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Sample records for dolphin hearing odontoceti

  1. [Characteristics of the acoustic field of interfering reflections and the echolocation hearing of the dolphin].

    PubMed

    Riabov, V A

    2008-01-01

    A model of the acoustic field of interfering reflections from steel cylinders was developed. Analysis of the model showed the availability of great potential resources for a decrease of the influence of unwanted echoes and hence for increasing the signal-to-clatter ratio. The conformity of the available models of the echolocation hearing of the dolphin to the acoustic field of the clatter was considered. The participation of mandidle mental foramens in conducting the echo to the cochlea was considered. In this case the hearing aperture is determined by the dimensions of mental foramens, while the hearing base is determined by the distance between the mental foramens of the left and right mandible halves. There are good reasons to believe that the optimal dimensions of the aperture and the base of echolocation hearing of Odontoceti essentially increase the effectiveness of defense of their sonar from reverberation.

  2. Hearing loss in stranded odontocete dolphins and whales.

    PubMed

    Mann, David; Hill-Cook, Mandy; Manire, Charles; Greenhow, Danielle; Montie, Eric; Powell, Jessica; Wells, Randall; Bauer, Gordon; Cunningham-Smith, Petra; Lingenfelser, Robert; DiGiovanni, Robert; Stone, Abigale; Brodsky, Micah; Stevens, Robert; Kieffer, George; Hoetjes, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significant hearing deficits with a reduction in sensitivity equivalent to severe (70-90 dB) or profound (>90 dB) hearing loss in humans. The only stranded short-finned pilot whale examined had profound hearing loss. No impairments were detected in seven Risso's dolphins from three different stranding events, two pygmy killer whales, one Atlantic spotted dolphin, one spinner dolphin, or a juvenile Gervais' beaked whale. Hearing impairment could play a significant role in some cetacean stranding events, and the hearing of all cetaceans in rehabilitation should be tested. PMID:21072206

  3. Conditioned hearing sensitivity reduction in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2014-08-01

    The conditioned change in hearing sensitivity during a warning sound preceding a loud sound was investigated in the bottlenose dolphin. Hearing sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the test/warning stimulus with a frequency of 22.5 or 32 kHz preceded the loud sound with a frequency of 22.5 kHz and a sound pressure level of 165 dB re. 1 μPa rms, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased relative to the baseline. The threshold increased up to 15 dB. In order to further investigate whether the observed threshold increase was due to conditioning, the dependence of the effect on warning duration and inter-trial interval was investigated. The duration of the warning substantially influenced the effect. Shorter warnings resulted in deeper suppression of responses and higher threshold increases than longer warnings. In contrast, the effect was nearly independent of the duration of the inter-trial interval, i.e. it was independent of the delay from the loud sound to the test/warning sound in the subsequent trial. These data are considered as evidence that the observed hearing threshold increases were not a result of the unconditioned effect of the loud sound and were instead a manifestation of a conditioned dampening of hearing when the bottlenose dolphin anticipated the quick appearance of a loud sound in the same way as previously demonstrated in the false killer whale. PMID:24855674

  4. Conditioned hearing sensitivity reduction in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2014-08-01

    The conditioned change in hearing sensitivity during a warning sound preceding a loud sound was investigated in the bottlenose dolphin. Hearing sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the test/warning stimulus with a frequency of 22.5 or 32 kHz preceded the loud sound with a frequency of 22.5 kHz and a sound pressure level of 165 dB re. 1 μPa rms, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased relative to the baseline. The threshold increased up to 15 dB. In order to further investigate whether the observed threshold increase was due to conditioning, the dependence of the effect on warning duration and inter-trial interval was investigated. The duration of the warning substantially influenced the effect. Shorter warnings resulted in deeper suppression of responses and higher threshold increases than longer warnings. In contrast, the effect was nearly independent of the duration of the inter-trial interval, i.e. it was independent of the delay from the loud sound to the test/warning sound in the subsequent trial. These data are considered as evidence that the observed hearing threshold increases were not a result of the unconditioned effect of the loud sound and were instead a manifestation of a conditioned dampening of hearing when the bottlenose dolphin anticipated the quick appearance of a loud sound in the same way as previously demonstrated in the false killer whale.

  5. Sound-conducting mechanisms for echolocation hearing of a dolphin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Vyacheslav A.

    2005-09-01

    The morphological study of the lower jaw of a dolphin (Tursiops truncatus p.), and the modeling and calculation of its structures from the acoustic point of view have been conducted. It was determined that the cross-sectional area of the mandibular canal (MC) increases exponentially. The MC represents the acoustical horn. The mental foramens (MFs) is positioned in the horn throat, representing the nonequidistant array of waveguide delay lines (NAWDL). The acoustical horn ensures the traveling wave conditions inside the MC and intensifies sonar echoes up to 1514 times. This ``ideal'' traveling wave antenna is created by nature, representing the combination of the NAWDL and the acoustical horn. The dimensions and sequence of morphological structures of the lower jaw are optimal both for reception and forming the beam pattern, and for the amplification and transmission of sonar echoes up to the bulla tympani. Morphological structures of the lower jaw are considered as components of the peripheral section of the dolphin echolocation hearing.

  6. Intra- and Interspecific Interactions as Proximate Determinants of Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Trajectories in the Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Delphinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Feeding adaptation, social behaviour, and interspecific interactions related to sexual dimorphism and allometric growth are particularly challenging to be investigated in the high sexual monomorphic Delphinidae. We used geometric morphometrics to extensively explore sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic allometry of different projections of the skull and the mandible of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. Two-dimensional landmarks were recorded on the dorsal, ventral, lateral, and occipital views of the skull, and on the lateral view of the left and the right mandible of 104 specimens from the Mediterranean and the North Seas, differing environmental condition and degree of interspecific associations. Landmark configurations were transformed, standardized and superimposed through a Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Size and shape differences between adult males and females were respectively evaluated through ANOVA on centroid size, Procrustes ANOVA on Procrustes distances, and MANOVA on Procrustes coordinates. Ontogenetic allometry was investigated by multivariate regression of shape coordinates on centroid size in the largest homogenous sample from the North Sea. Results evidenced sexual dimorphic asymmetric traits only detected in the adults of the North Sea bottlenose dolphins living in monospecific associations, with females bearing a marked incision of the cavity hosting the left tympanic bulla. These differences were related to a more refined echolocalization system that likely enhances the exploitation of local resources by philopatric females. Distinct shape in immature versus mature stages and asymmetric changes in postnatal allometry of dorsal and occipital traits, suggest that differences between males and females are established early during growth. Allometric growth trajectories differed between males and females for the ventral view of the skull. Allometric trajectories differed among projections of skull and mandible, and were related to dietary

  7. Sonar-induced temporary hearing loss in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Mooney, T Aran; Nachtigall, Paul E; Vlachos, Stephanie

    2009-08-23

    There is increasing concern that human-produced ocean noise is adversely affecting marine mammals, as several recent cetacean mass strandings may have been caused by animals' interactions with naval 'mid-frequency' sonar. However, it has yet to be empirically demonstrated how sonar could induce these strandings or cause physiological effects. In controlled experimental studies, we show that mid-frequency sonar can induce temporary hearing loss in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Mild-behavioural alterations were also associated with the exposures. The auditory effects were induced only by repeated exposures to intense sonar pings with total sound exposure levels of 214 dB re: 1 microPa(2) s. Data support an increasing energy model to predict temporary noise-induced hearing loss and indicate that odontocete noise exposure effects bear trends similar to terrestrial mammals. Thus, sonar can induce physiological and behavioural effects in at least one species of odontocete; however, exposures must be of prolonged, high sound exposures levels to generate these effects.

  8. Hearing and whistling in the deep sea: depth influences whistle spectra but does not attenuate hearing by white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) (Odontoceti, Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Carder, D A; Kamolnick, T; Smith, R R; Schlundt, C E; Elsberry, W R

    2001-11-01

    Hearing is attenuated in the aerial ear of humans and other land mammals tested in pressure chambers as a result of middle ear impedance changes that result from increased air density. We tested the hypothesis, based on recent middle ear models, that increasing the density of middle ear air at depth might attenuate whale hearing. Two white whales Delphinapterus leucas made dives to a platform at a depth of 5, 100, 200 or 300 m in the Pacific Ocean. During dives to station on the platform for up to 12 min, the whales whistled in response to 500 ms tones projected at random intervals to assess their hearing threshold at each depth. Analysis of response whistle spectra, whistle latency in response to tones and hearing thresholds showed that the increased hydrostatic pressure at depth changed each whale's whistle response at depth, but did not attenuate hearing overall. The finding that whale hearing is not attenuated at depth suggests that sound is conducted through the head tissues of the whale to the ear without requiring the usual ear drum/ossicular chain amplification of the aerial middle ear. These first ever hearing tests in the open ocean demonstrate that zones of audibility for human-made sounds are just as great throughout the depths to which these whales dive, or at least down to 300 m.

  9. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  10. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). PMID:26611012

  11. Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) methods for population-level assessment of hearing sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian; Finneran, James

    2005-04-01

    A portable system for recording auditory evoked potentials (AEP) was developed to rapidly assess the hearing sensitivity of dolphins in air. The system utilizes a transducer embedded in a silicone suction cup to deliver amplitude modulated tones to the dolphin through the lower jaw. Frequencies tested range from 10-150 kHz and testing of both ears is completed within 90 min. AEP-determined thresholds from one subject were benchmarked against that subject's direct field behavioral audiogram to quantify variation between the two methods. To date, AEP audiograms have been obtained from over 30 bottlenose dolphins. Considerable individual variation in frequency-specific hearing sensitivity was observed. Some high-frequency hearing loss was observed in relatively young (early 20s) and old (35+ years) animals; conversely, age was not necessarily related to hearing loss as several animals greater than 40 years of age had good hearing sensitivity across the range of tested frequencies. Profound hearing loss typically occurred at higher frequencies. Decline in sensitivity was rapid in all cases and began between 50-60 kHz. Increased sample size of hearing sensitivity in dolphins suggest that the use of audiometric functions from single animals as representative of population level audiometry might be misleading.

  12. Hearing abilities and sound reception of broadband sounds in an adult Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan

    2015-08-01

    While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.

  13. Comparison of directional selectivity of hearing in a beluga whale and a bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2009-09-01

    Hearing thresholds as a function of sound-source azimuth were measured in a beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas and a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in identical conditions using the auditory evoked-potential method. In both the beluga whale and bottlenose dolphin, the receiving beam width narrowed with frequency increase. At all frequencies, the receiving beam was markedly wider in the beluga whale than in the bottlenose dolphin. In particular, the 3-dB beam width in the beluga whale narrowed from +/-33.5 degrees at 8 kHz frequency to +/-14.3 degrees at 128 kHz; the 6-dB beam width narrowed from +/-56.9 degrees to +/-18.9 degrees , respectively. In the bottlenose dolphin, the 3-dB beam width decreased from +/-19.9 degrees at 8 kHz to +/-6.3 degrees at 128 kHz; the 6-dB beam width decreased from +/-33.1 degrees to +/-8.4 degrees, respectively. In the bottlenose dolphin, the axis of the low-frequency receiving beam deviated from the midline up to 15 degrees; in the beluga whale, this effect was not detected. The audiograms of both the beluga whale and bottlenose dolphin were azimuth-dependent: from an audiogram featuring the best sensitivity at intermediate frequencies at 0 degrees to that featuring monotonous threshold increase with frequency increase at 90 degrees. In the beluga whale, this dependence was less prominent than in the bottlenose dolphin.

  14. Comparison of directional selectivity of hearing in a beluga whale and a bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2009-09-01

    Hearing thresholds as a function of sound-source azimuth were measured in a beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas and a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in identical conditions using the auditory evoked-potential method. In both the beluga whale and bottlenose dolphin, the receiving beam width narrowed with frequency increase. At all frequencies, the receiving beam was markedly wider in the beluga whale than in the bottlenose dolphin. In particular, the 3-dB beam width in the beluga whale narrowed from +/-33.5 degrees at 8 kHz frequency to +/-14.3 degrees at 128 kHz; the 6-dB beam width narrowed from +/-56.9 degrees to +/-18.9 degrees , respectively. In the bottlenose dolphin, the 3-dB beam width decreased from +/-19.9 degrees at 8 kHz to +/-6.3 degrees at 128 kHz; the 6-dB beam width decreased from +/-33.1 degrees to +/-8.4 degrees, respectively. In the bottlenose dolphin, the axis of the low-frequency receiving beam deviated from the midline up to 15 degrees; in the beluga whale, this effect was not detected. The audiograms of both the beluga whale and bottlenose dolphin were azimuth-dependent: from an audiogram featuring the best sensitivity at intermediate frequencies at 0 degrees to that featuring monotonous threshold increase with frequency increase at 90 degrees. In the beluga whale, this dependence was less prominent than in the bottlenose dolphin. PMID:19739771

  15. Conditioned frequency-dependent hearing sensitivity reduction in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2015-04-01

    The frequency specificity of conditioned dampening of hearing, when a loud sound is preceded by a warning sound, was investigated in a bottlenose dolphin. The loud sounds were 5 s tones of 16, 22.5 or 32 kHz, sound pressure level of 165 dB root mean square (RMS) re. 1 µPa. Hearing sensitivity was tested at the same three frequencies. Hearing sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. The test sound stimuli served also as warning sounds. The durations of the warning sounds were varied randomly to avoid locking a conditioning effect to the timing immediately before the loud sound. Hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased, relative to the baseline, at test frequencies equal to or higher than the loud sound frequency. The highest threshold increase appeared at test frequencies of 0.5 octaves above the loud sound frequencies.

  16. Hearing sensation levels of emitted biosonar clicks in an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2012-01-01

    Emitted biosonar clicks and auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses triggered by the clicks were synchronously recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) trained to wear suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28, and -22 dB were used at distances of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The AEP responses were sorted according to the corresponding emitted click source levels in 5-dB bins and averaged within each bin to extract biosonar click-related AEPs from noise. The AEP amplitudes were measured peak-to-peak and plotted as a function of click source levels for each target type, distance, and target-present or target-absent condition. Hearing sensation levels of the biosonar clicks were evaluated by comparing the functions of the biosonar click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click source level to a function of external (in free field) click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click sound pressure level. The results indicated that the dolphin's hearing sensation levels to her own biosonar clicks were equal to that of external clicks with sound pressure levels 16 to 36 dB lower than the biosonar click source levels, varying with target type, distance, and condition. These data may be assumed to indicate that the bottlenose dolphin possesses effective protection mechanisms to isolate the self-produced intense biosonar beam from the animal's ears during echolocation.

  17. Hearing Sensation Levels of Emitted Biosonar Clicks in an Echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songhai; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Breese, Marlee; Supin, Alexander Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Emitted biosonar clicks and auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses triggered by the clicks were synchronously recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) trained to wear suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. Three targets with target strengths of −34, −28, and −22 dB were used at distances of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The AEP responses were sorted according to the corresponding emitted click source levels in 5-dB bins and averaged within each bin to extract biosonar click-related AEPs from noise. The AEP amplitudes were measured peak-to-peak and plotted as a function of click source levels for each target type, distance, and target-present or target-absent condition. Hearing sensation levels of the biosonar clicks were evaluated by comparing the functions of the biosonar click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click source level to a function of external (in free field) click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click sound pressure level. The results indicated that the dolphin's hearing sensation levels to her own biosonar clicks were equal to that of external clicks with sound pressure levels 16 to 36 dB lower than the biosonar click source levels, varying with target type, distance, and condition. These data may be assumed to indicate that the bottlenose dolphin possesses effective protection mechanisms to isolate the self-produced intense biosonar beam from the animal's ears during echolocation. PMID:22238654

  18. Hearing in Whales and Dolphins: Relevance and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Aude F; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the hearing of marine mammals has been a priority to quantify and mitigate the impact of anthropogenic sound on these apex predators. Yet our knowledge of cetacean hearing is still limited to a few dozen species, therefore compromising any attempt to design adaptive management strategies. The use of auditory evoked potentials allows scientists to rapidly and noninvasively obtain the hearing data of species rarely available in captivity. Unfortunately, many practical and ethical reasons still limit the availability of large whales, thus restricting the possibility to effectively ensure that anthropogenic sounds have minimum effects on these species. The example of a recent Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) audiogram collected after a stranding indicated, for instance, very specialized hearing between 40 and 50 kHz, which corresponded to the frequency-modulated upsweep signals used by this species during echolocation. The methods used during a stranding event are presented along with the major difficulties that have slowed down the scientific community in measuring the audition of large whales and the potential value in obtaining such results when successful.

  19. Hearing in Whales and Dolphins: Relevance and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Aude F; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the hearing of marine mammals has been a priority to quantify and mitigate the impact of anthropogenic sound on these apex predators. Yet our knowledge of cetacean hearing is still limited to a few dozen species, therefore compromising any attempt to design adaptive management strategies. The use of auditory evoked potentials allows scientists to rapidly and noninvasively obtain the hearing data of species rarely available in captivity. Unfortunately, many practical and ethical reasons still limit the availability of large whales, thus restricting the possibility to effectively ensure that anthropogenic sounds have minimum effects on these species. The example of a recent Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) audiogram collected after a stranding indicated, for instance, very specialized hearing between 40 and 50 kHz, which corresponded to the frequency-modulated upsweep signals used by this species during echolocation. The methods used during a stranding event are presented along with the major difficulties that have slowed down the scientific community in measuring the audition of large whales and the potential value in obtaining such results when successful. PMID:26611035

  20. Effects of multiple impulses from a seismic air gun on bottlenose dolphin hearing and behavior.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Schlundt, Carolyn E; Branstetter, Brian K; Trickey, Jennifer S; Bowman, Victoria; Jenkins, Keith

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the auditory effects of multiple underwater impulses, hearing thresholds were measured in three bottlenose dolphins before and after exposure to 10 impulses produced by a seismic air gun. Thresholds were measured at multiple frequencies using both psychophysical and electrophysiological (auditory evoked potential) methods. Exposures began at relatively low levels and gradually increased over a period of several months. The highest exposures featured peak sound pressure levels from 196 to 210 dB re 1 μPa, peak-peak sound pressure levels of 200-212 dB re 1 μPa, and cumulative (unweighted) sound exposure levels from 193 to 195 dB re 1 μPa(2)s. At the cessation of the study, no significant increases were observed in psychophysical thresholds; however, a small (9 dB) shift in mean auditory evoked potential thresholds, accompanied by a suppression of the evoked potential amplitude function, was seen in one subject at 8 kHz. At the highest exposure condition, two of the dolphins also exhibited behavioral reactions indicating that they were capable of anticipating and potentially mitigating the effects of impulsive sounds presented at fixed time intervals.

  1. Possible age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and corresponding change in echolocation parameters in a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2013-11-15

    The hearing and echolocation clicks of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, were studied. This animal had been repeatedly observed in the wild before it was stranded and its age was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a non-invasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. Echolocation clicks produced by the dolphin were recorded when the animal was freely swimming in a 7.5 m (width)×22 m (length)×4.8 m (structural depth) pool with a water depth of ~2.5 m. The hearing and echolocation clicks of the studied dolphin were compared with those of a conspecific younger individual, ~13 years of age. The results suggested that the cut-off frequency of the high-frequency hearing of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of the younger individual. The peak and centre frequencies of the clicks produced by the older dolphin were ~16 kHz lower than those of the clicks produced by the younger animal. Considering that the older dolphin was ~40 years old, its lower high-frequency hearing range with lower click peak and centre frequencies could probably be explained by age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  2. Evoked potential measurement of the masked hearing threshold of a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Jeanette, Thomas; Western, A.; Rameriz, Kenneth M.

    2003-04-01

    The masked hearing threshold of a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) was determined by measuring the animal's auditory brainstem response (ABR). The dolphin was trained to wear surface-contact electrodes embedded in suction cups and to swim into a hoop centered at 1 m below the water surface facing a sound projector 5 m away. Broadband transient signals with center frequencies of 8, 16, 32, 64, 80, and 100 kHz were used as the stimuli. ABR signals were measured by digitizing the electrode signals in 32 point blocks at a sampling rate of 20 kHz. Five hundred blocks were averaged in order to obtain an ABR. The response latency for suprathreshold threshold signals was approximately 1.9 ms with the highest peak-to-peak ABR amplitude of approximately 2.8 uV occurring for a signal frequency of 64 kHz. The spectrum of the ABR signal was similar to that of Tursiops truncatus, with a major peak at 1120 Hz and a secondary peak at 664 Hz. Threshold was determined by progressively reducing the amplitude of the stimulus until an evoked potential could not be detected. The energy signal-to-noise ratio within an integration window at threshold varied between 1 and 8 dB.

  3. Ultrasonic hearing and echolocation in the earliest toothed whales.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Evans, Alistair R

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of biosonar (production of high-frequency sound and reception of its echo) was a key innovation of toothed whales and dolphins (Odontoceti) that facilitated phylogenetic diversification and rise to ecological predominance. Yet exactly when high-frequency hearing first evolved in odontocete history remains a fundamental question in cetacean biology. Here, we show that archaic odontocetes had a cochlea specialized for sensing high-frequency sound, as exemplified by an Oligocene xenorophid, one of the earliest diverging stem groups. This specialization is not as extreme as that seen in the crown clade. Paired with anatomical correlates for high-frequency signal production in Xenorophidae, this is strong evidence that the most archaic toothed whales possessed a functional biosonar system, and that this signature adaptation of odontocetes was acquired at or soon after their origin. PMID:27072406

  4. Ultrasonic hearing and echolocation in the earliest toothed whales.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Evans, Alistair R

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of biosonar (production of high-frequency sound and reception of its echo) was a key innovation of toothed whales and dolphins (Odontoceti) that facilitated phylogenetic diversification and rise to ecological predominance. Yet exactly when high-frequency hearing first evolved in odontocete history remains a fundamental question in cetacean biology. Here, we show that archaic odontocetes had a cochlea specialized for sensing high-frequency sound, as exemplified by an Oligocene xenorophid, one of the earliest diverging stem groups. This specialization is not as extreme as that seen in the crown clade. Paired with anatomical correlates for high-frequency signal production in Xenorophidae, this is strong evidence that the most archaic toothed whales possessed a functional biosonar system, and that this signature adaptation of odontocetes was acquired at or soon after their origin.

  5. Cetaceans on a molecular fast track to ultrasonic hearing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Rossiter, Stephen J; Han, Xiuqun; Cotton, James A; Zhang, Shuyi

    2010-10-26

    The early radiation of cetaceans coincides with the origin of their defining ecological and sensory differences [1, 2]. Toothed whales (Odontoceti) evolved echolocation for hunting 36-34 million years ago, whereas baleen whales (Mysticeti) evolved filter feeding and do not echolocate [2]. Echolocation in toothed whales demands exceptional high-frequency hearing [3], and both echolocation and ultrasonic hearing have also evolved independently in bats [4, 5]. The motor protein Prestin that drives the electromotility of the outer hair cells (OHCs) is likely to be especially important in ultrasonic hearing, because it is the vibratory response of OHC to incoming sound waves that confers the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the mammalian auditory system [6, 7]. Prestin underwent adaptive change early in mammal evolution [8] and also shows sequence convergence between bats and dolphins [9, 10], as well as within bats [11]. Focusing on whales, we show for the first time that the extent of protein evolution in Prestin can be linked directly to the evolution of high-frequency hearing. Moreover, we find that independent cases of sequence convergence in mammals have involved numerous identical amino acid site replacements. Our findings shed new light on the importance of Prestin in the evolution of mammalian hearing.

  6. Hearing Mechanisms and Noise Metrics Related to Auditory Masking in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Bakhtiari, Kimberly L; Trickey, Jennifer S; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    Odontocete cetaceans are acoustic specialists that depend on sound to hunt, forage, navigate, detect predators, and communicate. Auditory masking from natural and anthropogenic sound sources may adversely affect these fitness-related capabilities. The ability to detect a tone in a broad range of natural, anthropogenic, and synthesized noise was tested with bottlenose dolphins using a psychophysical, band-widening procedure. Diverging masking patterns were found for noise bandwidths greater than the width of an auditory filter. Despite different noise types having equal-pressure spectral-density levels (95 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz), masked detection threshold differences were as large as 22 dB. Consecutive experiments indicated that noise types with increased levels of amplitude modulation resulted in comodulation masking release due to within-channel and across-channel auditory mechanisms. The degree to which noise types were comodulated (comodulation index) was assessed by calculating the magnitude-squared coherence between the temporal envelope from an auditory filter centered on the signal and temporal envelopes from flanking filters. Statistical models indicate that masked thresholds in a variety of noise types, at a variety of levels, can be explained with metrics related to the comodulation index in addition to the pressure spectral-density level of noise. This study suggests that predicting auditory masking from ocean noise sources depends on both spectral and temporal properties of the noise. PMID:26610950

  7. Hearing Mechanisms and Noise Metrics Related to Auditory Masking in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Bakhtiari, Kimberly L; Trickey, Jennifer S; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    Odontocete cetaceans are acoustic specialists that depend on sound to hunt, forage, navigate, detect predators, and communicate. Auditory masking from natural and anthropogenic sound sources may adversely affect these fitness-related capabilities. The ability to detect a tone in a broad range of natural, anthropogenic, and synthesized noise was tested with bottlenose dolphins using a psychophysical, band-widening procedure. Diverging masking patterns were found for noise bandwidths greater than the width of an auditory filter. Despite different noise types having equal-pressure spectral-density levels (95 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz), masked detection threshold differences were as large as 22 dB. Consecutive experiments indicated that noise types with increased levels of amplitude modulation resulted in comodulation masking release due to within-channel and across-channel auditory mechanisms. The degree to which noise types were comodulated (comodulation index) was assessed by calculating the magnitude-squared coherence between the temporal envelope from an auditory filter centered on the signal and temporal envelopes from flanking filters. Statistical models indicate that masked thresholds in a variety of noise types, at a variety of levels, can be explained with metrics related to the comodulation index in addition to the pressure spectral-density level of noise. This study suggests that predicting auditory masking from ocean noise sources depends on both spectral and temporal properties of the noise.

  8. The antiquity of riverine adaptations in Iniidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti) documented by a humerus from the late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutstein, Carolina Simon; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto; Pyenson, Nicholas D

    2014-06-01

    "River dolphins" are a paraphyletic group of toothed whales (Odontoceti) that represent independent secondary invasions of freshwater habitats. Different "river dolphin" lineages display suites of convergent morphological specializations that commonly reflect adaptations to riverine and freshwater environments, such as longirostry, reduced orbits, and wide, paddle-like flippers. One lineage, the Iniidae, is presently endemic to South America, and includes several extinct Neogene taxa along with their sole extant genus, Inia (the Amazon River dolphin). We report here a humerus recovered from the late Miocene deposits of the Ituzaingó Formation in the Paraná Basin of Argentina. The specimen exhibits diagnostic features of the family Iniidae, including a scapular-sternal joint of the humerus, which is a unique anatomical connection among mammals. This joint permits enhanced parasagittal adduction of the flipper as a control surface, relative to other odontocetes, providing Inia with a high degree of maneuverability in its structurally complex and heterogenous riverine habitat. This unique anatomical connection, here documented from the late Miocene (∼9 million years-6.5 million years old), not only provides the oldest diagnostic record for Iniidae, but it also indicates a similar habitat use for this lineage, a finding coincident with the current paleoenvironmental interpretation for the Ituzaingó Formation.

  9. Auditory brainstem response in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Bullock, T H; Carder, D A; Seeley, R L; Woods, D; Galambos, R

    1981-03-01

    We recorded the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in four dolphins (Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus delphis). The ABR evoked by clicks consists of seven waves within 10 msec; two waves often contain dual peaks. The main waves can be identified with those of humans and laboratory mammals; in spite of a much longer path, the latencies of the peaks are almost identical to those of the rat. The dolphin ABR waves increase in latency as the intensity of a sound decreases by only 4 microseconds/decibel(dB) (for clicks with peak power at 66 kHz) compared to 40 microseconds/dB in humans (for clicks in the sonic range). Low-frequency clicks (6-kHz peak power) show a latency increase about 3 times (12 microseconds/dB) as great. Although the dolphin brainstem tracks individual clicks to at least 600 per sec, the latency increases and amplitude decreases with increasing click rates. This effect varies among different waves of the ABR; it is around one-fifth the effect seen in man. The dolphin brain is specialized for handling brief, frequent clicks. A small latency difference is seen between clicks 180 degrees different in phase--i.e., with initial compression vs. initial rarefaction. The ABR can be used to test theories of dolphin sonar signal processing. Hearing thresholds can be evaluated rapidly. Cetaceans that have not been investigated can now be examined, including the great whales, a group for which data are now completely lacking.

  10. Fossil Dolphin Otekaikea marplesi (Latest Oligocene, New Zealand) Expands the Morphological and Taxonomic Diversity of Oligocene Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-01-01

    The Oligocene Epoch was a time of major radiation of the Odontoceti (echolocating toothed whales, dolphins). Fossils reveal many odontocete lineages and considerable structural diversity, but whether the clades include some crown taxa or only archaic groups is contentious. The New Zealand fossil dolphin “Prosqualodon” marplesi (latest Oligocene, ≥23.9 Ma) is here identified as a crown odontocete that represents a new genus, Otekaikea, and adds to the generic diversity of Oligocene odontocetes. Otekaikea marplesi is known only from the holotype, which comprises a partial skeleton from the marine Otekaike Limestone of the Waitaki Valley. Otekaikea marplesi was about 2.5 m long; it had procumbent anterior teeth, and a broad dished face for the nasofacial muscles implicated in production of echolocation sounds. The prominent condyles and unfused cervical vertebrae suggest a flexible neck. A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological features places Otekaikea marplesi in the extinct group Waipatiidae, within the clade Platanistoidea. The phylogeny implies an Oligocene origin for the lineage now represented by the endangered Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica), supporting an Oligocene history for the crown Odontoceti. PMID:25250733

  11. Fossil dolphin Otekaikea marplesi (latest Oligocene, New Zealand) expands the morphological and taxonomic diversity of Oligocene cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-01-01

    The Oligocene Epoch was a time of major radiation of the Odontoceti (echolocating toothed whales, dolphins). Fossils reveal many odontocete lineages and considerable structural diversity, but whether the clades include some crown taxa or only archaic groups is contentious. The New Zealand fossil dolphin "Prosqualodon" marplesi (latest Oligocene, ≥23.9 Ma) is here identified as a crown odontocete that represents a new genus, Otekaikea, and adds to the generic diversity of Oligocene odontocetes. Otekaikea marplesi is known only from the holotype, which comprises a partial skeleton from the marine Otekaike Limestone of the Waitaki Valley. Otekaikea marplesi was about 2.5 m long; it had procumbent anterior teeth, and a broad dished face for the nasofacial muscles implicated in production of echolocation sounds. The prominent condyles and unfused cervical vertebrae suggest a flexible neck. A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological features places Otekaikea marplesi in the extinct group Waipatiidae, within the clade Platanistoidea. The phylogeny implies an Oligocene origin for the lineage now represented by the endangered Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica), supporting an Oligocene history for the crown Odontoceti. PMID:25250733

  12. Enamel Ultrastructure in Fossil Cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti)

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Carolina; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti) underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand) to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile). Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth), the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB) with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward odontocetes, with

  13. Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti).

    PubMed

    Loch, Carolina; Kieser, Jules A; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti) underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand) to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile). Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth), the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB) with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward odontocetes, with

  14. Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti).

    PubMed

    Loch, Carolina; Kieser, Jules A; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti) underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand) to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile). Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth), the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB) with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward odontocetes, with

  15. Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

  16. Seven new dolphin mitochondrial genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny of whales

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ye; Brandley, Matthew C; Xu, Shixia; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2009-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of Cetacea (whales) is not fully resolved with substantial support. The ambiguous and conflicting results of multiple phylogenetic studies may be the result of the use of too little data, phylogenetic methods that do not adequately capture the complex nature of DNA evolution, or both. In addition, there is also evidence that the generic taxonomy of Delphinidae (dolphins) underestimates its diversity. To remedy these problems, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven dolphins and analyzed these data with partitioned Bayesian analyses. Moreover, we incorporate a newly-developed "relaxed" molecular clock to model heterogenous rates of evolution among cetacean lineages. Results The "deep" phylogenetic relationships are well supported including the monophyly of Cetacea and Odontoceti. However, there is ambiguity in the phylogenetic affinities of two of the river dolphin clades Platanistidae (Indian River dolphins) and Lipotidae (Yangtze River dolphins). The phylogenetic analyses support a sister relationship between Delphinidae and Monodontidae + Phocoenidae. Additionally, there is statistically significant support for the paraphyly of Tursiops (bottlenose dolphins) and Stenella (spotted dolphins). Conclusion Our phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes using recently developed models of rate autocorrelation resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the major Cetacean lineages with a high degree of confidence. Our results indicate that a rapid radiation of lineages explains the lack of support the placement of Platanistidae and Lipotidae. Moreover, our estimation of molecular divergence dates indicates that these radiations occurred in the Middle to Late Oligocene and Middle Miocene, respectively. Furthermore, by collecting and analyzing seven new mitochondrial genomes, we provide strong evidence that the delphinid genera Tursiops and Stenella are not monophyletic, and the current taxonomy masks potentially

  17. 78 FR 65616 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a public hearing pertaining to Amendment 7 to the Dolphin... Web site at www.safmc.net . Written comments: Written comments for Dolphin Wahoo Amendment 7 will be... Amendment 7 to the Dolphin Wahoo FMP. The amendment addresses an action to allow recreational fishermen...

  18. Clicking in Shallow Rivers: Short-Range Echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River Dolphins in a Shallow, Acoustically Complex Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M.; Smith, Brian D.; Janik, Vincent M.; Madsen, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes. PMID:23573197

  19. Douglas RD-2 Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    Douglas RD-2 Dolphin: Originally purchased with the presumed use as a Presidential aircraft, this Douglas RD-2 was turned over to the NACA in December 1939 without ever fulfilling its intended role. The Dolphin was a type familiar to the NACA, who were testing a Army version of the Douglas amphibian, an OA-4V with a nosewheel.

  20. Evolution of river dolphins.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, H.; Caballero, S.; Collins, A. G.; Brownell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The world's river dolphins (Inia, Pontoporia, Lipotes and Platanista) are among the least known and most endangered of all cetaceans. The four extant genera inhabit geographically disjunct river systems and exhibit highly modified morphologies, leading many cetologists to regard river dolphins as an unnatural group. Numerous arrangements have been proposed for their phylogenetic relationships to one another and to other odontocete cetaceans. These alternative views strongly affect the biogeographical and evolutionary implications raised by the important, although limited, fossil record of river dolphins. We present a hypothesis of river dolphin relationships based on phylogenetic analysis of three mitochondrial genes for 29 cetacean species, concluding that the four genera represent three separate, ancient branches in odontocete evolution. Our molecular phylogeny corresponds well with the first fossil appearances of the primary lineages of modern odontocetes. Integrating relevant events in Tertiary palaeoceanography, we develop a scenario for river dolphin evolution during the globally high sea levels of the Middle Miocene. We suggest that ancestors of the four extant river dolphin lineages colonized the shallow epicontintental seas that inundated the Amazon, Paraná, Yangtze and Indo-Gangetic river basins, subsequently remaining in these extensive waterways during their transition to freshwater with the Late Neogene trend of sea-level lowering. PMID:11296868

  1. Effect of lactation stage and concurrent pregnancy on milk composition in the bottlenose dolphin

    PubMed Central

    West, K L; Oftedal, O T; Carpenter, J R; Krames, B J; Campbell, M; Sweeney, J C

    2007-01-01

    Although many toothed whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti) lactate for 2–3 years or more, it is not known whether milk composition is affected by lactation stage in any odontocete species. We collected 64 pooled milk samples spanning 1–30 months postpartum from three captive bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. Milks were assayed for water, fat, crude protein (TN × 6.38) and sugar; gross energy was calculated. Ovulation and pregnancy were determined via monitoring of milk progesterone. Based on analysis of changes in milk composition for each individual dolphin, there were significant increases (P<0.05) in fat (in all three dolphins) and crude protein (in two of three), and a decrease (P<0.05) in water (in two of three) over the course of lactation, but the sugar content did not change. In all three animals, the energy content was positively correlated with month of lactation, but the percentage of energy provided by crude protein declined slightly but significantly (P<0.05). At mid-lactation (7–12 months postpartum, n=17), milk averaged 73.0±1.0% water, 12.8±1.0% fat, 8.9±0.5% crude protein, 1.0±0.1% sugar, 1.76±0.09 kcal g−1 (=7.25 kJ g−1) and 30.3±1.3% protein:energy per cent. This protein:energy per cent was surprisingly high compared with other cetaceans and in relation to the growth rates of calves. Milk progesterone indicated that dolphins ovulated and conceived between 413 and 673 days postpartum, following an increase in milk energy density. The significance of these observed compositional changes to calf nutrition will depend on the amounts of milk produced at different stages of lactation, and how milk composition and yield are influenced by sampling procedure, maternal diet and maternal condition, none of which are known. PMID:22140298

  2. Dolphins. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The family Delphinidae is the largest family of toothed whales. It includes not only those mammals commonly referred to as dolphins, such as the bottlenosed dolphin often seen in captivity, but also the killer whale. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on dolphins; the guide is designed--as the…

  3. The broadband social acoustic signaling behavior of spinner and spotted dolphins.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Marc O; Au, Whitlow W L; Herzing, Denise L

    2003-09-01

    Efforts to study the social acoustic signaling behavior of delphinids have traditionally been restricted to audio-range (<20 kHz) analyses. To explore the occurrence of communication signals at ultrasonic frequencies, broadband recordings of whistles and burst pulses were obtained from two commonly studied species of delphinids, the Hawaiian spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). Signals were quantitatively analyzed to establish their full bandwidth, to identify distinguishing characteristics between each species, and to determine how often they occur beyond the range of human hearing. Fundamental whistle contours were found to extend beyond 20 kHz only rarely among spotted dolphins, but with some regularity in spinner dolphins. Harmonics were present in the majority of whistles and varied considerably in their number, occurrence, and amplitude. Many whistles had harmonics that extended past 50 kHz and some reached as high as 100 kHz. The relative amplitude of harmonics and the high hearing sensitivity of dolphins to equivalent frequencies suggest that harmonics are biologically relevant spectral features. The burst pulses of both species were found to be predominantly ultrasonic, often with little or no energy below 20 kHz. The findings presented reveal that the social signals produced by spinner and spotted dolphins span the full range of their hearing sensitivity, are spectrally quite varied, and in the case of burst pulses are probably produced more frequently than reported by audio-range analyses. PMID:14514216

  4. The broadband social acoustic signaling behavior of spinner and spotted dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Herzing, Denise L.

    2003-09-01

    Efforts to study the social acoustic signaling behavior of delphinids have traditionally been restricted to audio-range (<20 kHz) analyses. To explore the occurrence of communication signals at ultrasonic frequencies, broadband recordings of whistles and burst pulses were obtained from two commonly studied species of delphinids, the Hawaiian spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). Signals were quantitatively analyzed to establish their full bandwidth, to identify distinguishing characteristics between each species, and to determine how often they occur beyond the range of human hearing. Fundamental whistle contours were found to extend beyond 20 kHz only rarely among spotted dolphins, but with some regularity in spinner dolphins. Harmonics were present in the majority of whistles and varied considerably in their number, occurrence, and amplitude. Many whistles had harmonics that extended past 50 kHz and some reached as high as 100 kHz. The relative amplitude of harmonics and the high hearing sensitivity of dolphins to equivalent frequencies suggest that harmonics are biologically relevant spectral features. The burst pulses of both species were found to be predominantly ultrasonic, often with little or no energy below 20 kHz. The findings presented reveal that the social signals produced by spinner and spotted dolphins span the full range of their hearing sensitivity, are spectrally quite varied, and in the case of burst pulses are probably produced more frequently than reported by audio-range analyses.

  5. Echolocation signals of wild dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, W. W. L.

    2004-07-01

    Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

  6. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  7. Hear, Hear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin

    2000-01-01

    Examines the problem of acoustics in school classrooms; the problems it creates for student learning, particularly for students with hearing problems; and the impediments to achieving acceptable acoustical levels for school classrooms. Acoustic guidelines are explored and some remedies for fixing sound problems are highlighted. (GR)

  8. The Promise of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Alexis; Dustin, Dan; Wolff, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Describes how people with disabilities can benefit from working and playing in the water with dolphins, focusing on the many positive benefits of dolphin-assisted therapy and discussing several hypotheses about why dolphin-assisted therapy is so effective. The article describes two dolphin-assisted therapy programs and presents contact information…

  9. Douglas OA-4A Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Douglas OA-4A Dolphin: This twin-engine Douglas OA-4A Dolphin was unusual in comparison with other OA-4s in that it employed a nose wheel instead of a tail wheel during its NACA testing at Langley. Here is is seen in the NACA hangar in September 1938.

  10. Estimated communication range of social sounds used by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Quintana-Rizzo, Ester; Mann, David A; Wells, Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, exhibit flexible associations in which the compositions of groups change frequently. We investigated the potential distances over which female dolphins and their dependent calves could remain in acoustic contact. We quantified the propagation of sounds in the frequency range of typical dolphin whistles in shallow water areas and channels of Sarasota Bay, Florida. Our results indicated that detection range was noise limited as opposed to being limited by hearing sensitivity. Sounds were attenuated to a greater extent in areas with seagrass than any other habitat. Estimates of active space of whistles showed that in seagrass shallow water areas, low-frequency whistles (7-13 kHz) with a 165 dB source level could be heard by dolphins at 487 m. In shallow areas with a mud bottom, all whistle frequency components of the same whistle could be heard by dolphins travel up to 2 km. In channels, high-frequency whistles (13-19 kHz) could be detectable potentially over a much longer distance (> 20 km). Our findings indicate that the communication range of social sounds likely exceeds the mean separation distances between females and their calves. Ecological pressures might play an important role in determining the separation distances within communication range.

  11. Bottlenose dolphins can use learned vocal labels to address each other.

    PubMed

    King, Stephanie L; Janik, Vincent M

    2013-08-01

    In animal communication research, vocal labeling refers to incidents in which an animal consistently uses a specific acoustic signal when presented with a specific object or class of objects. Labeling with learned signals is a foundation of human language but is notably rare in nonhuman communication systems. In natural animal systems, labeling often occurs with signals that are not influenced by learning, such as in alarm and food calling. There is a suggestion, however, that some species use learned signals to label conspecific individuals in their own communication system when mimicking individually distinctive calls. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are a promising animal for exploration in this area because they are capable of vocal production learning and can learn to use arbitrary signals to report the presence or absence of objects. Bottlenose dolphins develop their own unique identity signal, the signature whistle. This whistle encodes individual identity independently of voice features. The copying of signature whistles may therefore allow animals to label or address one another. Here, we show that wild bottlenose dolphins respond to hearing a copy of their own signature whistle by calling back. Animals did not respond to whistles that were not their own signature. This study provides compelling evidence that a dolphin's learned identity signal is used as a label when addressing conspecifics. Bottlenose dolphins therefore appear to be unique as nonhuman mammals to use learned signals as individually specific labels for different social companions in their own natural communication system.

  12. Echolocation characteristics of free-swimming bottlenose dolphins during object detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian; Martin, Stephen W.; Bauer, Eric J.; Phillips, Michael; Herrin, Tim; Cross, Matt; Vidal, Andrea; Moore, Patrick W.

    2005-04-01

    A biosonar measurement tool (BMT) was created to investigate dolphin echolocation search strategies by recording echolocation clicks, returning echoes, and three-dimensional angular motion, velocity, and depth of free-swimming dolphins performing open-water target detections. Trial start and stop times, locations determined from a differential global positioning system (DGPS), and BMT motion and acoustic data were used to produce spatial and acoustic representations of the searches. Two dolphins (LUT, FLP) searched for targets lying on the seafloor of a bay environment while carrying the BMT. LUT searched rapidly (<10 s), produced few clicks, and varied click-peak frequency (20-120 kHz); FLP searched relatively slowly (tens of seconds) and produced many hundreds of clicks with stereotypical frequency-dependent energy distributions dominating from 30-60 kHz. Dolphins amplified target echo returns by either increasing the click source level or reducing distance to the target but without reducing source level. The distribution of echolocation click-peak frequencies suggested a bias in the dominant frequency components of clicks, possibly due to mechanical constraints of the click generator. Prior training and hearing loss accommodation potentially explain differences in the search strategies of the two dolphins. .

  13. Echolocation characteristics of free-swimming bottlenose dolphins during object detection and identification.

    PubMed

    Houser, Dorian; Martin, Stephen W; Bauer, Eric J; Phillips, Michael; Herrin, Tim; Cross, Matt; Vidal, Andrea; Moore, Patrick W

    2005-04-01

    A biosonar measurement tool (BMT) was created to investigate dolphin echolocation search strategies by recording echolocation clicks, returning echoes, and three-dimensional angular motion, velocity, and depth of free-swimming dolphins performing open-water target detections. Trial start and stop times, locations determined from a differential global positioning system (DGPS), and BMT motion and acoustic data were used to produce spatial and acoustic representations of the searches. Two dolphins (LUT, FLP) searched for targets lying on the seafloor of a bay environment while carrying the BMT. LUT searched rapidly (< 10 s), produced few clicks, and varied click-peak frequency (20-120 kHz); FLP searched relatively slowly (tens of seconds) and produced many hundreds of clicks with stereotypical frequency-dependent energy distributions dominating from 30-60 kHz. Dolphins amplified target echo returns by either increasing the click source level or reducing distance to the target but without reducing source level. The distribution of echolocation click-peak frequencies suggested a bias in the dominant frequency components of clicks, possibly due to mechanical constraints of the click generator. Prior training and hearing loss accommodation potentially explain differences in the search strategies of the two dolphins. PMID:15898671

  14. Representing multiple discrimination cues in a computational model of the bottlenose dolphin auditory system.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Mercado, Eduardo; Au, Whitlow L

    2007-10-01

    A computational model of the dolphin auditory system was developed to describe how multiple discrimination cues may be represented and employed during echolocation discrimination tasks. The model consisted of a bank of gammatone filters followed by half-wave rectification and low pass filtering. The output of the model resembles a spectrogram; however, the model reflects temporal and spectral resolving properties of the dolphin auditory system. Model outputs were organized to represent discrimination cues related to spectral, temporal and intensity information. Two empirical experiments, a phase discrimination experiment [Johnson et al., Animal Sonar Processes and Performance (Plenum, New York, 1988)] and a cylinder wall thickness discrimination tasks [Au and Pawolski, J. Comp. Physiol. A 170, 41-47 (1992)] were then simulated. Model performance was compared to dolphin performance. Although multiple discrimination cues were potentially available to the dolphin, simulation results suggest temporal information was used in the former experiment and spectral information in the latter. This model's representation of sound provides a more accurate approximation to what the dolphin may be hearing compared to conventional spectrograms, time-amplitude, or spectral representations.

  15. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  16. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    most biologically and physically distinct from the ocean habitat also differed greatly from the other sites acoustically, with the most common and high amplitude sound being pump noise versus biological sounds at the other sites. Overall the dolphin facilities were neither clearly noisier nor more sterile than the wild site, but rather differed in particular characteristics. The findings are encouraging for dolphin welfare for several reasons. Sound levels measured were unlikely to cause threshold shifts in hearing. At three of four facilities, prominent biological sounds in the wild site -- snapping shrimp and fish sounds -- were present, meaning that the dolphins at these facilities are experiencing biotic features of the soundscape they would experience in the wild. Additionally, the main anthropogenic sounds experienced at the facilities (construction and cleaning sounds) did not reach the levels of the anthropogenic sounds experienced at the wild site (boat motor sounds), and the highest noise levels for anthropogenic sounds fall outside the dolphins' most sensitive range of hearing. However, there are anthropogenic contributors to the soundscape that are of particular interest and possible concern that should be investigated further, particularly pump noise and periodic or intermittent construction noise. These factors need to be considered on a facility-by-facility basis and appropriate mitigation procedures incorporated in animal handling to mitigate potential responses to planned or anticipated sound producing events, e.g. animal relocation or buffering sound producing activities. The central role of bioacoustics for dolphins means that PAM is a basic life support requirement along with water and food testing. Periodic noise is of highest concern, and PAM is needed to inform mitigation of noise from periodic sources. Priority actions are more widespread and long-term standardized monitoring, further research on habituation, preference, coupling and pool

  17. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    most biologically and physically distinct from the ocean habitat also differed greatly from the other sites acoustically, with the most common and high amplitude sound being pump noise versus biological sounds at the other sites. Overall the dolphin facilities were neither clearly noisier nor more sterile than the wild site, but rather differed in particular characteristics. The findings are encouraging for dolphin welfare for several reasons. Sound levels measured were unlikely to cause threshold shifts in hearing. At three of four facilities, prominent biological sounds in the wild site -- snapping shrimp and fish sounds -- were present, meaning that the dolphins at these facilities are experiencing biotic features of the soundscape they would experience in the wild. Additionally, the main anthropogenic sounds experienced at the facilities (construction and cleaning sounds) did not reach the levels of the anthropogenic sounds experienced at the wild site (boat motor sounds), and the highest noise levels for anthropogenic sounds fall outside the dolphins' most sensitive range of hearing. However, there are anthropogenic contributors to the soundscape that are of particular interest and possible concern that should be investigated further, particularly pump noise and periodic or intermittent construction noise. These factors need to be considered on a facility-by-facility basis and appropriate mitigation procedures incorporated in animal handling to mitigate potential responses to planned or anticipated sound producing events, e.g. animal relocation or buffering sound producing activities. The central role of bioacoustics for dolphins means that PAM is a basic life support requirement along with water and food testing. Periodic noise is of highest concern, and PAM is needed to inform mitigation of noise from periodic sources. Priority actions are more widespread and long-term standardized monitoring, further research on habituation, preference, coupling and pool

  18. An Interview with a Dolphin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Kathy; Keilty, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    A fabricated conversation between two humans and a dolphin at Marineland illustrates man's relationship to nature and the impact that human actions have on living creatures and the environment, and stresses developing a deeper understanding and value for the natural world and consideration of the universality of continued human error and…

  19. The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting

    PubMed Central

    Weihs, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/sec. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members. PMID:15132740

  20. A Study of a Mechanical Swimming Dolphin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lilly; Maass, Daniel; Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander

    2007-11-01

    A one-third scale dolphin model was constructed to investigate dolphin swimming hydrodynamics. Design and construction of the model were achieved using body coordinate data from the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) to ensure geometric similarity. The front two-thirds of the model are rigid and stationary, while an external mechanism drives the rear third. This motion mimics the kinematics of dolphin swimming. Planar laser induced florescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to study the hydrodynamics of the wake and to develop a vortex skeleton model.

  1. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  2. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  3. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  4. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  5. Where's That Dolphin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Carolyn; Curran, Mary Carla; Cox, Tara

    2013-01-01

    In this article , the authors describe an activity in which students in Savannah, Georgia, use handheld GPS devices to record the sightings of bottlenose dolphins, examine spatial data from five pairs of dolphins in the study, and then form hypotheses about the spatial patterns they observe. In the process, they learn not only about the ecology of…

  6. Do Dolphins Rehearse Show-Stimuli When at Rest? Delayed Matching of Auditory Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Dorothee; Jaramillo, Margarita Briseño; Böye, Martin; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying vocal mimicry in animals remain an open question. Delphinidae are able to copy sounds from their environment that are not produced by conspecifics. Usually, these mimicries occur associated with the context in which they were learned. No reports address the question of separation between auditory memory formation and spontaneous vocal copying although the sensory and motor phases of vocal learning are separated in a variety of songbirds. Here we show that captive bottlenose dolphins produce, during their nighttime resting periods, non-dolphin sounds that they heard during performance shows. Generally, in the middle of the night, these animals produced vocal copies of whale sounds that had been broadcast during daily public shows. As their life history was fully known, we know that these captive dolphins had never had the opportunity to hear whale sounds before then. Moreover, recordings made before the whale sounds started being broadcast revealed that they had never emitted such sounds before. This is to our knowledge the first evidence for a separation between formation of auditory memories and the process of learning to produce calls that match these memories in a marine mammal. One hypothesis is that dolphins may rehearse some special events heard during the daytime and that they then express vocally what could be conceived as a more global memory. These results open the way for broader views on how animals might rehearse life events while resting or maybe dreaming. PMID:22232611

  7. Comprehension of signs by dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Tschudin, A; Call, J; Dunbar, R I; Harris, G; van der Elst, C

    2001-03-01

    The authors assessed the ability of 6 captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to comprehend without explicit training 3 human communicative signs (pointing, directed gaze, and replica). Pointing consisted of indicating the target item with the index finger and a fully extended arm. Directed gaze consisted of orienting the head and eyes toward the target item while the rest of the body remained stationary. The replica signal consisted of holding up an exact duplicate of the target item. On the initial series of 12 trials for each condition, 3 dolphins performed above chance on pointing, 2 on gaze, and none for replica. With additional trials, above chance performance increased to 4 dolphins for pointing, 6 for gazing, and 2 for replica. The replica sign seemed to be the most taxing for them (only 2 dolphins achieved results significantly above chance). Taken together, these results indicate that dolphins are able to interpret untrained communicative signs successfully.

  8. Comprehension of signs by dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Tschudin, A; Call, J; Dunbar, R I; Harris, G; van der Elst, C

    2001-03-01

    The authors assessed the ability of 6 captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to comprehend without explicit training 3 human communicative signs (pointing, directed gaze, and replica). Pointing consisted of indicating the target item with the index finger and a fully extended arm. Directed gaze consisted of orienting the head and eyes toward the target item while the rest of the body remained stationary. The replica signal consisted of holding up an exact duplicate of the target item. On the initial series of 12 trials for each condition, 3 dolphins performed above chance on pointing, 2 on gaze, and none for replica. With additional trials, above chance performance increased to 4 dolphins for pointing, 6 for gazing, and 2 for replica. The replica sign seemed to be the most taxing for them (only 2 dolphins achieved results significantly above chance). Taken together, these results indicate that dolphins are able to interpret untrained communicative signs successfully. PMID:11334212

  9. The Origin of High-Frequency Hearing in Whales.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Morgan; Martinez-Caceres, Manuel; de Muizon, Christian; Mnieckowski, Jessica; Geisler, Jonathan H

    2016-08-22

    Odontocetes (toothed whales) rely upon echoes of their own vocalizations to navigate and find prey underwater [1]. This sensory adaptation, known as echolocation, operates most effectively when using high frequencies, and odontocetes are rivaled only by bats in their ability to perceive ultrasonic sound greater than 100 kHz [2]. Although features indicative of ultrasonic hearing are present in the oldest known odontocetes [3], the significance of this finding is limited by the methods employed and taxa sampled. In this report, we describe a new xenorophid whale (Echovenator sandersi, gen. et sp. nov.) from the Oligocene of South Carolina that, as a member of the most basal clade of odontocetes, sheds considerable light on the evolution of ultrasonic hearing. By placing high-resolution CT data from Echovenator sandersi, 2 hippos, and 23 fossil and extant whales in a phylogenetic context, we conclude that ultrasonic hearing, albeit in a less specialized form, evolved at the base of the odontocete radiation. Contrary to the hypothesis that odontocetes evolved from low-frequency specialists [4], we find evidence that stem cetaceans, the archaeocetes, were more sensitive to high-frequency sound than their terrestrial ancestors. This indicates that selection for high-frequency hearing predates the emergence of Odontoceti and the evolution of echolocation. PMID:27498568

  10. The dolphin brain--a challenge for synthetic neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2008-03-18

    Toothed whales (odontocetes) are a promising paradigm for neurobiology and evolutionary biology. The ecophysiological implications and structural adaptations of their brain seem to reflect the necessity of effective underwater hearing for echolocation (sonar), navigation, and communication. However, not all components of the auditory system are equally well developed. Other sensory systems are more or less strongly reduced such as the olfactory system and, as an exception among vertebrates, the vestibular system (the semicircular canals and vestibular nuclei). Additional outstanding features are: (1) the hypertrophy of the neocortex, pons, cerebellum (particularly the paraflocculus), the elliptic nucleus, the facial motor nucleus and the medial accessory inferior olive and (2) the reduction of the hippocampus. The screening of brain structures with respect to shared circuitry and shared size correlations resulted in central loops also known from other mammals which overlap in the cerebellum and serve in the integration and processing of sensory input. It is highly probable that for dolphin navigation the ascending auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus and the medial geniculate body, is of utmost importance. The extended auditory neocortical fields project to the midbrain and rhombencephalon and may influence premotor and motor areas in such a way as to allow the smooth regulation of sound-induced and sound-controlled locomotor activity as well as sophisticated phonation. This sonar-guided acousticomotor system for navigation and vocalization in the aquatic environment may have been a major factor if not the key feature in the relative size increase seen in dolphin brains. PMID:18331914

  11. The dolphin brain--a challenge for synthetic neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2008-03-18

    Toothed whales (odontocetes) are a promising paradigm for neurobiology and evolutionary biology. The ecophysiological implications and structural adaptations of their brain seem to reflect the necessity of effective underwater hearing for echolocation (sonar), navigation, and communication. However, not all components of the auditory system are equally well developed. Other sensory systems are more or less strongly reduced such as the olfactory system and, as an exception among vertebrates, the vestibular system (the semicircular canals and vestibular nuclei). Additional outstanding features are: (1) the hypertrophy of the neocortex, pons, cerebellum (particularly the paraflocculus), the elliptic nucleus, the facial motor nucleus and the medial accessory inferior olive and (2) the reduction of the hippocampus. The screening of brain structures with respect to shared circuitry and shared size correlations resulted in central loops also known from other mammals which overlap in the cerebellum and serve in the integration and processing of sensory input. It is highly probable that for dolphin navigation the ascending auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus and the medial geniculate body, is of utmost importance. The extended auditory neocortical fields project to the midbrain and rhombencephalon and may influence premotor and motor areas in such a way as to allow the smooth regulation of sound-induced and sound-controlled locomotor activity as well as sophisticated phonation. This sonar-guided acousticomotor system for navigation and vocalization in the aquatic environment may have been a major factor if not the key feature in the relative size increase seen in dolphin brains.

  12. Interaural differences in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) auditory nerve response to jawphone click stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Jason; Finneran, James J; Houser, Dorian S

    2014-09-01

    Suction cup transducers, also known as "jawphones," are now commonly used to deliver acoustic stimuli to odontocete cetaceans during hearing studies. It is often assumed that stimulation is primarily limited to the ear ipsilateral to a jawphone; however, the actual differences in auditory stimulation at the two ears are not well understood. To examine these differences, auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were simultaneously recorded from both ears during jawphone stimulation in two bottlenose dolphins. The amplitudes and latencies of auditory nerve responses (ANRs) elicited by broadband clicks were measured as functions of stimulus level and used to estimate the difference in received level and interaural time difference (ITD) between the two ears. Results indicated that clicks received at the ear contralateral to the jawphone were attenuated by approximately 20 dB relative to the level at the ipsilateral ear. The ITD between the contralateral and ipsilateral ears was 70 μs for the first dolphin and 118 μs for the second dolphin. While these results provide support for a notable degree of acoustic isolation of the ears for jawphone-delivered stimuli, there are implications for studies involving processes such as sound localization and unilateral hearing loss.

  13. Immunology of whales and dolphins.

    PubMed

    Beineke, Andreas; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    The increasing disease susceptibility in different whale and dolphin populations has led to speculation about a possible negative influence of environmental contaminants on the immune system and therefore on the health status of marine mammals. Despite current efforts in the immunology of marine mammals several aspects of immune functions in aquatic mammals remain unknown. However, assays for evaluating cellular immune responses, such as lymphocyte proliferation, respiratory burst as well as phagocytic and cytotoxic activity of leukocytes and humoral immune responses have been established for different cetacean species. Additionally, immunological and molecular techniques enable the detection and quantification of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in lymphoid cells during inflammation or immune responses, respectively. Different T and B cell subsets as well as antigen-presenting cells can be detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Despite great homologies between marine and terrestrial mammal lymphoid organs, some unique anatomical structures, particularly the complex lymphoepithelial laryngeal glands in cetaceans represent an adaptation to the marine environment. Additionally, physiological changes, such as age-related thymic atrophy and cystic degeneration of the "anal tonsil" of whales have to be taken into account when investigating these lymphoid structures. Systemic morbillivirus infections lead to fatalities in cetaceans associated with generalized lymphoid depletion. Similarly, chronic diseases and starvation are associated with a loss of functional lymphoid cells and decreased resistance against opportunistic infections. There is growing evidence for an immunotoxic effect of different environmental contaminants in whales and dolphins, as demonstrated in field studies. Furthermore, immunomodulatory properties of different persistent xenobiotics have been confirmed in cetacean lymphoid cells in vitro as well as in animal models in vivo

  14. Quantitative examination of the bottlenose dolphin cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Alicia; Grisham, William; Sheh, Colleen; Annese, Jacopo; Ridgway, Sam

    2013-08-01

    Neuroanatomical research into the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has revealed striking similarities with the human brain in terms of size and complexity. However, the dolphin brain also contains unique allometric relationships. When compared to the human brain, the dolphin cerebellum is noticeably larger. Upon closer examination, the lobule composition of the cerebellum is distinct between the two species. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to analyze cerebellar anatomy in the bottlenose dolphin and measure the volume of the separate cerebellar lobules in the bottlenose dolphin and human. Lobule identification was assisted by three-dimensional modeling. We find that lobules VI, VIIb, VIII, and IX are the largest lobules of the bottlenose dolphin cerebellum, while the anterior lobe (I-V), crus I, crus II, and the flocculonodular lobe are smaller. Different lobule sizes may have functional implications. Auditory-associated lobules VIIb, VIII, IX are likely large in the bottlenose dolphin due to echolocation abilities. Our study provides quantitative information on cerebellar anatomy that substantiates previous reports based on gross observation and subjective analysis. This study is part of a continuing effort toward providing explicit descriptions of cetacean neuroanatomy to support the interpretation of behavioral studies on cetacean cognition. PMID:23775830

  15. Coexistence of fisheries with river dolphin conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Nachiket; Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Choudhary, Sunil; Sutaria, Dipani

    2010-08-01

    Freshwater biodiversity conservation is generally perceived to conflict with human use and extraction (e.g., fisheries). Overexploited fisheries upset the balance between local economic needs and endangered species' conservation. We investigated resource competition between fisheries and Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in a human-dominated river system in India to assess the potential for their coexistence. We surveyed a 65-km stretch of the lower Ganga River to assess habitat use by dolphins (encounter rates) and fishing activity (habitat preferences of fishers, intensity of net and boat use). Dolphin abundance in the main channel increased from 179 (SE 7) (mid dry season) to 270 (SE 8) (peak dry season), probably as a result of immigration from upstream tributaries. Dolphins preferred river channels with muddy, rocky substrates, and deep midchannel waters. These areas overlapped considerably with fishing areas. Sites with 2-6 boats/km (moderately fished) were more preferred by dolphins than sites with 8-55 boats/km (heavily fished). Estimated spatial (85%) and prey-resource overlap (75%) between fisheries and dolphins (chiefly predators of small fish) suggests a high level of competition between the two groups. A decrease in abundance of larger fish, indicated by the fact that small fish comprised 74% of the total caught, may have intensified the present competition. Dolphins seem resilient to changes in fish community structure and may persist in overfished rivers. Regulated fishing in dolphin hotspots and maintenance of adequate dry season flows can sustain dolphins in tributaries and reduce competition in the main river. Fish-stock restoration and management, effective monitoring, curbing destructive fishing practices, secure tenure rights, and provision of alternative livelihoods for fishers may help reconcile conservation and local needs in overexploited river systems.

  16. Coexistence of fisheries with river dolphin conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Nachiket; Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Choudhary, Sunil; Sutaria, Dipani

    2010-08-01

    Freshwater biodiversity conservation is generally perceived to conflict with human use and extraction (e.g., fisheries). Overexploited fisheries upset the balance between local economic needs and endangered species' conservation. We investigated resource competition between fisheries and Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in a human-dominated river system in India to assess the potential for their coexistence. We surveyed a 65-km stretch of the lower Ganga River to assess habitat use by dolphins (encounter rates) and fishing activity (habitat preferences of fishers, intensity of net and boat use). Dolphin abundance in the main channel increased from 179 (SE 7) (mid dry season) to 270 (SE 8) (peak dry season), probably as a result of immigration from upstream tributaries. Dolphins preferred river channels with muddy, rocky substrates, and deep midchannel waters. These areas overlapped considerably with fishing areas. Sites with 2-6 boats/km (moderately fished) were more preferred by dolphins than sites with 8-55 boats/km (heavily fished). Estimated spatial (85%) and prey-resource overlap (75%) between fisheries and dolphins (chiefly predators of small fish) suggests a high level of competition between the two groups. A decrease in abundance of larger fish, indicated by the fact that small fish comprised 74% of the total caught, may have intensified the present competition. Dolphins seem resilient to changes in fish community structure and may persist in overfished rivers. Regulated fishing in dolphin hotspots and maintenance of adequate dry season flows can sustain dolphins in tributaries and reduce competition in the main river. Fish-stock restoration and management, effective monitoring, curbing destructive fishing practices, secure tenure rights, and provision of alternative livelihoods for fishers may help reconcile conservation and local needs in overexploited river systems. PMID:20337677

  17. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a family ... may damage the inner ear. This kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by ...

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  19. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of 'river dolphins' in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O'Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called 'river dolphins' are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic 'river dolphin' lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1-5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs. PMID:26355720

  20. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of 'river dolphins' in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O'Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called 'river dolphins' are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic 'river dolphin' lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1-5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs.

  1. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S

    2012-04-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness.

  2. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, S.; Moore, M. J.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, K.; Sharp, S.; Harry, C. T.; Hoppe, J.; Niemeyer, M.; Lentell, B.; Wells, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber–muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness. PMID:21993505

  3. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  4. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  5. 20. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. DOLPHIN. (Photographed from boat) NOTE CUTWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. DOLPHIN. (Photographed from boat) NOTE CUTWATER ON UPSTREAM SIDE OF DOLPHIN, AND THAT DOLPHIN IS OCTAGONAL AS OPPOSED TO CIRCULAR DESIGN OF CENTER PIER. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  6. Fatal Systemic Morbillivirus Infection in Bottlenose Dolphin, Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Zucca, Daniele; Arbelo, Manuel; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Andrada, Marisa; Déniz, Soraya; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A systemic morbillivirus infection was diagnosed postmortem in a juvenile bottlenose dolphin stranded in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean in 2005. Sequence analysis of a conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicated that the virus is closely related to dolphin morbillivirus recently reported in striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24447792

  7. Cranial asymmetry in Eocene archaeocete whales and the evolution of directional hearing in water.

    PubMed

    Fahlke, Julia M; Gingerich, Philip D; Welsh, Robert C; Wood, Aaron R

    2011-08-30

    Eocene archaeocete whales gave rise to all modern toothed and baleen whales (Odontoceti and Mysticeti) during or near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Odontocetes have asymmetrical skulls, with asymmetry linked to high-frequency sound production and echolocation. Mysticetes are generally assumed to have symmetrical skulls and lack high-frequency hearing. Here we show that protocetid and basilosaurid archaeocete skulls are distinctly and directionally asymmetrical. Archaeocete asymmetry involves curvature and axial torsion of the cranium, but no telescoping. Cranial asymmetry evolved in Eocene archaeocetes as part of a complex of traits linked to directional hearing (such as pan-bone thinning of the lower jaws, mandibular fat pads, and isolation of the ear region), probably enabling them to hear the higher sonic frequencies of sound-producing fish on which they preyed. Ultrasonic echolocation evolved in Oligocene odontocetes, enabling them to find silent prey. Asymmetry and much of the sonic-frequency range of directional hearing were lost in Oligocene mysticetes during the shift to low-frequency hearing and bulk-straining predation.

  8. Cranial asymmetry in Eocene archaeocete whales and the evolution of directional hearing in water

    PubMed Central

    Fahlke, Julia M.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Welsh, Robert C.; Wood, Aaron R.

    2011-01-01

    Eocene archaeocete whales gave rise to all modern toothed and baleen whales (Odontoceti and Mysticeti) during or near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Odontocetes have asymmetrical skulls, with asymmetry linked to high-frequency sound production and echolocation. Mysticetes are generally assumed to have symmetrical skulls and lack high-frequency hearing. Here we show that protocetid and basilosaurid archaeocete skulls are distinctly and directionally asymmetrical. Archaeocete asymmetry involves curvature and axial torsion of the cranium, but no telescoping. Cranial asymmetry evolved in Eocene archaeocetes as part of a complex of traits linked to directional hearing (such as pan-bone thinning of the lower jaws, mandibular fat pads, and isolation of the ear region), probably enabling them to hear the higher sonic frequencies of sound-producing fish on which they preyed. Ultrasonic echolocation evolved in Oligocene odontocetes, enabling them to find silent prey. Asymmetry and much of the sonic-frequency range of directional hearing were lost in Oligocene mysticetes during the shift to low-frequency hearing and bulk-straining predation. PMID:21873217

  9. Bottlenose dolphins perceive object features through echolocation.

    PubMed

    Harley, Heidi E; Putman, Erika A; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2003-08-01

    How organisms (including people) recognize distant objects is a fundamental question. The correspondence between object characteristics (distal stimuli), like visual shape, and sensory characteristics (proximal stimuli), like retinal projection, is ambiguous. The view that sensory systems are 'designed' to 'pick up' ecologically useful information is vague about how such mechanisms might work. In echolocating dolphins, which are studied as models for object recognition sonar systems, the correspondence between echo characteristics and object characteristics is less clear. Many cognitive scientists assume that object characteristics are extracted from proximal stimuli, but evidence for this remains ambiguous. For example, a dolphin may store 'sound templates' in its brain and identify whole objects by listening for a particular sound. Alternatively, a dolphin's brain may contain algorithms, derived through natural endowments or experience or both, which allow it to identify object characteristics based on sounds. The standard method used to address this question in many species is indirect and has led to equivocal results with dolphins. Here we outline an appropriate method and test it to show that dolphins extract object characteristics directly from echoes.

  10. Dolphin changes in whistle structure with watercraft activity depends on their behavioral state.

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura J; Quiñones-Lebrón, Shakira G

    2014-04-01

    Dolphins rely on whistles to identify each other and to receive and convey information about their environment. Although capable of adjusting these signals with changing environments, there is little information on how dolphins acoustically respond to different watercraft activities and if this response depends on dolphin behavioral state. Bottlenose dolphin whistles were recorded in the presence of research and dolphin-watching boats. Dolphins emitted lower frequency and longer whistles when interacting with dolphin-watching boats, particularly during foraging activities. This study suggests that dolphin-watching boat traffic significantly hinders dolphin communication during important behavioral states.

  11. Dolphin pox: a skin disease of cetaceans.

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, J R; Hicks, B D; St Aubin, D J

    1979-01-01

    Poxvirus has been identified morphologically from skin lesions in captive and free-ranging bottlenosed dolphins, Tursiops truncatus and a stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. The lesions, commonly referred to as ring or pinhole lesions, appear as solitary or coalesced circular grey blemishes. Advanced ring lesions may take the form of black punctiform stippled patterns known as "tattoo". Histologically, the stratum externum is thickened, and there is ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intractyoplasmic inclusions in the stratum intermedium. These includions contain virus particles which exhibit typical poxvirus morphology. Stress, environmental conditions and general health appear to play a major role in the clinical manifestation of dolphin pox. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:232852

  12. Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Jennifer D.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Pawloski, Jeffrey L.; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    2003-01-01

    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. To investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female Risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being blindfolded. Clicks emitted by the dolphin were acquired at average amplitudes of 192.6 dB re 1 μPa, with estimated sources levels up to 216 dB re 1 μPa-1 m. Clicks were acquired with peak frequencies as high as 104.7 kHz (Mfp=47.9 kHz), center frequencies as high as 85.7 kHz (Mf0=56.5 kHz), 3-dB bandwidths up to 94.1 kHz (MBW=39.7 kHz), and root-mean-square bandwidths up to 32.8 kHz (MRMS=23.3 kHz). Click durations were between 40 and 70 μs. The data establish that the Risso's dolphin echolocates, and that, aside from slightly lower amplitudes and frequencies, the clicks emitted by the dolphin were similar to those emitted by other echolocating odontocetes. The particular acoustic and behavioral findings in the study are discussed with respect to the possible direction of the sonar transmission beam of the species.

  13. Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus.

    PubMed

    Philips, Jennifer D; Nachtigall, Paul E; Au, Whitlow W L; Pawloski, Jeffrey L; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2003-01-01

    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. To investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female Risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being blindfolded. Clicks emitted by the dolphin were acquired at average amplitudes of 192.6 dB re 1 microPa, with estimated sources levels up to 216 dB re 1 microPa-1 m. Clicks were acquired with peak frequencies as high as 104.7 kHz (Mf(p) = 47.9 kHz), center frequencies as high as 85.7 kHz (Mf(0) = 56.5 kHz), 3-dB bandwidths up to 94.1 kHz (M(BW) = 39.7 kHz), and root-mean-square bandwidths up to 32.8 kHz (M(RMS) = 23.3 kHz). Click durations were between 40 and 70 micros. The data establish that the Risso's dolphin echolocates, and that, aside from slightly lower amplitudes and frequencies, the clicks emitted by the dolphin were similar to those emitted by other echolocating odontocetes. The particular acoustic and behavioral findings in the study are discussed with respect to the possible direction of the sonar transmission beam of the species.

  14. About Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ability to hear and understand. The duration and nature of a conductive loss will influence a student's ... nih.gov/health/hearing/neuropathy.asp . Implications: The nature and extent to which the hair cells in ...

  15. Whistle source levels of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins and Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Adam S; Zeddies, David; Simard, Peter; Mann, David

    2014-03-01

    Whistles of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were recorded and measured with a calibrated towed hydrophone array. Surveys encountered groups of both bottlenose (N = 10) and spotted dolphins (N = 5). Analysis of those data produced 1695 bottlenose dolphin whistles and 1273 spotted dolphin whistles with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Whistle frequency metrics were lower in bottlenose than spotted dolphins, while whistle duration was longer in spotted dolphins, data that may help inform automatic classification algorithms. Source levels were estimated by determining the range and bearing of an individual dolphin from the array and then adding the predicted transmission loss to the calculated received level. The median bottlenose dolphin source level was 138 dB re 1μPa at 1 m with a range of 114-163 dB re 1μPa at 1 m. The median spotted dolphin source level was 138 dB re 1μPa at 1 m with a range of 115-163 dB re 1μPa at 1 m. These source level measurements, in conjunction with estimates of vocalization rates and transmission loss models, can be used to improve passive acoustically determined dolphin abundance estimates in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:24606297

  16. Whistle source levels of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins and Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Adam S; Zeddies, David; Simard, Peter; Mann, David

    2014-03-01

    Whistles of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were recorded and measured with a calibrated towed hydrophone array. Surveys encountered groups of both bottlenose (N = 10) and spotted dolphins (N = 5). Analysis of those data produced 1695 bottlenose dolphin whistles and 1273 spotted dolphin whistles with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Whistle frequency metrics were lower in bottlenose than spotted dolphins, while whistle duration was longer in spotted dolphins, data that may help inform automatic classification algorithms. Source levels were estimated by determining the range and bearing of an individual dolphin from the array and then adding the predicted transmission loss to the calculated received level. The median bottlenose dolphin source level was 138 dB re 1μPa at 1 m with a range of 114-163 dB re 1μPa at 1 m. The median spotted dolphin source level was 138 dB re 1μPa at 1 m with a range of 115-163 dB re 1μPa at 1 m. These source level measurements, in conjunction with estimates of vocalization rates and transmission loss models, can be used to improve passive acoustically determined dolphin abundance estimates in the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  18. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales.

    PubMed

    Au, W W; Nachtigall, P E; Pawloski, J L

    1997-05-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-Hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. One of the major concerns is the possible effect of the ATOC signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. In order to address this issue, the hearing sensitivity of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) and a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to the ATOC sound was measured behaviorally. A staircase procedure with the signal levels being changed in 1-dB steps was used to measure the animals' threshold to the actual ATOC coded signal. The results indicate that small odontocetes such as the Pseudorca and Grampus swimming directly above the ATOC source will not hear the signal unless they dive to a depth of approximately 400 m. A sound propagation analysis suggests that the sound-pressure level at ranges greater than 0.5 km will be less than 130 dB for depths down to about 500 m. Several species of baleen whales produce sounds much greater than 170-180 dB. With the ATOC source on the axis of the deep sound channel (greater than 800 m), the ATOC signal will probably have minimal physical and physiological effects on cetaceans.

  19. 76 FR 51943 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Dolphin Conservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...; International Dolphin Conservation Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... (NOAA) collects information to implement the International Dolphin Conservation Program Act (Act). The... ] nations in the International Dolphin Conservation Program that would otherwise be under embargo. The...

  20. 77 FR 22759 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Bottlenose Dolphin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Region Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation Outreach Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... bottlenose dolphins, which are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. In particular, the surveys... regulations prohibiting feeding and harassment of bottlenose dolphins, and how they gained their knowledge...

  1. Is dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)?

    PubMed

    van Elk, C E; van de Bildt, M W G; Jauniaux, T; Hiemstra, S; van Run, P R W A; Foster, G; Meerbeek, J; Osterhaus, A D M E; Kuiken, T

    2014-11-01

    The virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. In 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. In 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. In these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. Therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphins with morbillivirus infection into a rehabilitation center provided a unique opportunity to investigate the virulence of morbillivirus in this species. By phylogenetic analysis, the morbilliviruses in both animals were identified as a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) most closely related to that detected in a white-beaked dolphin in Germany in 2007. Both animals were examined clinically and pathologically. Case No. 1 had a chronic neural DMV infection, characterized by polioencephalitis in the cerebrum and morbillivirus antigen expression limited to neurons and glial cells. Surprisingly, no nervous signs were observed in this animal during the 6 months before death. Case No. 2 had a subacute systemic DMV infection, characterized by interstitial pneumonia, leucopenia, lymphoid depletion, and DMV antigen expression in mononuclear cells and syncytia in the lung and in mononuclear cells in multiple lymphoid organs. Cause of death was not attributed to DMV infection in either animal. DMV was not detected in 2 contemporaneously stranded white-beaked dolphins. Stranding rate did not increase in the region. These results suggest that DMV is not highly virulent for white-beaked dolphins.

  2. Is dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)?

    PubMed

    van Elk, C E; van de Bildt, M W G; Jauniaux, T; Hiemstra, S; van Run, P R W A; Foster, G; Meerbeek, J; Osterhaus, A D M E; Kuiken, T

    2014-11-01

    The virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. In 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. In 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. In these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. Therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphins with morbillivirus infection into a rehabilitation center provided a unique opportunity to investigate the virulence of morbillivirus in this species. By phylogenetic analysis, the morbilliviruses in both animals were identified as a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) most closely related to that detected in a white-beaked dolphin in Germany in 2007. Both animals were examined clinically and pathologically. Case No. 1 had a chronic neural DMV infection, characterized by polioencephalitis in the cerebrum and morbillivirus antigen expression limited to neurons and glial cells. Surprisingly, no nervous signs were observed in this animal during the 6 months before death. Case No. 2 had a subacute systemic DMV infection, characterized by interstitial pneumonia, leucopenia, lymphoid depletion, and DMV antigen expression in mononuclear cells and syncytia in the lung and in mononuclear cells in multiple lymphoid organs. Cause of death was not attributed to DMV infection in either animal. DMV was not detected in 2 contemporaneously stranded white-beaked dolphins. Stranding rate did not increase in the region. These results suggest that DMV is not highly virulent for white-beaked dolphins. PMID:24399208

  3. On the role of periodic structures in the lower jaw of the atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Dible, S A; Flint, J A; Lepper, P A

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes the application of band-gap theory to hearing in the atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Using the transmission line modelling (TLM) technique and published computed tomography (CT) data of an atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), a series of sound propagation experiments have been carried out. It is shown that the teeth in the lower jaw can be viewed as a periodic array of scattering elements which result in the formation of an acoustic stop band (or band gap) that is angular dependent. It is shown through simple and complex geometry simulations that performance enhancements such as improved gain and isolation between the two receive paths can be achieved. This mechanism has the potential to be exploited in direction-finding sonar.

  4. Hepatic trematodiasis in a Ganges River dolphin.

    PubMed

    Migaki, G; Lagios, M D; Herald, E S; Dempster, R P

    1979-11-01

    Hepatic trematodiasis caused by Cyclorchis campula was diagnosed in a juvenile Ganges River dolphin that had been in captivity at an aquarium for approximately 1 year. Histopathologic findings were severe chronic suppurative cholangitis, hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium, and periductal fibrosis associated with fluke infection of the large bile ducts. PMID:521375

  5. Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss The importance of hearing Hearing allows you to ... surround the soft tissue of the inner ear. Hearing loss occurs when the inner ear is damaged. What ...

  6. Malignant seminoma with metastasis, Sertoli cell tumor, and pheochromocytoma in a spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) and malignant seminoma with metastasis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Estep, J S; Baumgartner, R E; Townsend, F; Pabst, D A; McLellan, W A; Friedlaender, A; Dunn, D G; Lipscomb, T P

    2005-05-01

    Seminoma with metastasis was diagnosed in a spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) and an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Sertoli cell tumor and pheochromocytoma were also diagnosed in the spotted dolphin. The spotted and bottlenose dolphins were adult males that stranded and died on the coasts of northwest Florida and southeast North Carolina, respectively. Neoplasia is infrequently reported in cetaceans. This is the first report of seminoma, Sertoli cell tumor, and pheochromocytoma in a dolphin, the first report of three distinct neoplasms in a dolphin, and one of the few reports of malignant neoplasia in dolphins. PMID:15872383

  7. Dolphin and bat sonar: Convergence, divergence, or parallelism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketten, Darlene R.; Simmons, James; Hubbard, Allyn E.; Mountain, David A.

    2001-05-01

    During the explosive period of mammalian radiation, two groups emerged with highly effective biosonar systems, bats and toothed whales. In the intervening 50 million years, these groups evolutionarily honed their hearing for operation in radically different media. This paper addresses what functional aspects the media influenced in the biosonar receptors of bats versus dolphins by comparing the auditory peripheries of these groups. Data were obtained using thin-section microscopy, CT imaging, and inner-ear models. Inner-ear anatomy is fundamentally similar in these animals, although differences exist in both neural density and distribution in each group. Specialist ears are present in both groups, suggesting at least one odontocete species has cochlear specializations consistent with CF-FM bats, including specialized basilar-membrane regions and high-frequency neural foveal areas. Cochlear specializations in both groups are primarily linked to peak spectra of sonar signals, may expand frequency representation, and may enhance tuning in adjacent ear segments by generating standing wave phenomena. Most differences, such as the soft-tissue external ear analogs in odontocetes, are clearly media driven. Other differences among species within each group are correlated with signal type or habitat complexity. [Work supported by Mellon Foundation; Seaver Institute; ONR.

  8. [Dolphin's flukes: A mathematical model of rigid wing].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, E V; Pushkov, S G; Lopatin, V N

    2015-01-01

    New analytical method is used to estimate hydrodynamic forces produced by dolphin's flukes. A mathematical model is proposed that describes dolphin's flukes as a flat rigid rectangular wing whose pitch axis location varies, heaving and pitching amplitudes are sufficiently large, and the phase angle shift for the combined oscillations can change arbitrarily. The dolphin's flukes kinematic parameters are obtained and used to estimate hydrodynamic forces.

  9. The dolphin cochlear nucleus: topography, histology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Malkemper, E P; Oelschläger, H H A; Huggenberger, S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. However, the volume ratio of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in relation to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of dolphins represents a minimum among the mammals examined so far. Because, for example, in cats the DCN is necessary for reflexive orientation of the head and pinnae towards a sound source, the massive restrictions in head movability in dolphins and the absence of outer ears may be correlated with the reduction of the DCN. Moreover, the same set of main neuron types were found in the dolphin CN as in other mammals, including octopus and multipolar cells. Because the latter two types of neurons are thought to be involved in the recognition of complex sounds, including speech, we suggest that, in dolphins, they may be involved in the processing of their communication signals. Comparison of the toothed whale species studied here revealed that large spherical cells were present in the La Plata dolphin but absent in the common dolphin. These neurons are known to be engaged in the processing of low-frequency sounds in terrestrial mammals. Accordingly, in the common dolphin, the absence of large spherical cells seems to be correlated with a shift of its auditory spectrum into the high-frequency range above 20 kHz. The existence of large spherical cells in the VCN of the La Plata dolphin, however, is enigmatic asthis species uses frequencies around 130 kHz. PMID:21987441

  10. The dolphin cochlear nucleus: topography, histology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Malkemper, E P; Oelschläger, H H A; Huggenberger, S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. However, the volume ratio of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in relation to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of dolphins represents a minimum among the mammals examined so far. Because, for example, in cats the DCN is necessary for reflexive orientation of the head and pinnae towards a sound source, the massive restrictions in head movability in dolphins and the absence of outer ears may be correlated with the reduction of the DCN. Moreover, the same set of main neuron types were found in the dolphin CN as in other mammals, including octopus and multipolar cells. Because the latter two types of neurons are thought to be involved in the recognition of complex sounds, including speech, we suggest that, in dolphins, they may be involved in the processing of their communication signals. Comparison of the toothed whale species studied here revealed that large spherical cells were present in the La Plata dolphin but absent in the common dolphin. These neurons are known to be engaged in the processing of low-frequency sounds in terrestrial mammals. Accordingly, in the common dolphin, the absence of large spherical cells seems to be correlated with a shift of its auditory spectrum into the high-frequency range above 20 kHz. The existence of large spherical cells in the VCN of the La Plata dolphin, however, is enigmatic asthis species uses frequencies around 130 kHz.

  11. [Dolphin's flukes: A mathematical model of rigid wing].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, E V; Pushkov, S G; Lopatin, V N

    2015-01-01

    New analytical method is used to estimate hydrodynamic forces produced by dolphin's flukes. A mathematical model is proposed that describes dolphin's flukes as a flat rigid rectangular wing whose pitch axis location varies, heaving and pitching amplitudes are sufficiently large, and the phase angle shift for the combined oscillations can change arbitrarily. The dolphin's flukes kinematic parameters are obtained and used to estimate hydrodynamic forces. PMID:26852573

  12. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine. PMID:23034277

  13. [Hearing implants].

    PubMed

    Stokroos, Robert J; George, Erwin L J

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, more than 1.5 million people suffer from sensorineural hearing loss or deafness. However, fitting conventional hearing aids does not provide a solution for everyone. In recent decades, developments in medical technology have produced implantable and other devices that restore both sensorineural and conductive hearing losses. These hearing devices can be categorized into bone conductive devices, implantable middle ear prostheses, cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants. Furthermore, new implants aimed at treating tinnitus and loss of vestibular function have recently been developed.

  14. Evoked-potential audiogram of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Cros, Emilie; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Zhitao; Fang, Liang; Chen, Yuefei; Kong, Fanming

    2012-09-01

    An evoked-potential audiogram was measured for an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) living in the dolphinarium of Nanning Zoo, China. Rhythmic 20 ms pip trains composed of cosine-enveloped 0.25 ms tone pips at a pip rate of 1 kHz were presented as sound stimuli. The dolphin was trained to remain still at the water surface and to wear soft latex suction-cup EEG electrodes used to measure the animal's envelope-following evoked potentials to the sound stimuli. Responses to 1000 rhythmic 20 ms pip trains for each amplitude/frequency combination were averaged and analysed using a fast Fourier transform to obtain an evoked auditory response. The hearing threshold was defined as the zero crossing point of the response input-output function using linear regression. Fourteen frequencies ranging from 5.6 to 152 kHz were studied. The results showed that most of the thresholds were lower than 90 dB re. 1 μPa (r.m.s.), covering a frequency range from 11.2 to 128 kHz, and the lowest threshold of 47 dB was measured at 45 kHz. The audiogram, which is a function of hearing threshold versus stimulus carrier frequency, presented a U-shape with a region of high hearing sensitivity (within 20 dB of the lowest threshold) between approximately 20 and 120 kHz. At frequencies lower than this high-sensitivity region, thresholds increased at a rate of approximately 11 dB octave(-1) up to 93 dB at 5.6 kHz. The thresholds at high frequencies above 108 kHz increased steeply at a rate of 130 dB octave(-1) up to 127 dB at 152 kHz.

  15. Hearing Assistive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  16. Intestinal helminth fauna of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and common dolphin Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Ruth; Giovannini, Anna; Raga, J Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2013-06-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 15 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and 6 short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean. Eight helminth species were found in bottlenose dolphin, i.e., the digeneans Synthesium tursionis, Brachycladium atlanticum, and Pholeter gastrophilus, the nematode Anisakis sp., and the cestodes Tetrabothrius forsteri, Diphyllobothrium sp., Strobilocephalus triangularis, and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. Brachycladium atlanticum, S. triangularis , and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids are new host records. No T. forsteri had previously been reported in Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins. Three species of helminths were recorded in the common dolphin, i.e., the digenean Synthesium delamurei (which was a new host record), and the cestodes T. forsteri and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. The intestinal helminth communities of bottlenose and common dolphins are depauperate, similar to that of other cetacean species, but those from bottlenose dolphins harbored a higher number of helminth species. This study supports the notion that oceanic cetaceans, such as common dolphins, have a comparatively poorer helminth fauna than that of neritic species, such as bottlenose dolphins, because the likelihood of parasite recruitment is decreased.

  17. Testing mitochondrial sequences and anonymous nuclear markers for phylogeny reconstruction in a rapidly radiating group: molecular systematics of the Delphininae (Cetacea: Odontoceti: Delphinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Sarah E; Adams, Lara D; Rosel, Patricia E

    2009-01-01

    Background Many molecular phylogenetic analyses rely on DNA sequence data obtained from single or multiple loci, particularly mitochondrial DNA loci. However, phylogenies for taxa that have undergone recent, rapid radiation events often remain unresolved. Alternative methodologies for discerning evolutionary relationships under these conditions are desirable. The dolphin subfamily Delphininae is a group that has likely resulted from a recent and rapid radiation. Despite several efforts, the evolutionary relationships among the species in the subfamily remain unclear. Results Here, we compare a phylogeny estimated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences to a multi-locus phylogeny inferred from 418 polymorphic genomic markers obtained from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. The two sets of phylogenies are largely incongruent, primarily because the mtDNA tree provides very poor resolving power; very few species' nodes in the tree are supported by bootstrap resampling. The AFLP phylogeny is considerably better resolved and more congruent with relationships inferred from morphological data. Both phylogenies support paraphyly for the genera Stenella and Tursiops. The AFLP data indicate a close relationship between the two spotted dolphin species and recent ancestry between Stenella clymene and S. longirostris. The placement of the Lagenodelphis hosei lineage is ambiguous: phenetic analysis of the AFLP data is consistent with morphological expectations but the phylogenetic analysis is not. Conclusion For closely related, recently diverged taxa, a multi-locus genome-wide survey is likely the most comprehensive approach currently available for phylogenetic inference. PMID:19811651

  18. Cognitive skills in bottlenose dolphin communication.

    PubMed

    Janik, Vincent M

    2013-04-01

    Bottlenose dolphins display a behavioural skill set that makes them an interesting model system for the study of complexity in communication and cognition. They are capable of vocal learning, referential labelling, syntax comprehension, and joint attention. In their own communication system, these skills are used in individual recognition, group cohesion, and coordination, which suggests that social challenges are a universal selection pressure for complexity in communication and cognition independent of the physical environment.

  19. Computer derivation of some dolphin echolocation signals.

    PubMed

    Altes, R A

    1971-09-01

    Recent advances in radar theory have given rise to a straightforward method of sonar signal design. The method involves computer maximization of a signal-to-interference ratio. The procedure has been used to derive sonar signals that can accurately measure target velocity. When two dolphins were placed in a situation conducive to the utilization of such signals, their waveforms were similar to those that had been theoretically derived.

  20. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  1. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  2. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  3. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  4. Observations of vaginal calculi in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, C D; Rennie, C J

    1991-07-01

    Vaginal calculi have been described from the common (Delphinus delphis), Pacific white-sided (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) and spotted (Stenella attenuata) dolphins. We describe additional calculi found in six sexually mature D. delphis from southern California. Three calculi were large (ca. 7 x 5 cm), exhibited concentric layer crystallization, and were unique from previously published descriptions. One calculus described previously and one in our sample appeared to be a fetal skeleton and skull respectively. Using CAT scans of a first trimester northern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis) and of a near term Delphinus delphis, we discuss the potential origin and development of vaginal calculi through analysis of ossification in embryonic delphinids. We hypothesize that the calculi represented spontaneous incomplete abortion with retention of part or all of the fetus in the distal reproductive tract. The form of the calculus relates to the degree of skeletal development at the time of fetal death. Calculi from a pregnant dolphin provided one measure of residence time. PMID:1920661

  5. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Biancani, Barbara; Furlati, Stefano; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Consolandi, Clarissa; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Cetaceans have evolved from herbivorous terrestrial artiodactyls closely related to ruminants and hippopotamuses. Delphinidae, a family included in this order, represent an extreme and successful re-adaptation of mammalian physiology to the marine habitat and piscivorous diet. The anatomical aspects of Delphinidae success are well understood, whereas some physiological aspects of their environmental fitness are less defined, such as the gut microbiota composition and its adaptation to their dietary niche. Here, we explored the faecal microbiota structure of nine adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and one breast-fed calf living in a controlled environment. According to our findings, dolphins possess a unique microbiota profile within the Mammalia class, highly resembling that of carnivorous marine fishes. The breast-fed calf showed a distinctive compositional structure of the gut microbial ecosystem, which partially overlaps with the mother's milk microbiota. Taken together, our data indicate that in dolphins the adaptation to the marine niche and piscivorous diet involved the convergence of their gut microbiota structure with that of marine fishes, overcoming the gut microbiota phylogenetic inertia previously described in terrestrial mammalians.

  6. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Biancani, Barbara; Furlati, Stefano; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Consolandi, Clarissa; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Cetaceans have evolved from herbivorous terrestrial artiodactyls closely related to ruminants and hippopotamuses. Delphinidae, a family included in this order, represent an extreme and successful re-adaptation of mammalian physiology to the marine habitat and piscivorous diet. The anatomical aspects of Delphinidae success are well understood, whereas some physiological aspects of their environmental fitness are less defined, such as the gut microbiota composition and its adaptation to their dietary niche. Here, we explored the faecal microbiota structure of nine adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and one breast-fed calf living in a controlled environment. According to our findings, dolphins possess a unique microbiota profile within the Mammalia class, highly resembling that of carnivorous marine fishes. The breast-fed calf showed a distinctive compositional structure of the gut microbial ecosystem, which partially overlaps with the mother's milk microbiota. Taken together, our data indicate that in dolphins the adaptation to the marine niche and piscivorous diet involved the convergence of their gut microbiota structure with that of marine fishes, overcoming the gut microbiota phylogenetic inertia previously described in terrestrial mammalians. PMID:26960390

  7. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of..., distributor, or seller of any tuna products that are exported from or offered for sale in the United States to... suggests that the tuna contained in the products were harvested using a method of fishing that is...

  8. Lobomycosis: risk of zoonotic transmission from dolphins to humans.

    PubMed

    Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D

    2013-10-01

    Lobomycosis, a fungal disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Lacazia loboi, is sometimes referred to as a zoonotic disease because it affects only specific delphinidae and humans; however, the evidence that it can be transferred directly to humans from dolphins is weak. Dolphins have also been postulated to be responsible for an apparent geographic expansion of the disease in humans. Morphological and molecular differences between the human and dolphin organisms, differences in geographic distribution of the diseases between dolphins and humans, the existence of only a single documented case of presumed zoonotic transmission, and anecdotal evidence of lack of transmission to humans following accidental inoculation of tissue from infected dolphins do not support the hypothesis that dolphins infected with L. loboi represent a zoonotic hazard for humans. In addition, the lack of human cases in communities adjacent to coastal estuaries with a high prevalence of lobomycosis in dolphins, such as the Indian River Lagoon in Florida (IRL), suggests that direct or indirect transmission of L. loboi from dolphins to humans occurs rarely, if at all. Nonetheless, attention to personal hygiene and general principals of infection control are always appropriate when handling tissues from an animal with a presumptive diagnosis of a mycotic or fungal disease.

  9. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suggests that the tuna contained in the products were harvested using a method of fishing that is not... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of..., distributor, or seller of any tuna products that are exported from or offered for sale in the United States...

  10. Hawaiian spinner dolphins aggregate midwater food resources through cooperative foraging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly; Au, Whitlow

    2003-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that spinner dolphins in Hawaii may actively aggregate their prey through cooperative foraging, a 200-kHz multi-beam sonar (Simrad MS2000) was used to observe 323 groups of spinner dolphins foraging within a midwater, micronekton sound-scattering layer off Oahu. Strong cooperation was observed in groups of 8-14 pairs of spinner dolphins. The dolphin group size was highest at midnight when the density of prey was highest and was significantly higher in Makua Beach, where the prey density was higher, than Electric Beach, where the prey density was lower. Cooperative groups of dolphins aggregated their food resources, apparently using their preys' avoidance behavior to create distinct, high-density patches in the prey. Prey aggregation was strongly stereo-typed, regardless of the distribution of the scattering layer. Dolphins swam around the edge of a 28-40 m diameter circle at least 5 times, concentrating prey within this area before pairs of dolphins on opposite sides of the circle swapped positions in the circle, swimming through the high density prey 'donut' they had formed. The hypothesis that nocturnal animals aggregate prey in midwater could not have been tested without the three-dimensional information on prey distribution and dolphin geometry provided by the multi-beam.

  11. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. PMID:26555621

  12. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  13. Perception time and movement time in dolphin pulsing and whistling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Sam; Carder, Donald

    2002-05-01

    Auditory/vocal response time was separated into perception time (PT) and movement time (MT) in trials with bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)-two males and one female. Pressure catheters accepted into the nasal cavity by each dolphin recorded the pressure increase that preceded sound production. Time from acoustic stimulus onset to onset of pressure rise was recorded as PT (range 57 to 314 ms) and pressure rise onset to dolphin sound onset was recorded as MT (range 63 to 363 ms). Blindfolded dolphins trained to report a target by whistling often responded before completion of their 200- to 800-ms echolocation click trains. Detection of the target, indicated by whistling, before termination of the animal's own click train, suggests that dolphins do not voluntarily respond to each successive click but rather set a rhythm such that each click is emitted about 20 ms after the target echo arrives.

  14. 'Eavesdropping' in wild rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis)?

    PubMed

    Götz, Thomas; Verfuss, Ursula Katharina; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-03-22

    Several authors suggest that dolphins use information obtained by eavesdropping on echoes from sonar signals of conspecifics, but there is little evidence that this strategy is used by dolphins in the wild. Travelling rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) either exhibit asynchronous movements or an extremely synchronized swimming behaviour in tight formations, which we expect to facilitate eavesdropping. Therefore, we determined, whether either one or more dolphins were echolocating in subgroups that were travelling with asynchronous and synchronized movements. Since, the number of recording sequences in which more than one animal produced sonar signals was significantly lower during synchronized travel, we conclude that the other members of a subgroup might get information on targets ahead by eavesdropping. Synchronized swimming in tight formations might be an energetic adaptation for travelling in a pelagic dolphin species that facilitates eavesdropping.

  15. Equal latency contours for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Jason; Schlundt, Carolyn E; Brandt, Lacey; Finneran, James J

    2015-11-01

    Loudness perception by non-human animals is difficult to study directly. Previous research efforts have instead focused on estimating loudness perception using simple reaction time (RT) data. These data are used to generate equal latency contours that serve as a proxy for equal loudness contours. To aid the design of auditory weighting functions for marine mammals, equal latency contours were generated using RT data for two marine mammal species that are representative of broader functional hearing groups: the bottlenose dolphin (under water) and California sea lion (in air). In all cases, median RT decreased with increasing tone sound pressure level (SPL). The equal latency contours corresponding to near-threshold SPLs were similar to audiograms for both species. The sea lion contours showed some compression at frequencies below 1 kHz; however, a similar pattern was not apparent in the more variable data for dolphins. Equal latency contours for SPLs greater than approximately 40 dB above threshold diverged from predicted equal loudness contours, likely due to the asymptotic nature of RT at the highest tested SPLs. The results suggest that auditory threshold data, potentially augmented with compression at low frequencies, may provide a useful way forward when designing auditory weighting functions for marine mammals.

  16. Equal latency contours for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Jason; Schlundt, Carolyn E; Brandt, Lacey; Finneran, James J

    2015-11-01

    Loudness perception by non-human animals is difficult to study directly. Previous research efforts have instead focused on estimating loudness perception using simple reaction time (RT) data. These data are used to generate equal latency contours that serve as a proxy for equal loudness contours. To aid the design of auditory weighting functions for marine mammals, equal latency contours were generated using RT data for two marine mammal species that are representative of broader functional hearing groups: the bottlenose dolphin (under water) and California sea lion (in air). In all cases, median RT decreased with increasing tone sound pressure level (SPL). The equal latency contours corresponding to near-threshold SPLs were similar to audiograms for both species. The sea lion contours showed some compression at frequencies below 1 kHz; however, a similar pattern was not apparent in the more variable data for dolphins. Equal latency contours for SPLs greater than approximately 40 dB above threshold diverged from predicted equal loudness contours, likely due to the asymptotic nature of RT at the highest tested SPLs. The results suggest that auditory threshold data, potentially augmented with compression at low frequencies, may provide a useful way forward when designing auditory weighting functions for marine mammals. PMID:26627745

  17. Hearing Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Personal music players are among the chief culprits of NIHL ... exposure to high noise levels (such as loud music) over time can cause permanent damage to the ...

  18. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  19. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  20. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Dunn, J Lawrence; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Smith, Cynthia R; Sidor, Inga; Jensen, Eric D; Van Bonn, William G; Pugh, Roberta; Ficht, Thomas; Adams, L Garry; Nielsen, Klaus; Romano, Tracy A

    2012-12-01

    Marine-origin Brucella infections and serologic evidence of exposure have been documented in multiple cetacean species. A dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen bottlenose dolphin sera for anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 131 serum samples collected over a 2 to 18 yr period from 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with confirmed Brucella infections were analyzed for the presence and magnitude of antibody titers against marine-origin Brucella to compare individual antibody responses to various disease manifestations. Additionally, an epidemiologic serologic survey of a managed population of 64 bottlenose dolphins was performed to evaluate for the presence of antibodies and to determine whether there were any clinical pathology predictors for exposure or infection. The serologic results revealed that the dolphins with Brucella-associated abortions were seronegative for 7 to 18 yr until after the abortion and maintained positive titers for several years, with 2 of 3 animals returning to seronegative status. In contrast, the dolphins with Brucella-associated pulmonary or bone lesions maintained persistent positive titers for 2 to 18 yr. The population serosurvey revealed no significant differences in antibody levels among males and females, and dolphins between the ages of 17 and 25 yr were 6.8 times more likely to be Brucella antibody positive compared to those that were younger or older. Seropositive dolphins did not have significant inflammation compared to seronegative dolphins but were more likely to have higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Among 16 dolphins that tested seropositive, 13 (81.3%) had previously been seropositive for at least 3 to 5 yr.

  1. Temporary threshold shift in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to intermittent tones.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Carder, Donald A; Schlundt, Carolyn E; Dear, Randall L

    2010-05-01

    Temporary threshold shift (TTS) was measured in a bottlenose dolphin exposed to a sequence of four 3-kHz tones with durations of 16 s and sound pressure levels (SPLs) of 192 dB re 1 μPa. The tones were separated by 224 s of silence, resulting in duty cycle of approximately 7%. The resulting growth and recovery of TTS were compared to experimentally measured TTS in the same subject exposed to single, continuous tones with similar SPLs. The data confirm the potential for accumulation of TTS across multiple exposures and for recovery of hearing during the quiet intervals between exposures. The degree to which various models could predict the growth of TTS across multiple exposures was also examined. PMID:21117775

  2. Temporary threshold shift in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to intermittent tones.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Carder, Donald A; Schlundt, Carolyn E; Dear, Randall L

    2010-05-01

    Temporary threshold shift (TTS) was measured in a bottlenose dolphin exposed to a sequence of four 3-kHz tones with durations of 16 s and sound pressure levels (SPLs) of 192 dB re 1 μPa. The tones were separated by 224 s of silence, resulting in duty cycle of approximately 7%. The resulting growth and recovery of TTS were compared to experimentally measured TTS in the same subject exposed to single, continuous tones with similar SPLs. The data confirm the potential for accumulation of TTS across multiple exposures and for recovery of hearing during the quiet intervals between exposures. The degree to which various models could predict the growth of TTS across multiple exposures was also examined.

  3. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales

    SciTech Connect

    Au, W.W.; Nachtigall, P.E.; Pawloski, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-Hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. One of the major concerns is the possible effect of the ATOC signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. In order to address this issue, the hearing sensitivity of a false killer whale ({ital Pseudorca crassidens}) and a Risso{close_quote}s dolphin ({ital Grampus griseus}) to the ATOC sound was measured behaviorally. A staircase procedure with the signal levels being changed in 1-dB steps was used to measure the animals{close_quote} threshold to the actual ATOC coded signal. The results indicate that small odontocetes such as the {ital Pseudorca} and {ital Grampus} swimming directly above the ATOC source will not hear the signal unless they dive to a depth of approximately 400 m. A sound propagation analysis suggests that the sound-pressure level at ranges greater than 0.5 km will be less than 130 dB for depths down to about 500 m. Several species of baleen whales produce sounds much greater than 170{endash}180 dB. With the ATOC source on the axis of the deep sound channel (greater than 800 m), the ATOC signal will probably have minimal physical and physiological effects on cetaceans. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  4. Toxoplasmosis in captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Mergl, J; Gehring, E; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Grigg, M E; Su, C; Martineau, D

    2009-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a sea aquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) tested. Two of these dolphins, as well as a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) at the facility, died. Encephalitis and T. gondii tissue cysts were identified in histological sections of the brain of 1 dolphin (dolphin no. 1). Another dolphin (dolphin no. 2) had mild focal encephalitis without visible organisms, but viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice and cats from its brain and skeletal muscle; this strain was designated TgDoCA1. The PCR-RFLP typing using 11 markers (B1, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) identified a Type II strain. The DNA sequencing of B1 and SAG1 alleles amplified from TgDoCA1 and directly from the brains of dolphin no. 1 and the walrus showed archetypal alleles consistent with infection by a Type II strain. No unique polymorphisms were detected. This is apparently the first report of isolation of T. gondii from a marine mammal in Canada. PMID:19245284

  5. Pathogen surveillance in wild bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Jaing, Crystal; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea; McLoughlin, Kevin; Slezak, Tom; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-10-16

    The number and prevalence of diseases is rapidly increasing in the marine ecosystem. Although there is an increase in the number of marine diseases observed world-wide, current understanding of the pathogens associated with marine mammals is limited. An important need exists to develop and apply platforms for rapid detection and characterization of pathogenic agents to assess, prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. In this study, a broad-spectrum molecular detection technology capable of detecting all sequenced microbial organisms, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, was used to assess the microbial agents that could be associated with wild Atlantic dolphins. Blowhole, gastric, and fecal samples from 8 bottlenose dolphins were collected in Charleston, SC, as part of the dolphin assessment effort. The array detected various microbial agents from the dolphin samples. Clostridium perfringens was most prevalent in the samples surveyed using the microarray. This pathogen was also detected using microbiological culture techniques. Additionally, Campylobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Erwinia amylovora, Helicobacter pylori, and Frankia sp. were also detected in more than one dolphin using the microarray, but not in culture. This study provides the first survey of pathogens associated with 3 tissue types in dolphins using a broad-spectrum microbial detection microarray and expands insight on the microbial community profile in dolphins.

  6. Toxoplasmosis in captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Mergl, J; Gehring, E; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Grigg, M E; Su, C; Martineau, D

    2009-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a sea aquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) tested. Two of these dolphins, as well as a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) at the facility, died. Encephalitis and T. gondii tissue cysts were identified in histological sections of the brain of 1 dolphin (dolphin no. 1). Another dolphin (dolphin no. 2) had mild focal encephalitis without visible organisms, but viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice and cats from its brain and skeletal muscle; this strain was designated TgDoCA1. The PCR-RFLP typing using 11 markers (B1, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) identified a Type II strain. The DNA sequencing of B1 and SAG1 alleles amplified from TgDoCA1 and directly from the brains of dolphin no. 1 and the walrus showed archetypal alleles consistent with infection by a Type II strain. No unique polymorphisms were detected. This is apparently the first report of isolation of T. gondii from a marine mammal in Canada.

  7. Pathogen surveillance in wild bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Jaing, Crystal; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea; McLoughlin, Kevin; Slezak, Tom; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-10-16

    The number and prevalence of diseases is rapidly increasing in the marine ecosystem. Although there is an increase in the number of marine diseases observed world-wide, current understanding of the pathogens associated with marine mammals is limited. An important need exists to develop and apply platforms for rapid detection and characterization of pathogenic agents to assess, prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. In this study, a broad-spectrum molecular detection technology capable of detecting all sequenced microbial organisms, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, was used to assess the microbial agents that could be associated with wild Atlantic dolphins. Blowhole, gastric, and fecal samples from 8 bottlenose dolphins were collected in Charleston, SC, as part of the dolphin assessment effort. The array detected various microbial agents from the dolphin samples. Clostridium perfringens was most prevalent in the samples surveyed using the microarray. This pathogen was also detected using microbiological culture techniques. Additionally, Campylobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Erwinia amylovora, Helicobacter pylori, and Frankia sp. were also detected in more than one dolphin using the microarray, but not in culture. This study provides the first survey of pathogens associated with 3 tissue types in dolphins using a broad-spectrum microbial detection microarray and expands insight on the microbial community profile in dolphins. PMID:26480911

  8. Consciousness in dolphins? A review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Harley, Heidi E

    2013-06-01

    For millennia, dolphins have intrigued humans. Scientific study has confirmed that bottlenose dolphins are large-brained, highly social mammals with an extended developmental period, flexible cognitive capacities, and powerful acoustic abilities including a sophisticated echolocation system. These findings have led some to ask if dolphins experience aspects of consciousness. Recent investigations targeting self-recognition/self-awareness and metacognition, constructs tied to consciousness on some accounts, have analyzed the dolphin's ability to recognize itself in a mirror or on a video as well as to monitor its own knowledge in a perceptual categorization task. The current article reviews this work with dolphins and grapples with some of the challenges in designing, conducting, and interpreting these studies as well as with general issues related to studying consciousness in animals. The existing evidence does not provide a convincing case for consciousness in dolphins. For productive scientific work on consciousness in dolphins (and other animals including humans), we need clearer characterizations of consciousness, better methods for studying it, and appropriate paradigms for interpreting outcomes. A current focus on metamemory in animals offers promise for future discovery in this area.

  9. An echolocation visualization and interface system for dolphin research.

    PubMed

    Amundin, Mats; Starkhammar, Josefin; Evander, Mikael; Almqvist, Monica; Lindström, Kjell; Persson, Hans W

    2008-02-01

    The present study describes the development and testing of a tool for dolphin research. This tool was able to visualize the dolphin echolocation signals as well as function as an acoustically operated "touch screen." The system consisted of a matrix of hydrophones attached to a semitransparent screen, which was lowered in front of an underwater acrylic panel in a dolphin pool. When a dolphin aimed its sonar beam at the screen, the hydrophones measured the received sound pressure levels. These hydrophone signals were then transferred to a computer where they were translated into a video image that corresponds to the dynamic sound pressure variations in the sonar beam and the location of the beam axis. There was a continuous projection of the image back onto the hydrophone matrix screen, giving the dolphin an immediate visual feedback to its sonar output. The system offers a whole new experimental methodology in dolphin research and since it is software-based, many different kinds of scientific questions can be addressed. The results were promising and motivate further development of the system and studies of sonar and cognitive abilities of dolphins.

  10. Dolphin's echolocation signals in a complicated acoustic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. P.

    2004-07-01

    Echolocation abilities of a dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ponticus) were investigated in laboratory conditions. The experiment was carried out in an open cage using an acoustic control over the behavior of the animal detecting underwater objects in a complicated acoustic environment. Targets of different strength were used as test objects. The dolphin was found to be able to detect objects at distances exceeding 650 m. For the target location, the dolphin used both single-pulse and multipulse echolocation modes. Time characteristics of echolocation pulses and time sequences of pulses as functions of the distance to the target were obtained.

  11. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  12. Hearing Sensation Changes When a Warning Predicts a Loud Sound in the False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Y

    2016-01-01

    Stranded whales and dolphins have sometimes been associated with loud anthropogenic sounds. Echolocating whales produce very loud sounds themselves and have developed the ability to protect their hearing from their own signals. A false killer whale's hearing sensitivity was measured when a faint warning sound was given just before the presentation of an increase in intensity to 170 dB. If the warning occurred within 1-9 s, as opposed to 20-40 s, the whale showed a 13-dB reduction in hearing sensitivity. Warning sounds before loud pulses may help mitigate the effects of loud anthropogenic sounds on wild animals. PMID:26611027

  13. Hearing Sensation Changes When a Warning Predicts a Loud Sound in the False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Y

    2016-01-01

    Stranded whales and dolphins have sometimes been associated with loud anthropogenic sounds. Echolocating whales produce very loud sounds themselves and have developed the ability to protect their hearing from their own signals. A false killer whale's hearing sensitivity was measured when a faint warning sound was given just before the presentation of an increase in intensity to 170 dB. If the warning occurred within 1-9 s, as opposed to 20-40 s, the whale showed a 13-dB reduction in hearing sensitivity. Warning sounds before loud pulses may help mitigate the effects of loud anthropogenic sounds on wild animals.

  14. Electroreception in the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis)

    PubMed Central

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U.; Liebschner, Alexander; Miersch, Lars; Klauer, Gertrud; Hanke, Frederike D.; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2012-01-01

    Passive electroreception is a widespread sense in fishes and amphibians, but in mammals this sensory ability has previously only been shown in monotremes. While the electroreceptors in fish and amphibians evolved from mechanosensory lateral line organs, those of monotremes are based on cutaneous glands innervated by trigeminal nerves. Electroreceptors evolved from other structures or in other taxa were unknown to date. Here we show that the hairless vibrissal crypts on the rostrum of the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), structures originally associated with the mammalian whiskers, serve as electroreceptors. Histological investigations revealed that the vibrissal crypts possess a well-innervated ampullary structure reminiscent of ampullary electroreceptors in other species. Psychophysical experiments with a male Guiana dolphin determined a sensory detection threshold for weak electric fields of 4.6 µV cm−1, which is comparable to the sensitivity of electroreceptors in platypuses. Our results show that electroreceptors can evolve from a mechanosensory organ that nearly all mammals possess and suggest the discovery of this kind of electroreception in more species, especially those with an aquatic or semi-aquatic lifestyle. PMID:21795271

  15. Electroreception in the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis).

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Liebschner, Alexander; Miersch, Lars; Klauer, Gertrud; Hanke, Frederike D; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2012-02-22

    Passive electroreception is a widespread sense in fishes and amphibians, but in mammals this sensory ability has previously only been shown in monotremes. While the electroreceptors in fish and amphibians evolved from mechanosensory lateral line organs, those of monotremes are based on cutaneous glands innervated by trigeminal nerves. Electroreceptors evolved from other structures or in other taxa were unknown to date. Here we show that the hairless vibrissal crypts on the rostrum of the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), structures originally associated with the mammalian whiskers, serve as electroreceptors. Histological investigations revealed that the vibrissal crypts possess a well-innervated ampullary structure reminiscent of ampullary electroreceptors in other species. Psychophysical experiments with a male Guiana dolphin determined a sensory detection threshold for weak electric fields of 4.6 µV cm(-1), which is comparable to the sensitivity of electroreceptors in platypuses. Our results show that electroreceptors can evolve from a mechanosensory organ that nearly all mammals possess and suggest the discovery of this kind of electroreception in more species, especially those with an aquatic or semi-aquatic lifestyle.

  16. Guyana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from Costa Rica emit whistles that vary with surface behaviors.

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura J

    2013-10-01

    Guyana dolphins show remarkable intraspecific whistle variation. This variation has been largely explained in terms of distance among populations; however, other factors such as behavior may also be important. A broadband recording system recorded the whistles of Guyana dolphins under three behavioral states. A discriminant analysis found that during social and travel events, dolphins emit whistles with high delta and minimum frequency, respectively. Whistle duration was also important in discriminating behaviors. This study indicates that behavior is an important factor contributing to whistle variation of Guyana dolphins. Understanding how dolphin whistles vary with behavioral context will advance our understanding of dolphin communication and enable appropriate comparative studies.

  17. Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck of ferry boat (YFB 87). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Transmission beam characteristics of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam B; Kloepper, Laura N; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Wan-Hsiu; Jen, I-Fan; Rideout, Brendan P; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    The echolocation system of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) remains poorly studied compared to other odontocete species. In this study, echolocation signals were recorded from a stationary Risso's dolphin with an array of 16 hydrophones and the two-dimensional beam shape was explored using frequency-dependent amplitude plots. Click source parameters were similar to those already described for this species. Centroid frequency of click signals increased with increasing sound pressure level, while the beamwidth decreased with increasing center frequency. Analysis revealed primarily single-lobed, and occasionally vertically dual-lobed, beam shapes. Overall beam directivity was found to be greater than that of the harbor porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, and a false killer whale. The relationship between frequency content, beam directivity, and head size for this Risso's dolphin deviated from the trend described for other species. These are the first reported measurements of echolocation beam shape and directivity in G. griseus. PMID:26827004

  19. The uncertain response in the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Schull, J; Strote, J; McGee, K; Egnor, R; Erb, L

    1995-12-01

    Humans respond adaptively to uncertainty by escaping or seeking additional information. To foster a comparative study of uncertainty processes, we asked whether humans and a bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) would use similarly a psychophysical uncertain response. Human observers and the dolphin were given 2 primary discrimination responses and a way to escape chosen trials into easier ones. Humans escaped sparingly from the most difficult trials near threshold that left them demonstrably uncertain of the stimulus. The dolphin performed nearly identically. The behavior of both species is considered from the perspectives of signal detection theory and optimality theory, and its appropriate interpretation is discussed. Human and dolphin uncertain responses seem to be interesting cognitive analogs and may depend on cognitive or controlled decisional mechanisms. The capacity to monitor ongoing cognition, and use uncertainty appropriately, would be a valuable adaptation for animal minds. This recommends uncertainty processes as an important but neglected area for future comparative research.

  20. Pathology of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) infected with Brucella ceti.

    PubMed

    González-Barrientos, R; Morales, J-A; Hernández-Mora, G; Barquero-Calvo, E; Guzmán-Verri, C; Chaves-Olarte, E; Moreno, E

    2010-05-01

    Seventeen striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) displaying swimming disorders compatible with neurological syndromes were investigated for Brucella infection. Sixteen dolphins had meningoencephalomyelitis. Serum antibody against Brucella antigen was detected in all 14 animals tested and Brucella ceti was isolated from eight out of nine animals. Brucella antigen was detected in the brain by immunofluorescence, but not by immunohistochemical labelling. By contrast, Brucella antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of animals with severe placentitis and in the mitral valve of animals with myocarditis. The microscopical lesions observed in the tissues of the infected dolphins were similar to those of chronic brucellosis in man. The severity of brucellosis in S. coeruleoalba indicates that this dolphin species is highly susceptible to infection by B. ceti. PMID:19954790

  1. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF DIRECT DRIVE STERLING 'DOLPHIN T' MODEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF DIRECT DRIVE STERLING 'DOLPHIN T' MODEL 4 CYLINDER, GASOLINE TRACTOR-TYPE ENGINE WITH FALKBIBBY FLEXIBLE COUPLING - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  2. Dolphin sonar--modelling a new receiver concept.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Observations suggest that dolphin sonars function well in the very shallow, reverberant, near-shore region of the ocean, and significantly out-perform man-made systems under such conditions. The echolocation characteristics of many small cetaceans have been measured directly and the high performance of biosonar systems is not in question, but explanations for their resolution, target detection, localization and tracking abilities are inadequate and deserve further investigation. The dolphin's lower jaw has been identified as part of an echo-receptor, and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this. In one of these, the regularity of dolphin teeth was considered as a sonar array. This paper explores the physics of such systems with models based on established radar and sonar principles, and using data from various dolphin species. The insights gained from this modelling then lead to speculative proposals for new sonar receiver concepts that may have advantages over more conventional designs in shallow water operation.

  3. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in an Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Migaki, G; Gunnels, R D; Casey, H W

    1978-10-01

    Pulmonary cryptococcosis was diagnosed in a 7-year-old dolphin which had been in captivity for about 4 years. Cryptococcosis has been reported in a variety of animals, but this is the first report in a cetacean. PMID:723222

  4. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  5. A DNA vaccine against dolphin morbillivirus is immunogenic in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Kerrie; Del Crew, Jason; Hermanson, Gary; Wloch, Mary K; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Smith, Cynthia R; Van Bonn, William G

    2007-12-15

    The immunization of exotic species presents considerable challenges. Nevertheless, for facilities like zoos, animal parks, government facilities and non-profit conservation groups, the protection of valuable and endangered species from infectious disease is a growing concern. The rationale for immunization in these species parallels that for human and companion animals; to decrease the incidence of disease. The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, in collaboration with industry and academic partners, has developed and evaluated a DNA vaccine targeting a marine viral pathogen - dolphin morbillivirus (DMV). The DMV vaccine consists of the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) genes of DMV. Vaccine constructs (pVR-DMV-F and pVR-DMV-H) were evaluated for expression in vitro and then for immunogenicity in mice. Injection protocols were designed for application in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to balance vaccine effectiveness with clinical utility. Six dolphins were inoculated, four animals received both pDMV-F and pDMV-H and two animals received a mock vaccine (vector alone). All animals received an inoculation week 0, followed by two booster injections weeks 8 and 14. Vaccine-specific immune responses were documented in all four vaccinated animals. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pathogen-specific immunogenicity to a DNA vaccine in an aquatic mammal species.

  6. Intrinsic echolocation capability of Hector's dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C W; Bates, R H; Dawson, S M

    1991-12-01

    A sonar system's echolocation capabilities can be inferred from the ambiguity distribution (defined here in terms of the conventional signal response function) of each of its transmitted signals. Several records of sounds emitted by Hector's dolphin are analyzed. The computed ambiguity distributions indicate that the sonar clicks of Hector's dolphins should be capable of resolving the ranges of targets as close together as 2 cm apart, but that target velocities cannot be resolved to any useful degree from a single echo. PMID:1787235

  7. Echocardiographic evaluation of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Sklansky, Mark; Levine, Gregg; Havlis, Dielle; West, Nicole; Renner, Michael; Rimmerman, Curtis; Stone, Rae

    2006-12-01

    Safe and effective echocardiography would represent a valuable tool for marine mammal veterinarians and physiologists evaluating the dolphin heart. Unfortunately, conventional ultrasound technology (transthoracic echocardiography) has been limited by logistic, anatomic, and behavioral challenges. Five mature male Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were trained for echocardiographic imaging (four for both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging, and one for only transthoracic imaging). It was noted that transesophageal image quality transiently improved when the dolphins spontaneously exhaled. Subsequently, dolphins were conditioned to hold their breath following forced exhalation, and imaging proceeded during such behavioral breath holds. Over 25 transthoracic and 100 transesophageal echocardiographic studies were performed, including both two-dimensional imaging and color flow mapping. Transthoracic imaging yielded poor-quality images of only small portions of the heart. In contrast, transesophageal imaging, which improved dramatically with behavioral breath holding following exhalation, yielded consistently high-quality images of the entire heart (mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves, atrial and ventricular septa, left and right atria, left and right ventricles, and ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery). Color flow mapping demonstrated mild tricuspid regurgitation in all dolphins, and mild aortic regurgitation in one dolphin found to have a pedunculated mass arising from the sinutubular junction just above the aortic valve. There were no complications in nonsedated dolphins. The heart of the bottlenose dolphin can be safely, effectively, and reproducibly evaluated with the use of transesophageal echocardiography in conjunction with behavioral breath holding following forced exhalation. This approach, and the normative echocardiographic data generated from this work, lays the foundation for future echocardiographic studies of

  8. Intrinsic echolocation capability of Hector's dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C W; Bates, R H; Dawson, S M

    1991-12-01

    A sonar system's echolocation capabilities can be inferred from the ambiguity distribution (defined here in terms of the conventional signal response function) of each of its transmitted signals. Several records of sounds emitted by Hector's dolphin are analyzed. The computed ambiguity distributions indicate that the sonar clicks of Hector's dolphins should be capable of resolving the ranges of targets as close together as 2 cm apart, but that target velocities cannot be resolved to any useful degree from a single echo.

  9. Accumulation of organotin compounds in tissues and organs of dolphins from the coasts of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Harino, Hiroya; Ohji, Madoka; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Adulyanukosol, Karnjana; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of organotin (OT) in seven species of dolphin (bottlenose dolphin, finless porpoise, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin, long-beaked common dolphin, Pantropical spotted dolphin, spinner dolphin, and striped dolphin), which were stranded on the coasts of Thailand, were measured. Butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT) compounds in tissues and organs of the dolphins were in the range of 16-1,152 microg kg(-1) and <1-62 microg kg(-1), respectively. The highest concentration of tributyltin (TBT) was generally observed in the liver. Because of the lower concentration of TPT, a trend in body distribution was not observed. Monobutyltin (MBT) among all the BTs was the dominant species in tissues and most organs except the liver. However, dibutyltin (DBT) was predominant in the liver. Monophenyltin (MPT) was not detected in all dolphins in the study. The higher concentration of BTs was observed with the increase in body length of dolphins. On the other hand, no significant difference in the concentration of OTs between genders was observed. The concentrations of OTs in tissues and organs were compared among dolphin, whales, and dugongs stranded on the coasts of Thailand. The concentrations of BTs were high and in the order of whales > dugongs > dolphins and the concentrations of PTs in whales were higher than those in dolphins and dugongs. PMID:17687583

  10. Sound variation and function in captive Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yayoi M; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Sakai, Mai; Iwasaki, Mari; Wakabayashi, Ikuo; Seko, Atsushi; Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-10-01

    Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii), one of the smallest dolphin species, has been reported to produce only narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) clicks and no whistles. To clarify their sound repertoire and examine the function of each type, we analysed the sounds and behaviour of captive Commerson's dolphins in Toba Aquarium, Japan. All recorded sounds were NBHF clicks with peak frequency >110kHz. The recorded click-trains were categorised into four types based on the changing pattern of their Inter-click intervals (ICI): Decreasing type, with continuously decreasing ICI during the last part of the train; Increasing type, with continuously increasing ICI during the last part; Fluctuating type, with fluctuating ICI; and Burst-pulse type, with very short and constant ICI. The frequency of the Decreasing type increased when approaching an object newly introduced to the tank, suggesting that the sound is used for echolocation on approach. The Burst-pulse type suddenly increased in front of the object and was often oriented towards it, suggesting that it was used for echolocation in close proximity to the object. In contrast, the Increasing type was rarely recorded during approach, but increased when a dolphin approached another dolphin. The Increasing and Burst-pulse types also increased when dolphins began social behaviours. These results suggest that some NBHF clicks have functions other than echolocation, such as communication.

  11. Neural network modeling of a dolphin's sonar discrimination capabilities.

    PubMed

    Au, W W; Andersen, L N; Rasmussen, A R; Roitblat, H L; Nachtigall, P E

    1995-07-01

    The capability of an echolocating dolphin to discriminate differences in the wall thickness of cylinders was previously modeled by a counterpropagation neural network using only spectral information from the echoes. In this study, both time and frequency information were used to model the dolphin discrimination capabilities. Echoes from the same cylinders were digitized using a broadband simulated dolphin sonar signal with the transducer mounted on the dolphin's pen. The echoes were filtered by a bank of continuous constant-Q digital filters and the energy from each filter was computed in time increments of 1/bandwidth. Echo features of the standard and each comparison target were analyzed in pairs by a counterpropagation neural network, a backpropagation neural network, and a model using Euclidean distance measures. The backpropagation network performed better than both the counterpropagation network, and the Euclidean model, using either spectral-only features or combined temporal and spectral features. All models performed better using features containing both temporal and spectral information. The backpropagation network was able to perform better than the dolphins for noise-free echoes with Q values as low as 2 and 3. For a Q of 2, only temporal information was available. However, with noisy data, the network required a Q of 8 in order to perform as well as the dolphin.

  12. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    PubMed

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  13. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    PubMed

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  14. 78 FR 25530 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN... of the vessel BLUE DOLPHIN is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Skippered daysailing in...

  15. Sounds emitted by the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    LILLY, J C; MILLER, A M

    1961-05-26

    The sonic emissions of the bottlenose dolphin are remarkably complex. Three classes of these sounds are discussed and presented graphically. The sine-type wave whistles range in frequency from about 4000 to 18,000 cycles per second. The clicks contain components of this same frequency range plus some components of higher frequencies. Complex waves of high amplitude and of many frequencies are also emitted in water or in air. Situations in which sounds of one or more of these classes can be elicited simultaneously from one and from two restrained animals are described. The necessity for, and occurrence of, creakings for purpose of navigation, ranging, and recognition (sonar) have been eliminated in the experiments under discussion.

  16. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  17. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products. (a) This is the “official mark” (see figure 1) designated by the United...

  18. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Finneran, James J; Fletcher, Elizabeth A; Weisman, Brian C; Ridgway, Sam H

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  19. Dolphins Can Maintain Vigilant Behavior through Echolocation for 15 Days without Interruption or Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  20. Dolphin Therapy: The Playful Way to Work toward the Next Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermer, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    More than 400 children with a physical and/or mental challenge visit the Curacao Dolphin Therapy and Research Center (CDTC) for dolphin-assisted therapy every year. Dolphin therapy appears to be the right approach for many children. With the help of these special and very social animals, it is easier to make contact with the children. It motivates…

  1. Cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    PubMed

    Alonso-Farré, J M; Gonzalo-Orden, M; Barreiro-Vázquez, J D; Barreiro-Lois, A; André, M; Morell, M; Llarena-Reino, M; Monreal-Pawlowsky, T; Degollada, E

    2015-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to scan seven by-caught dolphin cadavers, belonging to two species: four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and three striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). CT and MRI were obtained with the animals in ventral recumbency. After the imaging procedures, six dolphins were frozen at -20°C and sliced in the same position they were examined. Not only CT and MRI scans, but also cross sections of the heads were obtained in three body planes: transverse (slices of 1 cm thickness) in three dolphins, sagittal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins and dorsal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins. Relevant anatomical structures were identified and labelled on each cross section, obtaining a comprehensive bi-dimensional topographical anatomy guide of the main features of the common and the striped dolphin head. Furthermore, the anatomical cross sections were compared with their corresponding CT and MRI images, allowing an imaging identification of most of the anatomical features. CT scans produced an excellent definition of the bony and air-filled structures, while MRI allowed us to successfully identify most of the soft tissue structures in the dolphin's head. This paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the head structures of common and striped dolphins and compares anatomical cross sections with CT and MRI scans, becoming a reference guide for the interpretation of imaging studies.

  2. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins: feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in sarasota bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Wells, Randall S; McHugh, Katherine A; Douglas, David C; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B; Phillips, Goldie T

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10-20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  3. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins:feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  4. Evaluation of Potential Protective Factors Against Metabolic Syndrome in Bottlenose Dolphins: Feeding and Activity Patterns of Dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins. PMID:24133483

  5. Noise and Hearing Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... particularly because such exposure is avoidable. What causes hearing loss? The ear has three main parts: the outer, ... can I tell if my hearing is damaged? Hearing loss usually develops over a period of several years. ...

  6. Help with Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing. This problem can make it more diffi- cult to learn speech sounds and language correctly. Take ... how your child is hearing. See how diffi- cult it is to hear words correctly? Some children ...

  7. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  8. Detection and classification of underwater targets by echolocating dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow

    2003-10-01

    Many experiments have been performed with echolocating dolphins to determine their target detection and discrimination capabilities. Target detection experiments have been performed in a naturally noisy environment, with masking noise and with both phantom echoes and masking noise, and in reverberation. The echo energy to rms noise spectral density for the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) at the 75% correct response threshold is approximately 7.5 dB whereas for the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) the threshold is approximately 1 dB. The dolphin's detection threshold in reverberation is approximately 2.5 dB vs 2 dB for the beluga. The difference in performance between species can probably be ascribed to differences in how both species perceived the task. The bottlenose dolphin may be performing a combination detection/discrimination task whereas the beluga may be performing a simple detection task. Echolocating dolphins also have the capability to make fine discriminate of target properties such as wall thickness difference of water-filled cylinders and material differences in metallic plates. The high resolution property of the animal's echolocation signals and the high dynamic range of its auditory system are important factors in their outstanding discrimination capabilities.

  9. Bottlenose dolphins exchange signature whistles when meeting at sea.

    PubMed

    Quick, Nicola J; Janik, Vincent M

    2012-07-01

    The bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, is one of very few animals that, through vocal learning, can invent novel acoustic signals and copy whistles of conspecifics. Furthermore, receivers can extract identity information from the invented part of whistles. In captivity, dolphins use such signature whistles while separated from the rest of their group. However, little is known about how they use them at sea. If signature whistles are the main vehicle to transmit identity information, then dolphins should exchange these whistles in contexts where groups or individuals join. We used passive acoustic localization during focal boat follows to observe signature whistle use in the wild. We found that stereotypic whistle exchanges occurred primarily when groups of dolphins met and joined at sea. A sequence analysis verified that most of the whistles used during joins were signature whistles. Whistle matching or copying was not observed in any of the joins. The data show that signature whistle exchanges are a significant part of a greeting sequence that allows dolphins to identify conspecifics when encountering them in the wild.

  10. Origin and radiation of Southern Hemisphere coastal dolphins (genus Cephalorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Pichler, F B; Robineau, D; Goodall, R N; Meÿer, M A; Olivarría, C; Baker, C S

    2001-09-01

    The genus Cephalorhynchus (Gray 1846) consists of four species of small coastal dolphins distributed in cool temperate waters around the Southern Hemisphere. Each species is sympatric with other members of the subfamily Lissodelphininae but widely separated from other congeners. To describe the origin and radiation of these species, we examined 442 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 307 individuals from the genus Cephalorhynchus and compared these to sequences from other members of the subfamily Lissodelphininae. We investigate the hypotheses that Cephalorhynchus is a monophyletic genus or, alternatively, that the four species have arisen separately from pelagic Lissodelphine species and have converged morphologically. Our results support the monophyly of Cephalorhynchus within the Lissodelphininae and a pattern of radiation by colonization. We confirm a pattern of shallow but diagnosable species clades with Heaviside's dolphin as the basal branch. We further examine the monophyly of maternal haplotypes represented by our large population sample for each species. Based on this phylogeographic pattern, we propose that Cephalorhynchus originated in the waters of South Africa and, following the West Wind Drift, colonized New Zealand and then South America. The Chilean and Commerson's dolphins then speciated along the two coasts of South America, during the glaciation of Tierra del Fuego. Secondary radiations resulted in genetically isolated populations for both the Kerguelen Island Commerson's dolphin and the North Island Hector's dolphin. Our results suggest that coastal, depth-limited odontocetes are prone to population fragmentation, isolation and occasionally long-distance movements, perhaps following periods of climatic change. PMID:11555263

  11. Instrumenting free-swimming dolphins echolocating in open water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stephen W.; Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Eric J.; Moore, Patrick W.; Houser, Dorian S.

    2005-04-01

    Dolphins within the Navy Marine Mammal Program use echolocation to effectively locate underwater mines. They currently outperform manmade systems at similar tasks, particularly in cluttered environments and on buried targets. In hopes of improving manmade mine-hunting sonar systems, two instrumentation packages were developed to monitor free-swimming dolphin motion and echolocation during open-water target detection tasks. The biosonar measurement tool (BMT) is carried by a dolphin and monitors underwater position and attitude while simultaneously recording echolocation clicks and returning echoes through high-gain binaural receivers. The instrumented mine simulator (IMS) is a modified bottom target that monitors echolocation signals arriving at the target during ensonification. Dolphin subjects were trained to carry the BMT in open-bay bottom-object target searches in which the IMS could serve as a bottom object. The instrumentation provides detailed data that reveal hereto-unavailable information on the search strategies of free-swimming dolphins conducting open-water, bottom-object search tasks with echolocation. .

  12. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    2003-06-01

    In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed field measurements of free-ranging echolocating dolphins. Here we show that dolphins do possess an automatic gain control mechanism, but that it is implemented in the transmission phase rather than the receiving phase of a sonar cycle. We find that the amplitude of the dolphins' echolocation signals are highly range dependent; this amplitude increases with increasing target range, R, in a 20log(R) fashion to compensate for propagation loss. If the echolocation target is a fish school with many sound scatterers, the echoes from the school will remain nearly constant with range as the dolphin closes in on it. This characteristic has the same effect as time-varying gain in bats and technological sonar when considered from a sonar system perspective.

  13. Signature whistle shape conveys identity information to bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Janik, V. M.; Sayigh, L. S.; Wells, R. S.

    2006-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) develop individually distinctive signature whistles that they use to maintain group cohesion. Unlike the development of identification signals in most other species, signature whistle development is strongly influenced by vocal learning. This learning ability is maintained throughout life, and dolphins frequently copy each other’s whistles in the wild. It has been hypothesized that signature whistles can be used as referential signals among conspecifics, because captive bottlenose dolphins can be trained to use novel, learned signals to label objects. For this labeling to occur, signature whistles would have to convey identity information independent of the caller’s voice features. However, experimental proof for this hypothesis has been lacking. This study demonstrates that bottlenose dolphins extract identity information from signature whistles even after all voice features have been removed from the signal. Thus, dolphins are the only animals other than humans that have been shown to transmit identity information independent of the caller’s voice or location. PMID:16698937

  14. Insights into dolphin sonar discrimination capabilities from human listening experiments.

    PubMed

    Au, W W; Martin, D W

    1989-11-01

    A variety of dolphin sonar discrimination experiments have been conducted, yet little is known about the cues utilized by dolphins in making fine target discriminations. In order to gain insights on cues available to echolocating dolphins, sonar discrimination experiments were conducted with human subjects using the same targets employed in dolphin experiments. When digital recordings of echoes from targets ensonified with a dolphinlike signal were played back at a slower rate to human subjects, they could also make fine target discriminations under controlled laboratory conditions about as well as dolphins under less controlled conditions. Subjects reported that time-separation-pitch and duration cues were important. They also reported that low-amplitude echo components 32 dB below the maximum echo component were usable. The signal-to-noise ratio had to be greater than 10 dB above the detection threshold for simple discrimination and 30 dB for difficult discrimination. Except for two cases in which spectral cues in the form of "click pitch" were important, subjects indicated that time-domain rather than frequency-domain processing seemed to be more relevant in analyzing the echoes.

  15. Instrumenting free-swimming dolphins echolocating in open water.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen W; Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Eric J; Moore, Patrick W; Houser, Dorian S

    2005-04-01

    Dolphins within the Navy Marine Mammal Program use echolocation to effectively locate underwater mines. They currently outperform manmade systems at similar tasks, particularly in cluttered environments and on buried targets. In hopes of improving manmade mine-hunting sonar systems, two instrumentation packages were developed to monitor free-swimming dolphin motion and echolocation during open-water target detection tasks. The biosonar measurement tool (BMT) is carried by a dolphin and monitors underwater position and attitude while simultaneously recording echolocation clicks and returning echoes through high-gain binaural receivers. The instrumented mine simulator (IMS) is a modified bottom target that monitors echolocation signals arriving at the target during ensonification. Dolphin subjects were trained to carry the BMT in open-bay bottom-object target searches in which the IMS could serve as a bottom object. The instrumentation provides detailed data that reveal hereto-unavailable information on the search strategies of free-swimming dolphins conducting open-water, bottom-object search tasks with echolocation.

  16. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J

    2003-06-19

    In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed field measurements of free-ranging echolocating dolphins. Here we show that dolphins do possess an automatic gain control mechanism, but that it is implemented in the transmission phase rather than the receiving phase of a sonar cycle. We find that the amplitude of the dolphins' echolocation signals are highly range dependent; this amplitude increases with increasing target range, R, in a 20 log(R) fashion to compensate for propagation loss. If the echolocation target is a fish school with many sound scatterers, the echoes from the school will remain nearly constant with range as the dolphin closes in on it. This characteristic has the same effect as time-varying gain in bats and technological sonar when considered from a sonar system perspective.

  17. Cooperative prey herding by the pelagic dolphin, Stenella longirostris.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Au, Whitlow W L

    2009-01-01

    Sonar techniques were used to quantitatively observe foraging predators and their prey simultaneously in three dimensions. Spinner dolphins foraged at night in highly coordinated groups of 16-28 individuals using strict four-dimensional patterns to increase prey density by up to 200 times. Herding exploited the prey's own avoidance behavior to achieve food densities not observed otherwise. Pairs of dolphins then took turns feeding within the aggregation that was created. Using a proxy estimate of feeding success, it is estimated that each dolphin working in concert has more access to prey than it would if feeding individually, despite the costs of participating in the group maneuvers, supporting the cooperation hypothesis. Evidence of a prey density threshold for feeding suggests that feedback from the environment may be enough to favor the evolution of cooperation. The remarkable degree of coordination shown by foraging spinner dolphins, the very strict geometry, tight timing, and orderly turn taking, indicates the advantage conferred by this strategy and the constraints placed upon it. The consistent appearance of this behavior suggests that it may be a critical strategy for energy acquisition by spinner dolphins in energy poor featureless environments in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

  18. Bottlenose dolphins exchange signature whistles when meeting at sea.

    PubMed

    Quick, Nicola J; Janik, Vincent M

    2012-07-01

    The bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, is one of very few animals that, through vocal learning, can invent novel acoustic signals and copy whistles of conspecifics. Furthermore, receivers can extract identity information from the invented part of whistles. In captivity, dolphins use such signature whistles while separated from the rest of their group. However, little is known about how they use them at sea. If signature whistles are the main vehicle to transmit identity information, then dolphins should exchange these whistles in contexts where groups or individuals join. We used passive acoustic localization during focal boat follows to observe signature whistle use in the wild. We found that stereotypic whistle exchanges occurred primarily when groups of dolphins met and joined at sea. A sequence analysis verified that most of the whistles used during joins were signature whistles. Whistle matching or copying was not observed in any of the joins. The data show that signature whistle exchanges are a significant part of a greeting sequence that allows dolphins to identify conspecifics when encountering them in the wild. PMID:22378804

  19. Patterns of Dolphin Bycatch in a North-Western Australian Trawl Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Simon J.; Tyne, Julian A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel - one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day – the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) - the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  20. Patterns of dolphin bycatch in a north-western Australian trawl fishery.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Tyne, Julian A; Kobryn, Halina T; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H; Loneragan, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel--one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day--the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs)--the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  1. A comparison of pectoral fin contact behaviour for three distinct dolphin populations.

    PubMed

    Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Gregg, Justin D; Paulos, Robin D; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2010-06-01

    Tactile exchanges involving the pectoral fin have been documented in a variety of dolphin species. Several functions (e.g., social, hygienic) have been offered as possible explanations for when and why dolphins exchange pectoral fin contacts. In this study, we compared pectoral fin contact between dolphin dyads from three distinct dolphin populations: two groups of wild dolphins; Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan; and one group of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) residing at the Roatan Institute for Marine Sciences, Anthony's Key Resort. A number of similarities were observed between the captive and wild groups, including; rates of pectoral fin contact, which dolphin initiated contact, posture preference, and same-sex rubbing partner preference. Unlike their wild counterparts, however, dolphins in the captive study group engaged in petting and rubbing at equal rates, females were more likely to contact males, males assumed the various rubbing roles more frequently than females, and calves and juveniles were more likely to be involved in pectoral fin contact exchanges. These results suggest that some aspects of pectoral fin contact behaviour might be common to many dolphin species, whereas other aspects could be species specific, or could be the result of differing environmental and social conditions. PMID:20176094

  2. Laminar and cytoarchitectonic features of the cerebral cortex in the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Furutani, Rui

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation carried out Nissl, Klüver-Barrera, and Golgi studies of the cerebral cortex in three distinct genera of oceanic dolphins (Risso's dolphin, striped dolphin and bottlenose dolphin) to identify and classify cortical laminar and cytoarchitectonic structures in four distinct functional areas, including primary motor (M1), primary sensory (S1), primary visual (V1), and primary auditory (A1) cortices. The laminar and cytoarchitectonic organization of each of these cortical areas was similar among the three dolphin species. M1 was visualized as five-layer structure that included the molecular layer (layer I), external granular layer (layer II), external pyramidal layer (layer III), internal pyramidal layer (layer V), and fusiform layer (layer VI). The internal granular layer was absent. The cetacean sensory-related cortical areas S1, V1, and A1 were also found to have a five-layer organization comprising layers I, II, III, V and VI. In particular, A1 was characterized by the broadest layer I, layer II and developed band of pyramidal neurons in layers III (sublayers IIIa, IIIb and IIIc) and V. The patch organization consisting of the layer IIIb-pyramidal neurons was detected in the S1 and V1, but not in A1. The laminar patterns of V1 and S1 were similar, but the cytoarchitectonic structures of the two areas were different. V1 was characterized by a broader layer II than that of S1, and also contained the specialized pyramidal and multipolar stellate neurons in layers III and V. PMID:18625031

  3. DNA strand breaks (comet assay) in blood lymphocytes from wild bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Bulski, Karrie; Adams, Jeffrey D; Peden-Adams, Margie; Bossart, Gregory D; King, Lydia; Fair, Patricia A

    2013-12-15

    The comet assay was carried out on blood lymphocytes from a large number of wild dolphins (71 from Indian River Lagoon, FL, USA; 51 from Charleston Harbor, SC, USA) and provides a baseline study of DNA strand breaks in wild dolphin populations. There were no significant differences in the comet assay (% DNA in tail) results between the different age and sex categories. Significant difference in DNA strand breaks were found between Charleston Harbor dolphins (median--17.4% DNA in tail) and Indian River Lagoon dolphins (median--14.0% DNA in tail). A strong correlation found between T-cell proliferation and DNA strand breaks in dolphin lymphocytes suggests that dolphins with a high numbers of DNA strand breaks have a decreased ability to respond to infection. Higher concentrations of genotoxic agents in Charleston Harbor compared with Indian River lagoon may have been one of the causes of higher DNA strand breaks in these dolphins.

  4. MYCOBACTERIUM ABSCESSUS PNEUMONIA IN AN ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Leigh Ann; Stamper, M. Andrew; Whitaker, Brent R.; Hadfield, Catherine A.; Simons, Brian; Mankowski, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia was diagnosed antemortem in a 23-yr-old male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Clinical signs included lethargy, hyporexia, coughing, and bloody respiratory discharge. Diagnostic findings included neutrophilic leukocytosis, anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and repeated forceful exhaled breath (sputum) cytology, with acute inflammatory cells and acid-fast positive beaded rods. The bacteria were initially identified free in the sputum sample and subsequently were seen within neutrophils. A culture was positive for a rapidly growing, white, colony-forming organism confirmed as M. abscessus by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Clinical signs initially resolved with multidrug therapy. Concurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection complicated clinical management and contributed to terminal decline. The dolphin was euthanized 5 mo after initial diagnosis. Necropsy results demonstrated acid-fast positive bacteria in lung tissue and supported the diagnosis of M. abscessus pneumonia. Acid-fast stains and mycobacteria cultures should be considered when evaluating ill dolphins. PMID:23272373

  5. Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Clayton, Leigh Ann; Stamper, M Andrew; Whitaker, Brent R; Hadfield, Catherine A; Simons, Brian; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia was diagnosed antemortem in a 23-yr-old male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Clinical signs included lethargy, hyporexia, coughing, and bloody respiratory discharge. Diagnostic findings included neutrophilic leukocytosis, anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and repeated forceful exhaled breath (sputum) cytology, with acute inflammatory cells and acid-fast positive beaded rods. The bacteria were initially identified free in the sputum sample and subsequently were seen within neutrophils. A culture was positive for a rapidly growing, white, colony-forming organism confirmed as M. abscessus by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Clinical signs initially resolved with multidrug therapy. Concurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection complicated clinical management and contributed to terminal decline. The dolphin was euthanized 5 mo after initial diagnosis. Necropsy results demonstrated acid-fast positive bacteria in lung tissue and supported the diagnosis of M. abscessus pneumonia. Acid-fast stains and mycobacteria cultures should be considered when evaluating ill dolphins. PMID:23272373

  6. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system

  7. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Dans, Silvana Laura; Degrati, Mariana; Pedraza, Susana Noemí; Crespo, Enrique Alberto

    2012-08-01

    In Patagonia, Argentina, watching dolphins, especially dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), is a new tourist activity. Feeding time decreases and time to return to feeding after feeding is abandoned and time it takes a group of dolphins to feed increase in the presence of boats. Such effects on feeding behavior may exert energetic costs on dolphins and thus reduce an individual's survival and reproductive capacity or maybe associated with shifts in distribution. We sought to predict which behavioral changes modify the activity pattern of dolphins the most. We modeled behavioral sequences of dusky dolphins with Markov chains. We calculated transition probabilities from one activity to another and arranged them in a stochastic matrix model. The proportion of time dolphins dedicated to a given activity (activity budget) and the time it took a dolphin to resume that activity after it had been abandoned (recurrence time) were calculated. We used a sensitivity analysis of Markov chains to calculate the sensitivity of the time budget and the activity-resumption time to changes in behavioral transition probabilities. Feeding-time budget was most sensitive to changes in the probability of dolphins switching from traveling to feeding behavior and of maintaining feeding behavior. Thus, an increase in these probabilities would be associated with the largest reduction in the time dedicated to feeding. A reduction in the probability of changing from traveling to feeding would also be associated with the largest increases in the time it takes dolphins to resume feeding. To approach dolphins when they are traveling would not affect behavior less because presence of the boat may keep dolphins from returning to feeding. Our results may help operators of dolphin-watching vessels minimize negative effects on dolphins. PMID:22624561

  8. Learning in human-dolphin interactions at zoological facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Diane L.

    This research aimed to better understand learning in zoological settings, particularly learning about marine mammals, by investigating the research question, what do people learn through interacting with dolphins in zoological facilities? Sociocultural situated learning theory, specifically a Community of Practice (CoP) model of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991), was the theoretical framework. The CoP model allowed for diversity of knowledge, interest, motivations, and goals that existed among the community of animal enthusiasts at three commercial zoological facilities, and also for peripheral to more central types of participation. I collected data through interviews of spectators, visitors, and trainers (n=51), observations (n=16), and an online questionnaire of past-visitors (n=933). Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed based on the National Science Foundation's (Friedman, 2008) and the National Research Council's (2009) frameworks for informal science education. Five principal findings answered the research question. First, all participants gained new knowledge within three broad categories: (a) dolphin physiology and natural history, (b) care and training of dolphins, and (c) conservation. Second, all participants constructed personal meanings by connecting the activity to experiences, beliefs, and practices outside the interaction context. Almost all participants made associations with conservation. Third, most participants shifted their attitudes and gained a sense of personal agency about beginning or increasing stewardship actions. Fourth, visitors learned interspecies etiquette skills; trainers learned skills in dolphin training and management, people management, and teaching. Fifth, visitors had long-lasting memories of the experience that occurred eight months to 18 years in the past. Popular cultural ideas about dolphins and the ways the dolphins were represented influenced visitors' expectations and the types of learning. Potential physical

  9. Vocalization of naive captive dolphins in small groups.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, M C; Caldwell, D K

    1968-03-01

    Pure-tone whistles (2403) by four individual dolphins (Delphinus delphis bairdi) were analyzed for duration and the elapse of time before either response by another animal or a repeat whistle by the same animal. Only five major types of whistle emissions were recorded, all stereotyped and each characteristic of the animal emitting it. Only one of the four animals emitted two different whistles, one of which was rare and both of which were stereotyped. A pure-tone chirp and pulsed sounds are discussed. We found no evidence of a dolphin "language," but we present evidence of social response to acoustic signals.

  10. Computational Modeling of the Dolphin Kick in Competitive Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebbeck, A.; Mark, R.; Bhanot, G.

    2005-11-01

    Numerical simulations are being used to study the fluid dynamics of the dolphin kick in competitive swimming. This stroke is performed underwater after starts and turns and involves an undulatory motion of the body. Highly detailed laser body scans of elite swimmers are used and the kinematics of the dolphin kick is recreated from videos of Olympic level swimmers. We employ a parallelized immersed boundary method to simulate the flow associated with this stroke in all its complexity. The simulations provide a first of its kind glimpse of the fluid and vortex dynamics associated with this stroke and hydrodynamic force computations allow us to gain a better understanding of the thrust producing mechanisms.

  11. Experimental approaches towards interpreting dolphin-stimulated bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Rohr, J; Latz, M I; Fallon, S; Nauen, J C; Hendricks, E

    1998-05-01

    Flow-induced bioluminescence provides a unique opportunity for visualizing the flow field around a swimming dolphin. Unfortunately, previous descriptions of dolphin-stimulated bioluminescence have been largely anecdotal and often conflicting. Most references in the scientific literature report an absence of bioluminescence on the dolphin body, which has been invariably assumed to be indicative of laminar flow. However, hydrodynamicists have yet to find compelling evidence that the flow remains laminar over most of the body. The present study integrates laboratory, computational and field approaches to begin to assess the utility of using bioluminescence as a method for flow visualization by relating fundamental characteristics of the flow to the stimulation of naturally occurring luminescent plankton. Laboratory experiments using fully developed pipe flow revealed that the bioluminescent organisms identified in the field studies can be stimulated in both laminar and turbulent flow when shear stress values exceed approximately 0.1 N m-2. Computational studies of an idealized hydrodynamic representation of a dolphin (modeled as a 6:1 ellipsoid), gliding at a speed of 2 m s-1, predicted suprathreshold surface shear stress values everywhere on the model, regardless of whether the boundary layer flow was laminar or turbulent. Laboratory flow visualization of a sphere demonstrated that the intensity of bioluminescence decreased with increasing flow speed due to the thinning of the boundary layer, while flow separation caused a dramatic increase in intensity due to the significantly greater volume of stimulating flow in the wake. Intensified video recordings of dolphins gliding at speeds of approximately 2 m s-1 confirmed that brilliant displays of bioluminescence occurred on the body of the dolphin. The distribution and intensity of bioluminescence suggest that the flow remained attached over most of the body. A conspicuous lack of bioluminescence was often observed on

  12. [Hearing preservation: Better hearing with advanced technology].

    PubMed

    Rader, T; Helbig, S; Stöver, T; Baumann, U

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of residual hearing after cochlear implantation allows patients the synergetic use of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). The application of specific surgical and therapeutic techniques enables the reduction of inner ear trauma, which leads otherwise to complete hearing loss. Due to simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation, speech understanding is improved especially in noise. EAS is a well-accepted therapeutic treatment for subjects with profound hearing loss in the higher frequencies and no or mild hearing loss in the low frequencies. Several Manufacturers offer individual soft electrodes specially designed for hearing preservation as well as combined electric-acoustic audio processors. PMID:24782208

  13. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  14. Electrophysiological methods for hearing assessment in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmuth Kastak, Colleen; Kastak, David; Finneran, James J.; Houser, Dorian S.; Supin, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    Studies of auditory sensitivity in marine mammals generally rely on behavioral psychophysical methodologies. While these studies are the standard for hearing assessment in marine mammals, data are limited to only a few individuals representing a small proportion of species. Accumulating research on dolphin auditory physiology has resulted in the refinement of electrophysiological methods appropriate for odontocete cetaceans and an increase in available audiometric information. Electrophysiological methods have also been used with pinnipeds, but there are significant gaps in our understanding of pinniped auditory physiology that must be addressed before such appoaches can be broadly applied to investigations of pinniped hearing. We are taking a bottom-up approach to developing suitable methods for evoked potential audiometry in pinnipeds, including technology transfer from studies of cetaceans and other mammals, mapping of response amplitude with respect to recording positions on the skull, characterization of responses in relationship to various stimulus types and presentation parameters, and determination of whether useful frequency-specific data can be reliably obtained using electrophysiological methods. This approach is being taken with representative pinniped species including California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) using both training and chemical immobilization techniques. [Work supported by NOPP.

  15. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  16. Clinicoimmunopathologic findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Romano, Tracy A; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Schaefer, Adam; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli D; Rice, Charles D; Fair, Patricia A; Cray, Carolyn; Reif, John S

    2014-02-01

    Sera from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and coastal waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, were tested for antibodies to Chlamydiaceae as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. A suite of clinicoimmunopathologic variables was evaluated in Chlamydiaceae-seropositive dolphins (n = 43) and seronegative healthy dolphins (n = 83). Fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, and absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and basophils were significantly higher, and serum bicarbonate, total alpha globulin, and alpha-2 globulin were significantly lower in dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae titers compared with seronegative healthy dolphins. Several differences in markers of innate and adaptive immunity were also found. Concanavalin A-induced T lymphocyte proliferation, lipopolysaccharide-induced B lymphocyte proliferation, and granulocytic phagocytosis were significantly lower, and absolute numbers of mature CD 21 B lymphocytes, natural killer cell activity and lysozyme concentration were significantly higher in dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers compared to seronegative healthy dolphins. Additionally, dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers had significant increases in ELISA antibody titers to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. These data suggest that Chlamydiaceae infection may produce subclinical clinicoimmunopathologic perturbations that impact health. Any potential subclinical health impacts are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, as past studies have indicated that both dolphin populations are affected by other complex infectious and neoplastic diseases, often associated with immunologic perturbations and anthropogenic contaminants. PMID:24492056

  17. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  18. Clinicoimmunopathologic findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Romano, Tracy A; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Schaefer, Adam; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli D; Rice, Charles D; Fair, Patricia A; Cray, Carolyn; Reif, John S

    2014-02-01

    Sera from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and coastal waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, were tested for antibodies to Chlamydiaceae as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. A suite of clinicoimmunopathologic variables was evaluated in Chlamydiaceae-seropositive dolphins (n = 43) and seronegative healthy dolphins (n = 83). Fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, and absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and basophils were significantly higher, and serum bicarbonate, total alpha globulin, and alpha-2 globulin were significantly lower in dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae titers compared with seronegative healthy dolphins. Several differences in markers of innate and adaptive immunity were also found. Concanavalin A-induced T lymphocyte proliferation, lipopolysaccharide-induced B lymphocyte proliferation, and granulocytic phagocytosis were significantly lower, and absolute numbers of mature CD 21 B lymphocytes, natural killer cell activity and lysozyme concentration were significantly higher in dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers compared to seronegative healthy dolphins. Additionally, dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers had significant increases in ELISA antibody titers to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. These data suggest that Chlamydiaceae infection may produce subclinical clinicoimmunopathologic perturbations that impact health. Any potential subclinical health impacts are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, as past studies have indicated that both dolphin populations are affected by other complex infectious and neoplastic diseases, often associated with immunologic perturbations and anthropogenic contaminants.

  19. Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term social memory is important, because it is an ecologically relevant test of cognitive capacity, it helps us understand which social relationships are remembered and it relates two seemingly disparate disciplines: cognition and sociality. For dolphins, long-term memory for conspecifics could help assess social threats as well as potential social or hunting alliances in a very fluid and complex fission–fusion social system, yet we have no idea how long dolphins can remember each other. Through a playback study conducted within a multi-institution dolphin breeding consortium (where animals are moved between different facilities), recognition of unfamiliar versus familiar signature whistles of former tank mates was assessed. This research shows that dolphins have the potential for lifelong memory for each other regardless of relatedness, sex or duration of association. This is, to my knowledge, the first study to show that social recognition can last for at least 20 years in a non-human species and the first large-scale study to address long-term memory in a cetacean. These results, paired with evidence from elephants and humans, provide suggestive evidence that sociality and cognition could be related, as a good memory is necessary in a fluid social system. PMID:23926160

  20. Pioneer Black Woman Superintendent: Velma Dolphin Ashley, 1944-1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revere, Amie B.

    1989-01-01

    This article profiles Velma Dolphin Ashley, a Black woman educator who served as superintendent of schools in Boley (Oklahoma) from 1944 to 1956. During her superintendency, Ashley was responsible for instructional activities in a correctional institution for delinquent Black youth, as well as for administering the all-Black school district. (AF)

  1. Assistive Technology and Dolphin Therapy: A Wonderful Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eli; Thomasson, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    Madison is a four-year-old child who was born with cerebral palsy and cortical vision impairment. As a result, she has limited use of her extremities and is just starting to walk with assistance. She is predominately non-verbal, with the exception of a few words. This article describes how Island Dolphin Care (IDC), a nonprofit agency in Key…

  2. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys > 90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antib...

  3. Dolphin Morbillivirus Infection in a Captive Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds. PMID:23224101

  4. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fishery management council demarcation line between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico (as... Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico (as described in § 600.105 of this title). Southern North Carolina... serious injury of stocks of bottlenose dolphins within the Western North Atlantic coastal morphotype...

  5. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... management council demarcation line between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico (as described in § 600... injury of the western North Atlantic coastal bottlenose dolphin stock in specific Category I and Category... Carolina border at the coast) and the fishery management council demarcation line between the...

  6. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fishery management council demarcation line between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico (as... Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico (as described in § 600.105 of this title). Southern North Carolina... serious injury of stocks of bottlenose dolphins within the Western North Atlantic coastal morphotype...

  7. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management council demarcation line between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico (as described in § 600... injury of the western North Atlantic coastal bottlenose dolphin stock in specific Category I and Category... Carolina border at the coast) and the fishery management council demarcation line between the...

  8. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... management council demarcation line between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico (as described in § 600... injury of the western North Atlantic coastal bottlenose dolphin stock in specific Category I and Category... Carolina border at the coast) and the fishery management council demarcation line between the...

  9. A string matching computer-assisted system for dolphin photoidentification.

    PubMed

    Araabi, B N; Kehtarnavaz, N; McKinney, T; Hillman, G; Würsig, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a syntactic/semantic string representation scheme as well as a string matching method as part of a computer-assisted system to identify dolphins from photographs of their dorsal fins. A low-level string representation is constructed from the curvature function of a dolphin's fin trailing edge, consisting of positive and negative curvature primitives. A high-level string representation is then built over the low-level string via merging appropriate groupings of primitives in order to have a less sensitive representation to curvature fluctuations or noise. A family of syntactic/semantic distance measures between two strings is introduced. A composite distance measure is then defined and used as a dissimilarity measure for database search, highlighting both the syntax (structure or sequence) and semantic (attribute or feature) differences. The syntax consists of an ordered sequence of significant protrusions and intrusions on the edge, while the semantics consist of seven attributes extracted from the edge and its curvature function. The matching results are reported for a database of 624 images corresponding to 164 individual dolphins. The identification results indicate that the developed string matching method performs better than the previous matching methods including dorsal ratio, curvature, and curve matching. The developed computer-assisted system can help marine mammalogists in their identification of dolphins, since it allows them to examine only a handful of candidate images instead of the currently used manual searching of the entire database. PMID:11144987

  10. Identification and Expression Profiles of microRNA in Dolphin.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Takao; Kobayashi, Yuki; Inamoto, Satoko; Suzuki, Miwa; Endoh, Tomoko; Itou, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are focused on the role of biomarker because they are stable in serum and plasma, and some of them express in the specific organs and increase with the organ injury. Thus miRNAs may be very useful as biomarkers for monitoring the health and condition of dolphins and for detecting disorders in aquariums. Here, a small RNA library was made from dolphin lung, liver and spleen, and miRNA expression patterns were then determined for 15 different tissues. We identified 62 conserved miRNA homologs in the dolphin small RNA library and found high expression miRNAs in specific tissues: miR-125b and miR-221 were highly expressed in brain, miR-23b in heart, miR-199a and miR-223 in lung, and miR-122-5p in liver. Some of these tissue-enriched miRNAs may be useful as specific and sensitive diagnostic blood biomarkers for organ injury in dolphins.

  11. Epidermal growth in the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.D.; St. Aubin, D.J.; Geraci, J.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1985-07-01

    Epidermal growth in two mature female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, was investigated by following the movement of a cohort of tritiated thymidine-labeled epidermal cells for 59 days. The majority of the cells migrated in a cluster which was estimated to reach the skin surface in 73 days. The authors calculate that the outermost cell layer is sloughed 12 times per day. Turnover time and sloughing rate are estimated to be 1.7 times longer and 8.5 times faster than the respective values for epidermal cell kinetics in humans. This apparent inconsistency of slow transit time and rapid sloughing rate is reconciled by the convoluted structure of the stratum germinativum in the dolphin which results in a ratio of germinatival to superficial cells of 876:1. The stratum germinativum of dolphin epidermis appears to lack morphologically distinct, spatially segregated subpopulations of anchoring and stem cells. Dolphin epidermis has a large capacity for cell population, relatively long turnover time, and rapid sloughing rate. The adaptive advantages of these characteristics are discussed.

  12. Sporotrichosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    PubMed

    Migaki, G; Font, R L; Kaplan, W; Asper, E D

    1978-12-01

    A severe necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by Sporothrix schenckii was diagnosed in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) that had been in captivity for about 3 years. Histopathologic and electron microscopic studies, as well as fluorescent antibody techniques, were used to identify S schenckii as the etiologic agent. PMID:749575

  13. Identification and Expression Profiles of microRNA in Dolphin.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Takao; Kobayashi, Yuki; Inamoto, Satoko; Suzuki, Miwa; Endoh, Tomoko; Itou, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are focused on the role of biomarker because they are stable in serum and plasma, and some of them express in the specific organs and increase with the organ injury. Thus miRNAs may be very useful as biomarkers for monitoring the health and condition of dolphins and for detecting disorders in aquariums. Here, a small RNA library was made from dolphin lung, liver and spleen, and miRNA expression patterns were then determined for 15 different tissues. We identified 62 conserved miRNA homologs in the dolphin small RNA library and found high expression miRNAs in specific tissues: miR-125b and miR-221 were highly expressed in brain, miR-23b in heart, miR-199a and miR-223 in lung, and miR-122-5p in liver. Some of these tissue-enriched miRNAs may be useful as specific and sensitive diagnostic blood biomarkers for organ injury in dolphins. PMID:26853874

  14. Fetal echocardiographic evaluation of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Sklansky, Mark; Renner, Michael; Clough, Patricia; Levine, Gregg; Campbell, Michelle; Stone, Rae; Schmitt, Todd; Chang, Ruey-Kang; Shannon-Rodriguez, Jayne

    2010-03-01

    In humans, fetal echocardiography represents the most important tool for the assessment of the cardiovascular well-being of the fetus. However, because of logistic, anatomic, and behavioral challenges, detailed fetal echocardiographic evaluation of marine mammals has not been previously described. Because the application of fetal echocardiography to cetaceans could have both clinical and academic importance, an approach to evaluating the fetal dolphin's cardiovascular status was developed with conventional, fetal echocardiographic techniques developed in humans. Eight singleton fetal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were evaluated, each between 6 and 11 mo gestation; six fetuses underwent two fetal echocardiographic evaluations each, four at 3-mo intervals, and two at 0.5-mo intervals. Evaluations were performed without sedation, using conventional, portable ultrasound systems. Multiple transducers, probes, and maternal dolphin positions were used to optimize image quality. Fetal echocardiography included two-dimensional imaging and color flow mapping of the heart and great arteries, as well as pulsed Doppler evaluation of the umbilical artery and vein. Thorough evaluations of the fetal dolphins' cardiovascular status were performed, with the greatest resolution between 8 and 9 mo gestation. With the use of published human fetal echocardiographic findings for comparison, fetal echocardiography demonstrated normal structure and function of the heart and great arteries, including the pulmonary veins, inferior vena cava, right and left atria, foramen ovale, tricuspid and mitral valves, right and left ventricles, ventricular septum, pulmonary and aortic valves, main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta, and ductus arteriosus. Pulsed Doppler techniques demonstrated normal umbilical arterial and venous waveforms, and color flow mapping demonstrated absence of significant valvar regurgitation. Fetal echocardiography, particularly between 8 and 9 mo gestation, can

  15. Comparison of sonar discrimination: dolphin and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Au, W W

    1994-05-01

    The capability of an echolocating dolphin to discriminate differences in the wall thickness of cylinders (3.81 cm o.d. and 12.7 cm length) was determined by Au and Pawloski [J. Comp. Physiol. A 170, 41-47 (1992)]. The dolphin was required to discriminate a standard target from comparison targets of differing wall thicknesses. Performance varied from 96% to 56% correct depending on the wall thickness of the comparison targets. The 75% correct threshold was determined to be wall thickness differences of -0.23 mm for comparison targets with thinner walls and +0.27 mm for comparison targets with thicker walls than the standard. The dolphin performance was unchanged in the presence of artificial broadband masking noise until the echo-energy-to-noise ratio fell below approximately 15 dB. A counterpropagation artificial neural network was used to examine broadband echo features from the same cylinders. Features of the echoes were determined by passing them through a filter bank of constant-Q filters. Echo features of the standard and each comparison target were analyzed in pairs by a neural network having two output nodes. Twenty echoes per target were used in the training set and 30 additional echoes per target were used in the test set. For the noise free condition, the network performed at a comparable level to the dolphin for Q values between 4 and 5. In the presence of noise, Q values between 7 and 8 were needed before the network could perform at a comparable level to the dolphin for echo-energy-to-noise ratios of 10 and 15 dB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Comparison of sonar discrimination: dolphin and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Au, W W

    1994-05-01

    The capability of an echolocating dolphin to discriminate differences in the wall thickness of cylinders (3.81 cm o.d. and 12.7 cm length) was determined by Au and Pawloski [J. Comp. Physiol. A 170, 41-47 (1992)]. The dolphin was required to discriminate a standard target from comparison targets of differing wall thicknesses. Performance varied from 96% to 56% correct depending on the wall thickness of the comparison targets. The 75% correct threshold was determined to be wall thickness differences of -0.23 mm for comparison targets with thinner walls and +0.27 mm for comparison targets with thicker walls than the standard. The dolphin performance was unchanged in the presence of artificial broadband masking noise until the echo-energy-to-noise ratio fell below approximately 15 dB. A counterpropagation artificial neural network was used to examine broadband echo features from the same cylinders. Features of the echoes were determined by passing them through a filter bank of constant-Q filters. Echo features of the standard and each comparison target were analyzed in pairs by a neural network having two output nodes. Twenty echoes per target were used in the training set and 30 additional echoes per target were used in the test set. For the noise free condition, the network performed at a comparable level to the dolphin for Q values between 4 and 5. In the presence of noise, Q values between 7 and 8 were needed before the network could perform at a comparable level to the dolphin for echo-energy-to-noise ratios of 10 and 15 dB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8207144

  17. Bottlenosed dolphin and human recognition of veridical and degraded video displays of an artificial gestural language.

    PubMed

    Herman, L M; Morrel-Samuels, P; Pack, A A

    1990-06-01

    2 bottlenosed dolphins proficient in interpreting gesture language signs viewed veridical and degraded gestures via TV without explicit training. In Exp. 1, dolphins immediately understood most gestures: Performance was high throughout degradations successively obscuring the head, torso, arms, and fingers, though deficits occurred for gestures degraded to a point-light display (PLD) of the signer's hands. In Exp. 2, humans of varying gestural fluency saw the PLD and veridical gestures from Exp. 1. Again, performance declined in the PLD condition. Though the dolphin recognized gestures as accurately as fluent humans, effects of the gesture's formational properties were not identical for humans and dolphin. Results suggest that the dolphin uses a network of semantic and gestural representations, that bottom-up processing predominates when the dolphin's short-term memory is taxed, and that recognition is affected by variables germane to grammatical category, short-term memory, and visual perception.

  18. Changes in whistle structure of resident bottlenose dolphins in relation to underwater noise and boat traffic.

    PubMed

    Gospić, Nikolina Rako; Picciulin, Marta

    2016-04-15

    The habitat of the resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago overlaps with routes of intense boat traffic. Within these waters, Sea Ambient Noise (SAN) was sampled across ten acoustic stations between 2007 and 2009. Data on boat presence was concurrently collected and when dolphins were sighted group behaviour was also recorded. Acoustic recordings were analysed for 1/3 octave bands. Samples containing dolphin whistles were analysed and compared with boat presence and SAN levels. Results indicate that dolphins whistle at higher frequencies in conditions of elevated low frequency noise. Conversely, they reduce maximum, delta and start frequencies and frequency modulations when noise levels increase significantly across higher frequencies. The study shows that high levels of SAN causes significant changes in the acoustic structure of dolphin whistles. Additionally, changes in whistle parameters, in the presence of boats, appear to be related to the behavioural state of the dolphin group.

  19. Changes in whistle structure of resident bottlenose dolphins in relation to underwater noise and boat traffic.

    PubMed

    Gospić, Nikolina Rako; Picciulin, Marta

    2016-04-15

    The habitat of the resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago overlaps with routes of intense boat traffic. Within these waters, Sea Ambient Noise (SAN) was sampled across ten acoustic stations between 2007 and 2009. Data on boat presence was concurrently collected and when dolphins were sighted group behaviour was also recorded. Acoustic recordings were analysed for 1/3 octave bands. Samples containing dolphin whistles were analysed and compared with boat presence and SAN levels. Results indicate that dolphins whistle at higher frequencies in conditions of elevated low frequency noise. Conversely, they reduce maximum, delta and start frequencies and frequency modulations when noise levels increase significantly across higher frequencies. The study shows that high levels of SAN causes significant changes in the acoustic structure of dolphin whistles. Additionally, changes in whistle parameters, in the presence of boats, appear to be related to the behavioural state of the dolphin group. PMID:26917094

  20. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is noise-induced hearing ... additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound in our environment, ...

  1. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance.

    PubMed

    Bejder, Lars; Samuels, Amy; Whitehead, Hal; Gales, Nick; Mann, Janet; Connor, Richard; Heithaus, Mike; Watson-Capps, Jana; Flaherty, Cindy; Krützen, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Studies evaluating effects of human activity on wildlife typically emphasize short-term behavioral responses from which it is difficult to infer biological significance or formulate plans to mitigate harmful impacts. Based on decades of detailed behavioral records, we evaluated long-term impacts of vessel activity on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Australia. We compared dolphin abundance within adjacent 36-km2 tourism and control sites, over three consecutive 4.5-year periods wherein research activity was relatively constant but tourism levels increased from zero, to one, to two dolphin-watching operators. A nonlinear logistic model demonstrated that there was no difference in dolphin abundance between periods with no tourism and periods in which one operator offered tours. As the number of tour operators increased to two, there was a significant average decline in dolphin abundance (14.9%; 95% CI=-20.8 to -8.23), approximating a decline of one per seven individuals. Concurrently, within the control site, the average increase in dolphin abundance was not significant (8.5%; 95% CI=-4.0 to +16.7). Given the substantially greater presence and proximity of tour vessels to dolphins relative to research vessels, tour-vessel activity contributed more to declining dolphin numbers within the tourism site than research vessels. Although this trend may not jeopardize the large, genetically diverse dolphin population of Shark Bay, the decline is unlikely to be sustainable for local dolphin tourism. A similar decline would be devastating for small, closed, resident, or endangered cetacean populations. The substantial effect of tour vessels on dolphin abundance in a region of low-level tourism calls into question the presumption that dolphin-watching tourism is benign.

  2. Humpback Dolphins (Genus Sousa) in India: An Overview of Status and Conservation Issues.

    PubMed

    Sutaria, Dipani; Panicker, Divya; Jog, Ketki; Sule, Mihir; Muralidharan, Rahul; Bopardikar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to collate recent work done by different research teams along the Indian coast and presents research plans for the conservation and management of the genus Sousa in Indian waters. Humpback dolphins are the most common nearshore cetaceans found along the Indian coast. The taxonomy is confused, but two or more species of humpback dolphins may be present in India. Dedicated research on humpback dolphins and other cetaceans has been initiated only in the past few years and vast gaps in the ecology and conservation of the genus from the region remain. Dedicated and opportunistic research indicates that humpback dolphin presence is continuous along the west coast of India, owing to the contiguous favourable habitat of shallow nearshore waters, while along the east coast humpback dolphins are apparently found in pockets. Humpback dolphins are also the most numerous in incidental catch records from the coast, owing to the large overlap in space use with nearshore fisheries like small gillnets, trawls, shore seines and purse seines. Along many coastal sites, humpback dolphins are known to cause damage and depredation of fish catch of certain fishing gears, making them unpopular. At the same time, many fishers along the west coast have developed local dolphin-watching programmes as an alternate source of livelihood, providing positive impetus for conservation. However, research on the long-term effects of dolphin watching and its management is required. Some recommendations for more effective management of this species are made.

  3. Measurement of hydrodynamic force generation by swimming dolphins using bubble DPIV.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E; Legac, Paul; Williams, Terrie M; Wei, Timothy

    2014-01-15

    Attempts to measure the propulsive forces produced by swimming dolphins have been limited. Previous uses of computational hydrodynamic models and gliding experiments have provided estimates of thrust production by dolphins, but these were indirect tests that relied on various assumptions. The thrust produced by two actively swimming bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was directly measured using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). For dolphins swimming in a large outdoor pool, the DPIV method used illuminated microbubbles that were generated in a narrow sheet from a finely porous hose and a compressed air source. The movement of the bubbles was tracked with a high-speed video camera. Dolphins swam at speeds of 0.7 to 3.4 m s(-1) within the bubble sheet oriented along the midsagittal plane of the animal. The wake of the dolphin was visualized as the microbubbles were displaced because of the action of the propulsive flukes and jet flow. The oscillations of the dolphin flukes were shown to generate strong vortices in the wake. Thrust production was measured from the vortex strength through the Kutta-Joukowski theorem of aerodynamics. The dolphins generated up to 700 N during small amplitude swimming and up to 1468 N during large amplitude starts. The results of this study demonstrated that bubble DPIV can be used effectively to measure the thrust produced by large-bodied dolphins.

  4. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  5. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013.

    PubMed

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C Scott

    2015-05-01

    The 'drive hunting' of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 'bottlenose' dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  6. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013.

    PubMed

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C Scott

    2015-05-01

    The 'drive hunting' of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 'bottlenose' dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations.

  7. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  8. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The ‘drive hunting’ of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 ‘bottlenose’ dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  9. The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Eric M; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  10. Dolphin underwater bait-balling behaviors in relation to group and prey ball sizes.

    PubMed

    Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin L; Muzi, Elisa; Richardson, Jessica L; Fox, Gabriella J; Hansen, Lauren N; Salley, Alyce M; Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Würsig, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    We characterized dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) feeding behaviors recorded on underwater video, and related behaviors to variation in prey ball sizes, dolphin group sizes, and study site (Argentina versus New Zealand, NZ). Herding behaviors most often involved dolphins swimming around the side or under prey balls, but dolphins in Argentina more often swam under prey balls (48% of passes) than did dolphins in NZ (34% of passes). This result may have been due to differences in group sizes between sites, since groups are larger in Argentina. Additionally, in NZ, group size was positively correlated with proportion of passes that occurred under prey balls (p<0.001). Prey-capture attempts most often involved capturing fish from the side of prey balls, but dolphins in Argentina more often swam through prey balls (8% of attempts) than did dolphins in NZ (4% of attempts). This result may have been due to differences in prey ball sizes between sites, since dolphins fed on larger prey balls in Argentina (>74m(2)) than in NZ (maximum 33m(2)). Additionally, in NZ, dolphins were more likely to swim through prey balls to capture fish when they fed on larger prey balls (p=0.025).

  11. Cognitive enrichment for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evaluation of a novel underwater maze device.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Davies, Samuel L; Madigan, Andrew W; Warner, Abby J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enrichment is gaining popularity as a tool to enhance captive animal well-being, but research on captive cetaceans is lacking. Dolphin cognition has been studied intensively since the 1950s, and several hundred bottlenose dolphins are housed in major zoos and aquaria worldwide, but most dolphin enrichment consists of simple floating objects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel, underwater maze device (UMD) was cognitively enriching for one group of male and one group of female dolphins at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, CA. The dolphin's task was to navigate a rubber ball through a maze of pipes, towards an exit pipe. We also tested a modification where an edible gelatine ball fell into the pool once the UMD was solved. The UMD was provided to each group between 8 and 11 times over a 4-week period. Male dolphins used the UMD without prior training, whereas females did not use the UMD at all. Two male dolphins solved the UMD 17 times, using a variety of problem-solving strategies. The UMD had no significant effect on circular (repetitive) swimming patterns, but males spent significantly more time underwater when the UMD was present. Males used the UMD significantly more when it contained the rubber ball, but the gelatine ball stimulated social play. The UMD is a safe and practical device for captive dolphins. It now requires further testing on other dolphins, particularly females, to in order to examine whether the sex differences we observed are a general phenomenon.

  12. Can bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) cooperate when solving a novel task?

    PubMed

    Kuczaj, Stan A; Winship, Kelley A; Eskelinen, Holli C

    2015-03-01

    Cooperative behavior has been observed in cetacean species in a variety of situations, including foraging, mate acquisition, play, and epimeletic behavior. However, it has proven difficult to demonstrate cooperative behavior among dolphins in more controlled settings. Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in this study were exposed to a task that could most easily be solved if dolphins cooperated. Six dolphins were provided opportunities to solve the task and had to learn to do so without human intervention or training. Two adult males consistently and spontaneously jointly interacted in order to most efficiently open a container that contained fish by pulling on ropes at the ends of the container. Their interaction was viewed as cooperative because each dolphin pulled on their respective ropes in the opposite direction, which resulted in one end of the container opening. The dolphins did not show aggression toward one another while solving the task, and both dolphins consumed the food after the container was opened. They also engaged in synchronous non-aggressive behaviors with the container after the food had been consumed. It is possible that some of the remaining four dolphins would have cooperated, but the two successful dolphins were dominant males and their interest in the apparatus appeared to preclude other animals from participating.

  13. Captive-born intergeneric hybrid of a Guiana and bottlenose dolphin: Sotalia guianensis x Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Caballero, S; Baker, C S

    2010-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) live in sympatry along the Caribbean Coast of Central and South America and social interactions between these species have been described in the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica, including sexual encounters. Here we examine and document the only known hybridization event between a male Guiana dolphin and a female bottlenose dolphin, in captivity at Oceanario Islas del Rosario (Colombian Caribbean), using photographic and genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA markers and nuclear autosomal introns. PMID:20033990

  14. The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Eric M.; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By ‘sponge foraging’ ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  15. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  16. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... family, including dad Bob, have adapted to her hearing impairment. Photo courtesy of Stefan Radtke, www.stefanradtke. ...

  17. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  18. Can Baby Hear?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 children born in the United States are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Research shows that early ... to this, the average age of identification for deaf and hearing impaired children was close to three ...

  19. Genes and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  20. Hearing Disorders and Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... impossible, to hear. They can often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. ... certain medicines, and surgery. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  1. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (<30m), coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific oceans. Abundance and trends have only been studied in a few areas, mostly in eastern Africa, China, and northern Australia. No global, empirically derived abundance estimates exist for any of the four species, but none appear to number more than about 20,000 individuals. Humpback dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are

  2. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (<30m), coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific oceans. Abundance and trends have only been studied in a few areas, mostly in eastern Africa, China, and northern Australia. No global, empirically derived abundance estimates exist for any of the four species, but none appear to number more than about 20,000 individuals. Humpback dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are

  3. The Hearing Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbon, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An examination of the hearing mechanism and some of the factors involved in helping problems may offer encouragement for a regular schedule of hearing maintenance. It may also help music educators to become more aware and understanding of their own and students' hearing as it affects musical behavior. (Author)

  4. Hearing Conservation Medical Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

  5. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  6. Deafness and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

  7. Implementing Hearing Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliffe, Roger

    1978-01-01

    Hearing damage from noise exposure and approaches to implementing hearing safety in school industrial laboratories through noise reduction and protective equipment are discussed. Although all states have not adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Act, teachers should be aware of noise hazards and act to protect hearing. (MF)

  8. Rehabilitation of Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Rehabilitation of hearing is considered in five conference papers. Two papers come from Poland: "Rehabilitation of Hearing in Children 'Deaf' in First 5 Years of Age" by D. Borkowska-Gaertig and others and "Possibilities of Hearing Improvement in Adults with Conservative Methods" by T. Bystrzanowska. Also included are "Re-Education and…

  9. Hearing Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... before they are a month old. If your child has a hearing loss, it is important to consider the use of hearing devices and other communication options by age 6 months. That's because children start learning speech and language long before they talk. Hearing ...

  10. Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2002-01-01

    The relative contributions of acoustic pressure and particle velocity to the low-frequency, underwater hearing abilities of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) were investigated by measuring (masked) hearing thresholds while manipulating the relationship between the pressure and velocity. This was accomplished by varying the distance within the near field of a single underwater sound projector (experiment I) and using two underwater sound projectors and an active sound control system (experiment II). The results of experiment I showed no significant change in pressure thresholds as the distance between the subject and the sound source was changed. In contrast, velocity thresholds tended to increase and intensity thresholds tended to decrease as the source distance decreased. These data suggest that acoustic pressure is a better indicator of threshold, compared to particle velocity or mean active intensity, in the subjects tested. Interpretation of the results of experiment II (the active sound control system) was difficult because of complex acoustic conditions and the unknown effects of the subject on the generated acoustic field; however, these data also tend to support the results of experiment I and suggest that odontocete thresholds should be reported in units of acoustic pressure, rather than intensity.

  11. Effect of bovine lactoferrin on the immune responses of captive bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) being transported over long distances.

    PubMed

    Noda, K; Aoki, M; Akiyoshi, H; Asaki, H; Ogata, T; Yamauchi, K; Shimada, T; Ohashi, F

    Bovine lactoferrin was administered orally, in feed, to six bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) before they were transported for approximately six hours; their stress responses were compared with those of five untreated dolphins. During the journey the dolphins had an increased plasma concentration of cortisol, and lymphopenia, eosinopenia and mild neutrophilia, indicating a stress response. The administration of lactoferrin did not affect the function of the dolphins' polymorphonuclear leucocytes, but affected their leucogram by maintaining the number of circulating eosinophils.

  12. Habitat use by a freshwater dolphin in the low-water season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braulik, Gill T.; Reichert, Albert P.; Ehsan, Tahir; Khan, Samiullah; Northridge, Simon P.; Alexander, Jason S.; Garstang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    1. Many river dolphin populations are most vulnerable during the low-water season when habitat is limited. Indus River dolphin habitat selection in the dry season was investigated using Generalized Linear Models of dolphin distribution and abundance in relation to physical features of river geomorphology and channel geometry in cross-section. 2. Dolphins selected locations in the river with significantly greater mean depth, maximum depth, cross-sectional area, and hydraulic radius, and significantly narrower river width and a lower degree of braiding than areas where dolphins were absent. They were also recorded with higher frequency at river constrictions and at confluences. 3. Channel cross-sectional area was the most important factor affecting dolphin presence and abundance, with the area of water below 1 m in depth exerting the greatest influence. Indus dolphins avoided channels with small cross-sectional area (2), presumably owing to the risk of entrapment and reduced foraging opportunities. 4. Channel geometry had a greater ability to explain dolphin distribution than river geomorphology; however, both analyses indicated similar types of habitat selection. The dolphin–habitat relationships identified in the river geomorphology analysis were scale-dependent, indicating that dolphin distribution is driven by the occurrence of discrete small-scale features, such as confluences and constrictions, as well as by broader-scale habitat complexes. 5. There are numerous plans to impound or extract more water from the Indus River system. If low-water season flows are allowed to decrease further, the amount of deeper habitat will decline, there may be insufficient patches of suitable habitat to support the dolphin population through the low-water season, and dolphins may become isolated within deeper river sections, unable or unwilling to traverse through shallows between favourable patches of habitat.

  13. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency. PMID:21840077

  14. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency.

  15. Propulsive efficiency of the underwater dolphin kick in humans.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Fish, Frank; Mark, Russell

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensional fully unsteady computational fluid dynamic simulations of five Olympic-level swimmers performing the underwater dolphin kick are used to estimate the swimmer's propulsive efficiencies. These estimates are compared with those of a cetacean performing the dolphin kick. The geometries of the swimmers and the cetacean are based on laser and CT scans, respectively, and the stroke kinematics is based on underwater video footage. The simulations indicate that the propulsive efficiency for human swimmers varies over a relatively wide range from about 11% to 29%. The efficiency of the cetacean is found to be about 56%, which is significantly higher than the human swimmers. The computed efficiency is found not to correlate with either the slender body theory or with the Strouhal number.

  16. Propulsive efficiency of the underwater dolphin kick in humans.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Fish, Frank; Mark, Russell

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensional fully unsteady computational fluid dynamic simulations of five Olympic-level swimmers performing the underwater dolphin kick are used to estimate the swimmer's propulsive efficiencies. These estimates are compared with those of a cetacean performing the dolphin kick. The geometries of the swimmers and the cetacean are based on laser and CT scans, respectively, and the stroke kinematics is based on underwater video footage. The simulations indicate that the propulsive efficiency for human swimmers varies over a relatively wide range from about 11% to 29%. The efficiency of the cetacean is found to be about 56%, which is significantly higher than the human swimmers. The computed efficiency is found not to correlate with either the slender body theory or with the Strouhal number. PMID:19388788

  17. Seasonal changes of blood composition in captive bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Fumio; Kitamura, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Asami; Hayama, Shin-ichi

    2002-11-01

    To determine how blood values in bottlenose dolphins changed during the year, 504 blood samples were taken from 9 dolphins from 1991 to 1999 and clinical blood examinations were undertaken monthly including 3 hematological and 19 serum chemistry tests. In creatinine, significant seasonal changes were found among three groups of adult males, adult females and juveniles, and the average values in summer were 15-38% higher than those in winter. In two out of three groups the average total cholesterol value were highest in winter, and the lowest of all groups were in summer. In two other groups the peaks of average FFA value were recorded in summer, and the lows were in winter. PMID:12499700

  18. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  19. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  20. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A gray and a white pelican glide down to the water near a dolphin and cormorant in the turn basin to search for a meal in the fish- teeming water. Sea gulls also approach. The turn basin, which is east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

  1. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Next to them on a rock is an osprey eating a fish. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth. Nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The lagoon also has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America.

  2. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth. Nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally.

  3. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and one of several dolphins looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  4. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  5. Tetraphyllidean cysticerci in the peritoneal cavity of the common dolphin.

    PubMed

    Norman, R J

    1997-10-01

    Cysticerci of the cestodes Monorygma grimaldii and Phyllobothrium delphini were encountered during necropsy of an adult common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) found dead on the southeastern coast of Australia. Monorygma grimaldii cysticerci were found within highly organized retroperitoneal cysts, whereas P. delphini cysticerci in the subcutaneous blubber did not occupy specialized structures. There was a localized lymphoplasmacytic host response to the presence of cysticerci of both species, but M. grimaldii provoked a more severe suppurative response than P. delphini. The systematics and life history of both parasites are incompletely known, but sharks postulated as the potential definitive hosts are found in the region. A unique cysticercus of M. grimaldii was found lying free in the peritoneal cavity of this dolphin. Two rare records of M. grimaldii cysticerci in pinnipeds from the literature include one case of aberrant migration to the testis.

  6. 78 FR 20604 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Information Act (DPCIA) to enhance the requirements for documentation to support labels on tuna products that... to dolphin-safe and non-dolphin-safe tuna ] on board fishing vessels; create new requirements...

  7. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  8. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  9. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  10. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  11. Neonatal hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Margaret A

    2003-04-01

    Neonatal hearing screening can be performed using reliable and reproducible methods. Intervention before the age of 6 months with hearing aids and appropriate educational support services will give the infant the best possible opportunity to develop language. Potential barriers to efficient implementation of a neonatal hearing screening program include access to appropriate and timely diagnostic and support services and insurance to cover the services. Without universal neonatal hearing screening, many children with hearing loss will be missed, which will have a direct negative impact on their speech, language, educational, and social development. PMID:12809324

  12. Multiple populations of pantropical spotted dolphins in Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Courbis, Sarah; Baird, Robin W; Cipriano, Frank; Duffield, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Understanding gene flow and dispersal patterns is important for predicting effects of natural events and anthropogenic activities on animal populations. In Hawaii, most species of odontocetes are managed as single populations. Recent exceptions include false killer whales, spinner dolphins, and common bottlenose dolphins, for which studies have shown fidelity to individual islands or groups of islands. Our study focused on pantropical spotted dolphins. We analyzed mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci from 101 individuals from 4 areas: Hawaii, Maui/Lanai, Oahu, and Kauai/Niihau. We examined F ST, F' ST, R ST, Jost's D, and ΦST and used TESS to estimate number of populations and assignment probabilities. Our results support genetic differentiation among Hawaii, Maui/Lanai, and Oahu and suggest that pantropical spotted dolphins near Kauai/Niihau are likely transient and in low numbers. Between island regions, F ST for microsatellites ranged from 0.016 to 0.045 and for mtDNA, from 0.011 to 0.282. F ' ST, ranged from 0.098 to 0.262 for microsatellites and 0.019 to 0.415 for mtDNA. R ST and ΦST showed similar results to F ST for microsatellites and mtDNA respectively, and Jost's D fell between F ST and F ' ST. TESS supported 3 populations, and greatest mean assignment probability by island region ranged from 0.50 to 0.72. The private alleles method indicated migration rates among regions from 1.49 to 3.45, and effective population size of the island of Hawaii was estimated to be 220. There was no strong evidence to support sex-biased dispersal or group fidelity. Considering this study in the larger context of other odontocete population studies and studies of connectivity, we suggest genetic differentiation may be mediated by behavior adapted to differing habitat types and niches. PMID:25124812

  13. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fair, P A; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G; Kwok, O C H; McFee, W E; Majumdar, D; Su, C

    2008-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys, >90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the present study, attempts were made to isolate T. gondii from dead T. truncatus. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, serum or blood clot, and tissues (brain, heart, skeletal muscle) of 52 T. truncatus stranded on the coasts of South Carolina were tested for T. gondii. Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) were found in 26 (53%) of 49 dolphins; serum was not available from 3 animals. Tissues (heart, muscle, and sometimes brain) of 32 dolphins (26 seropositive, 3 seronegative, and 3 without accompanying sera) were bioassayed for T. gondii in mice, or cats, or both. Tissues of the recipient mice were examined for T. gondii stages. Feces of recipient cats were examined for shedding of T. gondii oocysts, but none excreted oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from hearts of the 3 dolphins (2 with MAT titers of 1:200, and 1 without accompanied serum) by bioassay in mice. Genotyping of these 3 T. gondii isolates (designated TgDoUs1-3) with the use of 10 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) revealed 2 genotypes. Two of the 3 isolates have Type II alleles at all loci and belong to the clonal Type II lineage. One isolate has a unique genotype. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from T. truncatus. PMID:18576793

  14. Human infection due to Mycobacterium marinum after a dolphin bite

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, D. J.

    1970-01-01

    A young man employed at the local aquarium was bitten by a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) during a training session, receiving a slight injury which healed rapidly. Some two months later fluctuant swellings appeared in the region of the bite, which developed into indolent ulcers which have not completely healed seven months after the original bite. Cultures taken on two occasions have yielded a pure growth of Mycobacterium marinum. Images PMID:5529254

  15. Mandibular anesthesia and tooth extraction in the bottlenosed dolphin.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Green, R F; Sweeney, J C

    1975-07-01

    Anatomical dissections were done to show the innervation of the teeth and mandible of the bottlenosed dolphin (Turslops truncatus). Using structural landmarks, a method has been devised for anesthetizing the lower jaw. With this procedure teeth can be extracted and age determined by counting dentine layers in sections of etched teeth. Animals of the most desirable ages can thus be selected and the ages of animals already in captivity can be determined. PMID:1152182

  16. Hearing loss in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

  17. Heart development in the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    PubMed

    Sedmera, David; Misek, Ivan; Klima, Milan; Thompson, Robert P

    2003-08-01

    Marine mammals show many deviations from typical mammalian characteristics due to their high degree of specialization to the aquatic environment. In Cetaceans, some of the features of limbs and dentition resemble very ancestral patterns. In some species, hearts with a clearly bifid apex (a feature normally present during mammalian embryogenesis prior to completion of ventricular septation) have been described. However, there is a scant amount of data regarding heart development in Cetaceans, and it is not clear whether the bifid apex is the rule or the exception. We examined samples from a unique collection of embryonic dolphin specimens macroscopically and histologically to learn more about normal cardiac development in the spotted dolphin. It was found that during the dolphin's 280 days of gestation, the heart completes septation at about 35 days. However, substantial trabecular compaction, which normally occurs in chicks, mice, and humans at around that time period, was delayed until day 60, when coronary circulation became established. At that time, the apex still appeared bifid, similarly to early fetal mouse or rat hearts. By day 80, however, the heart gained a compacted, characteristic shape, with a single apex. It thus appears that the bifid apex in the adult Cetacean heart is probably particular to certain species, and its significance remains unclear. PMID:12845705

  18. Cognitive Adaptation of Sonar Gain Control in the Bottlenose Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Laura N.; Smith, Adam B.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Buck, John R.; Simmons, James A.; Pacini, Aude F.

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control. PMID:25153530

  19. First record of an anomalously colored franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Marta J; Sartori, Camila M; Schulze, Beatriz; Paitach, Renan L; Holz, Annelise C

    2014-09-01

    On October 2011, a newborn franciscana dolphin with an anomalously coloration was sighted in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. The calf was totally white. Besides the potential mother and newborn, the group also had the presence of another adult, who always was swimming behind the pair. Both adults had the typical coloration of the species, with the back in grayish brown. The group, composed by the white franciscana calf, his pontential mother and one more adult, was reported in five occasions. The group was always in the same area where it was first recorded and showed the same position during swimming. Between first and last sighting of the white calf (113 days) the color has not changed. This is the first case of a white franciscana dolphin. This coloration has never been reported despite the high number of dead franciscanas recovered each year along the distribution of the species, resulting from accidental capture in fishing nets. This fact leads us to believe that this is a very rare characteristic for this species. We considered the possibility that this franciscana could be an albino dolphin. PMID:25014918

  20. Cognitive adaptation of sonar gain control in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Smith, Adam B; Nachtigall, Paul E; Buck, John R; Simmons, James A; Pacini, Aude F

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control.

  1. Bottlenose dolphin iris asymmetries enhance aerial and underwater vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivamonte, Andre

    2009-02-01

    When the iris of the Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) contracts it constrains the path of light that can focus onto the two areas of the retina having a finer retinal mosaic. Under high ambient light conditions the operculum of the iris shields the lens and forms in the process two asymmetrically shaped, sized and positioned slit pupils. Tracing rays of light in the reverse direction through the pupils from the retinal regions associated with higher resolution confirm behaviorally observed preferred aerial and underwater viewing directions. In the forward and downward viewing direction, the larger temporal pupil admits light that is focused by the weakly refractive margin of a bifocal lens onto the temporal area centralis compensating for the addition of the optically strong front surface of the cornea in air. A schematic dolphin eye model incorporating a bifocal lens offers an explanation for a dolphin's comparable visual acuities in air and water for both high and low ambient light conditions. Comparison of methods for curve fitting psychometric ogive functions to behavioral visual acuity and spectral sensitivity data are discussed.

  2. [Neonatal hearing screening].

    PubMed

    Oudesluys-Murphy, A M; van Straaten, H L; Ens-Dokkum, M H; Kauffman-de Boer, M A

    2000-03-25

    Approximately 1 to 2 per thousand live-born infants suffer from a serious perceptive hearing loss. Normal hearing from birth is essential for optimal human development (language and speech, social and emotional development, communicative skills and learning). The earlier the hearing loss is diagnosed the better the prognosis for the infant with a hearing impairment. Suitable methods are now available for neonatal hearing screening: automated measurement of auditory brain stem response and measurement of oto-acoustic emissions. Screening must be viewed as only the first step in a program of diagnosis, treatment and habilitation of these children. The ultimate goal of the implementation of neonatal hearing screening is: identification of bilateral hearing losses before the age of 3 months and start of therapy and counselling before the age of 6 months.

  3. Evidence of teaching in Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) by mother dolphins foraging in the presence of their calves.

    PubMed

    Bender, Courtney E; Herzing, Denise L; Bjorklund, David F

    2009-01-01

    Teaching is a powerful form of social learning, but there is little systematic evidence that it occurs in species other than humans. Using long-term video archives the foraging behaviors by mother Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) were observed when their calves were present and when their calves were not present, including in the presence of non-calf conspecifics. The nine mothers we observed chased prey significantly longer and made significantly more referential body-orienting movements in the direction of the prey during foraging events when their calves were present than when their calves were not present, regardless of whether they were foraging alone or with another non-calf dolphin. Although further research into the potential consequences for the naïve calves is still warranted, these data based on the maternal foraging behavior are suggestive of teaching as a social-learning mechanism in nonhuman animals. PMID:18663496

  4. 42 CFR 405.720 - Hearing; right to hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing; right to hearing. 405.720 Section 405.720 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Part A § 405.720 Hearing; right to hearing. A person has a right to a hearing regarding any...

  5. Hearing Loss in Children: Types of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear to the brain so that our brain pathways are part of our hearing. There are four types of hearing loss: Conductive Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by something that stops sounds from getting through the outer or middle ear. This type of hearing loss can often ...

  6. 12 CFR 1209.12 - Public hearings; closed hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public hearings; closed hearings. 1209.12... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of Practice and Procedure § 1209.12 Public hearings; closed hearings. (a... hearings shall be open to the public, except that the Director, in his discretion, may determine...

  7. 12 CFR 1209.12 - Public hearings; closed hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public hearings; closed hearings. 1209.12... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of Practice and Procedure § 1209.12 Public hearings; closed hearings. (a... hearings shall be open to the public, except that the Director, in his discretion, may determine...

  8. Examination of Naturally-Exposed Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giarda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) live-captured in coastal South Carolina and Florida as well as dolphins stranded in coastal South Carolina were examined for the presence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. DNA extracted from feces or rectal swabs was amplified by PCR using para...

  9. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus.

    PubMed

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Povinelli, Michele; Terracciano, Giuliana; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Pintore, Antonio; Denurra, Daniele; Casalone, Cristina; Pautasso, Alessandra; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During 2011-2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea. Nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006-2007 epidemic in the Mediterranean. Dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales.

  10. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus

    PubMed Central

    Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Povinelli, Michele; Terracciano, Giuliana; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Pintore, Antonio; Denurra, Daniele; Casalone, Cristina; Pautasso, Alessandra; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During 2011–2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea. Nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006–2007 epidemic in the Mediterranean. Dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales. PMID:26812485

  11. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy for Children with Special Needs: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilts, Rachel; Trompisch, Norbert; Bergquist, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Dolphin-assisted therapy (DAT), as a part of animal-assisted therapy and complementary and alternative medicine, yields several positive results. This study intended to add to DAT effectiveness research while using a standardized assessment. In the Ukraine, a DAT program called DolphinSwim agreed to take part in research with 37 voluntary…

  12. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  13. Discrimination of amplitude-modulated synthetic echo trains by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Dankiewicz, Lois A; Helweg, David A; Moore, Patrick W; Zafran, Justine M

    2002-10-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have an acute ability to use target echoes to judge attributes such as size, shape, and material composition. Most target recognition studies have focused on features associated with individual echoes as opposed to information conveyed across echo sequences (feature envelope of the multi-echo train). One feature of aspect-dependent targets is an amplitude modulation (AM) across the return echoes in the echo train created by relative movement of the target and dolphin. The current study examined whether dolphins could discriminate targets with different AM envelopes. "Electronic echoes" triggered by a dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks were manipulated to create sinusoidal envelopes with varying AM rate and depth. Echo trains were equated for energy, requiring the dolphin to extract and retain information from multiple echoes in order to detect and report the presence of AM. The dolphin discriminated amplitude-modulated echo trains from those that were not modulated. AM depth thresholds were approximately 0.8 dB, similar to other published amplitude limens. Decreasing the rate of modulation from approximately 16 to 2 cycles per second did not affect the dolphin's AM depth sensitivity. The results support multiple-echo processing in bottlenose dolphin echolocation. This capability provides additional theoretical justification for exploring synthetic aperture sonar concepts in models of animal echolocation that potentially support theories postulating formation of images as an ultimate means for target identification.

  14. Lacaziosis-like disease among bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus photographed in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bessesen, Brooke L; Oviedo, Lenin; Burdett Hart, Leslie; Herra-Miranda, David; Pacheco-Polanco, Juan Diego; Baker, Lesli; Saborío-Rodriguez, Guido; Bermúdez-Villapol, Luis; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2014-01-16

    Lacaziosis (also known as lobomycosis) is a chronic dermal disease caused by the fungal agent Lacazia loboi, which affects both humans and dolphins. Photographic data have been used to identify lacaziosis-like disease (LLD) among dolphins in the waters of North and South America, and here we report LLD in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus off the coast of Costa Rica, the first reporting in Central American waters. During the periods of 1991 to 1992 and 2010 to 2011, 3 research teams conducted separate dolphin surveys in the Pacific tropical fiord Golfo Dulce, and each documented skin lesions in the resident population of bottlenose dolphins. Photo-ID records were used to identify LLD-affected bottlenose dolphins and to assess their lesions. Findings showed between 13.2 and 16.1% of the identified dolphins exhibited lesions grossly resembling lacaziosis. By combining efforts and cross-referencing photographic data, the teams explored the presence of LLD in Golfo Dulce over a time gap of approximately 20 yr. Our findings expand the geographical range of the disease and offer insight into its longevity within a given population of dolphins.

  15. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy as a Verbal Operant Condition for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrasi, Renee Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy (DAT) as a reinforcer for verbal operant production in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Three children who attended a dolphin therapy program participated in this single subject research study. Baseline data was collected for each child via a video tape provided by parents and…

  16. [Characteristics of electrocardiogram in Black Sea bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) females].

    PubMed

    Bohdanova, L M; Matisheva, S K

    2011-01-01

    Methods and technical devices to record ECG are developed. There've been studied ECG traits in sexually mature Black Sea bottlenose dolphin females kept in captivity. It's been shown that sick dolphins have tachycardia, heart rate disturbance, change in directivity of waves and their polarity and extrasystoles. PMID:22420165

  17. ‘Eavesdropping’ in wild rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis)?

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Thomas; Verfuß, Ursula Katharina; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Several authors suggest that dolphins use information obtained by eavesdropping on echoes from sonar signals of conspecifics, but there is little evidence that this strategy is used by dolphins in the wild. Travelling rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) either exhibit asynchronous movements or an extremely synchronized swimming behaviour in tight formations, which we expect to facilitate eavesdropping. Therefore, we determined, whether either one or more dolphins were echolocating in subgroups that were travelling with asynchronous and synchronized movements. Since, the number of recording sequences in which more than one animal produced sonar signals was significantly lower during synchronized travel, we conclude that the other members of a subgroup might get information on targets ahead by eavesdropping. Synchronized swimming in tight formations might be an energetic adaptation for travelling in a pelagic dolphin species that facilitates eavesdropping. PMID:17148311

  18. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  19. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  20. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  1. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Guillermo Martín; Romero, María Alejandra; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Dans, Silvana Laura; González, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG) ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina) where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a) to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity), and (b) to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals), activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate), and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species). Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons. PMID:26091542

  2. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Guillermo Martín; Romero, María Alejandra; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Dans, Silvana Laura; González, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG) ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina) where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a) to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity), and (b) to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals), activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate), and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species). Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons.

  3. Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Bycatch in New Zealand Commercial Trawl Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Finlay N.; Abraham, Edward R.; Berkenbusch, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows) in 2002–03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline) was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures. PMID:23717614

  4. Do You Hear What Horton Hears?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert; Johnson, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    "I've never heard of a small speck of dust that is able to yell" says Horton of a sound he hears well (Geisel 1954). It is always valuable to connect science to student's interests and their everyday world--so what better way to teach concepts relating to sound than to read "Horton Hears a Who" by Dr. Seuss? Here the authors present several…

  5. Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epidemiology Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss [text version] Note: Higher numbers are better. *This ... 2010 and 2020. The number of persons with hearing loss is calculated based on National Health and Nutrition ...

  6. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  7. Universal newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Declau, F; Doyen, A; Robillard, T; de Varebeke, S Janssens

    2005-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common congenital anomalies, occurring in approximately 1-2 infants per 1000. Left undetected, hearing impairments in infants can negatively impact speech and language acquisition, academic achievement, social and emotional development. These negative impacts can be diminished and even eliminated through early intervention at or before 6 months of age. Reliable screening tests that minimize referral rates and maximize sensitivity and specificity are available. The goal of universal neonatal hearing screening is to maximize linguistic and communicative competence and literacy development for children who are hard of hearing or deaf. Audiologic and medical evaluations should be in progress before 3 months of age. Infants with confirmed hearing loss should receive intervention before 6 months of age from health care and education professionals with expertise in hearing loss and deafness in infants and young children. PMID:16363265

  8. Age-Related Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing loss. Here are the most common ones: Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Hearing aids ... list of organizations, contact: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free Voice: ( ...

  9. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  10. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  11. Physical principles of hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

  12. Learning and extinction of conditioned hearing sensation change in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya; Estaban, Jose-Antonio; Pacini, Aude F

    2016-02-01

    Ice-dwelling beluga whales are increasingly being exposed to anthropogenic loud sounds. Beluga's hearing sensitivity measured during a warning sound just preceding a loud sound was tested using pip-train stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the test/warning stimulus with a frequency of 32 or 45 kHz preceded the loud sound with a frequency of 32 kHz and a sound pressure level of 153 dB re 1 μPa, 2 s, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased relative to the baseline. The threshold increased up to 15 dB for the test frequency of 45 kHz and up to 13 dB for the test frequency of 32 kHz. These threshold increases were observed during two sessions of 36 trials each. Extinction tests revealed no change during three experimental sessions followed by a jump-like return to baseline thresholds. The low exposure level producing the hearing-dampening effect (156 dB re 1 µPa(2)s in each trial), and the manner of extinction, may be considered as evidence that the observed hearing threshold increases were a demonstration of conditioned dampening of hearing when the whale anticipated the quick appearance of a loud sound in the same way demonstrated in the false killer whale and bottlenose dolphin.

  13. Learning and extinction of conditioned hearing sensation change in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya; Estaban, Jose-Antonio; Pacini, Aude F

    2016-02-01

    Ice-dwelling beluga whales are increasingly being exposed to anthropogenic loud sounds. Beluga's hearing sensitivity measured during a warning sound just preceding a loud sound was tested using pip-train stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the test/warning stimulus with a frequency of 32 or 45 kHz preceded the loud sound with a frequency of 32 kHz and a sound pressure level of 153 dB re 1 μPa, 2 s, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased relative to the baseline. The threshold increased up to 15 dB for the test frequency of 45 kHz and up to 13 dB for the test frequency of 32 kHz. These threshold increases were observed during two sessions of 36 trials each. Extinction tests revealed no change during three experimental sessions followed by a jump-like return to baseline thresholds. The low exposure level producing the hearing-dampening effect (156 dB re 1 µPa(2)s in each trial), and the manner of extinction, may be considered as evidence that the observed hearing threshold increases were a demonstration of conditioned dampening of hearing when the whale anticipated the quick appearance of a loud sound in the same way demonstrated in the false killer whale and bottlenose dolphin. PMID:26659822

  14. The claustrum of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu 1821).

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Bruno; Roncon, Giulia; Granato, Alberto; Giurisato, Maristella; Castagna, Maura; Peruffo, Antonella; Panin, Mattia; Ballarin, Cristina; Montelli, Stefano; Pirone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian claustrum is involved in processing sensory information from the environment. The claustrum is reciprocally connected to the visual cortex and these projections, at least in carnivores, display a clear retinotopic distribution. The visual cortex of dolphins occupies a position strikingly different from that of land mammals. Whether the reshaping of the functional areas of the cortex of cetaceans involves also modifications of the claustral projections remains hitherto unanswered. The present topographic and immunohistochemical study is based on the brains of eight bottlenose dolphins and a wide array of antisera against: calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), and calbindin (CB); somatostatin (SOM); neuropeptide Y (NPY); and the potential claustral marker Gng2. Our observations confirmed the general topography of the mammalian claustrum also in the bottlenose dolphin, although (a) the reduction of the piriform lobe modifies the ventral relationships of the claustrum with the cortex, and (b) the rotation of the telencephalon along the transverse axis, accompanied by the reduction of the antero-posterior length of the brain, apparently moves the claustrum more rostrally. We observed a strong presence of CR-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons and fibers, a diffuse but weak expression of CB-ir elements and virtually no PV immunostaining. This latter finding agrees with studies that report that PV-ir elements are rare in the visual cortex of the same species. NPY- and somatostatin-containing neurons were evident, while the potential claustral markers Gng2 was not identified in the sections, but no explanation for its absence is currently available. Although no data are available on the projections to and from the claustrum in cetaceans, our results suggest that its neurochemical organization is compatible with the presence of noteworthy cortical inputs and outputs and a persistent role in the general processing of the relative

  15. The claustrum of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu 1821)

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Bruno; Roncon, Giulia; Granato, Alberto; Giurisato, Maristella; Castagna, Maura; Peruffo, Antonella; Panin, Mattia; Ballarin, Cristina; Montelli, Stefano; Pirone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian claustrum is involved in processing sensory information from the environment. The claustrum is reciprocally connected to the visual cortex and these projections, at least in carnivores, display a clear retinotopic distribution. The visual cortex of dolphins occupies a position strikingly different from that of land mammals. Whether the reshaping of the functional areas of the cortex of cetaceans involves also modifications of the claustral projections remains hitherto unanswered. The present topographic and immunohistochemical study is based on the brains of eight bottlenose dolphins and a wide array of antisera against: calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), and calbindin (CB); somatostatin (SOM); neuropeptide Y (NPY); and the potential claustral marker Gng2. Our observations confirmed the general topography of the mammalian claustrum also in the bottlenose dolphin, although (a) the reduction of the piriform lobe modifies the ventral relationships of the claustrum with the cortex, and (b) the rotation of the telencephalon along the transverse axis, accompanied by the reduction of the antero-posterior length of the brain, apparently moves the claustrum more rostrally. We observed a strong presence of CR-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons and fibers, a diffuse but weak expression of CB-ir elements and virtually no PV immunostaining. This latter finding agrees with studies that report that PV-ir elements are rare in the visual cortex of the same species. NPY- and somatostatin-containing neurons were evident, while the potential claustral markers Gng2 was not identified in the sections, but no explanation for its absence is currently available. Although no data are available on the projections to and from the claustrum in cetaceans, our results suggest that its neurochemical organization is compatible with the presence of noteworthy cortical inputs and outputs and a persistent role in the general processing of the relative

  16. Underwater hearing: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M.; Martin, A.; Nedwell, J.

    1993-05-01

    In view of the prevalence of hearing loss among commercial divers and the absence of widely accepted noise exposure limits for occupational underwater use, a review of studies of underwater hearing thresholds and hearing mechanisms was undertaken with the ultimate aim of developing noise exposure limits. Previous studies of underwater hearing thresholds appear to show that the ear underwater is less sensitive than compared with air. However, a surprisingly wide range of values for underwater hearing thresholds was reported, for example 35-90 dB SPL(re 20 MuPa) at 0.25 kHz and 30-80 dB at 1 kHz. No representative single threshold curve can be extracted with any validity. Possible reasons for such a wide scatter of results include high underwater ambient noise levels which may have masked the subjects underwater hearing thresholds, ill defined stimuli and underwater sound fields, and variable and informal audiometric methodology. Previous authors have proposed three somewhat interlinked theories to explain how sound is transmitted from water to the cochlea. These involve: the 'auricular' conduction pathway, the bone conduction pathway, and the dual conduction pathway. Up to this day, no one pathway has been shown to predominate, and all of them have been poorly evaluated. It is also possible that the presence of air bubbles in the ear canal and increased water depth may have significant effects on underwater hearing thresholds. These effects may be dependent on the underwater hearing mechanism. Again, the studies reviewed give conflicting results and no valid conclusion can be drawn. It is apparent that further experimental studies are required to establish underwater hearing thresholds and to provide an understanding of the mechanisms of hearing underwater. These should be based upon suitable facilities and methodologies for testing hearing thresholds underwater following modern and scientific audio metric practice.

  17. Nonsyndromic hereditary hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Alford, Raye L

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of hereditary hearing loss is extraordinarily complex. More than 400 genetic syndromes are associated with hearing loss and more than 140 genetic loci associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss have been mapped, with more than 60 genes identified to date. Hereditary hearing loss can be inherited as an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked or mitochondrial (maternally inherited) condition. The overlapping audiologic phenotypes associated with many genes and the variability and/or reduced, sometimes age-related, penetrance of some phenotypic features of syndromic hearing loss can complicate the distinction between various genetic causes of nonsyndromic hearing loss and between nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss, especially in childhood. Testing for individual genes associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss, beyond GJB2 which encodes Connexin 26, can become expensive and, without specific phenotypic features to guide selection of genes for testing (such as enlarged vestibular aqueducts, low frequency hearing loss or auditory neuropathy), it is not likely to yield an etiology. Advances in DNA sequencing and the rapid decline in the cost of sequencing presage the availability of testing that can identify the etiology in the majority of cases of genetic hearing loss. However, until comprehensive genetic testing of hearing loss is clinically available and cost-effective, thorough phenotypic and audiologic evaluation and careful documentation of risk factors, infectious exposures and patient and family medical history will continue to be important to efforts directed toward etiologic diagnosis. The complexities associated with interpretation of genetic test results, genetic counseling and genetic risk assessment make consultation with medical geneticists important for many patients.

  18. Forebrain neuroanatomy of the neonatal and juvenile dolphin (T. truncatus and S. coeruloalba)

    PubMed Central

    Parolisi, Roberta; Peruffo, Antonella; Messina, Silvia; Panin, Mattia; Montelli, Stefano; Giurisato, Maristella; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dolphin functional neuroanatomy mostly derives from post-mortem studies and non-invasive approaches (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging), due to limitations in experimentation on cetaceans. As a consequence the availability of well-preserved tissues for histology is scarce, and detailed histological analyses are referred mainly to adults. Here we studied the neonatal/juvenile brain in two species of dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), with special reference to forebrain regions. We analyzed cell density in subcortical nuclei, white/gray matter ratio, and myelination in selected regions at different anterior–posterior levels of the whole dolphin brain at different ages, to better define forebrain neuroanatomy and the developmental stage of the dolphin brain around birth. The analyses were extended to the periventricular germinal layer and the cerebellum, whose delayed genesis of the granule cell layer is a hallmark of postnatal development in the mammalian nervous system. Our results establish an atlas of the young dolphin forebrain and, on the basis of occurrence/absence of delayed neurogenic layers, confirm the stage of advanced brain maturation in these animals with respect to most terrestrial mammals. PMID:26594155

  19. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable.

  20. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia.

  1. Vertebral column anomalies in Indo-Pacific and Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa spp.

    PubMed

    Weir, Caroline R; Wang, John Y

    2016-08-01

    Conspicuous vertebral column abnormalities in humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) were documented for the first time during 3 photo-identification field studies of small populations in Taiwan, Senegal and Angola. Seven Taiwanese humpback dolphins S. chinensis taiwanensis with vertebral column anomalies (lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis) were identified, along with 2 possible cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. There was evidence from several individuals photographed over consecutive years that the anomalies became more pronounced with age. Three Atlantic humpback dolphins S. teuszii were observed with axial deviations of the vertebral column (lordosis and kyphosis). Another possible case was identified in a calf, and 2 further animals were photographed with dorsal indents potentially indicative of anomalies. Vertebral column anomalies of humpback dolphins were predominantly evident in the lumbo-caudal region, but one Atlantic humpback dolphin had an anomaly in the cervico-thoracic region. Lordosis and kyphosis occurred simultaneously in several individuals. Apart from the described anomalies, all dolphins appeared in good health and were not obviously underweight or noticeably compromised in swim speed. This study presents the first descriptions of vertebral column anomalies in the genus Sousa. The causative factors for the anomalies were unknown in every case and are potentially diverse. Whether these anomalies result in reduced fitness of individuals or populations merits attention, as both the Taiwanese and Atlantic humpback dolphin are species of high conservation concern.

  2. Whistles emitted by Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alexandre F; Flach, L; Bisi, Tatiana L; Andrade, Luciana G; Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, J

    2010-04-01

    The whistles of Atlantic spotted dolphins have been studied in a few localities of the North Atlantic Ocean and those studies revealed that the species emits whistles within a broad frequency range, with a high number of inflection points and presence of harmonics. In the South Atlantic Ocean, there is no information about the sounds produced by Atlantic spotted dolphins. A total of 1092 whistles emitted by free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphins in Southeastern Brazilian coastal waters were analyzed. Whistles recorded in this study had a broad frequency range from 1.15 to 23.44 kHz. Whistles without harmonics were frequently emitted (N=701; 64.2%) and those signals with zero up to two inflection points corresponded to 94% of all whistles. Some differences in whistle characteristics (inflection points and duration) were found in relation to areas in North Atlantic Ocean and whistles were shorter and with a smaller number of inflection points in Brazil. Whistles produced by Atlantic spotted dolphins varied between the two behavioral states in which dolphins were engaged. Whistles were more frequently emitted when dolphins presented behaviors that included fast movement at surface, prey pursuit, aerial behavior, and physical contact. In these situations, whistles were on average longer and had higher frequency parameters than those emitted when animals were engaged in slowly and moderate traveling. The findings presented herewith reveal that dolphins modified whistle structures within behavioral states. PMID:20370045

  3. First record of Pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata in the Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuxing; Wang, Xianyan; Zhang, Qiuxia; Miao, Xing; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Qian

    2015-07-01

    On October 1, 2009, sixteen dolphins were obtained from fishermen by incidental catching in the Yellow Sea, China. As the dolphins' skin color was ambiguous, morphological parameters were measured, and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence was studied to identify the species. Morphological characteristics were consistent with Pantropical spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata. Furthermore, a partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence as long as 328-bp was studied by extracting genomic DNA from the skins, and six haplotypes were detected in the sixteen dolphins. By comparing homologous sequences available in GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), all the six haplotypes had maximal genetic similarity with Pantropical spotted dolphin. Eight species of cetacean (whales and dolphins) are now recognised in the Yellow Sea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of Pantropical spotted dolphins from this region. Despite this species being listed as a Grade II National Key Protected Animal since 1988, little is known of its biology in Chinese waters. We recommend remedial research be undertaken to ensure appropriate management.

  4. An atypical genotype of Toxoplasma gondii as a cause of mortality in Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori).

    PubMed

    Roe, W D; Howe, L; Baker, E J; Burrows, L; Hunter, S A

    2013-02-18

    Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) are a small endangered coastal species that are endemic to New Zealand. Anthropogenic factors, particularly accidental capture in fishing nets, are believed to be the biggest threat to survival of this species. The role of infectious disease as a cause of mortality has not previously been well investigated. This study investigates Toxoplasma gondii infection in Hector's dolphins, finding that 7 of 28 (25%) dolphins examined died due to disseminated toxoplasmosis, including 2 of 3 Maui's dolphins, a critically endangered sub-species. A further 10 dolphins had one or more tissues that were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA using PCR. Genotyping revealed that 7 of 8 successfully amplified isolates were an atypical Type II genotype. Fatal cases had necrotising and haemorrhagic lesions in the lung (n=7), lymph nodes (n=6), liver (n=4) and adrenals (n=3). Tachyzoites and tissue cysts were present in other organs including the brain (n=5), heart (n=1), stomach (n=1) and uterus (n=1) with minimal associated inflammatory response. One dolphin had a marked suppurative metritis in the presence of numerous intra-epithelial tachyzoites. No dolphins had underlying morbillivirus infection. This study provides the first evidence that infectious agents could be important in the population decline of this species, and highlights the need for further research into the route of entry of T. gondii organisms into the marine environment worldwide. PMID:23207018

  5. A method to enable a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to echolocate while out of water.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Houser, Dorian S; Moore, Patrick W; Branstetter, Brian K; Trickey, Jennifer S; Ridgway, Sam H

    2010-09-01

    The study of site-specific brain activity associated with dolphin echolocation has been hampered by the difficulties inherent in administering radiolabels and performing medical imaging while a dolphin echolocates in an aquatic environment. To overcome these limitations, a system has been developed to allow a bottlenose dolphin to echolocate while out of the water. The system relies on a "phantom echo generator" (PEG) consisting of a Texas Instruments C6713 digital signal processor with an analog input/output daughtercard. Echolocation clicks produced by the dolphin are detected with a hydrophone embedded in a suction cup on the melon, then digitized within the PEG. Clicks exceeding a user-defined threshold are convolved with a target impulse response, delayed, and scaled before being converted to analog and transmitted through a sound projector embedded in a suction cup attached to the dolphin's lower jaw. Dolphin in-air echolocation behavior, inter-click intervals, and overall performance were analogous to those observed during comparable underwater testing with physical targets, demonstrating that the dolphin was indeed performing an echolocation task while out of water. PMID:20815483

  6. Forebrain neuroanatomy of the neonatal and juvenile dolphin (T. truncatus and S. coeruloalba).

    PubMed

    Parolisi, Roberta; Peruffo, Antonella; Messina, Silvia; Panin, Mattia; Montelli, Stefano; Giurisato, Maristella; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dolphin functional neuroanatomy mostly derives from post-mortem studies and non-invasive approaches (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging), due to limitations in experimentation on cetaceans. As a consequence the availability of well-preserved tissues for histology is scarce, and detailed histological analyses are referred mainly to adults. Here we studied the neonatal/juvenile brain in two species of dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), with special reference to forebrain regions. We analyzed cell density in subcortical nuclei, white/gray matter ratio, and myelination in selected regions at different anterior-posterior levels of the whole dolphin brain at different ages, to better define forebrain neuroanatomy and the developmental stage of the dolphin brain around birth. The analyses were extended to the periventricular germinal layer and the cerebellum, whose delayed genesis of the granule cell layer is a hallmark of postnatal development in the mammalian nervous system. Our results establish an atlas of the young dolphin forebrain and, on the basis of occurrence/absence of delayed neurogenic layers, confirm the stage of advanced brain maturation in these animals with respect to most terrestrial mammals. PMID:26594155

  7. The effect of ankle muscle strength and flexibility on dolphin kick performance in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Willems, Tine M; Cornelis, Justien A M; De Deurwaerder, Lien E P; Roelandt, Filip; De Mits, Sophie

    2014-08-01

    The velocity of a swimmer is determined by biomechanical and bioenergetics factors. However, little is known about the effect of ankle flexibility on dolphin kick performance. Next to this, scientific evidence is lacking concerning the influence of ankle muscle strength. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle flexibility and muscle strength on dolphin kick performance in competitive swimmers. Ankle range of motion (ROM) and ankle muscle strength were measured in 26 healthy competitive swimmers. The effect of both was assessed on the swimmer's velocity and lower extremity joint angles during three maximal dolphin kick trials. Additionally, the effect of a flexibility restriction by a tape on the dolphin kick performance was assessed. Correlations were calculated between the flexibility, muscle strength and dolphin kick performance and differences were investigated between the unrestricted and restricted condition. Muscle strength of dorsal flexors and internal rotators were positively significantly correlated with the velocity. Active and passive plantar flexion ROM and internal rotation ROM were not significantly correlated. A plantar flexion-internal rotation restriction during the dolphin kick showed a significant decrease in velocity. This restriction was associated with a changed movement pattern in the knee towards more flexion. The results suggest that dolphin kick velocity might be enhanced by ankle muscle strength exercises and that subjects with a restricted ankle flexibility might profit from a flexibility program. PMID:24984154

  8. What's in a voice? Cues used by dolphins in individual recognition of signature whistles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayigh, Laela S.; Janik, Vincent M.; Wells, Randall S.

    2005-09-01

    Cues that bottlenose dolphins may use for individual recognition of signature whistles are (1) the individually distinctive frequency modulation patterns of whistles; and (2) voice cues caused by the anatomy of the vocal apparatus. Experiments were designed to determine whether dolphins use either or both of these cues in recognizing whistles. Temporarily held wild dolphins listened to whistles of a close relative and of a known conspecific of the same sex and similar age. To test the hypothesis that dolphins recognize the frequency modulation patterns of whistles, signature whistles were synthesized and all general voice features removed. In playbacks to 14 individuals, dolphins turned significantly more often towards the speaker if they heard the synthetic signature whistle of a close relative than that of another individual. To test the hypothesis that dolphins may also be using voice cues to recognize whistles, natural variant (nonsignature) whistles were played back, which are highly variable in contour. Preliminary analysis of seven playbacks showed no difference in responses to variant whistles of kin versus nonkin. Thus, the frequency modulation pattern of signature whistles alone provides information on the identity of the caller, and voice cues are likely not used by dolphins to identify individuals.

  9. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detection of simulated echoes from normal and time-reversed clicks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Wu, Teri; Borror, Nancy; Tormey, Megan; Brewer, Arial; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2013-12-01

    In matched filter processing, a stored template of the emitted sonar pulse is compared to echoes to locate individual replicas of the emitted pulse embedded in the echo stream. A number of experiments with bats have suggested that bats utilize matched filter processing for target ranging, but not for target detection. For dolphins, the few available data suggest that dolphins do not utilize matched filter processing. In this study, the effect of time-reversing a dolphin's emitted click was investigated. If the dolphin relied upon matched filter processing, time-reversal of the click would be expected to reduce the correlation between the (unaltered) click and the echoes and therefore lower detection performance. Two bottlenose dolphins were trained to perform a phantom echo detection task. On a small percentage of trials ("probe trials"), a dolphin's emitted click was time-reversed before interacting with the phantom echo system. Data from the normal and time-reversed trials were then analyzed and compared. There were no significant differences in detection performance or click emissions between the normal and time-reversed conditions for either subject, suggesting that the dolphins did not utilize matched filter processing for this echo detection task.

  10. Spatial distribution of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inferred from stable isotopes and priority organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rachel Marie; Kucklick, John R; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2012-05-15

    Differences in priority organic pollutants (POPs), analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C, δ(34)S, and δ(15)N; analyzed by isotope ratio-mass spectrometry), divide 77 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Florida Gulf Coast into three distinct groups. POP levels reflect human population and historical contamination along the coast. In the least disturbed site, concentrations of ΣPOP in male dolphins were 18,000 ng g(-1)±6000 (95% confidence interval here and throughout); in the intermediate bay, males had ΣPOP concentrations of 19,000 ng g(-1)±10,000. St Andrews Bay was home to dolphins with the highest ΣPOP concentrations: 44,000 ng g(-1)±10,300. δ(34)S and δ(15)N, differed significantly between St. George Sound dolphins and those frequenting each of the other two bays, but not between St. Andrews and St. Joseph Bays. ΣPOP concentrations were statistically higher in dolphins frequenting St. Andrews Bay, but were not significantly different between dolphins occupying St. Joseph Bay and St. George Sound. Thus, using either POP or isotope values alone, we would only be able to identify two dolphin groups, but when POP and isotope data are viewed cumulatively, the results clearly define three distinct communities occupying this region.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins Revealed by Structurally and Functionally Diverse Hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Remington, Nicole; Stevens, Robert D.; Wells, Randall S.; Hohn, Aleta; Dhungana, Suraj; Taboy, Celine H.; Crumbliss, Alvin L.; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Studies of structure-function relationships in the respiratory proteins of marine mammals revealed unexpected variations in the number and types of hemoglobins (Hbs) present in coastal bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. We obtained blood samples from free-ranging coastal bottlenose dolphins as a component of capture-release studies. We found that the oxygen-binding functions of bottlenose dolphin blood are poised between effector-saturated and unsaturated levels, enabling exercise-dependent shifts in oxygen transfer functions. Isolated bottlenose dolphin Hbs showed elevated pH sensitivities (Bohr effects) and appreciably lower oxygen affinities than adult human Hb in the absence of allosteric effectors. These properties may be an adaptive modification that enhance oxygen delivery during diving episodes when oxygen tensions and effector levels are low. The Hbs of individual dolphins showed similar oxygen affinities, responses to effectors, and expression of heme-heme interaction in oxygen binding, but differed in their redox potentials and rates of autoxidation. The heterogeneity suggested by these functional variations in Hbs of individual dolphins was born out by variations in the molecular weights and numbers of their α and β globin chains. Although coastal bottlenose dolphins were expected to have a single type of Hb, the mass differences observed revealed considerable genetic diversity. There were multiple Hb forms in some individuals and differences in Hb patterns among individuals within the same community. PMID:17604574

  12. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable. PMID:26790894

  13. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. PMID:26790893

  14. Vertebral column anomalies in Indo-Pacific and Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa spp.

    PubMed

    Weir, Caroline R; Wang, John Y

    2016-08-01

    Conspicuous vertebral column abnormalities in humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) were documented for the first time during 3 photo-identification field studies of small populations in Taiwan, Senegal and Angola. Seven Taiwanese humpback dolphins S. chinensis taiwanensis with vertebral column anomalies (lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis) were identified, along with 2 possible cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. There was evidence from several individuals photographed over consecutive years that the anomalies became more pronounced with age. Three Atlantic humpback dolphins S. teuszii were observed with axial deviations of the vertebral column (lordosis and kyphosis). Another possible case was identified in a calf, and 2 further animals were photographed with dorsal indents potentially indicative of anomalies. Vertebral column anomalies of humpback dolphins were predominantly evident in the lumbo-caudal region, but one Atlantic humpback dolphin had an anomaly in the cervico-thoracic region. Lordosis and kyphosis occurred simultaneously in several individuals. Apart from the described anomalies, all dolphins appeared in good health and were not obviously underweight or noticeably compromised in swim speed. This study presents the first descriptions of vertebral column anomalies in the genus Sousa. The causative factors for the anomalies were unknown in every case and are potentially diverse. Whether these anomalies result in reduced fitness of individuals or populations merits attention, as both the Taiwanese and Atlantic humpback dolphin are species of high conservation concern. PMID:27503913

  15. Spermatozoa of the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A D; Yanagimachi, R; Yanagimachi, H

    1981-11-01

    Semen from a male dolphin in captivity was collected by electro-ejaculation and frozen to -176 degrees C. Sperm motility was excellent after thawing 10 days later. Electron microscopy showed 14-16 parallel ridges in the post-acrosomal region and two types of mitochondria in the mid-piece. The spermatozoa were capable of fusing with zona-free hamster eggs only after preincubation for 2 h, suggesting the need for sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction before fertilization in this species. PMID:6895389

  16. Mucocutaneous lesions in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2015-08-20

    Mucocutaneous lesions were biopsied from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and estuarine waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, between 2003 and 2013. A total of 78 incisional biopsies from 58 dolphins (n=43 IRL, n=15 CHS) were examined. Thirteen dolphins had 2 lesions biopsied at the same examination, and 6 dolphins were re-examined and re-biopsied at time intervals varying from 1 to 8 yr. Biopsy sites included the skin (n=47), tongue (n=2), and genital mucosa (n=29). Pathologic diagnoses were: orogenital sessile papilloma (39.7%), cutaneous lobomycosis (16.7%), tattoo skin disease (TSD; 15.4%), nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (15.4%), and epidermal hyperplasia (12.8%). Pathologic diagnoses from dolphins with 2 lesions were predominately orogenital sessile papillomas (n=9) with nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (n=4), TSD (n=3), lobomycosis (n=1), and epidermal hyperplasia (n=1). Persistent pathologic diagnoses from the same dolphins re-examined and re-biopsied at different times included genital sessile papillomas (n=3), lobomycosis (n=2), and nonspecific dermatitis (n=2). This is the first study documenting the various types, combined prevalence, and progression of mucocutaneous lesions in dolphins from the southeastern USA. The data support other published findings describing the health patterns in dolphins from these geographic regions. Potential health impacts related to the observed suite of lesions are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, since previous studies have indicated that both populations are affected by complex infectious diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances and anthropogenic contaminants.

  17. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations.

  18. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Irrawaddy dolphins from India.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Ramu, K; Kajiwara, N; Sinha, R K; Tanabe, S

    2005-10-01

    The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is at risk of extinction throughout its range as a result of incidental catches, habitat degradation, and pollution. Populations of Irrawaddy dolphins are constrained by the species' narrow habitat requirement-lagoons, estuaries, rivers, and lakes-and are therefore particularly vulnerable to the effects of human activities. In this study, for the first time, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in tissues of Irrawaddy dolphins collected from Chilika Lake, India, to understand the status of contamination. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants found in Irrawaddy dolphins; the highest concentration found was 10,000 ng/g lipid weight in blubber. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the second most prevalent contaminants in dolphin tissues. Concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol were in the ranges of few ng/g to few hundreds of ng/g on a lipid-weight basis. In general, concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs in Irrawaddy dolphins were lower than the concentrations reported for coastal and riverine dolphins collected in Asia. PBDEs were detected in the blubber of Irrawaddy dolphins at concentrations ranging from 0.98 to 18 ng/g lipid weight. BDE congener 47 accounted for 60% to 75% of the total PBDE concentrations. Although these results establish the baseline levels of persistent organic pollutants in Irrawaddy dolphins, efforts should be made to decrease the sources of contamination by DDTs and HCHs in Chilika Lake. PMID:16170447

  19. Mucocutaneous lesions in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2015-08-20

    Mucocutaneous lesions were biopsied from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and estuarine waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, between 2003 and 2013. A total of 78 incisional biopsies from 58 dolphins (n=43 IRL, n=15 CHS) were examined. Thirteen dolphins had 2 lesions biopsied at the same examination, and 6 dolphins were re-examined and re-biopsied at time intervals varying from 1 to 8 yr. Biopsy sites included the skin (n=47), tongue (n=2), and genital mucosa (n=29). Pathologic diagnoses were: orogenital sessile papilloma (39.7%), cutaneous lobomycosis (16.7%), tattoo skin disease (TSD; 15.4%), nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (15.4%), and epidermal hyperplasia (12.8%). Pathologic diagnoses from dolphins with 2 lesions were predominately orogenital sessile papillomas (n=9) with nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (n=4), TSD (n=3), lobomycosis (n=1), and epidermal hyperplasia (n=1). Persistent pathologic diagnoses from the same dolphins re-examined and re-biopsied at different times included genital sessile papillomas (n=3), lobomycosis (n=2), and nonspecific dermatitis (n=2). This is the first study documenting the various types, combined prevalence, and progression of mucocutaneous lesions in dolphins from the southeastern USA. The data support other published findings describing the health patterns in dolphins from these geographic regions. Potential health impacts related to the observed suite of lesions are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, since previous studies have indicated that both populations are affected by complex infectious diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances and anthropogenic contaminants. PMID:26290502

  20. Electrocardiograms of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) out of water: habituated collection versus wild postcapture animals.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jensen, Eric D; Townsend, Forrest I; Hansen, Larry J; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teresa K

    2013-12-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on captured free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during a health assessment exercise and compared with that of a Navy collection of dolphins habituated to handling out of water in order to assess possible cardiovascular impacts of capture and handling. Six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVr, aVl, and aVf) in the frontal plane and direct thorax leads were collected from both groups, with a modified base-apex lead additionally employed with the Navy collection dolphins. Measured and calculated parameters included amplitudes of P, R, S, and T waves and total QRS complex; T:S and T:QRS ratios; heart rate; durations of P wave; QRS complex, PR, QT, and RR intervals; maximum minus minimum RR interval; ST segment elevation-depression; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Physiologically minor but statistically significant differences were detected in S wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, and MEA. The PR interval, QRS duration, and S wave amplitude were slightly greater and the MEA oriented slightly rightward in wild postcapture dolphins compared to Navy collection dolphins. There were no differences in heart rate or maximum minus minimum RR interval, which serves as a proxy for the expected sinus arrhythmia of dolphins. The base-apex lead resulted in greater QRS amplitude than lead II, as expected for the category B ventricular activation of dolphins. The left-side direct thorax lead was more consistent than that of the right side. Clinically, ECG was a useful adjunct to auscultation and thoracic palpation for monitoring heart rate and rhythm and generated a record for archiving. Safe capture and handling protocols in place, under which dolphins are immediately returned to the water at progressive signs of distress, may make cardiovascular decompensation less likely to be detected by ECG. It appears that the dolphin cardiovascular system compensates suitably well to capture, as measured by ECG under the conditions of

  1. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations. PMID:27015516

  2. Hearing sensitivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Karlovich, R S; Wiley, T L; Tweed, T; Jensen, D V

    1988-01-01

    Hearing sensitivity was measured for tones from 1,000 through 8,000 hertz (Hz) in 534 males and 278 females who resided in rural Wisconsin and ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. The hearing sensitivity for all subjects decreased with advancing age and at higher frequencies, but hearing loss over the range most susceptible to excessive noise exposure (3,000-6,000 Hz) was much greater for males than for females at all ages. The hearing loss was greater than could be accounted for by age and was similar whether the subject was a farmer or not. The results suggested that approximately 25 percent of the males had a communication handicap due to hearing loss by age 30, and the proportion rose to 50 percent by age 50. Less than 20 percent of farmers reported consistent use of personal hearing protection in their farm-related duties. Overall, the findings suggest that men who live in rural areas, including farmers, demonstrate a high prevalence of hearing loss and associated communication problems due to excessive noise exposure. This, in turn, clearly indicates a need for intensification of educational hearing conservation programs for the rural population. PMID:3124200

  3. Hearing loss and music

    MedlinePlus

    Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music ... talking is 40 dB to 60 dB. A rock concert is between 110 dB and 120 ... when listening to music depends on: How loud the music is How ...

  4. [Molecular biology of hearing].

    PubMed

    Stöver, T; Diensthuber, M

    2011-03-01

    The inner ear is our most sensitive sensory organ and can be subdivided into 3 functional units: organ of Corti, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. The appropriate stimulus for the organ of hearing is sound which travels through the external auditory canal to the middle ear where it is transmitted to the inner ear. The inner ear habors the hair cells, the sensory cells of hearing. The inner hair cells are capable of mechanotransduction, the transformation of mechanical force into an electrical signal, which is the basic principle of hearing. The stria vascularis generates the endocochlear potential and maintains the ionic homeostasis of the endolymph. The dendrites of the spiral ganglion form synaptic contacts with the hair cells. The spiral ganglion is composed of neurons that transmit the electrical signals from the cochlea to the central nervous system. In the past years there was significant progress in research on the molecular basis of hearing. More and more genes and proteins which are related to hearing can be identified and characterized. The increasing knowledge on these genes contributes not only to a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing but also to a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of hereditary hearing loss. This basic research is a prerequisite for the development of molecular diagnostics and novel therapies for hearing loss.

  5. School Hearing Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Noise Abatement and Control.

    The document offers guidelines for administration of the Hearing Test Noise Education Program, a program to teach students the harmful effects of excessive moise on their hearing and learning ability. Section 1 outlines the program strategy in terms of program initiation, suggested program coordination, suggested coordinator's responsibilities,…

  6. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  7. The Hearing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capewell, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Glue ear, a condition resulting in intermittent hearing loss in young children, affects about 80% of young children under seven years old. About 60% of children will spend a third of their time unable to hear within normal thresholds. Teachers are unlikely to consider the sound quality in classrooms. In my research young people provided…

  8. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  9. Molecular biology of hearing

    PubMed Central

    Stöver, Timo; Diensthuber, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is our most sensitive sensory organ and can be subdivided into three functional units: organ of Corti, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. The appropriate stimulus for the organ of hearing is sound, which travels through the external auditory canal to the middle ear where it is transmitted to the inner ear. The inner ear houses the hair cells, the sensory cells of hearing. The inner hair cells are capable of mechanotransduction, the transformation of mechanical force into an electrical signal, which is the basic principle of hearing. The stria vascularis generates the endocochlear potential and maintains the ionic homeostasis of the endolymph. The dendrites of the spiral ganglion form synaptic contacts with the hair cells. The spiral ganglion is composed of neurons that transmit the electrical signals from the cochlea to the central nervous system. In recent years there has been significant progress in research on the molecular basis of hearing. An increasing number of genes and proteins related to hearing are being identified and characterized. The growing knowledge of these genes contributes not only to greater appreciation of the mechanism of hearing but also to a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of hereditary hearing loss. This basic research is a prerequisite for the development of molecular diagnostics and novel therapies for hearing loss. PMID:22558056

  10. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  11. Hearing pathways in the Yangtze finless porpoise, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis.

    PubMed

    Mooney, T Aran; Li, Songhai; Ketten, Darlene R; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-02-01

    How an animal receives sound may influence its use of sound. While 'jaw hearing' is well supported for odontocetes, work examining how sound is received across the head has been limited to a few representative species. The substantial variation in jaw and head morphology among odontocetes suggests variation in sound reception. Here, we address how a divergent subspecies, the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) hears low-, mid- and high-frequency tones, as well as broadband clicks, comparing sounds presented at different locations across the head. Hearing was measured using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). Click and tone stimuli (8, 54 and 120 kHz) were presented at nine locations on the head and body using a suction-cup transducer. Threshold differences were compared between frequencies and locations, and referenced to the underlying anatomy using computed tomography (CT) imaging of deceased animals of the same subspecies. The best hearing locations with minimum thresholds were found adjacent to a mandibular fat pad and overlaying the auditory bulla. Mean thresholds were not substantially different at locations from the rostrum tip to the ear (11.6 dB). This contrasts with tests with bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales, in which 30-40 dB threshold differences were found across the animals' heads. Response latencies increased with decreasing response amplitudes, which suggests that latency and sensitivity are interrelated when considering sound reception across the odontocete head. The results suggest that there are differences among odontocetes in the anatomy related to receiving sound, and porpoises may have relatively less acoustic 'shadowing'. PMID:24143026

  12. Pulmonary angiomatosis and hemangioma in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded in Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Arbelo, Manuel; Sacchini, Simona; Quesada-Canales, Óscar; Andrada, Marisa; Rivero, Miguel; Fernández, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Vascular tumors and disorders, like angiomatosis, are rarely described in cetacean species. A retrospective histological study was carried out on lung samples from 35 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded in the Canary Islands coasts looking for morphological vascular changes and likely related causes. Twenty-five out of thirty-five (71%) common dolphins showed focal or multifocal angiomatosis-like lesions. A high association between this type of vascular proliferation and parasitic infestation was observed. In addition, a single pulmonary cavernous hemangioma not previously reported in common dolphins is presented.

  13. [Formation of probabilistic structure of motor behavior in bottlenose dolphins in captivity].

    PubMed

    Chechina, O N; Kondrat'eva, N L

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic structure of the motor behavior was analyzed in dolphin calves Tursiops truncatus in the prenatal period and adult dolphins in an oceanarium. Ethograms were recorded and subjected to a computer analysis. Ranking probabilities of transitions between behavioral acts revealed a highly determined sequence of operations underlying the newborn dolphins' behavior. The principle of formation of the variation ethologic structures providing a contact between a developing organism and the environment was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the informational brain-environment interaction. PMID:19947534

  14. Auditory Effects of Multiple Impulses from a Seismic Air Gun on Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schlundt, Carolyn E; Finneran, James J; Branstetter, Brian K; Trickey, Jennifer S; Bowman, Victoria; Jenkins, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Auditory thresholds were measured in three bottlenose dolphins before and after exposure to ten impulses from a seismic air gun. Thresholds were measured using behavioral and electrophysiological methods to determine the amount of temporary threshold shift induced. The results suggest that the potential for seismic surveys using air guns to cause auditory effects on dolphins may be lower than previously predicted; however, two of the three dolphins exhibited "anticipatory" behavioral changes at the highest exposure condition that suggested they were attempting to mitigate the effects of the exposures.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Non-depleted Serum Proteins from Bottlenose Dolphins Uncovers a High Vanin-1 Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Sobolesky, Philip; Parry, Celeste; Boxall, Baylye; Wells, Randall; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted approaches have been widely used to help explain physiological adaptations, but few studies have used non-targeted omics approaches to explore differences between diving marine mammals and terrestrial mammals. A rank comparison of undepleted serum proteins from common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and pooled normal human serum led to the discovery of 11 proteins that appeared exclusive to dolphin serum. Compared to the comprehensive human plasma proteome, 5 of 11 serum proteins had a differential rank greater than 200. One of these proteins, Vanin-1, was quantified using parallel reaction monitoring in dolphins under human care and free-ranging dolphins. Dolphin serum Vanin-1 ranged between 31–106 μg/ml, which is 20–1000 times higher than concentrations reported for healthy humans. Serum Vanin-1 was also higher in dolphins under human care compared to free-ranging dolphins (64 ± 16 vs. 47 ± 12 μg/ml P < 0.05). Vanin-1 levels positively correlated with liver enzymes AST and ALT, and negatively correlated with white blood cell counts and fibrinogen in free-ranging dolphins. Major differences exist in the circulating blood proteome of the bottlenose dolphin compared to terrestrial mammals and exploration of these differences in bottlenose dolphins and other marine mammals may identify veiled protective strategies to counter physiological stress. PMID:27667588

  16. Health of common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, following the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Smith, Cynthia R; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Hart, Leslie B; Balmer, Brian C; Collier, Tracy K; De Guise, Sylvain; Fry, Michael M; Guillette, Louis J; Lamb, Stephen V; Lane, Suzanne M; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Tumlin, Mandy C; Ylitalo, Gina M; Zolman, Eric S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    The oil spill resulting from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform initiated immediate concern for marine wildlife, including common bottlenose dolphins in sensitive coastal habitats. To evaluate potential sublethal effects on dolphins, health assessments were conducted in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, an area that received heavy and prolonged oiling, and in a reference site, Sarasota Bay, Florida, where oil was not observed. Dolphins were temporarily captured, received a veterinary examination, and were then released. Dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay showed evidence of hypoadrenocorticism, consistent with adrenal toxicity as previously reported for laboratory mammals exposed to oil. Barataria Bay dolphins were 5 times more likely to have moderate-severe lung disease, generally characterized by significant alveolar interstitial syndrome, lung masses, and pulmonary consolidation. Of 29 dolphins evaluated from Barataria Bay, 48% were given a guarded or worse prognosis, and 17% were considered poor or grave, indicating that they were not expected to survive. Disease conditions in Barataria Bay dolphins were significantly greater in prevalence and severity than those in Sarasota Bay dolphins, as well as those previously reported in other wild dolphin populations. Many disease conditions observed in Barataria Bay dolphins are uncommon but consistent with petroleum hydrocarbon exposure and toxicity. PMID:24350796

  17. Lacaziosis and lacaziosis-like prevalence among wild, common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the west coast of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Burdett Hart, Leslie; Rotstein, Dave S; Wells, Randall S; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Schwacke, Lori H

    2011-05-24

    Lacaziosis (lobomycosis; Lacazia loboi) is a fungal skin disease that naturally occurs only in humans and dolphins. The first reported case of lacaziosis in a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus occurred in 1970 in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA, and subsequent photo-ID monitoring of the Sarasota Bay dolphin population has revealed persistence of the disease. The objectives of this study were to estimate lacaziosis prevalence (P) in 2 bottlenose dolphin populations on the west coast of Florida (Sarasota Bay and Charlotte Harbor) and compare disease occurrence to other published estimates of lacaziosis in dolphin populations across the globe. Historic photographic records of dolphins captured and released for health assessment purposes (Sarasota Bay) and photo-ID studies (Charlotte Harbor) were screened for evidence of lesions consistent with lacaziosis. Health assessment data revealed a prevalence of lacaziosis in the Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphin population between 2 and 3%, and analyses of photo-ID data provided a lacaziosis-like prevalence estimate of 2% for Charlotte Harbor dolphins. With the exception of lacaziosis prevalence estimates for dolphins inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (P = 0.068; P = 0.12), no statistically significant differences were seen among Sarasota Bay, Charlotte Harbor, and other published estimates. Although lacaziosis is a rare disease among these dolphin populations, studies that assess disease burden among different populations can assist with the surveillance of this zoonotic pathogen.

  18. Health of common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, following the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Smith, Cynthia R; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Hart, Leslie B; Balmer, Brian C; Collier, Tracy K; De Guise, Sylvain; Fry, Michael M; Guillette, Louis J; Lamb, Stephen V; Lane, Suzanne M; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Tumlin, Mandy C; Ylitalo, Gina M; Zolman, Eric S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    The oil spill resulting from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform initiated immediate concern for marine wildlife, including common bottlenose dolphins in sensitive coastal habitats. To evaluate potential sublethal effects on dolphins, health assessments were conducted in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, an area that received heavy and prolonged oiling, and in a reference site, Sarasota Bay, Florida, where oil was not observed. Dolphins were temporarily captured, received a veterinary examination, and were then released. Dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay showed evidence of hypoadrenocorticism, consistent with adrenal toxicity as previously reported for laboratory mammals exposed to oil. Barataria Bay dolphins were 5 times more likely to have moderate-severe lung disease, generally characterized by significant alveolar interstitial syndrome, lung masses, and pulmonary consolidation. Of 29 dolphins evaluated from Barataria Bay, 48% were given a guarded or worse prognosis, and 17% were considered poor or grave, indicating that they were not expected to survive. Disease conditions in Barataria Bay dolphins were significantly greater in prevalence and severity than those in Sarasota Bay dolphins, as well as those previously reported in other wild dolphin populations. Many disease conditions observed in Barataria Bay dolphins are uncommon but consistent with petroleum hydrocarbon exposure and toxicity.

  19. Spatial Models of Abundance and Habitat Preferences of Commerson’s and Peale’s Dolphin in Southern Patagonian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Dellabianca, Natalia A.; Pierce, Graham J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Scioscia, Gabriela; Miller, David L.; Torres, Mónica A.; Paso Viola, M. Natalia; Schiavini, Adrián C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Commerson’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii) and Peale’s dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf. Spatial models were constructed using generalized additive models. In total, 88 schools (212 individuals) of Commerson’s dolphin and 134 schools (465 individuals) of Peale’s dolphin were recorded in 8,535 km surveyed. Commerson’s dolphin was found less than 60 km from shore; whereas Peale’s dolphins occurred over a wider range of distances from the coast, the number of animals sighted usually being larger near or far from the coast. Fitted models indicate overall abundances of approximately 22,000 Commerson’s dolphins and 20,000 Peale’s dolphins in the total area studied. This work provides the first large-scale abundance estimate for Peale’s dolphin in the Atlantic Ocean and an update of population size for Commerson’s dolphin. Additionally, our results contribute to baseline data on suitable habitat conditions for both species in southern Patagonia, which is essential for the implementation of adequate conservation measures. PMID:27783627

  20. Assessing the Impact of Bycatch on Dolphin Populations: The Case of the Common Dolphin in the Eastern North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of −5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  1. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  2. [Hearing impairment and dementia].

    PubMed

    Kilimann, I; Óvari, A; Hermann, A; Witt, G; Pau, H W; Teipel, S

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) burden of disease study identified dementia and hearing problems as leading causes of loss of quality of life in the industrial world. The prevalence of dementia and hearing problems increases in aging societies. Comorbidity of these two diseases causes increasing demands on healthcare systems. The similarity and possible interaction of symptoms renders diagnosis and therapy of dementia and hearing loss a challenge for neurologists, psychiatrists, ear, nose and throat (ENT) and hearing specialists. Knowledge of both diseases enables an early intervention and helps preserve participation in society and thereby reducing the risk of developing dementia. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the diagnosis and therapy of hearing problems and dementia.

  3. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  4. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Maggie; Heman-Ackah, Selena E.; Shaikh, Jamil A.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly encountered in audiologic and otolaryngologic practice. SSNHL is most commonly defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within a 72-hr period. Although the differential for SSNHL is vast, for the majority of patients an etiologic factor is not identified. Treatment for SSNHL of known etiology is directed toward that agent, with poor hearing outcomes characteristic for discoverable etiologies that cause inner ear hair cell loss. Steroid therapy is the current mainstay of treatment of idiopathic SSNHL in the United States. The prognosis for hearing recovery for idiopathic SSNHL is dependent on a number of factors including the severity of hearing loss, age, presence of vertigo, and shape of the audiogram. PMID:21606048

  5. Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vuković, S; Lucić, H; Zivković, A; Duras Gomercić, M; Gomercić, T; Galov, A

    2010-02-01

    The structure of the adrenal gland was studied in 11 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and five striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). These species are legally protected in Croatia. All examined animals died of natural causes and were found stranded along eastern Adriatic coast. In both species the adrenal gland consists of a cortex and a medulla; the cortex is divided into three zones. Whereas in the bottlenose dolphin, there is a zona arcuata which contains columnar cells arranged in the form of arches; in the striped dolphin this zone is replaced by zona glomerulosa containing rounded clusters of polygonal cells. In both species, the zona fasciculata consists of radially oriented cords of polygonal cells, whereas in zona reticularis cells are arranged in branching and anastomosing cords. The adrenal medulla in both species contains dark, epinephrine-secreting cells and light norepinephrine-secreting cells. Epinephrine-secreting cells are localized in the outer part of the medulla, whereas norepinephrine-secreting cells are found in the inner part, arranged in clusters and surrounded by septa of thin connective tissue. The gland is surrounded by a thick connective-tissue capsule, from where thick trabeculae extend towards the interior. In the bottlenose dolphin, group of cells resembling both medullar and cortical cells can be seen within the capsule; whereas only groups of cells resembling cortical cells are found within the capsule of the striped dolphin. In the bottlenose dolphin invagination of the adrenal cortex into the medulla is obvious as well as medullary protrusions extending through cortex to the connective tissue capsule. PMID:19912161

  6. Hearing Aids and Hearing Impaired Students in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Charles

    This paper describes functions of the components of hearing aids and provides a detailed procedure to detect hearing aid dysfunctions. The most common type of hearing aids for school children are the behind the ear type. Various hearing aid components change sound into an electrical signal, which is amplified and adjusted by a volume control. The…

  7. Dolphin whistles: a functional misnomer revealed by heliox breathing.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P T; Jensen, F H; Carder, D; Ridgway, S

    2012-04-23

    Delphinids produce tonal whistles shaped by vocal learning for acoustic communication. Unlike terrestrial mammals, delphinid sound production is driven by pressurized air within a complex nasal system. It is unclear how fundamental whistle contours can be maintained across a large range of hydrostatic pressures and air sac volumes. Two opposing hypotheses propose that tonal sounds arise either from tissue vibrations or through actual whistle production from vortices stabilized by resonating nasal air volumes. Here, we use a trained bottlenose dolphin whistling in air and in heliox to test these hypotheses. The fundamental frequency contours of stereotyped whistles were unaffected by the higher sound speed in heliox. Therefore, the term whistle is a functional misnomer as dolphins actually do not whistle, but form the fundamental frequency contour of their tonal calls by pneumatically induced tissue vibrations analogous to the operation of vocal folds in terrestrial mammals and the syrinx in birds. This form of tonal sound production by nasal tissue vibrations has probably evolved in delphinids to enable impedance matching to the water, and to maintain tonal signature contours across changes in hydrostatic pressures, air density and relative nasal air volumes during dives. PMID:21900314

  8. Dolphin whistles: a functional misnomer revealed by heliox breathing

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, P. T.; Jensen, F. H.; Carder, D.; Ridgway, S.

    2012-01-01

    Delphinids produce tonal whistles shaped by vocal learning for acoustic communication. Unlike terrestrial mammals, delphinid sound production is driven by pressurized air within a complex nasal system. It is unclear how fundamental whistle contours can be maintained across a large range of hydrostatic pressures and air sac volumes. Two opposing hypotheses propose that tonal sounds arise either from tissue vibrations or through actual whistle production from vortices stabilized by resonating nasal air volumes. Here, we use a trained bottlenose dolphin whistling in air and in heliox to test these hypotheses. The fundamental frequency contours of stereotyped whistles were unaffected by the higher sound speed in heliox. Therefore, the term whistle is a functional misnomer as dolphins actually do not whistle, but form the fundamental frequency contour of their tonal calls by pneumatically induced tissue vibrations analogous to the operation of vocal folds in terrestrial mammals and the syrinx in birds. This form of tonal sound production by nasal tissue vibrations has probably evolved in delphinids to enable impedance matching to the water, and to maintain tonal signature contours across changes in hydrostatic pressures, air density and relative nasal air volumes during dives. PMID:21900314

  9. Dolphin echolocation strategies studied with the Biosonar Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian S.; Martin, Steve W.; Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Eric; Moore, Patrick W.

    2003-10-01

    Two free-swimming dolphins (Tt722 and Tt673) were trained to carry the Biosonar Measurement Tool (BMT) during open water, proud target searches in order to explore echolocation behavior without the constraints of traditional experimental designs. The BMT recorded the angular motion, depth, and velocity of the dolphin as well as echolocation clicks and echoes returning from insonified targets. Mean search time for Tt722 was 24.6+/-7.3 s and 6.5+/-3.0 s for Tt673 on target present trials, the former strategy resulting in the lower false alarm rate. The majority of clicks exceeded 195 dB re: 1 μPa throughout all trials for both animals but each demonstrated preferences for particular frequency bands of echolocation. Considering all trials, only 3.6% of all clicks produced by Tt722 contained peak frequencies greater than 60 kHz whereas Tt673 produced clicks with peak frequencies above 60 kHz 20.4% of the time. Distinctive frequency bands in the distribution of clicks were notable: bands for Tt673 occurred at 38, 54, and 69 kHz with less defined higher order bands; bands for Tt722 occurred at 25, 35, and 40 kHz. Distinctive frequency bands suggest a preferential use or mechanical constraint on harmonically related click frequencies.

  10. Secretory patterns of catecholamines in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miwa; Nozawa, Aoi; Ueda, Keiichi; Bungo, Takashi; Terao, Hiromi; Asahina, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-15

    Catecholamines (CAs), namely adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA), are secreted by the sympathoadrenal system and participate in a diverse array of functions, e.g., heat production, cardiovascular regulation, stress response and so on. However, little is known regarding peripheral CA fluctuations in cetaceans; nevertheless aquatic animals like them have needed to modify their physiological response especially for thermoregulation in water and oxygen economy during diving. To understand CA dynamism in cetaceans, diurnal changes in serum A, NA, and DA concentrations were measured during the winter and summer solstices in four Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). The average serum NA concentration was much higher than the average A and DA concentrations, and all concentrations were higher than those reported in other cetacean species. No distinct diurnal fluctuations were observed in CA concentrations in either solstice, suggesting inhibition of the decrease in CA concentrations during nocturnal periods by the unique sleep pattern of dolphins. All the serum CA concentrations were negatively correlated with water temperature as body temperatures were, indicating that the sympathoadrenal system might be more active during winter than in summer season, suggesting a role of CA in thermoregulation. PMID:22405705

  11. Characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in Europe.

    PubMed

    Visser, I K; Van Bressem, M F; de Swart, R L; van de Bildt, M W; Vos, H W; van der Heijden, R W; Saliki, J T; Orvell, C; Kitching, P; Kuiken, T

    1993-04-01

    A previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) that had died in the Dutch Waddensea (North Sea) in 1990. This porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) and a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), were compared antigenically with other members of the genus Morbillivirus, including the newly recognized phocine distemper virus type 1. DMV and PMV proved to be similar but distinct morbillivurses, closely related to rinderpest virus and peste-des-petitsruminants virus. Cell cultures of cetacean, pinniped, ruminant and canine origin showed a different pattern of susceptibility to DMV and PMV infection. Ruminants and dogs proved to be susceptible to experimental infection with DMV and PMV, which both caused a transient leukopenia most pronounced in the ruminants. Pre-exposure of dogs to DMV and PMV protected them from developing CDV viraemia and clinical signs upon challenge infection with virulent CDV. A serological survey among stranded animals of different cetacean species in Europe indicated that infections with DMV- and PMV-like morbilliviruses are not uncommon among these aquatic mammals. PMID:8468554

  12. Hearing loss in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M

    2012-06-15

    Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors.

  13. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ...

  14. Can You Hear Me Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Almost 15 percent of children from 6 to 19 years old have some degree of hearing loss in one or both ears. Offers guidelines for screening students' hearing and recommends that interventions begin with classroom acoustics, which affect all children including those with normal hearing. Includes strategies for accommodating hearing-impaired…

  15. Hearing in Cavefishes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daphne; Niemiller, Matthew L; Higgs, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Caves and associated subterranean habitats represent some of the harshest environments on Earth, yet many organisms, including fishes, have colonized and thrive in these habitats despite the complete absence of light, and other abiotic and biotic constraints. Over 170 species of fishes are considered obligate subterranean inhabitants (stygobionts) that exhibit some degree of troglomorphy, including degeneration of eyes and reduction in pigmentation. To compensate for lack of vision, many species have evolved constructive changes to non-visual sensory modalities. In this chapter we review hearing in cavefishes, with particular emphasize on our own studies on amblyopsid cavefishes. Hearing in cavefishes has not been well studied to date, as hearing ability has only been examined in four species. Two species show no differences in hearing ability relative to their surface relatives, while the other two species (family Amblyopsidae) exhibit regression in the form of reduced hearing range and reduction in hair cell densities on sensory epithelia. In addition to reviewing our current knowledge on cavefish hearing, we offer suggestions for future avenues of research on cavefish hearing and discuss the influence of Popper and Fay on the field of cavefish bioacoustics.

  16. Hearing in Cavefishes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daphne; Niemiller, Matthew L; Higgs, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Caves and associated subterranean habitats represent some of the harshest environments on Earth, yet many organisms, including fishes, have colonized and thrive in these habitats despite the complete absence of light, and other abiotic and biotic constraints. Over 170 species of fishes are considered obligate subterranean inhabitants (stygobionts) that exhibit some degree of troglomorphy, including degeneration of eyes and reduction in pigmentation. To compensate for lack of vision, many species have evolved constructive changes to non-visual sensory modalities. In this chapter we review hearing in cavefishes, with particular emphasize on our own studies on amblyopsid cavefishes. Hearing in cavefishes has not been well studied to date, as hearing ability has only been examined in four species. Two species show no differences in hearing ability relative to their surface relatives, while the other two species (family Amblyopsidae) exhibit regression in the form of reduced hearing range and reduction in hair cell densities on sensory epithelia. In addition to reviewing our current knowledge on cavefish hearing, we offer suggestions for future avenues of research on cavefish hearing and discuss the influence of Popper and Fay on the field of cavefish bioacoustics. PMID:26515315

  17. Feeding at a high pitch: source parameters of narrow band, high-frequency clicks from echolocating off-shore hourglass dolphins and coastal Hector's dolphins.

    PubMed

    Kyhn, Line A; Tougaard, J; Jensen, F; Wahlberg, M; Stone, G; Yoshinaga, A; Beedholm, K; Madsen, P T

    2009-03-01

    Toothed whales depend on echolocation for orientation and prey localization, and source parameters of echolocation clicks from free-ranging animals therefore convey valuable information about the acoustic physiology and behavioral ecology of the recorded species. Recordings of wild hourglass (Lagenorhynchus cruciger) and Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) were made in the Drake Passage (between Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsular) and Banks Peninsular (Akaroa Harbour, New Zealand) with a four element hydrophone array. Analysis of source parameters shows that both species produce narrow band high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation clicks. Coastal Hector's dolphins produce clicks with a mean peak frequency of 129 kHz, 3 dB bandwidth of 20 kHz, 57 micros, 10 dB duration, and mean apparent source level (ASL) of 177 dB re 1 microPa(p.-p.). The oceanic hourglass dolphins produce clicks with mean peak frequency of 126 kHz, 3 dB bandwidth of 8 kHz, 116 micros, 10 dB duration, and a mean estimated ASL of 197 dB re 1 microPa(p.-p.). Thus, hourglass dolphins apparently produce clicks of higher source level, which should allow them to detect prey at more than twice the distance compared to Hector's dolphins. The observed source parameter differences within these two NBHF species may be an adaptation to a coastal cluttered environment versus a deep water, pelagic habitat. PMID:19275335

  18. Restoration of hearing by hearing aids: conventional hearing aids – implantable hearing aids – cochlear implants – auditory brainstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Leuwer, R.; Müller, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this report is to explain the current concept of hearing restoration using hearing aids. At present the main issues of conventional hearing aids are the relative benefits of analogue versus digital devices and different strategies for the improvement of hearing in noise. Implantable hearing aids provide a better sound quality and less distortion. The lack of directional microphones is the major disadvantage of the partially implantable hearing aids commercially available. Two different clinical studies about fully implantable hearing aids have been started in 2004. One of the most-promising developments seems to be the electric-acoustic stimulation. PMID:22073051

  19. How dolphins see the world: a comparison with chimpanzees and humans.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Uwano, Yuka; Saito, Toyoshi

    2014-01-16

    Bottlenose dolphins use auditory (or echoic) information to recognise their environments, and many studies have described their echolocation perception abilities. However, relatively few systematic studies have examined their visual perception. We tested dolphins on a visual-matching task using two-dimensional geometric forms including various features. Based on error patterns, we used multidimensional scaling to analyse perceptual similarities among stimuli. In addition to dolphins, we conducted comparable tests with terrestrial species: chimpanzees were tested on a computer-controlled matching task and humans were tested on a rating task. The overall perceptual similarities among stimuli in dolphins were similar to those in the two species of primates. These results clearly indicate that the visual world is perceived similarly by the three species of mammals, even though each has adapted to a different environment and has differing degrees of dependence on vision.

  20. Development and application of specific cytokine assays in tissue samples from a bottlenose dolphin with hyperinsulinemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia) , chronic = inflamma...

  1. Systemic herpesvirus and morbillivirus co-infection in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    PubMed

    Soto, S; González, B; Willoughby, K; Maley, M; Olvera, A; Kennedy, S; Marco, A; Domingo, M

    2012-01-01

    During 2007 a dolphin morbillivirus epizootic affected the western Mediterranean and several striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the Catalonian coasts. One of those animals had severe lymphoid depletion, necrosis and syncytial formation in lymph nodes and spleen, with large basophilic nuclear inclusions compatible with herpesvirus detected by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination. Non-suppurative encephalitis with associated morbillivirus antigen and morbillivirus antigen within alveolar macrophages were also observed. A pan-herpesvirus nested polymerase chain reaction amplified a sequence virtually identical to two cetacean herpesvirus sequences previously identified in systemic infections in an Atlantic Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and in a Mediterranean striped dolphin. The herpesviral infection was probably secondary to the immunosuppression caused by the morbillivirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cetacean co-infected by dolphin morbillivirus and herpesvirus with evidence of lesions attributable to both viruses.

  2. How dolphins see the world: A comparison with chimpanzees and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Uwano, Yuka; Saito, Toyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins use auditory (or echoic) information to recognise their environments, and many studies have described their echolocation perception abilities. However, relatively few systematic studies have examined their visual perception. We tested dolphins on a visual-matching task using two-dimensional geometric forms including various features. Based on error patterns, we used multidimensional scaling to analyse perceptual similarities among stimuli. In addition to dolphins, we conducted comparable tests with terrestrial species: chimpanzees were tested on a computer-controlled matching task and humans were tested on a rating task. The overall perceptual similarities among stimuli in dolphins were similar to those in the two species of primates. These results clearly indicate that the visual world is perceived similarly by the three species of mammals, even though each has adapted to a different environment and has differing degrees of dependence on vision. PMID:24435017

  3. Helicobacter cetorum infection in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), and short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphus) from the southwest coast of England.

    PubMed

    Davison, Nicholas J; Barnett, James E F; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Perkins, Matthew W; Deaville, Robert C; Jepson, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Helicobacter infection in cetaceans was first reported from the US in 2000 when the isolation of a novel Helicobacter species was described from two Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus). Since then, Helicobacter species have been demonstrated in cetaceans and pinnipeds from around the world. Since 1990, the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Polwhele, Truro, has been involved in the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme to establish the cause of death of cetacean species stranded along the coast of Cornwall, England. We describe the isolation of Helicobacter cetorum in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and evidence of H. cetorum infection in cetaceans from European waters. PMID:24807181

  4. Echolocation parameters of Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the wild.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Mafalda; Jensen, Frants H; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Madsen, Peter T

    2015-06-01

    Echolocation is a key sensory modality for toothed whale orientation, navigation, and foraging. However, a more comparative understanding of the biosonar properties of toothed whales is necessary to understand behavioral and evolutionary adaptions. To address this, two free-ranging sympatric delphinid species, Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), were studied. Biosonar clicks from both species were recorded within the same stretch of coastal habitat in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, using a vertical seven element hydrophone array. S. sahulensis used biosonar clicks with a mean source level of 199 ± 3 dB re 1 μPa peak-peak (pp), mean centroid frequency of 106 ± 11 kHz, and emitted at interclick intervals (ICIs) of 79 ± 33 ms. These parameters were similar to click parameters of sympatric T. aduncus, characterized by mean source levels of 204 ± 4 dB re 1 μPa pp, centroid frequency of 112 ± 9 kHz, and ICIs of 73 ± 29 ms. These properties are comparable to those of other similar sized delphinids and suggest that biosonar parameters are independent of sympatric delphinids and possibly driven by body size. The dynamic biosonar behavior of these delphinids may have, consequently, allowed for adaptations to local environments through high levels of control over sonar beam properties.

  5. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Stew, B T; Fishpool, S J C; Williams, H

    2012-02-01

    Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss is a medical emergency that continues to be poorly understood despite being recognized in the literature since 1944 (De Kleyn, 1944). A commonly used criterion to qualify for this diagnosis is a sensorineural hearing loss over three contiguous pure-tone frequencies of 30 dB or more that develops within 72 hours. The vast majority of cases are unilateral and the estimated annual incidence is 20 per 100 000 persons (Nosrati-Zarenoe et al, 2007). A cause for the hearing loss is only identified in up to 10% of cases but 50% of patients will improve spontaneously (Penido et al, 2009).

  6. Micromechanics of hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The following summarizes the key points addressed during a tutorial session on the Micromechanics of Hearing that took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. The tutorial was intended to present an overview of basic ideas and to address topics of current interest relevant to the Workshop. The session was recorded, and the audio file and accompanying visual content of the presentation can be found in the Mechanics of Hearing Digital Library (www.mechanicsofhearing.org).

  7. Apps for hearing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The hearing healthcare scenario is rapidly evolving due to the pervasive use of m-Health solutions, in particular mobile apps. This brings along significant advantages and opportunities (e.g., accessibility, affordability, personalized healthcare, patient empowerment) as well as significant potential risks and threats (e.g., safety, misuse, quality issues, privacy). Our research aims at the identification and assessment of apps in the hearing healthcare domain. In this article we present an overview of the current availability, variety, and penetration of hearing-related apps.

  8. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Stew, B T; Fishpool, S J C; Williams, H

    2012-02-01

    Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss is a medical emergency that continues to be poorly understood despite being recognized in the literature since 1944 (De Kleyn, 1944). A commonly used criterion to qualify for this diagnosis is a sensorineural hearing loss over three contiguous pure-tone frequencies of 30 dB or more that develops within 72 hours. The vast majority of cases are unilateral and the estimated annual incidence is 20 per 100 000 persons (Nosrati-Zarenoe et al, 2007). A cause for the hearing loss is only identified in up to 10% of cases but 50% of patients will improve spontaneously (Penido et al, 2009). PMID:22504750

  9. Concurrent Exposure of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to Multiple Algal Toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Twiner, Michael J.; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K.; Wells, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000–2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118) and 53% positive for DA (n = 83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  10. Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Spontaneously Using Water Flow to Manipulate Objects

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Furuta, Keisuke; Taki, Michihiro; Morisaka, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Several terrestrial animals and delphinids manipulate objects in a tactile manner, using parts of their bodies, such as their mouths or hands. In this paper, we report that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) manipulate objects not by direct bodily contact, but by spontaneous water flow. Three of four dolphins at Suma Aqualife Park performed object manipulation with food. The typical sequence of object manipulation consisted of a three step procedure. First, the dolphins released the object from the sides of their mouths while assuming a head-down posture near the floor. They then manipulated the object around their mouths and caught it. Finally, they ceased to engage in their head-down posture and started to swim. When the dolphins moved the object, they used the water current in the pool or moved their head. These results showed that dolphins manipulate objects using movements that do not directly involve contact between a body part and the object. In the event the dolphins dropped the object on the floor, they lifted it by making water flow in one of three methods: opening and closing their mouths repeatedly, moving their heads lengthwise, or making circular head motions. This result suggests that bottlenose dolphins spontaneously change their environment to manipulate objects. The reason why aquatic animals like dolphins do object manipulation by changing their environment but terrestrial animals do not may be that the viscosity of the aquatic environment is much higher than it is in terrestrial environments. This is the first report thus far of any non-human mammal engaging in object manipulation using several methods to change their environment. PMID:25250625

  11. In vitro PFOS exposure on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and mice.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1)) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1). Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins. PMID:23722986

  12. Concurrent exposure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to multiple algal toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Twiner, Michael J; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000-2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118) and 53% positive for DA (n = 83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  13. Seasonal variation and tidal influences on estuarine use by bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fury, Christine A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2011-07-01

    In order to show that dolphins use estuary habitats differently depending on the season and tidal state, possibly in response to prey distribution, temperature, risk of stranding and accessibility, Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus) were observed year-round during a 3-year study in the Clarence River estuary (CR) and Richmond River estuary (RR) in northern New South Wales, Australia. Peak dolphin sightings occurred during the spring season and one or 2 h prior to high tide. The spatial distribution of the dolphins in each estuary was analysed using the distance in kilometres that the dolphins travelled upstream with seasons and tidal phase as determinants. A General Linear Model showed that in the CR the dolphin spatial distribution in the estuary was not determined by season ( F = 0.434, df = 3, P = 0.729) but was by tidal phase ( F = 9.943, df = 3, P < 0.001) and the interaction between season and tidal phase ( F = 3.398, df = 9, P < 0.002). However, in the RR the spatial distribution of the dolphin use of the estuary was not determined by either season ( F = 1.647, df = 3, P = 0.194) or tidal phase ( F = 0.302, df = 3, P = 0.824). In the CR, the spatial distribution of the dolphins was largest on high and flood tides. This pattern of spatial distribution may occur because the CR is a relatively shallow estuary and this increased spatial distribution may reflect a lower stranding risk and an increase in accessibility of shallow areas during periods of higher tide. These areas could also provide access to their preferred prey items of sea mullet ( Mugil cephalus) and sand whiting ( Sillago ciliata).

  14. In vitro PFOS exposure on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and mice.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1)) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1). Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins.

  15. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other's movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other's movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins' kinematics is sensitive to other's movement features. Movements performed for the "visuomotor priming" condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific's behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability.

  16. Behavioural Responses of Dusky Dolphin Groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) to Tour Vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, David; Gemmell, Neil J.; Würsig, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial viewing and swimming with dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) near Kaikoura, New Zealand began in the late 1980s and researchers have previously described changes in vocalisation, aerial behaviour, and group spacing in the presence of vessels. This study was conducted to assess the current effects that tourism has on the activity budget of dusky dolphins to provide wildlife managers with information for current decision-making and facilitate development of quantitative criteria for management of this industry in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings First-order time discrete Markov chain models were used to assess changes in the behavioural state of dusky dolphin pods targeted by tour vessels. Log-linear analysis was conducted on behavioural state transitions to determine whether the likelihood of dolphins moving from one behavioural state to another changed based on natural and anthropogenic factors. The best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria values included season, time of day, and vessel presence within 300 m. Interactions with vessels reduced the proportion of time dolphins spent resting in spring and summer and increased time spent milling in all seasons except autumn. Dolphins spent more time socialising in spring and summer, when conception occurs and calves are born, and the proportion of time spent resting was highest in summer. Resting decreased and traveling increased in the afternoon. Conclusions/Significance Responses to tour vessel traffic are similar to those described for dusky dolphins elsewhere. Disturbance linked to vessels may interrupt social interactions, carry energetic costs, or otherwise affect individual fitness. Research is needed to determine if increased milling is a result of acoustic masking of communication due to vessel noise, and to establish levels at which changes to behavioural budgets of dusky dolphins are likely to cause long-term harm. Threshold values from these studies

  17. Western blot expression of 5-lipoxygenase in the brain from striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) with or without encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis of infectious nature.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Falconi, A; Di Francesco, A; Mazzariol, S; Centelleghe, C; Casalone, C; Pautasso, A; Cocumelli, C; Eleni, C; Petrella, A; Di Francesco, C E; Sabatucci, A; Leonardi, L; Serroni, A; Marsili, L; Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2015-01-01

    Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV), Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella ceti are pathogens of major concern for wild cetaceans. Although a more or less severe encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis may occur in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected by the aforementioned agents, almost no information is available on the neuropathogenesis of brain lesions, including the neuronal and non-neuronal cells targeted during infection, along with the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We analyzed 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) expression in the brain of 11 striped dolphins and 5 bottlenose dolphins, affected or not by encephalitic lesions of various degrees associated with DMV, T. gondii and B. ceti. All the 8 striped dolphins with encephalitis showed a more consistent 5-LOX expression than that observed in the 3 striped dolphins showing no morphologic evidence of brain lesions, with the most prominent band intensity being detected in a B. ceti-infected animal. Similar results were not obtained in T. gondii-infected vs T. gondii-uninfected bottlenose dolphins. Overall, the higher 5-LOX expression found in the brain of the 8 striped dolphins with infectious neuroinflammation is of interest, given that 5-LOX is a putative marker for neurodegeneration in human patients and in experimental animal models. Therefore, further investigation on this challenging issue is also needed in stranded cetaceans affected by central neuropathies.

  18. Western blot expression of 5-lipoxygenase in the brain from striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) with or without encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis of infectious nature.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Falconi, A; Di Francesco, A; Mazzariol, S; Centelleghe, C; Casalone, C; Pautasso, A; Cocumelli, C; Eleni, C; Petrella, A; Di Francesco, C E; Sabatucci, A; Leonardi, L; Serroni, A; Marsili, L; Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2015-01-01

    Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV), Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella ceti are pathogens of major concern for wild cetaceans. Although a more or less severe encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis may occur in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected by the aforementioned agents, almost no information is available on the neuropathogenesis of brain lesions, including the neuronal and non-neuronal cells targeted during infection, along with the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We analyzed 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) expression in the brain of 11 striped dolphins and 5 bottlenose dolphins, affected or not by encephalitic lesions of various degrees associated with DMV, T. gondii and B. ceti. All the 8 striped dolphins with encephalitis showed a more consistent 5-LOX expression than that observed in the 3 striped dolphins showing no morphologic evidence of brain lesions, with the most prominent band intensity being detected in a B. ceti-infected animal. Similar results were not obtained in T. gondii-infected vs T. gondii-uninfected bottlenose dolphins. Overall, the higher 5-LOX expression found in the brain of the 8 striped dolphins with infectious neuroinflammation is of interest, given that 5-LOX is a putative marker for neurodegeneration in human patients and in experimental animal models. Therefore, further investigation on this challenging issue is also needed in stranded cetaceans affected by central neuropathies. PMID:25864766

  19. Distribution and feeding ecology of dolphins along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doksæter, L.; Olsen, E.; Nøttestad, L.; Fernö, A.

    2008-01-01

    During Leg 1 of the MAR-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars in June 2004 four main species of dolphins were observed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores: pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) ( n=326), short-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) ( n=273), white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) ( n=103), and striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba) ( n=86). Pilot whales and white-sided dolphins were found in cold (5-16 °C) and less-saline (34.6-35.8‰) water masses in the northern part of the study area, whereas common and striped dolphins inhabited warmer (12-22 °C) and more-saline (34.8-36.7‰) waters in the south. Dolphins tended to aggregate in areas of steep slopes, but actual bottom depth appeared to be less important. Based on spatial correlations between dolphin occurrence and candidate prey organisms recorded acoustically and by midwater trawling, mesopelagic fishes and squids were assumed to be important prey items, with Benthosema glaciale probably being the most important prey for pilot whales and white-sided dolphins, while Lampanyctus macdonaldi, Stomias boa ferox and Chauliodus sloani were probably of particular importance for common dolphins. Cephalopods, especially Gonatus sp. and Teuthowenia megalops were the most likely prey species of pilot whales and striped dolphins, respectively. The difference in physical habitat north and south of the Sub-polar Frontal Zone seemed to have important effects on prey distribution, in turn influencing dolphin distribution.

  20. Differences in acoustic features of vocalizations produced by killer whales cross-socialized with bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Musser, Whitney B; Bowles, Ann E; Grebner, Dawn M; Crance, Jessica L

    2014-10-01

    Limited previous evidence suggests that killer whales (Orcinus orca) are capable of vocal production learning. However, vocal contextual learning has not been studied, nor the factors promoting learning. Vocalizations were collected from three killer whales with a history of exposure to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and compared with data from seven killer whales held with conspecifics and nine bottlenose dolphins. The three whales' repertoires were distinguishable by a higher proportion of click trains and whistles. Time-domain features of click trains were intermediate between those of whales held with conspecifics and dolphins. These differences provided evidence for contextual learning. One killer whale spontaneously learned to produce artificial chirps taught to dolphins; acoustic features fell within the range of inter-individual differences among the dolphins. This whale also produced whistles similar to a stereotyped whistle produced by one dolphin. Thus, results provide further support for vocal production learning and show that killer whales are capable of contextual learning. That killer whales produce similar repertoires when associated with another species suggests substantial vocal plasticity and motivation for vocal conformity with social associates. PMID:25324098

  1. Clicks, whistles and pulses: Passive and active signal use in dolphin communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzing, Denise L.

    2014-12-01

    The search for signals out of noise is a problem not only with radio signals from the sky but in the study of animal communication. Dolphins use multiple modalities to communicate including body postures, touch, vision, and most elaborately sound. Like SETI radio signal searches, dolphin sound analysis includes the detection, recognition, analysis, and interpretation of signals. Dolphins use both passive listening and active production to communicate. Dolphins use three main types of acoustic signals: frequency modulated whistles (narrowband with harmonics), echolocation (broadband clicks) and burst pulsed sounds (packets of closely spaced broadband clicks). Dolphin sound analysis has focused on frequency-modulated whistles, yet the most commonly used signals are burst-pulsed sounds which, due to their graded and overlapping nature and bimodal inter-click interval (ICI) rates are hard to categorize. We will look at: 1) the mechanism of sound production and categories of sound types, 2) sound analysis techniques and information content, and 3) examples of lessons learned in the study of dolphin acoustics. The goal of this paper is to provide perspective on how animal communication studies might provide insight to both passive and active SETI in the larger context of searching for life signatures.

  2. A multimodal detection model of dolphins to estimate abundance validated by field experiments.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ura, Tamaki; Sugimatsu, Harumi; Bahl, Rajendar; Behera, Sandeep; Panda, Sudarsan; Khan, Muntaz; Kar, S K; Kar, C S; Kimura, Satoko; Sasaki-Yamamoto, Yukiko

    2013-09-01

    Abundance estimation of marine mammals requires matching of detection of an animal or a group of animal by two independent means. A multimodal detection model using visual and acoustic cues (surfacing and phonation) that enables abundance estimation of dolphins is proposed. The method does not require a specific time window to match the cues of both means for applying mark-recapture method. The proposed model was evaluated using data obtained in field observations of Ganges River dolphins and Irrawaddy dolphins, as examples of dispersed and condensed distributions of animals, respectively. The acoustic detection probability was approximately 80%, 20% higher than that of visual detection for both species, regardless of the distribution of the animals in present study sites. The abundance estimates of Ganges River dolphins and Irrawaddy dolphins fairly agreed with the numbers reported in previous monitoring studies. The single animal detection probability was smaller than that of larger cluster size, as predicted by the model and confirmed by field data. However, dense groups of Irrawaddy dolphins showed difference in cluster sizes observed by visual and acoustic methods. Lower detection probability of single clusters of this species seemed to be caused by the clumped distribution of this species.

  3. The central vestibular complex in dolphins and humans: functional implications of Deiters' nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kern, A; Seidel, K; Oelschläger, H H A

    2009-01-01

    Toothed whales (Odontocetes; e.g., dolphins) are well-known for efficient underwater locomotion and for their acrobatic capabilities. Nevertheless, in relation to other mammals including the human and with respect to body size, their vestibular apparatus is reduced, particularly the semicircular canals. Concomitantly, the vestibular nerve and most of the vestibular nuclei are thin and small, respectively, in comparison with those in terrestrial mammals. In contrast, the lateral (Deiters') vestibular nucleus is comparatively well developed in both coastal and pelagic dolphins. In the La Plata dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) and the Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), all of the vestibular nuclei are present and their topographic relations are similar to those in humans. Quantitative analysis, however, revealed that in the dolphin most of the nuclei (superior, medial, descending nucleus) are minute both in absolute and relative terms. Here, the only exception is the lateral vestibular nucleus, which is of comparable size in humans and Pontoporia and decidedly more voluminous in Delphinus. While the small size of the majority of the dolphin's vestibular nuclei correlates well with miniaturization of the semicircular canals, the size of Deiters' nucleus seems to support its relative independence from the vestibular system and a close functional relationship with the cerebellum. In comparison with findings in humans and other terrestrial mammals, both of these aspects seem to be related to the physical conditions of aquatic life and locomotion in three dimensions. PMID:19390175

  4. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Proietto, U; Di Francesco, C E; Marsilio, F; Zaccaroni, A; Scaravelli, D; Mignone, W; Garibaldi, F; Kennedy, S; Forster, F; Iulini, B; Bozzetta, E; Casalone, C

    2010-03-01

    This article reports the results of necropsy, parasitologic, microbiologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, indirect immunofluorescence, biomolecular, and serologic investigations on 8 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) found stranded from August to December 2007 on the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy. Severe, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was found in 4 animals, as characterized by prominent perivascular mononuclear cell cuffing and macrophage accumulations in neuropil. These lesions were associated with mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic infiltration of choroid plexuses in 1 dolphin. Toxoplasma gondii cysts and zoites, confirmed by immunohistochemical labeling, were scattered throughout the brain parenchyma of 2 of the 4 dolphins. No viral inclusions were seen in the brain of any animal. Other findings included severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia and pulmonary atelectasis, consolidation, and emphysema. Parasites were identified in a variety of organs, including lung (Halocerchus lagenorhynchi). Microbiologic and serologic examinations for Brucella spp were negative on all 8 dolphins. The 4 animals with meningoencephalitis had serum antibodies against T gondii (titers ranging from 1:80 to 1:320) but not against morbillivirus. In contrast, the other 4 dolphins were seropositive for morbillivirus (with titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:40) but seronegative for T gondii. No morbillivirus antigen or nucleic acid was detected in the tissues of any dolphin. It is concluded that the severe lung and brain lesions were the cause of death and that T gondii was the likely etiologic agent of the cerebral lesions. Morbillivirus infection was not considered to have contributed to death of these animals. PMID:20118319

  5. Differences in acoustic features of vocalizations produced by killer whales cross-socialized with bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Musser, Whitney B; Bowles, Ann E; Grebner, Dawn M; Crance, Jessica L

    2014-10-01

    Limited previous evidence suggests that killer whales (Orcinus orca) are capable of vocal production learning. However, vocal contextual learning has not been studied, nor the factors promoting learning. Vocalizations were collected from three killer whales with a history of exposure to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and compared with data from seven killer whales held with conspecifics and nine bottlenose dolphins. The three whales' repertoires were distinguishable by a higher proportion of click trains and whistles. Time-domain features of click trains were intermediate between those of whales held with conspecifics and dolphins. These differences provided evidence for contextual learning. One killer whale spontaneously learned to produce artificial chirps taught to dolphins; acoustic features fell within the range of inter-individual differences among the dolphins. This whale also produced whistles similar to a stereotyped whistle produced by one dolphin. Thus, results provide further support for vocal production learning and show that killer whales are capable of contextual learning. That killer whales produce similar repertoires when associated with another species suggests substantial vocal plasticity and motivation for vocal conformity with social associates.

  6. Big brains and blood glucose: common ground for diabetes mellitus in humans and healthy dolphins.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Ridgway, Sam H

    2007-08-01

    Healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia, producing a prolonged glucose tolerance curve and a transient, diabetes mellitus-like state during 6 to 72 h of fasting. To further assess dolphins as comparative models for diabetes in humans, we hypothesized that a suite of hematological and clinical biochemistry changes during the fasting state may mimic those reported in humans with diabetes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of covariance to compare fasting and nonfasting hematologic and serum biochemical data, including 1161 routine blood samples from 52 healthy bottlenose dolphins (age, 1 to 49 y; male and female) collected during 1998 through 2005. Most changes found in dolphins during the fasting state--including significantly increased glucose, platelets, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase; significantly decreased serum uric acid; and shifts toward a metabolic acidodic state (significantly increased blood CO2)--have been previously associated with diabetes mellitus in humans. Therefore, healthy bottlenose dolphins may be the first complete and natural comparative animal model for diabetes mellitus in humans. Similarities between dolphins and humans, including metabolic changes associated with high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets; large brain-to-mass ratios; high central nervous system demands for glucose; and similarly unique blood glucose-carrying capacities should be further assessed to better understand the potential evolutionary paths of diabetes mellitus in these 2 species.

  7. Whistle repertoire of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mississippi Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Erica N.; Kuczaj, Stan; Solangi, Moby

    2005-09-01

    The whistle repertoire of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mississippi Sound, part of the northern Gulf of Mexico, was investigated. There is a large population of dolphins in this area, and many dolphins that are now housed in zoos and aquariums were captured in the Mississippi Sound. This paper reports the types of whistles that are predominant in this area, and how these whistles are used in the context of concurrent surface behavior. Over the course of 1 year (April 2004-March 2005), dolphin whistles were recorded as part of an ongoing study of the effects of human activity on wild bottlenose dolphins. The surface behavior of the focal group was categorized at 1-min intervals as follows: mill, travel, mill/travel, feed, social, with boat, or with shrimp boat. Whistles were then categorized as one of the following: upsweep, downsweep, convex, concave, sine, or constant frequency. Preliminary analysis of the data suggests that both the rate of whistling and the types of whistles produced vary as a function of dolphin behavior. Further analysis of the data will reveal if different types of whistles are associated with specific surface behavior categories. [Research supported by Department of Commerce.

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of environmental enrichment in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Fabienne, Delfour; Helen, Beyer

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is often used to improve well-being and reduce stereotyped behaviors in animals under human care. However, the use of objects to enrich animal environments should not be considered to be effective until its success has been scientifically demonstrated. This study was conducted at Asterix Park in France in April 2009. The study investigated the use of 21 familiar objects with a group of six bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The dolphin trainers introduced four different objects into the dolphin pool every day on a rotating basis. Using a focal-object sampling method, we collected and analyzed data from twenty-one 15 min sessions. The results revealed a positive correlation between interest behaviors and interactive behaviors. Some dolphins had "favorite toys". However, only 50% of objects elicited manipulative behaviors. These findings demonstrate that dolphins do not treat all objects provided to them as "toys". Behavioral changes in the animals subsequent to the introduction of objects do not necessarily indicate an enrichment effect of the objects; rather, the motivation for the dolphins' behaviors toward the objects must be investigated. The animals' behavior must be considered in light of the social context and of the animals' individual behavioral profiles. The relevance of a constructivist approach to evaluating the effectiveness of enrichment programs is discussed.

  9. Preliminary investigation of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for hfe gene-related hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brianne E; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Archer, Linda L; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Hemochromatosis (iron storage disease) has been reported in diverse mammals including bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The primary cause of excessive iron storage in humans is hereditary hemochromatosis. Most human hereditary hemochromatosis cases (up to 90%) are caused by a point mutation in the hfe gene, resulting in a C282Y substitution leading to iron accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of a hereditary hemochromatosis-like genetic predisposition in dolphins, we sequenced the bottlenose dolphin hfe gene, using reverse transcriptase-PCR and hfe primers designed from the dolphin genome, from liver of affected and healthy control dolphins. Sample size included two case animals and five control animals. Although isotype diversity was evident, no coding differences were identified in the hfe gene between any of the animals examined. Because our sample size was small, we cannot exclude the possibility that hemochromatosis in dolphins is due to a coding mutation in the hfe gene. Other potential causes of hemochromatosis, including mutations in different genes, diet, primary liver disease, and insulin resistance, should be evaluated.

  10. A combined stereo-photogrammetry and underwater-video system to study group composition of dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräger, S.; Chong, A.; Dawson, S.; Slooten, E.; Würsig, B.

    1999-11-01

    One reason for the paucity of knowledge of dolphin social structure is the difficulty of measuring individual dolphins. In Hector's dolphins, Cephalorhynchus hectori, total body length is a function of age, and sex can be determined by individual colouration pattern. We developed a novel system combining stereo-photogrammetry and underwater-video to record dolphin group composition. The system consists of two downward-looking single-lens-reflex (SLR) cameras and a Hi8 video camera in an underwater housing mounted on a small boat. Bow-riding Hector's dolphins were photographed and video-taped at close range in coastal waters around the South Island of New Zealand. Three-dimensional, stereoscopic measurements of the distance between the blowhole and the anterior margin of the dorsal fin (BH-DF) were calibrated by a suspended frame with reference points. Growth functions derived from measurements of 53 dead Hector's dolphins (29 female : 24 male) provided the necessary reference data. For the analysis, the measurements were synchronised with corresponding underwater-video of the genital area. A total of 27 successful measurements (8 with corresponding sex) were obtained, showing how this new system promises to be potentially useful for cetacean studies.

  11. Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

  12. Nearfield and farfield measurements of dolphin echolocation beam patterns: No evidence of focusing.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Branstetter, Brian; Moore, Patrick; Houser, Dorian S

    2016-08-01

    The potential for bottlenose dolphins to actively focus their biosonar transmissions was examined by measuring emitted clicks in four dolphins using horizontal, planar hydrophone arrays. Two hydrophone configurations were used: a rectangular array with hydrophones 0.2 to 2 m from the dolphins and a polar array with hydrophones 0.5 to 5 m from the dolphins. The biosonar task was a target change detection utilizing physical targets at ranges from 1.3 to 6.3 m with all subjects and "phantom" targets at simulated ranges from 2.5 to 20 m with two subjects. To provide a basis for evaluating the experimental data, sound fields radiated from flat and focused circular pistons were mathematically simulated using transient excitation functions similar to dolphin clicks. The array measurements showed no evidence that the dolphins adaptively focused their click emissions; axial amplitudes and iso-amplitude contours matched the pattern of the simulation results for flat transducers and showed a single region of maximum amplitude, beyond which spherical spreading loss was approximated. PMID:27586761

  13. Signature-whistle production in undisturbed free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mandy L. H.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Blum, James E.; Wells, Randall S.

    2004-01-01

    Data from behavioural observations and acoustic recordings of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were analysed to determine whether signature whistles are produced by wild undisturbed dolphins, and how whistle production varies with activity and group size. The study animals were part of a resident community of bottlenose dolphins near Sarasota, Florida, USA. This community of dolphins provides a unique opportunity for the study of signature-whistle production, since most animals have been recorded during capture-release events since 1975. Three mother-calf pairs and their associates were recorded for a total of 141.25 h between May and August of 1994 and 1995. Whistles of undisturbed dolphins were compared with those recorded from the same individuals during capture-release events. Whistles were conservatively classified into one of four categories: signature, probable signature, upsweep or other. For statistical analyses, signature and probable signature whistles were combined into a 'signature' category; upsweep and other whistles were combined into a 'non-signature' category. Both 'signature' and 'non-signature' whistle frequencies significantly increased as group size increased. There were significant differences in whistle frequencies across activity types: both 'signature' and 'non-signature' whistles were most likely to occur during socializing and least likely to occur during travelling. There were no significant interactions between group size and activity type. Signature and probable signature whistles made up ca. 52% of all whistles produced by these free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. PMID:15293858

  14. Occupational hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Sounds above 80 decibels ( ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery Military jobs that involve combat, aircraft ...

  15. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  16. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  17. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay. PMID:27703709

  18. Diagnosis of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Seven conference papers from the U.S.S.R., India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia consider the diagnosis of hearing loss. They are "Examination of Hearing of Children, Aged from 2 to 5, by Means of Playing Audiometry" by A. P. Kossacheva, "A Study of the Etiology and Pattern of Deafness in a School for the Deaf in Madras, South India" by Y.…

  19. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  20. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  1. VOT and hearing impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Harlan; Perkell, Joseph

    2001-05-01

    When deafened adults recover some hearing after receiving a cochlear implant, numerous changes in their speech occur at both phonemic and suprasegmental levels. If a change toward normative values is observed for some phonemic parameter, it may be attributed to the restored hearing; however, it may be a by-product of a suprasegmental change. Consistent with results reported for speakers with normal hearing, Lane et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3096-3106 (1995)] observed in implant users that VOT varies approximately linearly with syllable duration. Therefore, in comparing pre- and postimplant measures of VOT in five speakers, each token's VOT was adjusted for the change in syllable duration of that token relative to the mean syllable duration in a baseline session (called VOTc). Preimplant, the deaf speakers characteristically uttered plosives with abnormally short VOTc. With some hearing restored, four of the five lengthened VOTc. Changes in voiced plosives' VOTc with restored hearing were correlated with changes in SPL. Some of the reliable VOTc increases that were not correlated with SPL may have been caused by auditory validation of an internal model for phoneme production. Recent studies of VOT in hearing-impaired speakers will be reviewed in this light. [Work supported by NIDCD, NIH.

  2. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hundreds of birds, especially gray and white pelicans and cormorants, cover the water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. The basin is teeming with fish, attracting the crowd for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

  3. Restaurant noise, hearing loss, and hearing aids.

    PubMed Central

    Lebo, C P; Smith, M F; Mosher, E R; Jelonek, S J; Schwind, D R; Decker, K E; Krusemark, H J; Kurz, P L

    1994-01-01

    Our multidisciplinary team obtained noise data in 27 San Francisco Bay Area restaurants. These data included typical minimum, peak, and average sound pressure levels; digital tape recordings; subjective noise ratings; and on-site unaided and aided speech discrimination tests. We report the details and implications of these noise measurements and provide basic information on selecting hearing aids and suggestions for coping with restaurant noise. Images PMID:7941506

  4. Mercury and selenium in subantarctic Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii).

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Saez, Iris; Dellabianca, Natalia A; Goodall, R Natalie P; Cappozzo, H Luis; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro

    2013-02-01

    Total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were determined in hepatic, renal, and muscle tissues of seven specimens of Commerson's dolphins incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Liver yielded the mean highest concentration of THg 9.40 (9.92) μg g(-1) dry weight (DW) (standard deviation of the average in parenthesis); kidney and muscle showed similar values, ranging from 2.34 to 3.63 μg g(-1) DW. Selenium concentrations were similar in hepatic and renal tissues, with values from 13.62 to 14.56 μg g(-1) DW; the lowest concentration was observed in muscle, 4.13 (2.05) μg g(-1) DW. Among the specimens analyzed, the maximum concentrations of THg and Se were observed in the single adult female studied. An increasing age trend is observed for THg concentrations in tissues analyzed. The molar ratio of Se/Hg in the hepatic, renal, and muscle tissues were 8.7 (9.6), 13.2 (9.5), and 9.0 (11.4), respectively, suggesting Se protection against Hg toxicity. Silver concentrations in the three tissues were included, and the Se/(Hg + 0.5×Ag) molar ratio showed values closer to 1. Both Hg and Se concentrations in liver and kidney were comparable to those found in other small odontocetes from Argentine and Brazilian waters. This study constitutes the first joint description reported of Hg and Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and muscle of the Commerson's dolphin species. PMID:23225076

  5. 41 CFR 105-57.005 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-ADMINISTRATION WAGE GARNISHMENT § 105-57.005 Hearing. (a) GSA will provide a hearing, which at the hearing... summary of the facts presented; (2) The hearing official's findings, analysis and conclusions; and (3)...

  6. Acquired Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Margaret A

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss is the most common congenital sensory impairment. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001 to 2008, 20.3% of subjects aged greater than or equal to 12 had unilateral or bilateral hearing loss. The World Health Organization notes that, worldwide, there are 360 million people with disabling hearing loss, with 50% preventable. Although many hearing losses are acquired, many others are manifestations of preexisting conditions. The purpose of a pediatric hearing evaluation is to identify the degree and type of hearing loss and etiology and to outline a comprehensive strategy that supports language and social development and communication.

  7. The Marine Mammal Brain Game: Students Compare the Brains and Behaviors of Dolphins, Sea Lions, and Manatees in This Unique Standards-Based Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.; Morris, Lee G.; Fobbs, Archibald J., Jr.; Johnson, John I.

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. Dolphins belong to the taxonomic order Cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Manatees (sea cows),…

  8. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Similarly, T-lymphocyte proliferation and indices of innate immunity decreased with blubber PCB concentration, suggesting an increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Other persistent contaminants such as DDT which could potentially confound results were similar in the Georgia dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters.

  9. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the “visuomotor priming” condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  10. Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus along the coastal Atlantic Ocean, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, M Elizabeth; Mazzoil, Marilyn; McCulloch, Stephen; Bechdel, Sarah; O'Corry-Crowe, Greg; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2010-10-26

    This study represents the first systematic study of lacaziosis (lobomycosis) in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the Atlantic Ocean along the east-central coast of Florida, USA. Lacaziosis is a chronic infection of the skin caused by the fungus Lacazia loboi, which affects only dolphins and humans. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence (6.8 to 12.0%) of lacaziosis in resident dolphins from the adjacent Indian River Lagoon Estuary (IRL), where the disease is endemic. We examined the prevalence of lacaziosis in this coastal area using photo-identification data collected between 2002 and 2008 to determine the prevalence of lacaziosis in coastal dolphins using photographic methodology shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in prior research. The prevalence of skin lesions compatible with lacaziosis estimated from photographic data was 2.1% (6/284), approximately 3 times lower than that described for the estuarine population using similar methods. To exclude potential bias introduced by differences in study duration and survey effort among areas, an 18 mo period when effort was most equal (January 2006 to June 2007) was chosen for statistical comparison. The prevalence of lacaziosis estimated from photographic data was significantly lower (3.8%: n = 6/160) in the Atlantic Ocean compared to the IRL (12.0%: n = 20/167) (risk ratio = 3.19, 95% CI 1.32 to 7.75, p < 0.01 by chi-square analysis). The lower prevalence of lacaziosis in dolphins found in the Atlantic Ocean and the overall lack of movement of dolphins between these habitats suggests that environmental conditions within the estuary may favor viability of L. loboi, and/or that immune compromise in resident estuarine dolphins is a precursor to the disease.

  11. 20 CFR 410.645 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint hearings. 410.645 Section 410.645..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.645 Joint hearings. When two or more hearings... joint hearing, a joint hearing may not be held. Where joint hearings are held, a single record of...

  12. 20 CFR 410.645 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Joint hearings. 410.645 Section 410.645..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.645 Joint hearings. When two or more hearings... joint hearing, a joint hearing may not be held. Where joint hearings are held, a single record of...

  13. 18 CFR 1308.33 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearings. 1308.33... Prehearing and Hearing Procedures § 1308.33 Hearings. (a) TVA shall arrange for the verbatim reporting of evidentiary hearings before the Hearing Officer, and shall provide the Hearing Officer with the...

  14. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15 days of the service of the notice or order granting the hearing... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy...

  15. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15 days of the service of the notice or order granting the hearing... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy...

  16. Underwater Hearing in Turtles.

    PubMed

    Willis, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of turtles is poorly understood compared with the other reptiles. Although the mechanism of transduction of sound into a neural signal via hair cells has been described in detail, the rest of the auditory system is largely a black box. What is known is that turtles have higher hearing thresholds than other reptiles, with best frequencies around 500 Hz. They also have lower underwater hearing thresholds than those in air, owing to resonance of the middle ear cavity. Further studies demonstrated that all families of turtles and tortoises share a common middle ear cavity morphology, with scaling best suited to underwater hearing. This supports an aquatic origin of the group. Because turtles hear best under water, it is important to examine their vulnerability to anthropogenic noise. However, the lack of basic data makes such experiments difficult because only a few species of turtles have published audiograms. There are also almost no behavioral data available (understandable due to training difficulties). Finally, few studies show what kinds of sounds are behaviorally relevant. One notable paper revealed that the Australian snake-necked turtle (Chelodina oblonga) has a vocal repertoire in air, at the interface, and under water. Findings like these suggest that there is more to the turtle aquatic auditory scene than previously thought.

  17. Hearing is Believing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the cochlear implant. This device was developed by Adam Kissiah, who suffers from hearing loss. Driven by his own hearing problem and three failed corrective surgeries, Kissiah started working in the mid-1970s on this surgically implantable device that provides hearing sensation to persons with severe-to-profound hearing loss who receive little or no benefit from hearing aids. Uniquely, the cochlear implant concept was not based on theories of medicine, as Kissiah had no medical background whatsoever. Instead, he utilized the technical expertise he learned while working as an electronics instrumentation engineer at NASA s Kennedy Space Center for the basis of his invention. This took place over 3 years, when Kissiah would spend his lunch breaks and evenings in Kennedy s technical library, studying the impact of engineering principles on the inner ear. In April of 2003, Kissiah was inducted into the Space Foundation's U.S. Space Technology Hall of Fame for his invention

  18. How to Get Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine the type and amount of your hearing loss. The process begins with a medical and audiologic ... to rule out any medical reason for your hearing loss, such as infection, injury or deformity, ear wax ...

  19. Organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and cerebellum gray matter in short-beaked common dolphins and Atlantic white-sided dolphins from the western North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Montie, Eric W; Reddy, Christopher M; Gebbink, Wouter A; Touhey, Katie E; Hahn, Mark E; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of several congeners and classes of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and/or their metabolites, namely organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated-PCBs (OH-PCBs), methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, and OH-PBDEs, were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of short-beaked common dolphins (n = 2), Atlantic white-sided dolphins (n = 8), and gray seal (n = 1) from the western North Atlantic. In three Atlantic white-sided dolphins, cerebellum gray matter (GM) was also analyzed. The levels of OCs, PCBs, MeSO(2)-PCBs, PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs in cerebellum GM were higher than the concentrations in CSF. 4-OH-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) was the only detectable OH-PCB congener present in CSF. The sum (Sigma) OH-PCBs/Sigma PCB concentration ratio in CSF was approximately two to three orders of magnitude greater than the ratio in cerebellum GM for dolphins. PMID:19375836

  20. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  1. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  2. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  3. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  6. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinrong; Song, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Kaiya

    2015-01-30

    Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. This study examined the population of Chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of Zhanjiang in the northern South China Sea. A total of 492 Chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. The Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the Guangdong coast. It is composed of approximately 1485 individuals (95% CI = 1371-1629; SE = 63.8), with estimates of mean representative range and core area of 168.51 and 44.26 km(2), respectively. The high site fidelity and long-term residence of Chinese white dolphins in the study area are well established. A review of all available data indicates that based on what is currently known, the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is the second largest of the species and genus in the world. However, the recent industrial boom along the Zhanjiang coast has increased concerns regarding the conservation of the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population. We recommend the designation of a national nature reserve as a most urgent measure for protecting Chinese white dolphins in Zhanjiang waters.

  7. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  8. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lane, Suzanne M; Smith, Cynthia R; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C; Barry, Kevin P; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S; Rosel, Patricia E; Rowles, Teresa K; Speakman, Todd R; Townsend, Forrest I; Tumlin, Mandy C; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-11-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50-55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate-severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0-92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill.

  9. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lane, Suzanne M; Smith, Cynthia R; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C; Barry, Kevin P; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S; Rosel, Patricia E; Rowles, Teresa K; Speakman, Todd R; Townsend, Forrest I; Tumlin, Mandy C; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-11-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50-55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate-severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0-92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill. PMID:26538595

  10. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Suzanne M.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C.; Barry, Kevin P.; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S.; Rosel, Patricia E.; Rowles, Teresa K.; Speakman, Todd R.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Tumlin, Mandy C.; Wells, Randall S.; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50–55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate–severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0–92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill. PMID:26538595

  11. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines

    PubMed Central

    López-Cruz, Roberto I.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A.; Real-Valle, Roberto A.; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  12. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A; Real-Valle, Roberto A; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements.

  13. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinrong; Song, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Kaiya

    2015-01-01

    Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. This study examined the population of Chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of Zhanjiang in the northern South China Sea. A total of 492 Chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. The Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the Guangdong coast. It is composed of approximately 1485 individuals (95% CI = 1371–1629; SE = 63.8), with estimates of mean representative range and core area of 168.51 and 44.26 km2, respectively. The high site fidelity and long-term residence of Chinese white dolphins in the study area are well established. A review of all available data indicates that based on what is currently known, the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is the second largest of the species and genus in the world. However, the recent industrial boom along the Zhanjiang coast has increased concerns regarding the conservation of the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population. We recommend the designation of a national nature reserve as a most urgent measure for protecting Chinese white dolphins in Zhanjiang waters. PMID:25634769

  14. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinrong; Song, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Kaiya

    2015-01-01

    Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. This study examined the population of Chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of Zhanjiang in the northern South China Sea. A total of 492 Chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. The Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the Guangdong coast. It is composed of approximately 1485 individuals (95% CI = 1371-1629; SE = 63.8), with estimates of mean representative range and core area of 168.51 and 44.26 km(2), respectively. The high site fidelity and long-term residence of Chinese white dolphins in the study area are well established. A review of all available data indicates that based on what is currently known, the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is the second largest of the species and genus in the world. However, the recent industrial boom along the Zhanjiang coast has increased concerns regarding the conservation of the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population. We recommend the designation of a national nature reserve as a most urgent measure for protecting Chinese white dolphins in Zhanjiang waters. PMID:25634769

  15. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A; Real-Valle, Roberto A; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  16. Hearing loss in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M

    2012-06-15

    Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors. PMID:22962895

  17. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss.

  18. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  19. Upcoming hearings in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The following hearings and markups have been tentatively scheduled for the coming weeks by the Senate and House of Representatives. Dates and times should be verified with the committee or subcommittee holding the hearing or markup; all offices on Capitol Hill may be reached by telephoning 202-224-3121. For guidelines on contacting a member of Congress, see AGU's Guide to Legislative Information and Contacts (Eos, August 28, 1984, p. 669).June 27: Hearing on legislation to impose user fees for some of the services provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration by the Coast Guard Subcommit-tee of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee. Room 1334, Longworth Building, 9:30 A.M.

  20. 78 FR 11237 - Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Hearing On Tuesday, February 26, 2013 the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene an Investigative Hearing to gather additional factual information for the ongoing...) intermodal train No. AAMMLX-22 on June 24, 2012 near Goodwell, Oklahoma. The hearing will begin at 9:00...

  1. Eldercare at Home: Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... members and friends to comment on how much communication has improved when your mother is wearing the hearing aid. If your mother is concerned about the appearance of a hearing aid, tell her that most women can style their hair to cover the hearing aids. Problem " ...

  2. Morphological analysis of the flippers in the Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, applying X-ray technique.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Daniela Laura; Panebianco, María Victoria; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2014-07-01

    Pectoral flippers of cetaceans function to provide stability and maneuverability during locomotion. Directional asymmetry (DA) is a common feature among odontocete cetaceans, as well as sexual dimorphism (SD). For the first time DA, allometry, physical maturity, and SD of the flipper skeleton--by X-ray technique--of Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The number of carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and morphometric characters from the humerus, radius, ulna, and digit two were studied in franciscana dolphins from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The number of visible epiphyses and their degree of fusion at the proximal and distal ends of the humerus, radius, and ulna were also analyzed. The flipper skeleton was symmetrical, showing a negative allometric trend, with similar growth patterns in both sexes with the exception of the width of the radius (P ≤ 0.01). SD was found on the number of phalanges of digit two (P ≤ 0.01), ulna and digit two lengths. Females showed a higher relative ulna length and shorter relative digit two length, and the opposite occurred in males (P ≤ 0.01). Epiphyseal fusion pattern proved to be a tool to determine dolphin's age; franciscana dolphins with a mature flipper were, at least, four years old. This study indicates that the flippers of franciscana dolphins are symmetrical; both sexes show a negative allometric trend; SD is observed in radius, ulna, and digit two; and flipper skeleton allows determine the age class of the dolphins.

  3. Dolphin biosonar target detection in noise: wrap up of a past experiment.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L

    2014-07-01

    The target detection capability of bottlenose dolphins in the presence of artificial masking noise was first studied by Au and Penner [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 687-693 (1981)] in which the dolphins' target detection threshold was determined as a function of the ratio of the echo energy flux density and the estimated received noise spectral density. Such a metric was commonly used in human psychoacoustics despite the fact that the echo energy flux density is not compatible with noise spectral density which is averaged intensity per Hz. Since the earlier detection in noise studies, two important parameters, the dolphin integration time applicable to broadband clicks and the dolphin's auditory filter shape, were determined. The inclusion of these two parameters allows for the estimation of the received energy flux density of the masking noise so that the dolphin target detection can now be determined as a function of the ratio of the received energy of the echo over the received noise energy. Using an integration time of 264 μs and an auditory bandwidth of 16.7 kHz, the ratio of the echo energy to noise energy at the target detection threshold is approximately 1 dB.

  4. Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar. Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina.

  5. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of gastrointestinal lesions in dolphins stranded in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Arbelo, M; Zafra, R; Fernández, A

    2006-09-23

    This paper describes the gross, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of gastrointestinal lesions and regional lymph nodes of six common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), 11 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and six Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) found stranded along the coasts of the Canary Islands. The most common lesion was chronic granulomatous gastritis of the glandular stomach, associated with the parasite Pholeter gastrophilus, and characterised by the parasites, their eggs, or parasite debris in the mucosa, submucosa or tunica muscularis, surrounded by numerous lysozyme-positive macrophages and neutrophils, and more peripherally by abundant fibrous tissue containing variable numbers of immunoglobulin (Ig) G+ plasma cells, and small numbers of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgM+ and IgA+ plasma cells. Anisakis simplex nematodes were found in two dolphins that were also parasitised by P gastrophilus and had parasitic granulomatous gastritis and multiple small chronic gastric ulcers. Lymphoplasmacytic enteritis was found in eight cases, three of them parasitised by Diphyllobothrium species; the lesion was characterised by moderate to severe infiltrations of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgG+ plasma cells, with small numbers of IgM+ and IgA+ plasma cells in the lamina propria and submucosa, mainly of the small intestine. One dolphin had severe fibrinopurulent peritonitis, which may have been secondary to gastric perforation caused by the large mural granulomatous gastritis associated with P gastrophilus parasitism. PMID:16997997

  6. A comparison of pectoral fin contact between two different wild dolphin populations.

    PubMed

    Dudzinski, Kathleen Maria; Gregg, Justin David; Ribic, Christine Ann; Kuczaj, Stan Abraham

    2009-02-01

    Contact behaviour involving the pectoral fin has been documented in a number of dolphin species, and various explanations about its function have been offered. Pectoral fin contact can take a variety of forms, and involves a number of body parts and movements, likely differing depending upon social or ecological context. For this study, we compare the pectoral fin contact behaviour of two species of wild dolphins: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan, and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas. The two study populations exhibit surprising similarity in the ways in which pectoral fin contacts are used, despite differences in species and environmental conditions at the two sites. Differences in contact rates for calves between the two sites suggest that calf-focused aggression from adult dolphins is more prevalent at Mikura than in The Bahamas. Our results suggest that pectoral fin contact behaviour seems to be driven primarily by social pressures, and may be similar in function to allogrooming described in primates. PMID:19070654

  7. Head morphology in perinatal dolphins: a window into phylogeny and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Rauschmann, Michael A; Huggenberger, Stefan; Kossatz, Lars S; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2006-11-01

    In this paper on the ontogenesis and evolutionary biology of odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales), we investigate the head morphology of three perinatal pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) with the following methods: computer-assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, conventional X-ray imaging, cryo-sectioning as well as gross dissection. Comparison of these anatomical methods reveals that for a complete structural analysis, a combination of modern imaging techniques and conventional morphological methods is needed. In addition to the perinatal dolphins, we include series of microslides of fetal odontocetes (S. attenuata, common dolphin Delphinus delphis, narwhal Monodon monoceros). In contrast to other mammals, newborn cetaceans represent an extremely precocial state of development correlated to the fact that they have to swim and surface immediately after birth. Accordingly, the morphology of the perinatal dolphin head is very similar to that of the adult. Comparison with early fetal stages of dolphins shows that the ontogenetic change from the general mammalian bauplan to cetacean organization was characterized by profound morphological transformations of the relevant organ systems and roughly seems to parallel the phylogenetic transition from terrestrial ancestors to modern odontocetes. PMID:17051542

  8. Role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Simpkin, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating the effect of parasites on population size is essential for designing management and conservation plans of wild animal populations. Although knowledge in this area is scarce in cetaceans, current evidence suggests that species of the nematode genus Crassicauda may play an important regulatory role in some populations. In the present study, a semiparametric regression technique was applied to a previously published dataset to re-examine the role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata. The resulting model indicated parasite-induced mortality at ages between 6.5 and 9 yr and at roughly 12 yr. The maximum mortality estimates obtained could represent 2 to 4% of natural mortality in dolphins 6 to 8 yr old. This estimate is substantially smaller than previously published values, but in contrast with previous research, our model provides clear statistical evidence for parasite-induced mortality because the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the estimated mortality rates excluded the 0 value. We also evaluated, through simulations, how potential sampling biases of infected dolphins could overestimate parasite-induced mortality. Small differences in sampling selectivity between infected and uninfected animals could substantially reduce the mortality estimates. However, the simulated models also supported the notion of statistically significant mortality in juvenile dolphins. Given that dolphins older than 16 yr were poorly represented in the dataset, further research is needed to establish whether Crassicauda sp. causes meaningful mortality for population dynamics among adult individuals. PMID:24492057

  9. The acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazua-Duran, Carmen

    2005-04-01

    Bottlenose dolphins live in a variety of habitats of the world's oceans using their acoustic repertoire to communicate and inspect their environment. This work investigates the acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins that inhabit a coastal lagoon of the southern Gulf of Mexico, the Laguna de Terminos and how it may relate to the dolphins' general behavioral state and herd size, and to the general characteristics of the habitat, such as visibility, depth, and sea state. Preliminary results show that bottlenose dolphins produce by far more clicks than whistles in all behavioral states (feeding, resting, social, and travel) and herd sizes, which may correlate with the decreased visibility and shallow depth of the Laguna de Terminos. Additionally, silence was found during all behavioral states, but very seldom in herds of large size. These preliminary results suggest that bottlenose dolphins are choosing when and where to produce their phonations. Therefore, more detailed studies are needed to understand how these animals are using their acoustic sense to communicate and inspect their environment. [Work supported by CONACyT-Gobierno Edo. de Campeche and PAPIIT, UNAM.

  10. Vocal reporting of echolocation targets: dolphins often report before click trains end.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Elsberry, W R; Blackwood, D J; Kamolnick, T; Todd, M; Carder, D A; Chaplin, Monica; Cranford, T W

    2012-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) wore opaque suction cups over their eyes while stationing behind an acoustically opaque door. This put the dolphins in a known position and orientation. When the door opened, the dolphin clicked to detect targets. Trainers specified that Dolphin S emit a whistle if the target was a 7.5 cm water filled sphere, or a pulse burst if the target was a rock. S remained quiet if there was no target. Dolphin B whistled for the sphere. She remained quiet for rock and for no target. Thus, S had to choose between three different responses, whistle, pulse burst, or remain quiet. B had to choose between two different responses, whistle or remain quiet. S gave correct vocal responses averaging 114 ms after her last echolocation click (range 182 ms before and 219 ms after the last click). Average response for B was 21 ms before her last echolocation click (range 250 ms before and 95 ms after the last click in the train). More often than not, B began her whistle response before her echolocation train ended. The findings suggest separate neural pathways for generation of response vocalizations as opposed to echolocation clicks. PMID:22280621

  11. Solubility of ammonium acid urate nephroliths from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Argade, Sulabha; Smith, Cynthia R; Shaw, Timothy; Zupkas, Paul; Schmitt, Todd L; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Sur, Roger L

    2013-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis has been identified in managed populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus); most of these nephroliths are composed of 100% ammonium acid urate (AAU). Several therapies are being investigated to treat and prevent nephrolithiasis in dolphins including the alkalization of urine for dissolution of nephroliths. This study evaluates the solubility of AAU nephroliths in a phosphate buffer, pH range 6.0-8.0, and in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH range 9.0-10.8. AAU nephroliths were obtained from six dolphins and solubility studies were conducted using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. AAU nephroliths were much more soluble in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH range 9.0-10.8 compared to phosphate buffer pH range 6.0-8.0. In the pH range 6.0-8.0, the solubility was 45% lower in potassium phosphate buffer compared to sodium phosphate buffer. When citrate was used along with phosphate in the same pH range, the solubility was improved by 13%. At pH 7 and pH 8, 150 mM ionic strength buffer was optimum for dissolution. In summary, adjustment of urinary pH alone does not appear to be a useful way to treat AAU stones in bottlenose dolphins. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of AAU nephrolithiasis in dolphins is needed to optimize kidney stone prevention and treatment. PMID:24450043

  12. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance. PMID:27780252

  13. Functional brain imaging and bioacoustics in the Bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Sam; Finneran, James; Carder, Donald; van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Houser, Dorian; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl

    2003-10-01

    The dolphin brain is the central processing computer for a complex and effective underwater echolocation and communication system. Until now, it has not been possible to study or diagnose disorders of the dolphin brain employing modern functional imaging methods like those used in human medicine. Our most recent studies employ established methods such as behavioral tasks, physiological observations, and computed tomography (CT) and, for the first time, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Trained dolphins slide out of their enclosure on to a mat and are transported by trainers and veterinarians to the laboratory for injection of a ligand. Following ligand injection, brief experiments include trained vocal responses to acoustic, visual, or tactile stimuli. We have used the ligand technetium (Tc-99m) biscisate (Neurolite) to image circulatory flow by SPECT. Fluro-deoxy-d-glucose (18-F-FDG) has been employed to image brain metabolism with PET. Veterinarians carefully monitored dolphins during and after the procedure. Through these methods, we have demonstrated that functional imaging can be employed safely and productively with dolphins to obtain valuable information on brain structure and function for medical and research purposes. Hemispheric differences and variations in flow and metabolism in different brain areas will be shown.

  14. Dolphin genome provides evidence for adaptive evolution of nervous system genes and a molecular rate slowdown

    PubMed Central

    McGowen, Michael R.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Wildman, Derek E.

    2012-01-01

    Cetaceans (dolphins and whales) have undergone a radical transformation from the original mammalian bodyplan. In addition, some cetaceans have evolved large brains and complex cognitive capacities. We compared approximately 10 000 protein-coding genes culled from the bottlenose dolphin genome with nine other genomes to reveal molecular correlates of the remarkable phenotypic features of these aquatic mammals. Evolutionary analyses demonstrated that the overall synonymous substitution rate in dolphins has slowed compared with other studied mammals, and is within the range of primates and elephants. We also discovered 228 genes potentially under positive selection (dN/dS > 1) in the dolphin lineage. Twenty-seven of these genes are associated with the nervous system, including those related to human intellectual disabilities, synaptic plasticity and sleep. In addition, genes expressed in the mitochondrion have a significantly higher mean dN/dS ratio in the dolphin lineage than others examined, indicating evolution in energy metabolism. We encountered selection in other genes potentially related to cetacean adaptations such as glucose and lipid metabolism, dermal and lung development, and the cardiovascular system. This study underlines the parallel molecular trajectory of cetaceans with other mammalian groups possessing large brains. PMID:22740643

  15. A community split among dolphins: the effect of social relationships on the membership of new communities.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Miki; Shirakihara, Miki; Amano, Masao

    2015-11-26

    Little is known about community splitting among dolphins because such events are rare in dolphin populations. A case of a community split was confirmed in a population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Japan, where a group of approximately 30 dolphins moved to a new habitat some 60 km from the original habitat. We examined the associations among the dolphins before the community split to determine whether the new community members were already socially different before the split, using 7-year identification data. Before the split, the males in the same community after the split more often associated with each other than they did with those in different community. In contrast, the association patterns among females and between sexes showed no relationships with their post-split community membership. These results indicate that the males of new community were socially different from the other males for a long time before the split, but the females might not have been different. Our findings suggest that at time of the community split, the factors determining the memberships of the subsequent communities are sex-linked. The long-term social relationships among males could be maintained in the subsequent communities.

  16. Exposure to novel parainfluenza virus and clinical relevance in 2 bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Rivera, Rebecca; Smith, Cynthia R; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Caseltine, Shannon; St Leger, Judy; Yochem, Pam; Wells, Randall S; Nollens, Hendrik

    2008-03-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a leading cause of respiratory infections in humans. A novel virus closely related to human and bovine parainfluenza viruses types 3 (HPIV-3 and BPIV-3), named Tursiops truncatus parainfluenza virus type 1 (TtPIV-1), was isolated from a dolphin with respiratory disease. We developed a dolphin-specific ELISA to measure acute- and convalescent-phase PIV antibodies in dolphins during 1999-2006 with hemograms similar to that of the positive control. PIV seroconversion occurred concurrently with an abnormal hemogram in 22 animals, of which 7 (31.8%) had respiratory signs. Seroprevalence surveys were conducted on 114 healthy bottlenose dolphins in Florida and California. When the most conservative interpretation of positive was used, 11.4% of healthy dolphins were antibody positive, 29.8% were negative, and 58.8% were inconclusive. PIV appears to be a common marine mammal virus that may be of human health interest because of the similarity of TtPIV-1 to BPIV-3 and HPIV-3.

  17. Pathology of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Valencia and Murcia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Duignan, P J; Geraci, J R; Raga, J A; Calzada, N

    1992-07-01

    During the summer and fall of 1990 hundreds of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) died in the Spanish Mediterranean as a result of morbillivirus infection. A pathological investigation was carried out on dolphins from Valencia and Murcia which were among the first to die in the epizootic. The dolphins were in poor body condition and pneumonia was the main necropsy finding. Microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli with macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleated syncytia were seen in most dolphins. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions were present in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and in syncytia. Focal granulomatous inflammation associated with nematodes was also present. Brain lesions included diffuse degeneration and necrosis of neurons, microgliosis, perivascular cuffing, formation of syncytia and focal demyelination. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic inclusions were present in neurons and glial cells. There was severe lymphoid necrosis and depletion of spleen and lymph nodes and syncytia also occurred in lymph nodes. Biliary and transitional epithelium contained nuclear and cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Immunoperoxidase staining using monoclonal antibodies to phocine distemper virus confirmed the presence of morbillivirus antigens in lung and brain. The distribution and severity of lesions in striped dolphins are similar to those of distemper in seals, harbor porpoises and terrestrial mammals. The formation of syncytia in the lung and brain may be a useful pathological indicator of morbillivirus infection and may be used in the investigation of pinniped and cetacean strandings in North America. PMID:1423061

  18. A comparison of pectoral fin contact between two different wild dolphin populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudzinski, K.M.; Gregg, J.D.; Ribic, C.A.; Kuczaj, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact behaviour involving the pectoral fin has been documented in a number of dolphin species, and various explanations about its function have been offered. Pectoral fin contact can take a variety of forms, and involves a number of body parts and movements, likely differing depending upon social or ecological context. For this study, we compare the pectoral fin contact behaviour of two species of wild dolphins: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan, and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas. The two study populations exhibit surprising similarity in the ways in which pectoral fin contacts are used, despite differences in species and environmental conditions at the two sites. Differences in contact rates for calves between the two sites suggest that calf-focused aggression from adult dolphins is more prevalent at Mikura than in The Bahamas. Our results suggest that pectoral fin contact behaviour seems to be driven primarily by social pressures, and may be similar in function to allogrooming described in primates. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Heterologous murine and bovine IVF using bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calabuig, M J; de la Fuente, J; Laguna-Barraza, R; Beltrán-Breña, P; Martínez-Nevado, E; Johnston, S D; Rizos, D; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Pérez-Gutiérrez, J F

    2015-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies are of great importance for increasing the genetic diversity in captive animals. The use of bovine or murine oocytes in heterologous IVF provides advantages compared to homologous IVF in nondomestic animals, such as the accessibility to oocytes and the availability of well-developed in vitro maturation systems. The aim of this study was to determine the heterologous IVF parameters using cryopreserved dolphin spermatozoa and zona-intact bovine or murine oocytes and to examine the nuclear chromatin status of the dolphin spermatozoa. All the processes involved in the fertilization including embryo cleavage were observed by confocal microscopy and hybrid embryo formation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Heterologous bovine IVF showed no polyspermy, lower percentages of pronuclear formation, and a lower cleavage rate compared to homologous IVF group (34.8% vs. 89.3%). Heterologous murine IVF showed a lower cleavage rate than homologous IVF (9.6% vs. 77.1%). With respect to dolphin sperm chromatin, it was more stable, i.e. more resistant to EDTA-SDS decondensation than the bovine sperm chromatin. This study revealed the stability of the dolphin sperm chromatin and the ability of the dolphin spermatozoa to penetrate zona-intact bovine and murine oocytes, leading to hybrid embryo formation.

  20. A community split among dolphins: the effect of social relationships on the membership of new communities

    PubMed Central

    Nishita, Miki; Shirakihara, Miki; Amano, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about community splitting among dolphins because such events are rare in dolphin populations. A case of a community split was confirmed in a population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Japan, where a group of approximately 30 dolphins moved to a new habitat some 60 km from the original habitat. We examined the associations among the dolphins before the community split to determine whether the new community members were already socially different before the split, using 7-year identification data. Before the split, the males in the same community after the split more often associated with each other than they did with those in different community. In contrast, the association patterns among females and between sexes showed no relationships with their post-split community membership. These results indicate that the males of new community were socially different from the other males for a long time before the split, but the females might not have been different. Our findings suggest that at time of the community split, the factors determining the memberships of the subsequent communities are sex-linked. The long-term social relationships among males could be maintained in the subsequent communities. PMID:26608473