins from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean may constitute a different species. Our conclusions prompt the need for revision of currently accepted common dolphin species and subspecies and of Delphinus delphis distribution.

  20. Structural and functional characterization of Delphinus delphis hemoglobin system.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Messana, Irene; Maggiani, Federica; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Crnjar, Roberto; Castagnola, Massimo; Giardina, Bruno; Sanna, Maria Teresa

    2009-11-01

    Structural analysis of the hemoglobin (Hb) system of Delphinus delphis revealed a high globin multiplicity: HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis evidenced three major beta (beta1 16,022 Da, beta2 16,036 Da, beta3 16,036 Da, labeled according to their progressive elution times) and two major alpha globins (alpha1 15,345 Da, alpha2 15,329 Da). ESI-tandem mass and nucleotide sequence analyses showed that beta2 globin differs from beta1 for the substitution Val126 --> Leu, while beta3 globin differs from beta2 for the isobaric substitution Lys65 --> Gln. The alpha2 globin differs from the alpha1 for the substitution Ser15 --> Ala. Anion-exchange chromatography allowed the separation of two Hb fractions and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the fraction with higher pI (HbI) contained beta1, beta2 and both the alpha globins, and the fraction with lower pI (HbII) contained beta3 and both the alpha globins. Both D. delphis Hb fractions displayed a lower intrinsic oxygen affinity, a decreased effect of 2,3-BPG and a reduced cooperativity with respect to human HbA(0), with HbII showing the more pronounced differences. With respect to HbA(0), either the substitution Probeta5 --> Gly or the Probeta5 --> Ala is present in all the cetacean beta globins sequenced so far, and it has been hypothesized that position 5 of beta globins may have a role in the interaction with 2,3-BPG. Regarding the particularly lowered cooperativity of HbII, it is interesting to observe that the variant human HbA, characterized by the substitution Lysbeta65 --> Gln (HbJ-Cairo) has a decreased cooperativity with respect to HbA(0).

  1. Range extension for the common dolphin (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Farías-Curtidor, Nohelia; Barragán-Barrera, Dalia C; Chávez-Carreño, Paula Alejandra; Jiménez-Pinedo, Cristina; Palacios, Daniel M; Caicedo, Dalila; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010), and (b) three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014). Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ~1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA) and Cytochrome b (Cytb). Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.). However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock.

  2. Range extension for the common dolphin (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Carreño, Paula Alejandra; Jiménez-Pinedo, Cristina; Palacios, Daniel M.; Caicedo, Dalila; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (December 2009—March 2010), and (b) three coastal surveys from small boats (May—July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014). Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ~1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA) and Cytochrome b (Cytb). Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.). However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock. PMID:28192446

  3. Delphinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Dolphin; abbrev. Del, gen. Delphini; area 189 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Pegasus and Aquila, and culminates at midnight in late July. It represents either the messenger that the god Poseidon in Greek mythology sent to fetch the sea nymph Amphitrite to be his bride, or the dolphin that was said to have rescued Arion, a semilegendary poet and musician of Lesbos, who ...

  4. Behavioural Effects of Tourism on Oceanic Common Dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: The Effects of Markov Analysis Variations and Current Tour Operator Compliance with Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Anna M.; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D. M.; Orams, Mark B.; Stockin, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  5. Behavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Anna M; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D M; Orams, Mark B; Stockin, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  6. A Study of a Mechanical Swimming Dolphin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lilly; Maass, Daniel; Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander

    2007-11-01

    A one-third scale dolphin model was constructed to investigate dolphin swimming hydrodynamics. Design and construction of the model were achieved using body coordinate data from the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) to ensure geometric similarity. The front two-thirds of the model are rigid and stationary, while an external mechanism drives the rear third. This motion mimics the kinematics of dolphin swimming. Planar laser induced florescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to study the hydrodynamics of the wake and to develop a vortex skeleton model.

  7. Taxonomy of the common dolphins of the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.; Brownell, R.

    1969-01-01

    Delphinus bairdii Dall is a species of dolphin distinct from D. delphis Linnaeus, with which it has usually been synonymized. D. bairdii has a longer rostrum relative to the zygomatic width of the skull; the ratio of these measurements falls at 1.55 or above for bairdii and 1.53 and below for delphis. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, D. bairdii is found in the Gulf of California and along the west coast of Baja California, Mexico; D. delphis is presently found in the waters off California. Until approximately the beginning of the present century, bairdii occurred farther north in the eastern Pacific Ocean, at least to the Monterey Bay area of California. Restriction of bairdii to more southerly waters, probably as an indirect result of a change in water temperature, may have permitted delphis to move into inshore Californian waters. The Pacific population of D. delphis has a somewhat shorter rostrum than the Atlantic population, and is perhaps subspecifically different. A thorough analysis of the entire genus Delphinus is needed before the relationship of all the populations can be understood and names properly applied.

  8. Differences in DDT and PCB residues between common and striped dolphins from the southwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A

    2005-05-01

    Organochlorine concentrations (OCs) and stable isotopes were investigated in the blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the southwestern Mediterranean. Samples were obtained from dolphins entangled in fishing nets during the 1992-1994 fishing season and from biopsies taken in 1992. Intrapopulation variations were studied, but because most of the dolphins were juveniles or calves (90%), no significant differences were found on the basis of reproductive condition or sex. Only mature male common dolphins showed significantly higher levels of most of the compounds studied than immature individuals did. There were quantitative and qualitative interspecific differences in organochlorine compounds profile. As compared to common dolphins, striped dolphins carried higher concentrations of organochlorine concentrations (OCs), their %DDE/tDDT and PCB/tDDT ratios were significantly higher, and recalcitrant PCB congeners were more abundant. Distribution and information on composition of stomach contents would in principle support a higher exposure to OCs in common dolphins as compared to striped dolphins, thus apparently contradicting the observed results. However, stable isotopes showed that striped dolphins exploit a higher trophic level, thus explaining observed differences. Interspecific dissimilarities in metabolic capacity to handle OCs may be an added factor. Although in the two species OC concentrations exceeded levels considered to be ineffective in marine mammals, pollution-induced effects on populations could not be properly assessed.

  9. The dolphin cochlear nucleus: topography, histology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Malkemper, E P; Oelschläger, H H A; Huggenberger, S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. However, the volume ratio of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in relation to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of dolphins represents a minimum among the mammals examined so far. Because, for example, in cats the DCN is necessary for reflexive orientation of the head and pinnae towards a sound source, the massive restrictions in head movability in dolphins and the absence of outer ears may be correlated with the reduction of the DCN. Moreover, the same set of main neuron types were found in the dolphin CN as in other mammals, including octopus and multipolar cells. Because the latter two types of neurons are thought to be involved in the recognition of complex sounds, including speech, we suggest that, in dolphins, they may be involved in the processing of their communication signals. Comparison of the toothed whale species studied here revealed that large spherical cells were present in the La Plata dolphin but absent in the common dolphin. These neurons are known to be engaged in the processing of low-frequency sounds in terrestrial mammals. Accordingly, in the common dolphin, the absence of large spherical cells seems to be correlated with a shift of its auditory spectrum into the high-frequency range above 20 kHz. The existence of large spherical cells in the VCN of the La Plata dolphin, however, is enigmatic asthis species uses frequencies around 130 kHz.

  10. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  11. Eighteen-year study of South Australian dolphins shows variation in lung nematodes by season, year, age class, and location.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Lavery, Trish J

    2010-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, carcasses of opportunistically collected short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis; n=238), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus; n=167), and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n=15) were examined for parasites and life history data. Three species of lung nematodes (Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Stenurus ovatus, Pharurus alatus) were identified in surface nodules, subsurface lesions, or airways. Nematode burdens were light to heavy and, in many cases, would have compromised the dolphins' health. The number of dolphins infected was related to species, year, season, age class, and geographic region. Nematodes were found in all three species but were more prevalent in short-beaked common dolphins (mean annual prevalence=26%) than in bottlenose dolphins (12%). There was a significant increase in prevalence of nematodes in short-beaked common dolphins in 2005-06 (63%) compared to 1990-2004 (14%), with a peak in April-June. More young short-beaked common dolphins were infected than subadults and adults and, during the unusual infection event, there were more dependent calves (<130 cm) than juveniles. There were also more infections in dependent bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) calves but no increase in overall prevalence was detected during 2005-06. Because neonates of both short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins were infected, mother-to-calf transmission is suspected for these species in South Australia. Numbers of infections in short-beaked common dolphins were higher in Gulf St Vincent than elsewhere in South Australia, particularly in 2005-06. The cause of the unusual infection event in short-beaked common dolphins is unknown. We discuss the influence of dolphin diet, life history, and external factors.

  12. Tetraphyllidean cysticerci in the peritoneal cavity of the common dolphin.

    PubMed

    Norman, R J

    1997-10-01

    Cysticerci of the cestodes Monorygma grimaldii and Phyllobothrium delphini were encountered during necropsy of an adult common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) found dead on the southeastern coast of Australia. Monorygma grimaldii cysticerci were found within highly organized retroperitoneal cysts, whereas P. delphini cysticerci in the subcutaneous blubber did not occupy specialized structures. There was a localized lymphoplasmacytic host response to the presence of cysticerci of both species, but M. grimaldii provoked a more severe suppurative response than P. delphini. The systematics and life history of both parasites are incompletely known, but sharks postulated as the potential definitive hosts are found in the region. A unique cysticercus of M. grimaldii was found lying free in the peritoneal cavity of this dolphin. Two rare records of M. grimaldii cysticerci in pinnipeds from the literature include one case of aberrant migration to the testis.

  13. Accumulation of PAHs and synthetic musk compound in minke whales (Balanoptera acutorostrata) and long-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus capensis) from Korean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; An, Yong-Rock; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Choi, Minkyu; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2012-03-01

    Information on the occurrence and accumulation profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) in marine mammals is scarce. In the present study, we recorded the concentrations and profiles of PAHs and SMCs in liver tissue and blubber from minke whales and common dolphins from Korean coastal waters. The overall concentrations of PAHs and SMCs in blubber from both cetacean species were approximately three to five times higher than those in liver tissues. Residue levels of PAHs were lower, whereas levels of SMCs were relatively higher than those reported in other studies. Lack of species- and sex-dependent differences in the concentrations of PAHs and SMCs were found. Naphthalene and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-r-2-benzopyran (HHCB) were predominant compounds in all the samples for PAHs and SMCs, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs and SMCs were significantly correlated with each other, but were not correlated with body size of cetaceans. The present data provide valuable information on the exposure of Korean cetaceans to PAHs and SMCs.

  14. Distribution and feeding ecology of dolphins along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doksæter, L.; Olsen, E.; Nøttestad, L.; Fernö, A.

    2008-01-01

    During Leg 1 of the MAR-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars in June 2004 four main species of dolphins were observed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores: pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) ( n=326), short-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) ( n=273), white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) ( n=103), and striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba) ( n=86). Pilot whales and white-sided dolphins were found in cold (5-16 °C) and less-saline (34.6-35.8‰) water masses in the northern part of the study area, whereas common and striped dolphins inhabited warmer (12-22 °C) and more-saline (34.8-36.7‰) waters in the south. Dolphins tended to aggregate in areas of steep slopes, but actual bottom depth appeared to be less important. Based on spatial correlations between dolphin occurrence and candidate prey organisms recorded acoustically and by midwater trawling, mesopelagic fishes and squids were assumed to be important prey items, with Benthosema glaciale probably being the most important prey for pilot whales and white-sided dolphins, while Lampanyctus macdonaldi, Stomias boa ferox and Chauliodus sloani were probably of particular importance for common dolphins. Cephalopods, especially Gonatus sp. and Teuthowenia megalops were the most likely prey species of pilot whales and striped dolphins, respectively. The difference in physical habitat north and south of the Sub-polar Frontal Zone seemed to have important effects on prey distribution, in turn influencing dolphin distribution.

  15. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Guillermo Martín; Romero, María Alejandra; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Dans, Silvana Laura; González, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG) ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina) where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a) to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity), and (b) to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals), activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate), and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species). Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons. PMID:26091542

  16. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Guillermo Martín; Romero, María Alejandra; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Dans, Silvana Laura; González, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG) ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina) where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a) to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity), and (b) to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals), activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate), and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species). Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons.

  17. Chemical residues in Dolphins from the US Atlantic coast including atlantic bottlenose obtained during the 1987/88 mass mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, D.W.; Haebler, R.; Potter, C.

    1991-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during the 1987/88 mass mortality event along the Atlantic coast of the United States have been analyzed for anthropogenic chemical contaminants. Average contaminant concentrations in adult males were higher than the average concentrations measured in adult females. Females could be divided into two groups by contaminant concentrations, one with low concentrations, and another with concentrations 4.4 times (PCBs) to 8.9 times (p,p'-DDE) greater. Contaminant concentrations in bottlenose were generally greater than the concentrations measured in either common (Delphinus delphis) or white-sided (Lagernorhynchus acutus) dolphins from the western North Atlantic Ocean. A subset of animals screened for unusual chemical contaminants showed that numerous polybrominated chemicals were present, including polybrominated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers not previously found in marine mammals from U.S. coastal waters.

  18. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  19. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  20. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  1. Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Bearzi, G; Bonizzoni, S; Santostasi, N L; Furey, N B; Eddy, L; Valavanis, V D; Gimenez, O

    The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km(2) semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158-1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16-31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36-83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33-47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection.

  2. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria João; Menezes, Gui; Machete, Miguel; Silva, Mónica A

    2016-01-01

    Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998-2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures.

  3. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria João; Menezes, Gui; Machete, Miguel; Silva, Mónica A.

    2016-01-01

    Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998–2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures. PMID:27851763

  4. 77 FR 73986 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    .... Other marine mammals that may be harassed during surveys include: California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals, common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and D. capensis), and Risso's dolphins...

  5. The use of carcasses for the analysis of cetacean population genetic structure: a comparative study in two dolphin species.

    PubMed

    Bilgmann, Kerstin; Möller, Luciana M; Harcourt, Robert G; Kemper, Catherine M; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques have enabled the study of genetic diversity and population structure in many different contexts. Studies that assess the genetic structure of cetacean populations often use biopsy samples from free-ranging individuals and tissue samples from stranded animals or individuals that became entangled in fishery or aquaculture equipment. This leads to the question of how representative the location of a stranded or entangled animal is with respect to its natural range, and whether similar results would be obtained when comparing carcass samples with samples from free-ranging individuals in studies of population structure. Here we use tissue samples from carcasses of dolphins that stranded or died as a result of bycatch in South Australia to investigate spatial population structure in two species: coastal bottlenose (Tursiops sp.) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). We compare these results with those previously obtained from biopsy sampled free-ranging dolphins in the same area to test whether carcass samples yield similar patterns of genetic variability and population structure. Data from dolphin carcasses were gathered using seven microsatellite markers and a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Analyses based on carcass samples alone failed to detect genetic structure in Tursiops sp., a species previously shown to exhibit restricted dispersal and moderate genetic differentiation across a small spatial scale in this region. However, genetic structure was correctly inferred in D. delphis, a species previously shown to have reduced genetic structure over a similar geographic area. We propose that in the absence of corroborating data, and when population structure is assessed over relatively small spatial scales, the sole use of carcasses may lead to an underestimate of genetic differentiation. This can lead to a failure in identifying management units for conservation. Therefore, this risk should be carefully

  6. The Use of Carcasses for the Analysis of Cetacean Population Genetic Structure: A Comparative Study in Two Dolphin Species

    PubMed Central

    Bilgmann, Kerstin; Möller, Luciana M.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Kemper, Catherine M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques have enabled the study of genetic diversity and population structure in many different contexts. Studies that assess the genetic structure of cetacean populations often use biopsy samples from free-ranging individuals and tissue samples from stranded animals or individuals that became entangled in fishery or aquaculture equipment. This leads to the question of how representative the location of a stranded or entangled animal is with respect to its natural range, and whether similar results would be obtained when comparing carcass samples with samples from free-ranging individuals in studies of population structure. Here we use tissue samples from carcasses of dolphins that stranded or died as a result of bycatch in South Australia to investigate spatial population structure in two species: coastal bottlenose (Tursiops sp.) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). We compare these results with those previously obtained from biopsy sampled free-ranging dolphins in the same area to test whether carcass samples yield similar patterns of genetic variability and population structure. Data from dolphin carcasses were gathered using seven microsatellite markers and a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Analyses based on carcass samples alone failed to detect genetic structure in Tursiops sp., a species previously shown to exhibit restricted dispersal and moderate genetic differentiation across a small spatial scale in this region. However, genetic structure was correctly inferred in D. delphis, a species previously shown to have reduced genetic structure over a similar geographic area. We propose that in the absence of corroborating data, and when population structure is assessed over relatively small spatial scales, the sole use of carcasses may lead to an underestimate of genetic differentiation. This can lead to a failure in identifying management units for conservation. Therefore, this risk should be carefully

  7. Assessing the impact of bycatch on dolphin populations: the case of the common dolphin in the eastern North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of -5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  8. Assessing the Impact of Bycatch on Dolphin Populations: The Case of the Common Dolphin in the Eastern North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of −5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  9. Anthropogenic and natural organohalogen compounds in blubber of dolphins and dugongs (Dugong dugon) from northeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W; Scholz, E; Gaus, C; Müller, J F; Haynes, D

    2001-08-01

    A range of organohalogen compounds (10 polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] congeners, DDT and metabolites, chlordane-related compounds, the potential natural organochlorine compound Q1, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin, and several yet unidentified brominated compounds) were detected in the blubber of four bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), one common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), and seven dugongs (Dugong dugon), as well as in adipose tissue of a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and a python (Morelia spilota) from northeast Queensland (Australia). The green turtle and dugongs accumulated lower organohalogen levels than the dolphins. Lower levels in dugongs were expected because this species is exclusively herbivorous. Highest PCB and DDT levels recorded in dugongs were 209 and 173 microg/kg lipids, respectively. Levels of the nonanthropogenic heptachlorinated compound Q1 (highest level in dugongs was 160 microg/kg lipids) were estimated using the ECD response factor of trans-nonachlor. Highest organohalogen levels were found in blubber of dolphins for sumDDT (575--52,500 microg/kg) and PCBs (600--25,500 microg/kg lipids). Furthermore, Q1 was a major organohalogen detected in all samples analyzed, ranging from 450--9,100 microg/kg lipids. The highest concentration of Q1 determined in this study represents the highest concentration reported to date in an environmental sample. Levels of chlordane-related compounds were also high (280--7,700 microg/kg, mainly derived from trans-nonachlor), but concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin, and toxaphene were relatively low and contributed little to the overall organohalogen contamination. Furthermore, a series of three major (BC-1, BC-2, and BC-3) and six minor (BC-4 through BC-9) unknown brominated compounds were observable by extracting m/z 79 and m/z 81 from the GC/ECNI-MS full scan run. Structural proposals were made for the two major recalcitrant compounds

  10. Observations on the Behavior of the Porpoise Delphinus delphis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R L; Livingstone, R

    1960-07-01

    Common porpoises have been observed in January, in the area of the Hudson Canyon, feeding on fish that escaped an otter trawl. An echo-sounder alsorecorded, in one instance, a descent of a porpoise to a depth of 200 feet in less than 2 minutes.

  11. Sonar-induced pressure fields in a post-mortem common dolphin.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kenneth G; Hastings, Mardi C; Ketten, Darlene R; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reidenberg, Joy S; Rye, Kent

    2012-02-01

    Potential physical effects of sonar transmissions on marine mammals were investigated by measuring pressure fields induced in a 119-kg, 211-cm-long, young adult male common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) cadaver. The specimen was instrumented with tourmaline acoustic pressure gauges used as receiving sensors. Gauge implantation near critical tissues was guided by intraoperative, high-resolution, computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Instrumented structures included the melon, nares, ear, thoracic wall, lungs, epaxial muscle, and lower abdomen. The specimen was suspended from a frame equipped with a standard 50.8-mm-diameter spherical transducer used as the acoustic source and additional receiving sensors to monitor the transmitted and external, scattered field. Following immersion, the transducer transmitted pulsed sinusoidal signals at 5, 7, and 10 kHz. Quantitative internal pressure fields are reported for all cases except those in which the gauge failed or no received signal was detected. A full necropsy was performed immediately after the experiment to examine instrumented areas and all major organs. No lesions attributable to acoustic transmissions were found, consistent with the low source level and source-receiver distances.

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Cook, Peter F.; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L.; Marino, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of ‘associative′ regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence in archival post-mortem brains of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and a pantropical dolphin (Stenella attenuata) to map their sensory and motor systems. Using thalamic parcellation based on traditionally defined regions for the primary visual (V1) and auditory cortex (A1), we found distinct regions of the thalamus connected to V1 and A1. But in addition to suprasylvian-A1, we report here, for the first time, the auditory cortex also exists in the temporal lobe, in a region near cetacean-A2 and possibly analogous to the primary auditory cortex in related terrestrial mammals (Artiodactyla). Using probabilistic tract tracing, we found a direct pathway from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal lobe near the sylvian fissure. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of post-mortem DTI in archival specimens to answer basic questions in comparative neurobiology in a way that has not previously been possible and shows a link between the cetacean auditory system and those of terrestrial mammals. Given that fresh cetacean specimens are relatively rare, the ability to measure connectivity in archival specimens opens up a plethora of possibilities for investigating neuroanatomy in cetaceans and other species

  13. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  14. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  15. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  16. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  17. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  18. Improving Large Cetacean Implantable Satellite Tag Designs to Maximize Tag Robustness and Minimize Health Effects to Individual Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    dolphin (Delphinus delphis) carcass at stations that are exposed to the air during normal cetacean swimming. A reciprocating...transdermal satellite tag and 1/7th scaled dolphin dummy tag. Inset shows dummy at a larger scale. Scales in cm. Fig. 4 – Experimental system for...repeated oscillation of dolphin cadaver. 8 Fig. 5 – Measurement of angle between needle inserted into blubber only versus, though blubber into muscle of a common dolphin .

  19. Where's That Dolphin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Carolyn; Curran, Mary Carla; Cox, Tara

    2013-01-01

    In this article , the authors describe an activity in which students in Savannah, Georgia, use handheld GPS devices to record the sightings of bottlenose dolphins, examine spatial data from five pairs of dolphins in the study, and then form hypotheses about the spatial patterns they observe. In the process, they learn not only about the ecology of…

  20. Douglas RD-2 Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    Douglas RD-2 Dolphin: Originally purchased with the presumed use as a Presidential aircraft, this Douglas RD-2 was turned over to the NACA in December 1939 without ever fulfilling its intended role. The Dolphin was a type familiar to the NACA, who were testing a Army version of the Douglas amphibian, an OA-4V with a nosewheel.

  1. [Viruses of whales and dolphins].

    PubMed

    Birkun, A A

    1996-01-01

    DNA- and RNA-genome viruses of whales and dolphins belong to families Poxviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Togaviridae, Picornaviridae. Virological, serological and pathomorphological signs of infection have been registered in Odontoceti (bottle-nosed dolphin, Atlantic white-sided dolphin, striped dolphin, harbona porpoise, white-beaked dolphin, common dolphin, sperm whale, pilot whale, white whale) and Musticeti (sei whale, fin whale, gray whale, and bowheaded whale). A brief characteristic of diseases is presented. No relations of some viruses with pathologic states of Cetacea were found.

  2. Dolphins. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The family Delphinidae is the largest family of toothed whales. It includes not only those mammals commonly referred to as dolphins, such as the bottlenosed dolphin often seen in captivity, but also the killer whale. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on dolphins; the guide is designed--as the…

  3. 75 FR 16513 - Delphi Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture, a Subsidiary of Delphi Corporation, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture, a Subsidiary of..., applicable to workers of Delphi Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture, a subsidiary of Delphi... Electrical/Electronic Architecture, a subsidiary of Delphi Corporation. The Department has determined...

  4. Echolocation signals of wild dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, W. W. L.

    2004-07-01

    Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

  5. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  6. The Promise of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Alexis; Dustin, Dan; Wolff, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Describes how people with disabilities can benefit from working and playing in the water with dolphins, focusing on the many positive benefits of dolphin-assisted therapy and discussing several hypotheses about why dolphin-assisted therapy is so effective. The article describes two dolphin-assisted therapy programs and presents contact information…

  7. Douglas OA-4A Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Douglas OA-4A Dolphin: This twin-engine Douglas OA-4A Dolphin was unusual in comparison with other OA-4s in that it employed a nose wheel instead of a tail wheel during its NACA testing at Langley. Here is is seen in the NACA hangar in September 1938.

  8. NATO Undersea Research Centre Marine Mammal Risk Mitigation Rules and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Provide MMRM Project Leader with a list of lessons learned . NURC-SP-2009-002 8 Annex A Risk Criteria to Mitigate Auditory Impact The...Mediterranean Monk seal Foca monaca Monachus monachus CR Fin whale Balenottera comune Balaenoptera physalus EN Sperm whale Capodoglio Physeter...Tursiope Tursiops truncatus LR lc Risso’s dolphin Grampo Grampus griseus LR lc Common dolphin Delfino comune Delphinus delphis LR lc Harbour

  9. Sustained Swimming Speeds of Dolphins.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, C L; Harder, J A

    1960-11-25

    Observations of fout large groups of dolphins suggest that they are able to swim at a sustained speed of 14 to 18 knots. The blackfish are able to maintain speeds of about 22 knots, and one killer whale seemed able to swim somewhat faster. This implies that the apparent coefficient of surface friction remains approximately constant for dolphins from 6 to 22 ft long, as is the case for rigid bodies.

  10. 75 FR 28655 - Delphi Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture, a Subsidiary of Delphi Corporation, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture, a Subsidiary of..., applicable to workers of Delphi Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture, a subsidiary of Delphi.../Electronic Architecture, a subsidiary of Delphi Corporation, including on-site leased ] workers from...

  11. Dolphin Morbillivirus Epizootic Resurgence, Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raga, Juan-Antonio; Domingo, Mariano; Corteyn, Mandy; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco-Javier; Barrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007, >100 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the Spanish Mediterranean. Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990. PMID:18325265

  12. The DELPHI time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, C.; Cairanti, G.; Charpentier, P.; Clara, M.P.; Delikaris, D.; Foeth, H.; Heck, B.W.; Hilke, H.J.; Sulkowski, K.; Aubret, C.

    1989-02-01

    The central tracking device of the DELPHI Experiment at LEP is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an active volume of 2 x 1.34m in length and 2.22m in diameter. Since spring 1988 the TPC has undergone extensive tests in a cosmic ray set-up. It will be installed in the LEP tunnel by early 1989. This report covers the construction, the read-out electronics and the contribution of the TPC to the DELPHI trigger. Emphasis is given to novelties which are not used in similar detectors.

  13. Body and self in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Herman, Louis M

    2012-03-01

    In keeping with recent views of consciousness of self as represented in the body in action, empirical studies are reviewed that demonstrate a bottlenose dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus) conscious awareness of its own body and body parts, implying a representational "body image" system. Additional work reviewed demonstrates an advanced capability of dolphins for motor imitation of self-produced behaviors and of behaviors of others, including imitation of human actions, supporting hypotheses that dolphins have a sense of agency and ownership of their actions and may implicitly attribute those levels of self-awareness to others. Possibly, a mirror-neuron system, or its functional equivalent to that described in monkeys and humans, may mediate both self-awareness and awareness of others.

  14. Iron Indices in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Johnson, Shawn P; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Greg; Carlin, Kevin P; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins can have iron overload (that is, hemochromatosis), and managed populations of dolphins may be more susceptible to this disease than are wild dolphins. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin were measured in 181 samples from 141 dolphins in 2 managed collections and 2 free-ranging populations. Although no iron indices increased with age among free-ranging dolphins, ferritin increased with age in managed collections. Dolphins from managed collections had higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation values than did free-ranging dolphins. Dolphins with high serum iron (exceeding 300 μg/dL) were more likely to have elevated ferritin but not ceruloplasmin or haptoglobin, demonstrating that high serum levels of iron are due to a true increase in total body iron. A time-series study of 4 dolphins with hemochromatosis that were treated with phlebotomy demonstrated significant decreases in serum ferritin, iron, and TIBC between pre- and posttreatment samples; transferrin saturation initially fell but returned to prephlebotomy levels by 6 mo after treatment. Compared with those in managed collections, wild dolphins were 15 times more likely to have low serum iron (100 μg/dL or less), and this measure was associated with lower haptoglobin. In conclusion, bottlenose dolphins in managed collections are more likely to have greater iron stores than are free-ranging dolphins. Determining why this situation occurs among some dolphin populations and not others may improve the treatment of hemochromatosis in dolphins and provide clues to causes of nonhereditary hemochromatosis in humans. PMID:23561885

  15. An Interview with a Dolphin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Kathy; Keilty, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    A fabricated conversation between two humans and a dolphin at Marineland illustrates man's relationship to nature and the impact that human actions have on living creatures and the environment, and stresses developing a deeper understanding and value for the natural world and consideration of the universality of continued human error and…

  16. The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting

    PubMed Central

    Weihs, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/sec. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members. PMID:15132740

  17. First report of Brucella ceti-associated meningoencephalitis in a long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas.

    PubMed

    Davison, Nicholas J; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Dagleish, Mark P; Perrett, Lorraine L; Dale, Emma-Jane; Koylass, Mark; Foster, Geoffrey

    2015-10-27

    Fatal Brucella ceti infection with histological lesions specific to the central nervous system has been described in only 3 species of cetaceans: striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, Atlantic white-sided dolphins Lagenorhynchus acutus and short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis. This paper describes the first report of a B. ceti-associated meningoencephalitis in a long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas, showing the increasing range of species susceptibility. Brucella was recovered in larger numbers from cerebrospinal fluid than from brain tissue and is the sample of choice for isolation.

  18. Delphi: An Overview, An Application, Some Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Carl M.; Coke, James G.

    This paper discusses Delphi-a method of utilizing individuals' knowledge, judgment, and opinions to address complex questions and applies the method to a community planning project in Stow, Ohio. There are four phases of any Delphi: (1) exploring the subject under discussion, with each individual contributing pertinent information, (2) reaching an…

  19. Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2012-01-01

    The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

  20. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  1. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  2. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  3. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  4. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  5. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  6. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  7. Trilinear gauge couplings at DELPHI

    SciTech Connect

    McCubbin, Martin

    1997-06-15

    Preliminary measurements of trilinear gauge couplings are presented using data taken by DELPHI at 161 GeV and 172 GeV. Values for the couplings WWV (V=Z,{gamma}) are determined from a study of the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} using differential distributions from the WW final state in which one W decays hadronically and the other leptonically, and total cross-section data from all WW final states. Limits are also derived on neutral ZV{gamma} couplings from an analysis of the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{gamma}+invisible particles.

  8. Web-based dynamic Delphi: a new survey instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, JingTao; Liu, Wei-Ning

    2006-04-01

    We present a mathematical model for a dynamic Delphi survey method which takes advantages of Web technology. A comparative study on the performance of the conventional Delphi method and the dynamic Delphi instrument is conducted. It is suggested that a dynamic Delphi survey may form a consensus quickly. However, the result may not be robust due to the judgement leaking issues.

  9. Immunology of whales and dolphins.

    PubMed

    Beineke, Andreas; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    The increasing disease susceptibility in different whale and dolphin populations has led to speculation about a possible negative influence of environmental contaminants on the immune system and therefore on the health status of marine mammals. Despite current efforts in the immunology of marine mammals several aspects of immune functions in aquatic mammals remain unknown. However, assays for evaluating cellular immune responses, such as lymphocyte proliferation, respiratory burst as well as phagocytic and cytotoxic activity of leukocytes and humoral immune responses have been established for different cetacean species. Additionally, immunological and molecular techniques enable the detection and quantification of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in lymphoid cells during inflammation or immune responses, respectively. Different T and B cell subsets as well as antigen-presenting cells can be detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Despite great homologies between marine and terrestrial mammal lymphoid organs, some unique anatomical structures, particularly the complex lymphoepithelial laryngeal glands in cetaceans represent an adaptation to the marine environment. Additionally, physiological changes, such as age-related thymic atrophy and cystic degeneration of the "anal tonsil" of whales have to be taken into account when investigating these lymphoid structures. Systemic morbillivirus infections lead to fatalities in cetaceans associated with generalized lymphoid depletion. Similarly, chronic diseases and starvation are associated with a loss of functional lymphoid cells and decreased resistance against opportunistic infections. There is growing evidence for an immunotoxic effect of different environmental contaminants in whales and dolphins, as demonstrated in field studies. Furthermore, immunomodulatory properties of different persistent xenobiotics have been confirmed in cetacean lymphoid cells in vitro as well as in animal models in vivo

  10. Coexistence of fisheries with river dolphin conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Nachiket; Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Choudhary, Sunil; Sutaria, Dipani

    2010-08-01

    Freshwater biodiversity conservation is generally perceived to conflict with human use and extraction (e.g., fisheries). Overexploited fisheries upset the balance between local economic needs and endangered species' conservation. We investigated resource competition between fisheries and Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in a human-dominated river system in India to assess the potential for their coexistence. We surveyed a 65-km stretch of the lower Ganga River to assess habitat use by dolphins (encounter rates) and fishing activity (habitat preferences of fishers, intensity of net and boat use). Dolphin abundance in the main channel increased from 179 (SE 7) (mid dry season) to 270 (SE 8) (peak dry season), probably as a result of immigration from upstream tributaries. Dolphins preferred river channels with muddy, rocky substrates, and deep midchannel waters. These areas overlapped considerably with fishing areas. Sites with 2-6 boats/km (moderately fished) were more preferred by dolphins than sites with 8-55 boats/km (heavily fished). Estimated spatial (85%) and prey-resource overlap (75%) between fisheries and dolphins (chiefly predators of small fish) suggests a high level of competition between the two groups. A decrease in abundance of larger fish, indicated by the fact that small fish comprised 74% of the total caught, may have intensified the present competition. Dolphins seem resilient to changes in fish community structure and may persist in overfished rivers. Regulated fishing in dolphin hotspots and maintenance of adequate dry season flows can sustain dolphins in tributaries and reduce competition in the main river. Fish-stock restoration and management, effective monitoring, curbing destructive fishing practices, secure tenure rights, and provision of alternative livelihoods for fishers may help reconcile conservation and local needs in overexploited river systems.

  11. Culture in whales and dolphins.

    PubMed

    Rendell, L; Whitehead, H

    2001-04-01

    Studies of animal culture have not normally included a consideration of cetaceans. However, with several long-term field studies now maturing, this situation should change. Animal culture is generally studied by either investigating transmission mechanisms experimentally, or observing patterns of behavioural variation in wild populations that cannot be explained by either genetic or environmental factors. Taking this second, ethnographic, approach, there is good evidence for cultural transmission in several cetacean species. However, only the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops) has been shown experimentally to possess sophisticated social learning abilities, including vocal and motor imitation; other species have not been studied. There is observational evidence for imitation and teaching in killer whales. For cetaceans and other large, wide-ranging animals, excessive reliance on experimental data for evidence of culture is not productive; we favour the ethnographic approach. The complex and stable vocal and behavioural cultures of sympatric groups of killer whales (Orcinus orca) appear to have no parallel outside humans, and represent an independent evolution of cultural faculties. The wide movements of cetaceans, the greater variability of the marine environment over large temporal scales relative to that on land, and the stable matrilineal social groups of some species are potentially important factors in the evolution of cetacean culture. There have been suggestions of gene-culture coevolution in cetaceans, and culture may be implicated in some unusual behavioural and life-history traits of whales and dolphins. We hope to stimulate discussion and research on culture in these animals.

  12. Improving TMD classification using the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    John, M T

    2010-10-01

    The classification of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is still controversial. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique, a method that polls experts' anonymous opinion in an iterative process with controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of group response, could be valuable to improve this challenging topic. The article illustrates the application of the Delphi technique for deciding whether the terms myalgia or myofascial pain should be used in a TMD classification system and discusses the technique's potential for TMD classification in general. In three Delphi rounds, 14 TMD experts from the Division of TMD and Orofacial Pain of the University of Minnesota reached a consensus about which TMD diagnoses should be included in a TMD classification system. They preferred the term myofascial pain over myalgia. The Delphi technique has the potential to provide answers to complex questions in TMD classification, e.g., TMD nomenclature and range as well as scope of conditions included in a future TMD classification system.

  13. Alchemy of the Oracle: The Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the origins and foundations of the Delphi technique. Outlines procedures for using it in research to obtain the insights of experts. Addresses limitations of the technique. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  14. AMD and TACC Consolidation: A Delphi Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Hammer and Champy, 2003). 4 The intent of this study is not to be a litmus test advocating for or against AMDs consolidation into TACC...consensus increases during subsequent Delphi rounds and what is the overall strength of the panel’s consensus ( Schmidt , 1997:765). The Kendall’s W...Figure 14: Interpretation of Kendall’s W ( Schmidt , 1997: 767) Delphi Study and Mobility C2 A noted problem in this research is to first

  15. Trawling and bottlenose dolphins' social structure.

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Corkeron, P J

    2001-09-22

    Human activities can affect the behaviour of mammals through the modification of habitats, changes in predation pressure or alterations in food distribution and availability. We analysed the association and ranging patterns of 242 individually identified bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in eastern Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, and distinguished two separate communities of dolphins. Unlike bottlenose dolphins elsewhere, the communities' core areas overlapped substantially. There was a correlation between the dolphins' responses to fishing activities and community membership-members of one community feed in association with trawlers and members of the other do not. Apart from feeding mode, the communities differed in habitat preference and group sizes. Inadvertent anthropogenic impacts on animals' societies are likely to be far more widespread than just this study and can increase conservation challenges. In this instance, managers need to consider the two communities' differing habitat requirements and their behavioural traditions in conservation planning.

  16. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, S.; Moore, M. J.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, K.; Sharp, S.; Harry, C. T.; Hoppe, J.; Niemeyer, M.; Lentell, B.; Wells, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber–muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness. PMID:21993505

  17. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S

    2012-04-07

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness.

  18. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  19. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  20. Remediation System Evaluation, Delphi Corporation Site in Vandalia, Ohio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This RSE pertains to aspects of the corrective action underway at two neighboring plants, the Delphi Energy and Chassis Systems Plant and Delphi Safety and Interior Systems Plant, collectively referred to as the “facility” in this report.

  1. 20. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. DOLPHIN. (Photographed from boat) NOTE CUTWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. DOLPHIN. (Photographed from boat) NOTE CUTWATER ON UPSTREAM SIDE OF DOLPHIN, AND THAT DOLPHIN IS OCTAGONAL AS OPPOSED TO CIRCULAR DESIGN OF CENTER PIER. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  2. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin ...understanding of how the stress response operates in marine mammals by evaluating markers of stress in a captive dolphin population. This research effort will...determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  3. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan... § 229.35 Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section is to implement the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) to reduce incidental mortality...

  4. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan... § 229.35 Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section is to implement the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan to reduce incidental mortality and...

  5. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan... § 229.35 Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section is to implement the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) to reduce incidental mortality...

  6. Fatal Systemic Morbillivirus Infection in Bottlenose Dolphin, Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Zucca, Daniele; Arbelo, Manuel; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Andrada, Marisa; Déniz, Soraya; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A systemic morbillivirus infection was diagnosed postmortem in a juvenile bottlenose dolphin stranded in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean in 2005. Sequence analysis of a conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicated that the virus is closely related to dolphin morbillivirus recently reported in striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24447792

  7. Consolidating AMC’s Contingency Response Capabilities: A Delphi Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Integration-Guard-Active-Components Schmidt, R. (1997). Managing Delphi Surveys Using Nonparametric Statistical Techniques . Decision Science, 763-774...A DELPHI STUDY GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air...21 Delphi Technique

  8. Dolphin changes in whistle structure with watercraft activity depends on their behavioral state.

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura J; Quiñones-Lebrón, Shakira G

    2014-04-01

    Dolphins rely on whistles to identify each other and to receive and convey information about their environment. Although capable of adjusting these signals with changing environments, there is little information on how dolphins acoustically respond to different watercraft activities and if this response depends on dolphin behavioral state. Bottlenose dolphin whistles were recorded in the presence of research and dolphin-watching boats. Dolphins emitted lower frequency and longer whistles when interacting with dolphin-watching boats, particularly during foraging activities. This study suggests that dolphin-watching boat traffic significantly hinders dolphin communication during important behavioral states.

  9. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sheila A

    2014-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools.

  10. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    PubMed

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  11. Whistle source levels of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins and Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Adam S; Zeddies, David; Simard, Peter; Mann, David

    2014-03-01

    Whistles of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were recorded and measured with a calibrated towed hydrophone array. Surveys encountered groups of both bottlenose (N = 10) and spotted dolphins (N = 5). Analysis of those data produced 1695 bottlenose dolphin whistles and 1273 spotted dolphin whistles with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Whistle frequency metrics were lower in bottlenose than spotted dolphins, while whistle duration was longer in spotted dolphins, data that may help inform automatic classification algorithms. Source levels were estimated by determining the range and bearing of an individual dolphin from the array and then adding the predicted transmission loss to the calculated received level. The median bottlenose dolphin source level was 138 dB re 1μPa at 1 m with a range of 114-163 dB re 1μPa at 1 m. The median spotted dolphin source level was 138 dB re 1μPa at 1 m with a range of 115-163 dB re 1μPa at 1 m. These source level measurements, in conjunction with estimates of vocalization rates and transmission loss models, can be used to improve passive acoustically determined dolphin abundance estimates in the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Post-epizootic chronic dolphin morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba.

    PubMed

    Soto, Sara; Alba, Ana; Ganges, Llilianne; Vidal, Enric; Raga, Juan Antonio; Alegre, Ferrán; González, Beatriz; Medina, Pascual; Zorrilla, Irene; Martínez, Jorge; Marco, Alberto; Pérez, Mónica; Pérez, Blanca; Pérez de Vargas Mesas, Ana; Martínez Valverde, Rosa; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-10-06

    Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused 2 epizootics with high mortality rates on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in 1990 and 2006-07, mainly affecting striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Following the first epizootic unusual DMV infections affecting only the central nervous system of striped dolphins were found, with histological features similar to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis, the chronic latent localised infections caused by defective forms of measles virus and canine distemper virus, respectively. Between 2008 and 2010, monitoring by microscopic and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of 118 striped dolphins stranded along Catalonia, the Valencia Region and Andalusia showed similar localised DMV nervous system infections in 25.0, 28.6 and 27.4% of cases, respectively, with no significant differences among regions or sex. The body length of DMV-infected dolphins was statistically greater than that of non-infected dolphins (196.5 vs. 160.5 cm; p < 0.001). Molecular detection of DMV was performed by 2 different RT-PCR techniques amplifying a 429 bp fragment and a 78 bp fragment both within the phosphoprotein (P) gene. The 429 bp RT-PCR results contradicted the IHC-DMV results as only 3 of 6 dolphins with positive IHC-DMV had positive PCR results. All 6 cases were positive with the 78 bp RT-PCR. These findings contraindicate the use of the 429 bp RT-PCR protocol based on the P gene to detect this specific form of DMV. DMV localised nervous infection constitutes the most relevant single cause of stranding and death in Mediterranean striped dolphins in the years following a DMV epizootic, and it might even overwhelm the effects of the epizootic itself, at least in 2007.

  13. Computer Technology and Education: A Policy Delphi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, Lloyd P.

    Realizing the educational potential of computer technology largely depends on developing appropriate policies related to the technology. A Policy Delphi method was used to identify changes in education that are both probable and possible on account of the introduction of computers, and to explore potential patterns for arriving at a desired…

  14. The Delphi Decision-Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Teri

    1983-01-01

    Reports generalizations about specific patterns emerging from a panel employing a decision-making Delphi process that attempted to forecast the long-range general environment for higher education in Michigan. Participating were 24 influential persons with knowledge of factors important within the state. (Author/RH)

  15. The Future of Telecommunications: A Delphi Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the results of a Delphi survey of international experts on the future of telecommunications. Predicts new and expanding services that will be available over the next twenty years. Outlines space applications and advanced technology, regulatory and social issues, and institutional and economic issues which will characterize the field of…

  16. Electric/hybrid vehicle Delphi survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, H.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Santini, D.J.

    1995-08-08

    This document presents the methodology and results of the Delphi survey. The viewgraphs depict the surveyed population in detail and the surveyed vehicles attributes such as range, recharging time, velocity, acceleration, etc. These opinions are given for forecast years 2000, 2010, and 2020.

  17. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  18. The Stammering Information Programme: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berquez, Ali E.; Cook, Frances M.; Millard, Sharon K.; Jarvis, Effie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To find out what information children, parents and education staff feel would be important to know to support a child who stutters in the educational environment, in order to develop appropriate resources. Method: A Delphi study was carried out to seek the opinions of experts about the information to include. A structured six stage…

  19. Cross platform development using Delphi and Kylix

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.L.; Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.

    2002-10-08

    A cross platform component for EPICS Simple Channel Access (SCA) has been developed for the use with Delphi on Windows and Kylix on Linux. An EPICS controls GUI application developed on Windows runs on Linux by simply rebuilding it, and vice versa. This paper describes the technical details of the component.

  20. Is dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)?

    PubMed

    van Elk, C E; van de Bildt, M W G; Jauniaux, T; Hiemstra, S; van Run, P R W A; Foster, G; Meerbeek, J; Osterhaus, A D M E; Kuiken, T

    2014-11-01

    The virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. In 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. In 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. In these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. Therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphins with morbillivirus infection into a rehabilitation center provided a unique opportunity to investigate the virulence of morbillivirus in this species. By phylogenetic analysis, the morbilliviruses in both animals were identified as a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) most closely related to that detected in a white-beaked dolphin in Germany in 2007. Both animals were examined clinically and pathologically. Case No. 1 had a chronic neural DMV infection, characterized by polioencephalitis in the cerebrum and morbillivirus antigen expression limited to neurons and glial cells. Surprisingly, no nervous signs were observed in this animal during the 6 months before death. Case No. 2 had a subacute systemic DMV infection, characterized by interstitial pneumonia, leucopenia, lymphoid depletion, and DMV antigen expression in mononuclear cells and syncytia in the lung and in mononuclear cells in multiple lymphoid organs. Cause of death was not attributed to DMV infection in either animal. DMV was not detected in 2 contemporaneously stranded white-beaked dolphins. Stranding rate did not increase in the region. These results suggest that DMV is not highly virulent for white-beaked dolphins.

  1. 77 FR 21946 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan AGENCY: National Marine... Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) and implementing regulations by permanently continuing medium... April 30. Members of the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Team (BDTRT) recommended these regulations...

  2. 76 FR 51943 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Dolphin Conservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...; International Dolphin Conservation Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... (NOAA) collects information to implement the International Dolphin Conservation Program Act (Act). The... ] nations in the International Dolphin Conservation Program that would otherwise be under embargo. The...

  3. 77 FR 22759 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Bottlenose Dolphin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Region Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation Outreach Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... bottlenose dolphins, which are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. In particular, the surveys... regulations prohibiting feeding and harassment of bottlenose dolphins, and how they gained their knowledge...

  4. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D.; St. Leger, Judy A.; Dalton, Leslie M.; Reif, John S.; Schaefer, Adam M.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Fair, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti. PMID:27869614

  5. Internet-based Delphi research: case based discussion.

    PubMed

    Cole, Zachary Douglas; Donohoe, Holly M; Stellefson, Michael L

    2013-03-01

    The interactive capacity of the Internet offers benefits that are intimately linked with contemporary research innovation in the natural resource and environmental studies domains. However, e-research methodologies, such as the e-Delphi technique, have yet to undergo critical review. This study advances methodological discourse on the e-Delphi technique by critically assessing an e-Delphi case study. The analysis suggests that the benefits of using e-Delphi are noteworthy but the authors acknowledge that researchers are likely to face challenges that could potentially compromise research validity and reliability. To ensure that these issues are sufficiently considered when planning and designing an e-Delphi, important facets of the technique are discussed and recommendations are offered to help the environmental researcher avoid potential pitfalls associated with coordinating e-Delphi research.

  6. Internet-Based Delphi Research: Case Based Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Zachary Douglas; Donohoe, Holly M.; Stellefson, Michael L.

    2013-03-01

    The interactive capacity of the Internet offers benefits that are intimately linked with contemporary research innovation in the natural resource and environmental studies domains. However, e-research methodologies, such as the e-Delphi technique, have yet to undergo critical review. This study advances methodological discourse on the e-Delphi technique by critically assessing an e-Delphi case study. The analysis suggests that the benefits of using e-Delphi are noteworthy but the authors acknowledge that researchers are likely to face challenges that could potentially compromise research validity and reliability. To ensure that these issues are sufficiently considered when planning and designing an e-Delphi, important facets of the technique are discussed and recommendations are offered to help the environmental researcher avoid potential pitfalls associated with coordinating e-Delphi research.

  7. Internet-Based Delphi Research: Case Based Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Holly M.; Stellefson, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The interactive capacity of the Internet offers benefits that are intimately linked with contemporary research innovation in the natural resource and environmental studies domains. However, e-research methodologies, such as the e-Delphi technique, have yet to undergo critical review. This study advances methodological discourse on the e-Delphi technique by critically assessing an e-Delphi case study. The analysis suggests that the benefits of using e-Delphi are noteworthy but the authors acknowledge that researchers are likely to face challenges that could potentially compromise research validity and reliability. To ensure that these issues are sufficiently considered when planning and designing an e-Delphi, important facets of the technique are discussed and recommendations are offered to help the environmental researcher avoid potential pitfalls associated with coordinating e-Delphi research. PMID:23288149

  8. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine.

  9. A Delphi forecast of technology in education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, B. E.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of a Delphi forecast of the utilization and social impacts of large-scale educational telecommunications technology. The focus is on both forecasting methodology and educational technology. The various methods of forecasting used by futurists are analyzed from the perspective of the most appropriate method for a prognosticator of educational technology, and review and critical analysis are presented of previous forecasts and studies. Graphic responses, summarized comments, and a scenario of education in 1990 are presented.

  10. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    PubMed

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  11. Delphi project in bronchial asthma. Two stages.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Benítez, M; Ibero Iborra, M; Sanz Ortega, J; Garde Garde, J

    2010-01-01

    From the paediatric point of view, we have undertaken two Delphi studies into bronchial asthma. The first is related to the consensus known as the consensus document of the five associations. The second is more recent and has been undertaken with GEMA (the Spanish Guidelines on the Management of Asthma). The aim of this paper is to carry out a descriptive study comparing the 2 Delphi processes and to objectively assess if in some way behaviour over the past two years has changed as far as expert opinion is concerned. In the consensus document those points giving rise to most controversy were the treatment of children under three years of age and treatment with immunotherapy in allergic asthma. It is also necessary to highlight how important it was at that particular point in time to define the phenotypes of wheezing and the predictive index of asthma in children of less than 3 years of age. Of the 52 questions in the questionnaire, in 13.6% the panel of experts reached no consensus in their positions. Following GEMA the Delphi methodology, 56 questions were asked in the first round of the questionnaire, and consensus was reached in 87.5%. As regards the paediatric part relating to diagnosis and treatment in children, agreement was reached on all the questions in the first round. Agreement was reached in 8.92% questions in the second round. Clinical guidelines and consensus documents can modify behaviour towards an illness, both in the diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Assessment of Regenerative Capacity in the Dolphin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-10

    surface markers. Cultured cells were also cryogenically frozen for future cell therapy treatment of dolphin skin wounds. Gene array analysis on the...cultured cells show that a number of human related stem cell genes are positive. Furthermore, CD markers for known stem cell surface markers have been...through the use of Cell Surface Marker Analyses ....... 6 Characterization of the Cultured Cells through the use of Gene Arrays

  13. Dolphin Continuous Auditory Vigilance for Five Days

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Brett Giroir, Amy Kruse between sleep and eye state in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds . Arch Ital. Biol. 142, 557-568.and Lisa Ely for support and encouragement...Brain Res. Suppl. Cockcroft, V. G. and Ross, G. J. B. (1990). Observations on the early 8, 227-238. development of a captive Bottlenose Dolphin calf. In...Soc. Am. 119, 3181-3192. mammal health: measures of the nervous and immune systems before and Flanigan, W. F., Jr (1974). Nocturnal behavior of captive

  14. [Pictures from the Dolphin Pharmacy in Copenhagen].

    PubMed

    Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith; Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The development of the pharmacy in the 19th and 20th centuries is illustrated by education and activity in the Dolphin Pharmacy in Copenhagen. The career within chemistry and pharmacy started with an apprenticeship of 4 year in the pharmacies. The Dolphin Pharmacy was responsible for part of the examination, i.e. the examination of the preparation of medicine. Passing the examination the chemist's assistant was free to prepare and to dispense medicine. Graduation as a pharmaceutical candidate was necessary to obtain license. Lectures in chemistry, physics, pharmacy, botany and pharmacognosy were obtained at the University of Copenhagen and the Polytechnic, but no curriculum was available. A rational education was obtained later on by the establishment of the School of Pharmacy in 1892. The proprietor pharmacists of the Dolphin Pharmacy were excellent scientists who contributed to the development of pharmacy. Pictures of the pharmacy from about the 1930s show the manufacture of medicines on the basis of a prescription and a pharmacopoeia. Ointments containing zinc white, sulphur and tar were used for various skin diseases and for the tiresome cough; cough mixtures containing codeine or extract of ipecacuanha root were used. In the 1930s the medicine for injection was sterilized and the tablet machine was the breakthrough for a rational production in the pharmacy. However, at the end of the 1900s it was no more possible to compete with the pharmaceutical industry and all the production of medicine was taken over by the industry.

  15. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Biancani, Barbara; Furlati, Stefano; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Consolandi, Clarissa; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Cetaceans have evolved from herbivorous terrestrial artiodactyls closely related to ruminants and hippopotamuses. Delphinidae, a family included in this order, represent an extreme and successful re-adaptation of mammalian physiology to the marine habitat and piscivorous diet. The anatomical aspects of Delphinidae success are well understood, whereas some physiological aspects of their environmental fitness are less defined, such as the gut microbiota composition and its adaptation to their dietary niche. Here, we explored the faecal microbiota structure of nine adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and one breast-fed calf living in a controlled environment. According to our findings, dolphins possess a unique microbiota profile within the Mammalia class, highly resembling that of carnivorous marine fishes. The breast-fed calf showed a distinctive compositional structure of the gut microbial ecosystem, which partially overlaps with the mother's milk microbiota. Taken together, our data indicate that in dolphins the adaptation to the marine niche and piscivorous diet involved the convergence of their gut microbiota structure with that of marine fishes, overcoming the gut microbiota phylogenetic inertia previously described in terrestrial mammalians.

  16. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  17. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  18. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  19. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  20. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  1. Lobomycosis: Risk of Zoonotic Transmission from Dolphins to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lobomycosis, a fungal disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Lacazia loboi, is sometimes referred to as a zoonotic disease because it affects only specific delphinidae and humans; however, the evidence that it can be transferred directly to humans from dolphins is weak. Dolphins have also been postulated to be responsible for an apparent geographic expansion of the disease in humans. Morphological and molecular differences between the human and dolphin organisms, differences in geographic distribution of the diseases between dolphins and humans, the existence of only a single documented case of presumed zoonotic transmission, and anecdotal evidence of lack of transmission to humans following accidental inoculation of tissue from infected dolphins do not support the hypothesis that dolphins infected with L. loboi represent a zoonotic hazard for humans. In addition, the lack of human cases in communities adjacent to coastal estuaries with a high prevalence of lobomycosis in dolphins, such as the Indian River Lagoon in Florida (IRL), suggests that direct or indirect transmission of L. loboi from dolphins to humans occurs rarely, if at all. Nonetheless, attention to personal hygiene and general principals of infection control are always appropriate when handling tissues from an animal with a presumptive diagnosis of a mycotic or fungal disease. PMID:23919604

  2. Dolphin "packet" use during long-range echolocation tasks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2013-03-01

    When echolocating, dolphins typically emit a single broadband "click," then wait to receive the echo before emitting another click. However, previous studies have shown that during long-range echolocation tasks, they may instead emit a burst, or "packet," of several clicks, then wait for the packet of echoes to return before emitting another packet of clicks. The reasons for the use of packets are unknown. In this study, packet use was examined by having trained bottlenose dolphins perform long-range echolocation tasks. The tasks featured "phantom" echoes produced by capturing the dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks, convolving the clicks with an impulse response to create an echo waveform, and then broadcasting the delayed, scaled echo to the dolphin. Dolphins were trained to report the presence of phantom echoes or a change in phantom echoes. Target range varied from 25 to 800 m. At ranges below 75 m, the dolphins rarely used packets. As the range increased beyond 75 m, two of the three dolphins increasingly produced packets, while the third dolphin instead utilized very high click repetition rates. The use of click packets appeared to be governed more by echo delay (target range) than echo amplitude.

  3. Lobomycosis: risk of zoonotic transmission from dolphins to humans.

    PubMed

    Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D

    2013-10-01

    Lobomycosis, a fungal disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Lacazia loboi, is sometimes referred to as a zoonotic disease because it affects only specific delphinidae and humans; however, the evidence that it can be transferred directly to humans from dolphins is weak. Dolphins have also been postulated to be responsible for an apparent geographic expansion of the disease in humans. Morphological and molecular differences between the human and dolphin organisms, differences in geographic distribution of the diseases between dolphins and humans, the existence of only a single documented case of presumed zoonotic transmission, and anecdotal evidence of lack of transmission to humans following accidental inoculation of tissue from infected dolphins do not support the hypothesis that dolphins infected with L. loboi represent a zoonotic hazard for humans. In addition, the lack of human cases in communities adjacent to coastal estuaries with a high prevalence of lobomycosis in dolphins, such as the Indian River Lagoon in Florida (IRL), suggests that direct or indirect transmission of L. loboi from dolphins to humans occurs rarely, if at all. Nonetheless, attention to personal hygiene and general principals of infection control are always appropriate when handling tissues from an animal with a presumptive diagnosis of a mycotic or fungal disease.

  4. Acoustic features of objects matched by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Delong, Caroline M; Au, Whitlow W L; Lemonds, David W; Harley, Heidi E; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2006-03-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate how dolphins use acoustic features in returning echolocation signals to discriminate among objects. An echolocating dolphin performed a match-to-sample task with objects that varied in size, shape, material, and texture. After the task was completed, the features of the object echoes were measured (e.g., target strength, peak frequency). The dolphin's error patterns were examined in conjunction with the between-object variation in acoustic features to identify the acoustic features that the dolphin used to discriminate among the objects. The present study explored two hypotheses regarding the way dolphins use acoustic information in echoes: (1) use of a single feature, or (2) use of a linear combination of multiple features. The results suggested that dolphins do not use a single feature across all object sets or a linear combination of six echo features. Five features appeared to be important to the dolphin on four or more sets: the echo spectrum shape, the pattern of changes in target strength and number of highlights as a function of object orientation, and peak and center frequency. These data suggest that dolphins use multiple features and integrate information across echoes from a range of object orientations.

  5. Delphi`s DETOXSM process: Preparing to treat high organic content hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Goldblatt, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Technology Center is sponsoring a full-scale technology demonstration of Delphi Research, Inc.`s patented DETOX{sup SM} catalytic wet chemical oxidation waste treatment process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The process is being developed primarily to treat hazardous and mixed wastes within the DOE complex as an alternative to incineration, but it has significant potential to treat wastes in the commercial sector. The results of the demonstration will be intensively studied and used to validate the technology. A critical objective in preparing for the demonstration was the successful completion of a programmatic Operational Readiness Review. Readiness Reviews are required by DOE for all new process startups. The Readiness Review provided the vehicle to ensure that Delphi was ready to start up and operate the DETOX{sup SM} process in the safest manner possible by implementing industry accepted management practices for safe operation. This paper provides an overview of the DETOX{sup SM} demonstration at SRS, and describes the crucial areas of the Readiness Review that marked the first steps in Delphi`s transition from a technology developer to an operating waste treatment services provider.

  6. [What is the Delphi method? Strengths and shortcomings].

    PubMed

    Ciałkowska, Magdalena; Adamowski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Patryk; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a condensed discussion and explanation of the Delphi method. This technique is used for problem solving and decision making. The Delphi Method was originally developed during the cold war by the U.S. Intelligence think tank, the RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California in the 1950's and 1960's. It was designed for use on complex or ambiguous problems that exceed the capabilities of a single person. Most researchers make distinctions between the conventional Delphi and the policy Delphi. The last decades have seen increasing interest in the use of Delphi in a wide range of health-care applications. The Delphi method has been applied in a wide range of European Commission funded research projects, e.g. in EUNOMIA and DEMoB.inc projects. The Delphi method is characterized by the following features: anonymity of responses from panel experts, asynchronicity, controlled feedback and statistical description of responses. The objective of most Delphi applications is the reliable and creative exploration of problems or the production of suitable information for decision making.

  7. Using the Delphi Technique to Support Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Helen Barbara; Coetzer, Alan John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the use of the Delphi technique to support curriculum development with a view to enhancing existing literature on use of the technique for renewal of business course curricula. Design/methodology/approach: The authors outline the Delphi process for obtaining consensus amongst a…

  8. Professional Status of Elementary Teaching in Turkey: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ali E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether elementary teaching can be considered to be a profession in Turkey in comparison to selected characteristics that previous scholars have found to be common to all professions. Evidence was drawn primarily from a Delphi study conducted in three rounds. Educators of various kinds served as Delphi participants. The…

  9. Personal Learning Environments and University Teacher Roles Explored Using Delphi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaikh, Zaffar Ahmed; Khoja, Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research using an online Delphi method, which aimed to explore university teacher roles and readiness for learner-centred pedagogy, driven by personal learning environments (PLEs). Using a modified Policy Delphi technique, a group of researchers worked with 34 international experts who are university teachers by…

  10. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  11. Using the Delphi Technique in Educational Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nworie, John

    2011-01-01

    As educational technology practitioners and researchers engage in research in the field, a wide array of research methodologies are available to them. One such methodology is the Delphi Technique. Use of the Delphi Technique offers many benefits, including the ability to obtain expert opinion, build consensus, determine the suitability of the…

  12. Career and Technical Education at a Crossroads: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education in the United States has reached a critical juncture. A three round Delphi method was used to determine a consensus on the future events of career and technical education to better inform educational decision makers. Forty-one individual experts in the field were invited to serve as panelists for the Delphi study and…

  13. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  14. Expert Consensus for Discharge Referral Decisions Using Online Delphi

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kathy H.; Holmes, John H.; Naylor, Mary D.; Liberatore, Matthew; Nydick, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results of using a modified Delphi approach designed to achieve consensus from eight discharge planning experts regarding the decision to refer hospitalized older adults for post-discharge follow-up. Experts reviewed 150 cases using an online website designed to facilitate their interaction and efforts to reach agreement on the need for a referral for post-discharge care and the appropriate site for such care. In contrast to an average of eight weeks to complete just 50 cases using the traditional mail method, the first online Delphi round for 150 cases were completed in six weeks. Data provided by experts suggest that online Delphi is a time efficient and acceptable methodology for reaching group consensus. Other benefits include instant access to Delphi decision results, live knowledge of the time requirements and progress of each expert, and cost savings in postage, paper, copying, and storage of paper documents. This online Delphi methodology is highly recommended. PMID:14728143

  15. Measurement of |Vcs| with DELPHI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golob, Boštjan

    1998-10-01

    Pair production of charged weak bosons W+/- at LEP2 collider can be exploited to measure the absolute value of the Vcs element of Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The value can be most accurately extracted from the measured hadronic branching ratio of W+/- bosons. An independent method to obtain the |Vcs| value consists of tagging the flavour of primary quarks in jets, produced in W+/- decays. Using both methods on the data collected with DELPHI experiment during 1996 and 1997 runs, we obtained |Vcs|=0.99+/-0.06(stat.)+/-0.04(syst.). Combined result of |Vcs| measurements with four LEP experiments enables a test of CKM matrix unitarity.

  16. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Dunn, J Lawrence; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Smith, Cynthia R; Sidor, Inga; Jensen, Eric D; Van Bonn, William G; Pugh, Roberta; Ficht, Thomas; Adams, L Garry; Nielsen, Klaus; Romano, Tracy A

    2012-12-03

    Marine-origin Brucella infections and serologic evidence of exposure have been documented in multiple cetacean species. A dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen bottlenose dolphin sera for anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 131 serum samples collected over a 2 to 18 yr period from 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with confirmed Brucella infections were analyzed for the presence and magnitude of antibody titers against marine-origin Brucella to compare individual antibody responses to various disease manifestations. Additionally, an epidemiologic serologic survey of a managed population of 64 bottlenose dolphins was performed to evaluate for the presence of antibodies and to determine whether there were any clinical pathology predictors for exposure or infection. The serologic results revealed that the dolphins with Brucella-associated abortions were seronegative for 7 to 18 yr until after the abortion and maintained positive titers for several years, with 2 of 3 animals returning to seronegative status. In contrast, the dolphins with Brucella-associated pulmonary or bone lesions maintained persistent positive titers for 2 to 18 yr. The population serosurvey revealed no significant differences in antibody levels among males and females, and dolphins between the ages of 17 and 25 yr were 6.8 times more likely to be Brucella antibody positive compared to those that were younger or older. Seropositive dolphins did not have significant inflammation compared to seronegative dolphins but were more likely to have higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Among 16 dolphins that tested seropositive, 13 (81.3%) had previously been seropositive for at least 3 to 5 yr.

  17. Host specificity of Oschmarinella rochebruni and Brachycladium atlanticum (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) in five cetacean species from western Mediterranean waters.

    PubMed

    Mateu, P; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2011-03-01

    We investigated patterns of specificity of liver flukes (fam. Brachycladiidae) in a community of cetaceans from the western Mediterranean. The liver and pancreas of 103 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, 18 Risso's dolphins, Grampus griseus, 14 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, 8 common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, and 5 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas, were analysed for brachycladiid species. Two species were found: Oschmarinella rochebruni in striped dolphins (prevalence (P): 61.2%; mean intensity (MI) (95% CI): 34.2 (25.7-45.6)), and Brachycladium atlanticum in striped dolphins (P: 39.8%; MI: 7.1 (4.8-13.1)) and a single individual of common dolphin (P: 12.5%; intensity: 19), which represents a new host record. A molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the rDNA gene confirmed that specimens of B. atlanticum were conspecific regardless of host species. Available dietary data suggest that Risso's dolphins, bottlenose dolphins and long-finned pilot whales would contact rarely, if at all, the infective stages of O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum. Neither the prevalence nor the mean abundance of B. atlanticum differed significantly between striped and common dolphins, but a principal component analysis using seven morphometric variables indicated that specimens collected from the common dolphin were stunted. These worms also had fewer eggs compared with specimens typically found in striped dolphins, although the size of the eggs was similar in both host species. Dwarfism and low fecundity have typically been found in helminths infecting unusual host species, and might reflect the lower compatibility of B. atlanticum for common dolphins. In summary, both O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum appear to exhibit a narrow specificity for striped dolphins in the western Mediterranean.

  18. Pathogen surveillance in wild bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Jaing, Crystal; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea; McLoughlin, Kevin; Slezak, Tom; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-10-16

    The number and prevalence of diseases is rapidly increasing in the marine ecosystem. Although there is an increase in the number of marine diseases observed world-wide, current understanding of the pathogens associated with marine mammals is limited. An important need exists to develop and apply platforms for rapid detection and characterization of pathogenic agents to assess, prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. In this study, a broad-spectrum molecular detection technology capable of detecting all sequenced microbial organisms, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, was used to assess the microbial agents that could be associated with wild Atlantic dolphins. Blowhole, gastric, and fecal samples from 8 bottlenose dolphins were collected in Charleston, SC, as part of the dolphin assessment effort. The array detected various microbial agents from the dolphin samples. Clostridium perfringens was most prevalent in the samples surveyed using the microarray. This pathogen was also detected using microbiological culture techniques. Additionally, Campylobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Erwinia amylovora, Helicobacter pylori, and Frankia sp. were also detected in more than one dolphin using the microarray, but not in culture. This study provides the first survey of pathogens associated with 3 tissue types in dolphins using a broad-spectrum microbial detection microarray and expands insight on the microbial community profile in dolphins.

  19. Consciousness in dolphins? A review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Harley, Heidi E

    2013-06-01

    For millennia, dolphins have intrigued humans. Scientific study has confirmed that bottlenose dolphins are large-brained, highly social mammals with an extended developmental period, flexible cognitive capacities, and powerful acoustic abilities including a sophisticated echolocation system. These findings have led some to ask if dolphins experience aspects of consciousness. Recent investigations targeting self-recognition/self-awareness and metacognition, constructs tied to consciousness on some accounts, have analyzed the dolphin's ability to recognize itself in a mirror or on a video as well as to monitor its own knowledge in a perceptual categorization task. The current article reviews this work with dolphins and grapples with some of the challenges in designing, conducting, and interpreting these studies as well as with general issues related to studying consciousness in animals. The existing evidence does not provide a convincing case for consciousness in dolphins. For productive scientific work on consciousness in dolphins (and other animals including humans), we need clearer characterizations of consciousness, better methods for studying it, and appropriate paradigms for interpreting outcomes. A current focus on metamemory in animals offers promise for future discovery in this area.

  20. Toxoplasmosis in captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Mergl, J; Gehring, E; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Grigg, M E; Su, C; Martineau, D

    2009-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a sea aquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) tested. Two of these dolphins, as well as a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) at the facility, died. Encephalitis and T. gondii tissue cysts were identified in histological sections of the brain of 1 dolphin (dolphin no. 1). Another dolphin (dolphin no. 2) had mild focal encephalitis without visible organisms, but viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice and cats from its brain and skeletal muscle; this strain was designated TgDoCA1. The PCR-RFLP typing using 11 markers (B1, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) identified a Type II strain. The DNA sequencing of B1 and SAG1 alleles amplified from TgDoCA1 and directly from the brains of dolphin no. 1 and the walrus showed archetypal alleles consistent with infection by a Type II strain. No unique polymorphisms were detected. This is apparently the first report of isolation of T. gondii from a marine mammal in Canada.

  1. Stable isotopes differentiate bottlenose dolphins off west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barros, Nélio B.; Ostrom, P. H.; Stricker, Craig A.; Wells, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Distinguishing discrete population units among continuously distributed coastal small cetaceans is challenging and crucial to conservation. We evaluated the utility of stable isotopes in assessing group membership in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off west-central Florida by analyzing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope values (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) of tooth collagen from stranded dolphins. Individuals derived from three putative general population units: Sarasota Bay (SB), nearshore Gulf of Mexico (GULF), and offshore waters (OFF). Animals of known history (SB) served to ground truth the approach against animals of unknown history from the Gulf of Mexico (GULF, OFF). Dolphin groups differed significantly for each isotope. Average δ13C values from SB dolphins (−10.6‰) utilizing sea grass ecosystems differed from those of GULF (−11.9‰) and OFF (−11.9‰). Average δ15N values of GULF (12.7‰) and OFF (13.2‰) were higher than those of SB dolphins (11.9‰), consistent with differences in prey trophic levels. δ34S values showed definitive differences among SB (7.1‰), GULF (11.3‰), and OFF (16.5‰) dolphins. This is the first application of isotopes to population assignment of bottlenose dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico and results suggest that isotopes may provide a powerful tool in the conservation of small cetaceans.

  2. The Dolphin in the Mirror - A Familiar Face?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibble, Dianna Samuelson; Van Alstyne, Kaitlin Katie; Rohr, Jim; Ridgway, Sam

    2017-01-01

    We suggest how a basic physics problem becomes much richer when researchers of various disciplines converse. Our discussion explores Snell's window from the perspective of what a dolphin might see. An aperture, Snell's window, allows light to travel through the air-water interface. Outside this window, there is total reflection from under the water-air interface. Dolphins see through the aperture to follow our movements above the water's surface. When dolphins look outside the window, can they see their own reflections from under the water-air interface?

  3. Echolocation behavior of franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Failla, Mauricio; Iñíguez, Miguel A

    2012-06-01

    Franciscana dolphins are small odontocetes hard to study in the field. In particular, little is known on their echolocation behavior in the wild. In this study we recorded 357 min and analyzed 1019 echolocation signals in the Rio Negro Estuary, Argentina. The clicks had a peak frequency at 139 kHz, and a bandwidth of 19 kHz, ranging from 130 to 149 kHz. This is the first study describing echolocation signals of franciscana dolphins in the wild, showing the presence of narrow-band high frequency signals in these dolphins. Whether they use other vocalizations to communicate or not remains uncertain.

  4. Mine-hunting dolphins of the Navy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick W.

    1997-07-01

    Current counter-mine and obstacle avoidance technology is inadequate, and limits the Navy's capability to conduct shallow water (SW) and very shallow water (VSW) MCM in support of beach assaults by Marine Corps forces. Without information as to the location or density of mined beach areas, it must be assumed that if mines are present in one area then they are present in all areas. Marine mammal systems (MMS) are an unusual, effective and unique solution to current problems of mine and obstacle hunting. In the US Navy Mine Warfare Plan for 1994-1995 Marine Mammal Systems are explicitly identified as the Navy's only means of countering buried mines and the best means for dealing with close-tethered mines. The dolphins in these systems possess a biological sonar specifically adapted for their shallow and very shallow water habitat. Research has demonstrated that the dolphin biosonar outperforms any current hardware system available for SW and VSW applications. This presentation will cover current Fleet MCM systems and future technology application to the littoral region.

  5. Guyana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from Costa Rica emit whistles that vary with surface behaviors.

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura J

    2013-10-01

    Guyana dolphins show remarkable intraspecific whistle variation. This variation has been largely explained in terms of distance among populations; however, other factors such as behavior may also be important. A broadband recording system recorded the whistles of Guyana dolphins under three behavioral states. A discriminant analysis found that during social and travel events, dolphins emit whistles with high delta and minimum frequency, respectively. Whistle duration was also important in discriminating behaviors. This study indicates that behavior is an important factor contributing to whistle variation of Guyana dolphins. Understanding how dolphin whistles vary with behavioral context will advance our understanding of dolphin communication and enable appropriate comparative studies.

  6. Evaluation of Nine Consensus Indices in Delphi Foresight Research and Their Dependency on Delphi Survey Characteristics: A Simulation Study and Debate on Delphi Design and Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The extent of consensus (or the lack thereof) among experts in emerging fields of innovation can serve as antecedents of scientific, societal, investor and stakeholder synergy or conflict. Naturally, how we measure consensus is of great importance to science and technology strategic foresight. The Delphi methodology is a widely used anonymous survey technique to evaluate consensus among a panel of experts. Surprisingly, there is little guidance on how indices of consensus can be influenced by parameters of the Delphi survey itself. We simulated a classic three-round Delphi survey building on the concept of clustered consensus/dissensus. We evaluated three study characteristics that are pertinent for design of Delphi foresight research: (1) the number of survey questions, (2) the sample size, and (3) the extent to which experts conform to group opinion (the Group Conformity Index) in a Delphi study. Their impacts on the following nine Delphi consensus indices were then examined in 1000 simulations: Clustered Mode, Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Conger’s Kappa, De Moivre index, Extremities Version of the Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Fleiss’ Kappa, Mode, the Interquartile Range and Pairwise Agreement. The dependency of a consensus index on the Delphi survey characteristics was expressed from 0.000 (no dependency) to 1.000 (full dependency). The number of questions (range: 6 to 40) in a survey did not have a notable impact whereby the dependency values remained below 0.030. The variation in sample size (range: 6 to 50) displayed the top three impacts for the Interquartile Range, the Clustered Mode and the Mode (dependency = 0.396, 0.130, 0.116, respectively). The Group Conformity Index, a construct akin to measuring stubbornness/flexibility of experts’ opinions, greatly impacted all nine Delphi consensus indices (dependency = 0.200 to 0.504), except the Extremity CPWA and the Interquartile Range that were impacted only beyond the first decimal point (dependency

  7. Evaluation of Nine Consensus Indices in Delphi Foresight Research and Their Dependency on Delphi Survey Characteristics: A Simulation Study and Debate on Delphi Design and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The extent of consensus (or the lack thereof) among experts in emerging fields of innovation can serve as antecedents of scientific, societal, investor and stakeholder synergy or conflict. Naturally, how we measure consensus is of great importance to science and technology strategic foresight. The Delphi methodology is a widely used anonymous survey technique to evaluate consensus among a panel of experts. Surprisingly, there is little guidance on how indices of consensus can be influenced by parameters of the Delphi survey itself. We simulated a classic three-round Delphi survey building on the concept of clustered consensus/dissensus. We evaluated three study characteristics that are pertinent for design of Delphi foresight research: (1) the number of survey questions, (2) the sample size, and (3) the extent to which experts conform to group opinion (the Group Conformity Index) in a Delphi study. Their impacts on the following nine Delphi consensus indices were then examined in 1000 simulations: Clustered Mode, Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Conger's Kappa, De Moivre index, Extremities Version of the Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Fleiss' Kappa, Mode, the Interquartile Range and Pairwise Agreement. The dependency of a consensus index on the Delphi survey characteristics was expressed from 0.000 (no dependency) to 1.000 (full dependency). The number of questions (range: 6 to 40) in a survey did not have a notable impact whereby the dependency values remained below 0.030. The variation in sample size (range: 6 to 50) displayed the top three impacts for the Interquartile Range, the Clustered Mode and the Mode (dependency = 0.396, 0.130, 0.116, respectively). The Group Conformity Index, a construct akin to measuring stubbornness/flexibility of experts' opinions, greatly impacted all nine Delphi consensus indices (dependency = 0.200 to 0.504), except the Extremity CPWA and the Interquartile Range that were impacted only beyond the first decimal point (dependency = 0

  8. Cetaceans of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, C. R.; Pollock, C.; Cronin, C.; Taylor, S.

    2001-05-01

    Surveys carried out to the north and west of Scotland have recorded 15 species of cetacean between 1979 and 1998. These were fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus) , sei whale ( B. borealis) , minke whale ( B. acutorostrata) , humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae) , sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus) , northern bottlenose whale ( Hyperoodon ampullatus) , Sowerby's beaked whale ( Mesoplodon bidens) , killer whale ( Orcinus orca) , long-finned pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) , Atlantic white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) , white-beaked dolphin ( L. albirostris) , Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus) , bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) , common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) . Atlantic white-sided dolphin was the most abundant species in the region with a total of 6317 animals recorded. Harbour porpoise was the most frequently sighted cetacean species. The geographical distribution of sightings indicate that cetacean species have varying ecological requirements, with species such as sperm whale, pilot whale and white-sided dolphin favouring deep water off the continental shelf edge, while minke whale, white-beaked dolphin and harbour porpoise were apparently limited to the continental shelf. The diversity of species recorded in the region suggests that the Atlantic Frontier is an important habitat for cetaceans.

  9. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF DIRECT DRIVE STERLING 'DOLPHIN T' MODEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF DIRECT DRIVE STERLING 'DOLPHIN T' MODEL 4 CYLINDER, GASOLINE TRACTOR-TYPE ENGINE WITH FALKBIBBY FLEXIBLE COUPLING - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  10. Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck of ferry boat (YFB 87). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  12. Transmission beam characteristics of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam B; Kloepper, Laura N; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Wan-Hsiu; Jen, I-Fan; Rideout, Brendan P; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    The echolocation system of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) remains poorly studied compared to other odontocete species. In this study, echolocation signals were recorded from a stationary Risso's dolphin with an array of 16 hydrophones and the two-dimensional beam shape was explored using frequency-dependent amplitude plots. Click source parameters were similar to those already described for this species. Centroid frequency of click signals increased with increasing sound pressure level, while the beamwidth decreased with increasing center frequency. Analysis revealed primarily single-lobed, and occasionally vertically dual-lobed, beam shapes. Overall beam directivity was found to be greater than that of the harbor porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, and a false killer whale. The relationship between frequency content, beam directivity, and head size for this Risso's dolphin deviated from the trend described for other species. These are the first reported measurements of echolocation beam shape and directivity in G. griseus.

  13. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... injury of the western North Atlantic coastal bottlenose dolphin stock in specific Category I and Category... mesh gillnet gear longer than 1,000 feet (304.8 m). (ii) Medium mesh gillnets. From November 1...

  14. Left hemispheric advantage for numerical abilities in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Annette; von Fersen, Lorenzo; Güntürkün, Onur

    2005-02-28

    In a two-choice discrimination paradigm, a bottlenose dolphin discriminated relational dimensions between visual numerosity stimuli under monocular viewing conditions. After prior binocular acquisition of the task, two monocular test series with different number stimuli were conducted. In accordance with recent studies on visual lateralization in the bottlenose dolphin, our results revealed an overall advantage of the right visual field. Due to the complete decussation of the optic nerve fibers, this suggests a specialization of the left hemisphere for analysing relational features between stimuli as required in tests for numerical abilities. These processes are typically right hemisphere-based in other mammals (including humans) and birds. The present data provide further evidence for a general right visual field advantage in bottlenose dolphins for visual information processing. It is thus assumed that dolphins possess a unique functional architecture of their cerebral asymmetries.

  15. The Delphi Technique Used in Laser Incident Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Delphi method is a name that has been applied to a technique used for the elicitation of opinions with the object of obtaining a group response of a...lists and analyzing ranked responses. The Delphi technique was considered to be the optimal method for the limited amount of time available for data...are reported. In order to identify patterns of injuries, best evaluation methods , and successful techniques for protection, it is important to

  16. Dolphin hearing during echolocation: evoked potential responses in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee

    2011-06-15

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses were recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) trained to accept suction-cup EEG electrodes and detect targets by echolocation. AEP recording was triggered by the echolocation clicks of the animal. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28 and -22 dB were used at a target distance of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The results demonstrated that the AEP appeared to both outgoing echolocation clicks and echoes during echolocation, with AEP complexes consisting of alternative positive and negative waves. The echo-related AEP amplitudes were obviously lower than the outgoing click-related AEP amplitudes for all the targets at the investigated target distances. However, for targets with target strengths of -22 and -28 dB, the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the echo-related AEPs were dependent on the target distances. The echo-related AEP response amplitudes increased at further target distances, demonstrating an overcompensation of echo attenuation with target distance in the echo-perception system of the dolphin biosonar. Measurement and analysis of outgoing click intensities showed that the click levels increased with target distance (R) by a factor of approximately 10 to 17.5 logR depending on target strength. The results demonstrated that a dual-component biosonar control system formed by intensity compensation behavior in both the transmission and receiving phases of a biosonar cycle exists synchronously in the dolphin biosonar system.

  17. Accumulation of organotin compounds in tissues and organs of dolphins from the coasts of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Harino, Hiroya; Ohji, Madoka; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Adulyanukosol, Karnjana; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of organotin (OT) in seven species of dolphin (bottlenose dolphin, finless porpoise, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin, long-beaked common dolphin, Pantropical spotted dolphin, spinner dolphin, and striped dolphin), which were stranded on the coasts of Thailand, were measured. Butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT) compounds in tissues and organs of the dolphins were in the range of 16-1,152 microg kg(-1) and <1-62 microg kg(-1), respectively. The highest concentration of tributyltin (TBT) was generally observed in the liver. Because of the lower concentration of TPT, a trend in body distribution was not observed. Monobutyltin (MBT) among all the BTs was the dominant species in tissues and most organs except the liver. However, dibutyltin (DBT) was predominant in the liver. Monophenyltin (MPT) was not detected in all dolphins in the study. The higher concentration of BTs was observed with the increase in body length of dolphins. On the other hand, no significant difference in the concentration of OTs between genders was observed. The concentrations of OTs in tissues and organs were compared among dolphin, whales, and dugongs stranded on the coasts of Thailand. The concentrations of BTs were high and in the order of whales > dugongs > dolphins and the concentrations of PTs in whales were higher than those in dolphins and dugongs.

  18. 78 FR 48467 - Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions... workers of Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, Original Equipment... of ] Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, including on-site...

  19. Hearing loss in stranded odontocete dolphins and whales.

    PubMed

    Mann, David; Hill-Cook, Mandy; Manire, Charles; Greenhow, Danielle; Montie, Eric; Powell, Jessica; Wells, Randall; Bauer, Gordon; Cunningham-Smith, Petra; Lingenfelser, Robert; DiGiovanni, Robert; Stone, Abigale; Brodsky, Micah; Stevens, Robert; Kieffer, George; Hoetjes, Paul

    2010-11-03

    The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significant hearing deficits with a reduction in sensitivity equivalent to severe (70-90 dB) or profound (>90 dB) hearing loss in humans. The only stranded short-finned pilot whale examined had profound hearing loss. No impairments were detected in seven Risso's dolphins from three different stranding events, two pygmy killer whales, one Atlantic spotted dolphin, one spinner dolphin, or a juvenile Gervais' beaked whale. Hearing impairment could play a significant role in some cetacean stranding events, and the hearing of all cetaceans in rehabilitation should be tested.

  20. Sound variation and function in captive Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yayoi M; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Sakai, Mai; Iwasaki, Mari; Wakabayashi, Ikuo; Seko, Atsushi; Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-10-01

    Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii), one of the smallest dolphin species, has been reported to produce only narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) clicks and no whistles. To clarify their sound repertoire and examine the function of each type, we analysed the sounds and behaviour of captive Commerson's dolphins in Toba Aquarium, Japan. All recorded sounds were NBHF clicks with peak frequency >110kHz. The recorded click-trains were categorised into four types based on the changing pattern of their Inter-click intervals (ICI): Decreasing type, with continuously decreasing ICI during the last part of the train; Increasing type, with continuously increasing ICI during the last part; Fluctuating type, with fluctuating ICI; and Burst-pulse type, with very short and constant ICI. The frequency of the Decreasing type increased when approaching an object newly introduced to the tank, suggesting that the sound is used for echolocation on approach. The Burst-pulse type suddenly increased in front of the object and was often oriented towards it, suggesting that it was used for echolocation in close proximity to the object. In contrast, the Increasing type was rarely recorded during approach, but increased when a dolphin approached another dolphin. The Increasing and Burst-pulse types also increased when dolphins began social behaviours. These results suggest that some NBHF clicks have functions other than echolocation, such as communication.

  1. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    PubMed

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  2. 78 FR 25530 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN... of the vessel BLUE DOLPHIN is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Skippered daysailing in...

  3. Measuring and Validating Levels of Steroid Hormones in the Skin of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    the Skin of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Thea Bechshoft Aarhus University Bioscience Roskilde Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358...of, in skin from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a) the influence of age and sex on progestagens, estrogens, and androgens, b) the...skin by use of an ACTH challenge in bottlenose dolphins ” (Award Number: N000141310771). The dolphins will be sampled as part of an ongoing out- of water

  4. Association of an unusual marine mammal mortality event with Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Blooms along the southern California coastline.

    PubMed

    de la Riva, Gretel Torres; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Gulland, Frances M D; Langlois, Gregg W; Heyning, John E; Rowles, Teri K; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2009-01-01

    During 2002, 2,239 marine mammals stranded in southern California. This unusual marine mammal stranding event was clustered from April to June and consisted primarily of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and long-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus capensis) with severe neurologic signs. Intoxication with domoic acid (DA), a marine neurotoxin produced during seasonal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia spp., was suspected. Definitively linking harmful algal blooms to large-scale marine mammal mortalities presents a substantial challenge, as does determining the geographic extent, species composition, and potential population impacts of marine mammal die-offs. For this reason, time series cross-correlation analysis was performed to test the temporal correlations of Pseudo-nitzschia blooms with strandings occurring along the southern California coastline. Temporal correlations were identified between strandings and blooms for California sea lions, long-beaked common dolphins, and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Similar correlations were identified for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus), but small sample sizes for these species made associations more speculative. The timing of the blooms and strandings of marine mammals suggested that both inshore and offshore foraging species were affected and that marine biotoxin programs should include offshore monitoring sites. In addition, California sea lion-strandings appear to be a very sensitive indicator of DA in the marine environment, and their monitoring should be included in public health surveillance plans.

  5. DELPHI: An introduction to output layout and data content

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.

    1994-08-16

    DELPHI was the data summary and interpretation code used by gas diagnostics personnel during the period from 1968 through 1986. It was written by Floyd Momyer, and went through several revisions during its period of use. Described here is the final version, which provided the most extensive set of summary tables. Earlier versions of the code lacked some of the capabilities of the final version, but what they did include was of substantially the same format. DELPHI was run against most available input decks in the mid 1980s. Microfiche and hardcopy output were generated. Both now reside in our archives. These reruns used modified input decks, which may not have had the proper {open_quotes}trigger{close_quotes} to instruct DELPHI to output some tables. These tables could, therefore be missing from a printout even though the necessary data was present. Also, modifications to DELPHI did, in some instances, eliminate DELPHIs` capability to correctly output some of the earlier optional tables. This monologue is intended to compliment the archived printout, and to provide enough insight so that someone unfamiliar with the techniques of Gas Diagnostics can retrieve the results at some future date. DELPHI last ran on the CDC-7600 machines, and was not converted to run on the Crays when the CDC-7600`s were decommissioned. DELPHI accepted data from various analytical systems, set up data summary tables, and combined preshot tracer and detector data with these results to calculate the total production of measured species and the indicated fission yields and detector conversions.

  6. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  7. 77 FR 45268 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan AGENCY: National Marine... Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) and its implementing regulations by permanently continuing nighttime... November 1 through April 30. Members of the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Team (Team) recommended...

  8. Dolphin Therapy: The Playful Way to Work toward the Next Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermer, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    More than 400 children with a physical and/or mental challenge visit the Curacao Dolphin Therapy and Research Center (CDTC) for dolphin-assisted therapy every year. Dolphin therapy appears to be the right approach for many children. With the help of these special and very social animals, it is easier to make contact with the children. It motivates…

  9. Dolphins Can Maintain Vigilant Behavior through Echolocation for 15 Days without Interruption or Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  10. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Finneran, James J; Fletcher, Elizabeth A; Weisman, Brian C; Ridgway, Sam H

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation.

  11. Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.

    PubMed

    Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site.

  12. 75 FR 41521 - Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Plant 6, Currently Known as General Motors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Chemicals, Interim Physicians, LLC and HSS Material Management, Flint, MI; Delphi Corporation, Automotive..., Flint, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and..., Flint, Michigan and Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Plant 2, including on-site...

  13. 75 FR 41521 - Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Instrument Cluster Plant, Currently Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Instrument Cluster Plant..., 2007, applicable to workers of Delphi Corporation, Automotive Holding Group, Instrument Cluster Plant... Holding Group, Instrument Cluster Plant, currently known as General Motors Corporation, Flint,...

  14. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Larry Chick; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann

    2003-05-20

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW SOFC power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: 1. Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A). 2. Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This topical report covers work performed by Delphi Automotive Systems from January through June 2002 under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: 1. System Design and Integration 2. SOFC Stack Development 3. Reformer Development The next anticipated Technical Progress Report will be submitted January 30, 2003 and will include tasks contained within the cooperative agreement including development work on the Demonstration System A, if available.

  15. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney

    2003-06-09

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

  16. Delphi technique used in laser incident surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Krystyn R.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Neal, Thomas A.

    2004-07-01

    There are several data sources for collecting laser incidents. All reviewed sources collect information differently for varying purposes. An effort was undertaken to combine laser exposure reporting data into a single database so that trends in laser incidents could be identified. A review of available datasets revealed significant disparities in laser exposure reporting. As a result, utilizing the existing database to predict personnel at increased risk for laser exposure and injury is challenging if not impossible. For example, many of the data sources do not contain information about physical examinations, diagnosis, or medical follow-up, which are important for studying laser injury outcomes. This study proposes using the Delphi Technique to identify relevant fields that should be collected for a laser incident database based on the experiences of three groups of United States Air Force (USAF) professionals: (1) Engineers (Bioenvironmental Engineers), (2) Health Physicists, and (3) Physicians (Ophthalmologists and Flight Surgeons). In broad terms, these three professional groups coordinate laser incident analyses and investigations. Knowing what information is most important for studying laser incidents is the first step in establishing an effective database that will assist in identifying occupations that are at high-risk for laser injury. Robust data sets obtained for analysis by these healthcare professionals can be an effective tool for laser injury prevention and management.

  17. Evaluation of Potential Protective Factors Against Metabolic Syndrome in Bottlenose Dolphins: Feeding and Activity Patterns of Dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins. PMID:24133483

  18. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins:feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  19. Cooperative prey herding by the pelagic dolphin, Stenella longirostris.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Au, Whitlow W L

    2009-01-01

    Sonar techniques were used to quantitatively observe foraging predators and their prey simultaneously in three dimensions. Spinner dolphins foraged at night in highly coordinated groups of 16-28 individuals using strict four-dimensional patterns to increase prey density by up to 200 times. Herding exploited the prey's own avoidance behavior to achieve food densities not observed otherwise. Pairs of dolphins then took turns feeding within the aggregation that was created. Using a proxy estimate of feeding success, it is estimated that each dolphin working in concert has more access to prey than it would if feeding individually, despite the costs of participating in the group maneuvers, supporting the cooperation hypothesis. Evidence of a prey density threshold for feeding suggests that feedback from the environment may be enough to favor the evolution of cooperation. The remarkable degree of coordination shown by foraging spinner dolphins, the very strict geometry, tight timing, and orderly turn taking, indicates the advantage conferred by this strategy and the constraints placed upon it. The consistent appearance of this behavior suggests that it may be a critical strategy for energy acquisition by spinner dolphins in energy poor featureless environments in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

  20. Learning from nature: bottlenose dolphin care and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Wells, Randall S

    2009-11-01

    The world's longest-running study of a wild dolphin population, operated by the Chicago Zoological Society since 1989, has focused on the multi-generational resident community of about 160 bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, since 1970. Observational and capture-release research on the biology, behavior, life history, ecology, and health of individually identifiable bay residents of up to 59 years of age and spanning five generations has helped to inform collection managers at the Brookfield Zoo and partner institutions. Age, sex, and genetic compositions of colonies at cooperating institutions have been based on observations of social structure and genetic paternity testing in Sarasota Bay to optimize breeding success. Breeding success, including calf survivorship, is evaluated relative to individual wild dolphin reproductive histories, spanning as many as nine calves and four decades. Individual rearing patterns for wild dolphins provide guidance for determining how long to keep mothers and calves together, and help to define the next steps in the calves' social development. Health assessments provide data on expected ranges of blood, milk and urine values, morphometrics, and body condition relative to age, sex, and reproductive condition. Calf growth can be compared with wild values. Target weights and blubber thicknesses for specific age and sex classes in specified water temperatures are available for wild dolphins, and caloric intakes can be adjusted accordingly to meet the targets. A strength of the program is the ability to monitor individuals throughout their lives, and to be able to define individual ranges of variability through ontogenetic stages.

  1. 78 FR 48468 - Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site... to workers of Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, including on-site leased workers... Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division. The Department has determined that these...

  2. Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Durden, Wendy Noke; St Leger, Judy; Stolen, Megan; Mazza, Teresa; Londono, Catalina

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to document the presence of the fungal granulomatous skin disease lacaziosis in stranded Indian River Lagoon (IRL) bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). From 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2007, stranded dolphins from the northern part of the IRL were thoroughly examined, and appropriate tissue samples were collected. The intralesional fungal agent (Lacazia loboi) was identified histologically in three bottlenose dolphins. Histologically, lacaziosis has been previously documented in IRL dolphins inhabiting the southern portion of the lagoon. Our findings suggest that the disease occurs throughout the lagoon. Enhanced monitoring of the prevalence of lacaziosis in dolphins throughout the IRL is needed to assess changes in population health.

  3. Patterns of Dolphin Bycatch in a North-Western Australian Trawl Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Simon J.; Tyne, Julian A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel - one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day – the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) - the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  4. Patterns of dolphin bycatch in a north-western Australian trawl fishery.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Tyne, Julian A; Kobryn, Halina T; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H; Loneragan, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel--one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day--the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs)--the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  5. Defining Multimorbidity: From English to Portuguese Using a Delphi Technique

    PubMed Central

    Prazeres, Filipe; Santiago, Luiz Miguel; Simões, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To translate the European General Practice Research Network multimorbidity definition according to Portuguese cultural and linguistic features. Methods. Similar to the process completed in several other European countries, a forward and backward translation of the English multimorbidity definition using the Delphi technique was performed in Portugal. Results. Twenty-three general practitioners (GPs)—14 males and 9 females—agreed to form the Portuguese expert panel for the Delphi process (59% acceptance rate). The Portuguese definition of multimorbidity was achieved after two Delphi rounds with a mean (SD) consensus score for final round of 8.43/9 (0.73). Conclusion. With this paper the definition of multimorbidity is now available in a new language—Portuguese. Its availability in the local language will raise Portuguese GPs' awareness about multimorbidity and allow future national and international research. The operationalization of the definition will allow an easier identification of patients with multimorbidity. PMID:26682225

  6. The development of a position statement using the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Gruber, M

    1993-10-01

    The need to develop practice-related documents in an accurate, efficient, and economical manner is the responsibility of the Board of Directors of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates (SGNA). When the results of large, randomized, controlled, clinical trials are available, documents can be based on the information published in scientific literature. GI nursing, however, is in a novice phase regarding controlled research trials; thus, other methods of obtaining reliable information are required. The Delphi technique was selected to obtain the consensus of experts. The Delphi technique enables a free and open exchange of ideas while respecting the economics of a deficit budget. This article describes the Delphi process and the manner in which it was used to prepare the SGNA position statement, "Responsibilities of the Gastroenterology Registered Nurse related to Conscious Sedation."

  7. A comparison of pectoral fin contact behaviour for three distinct dolphin populations.

    PubMed

    Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Gregg, Justin D; Paulos, Robin D; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2010-06-01

    Tactile exchanges involving the pectoral fin have been documented in a variety of dolphin species. Several functions (e.g., social, hygienic) have been offered as possible explanations for when and why dolphins exchange pectoral fin contacts. In this study, we compared pectoral fin contact between dolphin dyads from three distinct dolphin populations: two groups of wild dolphins; Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan; and one group of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) residing at the Roatan Institute for Marine Sciences, Anthony's Key Resort. A number of similarities were observed between the captive and wild groups, including; rates of pectoral fin contact, which dolphin initiated contact, posture preference, and same-sex rubbing partner preference. Unlike their wild counterparts, however, dolphins in the captive study group engaged in petting and rubbing at equal rates, females were more likely to contact males, males assumed the various rubbing roles more frequently than females, and calves and juveniles were more likely to be involved in pectoral fin contact exchanges. These results suggest that some aspects of pectoral fin contact behaviour might be common to many dolphin species, whereas other aspects could be species specific, or could be the result of differing environmental and social conditions.

  8. Heart pathologies in dolphins stranded along the northwestern Italian coast.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Bollo, E; Pregel, P; Chiappino, L; Sereno, A; Mignone, W; Moschi, R; Garibaldi, F; Tittarelli, C; Guarda, F

    2013-11-25

    Nine striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba and 1 bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus stranded along the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy were necropsied between February 2011 and April 2012. Macroscopic and histological findings were observed in the hearts of all animals and included saccular aneurysms of the pulmonary trunk (n = 3), cirsoid aneurysms (n = 1), right ventricular dilation (n = 1) associated with hypoplasia of the tricuspid chordae (n = 1), valvular fibrosis (n = 3), mitral leaflet thickening (n = 1), left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 1), lymphocytic myocarditis (n =1), and Lambl's excrescences (n = 4). To our best knowledge Lambl's excrescences, aneurysm of the pulmonary trunk, and cirsoid aneurysms have not previously been described in marine mammals, and some of these findings should be taken into account as possible causes of dolphin morbidity, mortality, and stranding.

  9. MYCOBACTERIUM ABSCESSUS PNEUMONIA IN AN ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Leigh Ann; Stamper, M. Andrew; Whitaker, Brent R.; Hadfield, Catherine A.; Simons, Brian; Mankowski, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia was diagnosed antemortem in a 23-yr-old male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Clinical signs included lethargy, hyporexia, coughing, and bloody respiratory discharge. Diagnostic findings included neutrophilic leukocytosis, anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and repeated forceful exhaled breath (sputum) cytology, with acute inflammatory cells and acid-fast positive beaded rods. The bacteria were initially identified free in the sputum sample and subsequently were seen within neutrophils. A culture was positive for a rapidly growing, white, colony-forming organism confirmed as M. abscessus by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Clinical signs initially resolved with multidrug therapy. Concurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection complicated clinical management and contributed to terminal decline. The dolphin was euthanized 5 mo after initial diagnosis. Necropsy results demonstrated acid-fast positive bacteria in lung tissue and supported the diagnosis of M. abscessus pneumonia. Acid-fast stains and mycobacteria cultures should be considered when evaluating ill dolphins. PMID:23272373

  10. Nucleic acid hybridization analyses confirm the presence of a hitherto unknown morbillivirus in Mediterranean dolphins.

    PubMed

    Bolt, G; Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1994-08-15

    In 1990 an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus was noticed among Mediterranean dolphins. RNA was extracted from the tissues of dolphins and from cell cultures infected with a corresponding dolphin morbillivirus isolate. By nucleic acid hybridization this RNA was compared to RNA extracted from animal tissue or cell cultures infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV) or measles virus (MV). The presence of morbillivirus RNA in the dolphin tissue was demonstrated. Morbillivirus N, P, M and F gene mRNAs were detected in the RNA from dolphin morbillivirus infected cells. These mRNA species seemed to be of approximately the same size as the corresponding mRNA species of CDV, PDV and MV. The results of the comparison demonstrated that the dolphin morbillivirus is genetically different from CDV, PDV and MV. No indication of a close relationship between the dolphin isolate and either CDV, PDV or MV was found.

  11. Audiogram of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; Hagedoorn, Monique; Au, Whitlow W. L.; de Haan, Dick

    2003-02-01

    The underwater hearing sensitivity of a striped dolphin was measured in a pool using standard psycho-acoustic techniques. The go/no-go response paradigm and up-down staircase psychometric method were used. Auditory sensitivity was measured by using 12 narrow-band frequency-modulated signals having center frequencies between 0.5 and 160 kHz. The 50% detection threshold was determined for each frequency. The resulting audiogram for this animal was U-shaped, with hearing capabilities from 0.5 to 160 kHz (8 13 oct). Maximum sensitivity (42 dB re 1 μPa) occurred at 64 kHz. The range of most sensitive hearing (defined as the frequency range with sensitivities within 10 dB of maximum sensitivity) was from 29 to 123 kHz (approximately 2 oct). The animal's hearing became less sensitive below 32 kHz and above 120 kHz. Sensitivity decreased by about 8 dB per octave below 1 kHz and fell sharply at a rate of about 390 dB per octave above 140 kHz.

  12. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system

  13. Discriminating features of echolocation clicks of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and Gray's spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris).

    PubMed

    Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A; Roch, Marie A; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-10-01

    Spectral parameters were used to discriminate between echolocation clicks produced by three dolphin species at Palmyra Atoll: melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Gray's spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris). Single species acoustic behavior during daytime observations was recorded with a towed hydrophone array sampling at 192 and 480 kHz. Additionally, an autonomous, bottom moored High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package (HARP) collected acoustic data with a sampling rate of 200 kHz. Melon-headed whale echolocation clicks had the lowest peak and center frequencies, spinner dolphins had the highest frequencies and bottlenose dolphins were nested in between these two species. Frequency differences were significant. Temporal parameters were not well suited for classification. Feature differences were enhanced by reducing variability within a set of single clicks by calculating mean spectra for groups of clicks. Median peak frequencies of averaged clicks (group size 50) of melon-headed whales ranged between 24.4 and 29.7 kHz, of bottlenose dolphins between 26.7 and 36.7 kHz, and of spinner dolphins between 33.8 and 36.0 kHz. Discriminant function analysis showed the ability to correctly discriminate between 93% of melon-headed whales, 75% of spinner dolphins and 54% of bottlenose dolphins.

  14. LIVER ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN DOLPHINS: USE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY TO ESTABLISH A TECHNIQUE FOR HEPATOBILIARY IMAGING AND TO EVALUATE METABOLIC DISEASE-ASSOCIATED LIVER CHANGES IN BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS).

    PubMed

    Seitz, Kelsey E; Smith, Cynthia R; Marks, Stanley L; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Ivančić, Marina

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive technique for ultrasound examination of the dolphin hepatobiliary system and apply this technique to 30 dolphins to determine what, if any, sonographic changes are associated with blood-based indicators of metabolic syndrome (insulin greater than 14 μIU/ml or glucose greater than 112 mg/dl) and iron overload (transferrin saturation greater than 65%). A prospective study of individuals in a cross-sectional population with and without elevated postprandial insulin levels was performed. Twenty-nine bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) in a managed collection were included in the final data analysis. An in-water ultrasound technique was developed that included detailed analysis of the liver and pancreas. Dolphins with hyperinsulinemia concentrations had larger livers compared with dolphins with nonelevated concentrations. Using stepwise, multivariate regression including blood-based indicators of metabolic syndrome in dolphins, glucose was the best predictor of and had a positive linear association with liver size (P = 0.007, R(2) = 0.24). Bottlenose dolphins are susceptible to metabolic syndrome and associated complications that affect the liver, including fatty liver disease and iron overload. This study facilitated the establishment of a technique for a rapid, diagnostic, and noninvasive ultrasonographic evaluation of the dolphin liver. In addition, the study identified ultrasound-detectable hepatic changes associated primarily with elevated glucose concentration in dolphins. Future investigations will strive to detail the pathophysiological mechanisms for these changes.

  15. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Dans, Silvana Laura; Degrati, Mariana; Pedraza, Susana Noemí; Crespo, Enrique Alberto

    2012-08-01

    In Patagonia, Argentina, watching dolphins, especially dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), is a new tourist activity. Feeding time decreases and time to return to feeding after feeding is abandoned and time it takes a group of dolphins to feed increase in the presence of boats. Such effects on feeding behavior may exert energetic costs on dolphins and thus reduce an individual's survival and reproductive capacity or maybe associated with shifts in distribution. We sought to predict which behavioral changes modify the activity pattern of dolphins the most. We modeled behavioral sequences of dusky dolphins with Markov chains. We calculated transition probabilities from one activity to another and arranged them in a stochastic matrix model. The proportion of time dolphins dedicated to a given activity (activity budget) and the time it took a dolphin to resume that activity after it had been abandoned (recurrence time) were calculated. We used a sensitivity analysis of Markov chains to calculate the sensitivity of the time budget and the activity-resumption time to changes in behavioral transition probabilities. Feeding-time budget was most sensitive to changes in the probability of dolphins switching from traveling to feeding behavior and of maintaining feeding behavior. Thus, an increase in these probabilities would be associated with the largest reduction in the time dedicated to feeding. A reduction in the probability of changing from traveling to feeding would also be associated with the largest increases in the time it takes dolphins to resume feeding. To approach dolphins when they are traveling would not affect behavior less because presence of the boat may keep dolphins from returning to feeding. Our results may help operators of dolphin-watching vessels minimize negative effects on dolphins.

  16. Computational Modeling of the Dolphin Kick in Competitive Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebbeck, A.; Mark, R.; Bhanot, G.

    2005-11-01

    Numerical simulations are being used to study the fluid dynamics of the dolphin kick in competitive swimming. This stroke is performed underwater after starts and turns and involves an undulatory motion of the body. Highly detailed laser body scans of elite swimmers are used and the kinematics of the dolphin kick is recreated from videos of Olympic level swimmers. We employ a parallelized immersed boundary method to simulate the flow associated with this stroke in all its complexity. The simulations provide a first of its kind glimpse of the fluid and vortex dynamics associated with this stroke and hydrodynamic force computations allow us to gain a better understanding of the thrust producing mechanisms.

  17. Learning in human-dolphin interactions at zoological facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Diane L.

    This research aimed to better understand learning in zoological settings, particularly learning about marine mammals, by investigating the research question, what do people learn through interacting with dolphins in zoological facilities? Sociocultural situated learning theory, specifically a Community of Practice (CoP) model of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991), was the theoretical framework. The CoP model allowed for diversity of knowledge, interest, motivations, and goals that existed among the community of animal enthusiasts at three commercial zoological facilities, and also for peripheral to more central types of participation. I collected data through interviews of spectators, visitors, and trainers (n=51), observations (n=16), and an online questionnaire of past-visitors (n=933). Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed based on the National Science Foundation's (Friedman, 2008) and the National Research Council's (2009) frameworks for informal science education. Five principal findings answered the research question. First, all participants gained new knowledge within three broad categories: (a) dolphin physiology and natural history, (b) care and training of dolphins, and (c) conservation. Second, all participants constructed personal meanings by connecting the activity to experiences, beliefs, and practices outside the interaction context. Almost all participants made associations with conservation. Third, most participants shifted their attitudes and gained a sense of personal agency about beginning or increasing stewardship actions. Fourth, visitors learned interspecies etiquette skills; trainers learned skills in dolphin training and management, people management, and teaching. Fifth, visitors had long-lasting memories of the experience that occurred eight months to 18 years in the past. Popular cultural ideas about dolphins and the ways the dolphins were represented influenced visitors' expectations and the types of learning. Potential physical

  18. Delphi analysis: a technique for identifying and ranking environmental and natural resource policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leitch, J.A.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    A Delphi-type survey and a consensus-building workshop were carried out to identify the most significant natural resource issues and problems emerging in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain states. Approximately 107 issues initially were identified through a literature search and an inquiry Delphi round. Delphi round enabled the list to be narrowed to 25 issues. While consensus was found on the top 25 issues as a group, neither the Delphi panel nor the workshop participants agreed on the top five. Specific issues related to water and energy comprised the majority of those identified as most significant. Overall, the Delphi method appears to be a powerful and flexible tool for evaluating emerging environmental issues and problems. The analysis suggests that Delphi findings are quite robust with respect to minor changes in panel composition. Delphi thus appears to be an approach that may find increasing application in environmental policy analysis. 11 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

    PubMed Central

    Takaesu, Azusa; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Takai, Shinji; Sasaki, Yukako; Orino, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit). Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas). The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98) ; L: 98–100%). The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed. PMID:18954429

  20. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats.

  1. Expert Consensus on Characteristics of Wisdom: A Delphi Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Ardelt, Monika; Blazer, Dan; Kraemer, Helena C.; Vaillant, George; Meeks, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Wisdom has received increasing attention in empirical research in recent years, especially in gerontology and psychology, but consistent definitions of wisdom remain elusive. We sought to better characterize this concept via an expert consensus panel using a 2-phase Delphi method. Design and Methods: A survey questionnaire comprised 53…

  2. How to Use the Delphi Technique to Forecast Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of current techniques for forecasting trends and planning ways in which training can facilitate technology and human resource change--trend extrapolation, scenario forecasting, relevance trees, and technology assessment--is followed by a discussion of the Delphi Technique, its development, advantages and disadvantages, and how the…

  3. The Delphi Process: Some Assumptions and Some Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, James S.

    The effectiveness of the Delphi Technique is evaluated in terms of immediate and delayed controlled information feedback (feedback within 5 seconds as compared with a 24-hour delay); and the relationships that exist among measures of integrative complexity, estimations about the time of occurrence of future events, and time delay between task…

  4. Identifying Quality Indicators of SAE and FFA: A Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Charles Cordell, III; Kitchel, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine quality indicators for SAE and FFA according to 36 experts across the United States. This is a part of a larger study looking at all components of the traditional three-circle model. The study utilized the Delphi technique to garner expert opinion about quality indicators in Agricultural Education. For…

  5. Reinforcement of Science Learning through Local Culture: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the ways to reinforce science learning through local culture by using Delphi technique. Twenty four participants in various fields of study were selected. The result of study provides a framework for reinforcement of science learning through local culture on the theme life and environment. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Why Do Student Nurses Leave? Suggestions from a Delphi Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Lynn; Fulbrook, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups and interviews gathered professional opinions about why students leave nursing; results were formulated into a questionnaire administered to 32 students in a three-round Delphi. Factors contributing to attrition included theory-practice gap, university-clinical site relationships, unmet expectations, stress, and not feeling valued.…

  7. Electronic-Imen-Delphi (EID): An Online Conferencing Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Sharbat, Aviva

    2000-01-01

    Examines the efficiency of the Imen-Delphi (ID) technique as an electronic procedure for conferencing that helps participants clarify their opinions and expectations regarding preferable and possible futures. Describes an electronic version of the original ID procedure and tested its efficiency among a group of experts on virtual reality and…

  8. A Delphi Study: The Characteristics of Democratic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, H. Eylem; Erden, Münire

    2014-01-01

    The authors aim to identify characteristics of democratic schools. The Delphi technique used in this study is based on attaining a consensus among a group of experts over 3 rounds with 22 experts from 9 countries participating in the first round. By the end of the third round, 339 items referring to democratic school characteristics were…

  9. A Delphi Study to Update CTE Teacher Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, R. Adam; Zinser, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to create a contemporary taxonomy of Career and Technical Education (CTE) teacher competencies in order to evaluate and improve CTE teacher education. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilized a modified Delphi technique with a large sample of CTE experts--teachers, administrators, and…

  10. The Delphi: Education and Assessment in Institutional Goal Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Linda S.

    1985-01-01

    The use of delphi techniques in a school of osteopathic medicine is described to assess and change faculty perceptions of institutional goals and needs such as curriculum orientation, campus design and location, faculty personnel policy, teaching and instructional evaluation, student characteristics and admission policies, and administrative…

  11. Magnitude Discrimination Index: A Merger of Delphi Assumptions and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    The advantages of the Delphi Technique are that it relies on collective expert judgment, prevents the excessive influence in decision-making of those in positions of status, and encourages consensus. The technique consists of five steps: (1) asking experts to list items relevant to a topic; (2) returning the list to the participants and asking…

  12. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  13. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Lori; Hofer, Amy R.; Hanick, Silvia Lin; Brunetti, Korey

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts--core ideas and processes in a discipline that students need to grasp in order to progress in their learning, but that are often unspoken or unrecognized by expert practitioners--for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions:…

  14. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  15. Establishing a Research Agenda for Art Therapy: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Donna; Deaver, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Art therapy in the United States is a young profession that would benefit from an identified research agenda to marshal resources more effectively to address gaps in the knowledge base. This article describes a Delphi study of U.S. art therapy researchers who were surveyed on research priorities for the profession. The research panelists were…

  16. Delphi technique in environmental assessment. I. Implementation and effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Richey, J.S.; Mar, B.W.; Horner, R.R.

    1985-09-01

    The effectiveness with which a panel of experts, operating within the context of a Delphi technique, could be used to develop information for use in environmental monitoring program design and environmental decision-making was investigated. The Delphi technique was evaluated to determine selection criteria for an expert panel, how many panelists are necessary, what types of information can be considered effectively, and how many iterations are necessary. Small panels consisting of less than 10 individuals representing a variety of areas of experiences appeared sufficient for developing information about conceptual or philosophical issues. Neither large (e.g. 60 persons) nor small panels were effective for considering factual or data-based issues. Two iterations (i.e. an initial questionnaire with one follow-up) were adequate to determine the panel consensus. The costs of this implementation were compared with two other information-gathering techniques, the nominal group technique and retention of expert consultants. The costs of implementing the Delphi technique were between 10 and 60% of the costs of the two other methods. The Delphi method can provide an alternative or complementary means of accessing expert opinion at a reasonable cost. 9 references, 2 tables.

  17. Spectacular Education with Programming Plain Multimedia Elements in Delphi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menyhárt, László

    2011-01-01

    I present a witty solution in this article about how we may obtain data simply and cheaply from physical experiments, with which we can do counting, as well. To this interdisciplinary task I turn to Delphi for help, in which we can program a digital video as a multimedia element. I show an example from the programming of plain multimedia elements…

  18. Open Educational Resources: A Delphi Study of Instructional Design Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Marnice K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this modified Delphi research study was to investigate instructional designers' beliefs about the instructional strategies and activities to be included in a universal framework for designing quality, self-directed, multimedia, open educational resources (OERs). With the rapid growth of availability and use of OERs by a widely…

  19. Issues Facing Urban Agriscience Teachers: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Wendy J.; Washburn, Shannon G.

    2009-01-01

    This national study used the Delphi technique to identify the issues facing urban agriscience teachers. The first round of the study used a questionnaire with one open-ended question to generate responses from the expert panel. In the second round, respondents were asked to rate their level of agreement with 72 issues identified in round one using…

  20. Secondary Engineering Competencies: A Delphi Study of Engineering Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kara S.; Rogers, George E.

    2008-01-01

    The central purpose of this study was to expand upon previous research in relation to competencies that are desired by university engineering faculty in their incoming freshman. This study used a Delphi technique as noted by Paige, Dugger, and Wolansky (1996) and Wicklein (1993) to identify and analyze what secondary education competencies should…

  1. Helping Competencies of Student Affairs Professionals: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather student affairs professionals' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed to effectively help students. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the United States were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the helping skills they use…

  2. Successful and Unsuccessful Multicultural Supervisory Behaviors: A Delphi Poll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Jeana L.; Consoli, Andres J.; Kim, Bryan S.K.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    2007-01-01

    Using the Delphi method, university counseling center supervisors with significant experience in multicultural supervision generated and ranked elements of successful and unsuccessful multicultural supervision. Twenty-seven of 35 successful elements and 24 of 33 unsuccessful elements involved cultural considerations. Multicultural supervision was…

  3. Experimental Assessment of Delphi Procedures with Group Value Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalkey, Norman C.; Rourke, Daniel L.

    This report describes the results of an experiment assessing the appropriateness of Delphi procedures for formulating group value judgments. Two groups of subjects--upperclass and graduate students from UCLA--were asked to generate and rate value categories relating to higher education and the quality of life. The initial lists (300 and 250 items…

  4. Clinicoimmunopathologic findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Romano, Tracy A; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Schaefer, Adam; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli D; Rice, Charles D; Fair, Patricia A; Cray, Carolyn; Reif, John S

    2014-02-04

    Sera from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and coastal waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, were tested for antibodies to Chlamydiaceae as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. A suite of clinicoimmunopathologic variables was evaluated in Chlamydiaceae-seropositive dolphins (n = 43) and seronegative healthy dolphins (n = 83). Fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, and absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and basophils were significantly higher, and serum bicarbonate, total alpha globulin, and alpha-2 globulin were significantly lower in dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae titers compared with seronegative healthy dolphins. Several differences in markers of innate and adaptive immunity were also found. Concanavalin A-induced T lymphocyte proliferation, lipopolysaccharide-induced B lymphocyte proliferation, and granulocytic phagocytosis were significantly lower, and absolute numbers of mature CD 21 B lymphocytes, natural killer cell activity and lysozyme concentration were significantly higher in dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers compared to seronegative healthy dolphins. Additionally, dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers had significant increases in ELISA antibody titers to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. These data suggest that Chlamydiaceae infection may produce subclinical clinicoimmunopathologic perturbations that impact health. Any potential subclinical health impacts are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, as past studies have indicated that both dolphin populations are affected by other complex infectious and neoplastic diseases, often associated with immunologic perturbations and anthropogenic contaminants.

  5. Clinicoimmunopathologic findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with positive cetacean morbillivirus antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Romano, Tracy A; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Schaefer, Adam; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli D; Rice, Charles D; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2011-12-06

    Sera from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida were tested for antibodies to cetacean morbilliviruses from 2003 to 2007 as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. A suite of clinicoimmunopathologic variables were evaluated in morbillivirus-seropositive dolphins (n = 14) and seronegative healthy dolphins (n = 49). Several important differences were found. Serum alkaline phosphatase, creatine phosphokinase, chloride, albumin and albumin/globulin ratios were significantly lower in seropositive dolphins. Innate immunity appeared to be upregulated with significant increases in lysozyme concentration and marginally significant increases in monocytic phagocytosis. Adaptive immunity was also impacted in dolphins with positive morbillivirus antibody titers. Mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation responses were significantly reduced in dolphins with positive morbillivirus antibody titers, and marginally significant decreases were found for absolute numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes. The findings suggest impairment of cell-mediated adaptive immunity, similar to the immunologic pattern reported with acute morbillivirus infection in other species. In contrast, dolphins with positive morbillivirus antibody titers appeared to have at least a partially upregulated humoral immune response with significantly higher levels of gamma globulins than healthy dolphins, which may represent an antibody response to morbillivirus infection or other pathogens. These data suggest that subclinical dolphin morbillivirus infection in IRL dolphins may produce clinicoimmunopathologic perturbations that impact overall health.

  6. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  7. How to use the nominal group and Delphi techniques.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Sara S; King, Michelle; Tully, Mary P

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and Delphi Technique are consensus methods used in research that is directed at problem-solving, idea-generation, or determining priorities. While consensus methods are commonly used in health services literature, few studies in pharmacy practice use these methods. This paper provides an overview of the NGT and Delphi technique, including the steps involved and the types of research questions best suited to each method, with examples from the pharmacy literature. Methodology The NGT entails face-to-face discussion in small groups, and provides a prompt result for researchers. The classic NGT involves four key stages: silent generation, round robin, clarification and voting (ranking). Variations have occurred in relation to generating ideas, and how 'consensus' is obtained from participants. The Delphi technique uses a multistage self-completed questionnaire with individual feedback, to determine consensus from a larger group of 'experts.' Questionnaires have been mailed, or more recently, e-mailed to participants. When to use The NGT has been used to explore consumer and stakeholder views, while the Delphi technique is commonly used to develop guidelines with health professionals. Method choice is influenced by various factors, including the research question, the perception of consensus required, and associated practicalities such as time and geography. Limitations The NGT requires participants to personally attend a meeting. This may prove difficult to organise and geography may limit attendance. The Delphi technique can take weeks or months to conclude, especially if multiple rounds are required, and may be complex for lay people to complete.

  8. The Metabolic Cost of Click Production in Bottlenose Dolphins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Dolphins Marla M. Holt and Dawn P. Noren NOAA NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center 2725 Montlake Blvd. East Seattle, WA 98112 phone: (206) 860...Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center,2725 Montlake Blvd. East,Seattle,WA,98112 8. PERFORMING

  9. Dolphin Morbillivirus Infection in a Captive Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds. PMID:23224101

  10. Development of specific cytokine and Chemokine ELISAs for Bottlenose Dolphins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier detection of changes in the health status of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) is expected to further improve their medical care. Cytokines and chemokines are critical mediators of the cellular immune response, and studies have suggested that these molecules may serve as important bio...

  11. Assistive Technology and Dolphin Therapy: A Wonderful Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eli; Thomasson, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    Madison is a four-year-old child who was born with cerebral palsy and cortical vision impairment. As a result, she has limited use of her extremities and is just starting to walk with assistance. She is predominately non-verbal, with the exception of a few words. This article describes how Island Dolphin Care (IDC), a nonprofit agency in Key…

  12. Pioneer Black Woman Superintendent: Velma Dolphin Ashley, 1944-1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revere, Amie B.

    1989-01-01

    This article profiles Velma Dolphin Ashley, a Black woman educator who served as superintendent of schools in Boley (Oklahoma) from 1944 to 1956. During her superintendency, Ashley was responsible for instructional activities in a correctional institution for delinquent Black youth, as well as for administering the all-Black school district. (AF)

  13. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys > 90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antib...

  14. Epidermal growth in the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.D.; St. Aubin, D.J.; Geraci, J.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1985-07-01

    Epidermal growth in two mature female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, was investigated by following the movement of a cohort of tritiated thymidine-labeled epidermal cells for 59 days. The majority of the cells migrated in a cluster which was estimated to reach the skin surface in 73 days. The authors calculate that the outermost cell layer is sloughed 12 times per day. Turnover time and sloughing rate are estimated to be 1.7 times longer and 8.5 times faster than the respective values for epidermal cell kinetics in humans. This apparent inconsistency of slow transit time and rapid sloughing rate is reconciled by the convoluted structure of the stratum germinativum in the dolphin which results in a ratio of germinatival to superficial cells of 876:1. The stratum germinativum of dolphin epidermis appears to lack morphologically distinct, spatially segregated subpopulations of anchoring and stem cells. Dolphin epidermis has a large capacity for cell population, relatively long turnover time, and rapid sloughing rate. The adaptive advantages of these characteristics are discussed.

  15. Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term social memory is important, because it is an ecologically relevant test of cognitive capacity, it helps us understand which social relationships are remembered and it relates two seemingly disparate disciplines: cognition and sociality. For dolphins, long-term memory for conspecifics could help assess social threats as well as potential social or hunting alliances in a very fluid and complex fission–fusion social system, yet we have no idea how long dolphins can remember each other. Through a playback study conducted within a multi-institution dolphin breeding consortium (where animals are moved between different facilities), recognition of unfamiliar versus familiar signature whistles of former tank mates was assessed. This research shows that dolphins have the potential for lifelong memory for each other regardless of relatedness, sex or duration of association. This is, to my knowledge, the first study to show that social recognition can last for at least 20 years in a non-human species and the first large-scale study to address long-term memory in a cetacean. These results, paired with evidence from elephants and humans, provide suggestive evidence that sociality and cognition could be related, as a good memory is necessary in a fluid social system. PMID:23926160

  16. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    stimulation experiments, an animal’s hormonal and physiological response to a simulated stressor can be evaluated. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive...will determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  17. Behavioral response of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) to vessel traffic.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sai Leung; Leung, Sze

    2003-12-01

    A series of land-based surveys were conducted at two vantage points of known dolphin abundance in Hong Kong. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral response of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) to vessel traffic. Results indicated that dolphins dove for a longer duration in areas of heavy vessel traffic or when there was the presence of an oncoming vessel. Dependent upon the type of vessel and the relative distance, dolphins might flee, continue their ongoing activity, perform a new activity, or approach the vessel. Whilst slow-moving vessels appeared not to cause immediate stress on the dolphin community, fast-moving vessels often cause disruption of behavior and social life. In order to ensure a better environment for the animals, we suggest that proactive conservation measures such as the creation of a marine park, rules and regulations for dolphin watching activities, and regional control of vessel speed should be implemented.

  18. A New Dolphin Species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., Endemic to Southern Australian Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically ‘the southern Australian Tursiops’ was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical ‘southern form of Tursiops’ most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of ‘Burrunan Dolphin’ following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats

  19. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Managed Dolphin Population Dorian S. Houser National Marine Mammal Foundation 2240 Shelter Island Drive, #200 San Diego, CA 92107 phone: (877...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population 5a. CONTRACT...objectives of this effort are to: 1) determine the variation in corticosteroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and catecholamines within a dolphin

  20. Pathophysiology of Stress in Wild and Managed-Care Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    N0001412IP20006 / N0001411IP20081 http://www.chbr.noaa.gov Gregory D. Bossart, V.M.D., Ph.D. and Al Dove, Ph.D. Georgia Aquarium 225 Baker Street NW...managed-care Georgia Aquarium bottlenose dolphins) to characterize multiple stress markers This subtask was completed in 2012. A 12 month sample...collection period of dolphins from Georgia Aquarium (group 1) was completed in August 2012. Samples were obtained from 9 individual dolphins with

  1. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    in open-ocean (Navy dolphins) and contained systems ( Georgia Aquarium ). On a bimonthly schedule, eleven additional blood tubes and saliva samples...quantify and qualify the impact of environmental stressors on wild dolphins. The dolphins under managed care are from the Georgia Aquarium and the...Jolla, CA 92037 phone: (858) 546-7090 email: Nick.Kellar@noaa.gov Tracy Romano Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration Mystic, CT

  2. Pathophysiology of Stress in Wild and Managed-Care Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    N0001411IP20081 / N0001412IP20006 http://www.chbr.noaa.gov Gregory D. Bossart, V.M.D., Ph.D. Georgia Aquarium 225 Baker Street NW Atlanta, GA 30313... Aquarium bottlenose dolphins) to characterize multiple stress markers A 12 month sample collection period of dolphins from Georgia Aquarium was...Group 1 Georgia Aquarium dolphins and the Group 2 Navy animals and analyses of these will follow completion of the Group 3 IRL samples. SUBTASK 10

  3. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    CA 92037 phone: (858) 546-7090 email: Nick.Kellar@noaa.gov Tracy Romano Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration Mystic, CT phone...care in order to quantify and qualify the impact of environmental stressors on wild dolphins. The dolphins under managed care are from the Georgia ... Aquarium and the Navy Marine Mammal Program. A subset of the dolphins used in the current study (PI – Houser) are used as the semi-domesticated

  4. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Jolla, CA 92037 phone: (858) 546-7090 email: Nick.Kellar@noaa.gov Tracy Romano Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration Mystic, CT...in order to quantify and qualify the impact of environmental stressors on wild dolphins. The dolphins under managed care are from the Georgia ... Aquarium and the Navy Marine Mammal Program. Ten of the dolphins used in Task 1 of the current study (PI – Houser) were used as the semi-domesticated

  5. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance.

    PubMed

    Bejder, Lars; Samuels, Amy; Whitehead, Hal; Gales, Nick; Mann, Janet; Connor, Richard; Heithaus, Mike; Watson-Capps, Jana; Flaherty, Cindy; Krützen, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Studies evaluating effects of human activity on wildlife typically emphasize short-term behavioral responses from which it is difficult to infer biological significance or formulate plans to mitigate harmful impacts. Based on decades of detailed behavioral records, we evaluated long-term impacts of vessel activity on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Australia. We compared dolphin abundance within adjacent 36-km2 tourism and control sites, over three consecutive 4.5-year periods wherein research activity was relatively constant but tourism levels increased from zero, to one, to two dolphin-watching operators. A nonlinear logistic model demonstrated that there was no difference in dolphin abundance between periods with no tourism and periods in which one operator offered tours. As the number of tour operators increased to two, there was a significant average decline in dolphin abundance (14.9%; 95% CI=-20.8 to -8.23), approximating a decline of one per seven individuals. Concurrently, within the control site, the average increase in dolphin abundance was not significant (8.5%; 95% CI=-4.0 to +16.7). Given the substantially greater presence and proximity of tour vessels to dolphins relative to research vessels, tour-vessel activity contributed more to declining dolphin numbers within the tourism site than research vessels. Although this trend may not jeopardize the large, genetically diverse dolphin population of Shark Bay, the decline is unlikely to be sustainable for local dolphin tourism. A similar decline would be devastating for small, closed, resident, or endangered cetacean populations. The substantial effect of tour vessels on dolphin abundance in a region of low-level tourism calls into question the presumption that dolphin-watching tourism is benign.

  6. Can bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) cooperate when solving a novel task?

    PubMed

    Kuczaj, Stan A; Winship, Kelley A; Eskelinen, Holli C

    2015-03-01

    Cooperative behavior has been observed in cetacean species in a variety of situations, including foraging, mate acquisition, play, and epimeletic behavior. However, it has proven difficult to demonstrate cooperative behavior among dolphins in more controlled settings. Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in this study were exposed to a task that could most easily be solved if dolphins cooperated. Six dolphins were provided opportunities to solve the task and had to learn to do so without human intervention or training. Two adult males consistently and spontaneously jointly interacted in order to most efficiently open a container that contained fish by pulling on ropes at the ends of the container. Their interaction was viewed as cooperative because each dolphin pulled on their respective ropes in the opposite direction, which resulted in one end of the container opening. The dolphins did not show aggression toward one another while solving the task, and both dolphins consumed the food after the container was opened. They also engaged in synchronous non-aggressive behaviors with the container after the food had been consumed. It is possible that some of the remaining four dolphins would have cooperated, but the two successful dolphins were dominant males and their interest in the apparatus appeared to preclude other animals from participating.

  7. The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Eric M.; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By ‘sponge foraging’ ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  8. Dolphins as animal models for type 2 diabetes: sustained, post-prandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Carlin, Kevin; Ridgway, Sam

    2011-01-01

    There is currently no known natural animal model that fully complements type 2 diabetes in humans. Criteria for a true natural animal model include the presence of a fasting hyperglycemia, evidence of insulin resistance, and pathologies matching that reported in humans. To investigate the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a comparative model for type 2 diabetes in humans, hourly plasma and urine chemistry changes, including glucose, were analyzed among five healthy, adult dolphins for 24 h following ingestion of 2.5-3.5 kg of mackerel or 2-3 L of 10% dextrose in ionosol. Fasting and 2 h post-prandial insulin levels were also determined among five adult dolphins to assess the presence of hyperinsulinemia. Finally, a case-control study compared insulin and glucagon levels among dolphins with and without iron overload, a condition associated with insulin resistance in humans. Both protein and dextrose meals caused significant increases in plasma glucose during the 0-5 h post-prandial period; dolphins fed dextrose demonstrated a sustained hyperglycemia lasting 5-10 h. Fasting plasma insulin levels among healthy dolphins mimicked those found in humans with some insulin resistance. Dolphins with hemochromatosis had higher post-prandial plasma insulin levels compared to controls. We conclude that bottlenose dolphins can demonstrate metabolic responses consistent with type 2 diabetes, specifically sustained hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Understanding more about how and why dolphins have a diabetes-like metabolism may provide new research avenues for diabetes in humans.

  9. Cognitive enrichment for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evaluation of a novel underwater maze device.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Davies, Samuel L; Madigan, Andrew W; Warner, Abby J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enrichment is gaining popularity as a tool to enhance captive animal well-being, but research on captive cetaceans is lacking. Dolphin cognition has been studied intensively since the 1950s, and several hundred bottlenose dolphins are housed in major zoos and aquaria worldwide, but most dolphin enrichment consists of simple floating objects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel, underwater maze device (UMD) was cognitively enriching for one group of male and one group of female dolphins at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, CA. The dolphin's task was to navigate a rubber ball through a maze of pipes, towards an exit pipe. We also tested a modification where an edible gelatine ball fell into the pool once the UMD was solved. The UMD was provided to each group between 8 and 11 times over a 4-week period. Male dolphins used the UMD without prior training, whereas females did not use the UMD at all. Two male dolphins solved the UMD 17 times, using a variety of problem-solving strategies. The UMD had no significant effect on circular (repetitive) swimming patterns, but males spent significantly more time underwater when the UMD was present. Males used the UMD significantly more when it contained the rubber ball, but the gelatine ball stimulated social play. The UMD is a safe and practical device for captive dolphins. It now requires further testing on other dolphins, particularly females, to in order to examine whether the sex differences we observed are a general phenomenon.

  10. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The ‘drive hunting’ of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 ‘bottlenose’ dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  11. The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Eric M; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild.

  12. Dolphin underwater bait-balling behaviors in relation to group and prey ball sizes.

    PubMed

    Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin L; Muzi, Elisa; Richardson, Jessica L; Fox, Gabriella J; Hansen, Lauren N; Salley, Alyce M; Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Würsig, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    We characterized dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) feeding behaviors recorded on underwater video, and related behaviors to variation in prey ball sizes, dolphin group sizes, and study site (Argentina versus New Zealand, NZ). Herding behaviors most often involved dolphins swimming around the side or under prey balls, but dolphins in Argentina more often swam under prey balls (48% of passes) than did dolphins in NZ (34% of passes). This result may have been due to differences in group sizes between sites, since groups are larger in Argentina. Additionally, in NZ, group size was positively correlated with proportion of passes that occurred under prey balls (p<0.001). Prey-capture attempts most often involved capturing fish from the side of prey balls, but dolphins in Argentina more often swam through prey balls (8% of attempts) than did dolphins in NZ (4% of attempts). This result may have been due to differences in prey ball sizes between sites, since dolphins fed on larger prey balls in Argentina (>74m(2)) than in NZ (maximum 33m(2)). Additionally, in NZ, dolphins were more likely to swim through prey balls to capture fish when they fed on larger prey balls (p=0.025).

  13. Humpback Dolphins (Genus Sousa) in India: An Overview of Status and Conservation Issues.

    PubMed

    Sutaria, Dipani; Panicker, Divya; Jog, Ketki; Sule, Mihir; Muralidharan, Rahul; Bopardikar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to collate recent work done by different research teams along the Indian coast and presents research plans for the conservation and management of the genus Sousa in Indian waters. Humpback dolphins are the most common nearshore cetaceans found along the Indian coast. The taxonomy is confused, but two or more species of humpback dolphins may be present in India. Dedicated research on humpback dolphins and other cetaceans has been initiated only in the past few years and vast gaps in the ecology and conservation of the genus from the region remain. Dedicated and opportunistic research indicates that humpback dolphin presence is continuous along the west coast of India, owing to the contiguous favourable habitat of shallow nearshore waters, while along the east coast humpback dolphins are apparently found in pockets. Humpback dolphins are also the most numerous in incidental catch records from the coast, owing to the large overlap in space use with nearshore fisheries like small gillnets, trawls, shore seines and purse seines. Along many coastal sites, humpback dolphins are known to cause damage and depredation of fish catch of certain fishing gears, making them unpopular. At the same time, many fishers along the west coast have developed local dolphin-watching programmes as an alternate source of livelihood, providing positive impetus for conservation. However, research on the long-term effects of dolphin watching and its management is required. Some recommendations for more effective management of this species are made.

  14. Measurement of hydrodynamic force generation by swimming dolphins using bubble DPIV.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E; Legac, Paul; Williams, Terrie M; Wei, Timothy

    2014-01-15

    Attempts to measure the propulsive forces produced by swimming dolphins have been limited. Previous uses of computational hydrodynamic models and gliding experiments have provided estimates of thrust production by dolphins, but these were indirect tests that relied on various assumptions. The thrust produced by two actively swimming bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was directly measured using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). For dolphins swimming in a large outdoor pool, the DPIV method used illuminated microbubbles that were generated in a narrow sheet from a finely porous hose and a compressed air source. The movement of the bubbles was tracked with a high-speed video camera. Dolphins swam at speeds of 0.7 to 3.4 m s(-1) within the bubble sheet oriented along the midsagittal plane of the animal. The wake of the dolphin was visualized as the microbubbles were displaced because of the action of the propulsive flukes and jet flow. The oscillations of the dolphin flukes were shown to generate strong vortices in the wake. Thrust production was measured from the vortex strength through the Kutta-Joukowski theorem of aerodynamics. The dolphins generated up to 700 N during small amplitude swimming and up to 1468 N during large amplitude starts. The results of this study demonstrated that bubble DPIV can be used effectively to measure the thrust produced by large-bodied dolphins.

  15. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  16. The myth and reality of Gray's paradox: implication of dolphin drag reduction for technology.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E

    2006-06-01

    The inconsistency for the calculated high drag on an actively swimming dolphin and underestimated muscle power available resulted in what has been termed Gray's paradox. Although Gray's paradox was flawed, it has been the inspiration for a variety of drag reduction mechanisms. This review examines the present state of knowledge of drag reduction specific to dolphins. Streamlining and special behaviors provide the greatest drag reduction for dolphins. Mechanisms to control flow by maintaining a completely laminar boundary layer over the body have not been demonstrated for dolphins.

  17. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (<30m), coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific oceans. Abundance and trends have only been studied in a few areas, mostly in eastern Africa, China, and northern Australia. No global, empirically derived abundance estimates exist for any of the four species, but none appear to number more than about 20,000 individuals. Humpback dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are

  18. Basic concepts and architectural details of the Delphi trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Bocci, V.; Booth, P.S.L.; Bozzo, M. |

    1995-08-01

    Delphi (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is one of the four experiments of the LEP (Large Electron Positron) collider at CERN. The detector is laid out to provide a nearly 4 {pi} coverage for charged particle tracking, electromagnetic, hadronic calorimetry and extended particle identification. The trigger system consists of four levels. The first two are synchronous with the BCO (Beam Cross Over) and rely on hardwired control units, while the last two are performed asynchronously with respect to the BCO and are driven by the Delphi host computers. The aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive global view of the trigger system architecture, presenting in detail the first two levels, their various hardware components and the latest modifications introduced in order to improve their performance and make more user friendly the whole software user interface.

  19. Characteristics and classification of nanoparticles: expert Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    Berube, David; Cummings, Christopher; Cacciatore, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram; Kalin, Jason

    2011-06-01

    Research needs assessment regarding environmental health and safety (EHS) of nanoparticles is problematic. Generating benchmark data to assess research and policy initiatives seems daunting. This study's findings present more granular and qualitative assessments of expert preferences and concerns. This three-round Delphi study elicits expert estimations of problematic nanoparticle characteristics and classifications from a sample of nanoscience experts in chemistry, EHS policy, engineering, environmental toxicology, and human toxicology (n = 18). The Delphi method is a forecasting tool designed for expert evaluation of events under high degrees of uncertainty. Results demonstrate high concordance indicating favorable consensus among the sample concerning characteristics and classifications of nanoparticles that are potentially or actually problematic to EHS. These findings establish a benchmark for future investigations of expert preferences and concerns.

  20. Verification of a Quality Management Theory: Using a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: A model of quality management called Strategic Collaborative Quality Management (SCQM) model was developed based on the quality management literature review, the findings of a survey on quality management assessment in healthcare organisations, semi-structured interviews with healthcare stakeholders, and a Delphi study on healthcare quality management experts. The purpose of this study was to verify the SCQM model. Methods: The proposed model was further developed using feedback from thirty quality management experts using a Delphi method. Further, a guidebook for its implementation was prepared including a road map and performance measurement. Results: The research led to the development of a context-specific model of quality management for healthcare organisations and a series of guidelines for its implementation. Conclusion: A proper model of quality management should be developed and implemented properly in healthcare organisations to achieve business excellence. PMID:24596883

  1. Identifying the features of an exercise addiction: A Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Lucy; Owens, Glynn; Cruz, Borja del Pozo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There remains limited consensus regarding the definition and conceptual basis of exercise addiction. An understanding of the factors motivating maintenance of addictive exercise behavior is important for appropriately targeting intervention. The aims of this study were twofold: first, to establish consensus on features of an exercise addiction using Delphi methodology and second, to identify whether these features are congruous with a conceptual model of exercise addiction adapted from the Work Craving Model. Methods A three-round Delphi process explored the views of participants regarding the features of an exercise addiction. The participants were selected from sport and exercise relevant domains, including physicians, physiotherapists, coaches, trainers, and athletes. Suggestions meeting consensus were considered with regard to the proposed conceptual model. Results and discussion Sixty-three items reached consensus. There was concordance of opinion that exercising excessively is an addiction, and therefore it was appropriate to consider the suggestions in light of the addiction-based conceptual model. Statements reaching consensus were consistent with all three components of the model: learned (negative perfectionism), behavioral (obsessive–compulsive drive), and hedonic (self-worth compensation and reduction of negative affect and withdrawal). Conclusions Delphi methodology allowed consensus to be reached regarding the features of an exercise addiction, and these features were consistent with our hypothesized conceptual model of exercise addiction. This study is the first to have applied Delphi methodology to the exercise addiction field, and therefore introduces a novel approach to exercise addiction research that can be used as a template to stimulate future examination using this technique. PMID:27554504

  2. UTC Power/Delphi SECA CBS Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Michael; Kerr, Rich

    2013-04-04

    The subject report summarizes the results of solid oxide fuel cell development conducted by UTC Power in conjunction with Delphi Automotive Systems under a cost-share program with from October 2008 through March of 2013. Over that period Delphi Automotive Systems developed a nearly four times larger area solid oxide fuel cell stack capable of operating on pre-reformed natural gas and simulated coal gas with durability demonstrated to 5,000 hours and projected to exceed 10,000 hours. The new stack design was scaled to 40-cell stacks with power output in excess of 6.25kW. Delphi also made significant strides in improving the manufacturability, yield and production cost of these solid oxide fuel cells over the course of the program. Concurrently, UTC Power developed a conceptual design for a 120 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) operating on coal syngas with as high as 57% Higher Heating Value (HHV) efficiency as a measure of the feasibility of the technology. Subsequently a 400 kW on-site system preliminary design with 55% Lower Heating Value (LHV) efficiency operating on natural gas was down-selected from eighteen candidate designs. That design was used as the basis for a 25kW breadboard power plant incorporating four Delphi cell stacks that was tested on natural gas before the program was discontinued due to the sale of UTC Power in early 2013. Though the program was cut short of the endurance target of 3,000 hours, many aspects of the technology were proven including: large-area, repeatable cell manufacture, cell stack operation on simulated coal gas and natural gas and integrated power plant operation on natural gas. The potential of the technology for high efficiency stationary electric power generation is clear. Acceptable production costs, durability, and reliability in real world environments are the remaining challenges to commercialization.

  3. Identifying the features of an exercise addiction: A Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Lucy; Owens, Glynn; Cruz, Borja Del Pozo

    2016-09-01

    Objectives There remains limited consensus regarding the definition and conceptual basis of exercise addiction. An understanding of the factors motivating maintenance of addictive exercise behavior is important for appropriately targeting intervention. The aims of this study were twofold: first, to establish consensus on features of an exercise addiction using Delphi methodology and second, to identify whether these features are congruous with a conceptual model of exercise addiction adapted from the Work Craving Model. Methods A three-round Delphi process explored the views of participants regarding the features of an exercise addiction. The participants were selected from sport and exercise relevant domains, including physicians, physiotherapists, coaches, trainers, and athletes. Suggestions meeting consensus were considered with regard to the proposed conceptual model. Results and discussion Sixty-three items reached consensus. There was concordance of opinion that exercising excessively is an addiction, and therefore it was appropriate to consider the suggestions in light of the addiction-based conceptual model. Statements reaching consensus were consistent with all three components of the model: learned (negative perfectionism), behavioral (obsessive-compulsive drive), and hedonic (self-worth compensation and reduction of negative affect and withdrawal). Conclusions Delphi methodology allowed consensus to be reached regarding the features of an exercise addiction, and these features were consistent with our hypothesized conceptual model of exercise addiction. This study is the first to have applied Delphi methodology to the exercise addiction field, and therefore introduces a novel approach to exercise addiction research that can be used as a template to stimulate future examination using this technique.

  4. Thin gap gas chambers for the DELPHI endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; Hrubec, J.

    1996-12-31

    Thin Gap Gas Chambers have been proposed for an upgrade of the endcaps of the DELPHI detector at LEP. Two full size chambers have been built and a study of the optimal operating conditions has been carried out. In this paper the main construction parameters are discussed and test results will be given. Tests of the electronic readout were performed and the general feasibility of the detector is demonstrated.

  5. Using Delphi technique in a consensual curriculum for periodontics.

    PubMed

    Fried, Hana; Leao, Anna Thereza

    2007-11-01

    Periodontics has experienced several important conceptual changes in the last few decades. As such, it is important to have a periodontics curriculum built upon the expertise of specialists in that discipline and reflecting those changes. The main goal of this study was to attain a consensus, through the use of the Delphi technique, on the topics that should be included in a periodontics curriculum for undergraduate dental students. A sample of periodontics lecturers from nine dental schools in two Brazilian cities was used, and a Delphi technique approach was followed to investigate sample member perceptions on the subject. Participants received four postal mail questionnaires asking them to rate and rerate eighty-nine topics for possible inclusion in the curriculum. A descriptive analysis was conducted, and topic frequencies were calculated. Topics rated as highly important for inclusion were the following: health, ailment, prevention, etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The Delphi technique approach proved successful in involving periodontics lecturers in the design of a periodontics curriculum for undergraduate dental students.

  6. Validating the Novel Method of Measuring Cortisol Levels in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins Thea Bechshoft Aarhus University Bioscience Roskilde Frederiksborgvej...using skin samples collected from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The dolphins will be sampled as part of an ongoing out-of water stress test...N000141110436. The stress test in brief: Each dolphin is asked to perform a routine, voluntary beach into a padded beaching tray. Immediately following

  7. Validating the Novel Method of Measuring Cortisol Levels in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Levels in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Novel Method of Measuring Cortisol Levels in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins Thea Bechshoft Aarhus University...method (Bechshoft et al. Submitted) using skin samples collected from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The dolphins will be sampled as part

  8. Sound-conducting mechanisms for echolocation hearing of a dolphin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Vyacheslav A.

    2005-09-01

    The morphological study of the lower jaw of a dolphin (Tursiops truncatus p.), and the modeling and calculation of its structures from the acoustic point of view have been conducted. It was determined that the cross-sectional area of the mandibular canal (MC) increases exponentially. The MC represents the acoustical horn. The mental foramens (MFs) is positioned in the horn throat, representing the nonequidistant array of waveguide delay lines (NAWDL). The acoustical horn ensures the traveling wave conditions inside the MC and intensifies sonar echoes up to 1514 times. This ``ideal'' traveling wave antenna is created by nature, representing the combination of the NAWDL and the acoustical horn. The dimensions and sequence of morphological structures of the lower jaw are optimal both for reception and forming the beam pattern, and for the amplification and transmission of sonar echoes up to the bulla tympani. Morphological structures of the lower jaw are considered as components of the peripheral section of the dolphin echolocation hearing.

  9. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  10. Propulsive efficiency of the underwater dolphin kick in humans.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Fish, Frank; Mark, Russell

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensional fully unsteady computational fluid dynamic simulations of five Olympic-level swimmers performing the underwater dolphin kick are used to estimate the swimmer's propulsive efficiencies. These estimates are compared with those of a cetacean performing the dolphin kick. The geometries of the swimmers and the cetacean are based on laser and CT scans, respectively, and the stroke kinematics is based on underwater video footage. The simulations indicate that the propulsive efficiency for human swimmers varies over a relatively wide range from about 11% to 29%. The efficiency of the cetacean is found to be about 56%, which is significantly higher than the human swimmers. The computed efficiency is found not to correlate with either the slender body theory or with the Strouhal number.

  11. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency.

  12. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth. Nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally.

  13. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  14. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Next to them on a rock is an osprey eating a fish. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth. Nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The lagoon also has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America.

  15. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and one of several dolphins looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  16. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  17. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A gray and a white pelican glide down to the water near a dolphin and cormorant in the turn basin to search for a meal in the fish- teeming water. Sea gulls also approach. The turn basin, which is east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

  18. Dredging displaces bottlenose dolphins from an urbanised foraging patch.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Laesser, Barbara Eva; Hardaker, Andrea; Riddoch, Nicholas; Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-09-15

    The exponential growth of the human population and its increasing industrial development often involve large scale modifications of the environment. In the marine context, coastal urbanisation and harbour expansion to accommodate the rising levels of shipping and offshore energy exploitation require dredging to modify the shoreline and sea floor. While the consequences of dredging on invertebrates and fish are relatively well documented, no study has robustly tested the effects on large marine vertebrates. We monitored the attendance of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to a recently established urbanised foraging patch, Aberdeen harbour (Scotland), and modelled the effect of dredging operations on site usage. We found that higher intensities of dredging caused the dolphins to spend less time in the harbour, despite high baseline levels of disturbance and the importance of the area as a foraging patch.

  19. Recurrent umbilical cord accidents in a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    García-Párraga, Daniel; Brook, Fiona; Crespo-Picazo, José Luís; Alvaro, Teresa; Valls, Mónica; Penadés, Mariola; Ortega, Joaquín; Corpa, Juan Manuel

    2014-02-19

    Three successive umbilical cord accidents (UCAs) were diagnosed in the same female bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus during consecutive gestations. In 2 of these, transabdominal ultrasonographic examination revealed coiling of the UC around the peduncle of the foetus. All 3 foetuses were male, died in utero during the last third of gestation and were spontaneously aborted. The 3 UCs were elongated, flattened and congested. For 3 subsequent pregnancies, a different sire was used for mating, handling protocols and treatments were adjusted, and 3 live female calves were successfully delivered. UC lengths were normal. UCAs are associated with excessively long UCs and are not uncommon in humans and horses but are unusual in other species. We believe this is the first detailed report of recurrent UCAs in a dolphin.

  20. Habitat use by a freshwater dolphin in the low-water season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braulik, Gill T.; Reichert, Albert P.; Ehsan, Tahir; Khan, Samiullah; Northridge, Simon P.; Alexander, Jason S.; Garstang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    1. Many river dolphin populations are most vulnerable during the low-water season when habitat is limited. Indus River dolphin habitat selection in the dry season was investigated using Generalized Linear Models of dolphin distribution and abundance in relation to physical features of river geomorphology and channel geometry in cross-section. 2. Dolphins selected locations in the river with significantly greater mean depth, maximum depth, cross-sectional area, and hydraulic radius, and significantly narrower river width and a lower degree of braiding than areas where dolphins were absent. They were also recorded with higher frequency at river constrictions and at confluences. 3. Channel cross-sectional area was the most important factor affecting dolphin presence and abundance, with the area of water below 1 m in depth exerting the greatest influence. Indus dolphins avoided channels with small cross-sectional area (2), presumably owing to the risk of entrapment and reduced foraging opportunities. 4. Channel geometry had a greater ability to explain dolphin distribution than river geomorphology; however, both analyses indicated similar types of habitat selection. The dolphin–habitat relationships identified in the river geomorphology analysis were scale-dependent, indicating that dolphin distribution is driven by the occurrence of discrete small-scale features, such as confluences and constrictions, as well as by broader-scale habitat complexes. 5. There are numerous plans to impound or extract more water from the Indus River system. If low-water season flows are allowed to decrease further, the amount of deeper habitat will decline, there may be insufficient patches of suitable habitat to support the dolphin population through the low-water season, and dolphins may become isolated within deeper river sections, unable or unwilling to traverse through shallows between favourable patches of habitat.

  1. Multiple populations of pantropical spotted dolphins in Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Courbis, Sarah; Baird, Robin W; Cipriano, Frank; Duffield, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Understanding gene flow and dispersal patterns is important for predicting effects of natural events and anthropogenic activities on animal populations. In Hawaii, most species of odontocetes are managed as single populations. Recent exceptions include false killer whales, spinner dolphins, and common bottlenose dolphins, for which studies have shown fidelity to individual islands or groups of islands. Our study focused on pantropical spotted dolphins. We analyzed mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci from 101 individuals from 4 areas: Hawaii, Maui/Lanai, Oahu, and Kauai/Niihau. We examined F ST, F' ST, R ST, Jost's D, and ΦST and used TESS to estimate number of populations and assignment probabilities. Our results support genetic differentiation among Hawaii, Maui/Lanai, and Oahu and suggest that pantropical spotted dolphins near Kauai/Niihau are likely transient and in low numbers. Between island regions, F ST for microsatellites ranged from 0.016 to 0.045 and for mtDNA, from 0.011 to 0.282. F ' ST, ranged from 0.098 to 0.262 for microsatellites and 0.019 to 0.415 for mtDNA. R ST and ΦST showed similar results to F ST for microsatellites and mtDNA respectively, and Jost's D fell between F ST and F ' ST. TESS supported 3 populations, and greatest mean assignment probability by island region ranged from 0.50 to 0.72. The private alleles method indicated migration rates among regions from 1.49 to 3.45, and effective population size of the island of Hawaii was estimated to be 220. There was no strong evidence to support sex-biased dispersal or group fidelity. Considering this study in the larger context of other odontocete population studies and studies of connectivity, we suggest genetic differentiation may be mediated by behavior adapted to differing habitat types and niches.

  2. The Metabolic Cost of Click Production in Bottlenose Dolphins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    duration, and/or repetition rate of their acoustic signals as a strategy to help reduce the probability of masking from environmental sounds (NRC 2003...behavior are unknown. To date, the only empirical data on the metabolic cost of sound production as well as the metabolic cost of increasing the...previous work was on whistle and social sound production in bottlenose dolphins (Holt et al. 2011 a, b, Noren et al. 2011). There is currently no

  3. The Metabolic Cost of Click Production in Bottlenose Dolphins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    of their acoustic signals as a strategy to help reduce the probability of masking from environmental sounds (NRC 2003). Although accumulating...date, the only empirical data on the metabolic cost of sound production as well as the metabolic cost of increasing the amplitude of acoustic signals...dolphins producing whistles and other communicative sounds (Holt et al. 2011 a, b, Noren et al. 2011). There is currently no information on energy

  4. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  5. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  6. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  7. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  8. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  9. 78 FR 20604 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... processors, other than tuna canners, of tuna product labeled dolphin-safe; and modify the reporting... processors, other than tuna canners, of tuna product labeled dolphin- safe; and to include modifications to a... the processor indicates the tuna is eligible to be labeled dolphin-safe under 50 CFR 216.91....

  10. Cognitive adaptation of sonar gain control in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Smith, Adam B; Nachtigall, Paul E; Buck, John R; Simmons, James A; Pacini, Aude F

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control.

  11. First record of an anomalously colored franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Marta J; Sartori, Camila M; Schulze, Beatriz; Paitach, Renan L; Holz, Annelise C

    2014-09-01

    On October 2011, a newborn franciscana dolphin with an anomalously coloration was sighted in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. The calf was totally white. Besides the potential mother and newborn, the group also had the presence of another adult, who always was swimming behind the pair. Both adults had the typical coloration of the species, with the back in grayish brown. The group, composed by the white franciscana calf, his pontential mother and one more adult, was reported in five occasions. The group was always in the same area where it was first recorded and showed the same position during swimming. Between first and last sighting of the white calf (113 days) the color has not changed. This is the first case of a white franciscana dolphin. This coloration has never been reported despite the high number of dead franciscanas recovered each year along the distribution of the species, resulting from accidental capture in fishing nets. This fact leads us to believe that this is a very rare characteristic for this species. We considered the possibility that this franciscana could be an albino dolphin.

  12. Cognitive Adaptation of Sonar Gain Control in the Bottlenose Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Laura N.; Smith, Adam B.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Buck, John R.; Simmons, James A.; Pacini, Aude F.

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control. PMID:25153530

  13. Spontaneous prosocial choice by captive bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Fumio; Komaba, Masayuki; Sato, Ryoichi; Ikeda, Hisako; Komaba, Kumiko; Kawakubo, Akihiro

    2017-02-01

    Dolphins exhibit prosocial behavior across several different contexts. However, only a few experimental studies have investigated the psychological mechanisms underlying this behavior. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying prosociality in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In the experiments, water shower devices, developed as environmental enrichment items, were used. Two paradigms were used to measure prosociality. The first was the prosocial choice task, involving the subject typically being offered one choice between two options. The first option provided a reward (take a shower) to both the subject and partner (prosocial choice). The second option provided a reward only to the subject (selfish choice). The second paradigm was the giving assistance task, involving the subject being provided a choice between providing instrumental help to the partner (prosocial choice) or doing nothing. It was observed that the subjects chose the prosocial choices in both paradigms. In these experiments, prosocial choices were spontaneously taken without requests from the partners. These results indicated that the dolphins show preference for other-regarding behavior.

  14. Discrimination of amplitude-modulated synthetic echo trains by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Dankiewicz, Lois A; Helweg, David A; Moore, Patrick W; Zafran, Justine M

    2002-10-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have an acute ability to use target echoes to judge attributes such as size, shape, and material composition. Most target recognition studies have focused on features associated with individual echoes as opposed to information conveyed across echo sequences (feature envelope of the multi-echo train). One feature of aspect-dependent targets is an amplitude modulation (AM) across the return echoes in the echo train created by relative movement of the target and dolphin. The current study examined whether dolphins could discriminate targets with different AM envelopes. "Electronic echoes" triggered by a dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks were manipulated to create sinusoidal envelopes with varying AM rate and depth. Echo trains were equated for energy, requiring the dolphin to extract and retain information from multiple echoes in order to detect and report the presence of AM. The dolphin discriminated amplitude-modulated echo trains from those that were not modulated. AM depth thresholds were approximately 0.8 dB, similar to other published amplitude limens. Decreasing the rate of modulation from approximately 16 to 2 cycles per second did not affect the dolphin's AM depth sensitivity. The results support multiple-echo processing in bottlenose dolphin echolocation. This capability provides additional theoretical justification for exploring synthetic aperture sonar concepts in models of animal echolocation that potentially support theories postulating formation of images as an ultimate means for target identification.

  15. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus

    PubMed Central

    Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Povinelli, Michele; Terracciano, Giuliana; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Pintore, Antonio; Denurra, Daniele; Casalone, Cristina; Pautasso, Alessandra; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During 2011–2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea. Nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006–2007 epidemic in the Mediterranean. Dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales. PMID:26812485

  16. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy for Children with Special Needs: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilts, Rachel; Trompisch, Norbert; Bergquist, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Dolphin-assisted therapy (DAT), as a part of animal-assisted therapy and complementary and alternative medicine, yields several positive results. This study intended to add to DAT effectiveness research while using a standardized assessment. In the Ukraine, a DAT program called DolphinSwim agreed to take part in research with 37 voluntary…

  17. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy as a Verbal Operant Condition for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrasi, Renee Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy (DAT) as a reinforcer for verbal operant production in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Three children who attended a dolphin therapy program participated in this single subject research study. Baseline data was collected for each child via a video tape provided by parents and…

  18. Examination of Naturally-Exposed Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giarda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) live-captured in coastal South Carolina and Florida as well as dolphins stranded in coastal South Carolina were examined for the presence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. DNA extracted from feces or rectal swabs was amplified by PCR using para...

  19. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  20. Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from Internal Organs of a Suddenly Expired Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    were recovered from internal organs of another bottlenose dolphin which had expired under similar conditions from blastomycosis . Based on these results...recovered - - from internal organs of another bottlenose dolphin which F: V1/.)I. had expired under similar conditions from blastomycosis . ’t .4/ Based

  1. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Lesley H; Johnston, David W; Urban, Dean L; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H; Deakos, Mark H; Mobley, Joseph R; Pack, Adam A; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  2. Echolocation in sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) producing narrow-band high-frequency clicks.

    PubMed

    Kyhn, L A; Jensen, F H; Beedholm, K; Tougaard, J; Hansen, M; Madsen, P T

    2010-06-01

    An increasing number of smaller odontocetes have recently been shown to produce stereotyped narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation clicks. Click source parameters of NBHF clicks are very similar, and it is unclear whether the sonars of individual NBHF species are adapted to specific habitats or the presence of other NBHF species. Here, we test whether sympatric NBHF species sharing the same habitat show similar adaptations in their echolocation clicks and whether their clicks display signs of character displacement. Wide-band sound recordings were obtained with a six-element hydrophone array from wild Peale's (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) dolphins off the Falkland Islands. The centroid frequency was different between Commerson's (133+/-2 kHz) and Peale's (129+/-3 kHz) dolphins. The r.m.s. bandwidth was 12+/-3 kHz for both species. The source level was higher for Peale's dolphin (185+/-6 dB re 1 muPa p.-p.) than for Commerson's (177+/-5 dB re 1 muPa p.-p.). The mean directivity indexes were 25 dB for both species. The relatively low source levels in combination with the high directivity index may be an adaptation to reduce clutter when foraging in a coastal environment. We conclude that the small species-specific shifts in distribution of centroid frequencies around 130 kHz may reflect character displacement in otherwise-stereotyped NBHF clicks.

  3. Short Communication: New Recognition Of Enterovirus Infections In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Nollens, Hendrik H.; Rivera, Rebecca; Palacios, Gustavo; Wellehan, James F. X.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Caseltine, Shannon L.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jensen, Eric D.; Hui, Jeffrey; Lipkin, W. Ian; Yochem, Pamela K.; Wells, Randall S.; St. Leger, Judy; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    An enterovirus was cultured from an erosive tongue lesion of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The morphology of virions on negative staining electron microscopy was consistent with those of enteroviruses. Analysis of 2613 bp of the polyprotein gene identified the isolate as a novel enterovirus strain, tentatively named bottlenose dolphin enterovirus (BDEV), that nests within the species Bovine enterovirus. Serologic evidence of exposure to enteroviruses was common in both free ranging and managed collection dolphins. Managed collection dolphins were more likely to have high antibody levels, although the highest levels were reported in free ranging populations. Associations between enterovirus antibody levels, and age, sex, complete blood counts, and clinical serum biochemistries were explored. Dolphins with higher antibody levels were more likely to be hyperproteinemic and hyperglobulinemic. PMID:19581059

  4. Reducing Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emission in the Corporate Sector, a Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    The study is titled "Reducing energy cost and GreenHouse Gas emission in the corporate sector, A Delphi Study". The study applied the Delphi methodology and focused on the Green IT solutions that can help the modern corporate organizations with less than 1000 employees to decrease their energy costs and GHG emissions. The study presents…

  5. DELPHI--An Information Resource in a Multivendor Multiprotocol Network Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedayao, Jeff; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes DELPHI, a networked information resource for Intel Corporation that provides a bulletin board, databases, technical memos, hazardous material handling information, and stock quotes. Topics addressed include the diverse network environments at Intel, connecting the services to these environments, experiences with DELPHI, and future plans.…

  6. A Delphi Study on Staff Bereavement Training in the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Truesdale, Jesslyn

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi technique was used to obtain expert panel consensus to prioritize content areas and delivery methods for developing staff grief and bereavement curriculum training in the intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) field. The Delphi technique was conducted with a panel of 18 experts from formal and informal disability caregiving,…

  7. Methodological and Conceptual Issues Confronting a Cross-Country Delphi Study of Educational Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    Although the Delphi is widely used, research on certain methodological issues is somewhat limited. After a brief introduction to the strengths, limitations, and methodological challenges of the technique, we share our experiences (as well as problems encountered) with an electronic Delphi of educational program evaluation (EPE) in the Asia-Pacific…

  8. Exploration to Identify Professional Dispositions of School Librarians: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gail; Jones, Jami L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an exploratory study to identify professional dispositions of school librarians. The authors employed the Delphi method, a qualitative research method that emphasizes expert knowledge and consensus within a particular field. The Delphi panel consisted of members of the editorial boards of nationally recognized…

  9. A Delphi Study: Exploring Faculty Perceptions of the Best Practices Influencing Student Persistence in Blended Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Kim Elise

    2010-01-01

    This Delphi study explored the instructional practices of community college faculty who were teaching blended or Web-assisted courses and how these practices influenced student persistence. The Delphi method provided qualitative data in the form of expert advice through consensus building on the instructional practices most likely to influence…

  10. Concepts and Contexts in Engineering and Technology Education: An International and Interdisciplinary Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossouw, Ammeret; Hacker, Michael; de Vries, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by a similar study by Osborne et al. we have conducted a Delphi study among experts to identify key concepts to be taught in engineering and technology education and relevant and meaningful contexts through which these concepts can be taught and learnt. By submitting the outcomes of the Delphi study to a panel of experts in a two-day…

  11. Projecting Agricultural Education Programs for the 21st Century Using a Modified Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Maynard J.

    A modified three-step Delphi procedure was used to conduct a series of national studies of futurists regarded by their peers as top experts in agricultural education. The primary objective was to project enrollments in agricultural education programs for the 21st century. Other study objectives were to ascertain whether the Delphi technique could…

  12. Advantages and Limitations of the e-Delphi Technique: Implications for Health Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohoe, Holly; Stellefson, Michael; Tennant, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    In the last 30 years, the application of the Delphi technique has been increasing. With the recent availability and established popularity of Internet-based research tools, the Internet has been identified as a means for mitigating Delphi limitations, maximizing its advantages, and expanding the breadth of its application. The discourse on the…

  13. Testing the Stability of Experts' Opinions between Successive Rounds of Delphi Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu Nu

    The Delphi method is a means of structuring group communication process so that a group of experts can gather information or forecast future problems effectively. A primary objective of a Delphi study is to obtain consensual and consistent opinions from a group of experts in two or more successive rounds on a given research subject. Consensus and…

  14. A Robust Design Capture-Recapture Analysis of Abundance, Survival and Temporary Emigration of Three Odontocete Species in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bearzi, Giovanni; Eddy, Lavinia; Gimenez, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    While the Mediterranean Sea has been designated as a Global Biodiversity Hotspot, assessments of cetacean population abundance are lacking for large portions of the region, particularly in the southern and eastern basins. The challenges and costs of obtaining the necessary data often result in absent or poor abundance information. We applied capture-recapture models to estimate abundance, survival and temporary emigration of odontocete populations within a 2,400 km2 semi-enclosed Mediterranean bay, the Gulf of Corinth. Boat surveys were conducted in 2011–2015 to collect photo-identification data on striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis (always found together with striped dolphins in mixed groups) and common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus, totaling 1,873 h of tracking. After grading images for quality and marking distinctiveness, 23,995 high-quality photos were included in a striped and common dolphin catalog, and 2,472 in a bottlenose dolphin catalog. The proportions of striped and common dolphins were calculated from the photographic sample and used to scale capture-recapture estimates. Best-fitting robust design capture-recapture models denoted no temporary emigration between years for striped and common dolphins, and random temporary emigration for bottlenose dolphins, suggesting different residency patterns in agreement with previous studies. Average estimated abundance over the five years was 1,331 (95% CI 1,122–1,578) striped dolphins, 22 (16–32) common dolphins, 55 (36–84) “intermediate” animals (potential striped x common dolphin hybrids) and 38 (32–46) bottlenose dolphins. Apparent survival was constant for striped, common and intermediate dolphins (0.94, 95% CI 0.92–0.96) and year-dependent for bottlenose dolphins (an average of 0.85, 95% CI 0.76–0.95). Our work underlines the importance of long-term monitoring to contribute reliable baseline information that can help assess the

  15. Hypocitraturia in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Assessing a Potential Risk Factor for Urate Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Townsend, Forrest I; Daniels, Risa L; Sweeney, Jay C; McBain, Jim W; Klatsky, Leigh J; Hicks, Christie L; Staggs, Lydia A; Rowles, Teri K; Schwacke, Lori H; Wells, Randall S; Smith, Cynthia R

    2010-01-01

    Numerous cases of urate nephrolithiasis in managed collections of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported, but nephrolithiasis is believed to be uncommon in wild dolphins. Risk factors for urate nephrolithiasis in humans include low urinary pH and hypocitraturia. Urine samples from 94 dolphins were collected during April 2006 through June 2009 from 4 wild populations (n = 62) and 4 managed collections (n = 32). In addition, urine uric acid and pH were tested in a subset of these animals. Our null hypothesis was that wild and managed collection dolphins would have no significant differences in urinary creatinine, citrate, and uric acid concentrations and pH. Among urine samples from all 94 dolphins, the urinary levels (mean ± SEM) for creatinine, citrate, uric acid, and pH were 139 ± 7.6 mg/dL, 100 ± 20 mg citrate/g creatinine, 305 ± 32 mg uric acid/g creatinine, and 6.2 ± 0.05, respectively. Of the 4 urinary variables, only citrate concentration varied significantly between the 2 primary study groups; compared with wild dolphins, managed collection dolphins were more likely to have undetectable levels of citrate in the urine (21.0% and 81.3%, respectively). Mean urinary citrate concentrations for managed collection and wild dolphin populations were 2 and 150 mg citrate/g creatinine, respectively. We conclude that some managed collections of dolphins, like humans, may be predisposed to urate nephrolithiasis due to the presence of hypocitraturia. Subsequent investigations can include associations between metabolic syndrome, hypocitraturia, and urate nephrolithiasis in humans and dolphins; and the impact of varying levels of seawater ingestion on citrate excretion. PMID:20412691

  16. Blood-Based Indicators of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Smith, Cynthia Rowe; Stevenson, Sacha; Parry, Celeste; Daniels, Risa; Jensen, Eric; Cendejas, Veronica; Balmer, Brian; Janech, Michael; Neely, Benjamin A.; Wells, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Similar to people with metabolic syndrome, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. A panel of potential postprandial blood-based indicators of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were compared among 34 managed collection dolphins in San Diego Bay, CA, USA (Group A) and 16 wild, free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, FL, USA (Group B). Compared to Group B, Group A had higher insulin (2.1 ± 2.5 and 13 ± 13 μIU/ml), glucose (87 ± 19 and 108 ± 12 mg/dl), and triglycerides (75 ± 28 and 128 ± 45 mg/dl) as well as higher cholesterol (total, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol), iron, transferrin saturation, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine transaminase, and uric acid. Group A had higher percent unmodified adiponectin. While Group A dolphins were older, the same blood-based differences remained when controlling for age. There were no differences in body mass index (BMI) between the groups, and comparisons between Group B and Group A dolphins have consistently demonstrated lower stress hormones levels in Group A. Group A dolphins with high insulin (greater than 14 μIU/ml) had higher glucose, iron, GGT, and BMI compared to Group A dolphins with lower insulin. These findings support that some dolphin groups may be more susceptible to insulin resistance compared to others, and primary risk factors are not likely age, BMI, or stress. Lower high-molecular weight adiponectin has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and may be a target for preventing insulin resistance in dolphins. Future investigations with these two dolphin populations, including dietary and feeding differences, may provide valuable insight for preventing and treating insulin resistance in humans. PMID:24130551

  17. Using the Delphi method to engage stakeholders: a comparison of two studies.

    PubMed

    Geist, Monica R

    2010-05-01

    Involving stakeholders can greatly impact evaluation results. The Delphi method, a consensus-building tool, is a promising process to promote and encourage involvement from all stakeholders during the evaluation framing process. The Delphi method removes geographic challenges and time boundaries allowing all stakeholders to participate. The Delphi method uses a series of surveys interspersed with controlled feedback designed to gather information and build consensus without requiring face-to-face meetings. Two different formats of the Delphi method, a paper-and-pencil, postal-mail version and a web-based, real-time computer version are compared in this study. Both versions of the Delphi were administered to a non-profit community based organization as part of framing an evaluation. Participation rates were better with the paper-pencil version. The quantity and quality of data collected were comparable in both versions.

  18. Design and energy performance of the archaeological museum of Delphi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombazis, A. N.; Vratsanos, N.; Kontomichali, E.; Santamouris, M.; Zannis, G.; Assimakopoulos, M. N.; Geros, V.; Pavlou, K.

    2006-12-01

    The archaeological museum of Delphi is one of the most visited museums in Greece with visitors ranging from about 150,000 to 300,000 per year. The building was retrofitted as a result of the Greek case study in the demonstration project `MUSEUMS-Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Retrofitted and New Museum Buildings' which was executed within the fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission DG TREN (Energie Programme). The retrofitting works aimed to integrate bioclimatic and sustainable measures in the existing exhibition halls, to minimize energy consumption and to improve comfort and exhibition quality.

  19. First record of Pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata in the Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuxing; Wang, Xianyan; Zhang, Qiuxia; Miao, Xing; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Qian

    2015-07-01

    On October 1, 2009, sixteen dolphins were obtained from fishermen by incidental catching in the Yellow Sea, China. As the dolphins' skin color was ambiguous, morphological parameters were measured, and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence was studied to identify the species. Morphological characteristics were consistent with Pantropical spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata. Furthermore, a partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence as long as 328-bp was studied by extracting genomic DNA from the skins, and six haplotypes were detected in the sixteen dolphins. By comparing homologous sequences available in GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), all the six haplotypes had maximal genetic similarity with Pantropical spotted dolphin. Eight species of cetacean (whales and dolphins) are now recognised in the Yellow Sea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of Pantropical spotted dolphins from this region. Despite this species being listed as a Grade II National Key Protected Animal since 1988, little is known of its biology in Chinese waters. We recommend remedial research be undertaken to ensure appropriate management.

  20. Vertebral column anomalies in Indo-Pacific and Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa spp.

    PubMed

    Weir, Caroline R; Wang, John Y

    2016-08-09

    Conspicuous vertebral column abnormalities in humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) were documented for the first time during 3 photo-identification field studies of small populations in Taiwan, Senegal and Angola. Seven Taiwanese humpback dolphins S. chinensis taiwanensis with vertebral column anomalies (lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis) were identified, along with 2 possible cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. There was evidence from several individuals photographed over consecutive years that the anomalies became more pronounced with age. Three Atlantic humpback dolphins S. teuszii were observed with axial deviations of the vertebral column (lordosis and kyphosis). Another possible case was identified in a calf, and 2 further animals were photographed with dorsal indents potentially indicative of anomalies. Vertebral column anomalies of humpback dolphins were predominantly evident in the lumbo-caudal region, but one Atlantic humpback dolphin had an anomaly in the cervico-thoracic region. Lordosis and kyphosis occurred simultaneously in several individuals. Apart from the described anomalies, all dolphins appeared in good health and were not obviously underweight or noticeably compromised in swim speed. This study presents the first descriptions of vertebral column anomalies in the genus Sousa. The causative factors for the anomalies were unknown in every case and are potentially diverse. Whether these anomalies result in reduced fitness of individuals or populations merits attention, as both the Taiwanese and Atlantic humpback dolphin are species of high conservation concern.

  1. Increased number of whistles of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, arising from interaction with people.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Junko; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    The acoustic mode is the most reasonable means for social animals such as dolphins to maintain contact in the underwater habitat, and has been developed since they moved to the sea. This study investigates variations in dolphin vocalizations under the following conditions in a captive environment: 1) before feeding (Pre-feeding), 2) during feeding (Feeding), 3) during free time without the presence of people (Free), 4) during interaction with people located upon a float (Float), 5) during interaction with people in the water (Water). During the experiments, a total of 2642 whistles were extracted from sonogram data using a spectrogram. About 44% of the total whistles were observed during Pre-feeding (1171/2642), and the number recorded during Free, when people were absent, was the smallest. The acoustic contours of dolphin whistles differed in different situations: convex, wave, and trill whistles were made repeatedly during Pre-feeding, thereby being more common at this time than at other times. The situation of Feeding saw an increased number of Upsweeps, which might be related to the use of echolocation. The lower frequencies were recorded during Pre-feeding, reflecting the emotion related to the dolphin's hunger. The results of this study indicate that dolphins increase their vocalization during interaction with people, suggesting that interactions with dolphins provide an effective treatment for human health problems, which is discussed with a reference article in this study. Vocal data obtained during contact with humans might serve as an important index for the dolphin-assisted therapy.

  2. Genetic diversity of coastal bottlenose dolphins revealed by structurally and functionally diverse hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Remington, Nicole; Stevens, Robert D; Wells, Randall S; Holn, Aleta; Dhungana, Suraj; Taboy, Celine H; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2007-08-15

    Studies of structure-function relationships in the respiratory proteins of marine mammals revealed unexpected variations in the number and types of hemoglobins (Hbs) present in coastal bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. We obtained blood samples from free-ranging coastal bottlenose dolphins as a component of capture-release studies. We found that the oxygen-binding functions of bottlenose dolphin blood are poised between effector-saturated and unsaturated levels, enabling exercise-dependent shifts in oxygen transfer functions. Isolated bottlenose dolphin Hbs showed elevated pH sensitivities (Bohr effects) and appreciably lower oxygen affinities than adult human Hb in the absence of allosteric effectors. These properties may be an adaptive modification that enhances oxygen delivery during diving episodes when oxygen tensions and effector levels are low. The Hbs of individual dolphins showed similar oxygen affinities, responses to effectors, and expression of heme-heme interaction in oxygen binding, but differed in their redox potentials and rates of autoxidation. The heterogeneity suggested by these functional variations in Hbs of individual dolphins was born out by variations in the molecular weights and numbers of their alpha and beta globin chains. Although coastal bottlenose dolphins were expected to have a single type of Hb, the mass differences observed revealed considerable genetic diversity. There were multiple Hb forms in some individuals and differences in Hb patterns among individuals within the same community.

  3. Pathologic and immunocytochemical studies of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    PubMed

    Domingo, M; Visa, J; Pumarola, M; Marco, A J; Ferrer, L; Rabanal, R; Kennedy, S

    1992-01-01

    Hundreds of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) died along the Spanish Mediterranean coast during the second half of 1990. We necropsied 58 dolphins. Partial collapse of the lungs with patchy atelectasis, subcutaneous edema, icterus, and stomatitis were the most prominent gross morphologic changes. Histologically, a bronchiolo-interstitial pneumonia was the most frequent lesion (72% of the animals). It was characterized by hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial type II cells and formation of multinucleate syncytia in alveolar and bronchiolar lumina. Other prominent lesions were encephalitis (69%), lymphoid depletion, and formation of multinucleate syncytia in the cortex of lymph nodes. The distribution of morbillivirus antigen was investigated in 23 well-preserved dolphins using a monoclonal antibody against the hemagglutinin glycoprotein of phocine distemper virus. Positive immunostaining was found in brain (77%), in lung (70%), and in mesenteric (61%), mediastinal (47%), and prescapular (45%) lymph nodes. Phocine distemper virus antigen was demonstrated less frequently in trachea, stomach, biliary epithelium, intestine, kidney, and mammary gland. Necrotizing-hemorrhagic pneumonia and encephalitis due to Aspergillus fumigatus were seen in three dolphins, whereas two animals had lesions of toxoplasmosis. Changes in our dolphins were similar to those caused by distemper in seals and porpoises. The origin of the dolphin virus and the relationships among dolphin, seal, and porpoise morbilli viruses are unknown.

  4. Comparison of directional selectivity of hearing in a beluga whale and a bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2009-09-01

    Hearing thresholds as a function of sound-source azimuth were measured in a beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas and a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in identical conditions using the auditory evoked-potential method. In both the beluga whale and bottlenose dolphin, the receiving beam width narrowed with frequency increase. At all frequencies, the receiving beam was markedly wider in the beluga whale than in the bottlenose dolphin. In particular, the 3-dB beam width in the beluga whale narrowed from +/-33.5 degrees at 8 kHz frequency to +/-14.3 degrees at 128 kHz; the 6-dB beam width narrowed from +/-56.9 degrees to +/-18.9 degrees , respectively. In the bottlenose dolphin, the 3-dB beam width decreased from +/-19.9 degrees at 8 kHz to +/-6.3 degrees at 128 kHz; the 6-dB beam width decreased from +/-33.1 degrees to +/-8.4 degrees, respectively. In the bottlenose dolphin, the axis of the low-frequency receiving beam deviated from the midline up to 15 degrees; in the beluga whale, this effect was not detected. The audiograms of both the beluga whale and bottlenose dolphin were azimuth-dependent: from an audiogram featuring the best sensitivity at intermediate frequencies at 0 degrees to that featuring monotonous threshold increase with frequency increase at 90 degrees. In the beluga whale, this dependence was less prominent than in the bottlenose dolphin.

  5. Experimental measurement of dolphin thrust generated during a tail stand using DPIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Timothy; Fish, Frank; Williams, Terrie; Wu, Vicki; Sherman, Erica; Misfeldt, Mitchel; Ringenberg, Hunter; Rogers, Dylan

    2016-11-01

    The thrust generated by dolphins doing tail stands was measured using DPIV. The technique entailed measuring vortex strength associated with the tail motion and correlating it to above water video sequences showing the amount of the dolphin's body that was being lifted out of the water. The underlying drivers for this research included: i) understanding the physiology, hydrodynamics and efficiency of dolphin locomotion, ii) developing non-invasive measurement techniques for studying marine swimming and iii) quantifying the actual propulsive capabilities of these animals. Two different bottlenose dolphins at the Long Marine Lab at UC-Santa Cruz were used as test subjects. Application of the Kutta-Joukowski Theorem on measured vortex circulations yielded thrust values that were well correlated with estimates of dolphin body weight being supported above water. This demonstrates that the tail motion can be interpreted as a flapping hydrofoil that can generate a sustained thrust roughly equal to the dolphin's weight. Videos of DPIV measurements overlaid with the dolphins will be presented along with thrust/weight data.

  6. What's in a voice? Cues used by dolphins in individual recognition of signature whistles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayigh, Laela S.; Janik, Vincent M.; Wells, Randall S.

    2005-09-01

    Cues that bottlenose dolphins may use for individual recognition of signature whistles are (1) the individually distinctive frequency modulation patterns of whistles; and (2) voice cues caused by the anatomy of the vocal apparatus. Experiments were designed to determine whether dolphins use either or both of these cues in recognizing whistles. Temporarily held wild dolphins listened to whistles of a close relative and of a known conspecific of the same sex and similar age. To test the hypothesis that dolphins recognize the frequency modulation patterns of whistles, signature whistles were synthesized and all general voice features removed. In playbacks to 14 individuals, dolphins turned significantly more often towards the speaker if they heard the synthetic signature whistle of a close relative than that of another individual. To test the hypothesis that dolphins may also be using voice cues to recognize whistles, natural variant (nonsignature) whistles were played back, which are highly variable in contour. Preliminary analysis of seven playbacks showed no difference in responses to variant whistles of kin versus nonkin. Thus, the frequency modulation pattern of signature whistles alone provides information on the identity of the caller, and voice cues are likely not used by dolphins to identify individuals.

  7. Forebrain neuroanatomy of the neonatal and juvenile dolphin (T. truncatus and S. coeruloalba)

    PubMed Central

    Parolisi, Roberta; Peruffo, Antonella; Messina, Silvia; Panin, Mattia; Montelli, Stefano; Giurisato, Maristella; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dolphin functional neuroanatomy mostly derives from post-mortem studies and non-invasive approaches (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging), due to limitations in experimentation on cetaceans. As a consequence the availability of well-preserved tissues for histology is scarce, and detailed histological analyses are referred mainly to adults. Here we studied the neonatal/juvenile brain in two species of dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), with special reference to forebrain regions. We analyzed cell density in subcortical nuclei, white/gray matter ratio, and myelination in selected regions at different anterior–posterior levels of the whole dolphin brain at different ages, to better define forebrain neuroanatomy and the developmental stage of the dolphin brain around birth. The analyses were extended to the periventricular germinal layer and the cerebellum, whose delayed genesis of the granule cell layer is a hallmark of postnatal development in the mammalian nervous system. Our results establish an atlas of the young dolphin forebrain and, on the basis of occurrence/absence of delayed neurogenic layers, confirm the stage of advanced brain maturation in these animals with respect to most terrestrial mammals. PMID:26594155

  8. Post-mortem investigations on stranded dolphins and porpoises from Hong Kong waters.

    PubMed

    Parsons, E C; Jefferson, T A

    2000-04-01

    Stranded cetaceans reported from the territorial waters of Hong Kong during the period May 1993 to March 1998 were examined to establish factors that may have contributed to their death. During the current study, 28 Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphins (Sousa chinensis), 32 finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), and four bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were necropsied. Bacteria (15 species) were isolated from nine animals. Of these bacteria, 47% were of possible fecal origin reflecting the high level of sewage contamination in Hong Kong's waters. One finless porpoise displayed wounds caused by a shark attack, and two female finless porpoises presented prolapsed uteri. At least 10 finless porpoises showed evidence of moderate to heavy lungworm infections (Halocercus pingi), and this appears to have been a factor contributing to death in at least six animals. Evidence suggesting blunt traumatic injury (probably caused by boat collisions) was found in six cetaceans (three finless porpoises and three hump-backed dolphins). Signs of fishery-related mortality were detected in at least nine animals (six hump-backed dolphins, two finless porpoises, and one bottlenose dolphin). Of these two human-caused mortality types, pre-existing disease or bacterial infection were detected in 29% of cases. Results indicate that human factors may have played a significant role in the death of at least 15 animals (32% of hump-backed dolphins, 15% of finless porpoises, and 25% of bottlenose dolphins).

  9. Forebrain neuroanatomy of the neonatal and juvenile dolphin (T. truncatus and S. coeruloalba).

    PubMed

    Parolisi, Roberta; Peruffo, Antonella; Messina, Silvia; Panin, Mattia; Montelli, Stefano; Giurisato, Maristella; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dolphin functional neuroanatomy mostly derives from post-mortem studies and non-invasive approaches (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging), due to limitations in experimentation on cetaceans. As a consequence the availability of well-preserved tissues for histology is scarce, and detailed histological analyses are referred mainly to adults. Here we studied the neonatal/juvenile brain in two species of dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), with special reference to forebrain regions. We analyzed cell density in subcortical nuclei, white/gray matter ratio, and myelination in selected regions at different anterior-posterior levels of the whole dolphin brain at different ages, to better define forebrain neuroanatomy and the developmental stage of the dolphin brain around birth. The analyses were extended to the periventricular germinal layer and the cerebellum, whose delayed genesis of the granule cell layer is a hallmark of postnatal development in the mammalian nervous system. Our results establish an atlas of the young dolphin forebrain and, on the basis of occurrence/absence of delayed neurogenic layers, confirm the stage of advanced brain maturation in these animals with respect to most terrestrial mammals.

  10. The Gulf of Ambracia's Common Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus: A Highly Dense and yet Threatened Population.

    PubMed

    Gonzalvo, J; Lauriano, G; Hammond, P S; Viaud-Martinez, K A; Fossi, M C; Natoli, A; Marsili, L

    The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the only cetacean present in the semiclosed waters of the Gulf of Ambracia, Western Greece. This increasingly degraded coastal ecosystem hosts one of the highest observed densities in the Mediterranean Sea for this species. Photo-identification data and tissue samples collected through skin-swabbing and remote biopsy sampling techniques during boat-based surveys conducted between 2006 and 2015 in the Gulf, were used to examine bottlenose dolphin abundance, population trends, site fidelity, genetic differentiation and toxicological status. Bottlenose dolphins showed high levels of year-round site fidelity throughout the 10-year study period. Dolphin population estimates mostly fell between 130 and 170 with CVs averaging about 10%; a trend in population size over the 10 years was a decline of 1.6% per year (but this was not significant). Genetic differentiation between the bottlenose dolphins of the Gulf and their conspecifics from neighbouring populations was detected, and low genetic diversity was found among individuals sampled. In addition, pesticides where identified as factors posing a real toxicological problem for local bottlenose dolphins. Therefore, in the Gulf of Ambracia, high dolphin density does not seem to be indicative of favourable conservation status or pristine habitat.

  11. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable.

  12. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia.

  13. An atypical genotype of Toxoplasma gondii as a cause of mortality in Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori).

    PubMed

    Roe, W D; Howe, L; Baker, E J; Burrows, L; Hunter, S A

    2013-02-18

    Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) are a small endangered coastal species that are endemic to New Zealand. Anthropogenic factors, particularly accidental capture in fishing nets, are believed to be the biggest threat to survival of this species. The role of infectious disease as a cause of mortality has not previously been well investigated. This study investigates Toxoplasma gondii infection in Hector's dolphins, finding that 7 of 28 (25%) dolphins examined died due to disseminated toxoplasmosis, including 2 of 3 Maui's dolphins, a critically endangered sub-species. A further 10 dolphins had one or more tissues that were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA using PCR. Genotyping revealed that 7 of 8 successfully amplified isolates were an atypical Type II genotype. Fatal cases had necrotising and haemorrhagic lesions in the lung (n=7), lymph nodes (n=6), liver (n=4) and adrenals (n=3). Tachyzoites and tissue cysts were present in other organs including the brain (n=5), heart (n=1), stomach (n=1) and uterus (n=1) with minimal associated inflammatory response. One dolphin had a marked suppurative metritis in the presence of numerous intra-epithelial tachyzoites. No dolphins had underlying morbillivirus infection. This study provides the first evidence that infectious agents could be important in the population decline of this species, and highlights the need for further research into the route of entry of T. gondii organisms into the marine environment worldwide.

  14. Search for long lived staus with the DELPHI detector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Francesca R.

    1998-04-01

    In the framework of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), gravitino interactions at ordinary energies are only important in the limit M_tilde G arrow 0. However, in the context of the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking models, which favor M_tilde G > ~ 1 eV, the gravitino could be the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) and the decay of the Next to LSP into gravitino would be accessible at LEP. The decay tilde τ arrow τ tilde G was searched for with the DELPHI detector, in the range M_tilde G <= 100 eV. For very short tilde τ decay lengths the analysis makes use of a method based on track impact parameters. For longer lifetimes, these decays are expected to take place within the tracking detector volume and therefore the decay vertices should be reconstructed. The results obtained by these two analyses are combined with those of the searches for heavy stable charged particles and for conventional MSSM tilde τ decays, in order to set limits on M_tildeτ irrespective of the gravitino mass. The results obtained using the data collected by DELPHI during the LEP II runs at center of mass energies from 130 to 184 GeV will be presented.

  15. Delphi Study: HIV/AIDS and the Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Whitehill, William R.; Wright, Kenneth E.

    1994-01-01

    Recent announcements in the news of HIV/AIDS contraction by famous sports figures have focused world attention on the fact that athletes are not immune to this deadly virus. In view of this, we reviewed the literature to examine what studies have been directed specifically at the athletic population and HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, because of the relatively new nature of this problem, little data exists for examination. A panel of experts was assembled to participate in a Delphi methodology project. This educational study was designed to examine three issues surrounding the athletic community and HIV/AIDS. The three questions examined in this study were: 1) should medical testing be undertaken within the athletic community to determine exposure to the virus; 2) if testing is undertaken, what privacy/confidentiality measures should be incorporated to protect the individual and the results of the test; and 3) what educational interventions should be developed and implemented to help the athlete understand the disease and prevent the spread. The responses from the Delphi participants indicate that the HIV/AIDS dilemma is a societal issue and should not single out a segment of the population—in this case the athletic community. The panel also indicated that privacy and confidentiality are crucial in protecting the individual athlete and test results. The development and implementation of educational interventions is the most important component in the entire issue of HIV/AIDS and the athletic community. PMID:16558273

  16. Categorization and hierarchy of workplace bullying strategies: a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carballeira, Alvaro; Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Visauta Vinacua, Bienvenido; Porrúa García, Clara; Martín-Peña, Javier

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports a study of the characteristics of psychological abuse strategies deployed in the workplace (mobbing or workplace bullying). Based on a literature review, the aim of the present study is two fold: firstly to propose a new taxonomy of mobbing strategies and to provide an operational definition for each of them, and secondly, to assess this taxonomy with the aid of several experts, by using a Delphi survey, and to evaluate the severity of each of the mobbing strategies. The experts were asked to evaluate the adequacy and the severity of the definitions for each mobbing strategy. Thirty experts working in various professions (psychology, medicine, law, sociology, etc.) participated in a two-round Delphi survey. The experts estimated that the new taxonomy and the operational definitions were appropriate, establishing content and construct validity. They ranked the workplace bullying strategies in terms of descending importance: strategies of direct nature, followed by indirect strategies. Theoretical implications of the study, its limitations and future research are discussed.

  17. Defining personal utility in genomics: A Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Kohler, J; Turbitt, E; Lewis, K L; Wilfond, B S; Jamal, L; Peay, H L; Biesecker, L G; Biesecker, B B

    2017-02-20

    Individual genome sequencing results are valued by patients in ways distinct from clinical utility. Such outcomes have been described as components of "personal utility," a concept that broadly encompasses patient-endorsed benefits, that is operationally defined as non-clinical outcomes. No empirical delineation of these outcomes has been reported. To address this gap, we administered a Delphi survey to adult participants in a NIH clinical exome study to extract the most highly endorsed outcomes constituting personal utility. Forty research participants responded to a Delphi survey to rate 35 items identified by a systematic literature review of personal utility. Two rounds of ranking resulted in 24 items that represented 14 distinct elements of personal utility. Elements most highly endorsed by participants were: increased self-knowledge, knowledge of "the condition," altruism, and anticipated coping. Our findings represent the first systematic effort to delineate elements of personal utility that may be used to anticipate participant expectation and inform genetic counseling prior to sequencing. The 24 items reported need to be studied further in additional clinical genome sequencing studies to assess generalizability in other populations. Further research will help to understand motivations and to predict the meaning and use of results.

  18. Neutron noise measurements at the Delphi subcritical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Szieberth, M.; Klujber, G.; Kloosterman, J. L.; De Haas, D.

    2012-07-01

    The paper presents the results and evaluations of a comprehensive set of neutron noise measurements on the Delphi subcritical assembly of the Delft Univ. of Technology. The measurements investigated the effect of different source distributions (inherent spontaneous fission and {sup 252}Cf) and the position of the detectors applied (both radially and vertically). The evaluation of the measured data has been performed by the variance-to-mean ratio (VTMR, Feynman-{alpha}), the autocorrelation (ACF, Rossi-{alpha}) and the cross-correlation (CCF) methods. The values obtained for the prompt decay constant show a strong bias, which depends both on the detector position and on the source distribution. This is due to the presence of higher modes in the system. It has been observed that the {alpha} value fitted is higher when the detector is close to the boundary of the core or to the {sup 252}Cf point-source. The higher alpha-modes have also been observed by fitting functions describing two alpha-modes. The successful set of measurement also provides a good basis for further theoretical investigations including the Monte Carlo simulation of the noise measurements and the calculation of the alpha-modes in the Delphi subcritical assembly. (authors)

  19. Mucocutaneous lesions in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2015-08-20

    Mucocutaneous lesions were biopsied from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and estuarine waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, between 2003 and 2013. A total of 78 incisional biopsies from 58 dolphins (n=43 IRL, n=15 CHS) were examined. Thirteen dolphins had 2 lesions biopsied at the same examination, and 6 dolphins were re-examined and re-biopsied at time intervals varying from 1 to 8 yr. Biopsy sites included the skin (n=47), tongue (n=2), and genital mucosa (n=29). Pathologic diagnoses were: orogenital sessile papilloma (39.7%), cutaneous lobomycosis (16.7%), tattoo skin disease (TSD; 15.4%), nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (15.4%), and epidermal hyperplasia (12.8%). Pathologic diagnoses from dolphins with 2 lesions were predominately orogenital sessile papillomas (n=9) with nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (n=4), TSD (n=3), lobomycosis (n=1), and epidermal hyperplasia (n=1). Persistent pathologic diagnoses from the same dolphins re-examined and re-biopsied at different times included genital sessile papillomas (n=3), lobomycosis (n=2), and nonspecific dermatitis (n=2). This is the first study documenting the various types, combined prevalence, and progression of mucocutaneous lesions in dolphins from the southeastern USA. The data support other published findings describing the health patterns in dolphins from these geographic regions. Potential health impacts related to the observed suite of lesions are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, since previous studies have indicated that both populations are affected by complex infectious diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances and anthropogenic contaminants.

  20. Electrocardiograms of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) out of water: habituated collection versus wild postcapture animals.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jensen, Eric D; Townsend, Forrest I; Hansen, Larry J; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teresa K

    2013-12-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on captured free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during a health assessment exercise and compared with that of a Navy collection of dolphins habituated to handling out of water in order to assess possible cardiovascular impacts of capture and handling. Six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVr, aVl, and aVf) in the frontal plane and direct thorax leads were collected from both groups, with a modified base-apex lead additionally employed with the Navy collection dolphins. Measured and calculated parameters included amplitudes of P, R, S, and T waves and total QRS complex; T:S and T:QRS ratios; heart rate; durations of P wave; QRS complex, PR, QT, and RR intervals; maximum minus minimum RR interval; ST segment elevation-depression; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Physiologically minor but statistically significant differences were detected in S wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, and MEA. The PR interval, QRS duration, and S wave amplitude were slightly greater and the MEA oriented slightly rightward in wild postcapture dolphins compared to Navy collection dolphins. There were no differences in heart rate or maximum minus minimum RR interval, which serves as a proxy for the expected sinus arrhythmia of dolphins. The base-apex lead resulted in greater QRS amplitude than lead II, as expected for the category B ventricular activation of dolphins. The left-side direct thorax lead was more consistent than that of the right side. Clinically, ECG was a useful adjunct to auscultation and thoracic palpation for monitoring heart rate and rhythm and generated a record for archiving. Safe capture and handling protocols in place, under which dolphins are immediately returned to the water at progressive signs of distress, may make cardiovascular decompensation less likely to be detected by ECG. It appears that the dolphin cardiovascular system compensates suitably well to capture, as measured by ECG under the conditions of

  1. Biosonar, diving and movements of two tagged white-beaked dolphin in Icelandic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, M. H.; Akamatsu, T.; Teilmann, J.; Vikingsson, G.; Miller, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    For the first time bio-logging tags were attached to free-ranging white-beaked dolphins, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. A satellite tag was attached to one animal while an acoustic A-tag, a time-depth recorder and a VHF transmitter complex was attached to a second dolphin with a suction cup. The satellite tag transmitted for 201 day, during which time the dolphin stayed in the coastal waters of western Iceland. The acoustic tag complex was on the second animal for 13 h and 40 min and provided the first insight into the echolocation behaviour of a free-ranging white-beaked dolphin. The tag registered 162 dives. The dolphin dove to a maximum depth of 45 m, which is about the depth of the bay in which the dolphin was swimming. Two basic types of dives were identified; U-shaped and V-shaped dives. The dolphin used more time in U-shaped dives, more clicks and sonar signals with shorter click intervals compared to those it used in V-shaped dives. The dolphin was in acoustic contact with other dolphins about five hours after it was released and stayed with these for the rest of the tagging time. Possible foraging attempts were found based on the reduction of click intervals from about 100 ms to 2-3 ms, which suggests a prey capture attempt. We found 19 punitive prey capture attempts and of these 53% occurred at the maximum dive depth. This suggests that more than half of the possible prey capture events occurred at or near the sea bed.

  2. Auditory Effects of Multiple Impulses from a Seismic Air Gun on Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schlundt, Carolyn E; Finneran, James J; Branstetter, Brian K; Trickey, Jennifer S; Bowman, Victoria; Jenkins, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Auditory thresholds were measured in three bottlenose dolphins before and after exposure to ten impulses from a seismic air gun. Thresholds were measured using behavioral and electrophysiological methods to determine the amount of temporary threshold shift induced. The results suggest that the potential for seismic surveys using air guns to cause auditory effects on dolphins may be lower than previously predicted; however, two of the three dolphins exhibited "anticipatory" behavioral changes at the highest exposure condition that suggested they were attempting to mitigate the effects of the exposures.

  3. Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a useful methodological framework for the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Guzys, Diana; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda; Threlkeld, Guinever

    2015-01-01

    In this article we aim to demonstrate how Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics may provide a sound methodological framework for researchers using the Delphi Technique (Delphi) in studies exploring health and well-being. Reporting of the use of Delphi in health and well-being research is increasing, but less attention has been given to covering its methodological underpinnings. In Delphi, a structured anonymous conversation between participants is facilitated, via an iterative survey process. Participants are specifically selected for their knowledge and experience with the topic of interest. The purpose of structuring conversation in this manner is to cultivate collective opinion and highlight areas of disagreement, using a process that minimizes the influence of group dynamics. The underlying premise is that the opinion of a collective is more useful than that of an individual. In designing our study into health literacy, Delphi aligned well with our research focus and would enable us to capture collective views. However, we were interested in the methodology that would inform our study. As researchers, we believe that methodology provides the framework and principles for a study and is integral to research integrity. In assessing the suitability of Delphi for our research purpose, we found little information about underpinning methodology. The absence of a universally recognized or consistent methodology associated with Delphi was highlighted through a scoping review we undertook to assist us in our methodological thinking. This led us to consider alternative methodologies, which might be congruent with the key principles of Delphi. We identified Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a methodology that could provide a supportive framework and principles. We suggest that this methodology may be useful in health and well-being studies utilizing the Delphi method.

  4. Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a useful methodological framework for the Delphi technique

    PubMed Central

    Guzys, Diana; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda; Threlkeld, Guinever

    2015-01-01

    In this article we aim to demonstrate how Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics may provide a sound methodological framework for researchers using the Delphi Technique (Delphi) in studies exploring health and well-being. Reporting of the use of Delphi in health and well-being research is increasing, but less attention has been given to covering its methodological underpinnings. In Delphi, a structured anonymous conversation between participants is facilitated, via an iterative survey process. Participants are specifically selected for their knowledge and experience with the topic of interest. The purpose of structuring conversation in this manner is to cultivate collective opinion and highlight areas of disagreement, using a process that minimizes the influence of group dynamics. The underlying premise is that the opinion of a collective is more useful than that of an individual. In designing our study into health literacy, Delphi aligned well with our research focus and would enable us to capture collective views. However, we were interested in the methodology that would inform our study. As researchers, we believe that methodology provides the framework and principles for a study and is integral to research integrity. In assessing the suitability of Delphi for our research purpose, we found little information about underpinning methodology. The absence of a universally recognized or consistent methodology associated with Delphi was highlighted through a scoping review we undertook to assist us in our methodological thinking. This led us to consider alternative methodologies, which might be congruent with the key principles of Delphi. We identified Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a methodology that could provide a supportive framework and principles. We suggest that this methodology may be useful in health and well-being studies utilizing the Delphi method. PMID:25948132

  5. Health of common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, following the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Smith, Cynthia R; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Hart, Leslie B; Balmer, Brian C; Collier, Tracy K; De Guise, Sylvain; Fry, Michael M; Guillette, Louis J; Lamb, Stephen V; Lane, Suzanne M; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Tumlin, Mandy C; Ylitalo, Gina M; Zolman, Eric S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    The oil spill resulting from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform initiated immediate concern for marine wildlife, including common bottlenose dolphins in sensitive coastal habitats. To evaluate potential sublethal effects on dolphins, health assessments were conducted in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, an area that received heavy and prolonged oiling, and in a reference site, Sarasota Bay, Florida, where oil was not observed. Dolphins were temporarily captured, received a veterinary examination, and were then released. Dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay showed evidence of hypoadrenocorticism, consistent with adrenal toxicity as previously reported for laboratory mammals exposed to oil. Barataria Bay dolphins were 5 times more likely to have moderate-severe lung disease, generally characterized by significant alveolar interstitial syndrome, lung masses, and pulmonary consolidation. Of 29 dolphins evaluated from Barataria Bay, 48% were given a guarded or worse prognosis, and 17% were considered poor or grave, indicating that they were not expected to survive. Disease conditions in Barataria Bay dolphins were significantly greater in prevalence and severity than those in Sarasota Bay dolphins, as well as those previously reported in other wild dolphin populations. Many disease conditions observed in Barataria Bay dolphins are uncommon but consistent with petroleum hydrocarbon exposure and toxicity.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Non-depleted Serum Proteins from Bottlenose Dolphins Uncovers a High Vanin-1 Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sobolesky, Philip; Parry, Celeste; Boxall, Baylye; Wells, Randall; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G

    2016-09-26

    Targeted approaches have been widely used to help explain physiological adaptations, but few studies have used non-targeted omics approaches to explore differences between diving marine mammals and terrestrial mammals. A rank comparison of undepleted serum proteins from common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and pooled normal human serum led to the discovery of 11 proteins that appeared exclusive to dolphin serum. Compared to the comprehensive human plasma proteome, 5 of 11 serum proteins had a differential rank greater than 200. One of these proteins, Vanin-1, was quantified using parallel reaction monitoring in dolphins under human care and free-ranging dolphins. Dolphin serum Vanin-1 ranged between 31-106 μg/ml, which is 20-1000 times higher than concentrations reported for healthy humans. Serum Vanin-1 was also higher in dolphins under human care compared to free-ranging dolphins (64 ± 16 vs. 47 ± 12 μg/ml P < 0.05). Vanin-1 levels positively correlated with liver enzymes AST and ALT, and negatively correlated with white blood cell counts and fibrinogen in free-ranging dolphins. Major differences exist in the circulating blood proteome of the bottlenose dolphin compared to terrestrial mammals and exploration of these differences in bottlenose dolphins and other marine mammals may identify veiled protective strategies to counter physiological stress.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Non-depleted Serum Proteins from Bottlenose Dolphins Uncovers a High Vanin-1 Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Sobolesky, Philip; Parry, Celeste; Boxall, Baylye; Wells, Randall; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted approaches have been widely used to help explain physiological adaptations, but few studies have used non-targeted omics approaches to explore differences between diving marine mammals and terrestrial mammals. A rank comparison of undepleted serum proteins from common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and pooled normal human serum led to the discovery of 11 proteins that appeared exclusive to dolphin serum. Compared to the comprehensive human plasma proteome, 5 of 11 serum proteins had a differential rank greater than 200. One of these proteins, Vanin-1, was quantified using parallel reaction monitoring in dolphins under human care and free-ranging dolphins. Dolphin serum Vanin-1 ranged between 31–106 μg/ml, which is 20–1000 times higher than concentrations reported for healthy humans. Serum Vanin-1 was also higher in dolphins under human care compared to free-ranging dolphins (64 ± 16 vs. 47 ± 12 μg/ml P < 0.05). Vanin-1 levels positively correlated with liver enzymes AST and ALT, and negatively correlated with white blood cell counts and fibrinogen in free-ranging dolphins. Major differences exist in the circulating blood proteome of the bottlenose dolphin compared to terrestrial mammals and exploration of these differences in bottlenose dolphins and other marine mammals may identify veiled protective strategies to counter physiological stress. PMID:27667588

  8. Spatial Models of Abundance and Habitat Preferences of Commerson’s and Peale’s Dolphin in Southern Patagonian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Dellabianca, Natalia A.; Pierce, Graham J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Scioscia, Gabriela; Miller, David L.; Torres, Mónica A.; Paso Viola, M. Natalia; Schiavini, Adrián C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Commerson’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii) and Peale’s dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf. Spatial models were constructed using generalized additive models. In total, 88 schools (212 individuals) of Commerson’s dolphin and 134 schools (465 individuals) of Peale’s dolphin were recorded in 8,535 km surveyed. Commerson’s dolphin was found less than 60 km from shore; whereas Peale’s dolphins occurred over a wider range of distances from the coast, the number of animals sighted usually being larger near or far from the coast. Fitted models indicate overall abundances of approximately 22,000 Commerson’s dolphins and 20,000 Peale’s dolphins in the total area studied. This work provides the first large-scale abundance estimate for Peale’s dolphin in the Atlantic Ocean and an update of population size for Commerson’s dolphin. Additionally, our results contribute to baseline data on suitable habitat conditions for both species in southern Patagonia, which is essential for the implementation of adequate conservation measures. PMID:27783627

  9. Characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in Europe.

    PubMed

    Visser, I K; Van Bressem, M F; de Swart, R L; van de Bildt, M W; Vos, H W; van der Heijden, R W; Saliki, J T; Orvell, C; Kitching, P; Kuiken, T

    1993-04-01

    A previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) that had died in the Dutch Waddensea (North Sea) in 1990. This porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) and a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), were compared antigenically with other members of the genus Morbillivirus, including the newly recognized phocine distemper virus type 1. DMV and PMV proved to be similar but distinct morbillivurses, closely related to rinderpest virus and peste-des-petitsruminants virus. Cell cultures of cetacean, pinniped, ruminant and canine origin showed a different pattern of susceptibility to DMV and PMV infection. Ruminants and dogs proved to be susceptible to experimental infection with DMV and PMV, which both caused a transient leukopenia most pronounced in the ruminants. Pre-exposure of dogs to DMV and PMV protected them from developing CDV viraemia and clinical signs upon challenge infection with virulent CDV. A serological survey among stranded animals of different cetacean species in Europe indicated that infections with DMV- and PMV-like morbilliviruses are not uncommon among these aquatic mammals.

  10. Conditioned hearing sensitivity reduction in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2014-08-01

    The conditioned change in hearing sensitivity during a warning sound preceding a loud sound was investigated in the bottlenose dolphin. Hearing sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the test/warning stimulus with a frequency of 22.5 or 32 kHz preceded the loud sound with a frequency of 22.5 kHz and a sound pressure level of 165 dB re. 1 μPa rms, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased relative to the baseline. The threshold increased up to 15 dB. In order to further investigate whether the observed threshold increase was due to conditioning, the dependence of the effect on warning duration and inter-trial interval was investigated. The duration of the warning substantially influenced the effect. Shorter warnings resulted in deeper suppression of responses and higher threshold increases than longer warnings. In contrast, the effect was nearly independent of the duration of the inter-trial interval, i.e. it was independent of the delay from the loud sound to the test/warning sound in the subsequent trial. These data are considered as evidence that the observed hearing threshold increases were not a result of the unconditioned effect of the loud sound and were instead a manifestation of a conditioned dampening of hearing when the bottlenose dolphin anticipated the quick appearance of a loud sound in the same way as previously demonstrated in the false killer whale.

  11. Separation control over a grooved surface inspired by dolphin skin.

    PubMed

    Lang, Amy W; Jones, Emily M; Afroz, Farhana

    2017-02-10

    Over many decades the biological surfaces of aquatic swimmers have been studied for their potential as drag reducing surfaces. The hydrodynamic benefit of riblets, or grooves embedded parallel to the flow which appear on surfaces such as shark skin, have been well documented. However the skin of dolphins is embedded with sinusoidal grooves that run perpendicular or transverse to the flow over their bodies. It is theorized that the transverse grooves present on dolphin skin trap vortices between them, creating a partial slip condition over the surface and inducing turbulence augmentation in the boundary layer, thus acting as a potential mechanism to reduce flow separation and thus pressure drag. In an attempt to test this hypothesis and study these effects, an adverse pressure gradient was induced above a flat plate resulting in a controlled region of flow separation occurring within a tripped, turbulent boundary layer. Small transverse grooves of both rectangular and sinusoidal shape were 3D printed and mounted to the plate to measure their effect on the boundary layer flow. The results were compared to a flat plate without grooves using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The strength of the adverse pressure gradient was varied, and the observed control in flow separation and other effects upon the boundary layer are discussed.

  12. Secretory patterns of catecholamines in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miwa; Nozawa, Aoi; Ueda, Keiichi; Bungo, Takashi; Terao, Hiromi; Asahina, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-15

    Catecholamines (CAs), namely adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA), are secreted by the sympathoadrenal system and participate in a diverse array of functions, e.g., heat production, cardiovascular regulation, stress response and so on. However, little is known regarding peripheral CA fluctuations in cetaceans; nevertheless aquatic animals like them have needed to modify their physiological response especially for thermoregulation in water and oxygen economy during diving. To understand CA dynamism in cetaceans, diurnal changes in serum A, NA, and DA concentrations were measured during the winter and summer solstices in four Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). The average serum NA concentration was much higher than the average A and DA concentrations, and all concentrations were higher than those reported in other cetacean species. No distinct diurnal fluctuations were observed in CA concentrations in either solstice, suggesting inhibition of the decrease in CA concentrations during nocturnal periods by the unique sleep pattern of dolphins. All the serum CA concentrations were negatively correlated with water temperature as body temperatures were, indicating that the sympathoadrenal system might be more active during winter than in summer season, suggesting a role of CA in thermoregulation.

  13. Characterizing dusky dolphin sounds from Argentina and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin L; Hodge, Kristin B; Würsig, Bernd; Sappenfield, Rebecca H; Lammers, Marc O; Dudzinski, Kathleen M

    2012-07-01

    Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) acoustic sounds were characterized by analyzing narrowband recordings [0-16 kHz in New Zealand (NZ) and 0-24 kHz in Argentina], and sounds in broadband recordings (0-200 kHz) were compared to their counterparts in down-sampled narrowband recordings (0-16 kHz). The most robust similarity between sounds present in broadband recordings and their counterparts in the down-sampled narrowband recordings was inter-click interval (ICI); ICI was therefore primarily used to characterize click sounds in narrowband recordings. In NZ and Argentina, distribution of ICIs was a continuum, although the distribution of ICIs in NZ had a somewhat bimodal tendency. In NZ, sounds that had smaller mean ICIs were more likely to have constant ICIs, and less likely to have increasing or decreasing ICIs. Similar to some other delphinids, dusky dolphins may use single, short duration sounds that have a constant ICI and closely spaced clicks for communication. No whistles were documented at either study site. Temporally structured sequences of burst pulses (i.e., sounds with ICI < about 10 ms) also occurred at both study sites, and these sequences contained 2-14 burst pulses that appeared closely matched aurally and in spectrograms and waveforms.

  14. Hg and Se exposure in brain tissues of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) from the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas.

    PubMed

    Bellante, Antonio; D'Agostino, Fabio; Traina, Anna; Piazzese, Daniela; Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Sprovieri, Mario

    2017-03-01

    In this study we analyzed Hg and Se concentrations in dolphin brain tissues of fifteen specimens of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and eight specimens of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas, in order to assess the toxicological risks associated with Hg exposure. High Hg concentrations were found in brain tissues of both analyzed specie (1.86-243 mg/kg dw for striped dolphin and 2.1-98.7 mg/kg dw for bottlenose dolphin), exceeding levels associated with marine mammals neurotoxicity. Althougth the results clearly suggest that the protective effects of Se against Hg toxicity occur in cetaceans' brain tissues, a molar excess of mercury with respect to selenium was found, particularly in adult specimens of Stenella coeruleoalba. On contrary, negligible neurotoxicological risks were found for Tursiops truncatus specimens, due to detoxification processes. Data obtained allowed to prove a more marked neurotoxicological risk for adult specimens of Stenella coeruleoalba in both Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas.

  15. Echolocation parameters of Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the wild.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Mafalda; Jensen, Frants H; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Madsen, Peter T

    2015-06-01

    Echolocation is a key sensory modality for toothed whale orientation, navigation, and foraging. However, a more comparative understanding of the biosonar properties of toothed whales is necessary to understand behavioral and evolutionary adaptions. To address this, two free-ranging sympatric delphinid species, Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), were studied. Biosonar clicks from both species were recorded within the same stretch of coastal habitat in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, using a vertical seven element hydrophone array. S. sahulensis used biosonar clicks with a mean source level of 199 ± 3 dB re 1 μPa peak-peak (pp), mean centroid frequency of 106 ± 11 kHz, and emitted at interclick intervals (ICIs) of 79 ± 33 ms. These parameters were similar to click parameters of sympatric T. aduncus, characterized by mean source levels of 204 ± 4 dB re 1 μPa pp, centroid frequency of 112 ± 9 kHz, and ICIs of 73 ± 29 ms. These properties are comparable to those of other similar sized delphinids and suggest that biosonar parameters are independent of sympatric delphinids and possibly driven by body size. The dynamic biosonar behavior of these delphinids may have, consequently, allowed for adaptations to local environments through high levels of control over sonar beam properties.

  16. How dolphins see the world: A comparison with chimpanzees and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Uwano, Yuka; Saito, Toyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins use auditory (or echoic) information to recognise their environments, and many studies have described their echolocation perception abilities. However, relatively few systematic studies have examined their visual perception. We tested dolphins on a visual-matching task using two-dimensional geometric forms including various features. Based on error patterns, we used multidimensional scaling to analyse perceptual similarities among stimuli. In addition to dolphins, we conducted comparable tests with terrestrial species: chimpanzees were tested on a computer-controlled matching task and humans were tested on a rating task. The overall perceptual similarities among stimuli in dolphins were similar to those in the two species of primates. These results clearly indicate that the visual world is perceived similarly by the three species of mammals, even though each has adapted to a different environment and has differing degrees of dependence on vision. PMID:24435017

  17. How dolphins see the world: a comparison with chimpanzees and humans.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Uwano, Yuka; Saito, Toyoshi

    2014-01-16

    Bottlenose dolphins use auditory (or echoic) information to recognise their environments, and many studies have described their echolocation perception abilities. However, relatively few systematic studies have examined their visual perception. We tested dolphins on a visual-matching task using two-dimensional geometric forms including various features. Based on error patterns, we used multidimensional scaling to analyse perceptual similarities among stimuli. In addition to dolphins, we conducted comparable tests with terrestrial species: chimpanzees were tested on a computer-controlled matching task and humans were tested on a rating task. The overall perceptual similarities among stimuli in dolphins were similar to those in the two species of primates. These results clearly indicate that the visual world is perceived similarly by the three species of mammals, even though each has adapted to a different environment and has differing degrees of dependence on vision.

  18. Development and application of specific cytokine assays in tissue samples from a bottlenose dolphin with hyperinsulinemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia) , chronic = inflamma...

  19. Identifying indicators through modified Delphi technique in polytechnics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashir, Irdayanti Mat; Mustapha, Ramlee; Yusoff, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to examine how the panel has been selected as experts in assessing indicators of innovative instructional leadership (IIL) administrator in polytechnics based on 222 items were obtained through previous studies. A total of eleven people were selected as the expert panels in a study where expert selection criteria based on their background in the leadership. Experts were interviewed separately. Interviews were carried out for a half hour in their offices. The data obtained were analyzed using Atlas Ti. Overall findings indicate experts agree that a total of 188 items and 14 indicators should be maintained in this innovative instructional leadership instruments and next by using Modified Delphi Technique. The instrument will then be analyzed to obtain findings on the perception of lecturers on every administrator innovative instructional leadership in their respective polytechnics.

  20. Measurement of |V{sub cs}| with DELPHI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Golob, Bostjan

    1998-10-19

    Pair production of charged weak bosons W{sup {+-}} at LEP2 collider can be exploited to measure the absolute value of the V{sub cs} element of Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The value can be most accurately extracted from the measured hadronic branching ratio of W{sup {+-}} bosons. An independent method to obtain the |V{sub cs}| value consists of tagging the flavour of primary quarks in jets, produced in W{sup {+-}} decays. Using both methods on the data collected with DELPHI experiment during 1996 and 1997 runs, we obtained |V{sub cs}|=0.99{+-}0.06(stat.){+-}0.04(syst.). Combined result of |V{sub cs}| measurements with four LEP experiments enables a test of CKM matrix unitarity.

  1. Performance of the DELPHI small angle tile calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1996-06-01

    The DELPHI STIC detector is a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter with wave length shifting optical fibers used for light collection. The main goal of the calorimeter at LEP100 is to measure the luminosity with an accuracy better than 0.1%. The detector has been in operation since the 1994 LEP run. Presented here is the performance measured during the 1994--1995 LEP runs, with the emphasis on the achieved energy and space resolution, the long-term stability and the efficiency of the detector. The new bunchtrains mode of LEP requires a rather sophisticated trigger and timing scheme which is also presented. To control the trigger efficiency and stability of the calorimeter channels, a LED-based monitoring system has been developed.

  2. Modified Policy-Delphi study for exploring obesity prevention priorities

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Emily; Palermo, Claire; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Until now, industry and government stakeholders have dominated public discourse about policy options for obesity. While consumer involvement in health service delivery and research has been embraced, methods which engage consumers in health policy development are lacking. Conflicting priorities have generated ethical concern around obesity policy. The concept of ‘intrusiveness’ has been applied to policy decisions in the UK, whereby ethical implications are considered through level of intrusiveness to choice; however, the concept has also been used to avert government regulation to address obesity. The concept of intrusiveness has not been explored from a stakeholder's perspective. The aim is to investigate the relevance of intrusiveness and autonomy to health policy development, and to explore consensus on obesity policy priorities of under-represented stakeholders. Methods and analysis The Policy-Delphi technique will be modified using the James Lind Alliance approach to collaborative priority setting. A total of 60 participants will be recruited to represent three stakeholder groups in the Australian context: consumers, public health practitioners and policymakers. A three-round online Policy-Delphi survey will be undertaken. Participants will prioritise options informed by submissions to the 2009 Australian Government Inquiry into Obesity, and rate the intrusiveness of those proposed. An additional round will use qualitative methods in a face-to-face discussion group to explore stakeholder perceptions of the intrusiveness of options. The novelty of this methodology will redress the balance by bringing the consumer voice forward to identify ethically acceptable obesity policy options. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Bond University Health Research Ethics Committee. The findings will inform development of a conceptual framework for analysing and prioritising obesity policy options, which will be relevant

  3. Teacher Competencies in Health Education: Results of a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Sharon; Paakkari, Leena; Välimaa, Raili; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. Method/Results A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the Delphi, while eighteen took part in round two and fifteen participated in the final round. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. The first round contained an open ended question in which participants were asked to name and define all the competencies they perceived were important. Thematic analysis was undertaken on these data. A list of 36 competencies was created from this round. This list was then returned to the same participants and they were asked to rate each competency on a 7 point semantic differential scale in terms of importance. The resulting data were then analysed. For the final round, participants were presented with a list of 33 competencies and were asked to rank them again, in order of importance. Conclusion Twelve core competencies emerged from the analysis and these competencies comprised of a mixture of knowledge, attitude and skills. The authors suggest that how these competencies are achieved and operationalised in the school context can be quite complex and multi-faceted. While the authors do not seek to generalise from the study they suggest that these competencies are an important input for all stakeholders, in order to question national and international teacher guidelines. In addition the competencies identified may provide a useful starting point for others to undertake deeper analysis of what it means to be an effective health educator in schools. PMID:26630180

  4. Comparison of Sonar Discrimination by an Echolocating Dolphin and a Counterpropagation Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    AND SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING NUMBERS COMPARISON OF SONAR DISCRIMINATION BY AN ECHOLOCATING PR: MMB2 DOLPHIN AND A COUNTERPROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK PE...COMPARISON OF SONAR DISCRIMINATION BY AN constanB-1 filter cal fe expressed as ECIHOLOCATING DOLPHIN AND A COUNTERPROPAGATION 2Q-1 NEURAL NETWORK ’ " -- 1...In this study, a counterpropagation artificial layer of N+1 elements, a Kohonen layer of N elements neural network was used to examine the broadband

  5. Relaxin as a hormonal aid to evaluate pregnancy and pregnancy loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Bergfelt, Don R; Blum, Jason L; Steinetz, Bernard G; Steinman, Karen J; O'Brien, Justin K; Robeck, Todd R

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to critically evaluate weekly and monthly circulating concentrations of immunoreactive relaxin throughout pregnancies that resulted in live births, stillbirths, and abortions in aquarium-based bottlenose dolphins. A relaxin RIA was used to analyze serum collected during 74 pregnancies involving 41 dolphins and 8 estrous cycles as well as 8 non-pregnant dolphins. Pregnancies resulted in live births (n=60), stillbirths (n=7), or abortions (n=7). Relative to parturition (Month 0), monthly changes (P<0.0001) in relaxin was indicated by relatively low concentrations during early pregnancy (Months -12 to -9) which subsequently increased (P<0.05) during mid- (Months -8 to -5) to late (Months -4 to -1) pregnancy; relaxin was highest (P<0.05) at the time of parturition. Post-parturition (Month 1), concentrations decreased (P<0.05). During the first 4weeks post-ovulation, relaxin concentrations were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant dolphins (status-by-week interaction, P=0.59). Status-by-month interaction (P<0.0002) involving different pregnancy outcomes was due, impart, to an increase in relaxin during early pregnancy (P<0.05) that was comparable among dolphins with live births, stillbirths, and abortions except concentrations were lower (P<0.05; 52%) at mid-pregnancy in association with pregnancy loss. Thereafter, concentrations increased (P<0.05) during late pregnancy in dolphins with stillbirths but not in dolphins with abortions. In conclusion, this study provided new information on the pregnancy-specific nature of relaxin, critical evaluation of the fundamental characteristics of relaxin during pregnancy and pregnancy loss, and clarification on the strengths and limitations of relaxin as a diagnostic aid to determine pregnancy status and assess maternal-fetal health in bottlenose dolphins.

  6. Pathophysiology of Stress in Wild and Managed-Care Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    N0001411IP20081 http://www.chbr.noaa.gov Gregory D. Bossart, V.M.D., Ph.D. Georgia Aquarium 225 Baker Street NW Atlanta, GA 30313 phone: 404-581-4304...managed-care Georgia Aquarium bottlenose dolphins) to characterize multiple stress markers In August and September 2011 samples from 6 dolphins were...sampled from Georgia Aquarium and a scheduled collection developed for the remainder of the study collection period. Hematological and immune analyses

  7. Pathophysiology of Stress in Wild and Managed-Care Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Gregory D. Bossart, V.M.D., Ph.D. Georgia Aquarium 225 Baker Street NW Atlanta, GA 30313 phone: 404-581...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Georgia Aquarium ,225 Baker Street NW,Atlanta...WORK COMPLETED SUBTASK 1 - Collection of samples from Group 1 (managed-care Georgia Aquarium bottlenose dolphins) to characterize multiple stress

  8. Concurrent Exposure of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to Multiple Algal Toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Twiner, Michael J.; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K.; Wells, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000–2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118) and 53% positive for DA (n = 83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  9. Behavioural Responses of Dusky Dolphin Groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) to Tour Vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, David; Gemmell, Neil J.; Würsig, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial viewing and swimming with dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) near Kaikoura, New Zealand began in the late 1980s and researchers have previously described changes in vocalisation, aerial behaviour, and group spacing in the presence of vessels. This study was conducted to assess the current effects that tourism has on the activity budget of dusky dolphins to provide wildlife managers with information for current decision-making and facilitate development of quantitative criteria for management of this industry in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings First-order time discrete Markov chain models were used to assess changes in the behavioural state of dusky dolphin pods targeted by tour vessels. Log-linear analysis was conducted on behavioural state transitions to determine whether the likelihood of dolphins moving from one behavioural state to another changed based on natural and anthropogenic factors. The best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria values included season, time of day, and vessel presence within 300 m. Interactions with vessels reduced the proportion of time dolphins spent resting in spring and summer and increased time spent milling in all seasons except autumn. Dolphins spent more time socialising in spring and summer, when conception occurs and calves are born, and the proportion of time spent resting was highest in summer. Resting decreased and traveling increased in the afternoon. Conclusions/Significance Responses to tour vessel traffic are similar to those described for dusky dolphins elsewhere. Disturbance linked to vessels may interrupt social interactions, carry energetic costs, or otherwise affect individual fitness. Research is needed to determine if increased milling is a result of acoustic masking of communication due to vessel noise, and to establish levels at which changes to behavioural budgets of dusky dolphins are likely to cause long-term harm. Threshold values from these studies

  10. Remote Monitoring of Dolphins and Whales in the High Naval Activity Areas in Hawaiian Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    considered to be indicative of the presence of one or more of the following species: false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), short-finned pilot...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Remote Monitoring of Dolphins and Whales in the High Naval...power applies directly to the problems experienced by the U.S. Navy in encountering dolphins and whales . These encounters can be avoided if more

  11. Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Spontaneously Using Water Flow to Manipulate Objects

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Furuta, Keisuke; Taki, Michihiro; Morisaka, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Several terrestrial animals and delphinids manipulate objects in a tactile manner, using parts of their bodies, such as their mouths or hands. In this paper, we report that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) manipulate objects not by direct bodily contact, but by spontaneous water flow. Three of four dolphins at Suma Aqualife Park performed object manipulation with food. The typical sequence of object manipulation consisted of a three step procedure. First, the dolphins released the object from the sides of their mouths while assuming a head-down posture near the floor. They then manipulated the object around their mouths and caught it. Finally, they ceased to engage in their head-down posture and started to swim. When the dolphins moved the object, they used the water current in the pool or moved their head. These results showed that dolphins manipulate objects using movements that do not directly involve contact between a body part and the object. In the event the dolphins dropped the object on the floor, they lifted it by making water flow in one of three methods: opening and closing their mouths repeatedly, moving their heads lengthwise, or making circular head motions. This result suggests that bottlenose dolphins spontaneously change their environment to manipulate objects. The reason why aquatic animals like dolphins do object manipulation by changing their environment but terrestrial animals do not may be that the viscosity of the aquatic environment is much higher than it is in terrestrial environments. This is the first report thus far of any non-human mammal engaging in object manipulation using several methods to change their environment. PMID:25250625

  12. In vitro PFOS exposure on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and mice.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1)) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1). Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins.

  13. Captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spontaneously using water flow to manipulate objects.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Furuta, Keisuke; Taki, Michihiro; Morisaka, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Several terrestrial animals and delphinids manipulate objects in a tactile manner, using parts of their bodies, such as their mouths or hands. In this paper, we report that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) manipulate objects not by direct bodily contact, but by spontaneous water flow. Three of four dolphins at Suma Aqualife Park performed object manipulation with food. The typical sequence of object manipulation consisted of a three step procedure. First, the dolphins released the object from the sides of their mouths while assuming a head-down posture near the floor. They then manipulated the object around their mouths and caught it. Finally, they ceased to engage in their head-down posture and started to swim. When the dolphins moved the object, they used the water current in the pool or moved their head. These results showed that dolphins manipulate objects using movements that do not directly involve contact between a body part and the object. In the event the dolphins dropped the object on the floor, they lifted it by making water flow in one of three methods: opening and closing their mouths repeatedly, moving their heads lengthwise, or making circular head motions. This result suggests that bottlenose dolphins spontaneously change their environment to manipulate objects. The reason why aquatic animals like dolphins do object manipulation by changing their environment but terrestrial animals do not may be that the viscosity of the aquatic environment is much higher than it is in terrestrial environments. This is the first report thus far of any non-human mammal engaging in object manipulation using several methods to change their environment.

  14. The effects of dolphin education programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lance Joseph

    Zoological institutions typically exhibit dolphins in educational programs such as dolphin shows and interaction programs. The goal of these programs is to entertain visitors while increasing their conservation-related knowledge, attitude and behavior towards dolphins and the marine environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine dolphin shows and interaction programs in terms of their effectiveness in meeting these goals. A multi-institutional study was conducted at six different facilities throughout the United States. A repeated measures design was used to examine the knowledge, attitude and behavior of visitors before, immediately after and three months following participation in dolphin shows or interaction programs. Participants of dolphin shows reflected a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. These participants' attitudes and behavioral intentions returned to entry levels three months following the shows. However, knowledge and reported behavior were significantly higher three months following the show compared to entry levels. Participants of interaction programs had a short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions immediately following the program and levels were significantly higher three months following the program when compared to entry levels. Additionally, these participants also reported engaging in more conservation-related behavior than during the entry surveys. Results from the current study suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program within zoological facilities. Understanding the aspects of these types of programs that lead people to conservation action will help zoological facilities in meeting their goals.

  15. Seasonal variation and tidal influences on estuarine use by bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fury, Christine A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2011-07-01

    In order to show that dolphins use estuary habitats differently depending on the season and tidal state, possibly in response to prey distribution, temperature, risk of stranding and accessibility, Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus) were observed year-round during a 3-year study in the Clarence River estuary (CR) and Richmond River estuary (RR) in northern New South Wales, Australia. Peak dolphin sightings occurred during the spring season and one or 2 h prior to high tide. The spatial distribution of the dolphins in each estuary was analysed using the distance in kilometres that the dolphins travelled upstream with seasons and tidal phase as determinants. A General Linear Model showed that in the CR the dolphin spatial distribution in the estuary was not determined by season ( F = 0.434, df = 3, P = 0.729) but was by tidal phase ( F = 9.943, df = 3, P < 0.001) and the interaction between season and tidal phase ( F = 3.398, df = 9, P < 0.002). However, in the RR the spatial distribution of the dolphin use of the estuary was not determined by either season ( F = 1.647, df = 3, P = 0.194) or tidal phase ( F = 0.302, df = 3, P = 0.824). In the CR, the spatial distribution of the dolphins was largest on high and flood tides. This pattern of spatial distribution may occur because the CR is a relatively shallow estuary and this increased spatial distribution may reflect a lower stranding risk and an increase in accessibility of shallow areas during periods of higher tide. These areas could also provide access to their preferred prey items of sea mullet ( Mugil cephalus) and sand whiting ( Sillago ciliata).

  16. Western blot expression of 5-lipoxygenase in the brain from striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) with or without encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis of infectious nature.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Falconi, A; Di Francesco, A; Mazzariol, S; Centelleghe, C; Casalone, C; Pautasso, A; Cocumelli, C; Eleni, C; Petrella, A; Di Francesco, C E; Sabatucci, A; Leonardi, L; Serroni, A; Marsili, L; Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2015-01-01

    Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV), Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella ceti are pathogens of major concern for wild cetaceans. Although a more or less severe encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis may occur in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected by the aforementioned agents, almost no information is available on the neuropathogenesis of brain lesions, including the neuronal and non-neuronal cells targeted during infection, along with the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We analyzed 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) expression in the brain of 11 striped dolphins and 5 bottlenose dolphins, affected or not by encephalitic lesions of various degrees associated with DMV, T. gondii and B. ceti. All the 8 striped dolphins with encephalitis showed a more consistent 5-LOX expression than that observed in the 3 striped dolphins showing no morphologic evidence of brain lesions, with the most prominent band intensity being detected in a B. ceti-infected animal. Similar results were not obtained in T. gondii-infected vs T. gondii-uninfected bottlenose dolphins. Overall, the higher 5-LOX expression found in the brain of the 8 striped dolphins with infectious neuroinflammation is of interest, given that 5-LOX is a putative marker for neurodegeneration in human patients and in experimental animal models. Therefore, further investigation on this challenging issue is also needed in stranded cetaceans affected by central neuropathies.

  17. Big brother - a fully automated control system for the DELPHI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Franek, B.; Sekulin, R.; Doenszelmann, M.; Gasper, C.; Charpentier, Jonker, M.

    1994-12-31

    The integrated control system of the DELPHI experiment is described. It allows the data to be taken in an almost automatic fashion. This is achieved by computer monitoring of the states of the LEP machine, the DELPHI subdetectors (SC) and the Data Acquisition System (DAS). Depending on these states, computer initiated actions are then taken. It has been designed using {open_quote}State Manager{close_quote} concept already used for local and central controls of DAS and SC.

  18. Temporally and spatially partitioned behaviours of spinner dolphins: implications for resilience to human disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, David W.; Christiansen, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than flexible systems. Using behavioural time-series data, we show that spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) spatially and temporally partition their behavioural activities on a daily basis. Specifically, spinner dolphins were never observed foraging during daytime, where resting was the predominant activity. Travelling and socializing probabilities were higher in early mornings and late afternoons when dolphins were returning from or preparing for nocturnal feeding trips, respectively. The constrained nature of spinner dolphin behaviours suggests they are less resilient to human disturbance than other cetaceans. These dolphins experience the highest exposure rates to human activities ever reported for any cetaceans. Over the last 30 years human activities have increased significantly in Hawaii, but the spinner dolphins still inhabit these bays. Recent abundance estimates (2011 and 2012) however, are lower than all previous estimates (1979–1981, 1989–1992 and 2003), indicating a possible long-term impact. Quantification of the spatial and temporal partitioning of wildlife behavioural schedules provides critical insight for conservation measures that aim to mitigate the effects of human disturbance. PMID:28280561

  19. Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Friedl, W A; Fong, M L; Yamada, R M; Sedivy, P; Haun, J E

    1992-02-27

    Over the past 50 years there has been much speculation about the energetic cost of swimming and wave-riding by dolphins. When aligned properly in front of the bow of moving ships in the stern wake of small boats, on wind waves, and even in the wake of larger cetaceans, the animals appear to move effortlessly through the water without the benefit of propulsive strokes by the flukes. Theoretically, body streamlining as well as other anatomical and behavioural adaptations contribute to low transport costs in these animals. The economy of movement permitted by wave-riding has been perceived as an energetic advantage for the swimming dolphin, but has been hard to prove in the absence of physiological data for exercising cetaceans. Here we determine the aerobic and anaerobic costs of swimming and wave-riding in bottlenose dolphins and find that the minimum cost of transport for swimming dolphins is 1.29 +/- 0.05 J kg-1 m-1 at a cruising speed of 2.1 m s-1. Aerobic costs are nearly twice as high for swimming seals and sea lions, and 8-12 times higher for human swimmers. Wave-riding by dolphins provides additional benefits in terms of speed. The results indicate that behavioural, physiological and morphological factors make swimming an economical form of high-speed travel for dolphins.

  20. Importance of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to marine toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Perez, Ana; Camacho-Magaña, Claudia; Gómez-Meda, Belinda; Ramos-Ibarra, María; Batista-González, Cecilia; Zúñiga-González, G

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the presence of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNES) from peripheral blood of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to evaluate the possibility to use this species as potential bioindicator of genotoxic compounds. Forty-eight blood samples from 12 bottlenose dolphins were obtain from three Mexican dolphinariums, and from 10 dolphins was possible to obtain more than one sample at different sampling times. Smears were processed and observed with an epifluorescence microscope. The average of MNES and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) from the 48 samples was 24.3 +/- 6.1 MNES/10,000 total erythrocytes (TE), and 9.1 +/- 5.5 PCE/1,000 TE. MNES and PCE number did not show differences between gender and age. No variations in the MNES values of the bottlenose dolphins that were sampled more than one occasion were found. Comparisons among dolphinariums revealed differences in MNES frequency, with the highest significant frequency observed in dolphins from dolphinarium "A" (26.0 +/- 5.9 MNES/10,000 TE) than dolphinarium "B" (19.5 +/- 3.1 MNES/10,000 TE) (p < 0.05) and dolphinarium "C" (18.6 +/- 3.5 MNES/10,000 TE) (p < 0.007). The presence of MNES and PCE in the bottlenose dolphin may provide a useful marine mammal model to detect DNA damage by means of micronuclei test in peripheral blood erythrocytes to evaluate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity expositions.

  1. A multimodal detection model of dolphins to estimate abundance validated by field experiments.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ura, Tamaki; Sugimatsu, Harumi; Bahl, Rajendar; Behera, Sandeep; Panda, Sudarsan; Khan, Muntaz; Kar, S K; Kar, C S; Kimura, Satoko; Sasaki-Yamamoto, Yukiko

    2013-09-01

    Abundance estimation of marine mammals requires matching of detection of an animal or a group of animal by two independent means. A multimodal detection model using visual and acoustic cues (surfacing and phonation) that enables abundance estimation of dolphins is proposed. The method does not require a specific time window to match the cues of both means for applying mark-recapture method. The proposed model was evaluated using data obtained in field observations of Ganges River dolphins and Irrawaddy dolphins, as examples of dispersed and condensed distributions of animals, respectively. The acoustic detection probability was approximately 80%, 20% higher than that of visual detection for both species, regardless of the distribution of the animals in present study sites. The abundance estimates of Ganges River dolphins and Irrawaddy dolphins fairly agreed with the numbers reported in previous monitoring studies. The single animal detection probability was smaller than that of larger cluster size, as predicted by the model and confirmed by field data. However, dense groups of Irrawaddy dolphins showed difference in cluster sizes observed by visual and acoustic methods. Lower detection probability of single clusters of this species seemed to be caused by the clumped distribution of this species.

  2. Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of Risso's dolphin echolocation in the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Soldevilla, Melissa S; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2010-01-01

    Geographical and temporal trends in echolocation clicking activity can lead to insights into the foraging and migratory behaviors of pelagic dolphins. Using autonomous acoustic recording packages, the geographical, diel, and seasonal patterns of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) echolocation click activity are described for six locations in the Southern California Bight between 2005 and 2007. Risso's dolphin echolocation click bouts are identified based on their unique spectral characteristics. Click bouts were identified on 739 of 1959 recording days at all 6 sites, with the majority occurring at nearshore sites. A significant diel pattern is evident in which both hourly occurrences of click bouts and click rates are higher at night than during the day. At all nearshore sites, Risso's dolphin clicks were identified year-round, with the highest daily occurrence at the southern end of Santa Catalina Island. Seasonal and interannual variabilities in occurrence were high across sites with peak occurrence in autumn of most years at most sites. These results suggest that Risso's dolphins forage at night and that the southern end of Santa Catalina Island represents an important habitat for Risso's dolphins throughout the year.

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of environmental enrichment in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Fabienne, Delfour; Helen, Beyer

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is often used to improve well-being and reduce stereotyped behaviors in animals under human care. However, the use of objects to enrich animal environments should not be considered to be effective until its success has been scientifically demonstrated. This study was conducted at Asterix Park in France in April 2009. The study investigated the use of 21 familiar objects with a group of six bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The dolphin trainers introduced four different objects into the dolphin pool every day on a rotating basis. Using a focal-object sampling method, we collected and analyzed data from twenty-one 15 min sessions. The results revealed a positive correlation between interest behaviors and interactive behaviors. Some dolphins had "favorite toys". However, only 50% of objects elicited manipulative behaviors. These findings demonstrate that dolphins do not treat all objects provided to them as "toys". Behavioral changes in the animals subsequent to the introduction of objects do not necessarily indicate an enrichment effect of the objects; rather, the motivation for the dolphins' behaviors toward the objects must be investigated. The animals' behavior must be considered in light of the social context and of the animals' individual behavioral profiles. The relevance of a constructivist approach to evaluating the effectiveness of enrichment programs is discussed.

  5. Big brains and blood glucose: common ground for diabetes mellitus in humans and healthy dolphins.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Ridgway, Sam H

    2007-08-01

    Healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia, producing a prolonged glucose tolerance curve and a transient, diabetes mellitus-like state during 6 to 72 h of fasting. To further assess dolphins as comparative models for diabetes in humans, we hypothesized that a suite of hematological and clinical biochemistry changes during the fasting state may mimic those reported in humans with diabetes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of covariance to compare fasting and nonfasting hematologic and serum biochemical data, including 1161 routine blood samples from 52 healthy bottlenose dolphins (age, 1 to 49 y; male and female) collected during 1998 through 2005. Most changes found in dolphins during the fasting state--including significantly increased glucose, platelets, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase; significantly decreased serum uric acid; and shifts toward a metabolic acidodic state (significantly increased blood CO2)--have been previously associated with diabetes mellitus in humans. Therefore, healthy bottlenose dolphins may be the first complete and natural comparative animal model for diabetes mellitus in humans. Similarities between dolphins and humans, including metabolic changes associated with high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets; large brain-to-mass ratios; high central nervous system demands for glucose; and similarly unique blood glucose-carrying capacities should be further assessed to better understand the potential evolutionary paths of diabetes mellitus in these 2 species.

  6. Clicks, whistles and pulses: Passive and active signal use in dolphin communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzing, Denise L.

    2014-12-01

    The search for signals out of noise is a problem not only with radio signals from the sky but in the study of animal communication. Dolphins use multiple modalities to communicate including body postures, touch, vision, and most elaborately sound. Like SETI radio signal searches, dolphin sound analysis includes the detection, recognition, analysis, and interpretation of signals. Dolphins use both passive listening and active production to communicate. Dolphins use three main types of acoustic signals: frequency modulated whistles (narrowband with harmonics), echolocation (broadband clicks) and burst pulsed sounds (packets of closely spaced broadband clicks). Dolphin sound analysis has focused on frequency-modulated whistles, yet the most commonly used signals are burst-pulsed sounds which, due to their graded and overlapping nature and bimodal inter-click interval (ICI) rates are hard to categorize. We will look at: 1) the mechanism of sound production and categories of sound types, 2) sound analysis techniques and information content, and 3) examples of lessons learned in the study of dolphin acoustics. The goal of this paper is to provide perspective on how animal communication studies might provide insight to both passive and active SETI in the larger context of searching for life signatures.

  7. Signature-whistle production in undisturbed free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mandy L. H.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Blum, James E.; Wells, Randall S.

    2004-01-01

    Data from behavioural observations and acoustic recordings of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were analysed to determine whether signature whistles are produced by wild undisturbed dolphins, and how whistle production varies with activity and group size. The study animals were part of a resident community of bottlenose dolphins near Sarasota, Florida, USA. This community of dolphins provides a unique opportunity for the study of signature-whistle production, since most animals have been recorded during capture-release events since 1975. Three mother-calf pairs and their associates were recorded for a total of 141.25 h between May and August of 1994 and 1995. Whistles of undisturbed dolphins were compared with those recorded from the same individuals during capture-release events. Whistles were conservatively classified into one of four categories: signature, probable signature, upsweep or other. For statistical analyses, signature and probable signature whistles were combined into a 'signature' category; upsweep and other whistles were combined into a 'non-signature' category. Both 'signature' and 'non-signature' whistle frequencies significantly increased as group size increased. There were significant differences in whistle frequencies across activity types: both 'signature' and 'non-signature' whistles were most likely to occur during socializing and least likely to occur during travelling. There were no significant interactions between group size and activity type. Signature and probable signature whistles made up ca. 52% of all whistles produced by these free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. PMID:15293858

  8. Preliminary investigation of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for hfe gene-related hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brianne E; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Archer, Linda L; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Hemochromatosis (iron storage disease) has been reported in diverse mammals including bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The primary cause of excessive iron storage in humans is hereditary hemochromatosis. Most human hereditary hemochromatosis cases (up to 90%) are caused by a point mutation in the hfe gene, resulting in a C282Y substitution leading to iron accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of a hereditary hemochromatosis-like genetic predisposition in dolphins, we sequenced the bottlenose dolphin hfe gene, using reverse transcriptase-PCR and hfe primers designed from the dolphin genome, from liver of affected and healthy control dolphins. Sample size included two case animals and five control animals. Although isotype diversity was evident, no coding differences were identified in the hfe gene between any of the animals examined. Because our sample size was small, we cannot exclude the possibility that hemochromatosis in dolphins is due to a coding mutation in the hfe gene. Other potential causes of hemochromatosis, including mutations in different genes, diet, primary liver disease, and insulin resistance, should be evaluated.

  9. A combined stereo-photogrammetry and underwater-video system to study group composition of dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräger, S.; Chong, A.; Dawson, S.; Slooten, E.; Würsig, B.

    1999-11-01

    One reason for the paucity of knowledge of dolphin social structure is the difficulty of measuring individual dolphins. In Hector's dolphins, Cephalorhynchus hectori, total body length is a function of age, and sex can be determined by individual colouration pattern. We developed a novel system combining stereo-photogrammetry and underwater-video to record dolphin group composition. The system consists of two downward-looking single-lens-reflex (SLR) cameras and a Hi8 video camera in an underwater housing mounted on a small boat. Bow-riding Hector's dolphins were photographed and video-taped at close range in coastal waters around the South Island of New Zealand. Three-dimensional, stereoscopic measurements of the distance between the blowhole and the anterior margin of the dorsal fin (BH-DF) were calibrated by a suspended frame with reference points. Growth functions derived from measurements of 53 dead Hector's dolphins (29 female : 24 male) provided the necessary reference data. For the analysis, the measurements were synchronised with corresponding underwater-video of the genital area. A total of 27 successful measurements (8 with corresponding sex) were obtained, showing how this new system promises to be potentially useful for cetacean studies.

  10. Differences in acoustic features of vocalizations produced by killer whales cross-socialized with bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Musser, Whitney B; Bowles, Ann E; Grebner, Dawn M; Crance, Jessica L

    2014-10-01

    Limited previous evidence suggests that killer whales (Orcinus orca) are capable of vocal production learning. However, vocal contextual learning has not been studied, nor the factors promoting learning. Vocalizations were collected from three killer whales with a history of exposure to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and compared with data from seven killer whales held with conspecifics and nine bottlenose dolphins. The three whales' repertoires were distinguishable by a higher proportion of click trains and whistles. Time-domain features of click trains were intermediate between those of whales held with conspecifics and dolphins. These differences provided evidence for contextual learning. One killer whale spontaneously learned to produce artificial chirps taught to dolphins; acoustic features fell within the range of inter-individual differences among the dolphins. This whale also produced whistles similar to a stereotyped whistle produced by one dolphin. Thus, results provide further support for vocal production learning and show that killer whales are capable of contextual learning. That killer whales produce similar repertoires when associated with another species suggests substantial vocal plasticity and motivation for vocal conformity with social associates.

  11. The structure of a bottlenose dolphin society is coupled to a unique foraging cooperation with artisanal fishermen.

    PubMed

    Daura-Jorge, F G; Cantor, M; Ingram, S N; Lusseau, D; Simões-Lopes, P C

    2012-10-23

    Diverse and localized foraging behaviours have been reported in isolated populations of many animal species around the world. In Laguna, southern Brazil, a subset of resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) uses a foraging tactic involving cooperative interactions with local, beach-casting fishermen. We used individual photo-identification data to assess whether cooperative and non-cooperative dolphins were socially segregated. The social structure of the population was found to be a fission-fusion system with few non-random associations, typical for this species. However, association values were greater among cooperative dolphins than among non-cooperative dolphins or between dolphins from different foraging classes. Furthermore, the dolphin social network was divided into three modules, clustering individuals that shared or lacked the cooperative foraging tactic. Space-use patterns were not sufficient to explain this partitioning, indicating a behavioural factor. The segregation of dolphins using different foraging tactics could result from foraging behaviour driving social structure, while the closer association between dolphins engaged in the cooperation could facilitate the transmission and learning of this behavioural trait from conspecifics. This unique case of a dolphin-human interaction represents a valuable opportunity to explore hypotheses on the role of social learning in wild cetaceans.

  12. A characterization of Guyana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) whistles from Costa Rica: the importance of broadband recording systems.

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura J; Wartzok, Douglas

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of the whistle structure in Guyana dolphins comes mostly from Brazilian populations where recordings have been made using limited bandwidth systems (18 and 24 kHz). In Brazil, Guyana dolphin whistle frequency span is 1.34-23.89 kHz, but authors have suggested that limits of their recording system may underestimate frequency span. Whistles of Guyana dolphins from Costa Rica were studied using a broadband recording system. How bandwidth limitations affect the understanding of whistle structure and species classification between sympatric dolphin species was evaluated. In addition, whistles were compared to Brazilian populations. Guyana dolphin whistle frequency span was 1.38 up to 48.40 kHz, greater than previously reported. Bandwidth limitations explained 89% of the whistle variation between studies, and increase in bandwidth improved the whistle classification of Guyana dolphins. Whistle duration and minimum frequency were the most important variables in dolphin species classification. Finally, after accounting for differences in recording systems, Costa Rican Guyana dolphins whistled with significantly higher frequency than Brazilian populations, providing evidence for a postulated increase in frequency from south to north. The study concludes that equipment with an upper frequency limit of at least 50 kHz (150 kHz for harmonics) is required to capture the entire whistle repertoire of the Guyana dolphin.

  13. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  14. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Teuten, Emma L; Pedler, Byron E; Hangsterfer, Alexandra N; Reddy, Christopher M

    2006-11-01

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl, C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(7), and C(9)H(4)N(2)Br(5)Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 microg/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl may be significant in the formation of C(9)H(4)N(2)Br(5)Cl.

  15. Inbreeding tolerance and fitness costs in wild bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Frère, Céline H; Krützen, Michael; Kopps, Anna M; Ward, Patrick; Mann, Janet; Sherwin, William B

    2010-09-07

    In wild populations, inbreeding tolerance is expected to evolve where the cost of avoidance exceeds that of tolerance. We show that in a wild population of bottlenose dolphins found in East Shark Bay, Western Australia, levels of inbreeding are higher than expected by chance alone, and demonstrate that inbreeding is deleterious to female fitness in two independent ways. We found that inbred females, and females with inbred calves, have reduced fitness (lower calving success). We further show that one of the costs of inbreeding is extended weaning age, and that females' earlier calves are more likely to be inbred. While the exact causes of inbreeding remain obscure, our results indicate that one factor is female age, and thus experience. Any inbreeding avoidance mechanisms such as female evasion of kin, or male dispersal, do not seem to be completely effective in this population, which supports the view that inbreeding avoidance does not always evolve wherever inbreeding incurs a cost.

  16. Inbreeding tolerance and fitness costs in wild bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Céline H.; Krützen, Michael; Kopps, Anna M.; Ward, Patrick; Mann, Janet; Sherwin, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In wild populations, inbreeding tolerance is expected to evolve where the cost of avoidance exceeds that of tolerance. We show that in a wild population of bottlenose dolphins found in East Shark Bay, Western Australia, levels of inbreeding are higher than expected by chance alone, and demonstrate that inbreeding is deleterious to female fitness in two independent ways. We found that inbred females, and females with inbred calves, have reduced fitness (lower calving success). We further show that one of the costs of inbreeding is extended weaning age, and that females' earlier calves are more likely to be inbred. While the exact causes of inbreeding remain obscure, our results indicate that one factor is female age, and thus experience. Any inbreeding avoidance mechanisms such as female evasion of kin, or male dispersal, do not seem to be completely effective in this population, which supports the view that inbreeding avoidance does not always evolve wherever inbreeding incurs a cost. PMID:20392729

  17. Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Krützen, Michael; Mann, Janet; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Bejder, Lars; Sherwin, William B

    2005-06-21

    In Shark Bay, wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) apparently use marine sponges as foraging tools. We demonstrate that genetic and ecological explanations for this behavior are inadequate; thus, "sponging" classifies as the first case of an existing material culture in a marine mammal species. Using mitochondrial DNA analyses, we show that sponging shows an almost exclusive vertical social transmission within a single matriline from mother to female offspring. Moreover, significant genetic relatedness among all adult spongers at the nuclear level indicates very recent coancestry, suggesting that all spongers are descendents of one recent "Sponging Eve." Unlike in apes, tool use in this population is almost exclusively limited to a single matriline that is part of a large albeit open social network of frequently interacting individuals, adding a new dimension to charting cultural phenomena among animals.

  18. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hundreds of birds, especially gray and white pelicans and cormorants, cover the water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. The basin is teeming with fish, attracting the crowd for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

  19. Morbillivirus infection in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southeastern United States: seroepidemiologic and pathologic evidence of subclinical infection.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; Goldstein, Juli; Fair, Patricia A; Saliki, Jeremiah T

    2010-07-14

    From 2003 to 2007, sera (n=234) from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting two southeast Atlantic estuarine regions, the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL and Charleston, SC (CHS) were tested for antibodies to cetacean morbilliviruses as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. Positive morbillivirus titers were found on initial capture in 12 of 122 (9.8%) IRL dolphins in the absence of an epizootic. All CHS dolphins were seronegative. Positive fluctuating morbillivirus titers and seroconversion were found in IRL dolphins. Seropositivity was detected in dolphins 8-13 years of age as well as in dolphins that were alive during the 1987-1988 epizootic. During the study period, pathologic and immunohistochemical findings from stranded IRL dolphins (n=14) did not demonstrate typical morbillivirus-associated lesions or the presence of morbillivirus antigen. The findings suggest that morbillivirus infections are occurring in the absence of widespread mortality in IRL dolphins.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blubber of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from two southeast Atlantic estuarine areas.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Mitchum, Gregory; Hulsey, Thomas C; Adams, Jeff; Zolman, Eric; McFee, Wayne; Wirth, Ed; Bossart, Gregory D

    2007-10-01

    Blubber tissue samples from bottlenose dolphins collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 were screened for 13 (17, 28, 47, 66, 71, 85, 99, 100, 138, 154, 153, 183, 190) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from dolphin populations in the Indian River Lagoon, FL (n = 58) and the Charleston Harbor estuary, SC (n = 53). Within each population, we investigated contaminant levels of PBDEs and the effects of factors including age, sex, the interaction of age and sex, and location. Six PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) were routinely detected in all samples using gas chromatography/mass spectometry methods. Significantly higher (p dolphins (X = 5,860 ng/g lipid; range = 429-22,780 ng/g lipid) when compared to Indian River Lagoon dolphins (X= 1,260 ng/g lipid; range = 195-3,790 ng/g lipid). PBDE 47 was the major congener representing approximately 61% of the SigmaPBDE in both dolphin populations, followed by BDE100, BDE154, BDE99, BDE153, and BDE28, respectively. Significantly higher (p < 0.0001) mean SigmaPBDE were observed in adult male dolphins compared to pregnant and adult female dolphins at both sites, with gender differences two-fold in the Indian River Lagoon and twelve-fold for Charleston. For Charleston dolphins, the juveniles in addition to the adult males also had significantly higher levels compared to pregnant and adult females. This study establishes baseline levels of PBDEs in bottlenose dolphins for these two areas and is the first assessment of PBDEs in free-ranging dolphins. The levels of PBDEs in Charleston dolphins represent some of the highest measured in marine mammals and warrants further investigation of these emerging, bioaccumulative chemicals and their potential deleterious effects.

  1. The Marine Mammal Brain Game: Students Compare the Brains and Behaviors of Dolphins, Sea Lions, and Manatees in This Unique Standards-Based Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.; Morris, Lee G.; Fobbs, Archibald J., Jr.; Johnson, John I.

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. Dolphins belong to the taxonomic order Cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Manatees (sea cows),…

  2. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, Lori H.; Zolman, Eric S.; Balmer, Brian C.; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R. Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A.; Kucklick, John R.; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A.; McFee, Wayne E.; Place, Ned J.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Wells, Randall S.; Rowles, Teresa K.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Similarly, T-lymphocyte proliferation and indices of innate immunity decreased with blubber PCB concentration, suggesting an increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Other persistent contaminants such as DDT which could potentially confound results were similar in the Georgia dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters. PMID:21613298

  3. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-07

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Similarly, T-lymphocyte proliferation and indices of innate immunity decreased with blubber PCB concentration, suggesting an increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Other persistent contaminants such as DDT which could potentially confound results were similar in the Georgia dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters.

  4. Seven new dolphin mitochondrial genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny of whales

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ye; Brandley, Matthew C; Xu, Shixia; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2009-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of Cetacea (whales) is not fully resolved with substantial support. The ambiguous and conflicting results of multiple phylogenetic studies may be the result of the use of too little data, phylogenetic methods that do not adequately capture the complex nature of DNA evolution, or both. In addition, there is also evidence that the generic taxonomy of Delphinidae (dolphins) underestimates its diversity. To remedy these problems, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven dolphins and analyzed these data with partitioned Bayesian analyses. Moreover, we incorporate a newly-developed "relaxed" molecular clock to model heterogenous rates of evolution among cetacean lineages. Results The "deep" phylogenetic relationships are well supported including the monophyly of Cetacea and Odontoceti. However, there is ambiguity in the phylogenetic affinities of two of the river dolphin clades Platanistidae (Indian River dolphins) and Lipotidae (Yangtze River dolphins). The phylogenetic analyses support a sister relationship between Delphinidae and Monodontidae + Phocoenidae. Additionally, there is statistically significant support for the paraphyly of Tursiops (bottlenose dolphins) and Stenella (spotted dolphins). Conclusion Our phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes using recently developed models of rate autocorrelation resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the major Cetacean lineages with a high degree of confidence. Our results indicate that a rapid radiation of lineages explains the lack of support the placement of Platanistidae and Lipotidae. Moreover, our estimation of molecular divergence dates indicates that these radiations occurred in the Middle to Late Oligocene and Middle Miocene, respectively. Furthermore, by collecting and analyzing seven new mitochondrial genomes, we provide strong evidence that the delphinid genera Tursiops and Stenella are not monophyletic, and the current taxonomy masks potentially

  5. The vitamin D3 transcriptomic response in skin cells derived from the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Blake C.; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Mancia, Annalaura; Kindy, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic bottlenose dolphin has attracted attention due to the evident impact that environmental stressors have taken on its health. In order to better understand the mechanisms linking environmental health with dolphin health, we have established cell cultures from dolphin skin as in vitro tools for molecular evaluations. The vitamin D3 pathway is one mechanism of interest because of its well established chemopreventative and immunomodulatory properties in terrestrial mammals. On the other hand, little is known of the physiological role of this molecule in aquatic animals. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), the bioactive and hormonal form of vitamin D3, exerts its biological function by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a ligand-activated regulator of gene transcription. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptomic changes induced by 1,25D3 administration in dolphin skin cells. Identification of specific genes activated by 1,25D3 has provided clues to the physiological function of the vitamin D3 pathway in the dolphin. We found that exposure of the cells to 1,25D3 upregulated transactivation of a vitamin D-sensitive promoter. cDNA microarray analysis, using a novel dolphin array, identified specific gene targets within this pathway, and real-time PCR (qPCR) confirmed the enhanced expression of select genes of interest. These transcriptional changes correlated with an increase in VDR levels. This is the first report of the presence and activation of the vitamin D3 pathway in a marine mammal, and our experimental results demonstrate a number of similarities to terrestrial animals. Conservation of this pathway in the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin is consistent with the importance of nonclassic functions of vitamin D3, such as its role in innate immunity, similar to what has been demonstrated in other mammals. PMID:19454332

  6. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the “visuomotor priming” condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  7. DELirium Prediction Based on Hospital Information (Delphi) in General Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Cho, Won Hyun

    2016-03-01

    To develop a simple and accurate delirium prediction score that would allow identification of individuals with a high probability of postoperative delirium on the basis of preoperative and immediate postoperative data.Postoperative delirium, although transient, is associated with adverse outcomes after surgery. However, there has been no appropriate tool to predict postoperative delirium.This was a prospective observational single-center study, which consisted of the development of the DELirium Prediction based on Hospital Information (Delphi) score (n = 561) and its validation (n = 533). We collected potential risk factors for postoperative delirium, which were identified by conducting a comprehensive review of the literatures.Age, low physical activity, hearing impairment, heavy alcoholism, history of prior delirium, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, emergency surgery, open surgery, and increased preoperative C-reactive protein were identified as independent predictors of postoperative delirium. The Delphi score was generated using logistic regression coefficients. The maximum Delphi score was 15 and the optimal cut-off point identified with the Youden index was 6.5. Generated area under the (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.911 (95% CI: 0.88-0.94). In the validation study, the calculated AUC of the ROC curve based on the Delphi score was 0.938 (95% Cl: 0.91-0.97). We divided the validation cohort into the low-risk group (Delphi score 0-6) and high-risk group (7-15). Sensitivity of Delphi score was 80.8% and specificity 92.5%.Our proposed Delphi score could help health-care provider to predict the development of delirium and make possible targeted intervention to prevent delirium in high-risk surgery patients.

  8. Organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and cerebellum gray matter in short-beaked common dolphins and Atlantic white-sided dolphins from the western North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Montie, Eric W; Reddy, Christopher M; Gebbink, Wouter A; Touhey, Katie E; Hahn, Mark E; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of several congeners and classes of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and/or their metabolites, namely organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated-PCBs (OH-PCBs), methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, and OH-PBDEs, were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of short-beaked common dolphins (n = 2), Atlantic white-sided dolphins (n = 8), and gray seal (n = 1) from the western North Atlantic. In three Atlantic white-sided dolphins, cerebellum gray matter (GM) was also analyzed. The levels of OCs, PCBs, MeSO(2)-PCBs, PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs in cerebellum GM were higher than the concentrations in CSF. 4-OH-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) was the only detectable OH-PCB congener present in CSF. The sum (Sigma) OH-PCBs/Sigma PCB concentration ratio in CSF was approximately two to three orders of magnitude greater than the ratio in cerebellum GM for dolphins.

  9. Recovery in psychosis: a Delphi study with experts by experience.

    PubMed

    Law, Heather; Morrison, Anthony P

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to establish consensus about the meaning of recovery among individuals with experience of psychosis. A Delphi approach was utilized to allow a large sample of service users to be anonymously consulted about their views on recovery. Service users were invited to take part in a 3-stage consultation process. A total of 381 participants gave their views on recovery in the main stage of this study, with 100 of these taking part in the final review stage. The final list of statements about recovery included 94 items, which were rated as essential or important by >80% of respondents. These statements covered items which define recovery, factors which help recovery, factors which hinder recovery, and factors which show that someone is recovering. As far as we are aware, it is the first study to identify areas of consensus in relation to definitions of recovery from a service user perspective, which are typically reported to be an idiosyncratic process. Implications and recommendations for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  10. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  11. A combined ANP-delphi approach to evaluate sustainable tourism

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Melon, Monica

    2012-04-15

    The evaluation of sustainable tourism strategies promoted by National Parks (NP) related stakeholders is a key concern for NP managers. To help them in their strategic evaluation procedures, in this paper we propose a methodology based on the Analytic Network Process and a Delphi-type judgment-ensuring procedure. The approach aims at involving stakeholders in a participatory and consensus-building process. The methodology was applied to Los Roques NP in Venezuela. The problem included three sustainable tourism strategies defined by the stakeholders: eco-efficient resorts, eco-friendly leisure activities and ecological transportation systems. Representatives of eight stakeholders participated in the methodology. 13 sustainability criteria were selected. Results provide some important insights into the overall philosophy and underlying participants' conception of what sustainable development of Los Roques NP means. This conception is broadly shared by stakeholders as they coincided in the weights of most of the criteria, which were assigned individually through the questionnaire. It is particularly noteworthy that tourists and environmentalists almost fully match in their assessments of criteria but not of the alternatives. Moreover, there is a great agreement in the final assessment. This suggests that the regular contact among the different stakeholders, i.e. tourists with inhabitants, authorities with environmentalists, tour operators with representatives of the ministry, etc. has led to a common understanding of the opportunities and threats for the NP. They all agreed that the procedure enhances participation and transparency and it is a necessary source of information and support for their decisions.

  12. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  13. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  14. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  15. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  16. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  17. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines

    PubMed Central

    López-Cruz, Roberto I.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A.; Real-Valle, Roberto A.; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  18. Morbillivirus-associated unusual mortality event in South Australian bottlenose dolphins is largest reported for the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Tomo, I.; Bingham, J.; Bastianello, S. S.; Wang, J.; Gibbs, S. E.; Woolford, L.; Dickason, C.; Kelly, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of morbillivirus have been recorded in the Southern Hemisphere but have not been linked to significant marine mammal mortality. Post-mortems were conducted on 58 carcasses (44 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, two common bottlenose dolphins, 12 short-beaked common dolphins) from South Australia during 2005–2013, including an unusual mortality event (UME) in St Vincent Gulf Bioregion (SVG) during 2013. Diagnostic pathology, circumstance of death, body condition, age and stomach contents were documented for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. At least 50 dolphins died during the UME, 41 were Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and most were young. The UME lasted about seven months and had two peaks, the first being the largest. Effect on the population is unknown. Diagnostic testing for morbillivirus was conducted on 57 carcasses, with evidence for infection in all species during 2011–2013. All tested UME bottlenose dolphins were positive for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), and the pathology included interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and syncytia. Concurrent pathologies, including lung parasite and fungal infections, and severe cutaneous bruising were observed in many dolphins. The event coincided with elevated water temperatures, a diatom bloom and significant fish die-offs. We conclude that the cause for the UME was multifactorial and that CeMV was a major contributor. PMID:28083115

  19. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinrong; Song, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Kaiya

    2015-01-01

    Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. This study examined the population of Chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of Zhanjiang in the northern South China Sea. A total of 492 Chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. The Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the Guangdong coast. It is composed of approximately 1485 individuals (95% CI = 1371–1629; SE = 63.8), with estimates of mean representative range and core area of 168.51 and 44.26 km2, respectively. The high site fidelity and long-term residence of Chinese white dolphins in the study area are well established. A review of all available data indicates that based on what is currently known, the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is the second largest of the species and genus in the world. However, the recent industrial boom along the Zhanjiang coast has increased concerns regarding the conservation of the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population. We recommend the designation of a national nature reserve as a most urgent measure for protecting Chinese white dolphins in Zhanjiang waters. PMID:25634769

  20. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Suzanne M.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C.; Barry, Kevin P.; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S.; Rosel, Patricia E.; Rowles, Teresa K.; Speakman, Todd R.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Tumlin, Mandy C.; Wells, Randall S.; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50–55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate–severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0–92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill. PMID:26538595

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  3. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinrong; Song, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Kaiya

    2015-01-30

    Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. This study examined the population of Chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of Zhanjiang in the northern South China Sea. A total of 492 Chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. The Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the Guangdong coast. It is composed of approximately 1485 individuals (95% CI = 1371-1629; SE = 63.8), with estimates of mean representative range and core area of 168.51 and 44.26 km(2), respectively. The high site fidelity and long-term residence of Chinese white dolphins in the study area are well established. A review of all available data indicates that based on what is currently known, the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is the second largest of the species and genus in the world. However, the recent industrial boom along the Zhanjiang coast has increased concerns regarding the conservation of the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population. We recommend the designation of a national nature reserve as a most urgent measure for protecting Chinese white dolphins in Zhanjiang waters.

  4. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lane, Suzanne M; Smith, Cynthia R; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C; Barry, Kevin P; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S; Rosel, Patricia E; Rowles, Teresa K; Speakman, Todd R; Townsend, Forrest I; Tumlin, Mandy C; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-11-07

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50-55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate-severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0-92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill.

  5. Validating the Novel Method of Measuring Cortisol Levels in Cetacean Skin by Use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    known as an ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone ) challenge, in a group of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The dolphins will be sampled as part...of an ongoing study of stress hormones conducted by Dr. Dorian Houser in collaboration with the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). The ACTH

  6. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    Sound is the primary sensory modality for dolphins, yet policies mitigating anthropogenic sound exposure are limited in wild populations and even fewer noise policies or guidelines have been developed for governing dolphin welfare under human care. Concerns have been raised that dolphins under human care live in facilities that are too noisy, or are too acoustically sterile. However, these claims have not been evaluated to characterize facility soundscapes, and further, how they compare to wild soundscapes. The soundscape of a wild dolphin habitat off the coast of Quintana, Roo, Mexico was characterized based on Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) recordings over one year. Snapping shrimp were persistent and broadband, following a diel pattern. Fish sound production was pulsed and prominent in low frequencies (100 -- 1000 Hz), and abiotic surface wave action contributed to noise in higher frequencies (15 -- 28 kHz). Boat motors were the main anthropogenic sound source. While sporadic, boat motors were responsible for large spikes in the noise, sometimes exceeding the ambient noise (in the absence of a boat) by 20 dB root-mean-squared sound pressure level, and potentially higher at closer distances. Boat motor sounds can potentially mask cues and communication sounds of dolphins. The soundscapes of four acoustically distinct outdoor dolphin facilities in Quintana Roo, Mexico were also characterized based on PAM, and findings compared with one another and with the measurements from the wild dolphin habitat. Recordings were made for at least 24 hours to encompass the range of daily activities. The four facilities differed in non-dolphin species present (biological sounds), bathymetry complexity, and method of water circulation. It was hypothesized that the greater the biological and physical differences of a pool from the ocean habitat, the greater the acoustic differences would be from the natural environment. Spectral analysis and audio playback revealed that the site

  7. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  8. Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar. Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina.

  9. The acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazua-Duran, Carmen

    2005-04-01

    Bottlenose dolphins live in a variety of habitats of the world's oceans using their acoustic repertoire to communicate and inspect their environment. This work investigates the acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins that inhabit a coastal lagoon of the southern Gulf of Mexico, the Laguna de Terminos and how it may relate to the dolphins' general behavioral state and herd size, and to the general characteristics of the habitat, such as visibility, depth, and sea state. Preliminary results show that bottlenose dolphins produce by far more clicks than whistles in all behavioral states (feeding, resting, social, and travel) and herd sizes, which may correlate with the decreased visibility and shallow depth of the Laguna de Terminos. Additionally, silence was found during all behavioral states, but very seldom in herds of large size. These preliminary results suggest that bottlenose dolphins are choosing when and where to produce their phonations. Therefore, more detailed studies are needed to understand how these animals are using their acoustic sense to communicate and inspect their environment. [Work supported by CONACyT-Gobierno Edo. de Campeche and PAPIIT, UNAM.

  10. Pathology of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Valencia and Murcia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Duignan, P J; Geraci, J R; Raga, J A; Calzada, N

    1992-07-01

    During the summer and fall of 1990 hundreds of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) died in the Spanish Mediterranean as a result of morbillivirus infection. A pathological investigation was carried out on dolphins from Valencia and Murcia which were among the first to die in the epizootic. The dolphins were in poor body condition and pneumonia was the main necropsy finding. Microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli with macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleated syncytia were seen in most dolphins. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions were present in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and in syncytia. Focal granulomatous inflammation associated with nematodes was also present. Brain lesions included diffuse degeneration and necrosis of neurons, microgliosis, perivascular cuffing, formation of syncytia and focal demyelination. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic inclusions were present in neurons and glial cells. There was severe lymphoid necrosis and depletion of spleen and lymph nodes and syncytia also occurred in lymph nodes. Biliary and transitional epithelium contained nuclear and cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Immunoperoxidase staining using monoclonal antibodies to phocine distemper virus confirmed the presence of morbillivirus antigens in lung and brain. The distribution and severity of lesions in striped dolphins are similar to those of distemper in seals, harbor porpoises and terrestrial mammals. The formation of syncytia in the lung and brain may be a useful pathological indicator of morbillivirus infection and may be used in the investigation of pinniped and cetacean strandings in North America.

  11. Echolocation characteristics of free-swimming bottlenose dolphins during object detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian; Martin, Stephen W.; Bauer, Eric J.; Phillips, Michael; Herrin, Tim; Cross, Matt; Vidal, Andrea; Moore, Patrick W.

    2005-04-01

    A biosonar measurement tool (BMT) was created to investigate dolphin echolocation search strategies by recording echolocation clicks, returning echoes, and three-dimensional angular motion, velocity, and depth of free-swimming dolphins performing open-water target detections. Trial start and stop times, locations determined from a differential global positioning system (DGPS), and BMT motion and acoustic data were used to produce spatial and acoustic representations of the searches. Two dolphins (LUT, FLP) searched for targets lying on the seafloor of a bay environment while carrying the BMT. LUT searched rapidly (<10 s), produced few clicks, and varied click-peak frequency (20-120 kHz); FLP searched relatively slowly (tens of seconds) and produced many hundreds of clicks with stereotypical frequency-dependent energy distributions dominating from 30-60 kHz. Dolphins amplified target echo returns by either increasing the click source level or reducing distance to the target but without reducing source level. The distribution of echolocation click-peak frequencies suggested a bias in the dominant frequency components of clicks, possibly due to mechanical constraints of the click generator. Prior training and hearing loss accommodation potentially explain differences in the search strategies of the two dolphins. .

  12. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Stolen, Megan; St. Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations. PMID:23840535

  13. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Stolen, Megan; St Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations.

  14. Solubility of ammonium acid urate nephroliths from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Argade, Sulabha; Smith, Cynthia R; Shaw, Timothy; Zupkas, Paul; Schmitt, Todd L; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Sur, Roger L

    2013-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis has been identified in managed populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus); most of these nephroliths are composed of 100% ammonium acid urate (AAU). Several therapies are being investigated to treat and prevent nephrolithiasis in dolphins including the alkalization of urine for dissolution of nephroliths. This study evaluates the solubility of AAU nephroliths in a phosphate buffer, pH range 6.0-8.0, and in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH range 9.0-10.8. AAU nephroliths were obtained from six dolphins and solubility studies were conducted using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. AAU nephroliths were much more soluble in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH range 9.0-10.8 compared to phosphate buffer pH range 6.0-8.0. In the pH range 6.0-8.0, the solubility was 45% lower in potassium phosphate buffer compared to sodium phosphate buffer. When citrate was used along with phosphate in the same pH range, the solubility was improved by 13%. At pH 7 and pH 8, 150 mM ionic strength buffer was optimum for dissolution. In summary, adjustment of urinary pH alone does not appear to be a useful way to treat AAU stones in bottlenose dolphins. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of AAU nephrolithiasis in dolphins is needed to optimize kidney stone prevention and treatment.

  15. Spatial and social sexual segregation patterns in indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus).

    PubMed

    Fury, Christine Ann; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Harrison, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    Sexual segregation seems to be common in bottlenose dolphins, whereby males and females live in different pods that mix mainly for mating. Male dolphins often use aggressive behaviour to mate with females, while females with calves may have different activity and dietary requirements to males and different susceptibility to predation. We investigated the degree of spatial and social sexual segregation in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in a subtropical estuary in Australia. Based on surveys completed over three years, dolphin groups were mostly mixed-sex or female. Mixed-sex groups were found in larger groups in mostly deeper water, whereas, female groups were foraging across all water depths in smaller groups. Aggressive coercive behaviour by males towards females was high, occurring mainly in deeper water, at higher tides, and outside the breeding season. Habitat use by female dolphin groups suggests that shallow tributaries may provide a sanctuary from aggressive males, access to suitable prey items and density for mothers and their calves, or a combination of these factors.

  16. A community split among dolphins: the effect of social relationships on the membership of new communities.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Miki; Shirakihara, Miki; Amano, Masao

    2015-11-26

    Little is known about community splitting among dolphins because such events are rare in dolphin populations. A case of a community split was confirmed in a population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Japan, where a group of approximately 30 dolphins moved to a new habitat some 60 km from the original habitat. We examined the associations among the dolphins before the community split to determine whether the new community members were already socially different before the split, using 7-year identification data. Before the split, the males in the same community after the split more often associated with each other than they did with those in different community. In contrast, the association patterns among females and between sexes showed no relationships with their post-split community membership. These results indicate that the males of new community were socially different from the other males for a long time before the split, but the females might not have been different. Our findings suggest that at time of the community split, the factors determining the memberships of the subsequent communities are sex-linked. The long-term social relationships among males could be maintained in the subsequent communities.

  17. The whistles of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazua-Duran, Carmen

    2001-05-01

    This work presents the description and geographic comparison of whistles from bottlenose dolphins recorded in three coastal areas in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (Galveston and Corpus Christi Bays and Madre Lagoon), one oceanic area in the northern Gulf, and one coastal area in the southern Gulf (Terminos Lagoon). The 1499 whistle contours analyzed were categorized into 289 whistle types, of which 120 types were unique to a specific area. From the remaining 169 types, more types were common between Madre and Corpus Christi than between Galveston and either Corpus Christi or Madre, results in agreement with the dolphin mixing patterns between these three areas. Whistles from the oceanic area were more similar to those of Madre, suggesting that contact between coastal and oceanic dolphins in the northwestern part of the Gulf may be through Madre Lagoon. Terminos and Galveston whistles, the areas furthest apart, were very similar, indicating that contact between dolphin groups may not be the only parameter determining whistle repertoire similarities. Dolphin whistle similarities may also depend on comparable habitat use and population structure. The new signal type curve shows that more than 250 whistles are needed for each area in order to adequately describe the whistle repertoire.

  18. Novel diversity of bacterial communities associated with bottlenose dolphin upper respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wesley R; Torralba, Manolito; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D; Nelson, Karen E; Morris, Pamela J

    2009-12-01

    Respiratory illness is thought to be most the common cause of death in both wild and captive populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The suspected pathogens that have been isolated from diseased animals have also been isolated from healthy individuals, suggesting they may be part of the normal flora. Our current understanding of the bacteria associated with the upper respiratory tract (URT) of bottlenose dolphins is based exclusively upon culture-based isolation and identification. Because < 1% of naturally occurring bacteria are culturable, a substantial fraction of the bacterial community associated with the dolphin URT remains to be described. The dolphin URT microbiota revealed by sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA exhibits almost no overlap with the taxa indicated in culture-based studies. The most abundant sequences in our libraries were similar among all of our study animals and shared the greatest homology to sequences of bacteria belonging to the genera Cardiobacterium, Suttonella, Psychrobacter, Tenacibaculum, Fluviicola and Flavobacterium; however, they were sufficiently different from database sequences from both cultured and uncultured organisms to suggest they represent novel genera and species. Our findings also demonstrate the dominance of three of the four bacterial phyla that dominate other mammalian microbiomes, including those of humans, and show tremendous diversity at the species/strain level, suggesting tight coevolution of the dolphin host and its URT bacterial community.

  19. Frequency-dependent variation in the two-dimensional beam pattern of an echolocating dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Starkhammar, Josefin; Moore, Patrick W.; Talmadge, Lois; Houser, Dorian S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent recordings of dolphin echolocation using a dense array of hydrophones suggest that the echolocation beam is dynamic and can at times consist of a single dominant peak, while at other times it consists of forward projected primary and secondary peaks with similar energy, partially overlapping in space and frequency bandwidth. The spatial separation of the peaks provides an area in front of the dolphin, where the spectral magnitude slopes drop off quickly for certain frequency bands. This region is potentially used to optimize prey localization by directing the maximum pressure slope of the echolocation beam at the target, rather than the maximum pressure peak. The dolphin was able to steer the beam horizontally to a greater extent than previously described. The complex and dynamic sound field generated by the echolocating dolphin may be due to the use of two sets of phonic lips as sound sources, or an unknown complexity in the sound propagation paths or acoustic properties of the forehead tissues of the dolphin. PMID:21561965

  20. Spatial and Social Sexual Segregation Patterns in Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops aduncus)

    PubMed Central

    Fury, Christine Ann; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual segregation seems to be common in bottlenose dolphins, whereby males and females live in different pods that mix mainly for mating. Male dolphins often use aggressive behaviour to mate with females, while females with calves may have different activity and dietary requirements to males and different susceptibility to predation. We investigated the degree of spatial and social sexual segregation in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in a subtropical estuary in Australia. Based on surveys completed over three years, dolphin groups were mostly mixed-sex or female. Mixed-sex groups were found in larger groups in mostly deeper water, whereas, female groups were foraging across all water depths in smaller groups. Aggressive coercive behaviour by males towards females was high, occurring mainly in deeper water, at higher tides, and outside the breeding season. Habitat use by female dolphin groups suggests that shallow tributaries may provide a sanctuary from aggressive males, access to suitable prey items and density for mothers and their calves, or a combination of these factors. PMID:23326370

  1. Vocal reporting of echolocation targets: dolphins often report before click trains end.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Elsberry, W R; Blackwood, D J; Kamolnick, T; Todd, M; Carder, D A; Chaplin, Monica; Cranford, T W

    2012-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) wore opaque suction cups over their eyes while stationing behind an acoustically opaque door. This put the dolphins in a known position and orientation. When the door opened, the dolphin clicked to detect targets. Trainers specified that Dolphin S emit a whistle if the target was a 7.5 cm water filled sphere, or a pulse burst if the target was a rock. S remained quiet if there was no target. Dolphin B whistled for the sphere. She remained quiet for rock and for no target. Thus, S had to choose between three different responses, whistle, pulse burst, or remain quiet. B had to choose between two different responses, whistle or remain quiet. S gave correct vocal responses averaging 114 ms after her last echolocation click (range 182 ms before and 219 ms after the last click). Average response for B was 21 ms before her last echolocation click (range 250 ms before and 95 ms after the last click in the train). More often than not, B began her whistle response before her echolocation train ended. The findings suggest separate neural pathways for generation of response vocalizations as opposed to echolocation clicks.

  2. Postnatal development of echolocation abilities in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): temporal organization.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gnone, Guido; Pessani, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In spite of all the information available on adult bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) biosonar, the ontogeny of its echolocation abilities has been investigated very little. Earlier studies have reported that neonatal dolphins can produce both whistles and burst-pulsed sounds just after birth and that early-pulsed sounds are probably a precursor of echolocation click trains. The aim of this research is to investigate the development of echolocation signals in a captive calf, born in the facilities of the Acquario di Genova. A set of 81 impulsive sounds were collected from birth to the seventh postnatal week and six additional echolocation click trains were recorded when the dolphin was 1 year old. Moreover, behavioral observations, concurring with sound production, were carried out by means of a video camera. For each sound we measured five acoustic parameters: click train duration (CTD), number of clicks per train, minimum, maximum, and mean click repetition rate (CRR). CTD and number of clicks per train were found to increase with age. Maximum and mean CRR followed a decreasing trend with dolphin growth starting from the second postnatal week. The calf's first head scanning movement was recorded 21 days after birth. Our data suggest that in the bottlenose dolphin the early postnatal weeks are essential for the development of echolocation abilities and that the temporal features of the echolocation click trains remain relatively stable from the seventh postnatal week up to the first year of life.

  3. Localization of dolphin whistles through frequency domain beamforming using a narrow aperture audio/video array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Keenan R.; Buck, John R.

    2003-04-01

    Correlating the acoustic and physical behavior of marine mammals is an ongoing challenge for scientists studying the links between acoustic communication and social behavior of these animals. This talk describes a system to record and correlate the physical and acoustical behavior of dolphins. A sparse, short baseline audio/video array consisting of 16 hydrophones and an underwater camera was constructed in a cross configuration to measure the acoustic signals of vocalizing dolphins. The bearings of vocalizing dolphins were estimated using the broadband frequency domain beamforming algorithm for sparse arrays to suppress grating lobes of Thode et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107 (2000)]. The estimated bearings from the acoustic signals were then converted to video image coordinates and a marker was placed on the video image. The system was calibrated both at an indoor tank and from an outdoor dock at UMass Dartmouth prior to field tests in a natural lagoon at the Dolphin Connection on Duck Key, FL. These tests confirmed that the system worked well within the limits of underwater visibility by consistently placing the marker on or near the whistling or echolocating dolphin. [Work supported by NSF Ocean Sciences.

  4. A community split among dolphins: the effect of social relationships on the membership of new communities

    PubMed Central

    Nishita, Miki; Shirakihara, Miki; Amano, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about community splitting among dolphins because such events are rare in dolphin populations. A case of a community split was confirmed in a population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Japan, where a group of approximately 30 dolphins moved to a new habitat some 60 km from the original habitat. We examined the associations among the dolphins before the community split to determine whether the new community members were already socially different before the split, using 7-year identification data. Before the split, the males in the same community after the split more often associated with each other than they did with those in different community. In contrast, the association patterns among females and between sexes showed no relationships with their post-split community membership. These results indicate that the males of new community were socially different from the other males for a long time before the split, but the females might not have been different. Our findings suggest that at time of the community split, the factors determining the memberships of the subsequent communities are sex-linked. The long-term social relationships among males could be maintained in the subsequent communities. PMID:26608473

  5. Echolocation signals of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) in Kaikoura, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Würsig, Bernd

    2004-05-01

    An array of four hydrophones arranged in a symmetrical star configuration was used to measure the echolocation signals of the dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) near the Kaikoura Peninsula, New Zealand. Most of the echolocation signals had bi-modal frequency spectra with a low-frequency peak between 40 and 50 kHz and a high-frequency peak between 80 and 110 kHz. The low-frequency peak was dominant when the source level was low and the high frequency peak dominated when the source level was high. The center frequencies in the dusky broadband echolocation signals are among the highest of dolphins measured in the field. Peak-to-peak source levels as high as 210 dB re 1 μPa were measured, although the average was much lower in value. The levels of the echolocation signals are about 9-12 dB lower than for the larger white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) which belongs to the same genus but is over twice as heavy as the dusky dolphins. The source level varied in amplitude approximately as a function of the one-way transmission loss for signals traveling from the animals to the array. The wave form and spectrum of the echolocation signals were similar to those of other dolphins measured in the field.

  6. A comparison of pectoral fin contact between two different wild dolphin populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudzinski, K.M.; Gregg, J.D.; Ribic, C.A.; Kuczaj, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact behaviour involving the pectoral fin has been documented in a number of dolphin species, and various explanations about its function have been offered. Pectoral fin contact can take a variety of forms, and involves a number of body parts and movements, likely differing depending upon social or ecological context. For this study, we compare the pectoral fin contact behaviour of two species of wild dolphins: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan, and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas. The two study populations exhibit surprising similarity in the ways in which pectoral fin contacts are used, despite differences in species and environmental conditions at the two sites. Differences in contact rates for calves between the two sites suggest that calf-focused aggression from adult dolphins is more prevalent at Mikura than in The Bahamas. Our results suggest that pectoral fin contact behaviour seems to be driven primarily by social pressures, and may be similar in function to allogrooming described in primates. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Accumulation pattern of butyltin compounds in dolphin, tuna, and shark collected from Italian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Corsolini, S; Focardi, S; Tanabe, S; Tatsukawa, R

    1996-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products, mono-(MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) were determined in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) collected from the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea in 1992-1993. Concentrations of total butyltin (BTs) in the liver of dolphin (1,200-2,200 ng/g wet wt) were an order of magnitude higher than in the blubber (48-320 ng/g wet wt). TBT was the predominant butyltin species in the blubber while DBT accounted for an higher proportion in the liver of dolphins. Butyltin concentrations in bluefin tuna were lower than those in dolphins, with TBT highest in the muscle and DBT in the liver. Concentrations of BTs in blue sharks were lower than those in dolphin and tuna, with kidney having the highest concentrations. TBT was the predominant form of butyltin derivatives in all the tissues of shark. Accumulation of butyltin compounds in liver/kidney seems to be associated with the presence of proteins such as glutathione.

  8. Maternal signature whistle use aids mother-calf reunions in a bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    King, Stephanie L; Guarino, Emily; Keaton, Loriel; Erb, Linda; Jaakkola, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    Individual vocal signatures play an important role in parent-offspring recognition in many animals. One species that uses signature calls to accurately facilitate individual recognition is the bottlenose dolphin. Female dolphins and their calves will use their highly individualised signature whistles to identify and maintain contact with one another. Previous studies have shown high signature whistle rates of both mothers and calves during forced separations. In more natural settings, it appears that the calf vocalises more frequently to initiate reunions with its mother. However, little is known about the mechanisms a female dolphin may employ when there is strong motivation for her to reunite with her calf. In this study, we conducted a series of experimental trials in which we asked a female dolphin to retrieve either her wandering calf or a series of inanimate objects (control). Our results show that she used her vocal signature to actively recruit her calf, and produced no such signal when asked to retrieve the objects. This is the first study to clearly manipulate a dolphin's motivation to retrieve her calf with experimental controls. The results highlight that signature whistles are not only used in broadcasting individual identity, but that maternal signature whistle use is important in facilitating mother-calf reunions.

  9. Morphological analysis of the flippers in the Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, applying X-ray technique.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Daniela Laura; Panebianco, María Victoria; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2014-07-01

    Pectoral flippers of cetaceans function to provide stability and maneuverability during locomotion. Directional asymmetry (DA) is a common feature among odontocete cetaceans, as well as sexual dimorphism (SD). For the first time DA, allometry, physical maturity, and SD of the flipper skeleton--by X-ray technique--of Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The number of carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and morphometric characters from the humerus, radius, ulna, and digit two were studied in franciscana dolphins from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The number of visible epiphyses and their degree of fusion at the proximal and distal ends of the humerus, radius, and ulna were also analyzed. The flipper skeleton was symmetrical, showing a negative allometric trend, with similar growth patterns in both sexes with the exception of the width of the radius (P ≤ 0.01). SD was found on the number of phalanges of digit two (P ≤ 0.01), ulna and digit two lengths. Females showed a higher relative ulna length and shorter relative digit two length, and the opposite occurred in males (P ≤ 0.01). Epiphyseal fusion pattern proved to be a tool to determine dolphin's age; franciscana dolphins with a mature flipper were, at least, four years old. This study indicates that the flippers of franciscana dolphins are symmetrical; both sexes show a negative allometric trend; SD is observed in radius, ulna, and digit two; and flipper skeleton allows determine the age class of the dolphins.

  10. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance. PMID:27780252

  11. Estimated communication range of social sounds used by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Quintana-Rizzo, Ester; Mann, David A; Wells, Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, exhibit flexible associations in which the compositions of groups change frequently. We investigated the potential distances over which female dolphins and their dependent calves could remain in acoustic contact. We quantified the propagation of sounds in the frequency range of typical dolphin whistles in shallow water areas and channels of Sarasota Bay, Florida. Our results indicated that detection range was noise limited as opposed to being limited by hearing sensitivity. Sounds were attenuated to a greater extent in areas with seagrass than any other habitat. Estimates of active space of whistles showed that in seagrass shallow water areas, low-frequency whistles (7-13 kHz) with a 165 dB source level could be heard by dolphins at 487 m. In shallow areas with a mud bottom, all whistle frequency components of the same whistle could be heard by dolphins travel up to 2 km. In channels, high-frequency whistles (13-19 kHz) could be detectable potentially over a much longer distance (> 20 km). Our findings indicate that the communication range of social sounds likely exceeds the mean separation distances between females and their calves. Ecological pressures might play an important role in determining the separation distances within communication range.

  12. Gastrointestinal helminths of Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii from central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Berón-Vera, B; Pedraza, S N; Raga, J A; Gil de Pertierra, A; Crespo, E A; Alonso, M K; Goodall RNP

    2001-12-05

    The stomachs and intestines of 9 Commerson's dolphins incidentally caught in trawl nets in central Patagonia and 23 stranded on beaches in Tierra del Fuego were surveyed for helminth parasites. A total of 267 individuals belonging to 4 species of parasites (1 nematode, 3 digeneans) were found in the dolphins from the first area: Anisakis sp. (larvae type 1 = A. simplex), Braunina cordiformis, Hadwenius sp. and Pholeter gastrophilus. In the Tierra del Fuego dolphins, 142 specimens belonging to 3 species (2 nematodes, 1 digenean, 1 cestode) were found: A. simplex, Hadwenius sp. and Strobilocephalus triangularis. Only 2 of the helminth species were shared in the 2 study areas, A. simplex and Hadwenius sp., and both were more common in central Patagonia. Among the species, A. simplex was most prevalent and abundant in both study areas. In Tierra del Fuego, adults of A. simplex appeared in only 1 host. Hadwenius sp., P. gastrophilus and S. triangularis are new host records for Commerson's dolphin. Species diversity and species richness were low in both study areas. Helminth communities were more diverse in central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 258, p < 0.05) and species richness was higher in central Patagonia (S = 4). No differences in diversity were observed between females and males of central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 139, p < 0.05) and between females of central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. The results may suggest some differences in habitat use, diet and sex between Commerson's dolphin populations in the 2 study areas.

  13. Exposure to Novel Parainfluenza Virus and Clinical Relevance in 2 Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Rebecca; Smith, Cynthia R.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Caseltine, Shannon; St. Leger, Judy; Yochem, Pam; Wells, Randall S.; Nollens, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a leading cause of respiratory infections in humans. A novel virus closely related to human and bovine parainfluenza viruses types 3 (HPIV-3 and BPIV-3), named Tursiops truncatus parainfluenza virus type 1 (TtPIV-1), was isolated from a dolphin with respiratory disease. We developed a dolphin-specific ELISA to measure acute- and convalescent-phase PIV antibodies in dolphins during 1999–2006 with hemograms similar to that of the positive control. PIV seroconversion occurred concurrently with an abnormal hemogram in 22 animals, of which 7 (31.8%) had respiratory signs. Seroprevalence surveys were conducted on 114 healthy bottlenose dolphins in Florida and California. When the most conservative interpretation of positive was used, 11.4% of healthy dolphins were antibody positive, 29.8% were negative, and 58.8% were inconclusive. PIV appears to be a common marine mammal virus that may be of human health interest because of the similarity of TtPIV-1 to BPIV-3 and HPIV-3. PMID:18325253

  14. Heterologous murine and bovine IVF using bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calabuig, M J; de la Fuente, J; Laguna-Barraza, R; Beltrán-Breña, P; Martínez-Nevado, E; Johnston, S D; Rizos, D; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Pérez-Gutiérrez, J F

    2015-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies are of great importance for increasing the genetic diversity in captive animals. The use of bovine or murine oocytes in heterologous IVF provides advantages compared to homologous IVF in nondomestic animals, such as the accessibility to oocytes and the availability of well-developed in vitro maturation systems. The aim of this study was to determine the heterologous IVF parameters using cryopreserved dolphin spermatozoa and zona-intact bovine or murine oocytes and to examine the nuclear chromatin status of the dolphin spermatozoa. All the processes involved in the fertilization including embryo cleavage were observed by confocal microscopy and hybrid embryo formation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Heterologous bovine IVF showed no polyspermy, lower percentages of pronuclear formation, and a lower cleavage rate compared to homologous IVF group (34.8% vs. 89.3%). Heterologous murine IVF showed a lower cleavage rate than homologous IVF (9.6% vs. 77.1%). With respect to dolphin sperm chromatin, it was more stable, i.e. more resistant to EDTA-SDS decondensation than the bovine sperm chromatin. This study revealed the stability of the dolphin sperm chromatin and the ability of the dolphin spermatozoa to penetrate zona-intact bovine and murine oocytes, leading to hybrid embryo formation.

  15. Exposure to novel parainfluenza virus and clinical relevance in 2 bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Rivera, Rebecca; Smith, Cynthia R; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Caseltine, Shannon; St Leger, Judy; Yochem, Pam; Wells, Randall S; Nollens, Hendrik

    2008-03-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a leading cause of respiratory infections in humans. A novel virus closely related to human and bovine parainfluenza viruses types 3 (HPIV-3 and BPIV-3), named Tursiops truncatus parainfluenza virus type 1 (TtPIV-1), was isolated from a dolphin with respiratory disease. We developed a dolphin-specific ELISA to measure acute- and convalescent-phase PIV antibodies in dolphins during 1999-2006 with hemograms similar to that of the positive control. PIV seroconversion occurred concurrently with an abnormal hemogram in 22 animals, of which 7 (31.8%) had respiratory signs. Seroprevalence surveys were conducted on 114 healthy bottlenose dolphins in Florida and California. When the most conservative interpretation of positive was used, 11.4% of healthy dolphins were antibody positive, 29.8% were negative, and 58.8% were inconclusive. PIV appears to be a common marine mammal virus that may be of human health interest because of the similarity of TtPIV-1 to BPIV-3 and HPIV-3.

  16. Monitoring Dolphins in an Urban Marine System: Total and Effective Population Size Estimates of Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ansmann, Ina C.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Seddon, Jennifer M.; Parra, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008–2010. Abundance (N) was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne) was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Nec). A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554±22.2 (SE) (95% CI: 510–598) was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193±6.4 (SE) (95% CI: 181–207), while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446±56 (SE) (95% CI: 336–556) individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Nec = 56, 95% CI: 33–128) raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5%) declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys) at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect

  17. Ecological variables influencing trace element concentrations in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu 1821) stranded in continental Portugal.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Sílvia S; Torres, Jordi; Ferreira, Marisa; Marçalo, Ana; Nicolau, Lídia; Vingada, José V; Eira, Catarina

    2016-02-15

    Both the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (Habitats Directive 92/43/CEE, Annex II) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive demand for data on their ecology and anthropogenic threats. To evaluate the bottlenose dolphin's toxicological status in continental Portugal, several trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were determined in 25 stranded individuals. The potential effect of sex, body length and stranding location on trace element concentrations was analysed. In the present study, bottlenose dolphins presented high mercury levels, only exceeded by animals from the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas. Only essential elements were influenced by dolphin sex, whereas Cd, Hg and Pb bioaccumulated in larger dolphins, and hepatic Hg and Cd concentrations were higher in the northwest coast of continental Portugal. The location effect may relate to variations in bottlenose diet and trace element availability, according to the proximity to anthropogenic sources in the Atlantic Iberian coast.

  18. Mass stranding of striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, at Augusta, Western Australia: notes on clinical pathology and general observations.

    PubMed

    Gales, N J

    1992-10-01

    Seventeen striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found stranded on a West Australian beach. Three animals died before a rescue attempt was made and a further three died during the rescue. The remaining dolphins were released 24 km offshore and were not seen again. One dolphin was noted to have a broken mandible. Evidence of physical trauma to the other dolphins was minimal; one adult female was observed with some peeling skin. Blood was collected for analysis. All dolphins were slightly dehydrated and had a leukogram typical of a stressed animal. Plasma biochemistry reflected primary muscle trauma. There were no clues to the cause of the stranding; observed pathology reflected damage that occurred as a direct consequence of stranding.

  19. Examining the Roles of Blended Learning Approaches in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Environments: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Hyo-Jeong; Bonk, Curtis J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a Delphi method was used to identify and predict the roles of blended learning approaches in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments. The Delphi panel consisted of experts in online learning from different geographic regions of the world. This study discusses findings related to (a) pros and cons of blended…

  20. Marine Mammal Acoustic Monitoring and Habitat Investigation, Southern California Offshore Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    1990. Vocalisations of the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus, off the Galapagos Islands as related to behavioural and circumstantial variables...represented. Inset shows cluster of recordings from San Clemente Island . Symbols are: ● Delphinus delphis, ■ Delphinus capensis, ♦ Grampus griseus...surveys, San Clemente Island (SCI) small boat operations, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) instrumentation servicing cruises on the R/V

  1. Assessment of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in plasma of bottlenose dolphins from two southeast US estuarine areas: relationship with age, sex and geographic locations.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Houde, Magali; Hulsey, Thomas C; Bossart, Gregory D; Adams, Jeff; Balthis, Len; Muir, Derek C G

    2012-01-01

    Plasma PFCs were measured in 157 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled from two US southeast Atlantic sites (Charleston (CHS), SC and Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL) during 2003-2005. ∑PFCs, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (∑PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (∑PFSAs) and individual compounds were significantly higher in CHS dolphins for all age/sex categories compared to IRL dolphins. Highest ∑PFCs concentrations occurred in CHS juvenile dolphins (2340 ng/g w.w.); significantly higher than found in adults (1570 ng/g w.w. males; 1330 ng/g w.w. females). ∑PFCAs were much greater in CHS dolphins (≈ 21%) compared to IRL dolphins (≈ 7%); ∑PFSAs were 79% in CHS dolphins versus 93% in IRL dolphins. PFOS, the dominant compound, averaged 72% and 84%, respectively, in CHS and IRL dolphins. Decreasing PFC levels occurred with age on the bioaccumulation of PFCs in both sites. These observations suggest PFC accumulation in these two dolphin populations are influenced by site-specific exposures with significantly higher levels in CHS dolphins.

  2. Ganges River dolphin: an overview of biology, ecology, and conservation status in India.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ravindra K; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-12-01

    Ganges River dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica, is one of the three obligatory freshwater dolphins in the world and is distributed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Sangu-Karnaphuli River systems in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. This species is facing considerable threats to its survival, and its population has dwindled from 4000 to 5000 in the early 1980s to 3500 in 2014 in the distribution range. This article reviews current status of the sub-species, habitat use, and the potential threats that the dolphins face for their survival (details of taxonomic status and genetics, evolutionary adaptations and anatomical peculiarities, physical adaptation, primitive characteristics, biology, behavior, surfacing behavior and dive times, mating and birth, and life span/age have been placed as Electronic Supplementary Materials). Recommendations have been made for the protection and developing strategies for the conservation of this Endangered and endemic sub-species.

  3. Behavioural evidence of magnetoreception in dolphins: detection of experimental magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Dorothee; López Marulanda, Juliana; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoreception, meaning the perception of magnetic fields, is supposed to play an important role for orientation/navigation in some terrestrial and aquatic species. Although some spatial observations of free-ranging cetaceans' migration routes and stranding sites led to the assumption that cetaceans may be sensitive to the geomagnetic field, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we tested the spontaneous response of six captive bottlenose dolphins to the presentation of two magnetized and demagnetized controlled devices while they were swimming freely. Dolphins approached the device with shorter latency when it contained a strongly magnetized neodymium block compared to a control demagnetized block that was identical in form and density and therefore undistinguishable with echolocation. We conclude that dolphins are able to discriminate the two stimuli on the basis of their magnetic properties, a prerequisite for magnetoreception-based navigation.

  4. Behavioural evidence of magnetoreception in dolphins: detection of experimental magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremers, Dorothee; López Marulanda, Juliana; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoreception, meaning the perception of magnetic fields, is supposed to play an important role for orientation/navigation in some terrestrial and aquatic species. Although some spatial observations of free-ranging cetaceans' migration routes and stranding sites led to the assumption that cetaceans may be sensitive to the geomagnetic field, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we tested the spontaneous response of six captive bottlenose dolphins to the presentation of two magnetized and demagnetized controlled devices while they were swimming freely. Dolphins approached the device with shorter latency when it contained a strongly magnetized neodymium block compared to a control demagnetized block that was identical in form and density and therefore undistinguishable with echolocation. We conclude that dolphins are able to discriminate the two stimuli on the basis of their magnetic properties, a prerequisite for magnetoreception-based navigation.

  5. Compliance with regulations by "swim-with-dolphins" operations in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Scarpaci, Carol; Dayanthi, Nugegoda; Corkeron, Peter J

    2003-03-01

    Managing the activities of commercial wildlife viewing tends to involve either restricting the number of industry participants and/or regulating the activities or industry participants. We report on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips was studied between September 1998 and April 2000. Four permit conditions were investigated: approach type, swim time, time in proximity of dolphins, and presence of "fetal fold" calves. Results demonstrate noncompliance by operators to all of the four permit conditions studied. Compliance with temporal conditions was poorer than with other conditions. When conducting studies on the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans, investigators should consider whether tourist operations comply with existing regulations or guidelines.

  6. Whole-lung resonance in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2003-07-01

    An acoustic backscatter technique was used to estimate in vivo whole-lung resonant frequencies in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Subjects were trained to submerge and position themselves near an underwater sound projector and a receiving hydrophone. Acoustic pressure measurements were made near the thorax while the subject was insonified with pure tones at frequencies from 16 to 100 Hz. Whole-lung resonant frequencies were estimated by comparing pressures measured near the subject's thorax to those measured from the same location without the subject present. Experimentally measured resonant frequencies for the white whale and dolphin lungs were 30 and 36 Hz, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those predicted using a free-spherical air bubble model. Experimentally measured damping ratios and quality factors at resonance were 0.20 and 2.5, respectively, for the white whale, and 0.16 and 3.1, respectively, for the dolphin.

  7. Social networks reveal cultural behaviour in tool-using [corrected] dolphins.

    PubMed

    Mann, Janet; Stanton, Margaret A; Patterson, Eric M; Bienenstock, Elisa J; Singh, Lisa O

    2012-01-01

    Animal tool use is of inherent interest given its relationship to intelligence, innovation and cultural behaviour. Here we investigate whether Shark Bay bottlenose dolphins that use marine sponges as hunting tools (spongers) are culturally distinct from other dolphins in the population based on the criteria that sponging is both socially learned and distinguishes between groups. We use social network analysis to determine social preferences among 36 spongers and 69 non-spongers sampled over a 22-year period while controlling for location, sex and matrilineal relatedness. Homophily (the tendency to associate with similar others) based on tool-using status was evident in every analysis, although maternal kinship, sex and location also contributed to social preference. Female spongers were more cliquish and preferentially associated with other spongers over non-spongers. Like humans who preferentially associate with others who share their subculture, tool-using dolphins prefer others like themselves, strongly suggesting that sponge tool-use is a cultural behaviour.

  8. The orbital Harderian gland of the male atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, G G; Feria-Velasco, A; Tarpley, R L; Bitzer-Quintero, O K; Rosales-Corral, S A; Velázquez-Brizuela, I E; López-Navarro, O G; Reiter, R J

    2007-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the Atlantic Bottlenose dolphin Harderian gland (HG) has been described but some questions remain unanswered. The purpose of this work was to define the gland's structure, ultrastructure and the differences between cells (types I and II) of the male dolphin using optic, fluorescence and electron transmission microscopy. Three different cells were observed under optic and fluorescence microscopic examination, while only two cell types (types I and II) were distinguished by electron transmission microscopy. Type I (oval nuclear envelope) exhibited three different cell populations and type II (indented nuclear envelope) exhibited two different cell populations. Although, we observed both types of vesicles in both types of cells they differed, principally, in quantity. The glands also possessed prominent duct systems, with three orders of complexity. The dolphin orbital HG appears to function as a mixed heterologous gland with two types of cells that exhibit both types of vesicles and other distinguishable differences.

  9. Sonar-induced temporary hearing loss in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Mooney, T Aran; Nachtigall, Paul E; Vlachos, Stephanie

    2009-08-23

    There is increasing concern that human-produced ocean noise is adversely affecting marine mammals, as several recent cetacean mass strandings may have been caused by animals' interactions with naval 'mid-frequency' sonar. However, it has yet to be empirically demonstrated how sonar could induce these strandings or cause physiological effects. In controlled experimental studies, we show that mid-frequency sonar can induce temporary hearing loss in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Mild-behavioural alterations were also associated with the exposures. The auditory effects were induced only by repeated exposures to intense sonar pings with total sound exposure levels of 214 dB re: 1 microPa(2) s. Data support an increasing energy model to predict temporary noise-induced hearing loss and indicate that odontocete noise exposure effects bear trends similar to terrestrial mammals. Thus, sonar can induce physiological and behavioural effects in at least one species of odontocete; however, exposures must be of prolonged, high sound exposures levels to generate these effects.

  10. Evidence for double acoustic windows in the dolphin, Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Klishin, Vladimir O; Tarakanov, Mikhail B; Pletenko, Mikhail G

    2008-01-01

    In a bottlenose dolphin positions of sound receiving areas on the head surface were determined by comparing the acoustic delays from different sound-source positions. For this investigation, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to short tone pips were recorded and their latencies were measured at different sound source positions. After correction for the latency dependence on response amplitude, the difference in ABR latencies was adopted as being the difference of the acoustic delays. These delay differences were used to calculate the position of the sound-receiving point. Measurements were conducted at sound frequencies from 16 to 128 kHz, in half-octave steps. At probe frequencies of 16 and 22.5 kHz, the receiving area was located 21.7-26 cm caudal of the melon tip, which is near the bulla and auditory meatus. At higher probe frequencies, from 32 to 128 kHz, the receiving area was located from 9.3 to 13.1 cm caudal of the melon tip, which corresponds to a proximal part of the lower jaw. Thus, at least two sound-receiving areas (acoustic windows) with different frequency sensitivity were identified.

  11. Auditory evoked responses to rhythmic sound pulses in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y

    1998-10-01

    The ability of auditory evoked potentials to follow sound pulse (click or pip) rate was studied in bottlenosed dolphins. Sound pulses were presented in 20-ms rhythmic trains separated by 80-ms pauses. Rhythmic click or pip trains evoked a quasi-sustained response consisting of a sequence of auditory brainstem responses. This was designated as the rate-following response. Rate following response peak-to-peak amplitude dependence on sound pulse rate was almost flat up to 200 s-1, then displayed a few peaks and valleys superimposed on a low-pass filtering function with a cut-off frequency of 1700 s-1 at a 0.1-amplitude level. Peaks and valleys of the function corresponded to the pattern of the single auditory brain stem response spectrum; the low-pass cut-off frequency was below the auditory brain stem response spectrum bandwidth. Rate-following response frequency composition (magnitudes of the fundamental and harmonics) corresponded to the auditory brain stem response frequency spectrum except for lower fundamental magnitudes at frequencies above 1700 Hz. These regularities were similar for both click and pip trains. The rate-following response to steady-state rhythmic stimulation was similar to the rate-following response evoked by short trains except for a slight amplitude decrease with the rate increase above 10 s-1. The latter effect is attributed to a long-term rate-dependent adaptation in conditions of the steady-state pulse stimulation.

  12. Contribution of various frequency bands to ABR in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y

    2001-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to clicks and noise bursts of various frequency bands and intensities were recorded in two bottlenosed dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. The purpose was to assess contributions of various parts of the cochlear partition to ABR and travelling wave velocity in the cochlea. At band-pass filtered stimuli (1-0.25 oct wide), ABR amplitude increased with increasing stimulus frequency, thus indicating higher contribution of basal cochlear parts. At high-pass and low-pass filtered stimuli, ABR amplitude increased with passband widening. However, the sum of all narrow-band contributions was a waveform of higher amplitude than the real ABR evoked by the wide-band stimulus. Applying a correction based on an assumption that the 'internal spectrum' is about 0.4 oct wider than the nominal stimulus spectrum resulted in the sum of narrow-band contributions equal to the wide-band ABR. The travelling wave velocity was computed based on ABR latencies and assigned a frequency of 128 kHz to the basal end of the cochlea. The computation gave values from 38.2 oct/ms at the proximal end of the basilar membrane to 4.0 oct/ms at a distance of 3.25 oct (13.5 kHz).

  13. Stable isotopes of captive cetaceans (killer whales and bottlenose dolphins).

    PubMed

    Caut, Stéphane; Laran, Sophie; Garcia-Hartmann, Emmanuel; Das, Krishna

    2011-02-15

    There is currently a great deal of interest in using stable isotope methods to investigate diet, trophic level and migration in wild cetaceans. In order to correctly interpret the results stemming from these methods, it is crucial to understand how diet isotopic values are reflected in consumer tissues. In this study, we investigated patterns of isotopic discrimination between diet and blood constituents of two species of cetaceans (killer whale, Orcinus orca, and bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus) fed controlled diets over 308 and 312 days, respectively. Diet discrimination factors (Δ; mean ± s.d.) for plasma were estimated to Δ(13)C=2.3±0.6‰ and Δ(15)N=1.8±0.3‰, respectively, for both species and to Δ(13)C=2.7±0.3‰ and Δ(15)N=0.5±0.1‰ for red blood cells. Delipidation did not have a significant effect on carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of blood constituents, confirming that cetacean blood does not serve as a reservoir of lipids. In contrast, carbon isotopic values were higher in delipidated samples of blubber, liver and muscle from killer whales. The potential for conflict between fisheries and cetaceans has heightened the need for trophic information about these taxa. These results provide the first published stable isotope incorporation data for cetaceans, which are essential if conclusions are to be drawn on issues concerning trophic structures, carbon sources and diet reconstruction.

  14. Dolphin and bat sonar: Convergence, divergence, or parallelism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketten, Darlene R.; Simmons, James; Hubbard, Allyn E.; Mountain, David A.

    2001-05-01

    During the explosive period of mammalian radiation, two groups emerged with highly effective biosonar systems, bats and toothed whales. In the intervening 50 million years, these groups evolutionarily honed their hearing for operation in radically different media. This paper addresses what functional aspects the media influenced in the biosonar receptors of bats versus dolphins by comparing the auditory peripheries of these groups. Data were obtained using thin-section microscopy, CT imaging, and inner-ear models. Inner-ear anatomy is fundamentally similar in these animals, although differences exist in both neural density and distribution in each group. Specialist ears are present in both groups, suggesting at least one odontocete species has cochlear specializations consistent with CF-FM bats, including specialized basilar-membrane regions and high-frequency neural foveal areas. Cochlear specializations in both groups are primarily linked to peak spectra of sonar signals, may expand frequency representation, and may enhance tuning in adjacent ear segments by generating standing wave phenomena. Most differences, such as the soft-tissue external ear analogs in odontocetes, are clearly media driven. Other differences among species within each group are correlated with signal type or habitat complexity. [Work supported by Mellon Foundation; Seaver Institute; ONR.

  15. Dolphin and bat sonar: Convergence, divergence, or parallelism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketten, Darlene R.; Simmons, James; Hubbard, Allyn E.; Mountain, David A.

    2004-05-01

    During the explosive period of mammalian radiation, two groups emerged with highly effective biosonar systems, bats and toothed whales. In the intervening 50 million years, these groups evolutionarily honed their hearing for operation in radically different media. This paper addresses what functional aspects the media influenced in the biosonar receptors of bats versus dolphins by comparing the auditory peripheries of these groups. Data were obtained using thin-section microscopy, CT imaging, and inner-ear models. Inner-ear anatomy is fundamentally similar in these animals, although differences exist in both neural density and distribution in each group. Specialist ears are present in both groups, suggesting at least one odontocete species has cochlear specializations consistent with CF-FM bats, including specialized basilar-membrane regions and high-frequency neural foveal areas. Cochlear specializations in both groups are primarily linked to peak spectra of sonar signals, may expand frequency representation, and may enhance tuning in adjacent ear segments by generating standing wave phenomena. Most differences, such as the soft-tissue external ear analogs in odontocetes, are clearly media driven. Other differences among species within each group are correlated with signal type or habitat complexity. [Work supported by Mellon Foundation; Seaver Institute; ONR.

  16. The Order of the Dolphin: Origins of SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temming, Maria; Crider, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In 1961, the National Academy of Sciences organized a meeting on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia. The ten scientists who attended, including future SETI icons such as Frank Drake and Carl Sagan, represented a variety of scientific fields. At the conclusion of the meeting, the attendees adopted the moniker "The Order of the Dolphin," in honor of participant John Lilly's work on interspecies communication. Since this seminal meeting, researchers in each of the attendees' fields have contributed in some way to the search for intelligent life. This study investigates the circumstances that led to each attendee's invitation to Green Bank and explores SETI as the legacy of this meeting. We will focus in this talk on the SETI connections of two attendees, astronomer Otto Struve and physicist Philip Morrison, both in regards to their personal contributions to SETI and the influence of their work on subsequent SETI research. Specifically, we will examine proposals by Otto Struve for exoplanet discovery methods, and Philip Morrison for radio searches that laid the groundwork for modern SETI.

  17. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  18. The Orexin System in the Enteric Nervous System of the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Claudia; Russo, Finizia; Russolillo, Maria Grazia; Varricchio, Ettore; Paolucci, Marina; Castaldo, Luciana; Lucini, Carla; de Girolamo, Paolo; Cozzi, Bruno; Maruccio, Lucianna

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a general approach to the presence and possible role of orexins and their receptors in the gut (three gastric chambers and intestine) of confined environment bottlenose dolphin. The expression of prepro-orexin, orexin A and B and orexin 1 and 2 receptors were investigated by single immunostaining and western blot analysis. The co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system was examined by double immunostaining. Also, orexin A concentration were measured in plasma samples to assess the possible diurnal variation of the plasma level of peptide in this species. Our results showed that the orexin system is widely distributed in bottlenose dolphin enteric nervous system of the all gastrointestinal tract examined. They are very peculiar and partially differs from that of terrestrial mammals. Orexin peptides and prepro-orexin were expressed in the main stomach, pyloric stomach and proximal intestine; while orexin receptors were expressed in the all examined tracts, with the exception of main stomach where found no evidence of orexin 2 receptor. Co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor were more evident in the pyloric stomach and proximal intestine. These data could suggest a possible role of orexin system on the contractility of bottlenose dolphin gastrointestinal districts. Finally, in agreement with several reports, bottlenose dolphin orexin A plasma level was higher in the morning during fasting. Our results emphasize some common features between bottlenose dolphin and terrestrial mammals. Certainly, further functional investigations may help to better explain the role of the orexin system in the energy balance of bottlenose dolphin and the complex interaction between feeding and digestive physiology. PMID:25144456

  19. Stress response of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during capture-release health assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Schaefer, Adam M; Romano, Tracy A; Bossart, Gregory D; Lamb, Stephen V; Reif, John S

    2014-09-15

    There is a growing concern about the impacts of stress in marine mammals as they face a greater array of threats. The stress response of free-ranging dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was examined by measuring their physiologic response to capture and handling. Samples were collected from 168 dolphins during capture-release health assessments 2003-2007 at two study sites: Charleston, SC (CHS) and the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone (ALD) and catecholamines (epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NOR), dopamine (DA)), were measured in blood and cortisol in urine. Mean time to collect pre-examination samples after netting the animals was 22min; post-examination samples were taken prior to release (mean 1h 37min). EPI and DA concentrations decreased significantly with increased time to blood sampling. ACTH and cortisol levels increased from the initial capture event to the post-examination sample. EPI concentrations increased significantly with increasing time to the pre-examination sample and decreased significantly with time between the pre- and post-examination sample. Cortisol concentrations increased between the pre- and post-examination in CHS dolphins. Age- and sex-adjusted mean pre-examination values of catecholamines were significantly higher in CHS dolphins; ALD was higher in IRL dolphins. Significant differences related to age or sex included higher NOR concentrations in males; higher ALD and urine cortisol levels in juveniles than adults. Wild dolphins exhibited a typical mammalian response to acute stress of capture and restraint. Further studies that relate hormone levels to biological and health endpoints are warranted.

  20. Social Differentiation in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that Engage in Human-Related Foraging Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Carolyn J; Perrtree, Robin M; Cox, Tara M

    2017-01-01

    Both natural and human-related foraging strategies by the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) have resulted in social segregation in several areas of the world. Bottlenose dolphins near Savannah, Georgia beg at an unprecedented rate and also forage behind commercial shrimp trawlers, providing an opportunity to study the social ramifications of two human-related foraging behaviors within the same group of animals. Dolphins were photo-identified via surveys conducted throughout estuarine waterways around Savannah in the summers of 2009-2011. Mean half-weight indices (HWI) were calculated for each foraging class, and community division by modularity was used to cluster animals based on association indices. Pairs of trawler dolphins had a higher mean HWI (0.20 ± 0.07) than pairs of non-trawler dolphins (0.04 ± 0.02) or mixed pairs (0.02 ± 0.02). In contrast, pairs of beggars, non-beggars, and mixed pairs all had similar means, with HWI between 0.05-0.07. Community division by modularity produced a useful division (0.307) with 6 clusters. Clusters were predominately divided according to trawler status; however, beggars and non-beggars were mixed throughout clusters. Both the mean HWI and social clusters revealed that the social structure of common bottlenose dolphins near Savannah, Georgia was differentiated based on trawler status but not beg status. This finding may indicate that foraging in association with trawlers is a socially learned behavior, while the mechanisms for the propagation of begging are less clear. This study highlights the importance of taking into account the social parameters of a foraging behavior, such as how group size or competition for resources may affect how the behavior spreads. The positive or negative ramifications of homophily may influence whether the behaviors are exhibited by individuals within the same social clusters and should be considered in future studies examining social relationships and foraging behaviors.