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Sample records for domestic greywater treatment

  1. Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems.

    PubMed

    Donner, E; Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Scholes, L; Lützhøft, H-C Holten; Ledin, A

    2010-05-15

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of individual domestic greywater streams and its implication for on-site treatment and reuse possibilities.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E

    2004-09-01

    A sampling campaign was conducted in order to characterise the quality and quantity of individual domestic greywater streams. Based on the results, various scenarios of inclusion and / or exclusion of different greywater streams were explored, and their implication for on-site greywater treatment and reuse options are discussed. Domestic greywater was found to contribute as much as 55-70% of the specific daily load of TSS and BOD, in municipal sewage. The kitchen sink was signalled out as a major contributor of VSS, CODt, and BODt with 58%, 42% and 48%, of their total daily load respectively. The washing machine was established as a significant contributor of sodium, phosphate and CODt (40%, 37% and 22% of the total load). The dishwasher, although contributing only 5% of the flow, was found to be a significant contributor of phosphate and boron. The wash basin was found to be the least polluting appliance. As "demand" for greywater within the urban environment is lower than its "production", it is logical to recycle only the less polluted greywater streams. In order to explore the consequences of the above concept on discharge volume, pollutants loads and concentrations, 18 scenarios were studied, in each at least one stream was excluded from the combined greywater stream. Exclusion of the joined stream of the kitchen sink plus the highly polluted streams of the washing machine (wash + 1st rinse) and dishwasher (pre-rinse + wash) significantly improved greywater quality, with the advantage of leaving enough greywater to be reused (65-70 l/c/d).

  3. Quantification and risks associated with bacterial aerosols near domestic greywater-treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Benami, Maya; Busgang, Allison; Gillor, Osnat; Gross, Amit

    2016-08-15

    Greywater (GW) reuse can alleviate water stress by lowering freshwater consumption. However, GW contains pathogens that may compromise public health. During the GW-treatment process, bioaerosols can be produced and may be hazardous to human health if inhaled, ingested, or come in contact with skin. Using air-particle monitoring, BioSampler®, and settle plates we sampled bioaerosols emitted from recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) - a domestic GW-treatment system. An array of pathogens and indicators were monitored using settle plates and by culturing the BioSampler® liquid. Further enumeration of viable pathogens in the BioSampler® liquid utilized a newer method combining the benefits of enrichment with molecular detection (MPN-qPCR). Additionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was applied to assess risks of infection from a representative skin pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. According to the settle-plate technique, low amounts (0-9.7×10(4)CFUm(-2)h(-1)) of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli were found to aerosolize up to 1m away from the GW systems. At the 5m distance amounts of these bacteria were not statistically different (p>0.05) from background concentrations tested over 50m away from the systems. Using the BioSampler®, no bacteria were detected before enrichment of the GW-aerosols. However, after enrichment, using an MPN-qPCR technique, viable indicators and pathogens were occasionally detected. Consequently, the QMRA results were below the critical disability-adjusted life year (DALY) safety limits, a measure of overall disease burden, for S. aureus under the tested exposure scenarios. Our study suggests that health risks from aerosolizing pathogens near RVFCW GW-treatment systems are likely low. This study also emphasizes the growing need for standardization of bioaerosol-evaluation techniques to provide more accurate

  4. Greywater characterization and loadings - Physicochemical treatment to promote onsite reuse.

    PubMed

    Noutsopoulos, C; Andreadakis, A; Kouris, N; Charchousi, D; Mendrinou, P; Galani, A; Mantziaras, I; Koumaki, E

    2017-06-04

    Greywater is the wastewater produced in bathtubs, showers, hand basins, kitchen sinks, dishwashers and laundry machines. Segregation of greywater and blackwater and on site greywater treatment in order to promote its reuse for toilet flushing and/or garden irrigation is an interesting option especially in water deficient areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the different greywater sources in Greek households and to evaluate the performance of alternative physicochemical treatment systems to treat several types of greywater. Based on the results average daily greywater production was equal to 98 L per person per day and accounts for approximately 70-75% of the total household wastewater production (135 L per person per day). Among the different sources, laundry and kitchen sink are the main contributors to the total greywater load of organic carbon, suspended solids and surfactants, whereas dishwasher and bathroom greywater are the main sources of phosphorus and endocrine disrupting chemicals respectively. Depending on sources, greywater accounts for as low as 15% of the total wastewater load of organic carbon (in the case of light greywater sources), to as high as 74% of the total load organic load (in the case of the heavy greywater sources). On the other hand, the nutrients load of greywater is limited. The application of a physical treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, granular activated carbon filtration and disinfection can provide for a final effluent with high quality characteristics for onsite reuse, especially when treating light greywater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing living walls for greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Fowdar, Harsha S; Hatt, Belinda E; Breen, Peter; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Greywater is being increasingly used as an alternative water source to reduce potable water demand and to alleviate pressure on sewerage systems. This paper presents the development of a low energy and low maintenance greywater treatment technology: a living wall system, employing ornamental plants (including vines) grown in a sand filter on a side of a building to treat shower, bath, and washing basin wastewaters. The system can, at the same time, provide critical amenity and micro-climate benefits to our cities. A large scale column study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, to investigate the following design and operational factors of the proposed system: plant species, saturated zone design, rest period, hydraulic loading rate and pollutant inflow concentration. The results indicate that the use of ornamental species (e.g. Canna lilies, Lonicera japonica, ornamental grape vine) can contribute to pollutant removal. Vegetation selection was found to be particularly important for nutrient removal. While a wider range of tested plant species was effective for nitrogen removal (>80%), phosphorus removal was more variable (-13% to 99%) over the study period, with only a few tested plants being effective - Carex appressa and Canna lilies were the best performers. It was also found that phosphorus removal can be compromised over the longer term as a result of leaching. Excellent suspended solids and organics removal efficiencies can be generally achieved in these systems (>80% for TSS and >90% for BOD) with plants having a relatively small impact. Columns had an acceptable infiltration capacity after one year of operation. When planted with effective species (e.g. Carex appressa and Canna lilies), it is expected that performance will not be significantly affected by longer rest periods and higher pollutant concentrations in the early years of system operation. The results of this study, thus, demonstrate that innovative and aesthetically pleasing living walls can be

  6. The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Eriksson, Eva; Donner, Erica

    2011-02-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used for highlighting the potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the wider urban water cycle. Potential potable water savings of up to 43% are predicted for greywater recycling based on Danish water use statistics and priority substance monitoring at a greywater treatment plant in Denmark. Adsorption represents an important mechanism for the removal of cadmium, nickel, lead and nonylphenol from influent greywater and therefore the disposal route adopted for the generated sludge can exert a major impact on the overall efficiency and environmental sustainability of greywater treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Boyjoo, Yash; Pareek, Vishnu K; Ang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of different characteristics of greywater (GW) and current treatment methods. GW is domestic wastewater excluding toilet waste and can be classified as either low-load GW (excluding kitchen and laundry GW) or high-load GW (including kitchen and/or laundry). This review provides information on the quantity of GW produced, its constituents (macro and micro), existing guidelines for wastewater reuse, current treatment methods (from storage to disinfection) as well as related costs and environmental impacts. Moreover some successful examples from various countries around the world are examined. The current preferred treatments for GW use physical and biological/natural systems. Recently, chemical systems like coagulation, adsorption and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been considered and have been successful for low to moderate strength GW. The presence of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOC), which are hazardous micropollutants in GW, is emphasised. Since conventional treatments are not efficient at removing XOC, it is recommended that future studies look at chemical treatment, especially AOPs that have been found to be successful at mineralising recalcitrant organic compounds in wastewater.

  8. Total staphylococci as performance surrogate for greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shoults, David C; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2017-05-01

    Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are commonly used as water quality indicators; implying faecal contamination and therefore the potential presence of pathogenic enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Hence in wastewater treatment, the most commonly used treatment process measures (surrogates) are total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci. However, greywater potentially contains skin pathogens unrelated to faecal load, and E. coli and other FIB may grow within greywater unrelated to pathogens. Overall, FIB occurs at fluctuating and relatively low concentrations compared to other endogenous greywater bacteria affecting their ability as surrogates for pathogen reduction. Therefore, unlike municipal sewage, FIB provides a very limited and unreliable log-reduction surrogate measure for on-site greywater treatment systems. Based on our recent metagenomic study of laundry greywater, skin-associated bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Propionibacterium spp. dominate and may result in more consistent treatment surrogates than traditional FIB. Here, we investigated various Staphylococcus spp. as potential surrogates to reliably assay over 4-log10 reduction by the final-stage UV disinfection step commonly used for on-site greywater reuse, and compare them to various FIB/phage surrogates. A collimated UV beam was used to determine the efficacy of UV inactivation (255, 265 and 285 nm) against E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. casseliflavus, Staphylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Staphylococcus spp. was estimated by combining the bi-linear dose-response curves for S. aureus and S. epidermidis and was shown to be less resistant to UV irradiation than the other surrogates examined. Hence, a relative inactivation credit is suggested; whereas, the doses required to achieve a 4 and 5-log10 reduction of Staphylococcus spp. (13.0 and 20.9 mJ cm(-2), respectively) were used to determine the relative inactivation

  9. Characteristics and treatment of greywater--a review.

    PubMed

    Ghaitidak, Dilip M; Yadav, Kunwar D

    2013-05-01

    Safe and sufficient quantity of water is necessary for a healthy growth of human beings. The gap between water demand and available water supply is increasing day by day. Proper sanitation, especially decentralized approach, can solve the problem of water supply and wastewater management and that can be done by reuse of greywater. Typically, from a household, greywater (GW) flow is around 65 % of the total wastewater flow. Further light greywater is around 50 % of the total GW. Hence, GW has a high potential for recycle and reuse. The aim of this article is to reveal the present state of art in GW treatment and to identify the further scope for research. Present article contains a review on per capita GW generation, GW characteristics, and its treatment. Around 22 treatment systems comprising different treatment processes are discussed in detail for removal efficiency of pollutants, effluent concentrations and their compliance with wastewater reuse guidelines and standards. Constructed wetland and filtration were found efficient in the removal of most of the reuse parameters compared to other technologies. Anaerobic followed by aerobic system with post-disinfection unit may be a sustainable option for GW treatment for reuse. There is a need to develop the technologies for GW treatment at household level to increase the reuse practises at grass root level. Further, there is need of development of flow diagram with different technologies by targeting the type of reuse (flushing, gardening, agriculture, etc.).

  10. Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Chin, W H; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2009-09-01

    Greywater treatment by UVC/H(2)O(2) was investigated with regard to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A COD reduction from 225 to 30 mgl(-1) (overall removal of 87%) was achieved after settling overnight and subsequent irradiation for 3h with 10mM H(2)O(2). Most of the contaminants were removed by oxidation since only 13% COD was removed by settlement. The removal of COD in the greywater followed a second-order kinetic equation, r=0.0637[COD][H(2)O(2)], up to 10mM H(2)O(2). A slightly enhanced COD removal was observed at the initial pH of 10 compared with pH 3 and 7. This was attributed to the dissociation of H(2)O(2) to O(2)H(-). The treatment was not affected by total concentration of carbonate (c(T)) of at least 3 mM, above which operation between pH 3 and 5 was essential. The initial biodegradability of the settled greywater (as BOD(5):COD) was 0.22. After 2h UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment, a higher proportion of the residual contaminants was biodegradable (BOD(5):COD=0.41) which indicated its potential as a pre-treatment for a biological process.

  11. Treatment of contaminated greywater using pelletised mine water sludge.

    PubMed

    Abed, Suhail N; Almuktar, Suhad A; Scholz, Miklas

    2017-07-15

    Precipitated sludge (ochre) obtained from a mine water treatment plant was considered as an adsorbent substance for pollutants, since ochre is relatively free from problematic levels of toxic elements, which could impair on the quality of water to be treated. Artificially created ochre pellets from mixing Portland cement with raw ochre sludge were utilised to remediate either high (HC) or low (LC) contaminated synthetic greywater (SGW) in mesocosm-scale stabilisation ponds at 2-day and 7-day contact times under real weather conditions in Salford. After a specific retention time, treated SGW was agitated before sampling to evaluate pollutant removal mechanisms (other than sedimentation) such as adsorption by ochre pellets, before replacing the treated water with new inflow SGW. The results showed that cement-ochre pellets have a high ability to adsorb ortho-phosphate-phosphorous (PO4-P) significantly (p < 0.05) by 70.7% and 56.0% at 7-day contact time for HC-SGW and LC-SGW, respectively. After the experiment, an analysis revealed that elements such as boron (B), cadmium (Cd), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) accumulated significantly (p < 0.05) within the ochre pellets. The notable accumulation of Cd within ochre pellets reflects the significant (p < 0.05) remediation of greywater during the first 35 and 20 successive times of treatment for HC-SGW at 2- and 7-day contact times, respectively. Cadmium was still adsorbed significantly (p < 0.05) during the treatment of LC-SGW. However, the calcium (Ca) content decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within ochre pellets treating both types of greywaters due to mobilisation. The corresponding increases of Ca in greywater were significant (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contribution of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors to Domestic Sewage by Greywaters and Blackwaters.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    N-nitrosamines and their precursors are significant concerns for water utilities exploiting wastewater-impacted water supplies, particularly those practicing potable reuse of wastewater. Previous efforts to identify specific precursors in municipal wastewater accounting for N-nitrosamine formation have met with limited success. As an alternative, we quantified the relative importance of greywater (i.e., shower, kitchen sink, bathroom washbasin, and laundry) and blackwater (i.e., urine and feces) streams in terms of their loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors to domestic sewage. Accounting for the volume fractions of individual greywater and blackwater streams, laundry water represented the most significant source of N-nitrosamines and their precursors, followed by shower water and urine. Laundry water was particularly important for ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors, accounting for ∼99% of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and ∼69% of precursors for other uncharacterized N-nitrosamines. For the other greywater streams, consumer products contributed additional N-nitrosamines and precursors, but the remarkable uniformity across different products suggested the importance of common macroconstituents. The consumption of a standard dose of the antacid ranitidine substantially increased NDMA and its chloramine-reactive precursors in urine. Nevertheless, nearly 40% of the American population would need to consume ranitidine daily to match the NDMA loadings from laundry water.

  13. Legionella pneumophila: From potable water to treated greywater; quantification and removal during treatment.

    PubMed

    Blanky, Marina; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Halpern, Malka; Friedler, Eran

    2015-11-15

    Greywater is an alternative water source that can help alleviate stress on depleted water resources. The main options for greywater reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both producing aerosols. For that reason transmission of inhalable pathogens like Legionella present a potential risk. To improve the understanding about Legionella in greywater, we traced the pathogen seasonally from the potable water system to the final steps of the greywater treatment in four houses in northern Israel. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in order to assess background greywater quality and to establish possible associations with Legionella. The mean concentrations of Legionella pneumophila isolated from the potable water system were 6.4×10(2) and 5.9×10(3) cfu/l in cold and hot water respectively. By amending the ISO protocol for Legionella isolation from drinking water, we succeeded in quantifying Legionella in greywater. The mean Legionella concentrations that were found in raw, treated and treated chlorinated greywater were 1.2×10(5), 2.4×10(4) and 5.7×10(3) cfu/l respectively. While Legionella counts in potable water presented a seasonal pattern with high concentrations in summer, its counts in greywater presented an almost inversed pattern. Greywater treatment resulted in 95% decrease in Legionella counts. No significant difference was found between Legionella concentrations in potable water and the treated chlorinated greywater. These findings indicate that regarding Legionella, reusing treated chlorinated greywater would exhibit a risk that is very similar to the risk associated with using potable water for the same non-potable uses.

  14. Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

    Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

  15. Household greywater treatment methods using natural materials and their hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Wurochekke, A A; Mohamed, R M S; Al-Gheethi, A A; Atiku, Hauwa; Amir, H M; Matias-Peralta, H M

    2016-12-01

    Discharge of household greywater into water bodies can lead to an increase in contamination levels in terms of the reduction in dissolved oxygen resources and rapid bacterial growth. Therefore, the quality of greywater has to be improved before the disposal process. The present review aimed to present a hybrid treatment system for the greywater generated from households. The hybrid system comprised a primary stage (a natural filtration unit) with a bioreactor system as the secondary treatment combined with microalgae for greywater treatment, as well as the natural flocculation process. The review discussed the efficiency of each stage in the removal of elements and nutrients. The hybrid system reviewed here represented an effective solution for the remediation of household greywater.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative greywater characterization in Greek households and investigation of their treatment using physicochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Kirkou, Amalia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2013-06-01

    Data for the quantity of greywater produced in Greek households was collected from two different cities, while samples from different residences were taken for greywater's quality characterization. Laboratory experiments were also performed to investigate the use of coagulation on COD and TSS removal from two different types of greywater, while a combined treatment consisting of coagulation, sand filtration and adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) was applied to achieve adequate quality for greywater reuse. According to the results, average greywater production in Greek residences was 82.6 ± 49.3 L per inhabitant and day, while the major sources were shower/bathtub and laundry, contributing to 41% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, blackwater production was estimated at 59.4 ± 29.6L per inhabitant and day. Greywater produced in shower/bathtub and hand basin had similar quality characteristics, while kitchen sink's greywater were more contaminated, presenting lower pH values and higher concentrations of TSS and total COD. Coagulation experiments with FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 showed that process efficiency was differentiated significantly according to the type of greywater and the coagulant used. The highest removal efficiency (COD: 81%; TSS: 79%) was achieved for greywater that did not contain wastewater from the laundry and for Al2(SO4)3×14 H2O dosage of 800 mg L(-1). The application of coagulation, sand filtration and GAC adsorption resulted to average concentrations of COD and TSS equal to 28 ± 11 and 11 ± 3 mg L(-1), respectively, in treated greywater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical treatment of office and public buildings greywater.

    PubMed

    Friedler, Eran; Alfiya, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    The current study analyses the performance of deep sand filtration of greywater from an office building and the performance of a combined physicochemical process comprising of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration. Raw greywater quality exhibited very high variability with average turbidity of 35 NTU, and TSS, COD(t), and BOD of 45, 240, 75 mg/l respectively. The stand-alone filter removed 50 and 70% of the turbidity and TSS, but failed to remove COD and BOD. Quality of the produced effluent was too low to allow any reuse. Clogging rate of the filter was high and under hydraulic loading of 3-4 m(3)/(m(2) h) the filtration cycle had to be terminated after 5-8 h. Clogging occurred mainly on the upper layer, indicating the dominance of "cake" filtration mechanism. Addition of coagulation and sedimentation prior to sedimentation dramatically improved effluent quality, reaching overall removal efficiencies of 92, 94, 65 and 57% of turbidity, TSS COD(t) and BOD respectively. The filtration cycle could be prolonged to 20 h. The effluent produced was of much better quality, yet, it has to be further treated (either biological treatment or membrane filtration). Most of the removal occurred in the coagulation-sedimentation step, while the filter acted as a polishing unit.

  18. Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

    2014-01-01

    To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step.

  19. Comparative study of the microbial quality of greywater treated by three on-site treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Kovalio, R; Ben-Zvi, A

    2006-06-01

    This paper analyses the performance of a pilot scale treatment plant, treating light domestic greywater. The treatment included three parallel treatment units: stand-alone sand filtration (SFEB), RBC followed by sand filtration (SFRBC), and an MBR equipped with UF membranes (MBR). The performance of the SFEB unit was rather poor. The RBC and MBR units produced effluent of excellent quality, with COD of 42 and 40 mg l(-1), BOD of 1.8 and 1.1 mg l(-1), and turbidity of 0.6 and 0.2 NTU respectively. The SFEB failed to remove heterotrophic microorganisms (HPC), while the SFRBC and the MBR exhibited 2.1 and 3.6 logs removal, leading to effluent concentrations of 1.1 x 10(3) and 8.8 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) respectively. Faecal coliforms (FC) counts were 3.4 x 10(5) 1.4 x 10(5) 1.1 x 10(3) and 3.5 x 10(2) cfu 100 ml(-1) in raw greywater, and in the SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively. Further, in 60% of the samples no FC were detected in the MBR effluent. In order to simulate residence times in full scale systems, effluents were disinfected and stored for 0.5 h, 3 h, 6 h (normal operation), and one week (extreme event). The average chlorine demand was 8.1, 3.8 and 2.9 mg l(-1) for SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively. Low residual chlorine (0.15-0.22 mg l(-1)) remained in all effluents even after a week-long storage. Disinfection reduced HPC by 5, 2 and 2 orders of magnitude in the SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively, with no regrowth in short contact times (up to 6 hours). Some regrowth was observed after a week-long storage leading to 10(6), 10(4) and 10(3) cfu ml(-1) (SFEB SFRBC and MBR respectively). Disinfection reduced FC counts in all three types of effluent to 0 cfu 100 ml(-1), whilst no FC regrowth was observed after week-long storage. The results show that both RBC and MBR treatment units are viable options for on-site greywater reuse. The disinfection experiments strongly indicate that the health risk associated with the reuse of these effluents

  20. Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, E; Donner, E; Ledin, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, although important information such as greywater substance loadings is still only rarely available. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive the focus on controlling and phasing-out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom greywater, and to thereby assess the contribution of household activities to municipal wastewater loads for these substances. Nickel and mercury may be sourced substantially from household activities as it shown in the paper that bathroom greywater contributed a significant proportion of the overall load of these substances at the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Organic matter in the influent greywater was found to be principally associated with large particles (>8 µm), however it was the dissolved and small sized particles that were predominantly removed in the treatment.

  1. Quantification and characterization of greywater from schools.

    PubMed

    Alsulaili, Abdalrahman D; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2015-01-01

    Survey of schools of different education levels (primary, intermediate and secondary) in Kuwait showed an average greywater generation rate of 7.3 L/p/d and varied in the range of 2.9-16 l/p/d, reflecting the school level of education (i.e. student age). The highest rates were observed for primary schools while the lowest rates were observed in secondary schools where students are more mature and use the water more wisely. The greywater characteristics indicated waste with low chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) values but relatively high solids, conductivity, and sodium content due to excessive use of hand soap. Total coliform values ranged between 89 and 352 most probable number (MPN)/mL with an average of 196 MPN/mL while no fecal coliform values were detected. Greywater collected from schools is classified as light greywater and contains much lower levels of organic matter and nutrients compared to residential greywater and domestic wastewater. It is suitable for non-potable reuse after minimal treatment since microbial contamination may pose a serious threat to health if greywater comes into contact with humans. It also provides a good opportunity for reuse in toilet flushing since it can be easily collected from wash sinks and fountains, as major sources, and recycled.

  2. On-site greywater treatment and reuse in multi-storey buildings.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Kovalio, R; Galil, N I

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of a pilot plant treating light greywater for seven flats. The pilot plant combines biological treatment (RBC) with physicochemical treatment (sand filtration and disinfection). The pilot plant produced effluent of excellent quality, meeting the urban reuse quality regulations, and was very efficient in TSS turbidity and BOD removal: 82%, 98% and 96%, respectively. COD removal was somewhat lower (70-75%) indicating that the greywater may contain slowly-biodegradable organics. The RBC (attached growth biological system) was able to retain most of the solids as a result of bioflocculation; further it was proven to have very stable and reliable performance. Faecal coliforms and heterotrophic reductions were very high (100% and 99.99%, respectively) producing effluent that also met drinking water standards. The combination of low organic matter, nutrients and microbial indicators reduces the regrowth and fouling potentials in the reuse system, thus ensuring safe reuse of the treated greywater for toilet flushing.

  3. Bathroom greywater recycling using polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane: Advanced study of membrane structure and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Oh, K S; Poh, P E; Chong, M N; Chan, E S; Lau, E V; Saint, C P

    2016-09-05

    Polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane (PCBM) was fabricated using biodegradable chitosan and alginate polymers for subsequent application in the treatment of bathroom greywater. In this study, the properties of PCBMs were studied and it was found that the formation of polyelectrolyte network reduced the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) from 242kDa in chitosan membrane to 2.71kDa in PCBM. The decrease in MWCO of PCBM results in better greywater treatment efficiency, subsequently demonstrated in a greywater filtration study where treated greywater effluent met the household reclaimed water standard of <2 NTU turbidity and <30ppm total suspended solids (TSS). In addition, a further 20% improvement in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved as compared to a single layer chitosan membrane. Results from this study show that the biodegradable PCBM is a potential membrane material in producing clean treated greywater for non-potable applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laundry greywater treatment using a fluidized bed reactor: a proposed model based on greywater biodegradation and residence time distribution approach.

    PubMed

    David, Pierre-luc; Bulteau, Gaëlle; Humeau, Philippe; Gérente, Claire; Andrès, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for water and the decrease in global water resources require research into alternative solutions to preserve them. The present study deals with the optimization of a treatment process, i.e. an aerobic fluidized bed reactor and the modelling of the degradation that takes place within it. The methodology employed is based on the hydrodynamics of the treatment process linked to the biodegradation kinetics of greywater coming from a washing machine. The residence time distribution (RTD) approach is selected for the hydrodynamic study. Biodegradation kinetics are quantified by respirometry and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis on several mass quantities of colonized particles. RTD determinations show that there are no dysfunctions in the fluidized bed. Its hydrodynamic behaviour is similar to the one of a continuous stirred-tank reactor. A first-order reaction is obtained from the DOC biodegradation study. A model describing the degradation that takes place into the reactor is proposed, and from a sensitive study, the influence of the operating conditions on DOC biodegradation is defined. The theoretical results calculated from the first-order equation C(t) = 0.593 x C(0) x e(-kt) are compared with the experimental results and validated by a Student test. The value of the kinetic constant k is 0.011 h(-1) in the presence of a biomass carrier. The results highlight that it is possible to design a reactor in order to obtain a carbon content lower than 15 mg C L(-1) when the characteristics of raw greywater are known.

  5. Application of a low cost ceramic filter to a membrane bioreactor for greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Shafiquzzaman, Md; Nakajima, Jun; Ahmed, Abdel Kader T; Azam, Mohammad Shafiul

    2015-03-01

    The performance of a low cost and simple ceramic filter to a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process was evaluated for greywater treatment. The ceramic filter was submerged in an acrylic cylindrical column bioreactor. Synthetic greywater (prepared by shampoo, dish cleaner and laundry detergent) was fed continuously into the reactor. The filter effluent was obtained by gravitational pressure. The average flux performance was observed to be 11.5 LMH with an average hydraulic retention time of 1.7 days. Complete biodegradation of surfactant (methylene blue active substance removal: 99-100%) as well as high organic removal performance (biochemical oxygen demand: 97-100% and total organic carbon: >88%) was obtained. The consistency of flux (11.5 LMH) indicated that the filter can be operated for a long time without fouling. The application of this simple ceramic filter would make MBR technology cost-effective in developing countries for greywater reclamation and reuse.

  6. Socio-economic and psychological predictors of domestic greywater and rainwater collection: Evidence from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Anthony M.; Spash, Clive L.; Measham, Thomas G.

    2009-12-01

    SummaryThe importance of securing water supply necessitates that all options be explored. Research has indicated that demand on water catchments can be substantially decreased when a large proportion of households reuse greywater and/or install rainwater tanks. This paper reports on an internet survey completed by 354 households residing in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounding regions. Statistical analyses examined the relationship between socio-economic and psychological variables and the likelihood of the garden being irrigated with greywater and/or rainwater. The results show income, gender, age and education could not differentiate residents who were irrigating their garden with water from a tank from residents who were not. Residents who used tank water on their gardens had a higher self-reported understanding of a range of water supply options. Female participants and lower income residents were more likely to use greywater on their garden. Participants who irrigated the garden with greywater were more likely to judge various other water collection and recycling proposals as being appropriate. General concerns about water collection and reuse risks were not found to predict which households used tank water and/or greywater on their garden.

  7. Use of macrophyte plants, sand & gravel materials in constructed wetlands for greywater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qomariyah, S.; Ramelan, AH; Sobriyah; Setyono, P.

    2017-02-01

    Greywater discharged without any treatments into drainage channels or natural water bodies will lead to environmental degradation and health risk. Local macrophyte plants combined with natural materials of sand and gravel have been used in a system of constructed wetland for the treatment of the greywater. This paper presents the results of some studies of the system carried out in Indonesia, Thailand, and Costa Rica. The studies demonstrate the success of the constructed wetland systems in removing some pollutants of BOD, COD, TSS, pathogen, and detergent. The studies resulted in the treated water in a level of treatment that fulfils the requirement of the local standards for wastewater reuse as irrigation water, fishery, or other outdoor needs.

  8. Greywater treatment by granular filtration system using volcanic tuff and gravel media.

    PubMed

    Albalawneh, Abeer; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Alshawabkeh, Heba

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a granular filtration system (GFS) in greywater treatment under arid and semi-arid conditions. Six GFSs were designed, constructed, and monitored for approximately 13 months. Each GFS served a single rural Jordanian home by treating their greywater. Volcanic tuff media were used as the filtration media in three of the GFSs while the remaining three GFSs used gravel media. Results show that the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids of the effluent were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 73%, 65%, and 85%, respectively, when using volcanic tuff media. The removal efficiency was 49%, 51%, and 76%, respectively, when using gravel media. There was a significant increase in the electrical conductivity, pH, potassium (K(+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), chloride (Cl(-)), sodium (Na(+)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), bicarbonates (HCO3(-)), sodium adsorption ratio, and exchangeable sodium percentage in the effluents of the GFS that used volcanic tuff media. The study suggests that GFSs can adequately treat greywater under arid conditions. However, gravel media produce less concentrated effluent compared to the volcanic tuff media.

  9. Greywater treatment in an aerobic SBR: sludge structure and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Z, U; Fajardo-O, C; Moreno-Andrade, I; Monroy, O

    2017-09-01

    In order to have an efficient operation, sequencing batch reactors (SBR) must support granular biomass with high conversion rates, settling properties, and be able to deal with the inherent variability of the composition of real wastewaters. In this study, the effect of the influent composition and the specific organic loading rate (Bx) on the granulation process was evaluated in two SBRs, fed with greywater (GW) and a synthetic medium (SM). The feeding with SM led to the formation of compact granular biomass, with a sludge volume index (SVI) of 22.4 mL g(-1), and a zone settling velocity (ZSV) of 13.1 m h(-1). In contrast, feeding with GW induced the formation of filamentous granules, with lower settling properties (SVI = 165 mL g(-1) and ZSV = 10 m h(-1)), when the system was operated at high Bx (4.4 kg COD kg VSS(-1) d(-1)). However, the reduction of the average Bx to 2 kg COD kg VSS(-1) d(-1) induced an improvement in the morphology and properties of the granules (SVI = 98 mL g(-1) and ZSV = 13 m h(-1)). Furthermore, the kinetic analysis indicated that granules cultivated with SM were formed by fast growing microorganisms with a high cell yield, whereas those cultivated in GW presented a much lower cell yield.

  10. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse.

  11. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  12. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates

    PubMed Central

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ΦX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

  13. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of greywater via UASB and MBR for unrestricted reuse.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I; Al-Sulaiman, Ahmed Makki; Mansour, Mona S M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of integrated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) as anaerobic system followed by membrane bioreactor (MBR) as aerobic system for the treatment of greywater for unrestricted reuse. Pilot-scale UASB and MBR units were installed and operated in the NRC, Egypt. Real raw greywater was subjected to UASB and the effluent was further treated with microfiltration MBR. The necessary trans-membrane pressure difference is applied by the water head above the membrane (gravity flow) without any energy input. The average characteristics of the raw greywater were 95, 392, 298, 10.45, 0.4, 118.5 and 28 mg/L for total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total phosphates, nitrates, oil and grease, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), respectively. The pH was 6.71. The UASB treatment efficiency reached 19.3, 57.8, 67.5 and 83.7% for TSS, COD, BOD5 and oil and grease, respectively. When the UASB effluent was further treated with MBR, the overall removal rate achieved 97.7, 97.8, 97.4 and 95.8% for the same parameters successively. The characteristics of the final effluent reached 2.5, 8.5, 6.1, 0.95, 4.6 and 2.3 mg/L for TSS, COD, BOD, phosphates, oil and grease and TKN, respectively. This final treated effluent could cope with the unrestricted water reuse of local Egyptian guidelines.

  14. Greywater as a sustainable water source: A photocatalytic treatment technology under artificial and solar illumination.

    PubMed

    Tsoumachidou, Sophia; Velegraki, Theodora; Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    Greywater considers being a highly reclaimable water source particularly important for water-stressed nations. In this work, heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial and solar illumination has been applied for the mineralization of simulated light greywater (effluents from dishwashers and kitchen sinks were excluded from the study). The effects on the process' efficiency of TiO2 P25 catalyst's concentration, initial concentration of H2O2 and Fe(3+), pH of the solution, as well as the type of radiation, were evaluated in a bench-scale Pyrex reactor and a pilot-scale slurry fountain photoreactor. The treatment efficiency has been followed through the evolution of the organic matter content expresses as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Best results were obtained with the photo-Fenton-assisted TiO2 photocatalytic process with 72% DOC removal after 210 min of bench scale treatment, while under the same photocatalytic conditions in the pilot reactor the DOC removal reached almost 64%. Moreover, the decrease in toxicity, phytotoxicity and biodegradability of the simulated wastewater has been observed after solar-induced photocatalytic treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the reliability of an on-site MBR system for greywater treatment and the associated aesthetic and health risks.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Shwartzman, Z; Ostfeld, A

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the reliability of an on-site MBR system for greywater treatment and reuse. To achieve this goal simulation was performed based on the IWA ASM1 model which was adapted to describe biological and physical mechanisms for MBR greywater treatment based systems. Model results were found to agree well with experimental data from an on site pilot greywater treatment plant, after which the calibrated model was used in a Monte Carlo mode for generating statistical data on the MBR system performance under different scenarios of failures and inflow loads variations. Effluents quality and their associated risks were successfully estimated. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  16. Simplified greywater treatment systems: Slow filters of sand and slate waste followed by granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zipf, Mariah Siebert; Pinheiro, Ivone Gohr; Conegero, Mariana Garcia

    2016-07-01

    One of the main actions of sustainability that is applicable to residential, commercial, and public buildings is the rational use of water that contemplates the reuse of greywater as one of the main options for reducing the consumption of drinking water. Therefore, this research aimed to study the efficiencies of simplified treatments for greywater reuse using slow sand and slow slate waste filtration, both followed by granular activated carbon filters. The system monitoring was conducted over 28 weeks, using analyses of the following parameters: pH, turbidity, apparent color, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), surfactants, total coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms. The system was run at two different filtration rates: 6 and 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences in the majority of the results when filtration rate changed from 6 to 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. The average removal efficiencies with regard to the turbidity, apparent color, COD and BOD were 61, 54, 56, and 56%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 66, 61, 60, and 51%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. Both systems showed good efficiencies in removing surfactants, around 70%, while the pH reached values of around 7.80. The average removal efficiencies of the total and thermotolerant coliforms were of 61 and 90%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 67 and 80%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. The statistical analysis found no significant differences between the responses of the two systems, which attest to the fact that the slate waste can be a substitute for sand. The maximum levels of efficiency were high, indicating the potential of the systems, and suggesting their optimization in order to achieve much higher average efficiencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Membrane process treatment for greywater recycling: investigations on direct tubular nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Hourlier, F; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Lakel, A; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Cloirec, P Le

    2010-01-01

    On-site greywater recycling and reuse is one of the main ways to reduce potable water requirement in urban areas. Direct membrane filtration is a promising technology to recycle greywater on-site. This study aimed at selecting a tubular nanofiltration (NF) membrane and its operating conditions in order to treat and reuse greywater in buildings. To do so, a synthetic greywater (SGW) was reconstituted in order to conduct experiments on a reproducible effluent. Then, three PCI NF membranes (AFC30, AFC40 and AFC80) having distinct molecular weight cut-offs were tested to recycle this SGW with a constant concentration at 25°C at two different transmembrane pressures (20 and 35 bar). The best results were obtained with AFC80 at 35 bar: the flux was close to 50 L m⁻²  h⁻¹, retentions of 95% for chemical oxygen demand and anionic surfactants were observed, and no Enterococcus were detected in the permeate. The performances of AFC80 were also evaluated on a real greywater: fluxes and retentions were similar to those observed on SGW. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of direct nanofiltration to recycle and reuse greywater.

  18. Reliability of on-site greywater treatment systems in Mediterranean and arid environments - a case study.

    PubMed

    Alfiya, Y; Gross, A; Sklarz, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-01

    On-site greywater (GW) treatment and reuse is gaining popularity. However, a main point of concern is that inadequate treatment of such water may lead to negative environmental and health effects. Maintenance of single-family home GW systems is usually performed by home owners with limited professional support. Therefore, unless GW systems are reliable, environmental and public health might be compromised. This study is aimed at investigating the reliability of on-site recirculated vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) in 20 single-family homes. In order to ensure reliability, the failure-tree approach was adopted during the design and construction of the systems. The performance of the systems was monitored for 1.5 years, by evaluating treated GW flow and quality, and by recording all malfunctions and maintenance work. Only 39 failures occurred during this period, of which four caused irrigation with impaired quality GW, while the rest led to no irrigation. The mean time between failures (MTBF) was 305 days; two out of the 20 systems suffered from seven malfunctions (each), while nine systems did not fail at all. Thus, it can be postulated that if on-site GW treatment systems are designed with the right controls, and if scheduled (basic and relatively infrequent) maintenance is performed, GW reuse can be safe to the environment and human health.

  19. Treatment and potential reuse of greywater from schools: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alsulaili, Abdalrahman D; Hamoda, Mohamed F; Al-Jarallah, Rawa; Alrukaibi, Duaij

    2017-05-01

    This study presented performance data on a low cost and easy maintenance pilot system for on-site treatment and reuse of water collected from wash sinks and fountains, as major sources of greywater (GW) at schools. Various treatment options were studied including screening, sand filtration, chlorination, and UV disinfection operated at different flow rates. Results showed that filtration operated at low rates is very effective in total suspended solids (TSS) removal, while UV proved to be more effective than chlorination for reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total coliforms. Removal efficiencies up to 63%, 30% and 20% were obtained for TSS, COD and BOD, respectively and reductions of log TC (CFU/100 ml) from 6.5 to 2 were obtained at a filtration rate of 14 m(3)/d·m(2). Treated effluent satisfied WHO standards for reclaimed water reuse in landscape irrigation and toilet flushing. The filtration-UV system is robust, showing the best and most reliable performance for low and high strength GW treatment even under a 10-fold increase in flow rate. A 5 m(3)/d pilot plant was developed for schools having 500 students and detailed cost-benefit analysis indicated a net saving value, a surplus of $1,600 per year, and pay back after 6 years and 11 months.

  20. Simulation and verification of hydraulic properties and organic matter degradation in sand filters for greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Susanna Ciuk; Langergraber, G; Pell, M; Dalahmeh, S; Vinnerås, B; Jönsson, H

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment performance of vertical flow sand filters, the HYDRUS wetland module was used to simulate treatment in an experimental set-up. The laboratory filters were intermittently dosed with artificial greywater at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.032 m³ m⁻² day⁻¹ and an organic loading rate of 0.014 kg BOD5 m⁻² day⁻¹. The hydraulic properties of the filter were characterised, as were inflow and outflow concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia, nitrate and total nitrogen. The inverse simulation function of the HYDRUS software was used to calibrate the water flow model. The observed effect of water flowing faster along the column wall was included in the inverse simulations. The biokinetic model was calibrated by fitting heterotrophic biomass growth to measurements of potential respiration rate. Emphasis was put on simulating outflow concentrations of organic pollutants. The simulations were conducted using three models of varying degree of calibration effort and output accuracy. The effluent concentration was 245 mg COD L⁻¹ for the laboratory filters, 134 mg COD mg L⁻¹ for the model excluding wall flow effects and 338 mg COD mg L⁻¹ for the model including wall flow effects.

  1. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  2. Modelling of moving bed biofilm membrane reactors (MBBMR) for on-site greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates with a mechanistic model the pilot plant results of a combined moving bed biofilm process and membrane filtration (MBBMR) treating single household greywater. It mainly includes the simulation of reactor hydraulics, degradation of pollutants, development of biomass and settlement of sludge. Iterative calibration was made with steady-state results of a 10-month pilot test. The model shows good predictions of readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal, as well as biomass concentration on carriers and in suspension. Also, a sensitivity analysis was made which calculates the relative significance factor of each model coefficient and by this provides comparability with other studies. Simulation data and actually measured parameters show that the suggested process was rather independent of ambient temperatures and short-term load fluctuations. Obtained datasets and model structure could be of use for future designers, as well as sellers and users of this process for on-site greywater reclamation.

  3. Phosphorus as a limiting factor on sustainable greywater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan D R; Will, Geoffrey D; Dawes, Les A; Gardner, Edward A; Lyons, David J

    2013-07-01

    Water reuse through greywater irrigation has been adopted worldwide and has been proposed as a potential sustainable solution to increased water demands. Despite widespread adoption, there is limited domestic knowledge of greywater reuse. There is no pressure to produce low-level phosphorus products and current guidelines and legislation, such as those in Australia, may be inadequate due to the lack of long-term data to provide a sound scientific basis. Research has clearly identified phosphorus as a potential environmental risk to waterways from many forms of irrigation. To assess the sustainability of greywater irrigation, this study compared four residential lots that had been irrigated with greywater for four years and adjacent non-irrigated lots that acted as controls. Each lot was monitored for the volume of greywater applied and selected physic-chemical water quality parameters and soil chemistry profiles were analysed. The non-irrigated soil profiles showed low levels of phosphorus and were used as controls. The Mechlich3 Phosphorus ratio (M3PSR) and Phosphate Environmental Risk Index (PERI) were used to determine the environmental risk of phosphorus leaching from the irrigated soils. Soil phosphorus concentrations were compared to theoretical greywater irrigation loadings. The measured phosphorus soil concentrations and the estimated greywater loadings were of similar magnitude. Sustainable greywater reuse is possible; however incorrect use and/or lack of understanding of how household products affect greywater can result in phosphorus posing a significant risk to the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical simulation of greywater.

    PubMed

    Abed, Suhail Najem; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management attracts considerable attention in today's world. Recycling and reuse of both wastewater and greywater are becoming more attractive. The strategy is to protect ecosystem services by balancing the withdrawal of water and the disposal of wastewater. In the present study, a timely and novel synthetic greywater composition has been proposed with respect to the composition of heavy metals, nutrients and organic matter. The change in water quality of the synthetic greywater due to increasing storage time was monitored to evaluate the stability of the proposed chemical formula. The new greywater is prepared artificially using analytical-grade chemicals to simulate either low (LC) or high (HC) pollutant concentrations. The characteristics of the synthetic greywater were tested (just before starting the experiment, after two days and a week of storage under real weather conditions) and compared to those reported for real greywater. Test results for both synthetic greywater types showed great similarities with the physiochemical properties of published findings concerning real greywater. Furthermore, the synthetic greywater is relatively stable in terms of its characteristics for different storage periods. However, there was a significant (p < .05) reduction in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for both low (LC) and high (HC) concentrations of greywater after two days of storage with reductions of 62% and 55%, respectively. A significant (p < .05) change was also noted for the reduction (70%) of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concerning HC greywater after seven days of storage.

  5. Semicentralized greywater and blackwater treatment for fast growing cities: how uncertain influent characteristics might affect the treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Tolksdorf, J; Cornel, P

    2017-04-01

    The SEMIZENTRAL infrastructure approach has been developed for fast growing cities, to meet their challenges regarding water supply as well as biowaste and wastewater (WW) treatment. The world's first full-scale SEMIZENTRAL Resource Recovery reference plant has been implemented in Qingdao (PR China). Greywater (GW) and blackwater (BW) are collected and treated separately. Measurement of influent concentrations revealed significant differences, compared with the design values. Values from the literature for GW and BW characteristics vary more markedly than for municipal WW; recommended design values are still lacking. Moreover, cross-connections between GW and BW can influence the influent characteristics considerably. Consequences for the design of GW and BW treatment are evaluated for boundary conditions, which require high effluent quality for both treatment modules. Model calculations illustrate the significant influence of uncertain WW characteristics on the required aeration basin volume and oxygen demand for GW and BW treatment; however, uncertainties are considerably reduced for the combination of these modules. Thus, a flexible design of the treatment plant is required. A possible concept for such a design is presented.

  6. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  7. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample.

  8. Portable System for Field-Feeding Greywater Remediation and Recycling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    with greywater reuse regulations2 base their water quality standards on the secondary treatment standard. In addition, each system’s process rate...to the system and converted to greywater . Of this added water, 80% is cleaned for reuse while 20% is unusable concentrate that requires backhauling...Field- Feeding Greywater Remediation and Recycling July 2006 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  9. Solar disinfection for the post-treatment of greywater by means of a continuous flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Pansonato, Natália; Afonso, Marcos V G; Salles, Carlos A; Boncz, Marc A; Paulo, Paula L

    2011-01-01

    SODIS (solar disinfection) is a low-cost alternative for water decontamination. The method is based on the exposure of water, contained in PET bottles, to direct sunlight, and mainly its UV-A and infrared components. The present research studied SODIS as a low cost alternative for the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in treated greywater, aiming at its reuse for more noble applications. Experiments were performed in (i) batch mode (2 L PET-bottles), testing the effect of turbidity on system efficiency and, (ii) in a continuous pilot-scale reactor prototype (51 L, using interconnected 2 L-PET bottles), testing hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 18 and 24 h. Samples were exposed to an average solar radiation intensity of 518 W/m2. The results obtained indicate that the SODIS system has potential for total coliforms and E. coli inactivation in the pre-treated greywater, reaching 2.1 log units E. coli inactivation in batch experiments for low turbidity samples (21 NTU), and > 2 log units inactivation of total coliforms (and E. coli, when present) for the 24 h HRT-continuous prototype. The continuous flow prototype needs more testing and structural improvements to cope with the difficulties posed by algae growth, as they complicate maintaining conditions of constant flow and make frequent maintenance inevitable.

  10. Alkylphenol and phthalate contamination of all sources of greywater from French households.

    PubMed

    Deshayes, S; Eudes, V; Bigourie, M; Droguet, C; Moilleron, R

    2017-12-01

    Despite the importance of domestic wastewater, the contribution of greywater to both alkylphenol and phthalate pollution is not yet well documented. Likewise, the detailed emissions of phthalates and alkylphenols by greywater have been insufficiently studied, this work aims to fill this gap. The levels of four phthalates (DEP, DnBP, BBP and DEHP) and two alkylphenols (nonylphenol isomers and octylphenol) were quantified in six different types of greywater, namely that from washing machines, manual dishwashing, dishwashers, bathroom water (from showers and sinks) and floor cleaning. This paper presents the methodology used to characterize all sources of greywater and provides their levels of contamination. The highest concentrations were found in greywater produced by the washing machine and floor cleaning, while washing machine and shower greywater have the highest phthalate and alkylphenol loads because of the volume associated with these two sources of greywater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Greywater-induced soil hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Gross, Amit; Arye, Gilboa

    2017-10-01

    Greywater (GW) reuse for irrigation is a common method of reducing domestic consumption of fresh water. Most of the scientific research and legislation efforts have focused on GW's health risks, while less attention has been given to its environmental outcomes. One of the environmental risks of GW irrigation is its possible effect on soil hydraulic properties. This research examined the ability of GW to induce soil hydrophobicity, as well as its degree and persistence. Fresh water (control) and three model GW solutions representing raw, treated and highly treated GW were used to wet fine-grained sand. Every treatment was subjected to five cycles of wetting, incubation (at 5 °C or 30 °C) and drying (60 °C). After each cycle, capillary rise was measured and the contact angle (CA) was calculated. Samples were also tested by the Wilhelmy plate method to retrieve advancing and receding CA and reservoir surface tension. Water repellence of the sand, as implied from the CA, increased with increasing GW concentration and was highest in the sand coated with the model raw GW and incubated at 5 °C. However, none of the treatments resulted in what is considered to be "water-repellent soil". Furthermore, when raw GW-coated sand was immersed in water, its surface tension was significantly reduced relative to the other treatments, implying a release of surface-active compounds from the sand into the water. It was postulated that untreated GW may induce sub-critical water repellence in sand. However, this effect is sensitive to biodegradation and washing processes and is therefore temporary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breakpoint chlorination curves of greywater.

    PubMed

    March, J G; Gual, M

    2007-08-01

    A study on chlorination of raw greywater with hypochlorite is reported in this paper. Samples were chlorinated in a variety of conditions, and residual chlorine (Cl2) was measured spectrophotometrically. For each sample, the chlorination curve (chlorine residuals versus chlorine dose) was obtained. Curves showed the typical hump-and-dip profile attributable to the formation and destruction of chloramines. It was observed that, after reactions with strong reductants and chloramines-forming compounds, the remaining organic matter exerted a certain demand of chlorine. The evolution of chlorination curves with addition of ammonia and dodecylbencene sulfonate sodium salt and with dilution of the greywater sample were studied. In addition, chlorination curves at several contact times have been obtained, resulting in slower chlorine decay in the hump zone than in the dip zone. In addition, the decay of coliforms in chlorinated samples was also investigated. It was found that, for a chlorination dosage corresponding to the maximum of the hump zone (average 8.9 mg Cl2/ L), samples were negative in coliforms after 10 to 30 minutes of contact time. After-growth was not observed within 3 days after chlorination. Implications in chlorination treatments of raw greywater can be derived from these results.

  13. Effects of long-term greywater disposal on soil: A case study.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Alma; Burton, Vanessa; Ross, Craig; Lowe, Hamish; Horswell, Jacqui

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the environmental health risks to soil and potential risks to groundwater associated with long term (8-18years) greywater disposal practices. Land application of greywater is likely to have environmental impacts, which may be positive or negative. Greywater can contain plant macronutrients that may benefit plant growth. Conversely, high levels of surfactants, oils, grease, sodium and potentially pathogenic organisms may negatively impact environmental and human health. In this study, land disposal of untreated greywater was practiced at five coastal domestic properties. At each property, soil samples were collected at two depths from areas used for greywater disposal and from control areas that were not exposed to greywater. Soils were analysed for chemical and biological responses to greywater exposure. Generally, greywater irrigated soils had higher pH, Olsen P, base saturation, and increased soil microbial activity (as measured by biomass carbon, basal respiration and dehydrogenase activity). A pH of >9 was recorded for some greywater treated soil samples. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected at up to 10(3)MPN/g in the greywater exposed surface soils at some sites. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that greywater affected the soil microbial community structure, which may have implications for soil health and fertility. Overall, this study shows that the long-term application of greywater at the investigated sites had a moderate impact on the soil environment. This may have been due to the sandy soils and high rainfall that would flush the soil. Increases in microbial biomass and dehydrogenase indicate that greywater application may be beneficial for plant growth. However, high levels of E. coli in some soils may be a risk to human health and sub-surface irrigation should be the recommended application method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  15. Reduction of microbial risk associated with greywater by disinfection processes for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Al-Gheethi, A A; Mohamed, R M S Radin; Efaq, A N; Amir Hashim, M K

    2016-06-01

    Greywater is one of the most important alternative sources for irrigation in arid and semi-arid countries. However, the health risk associated with the microbial contents of these waters limits their utilization. Many techniques have been developed and used to generate a high microbiological quality of greywater. The main problem in the treatment of greywater lies in the nature of pathogenic bacteria in terms of their ability to survive during/after the treatment process. The present review focused on the health risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in greywater and the treatment technologies used for the disinfection processes.

  16. Survival of Escherichia coli in common garden mulches spiked with synthetic greywater.

    PubMed

    Boyte, S; Quaife, S; Horswell, J; Siggins, A

    2017-05-01

    Reuse of domestic wastewater is increasingly practiced as a means to address global demands on fresh water. Greywater is primarily reused via subsurface irrigation of gardens, where the soil environment is seen to be an integral part of the treatment process. The fate of biological contaminants (i.e. pathogens) in the soil is reasonably well understood, but their persistence and survival in soil cover layers is largely unexplored. This study investigated the ability of Escherichia coli to survive in common soil cover layers. Three garden mulches were investigated: pea straw mulch, a bark-based mulch and a coconut husk mulch. Each mulch was treated with an E. coli solution, a synthetic greywater with E. coli, or a freshwater control. Escherichia coli was applied at 1 × 10(4)  most probable number (MPN) per g dry weight mulch. Subsamples were temporally analysed for E. coli. The bark and coconut husk mulches showed a steady decline in E. coli numbers, while E. coli increased in the pea straw mulch for the duration of the 50 days experiment, peaking at 1·8 × 10(8)  MPN per g dry weight mulch. This study highlighted the importance of selection of a suitable material for covering areas that are subsurface irrigated with greywater.

  17. Impacts of onsite greywater reuse on wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, Roni; Schütze, Manfred; Alex, Jens; Friedler, Eran

    2017-04-01

    Together with significant water savings that onsite greywater reuse (GWR) may provide, it may also affect the performance of urban sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In order to examine these effects, an integrated stochastic simulation system for GWR in urban areas was developed. The model includes stochastic generators of domestic wastewater streams and gross solids (GSs), a sewer network model which includes hydrodynamic simulation and a GS transport module, and a dynamic process model of the WWTP. The developed model was applied to a case study site in Israel. For the validation of the sewer simulator, field experiments in a real sewer segment were conducted. The paper presents the integration and implementation of these modules and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR scenarios on GS movement in sewers and on the performance of the WWTP.

  18. Safe on-site reuse of greywater for irrigation - a critical review of current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Tal, Alon; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2010-05-01

    Reuse of greywater for landscape irrigation can significantly reduce domestic water consumption. Alongside its benefits, there are potential drawbacks to greywater reuse, raising legitimate concerns about the impact on human and environmental health. In this review, a risk assessment framework is used to assess the adequacy of different regulations to ensure safe and long-lasting, onsite greywater reuse for irrigation. Existing regulations from around the world are assessed along with a standardized evaluation of measures taken to protect public and environmental health. In most cases, human health considerations currently dominate regulatory strategies, while environmental risks are either ignored or underrepresented. A distinction between single and multiple households was found to be a fundamental component of the regulations which often lead to approved utilization of untreated greywater among single households. We concluded that the use of untreated greywater is not recommended, especially in multihousehold systems as it may compromise public health, with single household systems posing more likely risks to the environment. Existing rules to control greywater use should be further revised toward the establishment of a more advanced regulatory system which can avert the salient potential risks associated with greywater reuse, while exploiting the enormous potential of this alternative water resource.

  19. Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Khaldoon A; Berndtsson, Justyna C; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2011-10-01

    Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water.

  20. Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Azulai, N; Oron, G; Ronen, Z; Arnold, M; Nejidat, A

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion that greywater is of better quality than wastewater and therefore does not need extensive treatment beyond addressing public health issues. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impact and health risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three-year period, each of three plots on a farm was irrigated with either freshwater, fertilized water, or greywater. Irrigation water and soil from the plots were analyzed for a wide range of chemical and microbial variables. Results suggest that greywater may be of similar quality to wastewater in several parameters such as BOD and faecal coliforms. For some other variables such as boron and surfactants, greywater may even be of worse quality than wastewater. Long-term irrigation of arid loess soil with greywater may result in accumulation of salts, surfactants and boron in the soil, causing changes in soil properties and toxicity to plants. Faecal coliforms did not survive in the soil. Treating greywater before using it for irrigation is recommended, even in places where this is not a requirement.

  1. Estrogenic personal care products in a greywater reuse system.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H R; Lundsbye, M; Wedel, H V; Eriksson, E; Ledin, A

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of parabens in a greywater system was assessed. The potential for removal of residual paraben concentrations in effluent greywater with chlorine dioxide was also investigated. The influent to the greywater plant was characterised by considerable variation, with concentrations from below the detection limit to 40 microg/L and the five commonly used parabens in consumer products were frequently detected. After the biological treatment only two paraben were detected with concentration from 65-120 ng/L. Chlorine dioxide treatment of the biologically treated effluent with dosages down to 0.75 mg/L resulted in more than 97% reduction of all parabens. Formation of the by-product chloroform was insignificant from the chlorine dioxide treatment.

  2. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment.

  3. A probabilistic model of norovirus disease burden associated with greywater irrigation of home-produced lettuce in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fiona Barker, S; O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha I; Leder, Karin; Malawaraarachchi, Manori; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    The reuse of domestic greywater has become common in Australia, especially during periods of extreme drought. Greywater is typically used in a raw, untreated form, primarily for landscape irrigation, but more than a quarter of greywater users irrigate vegetable gardens with the water, despite government advice against this practice. Greywater can be contaminated with enteric pathogens and may therefore pose a health risk if irrigated produce is consumed raw. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model was constructed to estimate the norovirus disease burden associated with consumption of greywater-irrigated lettuce. The annual disease burdens (95th percentile; DALYs per person) attributed to greywater irrigation ranged from 2 × 10(-8) to 5 × 10(-4), depending on the source of greywater and the existence of produce washing within households. Accounting for the prevalence of produce-washing behaviours across Melbourne, the model predicted annual disease burdens ranging from 4 × 10(-9) for bathroom water use only to 3 × 10(-6) for laundry water use only, and accounting for the proportionate use of each greywater type, the annual disease burden was 2 × 10(-6). We recommend the preferential use of bathroom water over laundry water where possible as this would reduce the annual burden of disease to align with the current Australian recycled water guidelines, which recommend a threshold of 10(-6) DALYs per person. It is also important to consider other exposure pathways, particularly considering the high secondary attack rate of norovirus, as it is highly likely that the estimated norovirus disease burden associated with greywater irrigation of vegetables is negligible relative to household contact with an infected individual. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Greywater reuse through a bioretention system prototype in the arid region.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rezaul K

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a greywater-fed bioretention system in arid regions was investigated in this study. Bioretention systems are conventionally used as a source control mechanism for urban runoff. Nevertheless, in arid regions, where rain and urban runoff are not an abundant water resource, their application is limited. Greywater (residential wastewater without toilet and kitchen sources) is comparatively less polluted and has the potential for reuse in irrigation and non-potable water uses. However, selection of an appropriate treatment is a challenge. A prototype bioretention system was made and its ability to improve greywater quality was monitored for more than 10 consecutive days. A vegetative and non-vegetative system were monitored separately. After 24 hours of retention in both systems, greywater quality was improved significantly. Both systems performed almost equally well; however, the vegetative system (with canary reed grass, Phalaris arundinacea) was found to be more effective in reducing the sodium and chemical oxygen demand contents. The study revealed that the concept of the greywater-fed bioretention system has the potential to add multi-functional benefits (greywater treatment, water conservation, landscape aesthetic and biodiversity) to the arid regions' urban environment.

  5. On-line batch production of ferrate with an chemical method and its potential application for greywater recycling with Al(III) salt.

    PubMed

    Song, Yarui; Men, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng; Ma, Jianwei

    2017-02-01

    Ferrate(VI) salt is an oxidant and coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. It is considered as a possible alternative method in greywater treatment. However, challenges have existed in putting ferrate(VI) technology into full-scale practice in water and wastewater treatment due to the instability of ferrate solution and high production cost of solid ferrate products. This study demonstrated a new approach of greywater treatment with on-line batch production of Fe(VI) to which Fe(III) salt was oxidized at a weak acidity solution. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of Fe(VI) on light greywater (total organic carbon (TOC)=19.5mg/L) and dark greywater (TOC=55mg/L) treatment under different conditions with varying pH and Fe(VI) doses. In addition, the combination use of Fe(VI) and Al(III) salts was proved to be more efficient than using the Fe(VI) salts alone at greywater recycling. The optimum dosage of Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts was 25/25mg/L for light greywater, 90/60mg/L for dark greywater, respectively. The TOC values of both light greywater and dark greywater were reduced to less than 3mg/L with the dosages. The cost for treating greywater was 0.06-0.2$/ton at ferrate(VI) dosage of 25-90mg/L and 0.008-0.024$/ton at AlCl3 dosage of 25-60mg/L. The full operating cost needs further assessment before the Fe(VI)/Al(III) technology could be implemented in greywater treatment.

  6. Potential of organic filter materials for treating greywater to achieve irrigation quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Hylander, Lars D; Vinnerås, Björn; Pell, Mikael; Oborn, Ingrid; Jönsson, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this literature review were to: (i) evaluate the impact of greywater generated in rural communities, with the emphasis on Jordanian conditions, on soil, plant and public health and assess the need for treatment of this greywater before it is used for irrigation, and (ii) assess the potential of different types of organic by-products as carrier material in different filter units for removal of pollutants from greywater. Greywater with high BOD5, COD, high concentrations of SS, fat, oil and grease and high levels of surfactants is commonly found in rural areas in Jordan. Oxygen depletion, odour emission, hydrophobic soil phenomena, plant toxicity, blockage of piping systems and microbiological health risks are common problems associated with greywater without previous treatment. Organic by-products such as wood chips, bark, peat, wheat straw and corncob may be used as carrier material in so-called mulch filters for treating wastewater and greywater from different sources. A down-flow-mode vertical filter is a common setup used in mulch filters. Wastewaters with a wide range of SS, cBOD5 and COD fed into different mulch filters have been studied. The different mulch materials achieved SS removal ranging between 51 and 91%, a BOD5 reduction range of 55-99.9%, and COD removal of 51-98%. Most types of mulches achieved a higher organic matter removal than that achieved by an ordinary septic tank. Bark, peat and wood chips filters removed organic matter better than sand and trickling filters, under similar conditions. Release of filter material and increase in COD in the effluent was reported using some mulch materials. In conclusion, some mulch materials such as bark, peat and woodchips seem to have a great potential for treatment of greywater in robust, low-tech systems. They can be expected to be resilient in dealing with variable low and high organic loads and shock loads.

  7. Vertical garden for treating greywater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Arthur Phaoenchoke; Montoya, Alejandro; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Recent increasing concerns over the effects of climate change has prompted much debate into the issue of long term sustainability. An investigation was conducted into the feasibility of an off-grid housing unit, particularly in an Australian context. A pilot scale 3m × 2m off-grid housing unit was constructed. Forecasts for water requirements as well as an investigation into rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling was conducted. A multi-container plant and sand biological filter was constructed and filtration abilities investigated. The system met NSW government water reuse standards in terms of suspended solids and pH, achieving total suspended solid removal efficiency of up to 99%.

  8. Health risk assessment of organic micropollutants in greywater for potable reuse.

    PubMed

    Etchepare, Ramiro; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2015-04-01

    In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 37576 - Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH13 Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses... Revenue Code (Code) relating to the recapture of overall domestic losses that was enacted as part of the... limitation, and section 904(g), which addresses overall domestic losses and the recapture of such...

  10. Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW)--a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities and households.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Shmueli, O; Ronen, Z; Raveh, E

    2007-01-01

    The use of greywater for irrigation is becoming increasingly common. However, raw greywater is often contaminated and can cause environmental harm and pose health risks. Nevertheless, it is often used without any significant pretreatment, a practice mistakenly considered safe. The aim of this study was to develop an economically sound, low-tech and easily maintainable treatment system that would allow safe and sustainable use of greywater for landscape irrigation in small communities and households. The system is based on a combination of vertical flow constructed wetland with water recycling and trickling filter, and is termed recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW). The RVFCW's properties, removal efficiency, hydraulic parameters and feasibility were studied, as well as the environmental effects of the treated greywater, as reflected by soil and plant parameters over time. The RVFCW was efficient at removing virtually all of the suspended solids and biological oxygen demand, and about 80% of the chemical oxygen demand after 8h. Fecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial concentration after 8h, but this was not always enough to meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation. The treated greywater had no significant negative impact on plants or soil during the study period. The feasibility analysis indicated a return over investment after approximately three years. We concluded that the RVFCW is a sustainable and promising treatment system for greywater use that can be run and maintained by unskilled operators.

  11. Harvesting of microalgae biomass from the phycoremediation process of greywater.

    PubMed

    Atiku, Hauwa; Mohamed, Rmsr; Al-Gheethi, A A; Wurochekke, A A; Kassim, Amir Hashim M

    2016-12-01

    The wide application of microalgae in the field of wastewater treatment and bioenergy source has improved research studies in the past years. Microalgae represent a good source of biomass and bio-products which are used in different medical and industrial activities, among them the production of high-valued products and biofuels. The present review focused on greywater treatment through the application of phycoremediation technique with microalgae and presented recent advances in technologies used for harvesting the microalgae biomass. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. The microbiological aspects of production, harvesting and utilization of microalgae biomass are viewed.

  12. Effects of surfactants originating from reuse of greywater on capillary rise in the soil.

    PubMed

    Shafran, A W; Gross, A; Ronen, Z; Weisbrod, N; Adar, E

    2005-01-01

    Greywater is all domestic wastewater excluding toilet effluents. Detergents contain surfactants, which account for the highest concentration of organic chemicals in average domestic wastewater. Accumulation of surfactants in greywater-irrigated soils was determined in three household gardens. The effect of surfactants on capillary rise in loess and sand was then tested in the range of concentrations found in the garden soils. The capillary rise of freshwater in sieved oven-dried soil mixed with different concentrations of laundry detergent solution (10% w/w moisture content) was determined. In a second setup, the soil was mixed with freshwater and the rising solution contained different concentrations of detergent solution. The introduction of laundry solution to the soils caused a significant decrease in the capillary rise over the range of concentrations that is found in greywater-irrigated soils. The effect was more noticeable in the sand than in the loess. Interestingly, in the second setup, the capillary rise of the laundry solutions in the sand was almost similar to that of freshwater, whereas in the loess the capillary rise was significantly reduced. It is suggested that accumulation of surfactants in the soil might form water repellent soils that have a significant effect on agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability.

  13. Estimated costs of implementation of membrane processes for on-site greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Humeau, P; Hourlier, F; Bulteau, G; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2011-01-01

    Greywater reuse inside buildings is a possible way to preserve water resources and face up to water scarcity. This study is focused on a technical-economic analysis of greywater treatment by a direct nanofiltration (NF) process or by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for on-site recycling. The aim of this paper is to analyse the cost of recycled water for two different configurations (50 and 500 inhabitants) in order to demonstrate the relevance of the implementation of membrane processes for greywater recycling, depending on the production capacity of the equipment and the price of drinking water. The first step was to define a method to access the description of the cost of producing recycled water. The direct costs were defined as a sum of fixed costs due to equipment, maintenance and depreciation, and variable costs generated by chemical products and electricity consumptions. They were estimated from an experimental approach and from data found in literature, enabling operating conditions for greywater recycling to be determined. The cost of treated water by a SMBR unit with a processing capacity of 500 persons is close to 4.40 euros m(-3), while the cost is 4.81 euros m(-3) with a NF process running in the same conditions. These costs are similar to the price of drinking water in some European countries.

  14. Safe greywater reuse to augment water supply and provide sanitation in semi-arid areas of rural India.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, S; Labhasetwar, P; Wate, S; Jimenez, B

    2010-01-01

    Water reuse is recognized as a tool to increase water supply in peri-urban areas of semi-arid and arid regions of the world. However, it is an option rarely explored for rural areas in developing countries, and has not been documented extensively in the scientific literature. This paper presents results from 6 greywater reuse systems which were built with the objective to augment water supply and to provide sanitation in rural low income areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. The systems are based on reclaiming greywater from bathing for the use in toilet flushing and kitchen garden irrigation. The reuse systems were implemented based on the scientific rationale presented in the WHO (2006) guidelines. The paper presents evidence from the operation and evaluation of the greywater treatment plants under field conditions between 2005 and 2008. The paper concludes that greywater is a highly cost effective solution for water scarcity. In this study, reusing greywater resulted in a 60% increase in water availability, a reduction in open defecation and a fourfold increase in food availability.

  15. Performance of UV disinfection and the microbial quality of greywater effluent along a reuse system for toilet flushing.

    PubMed

    Friedler, Eran; Gilboa, Yael

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the microbial quality of treated RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor) and MBR (Membrane Bioreactor) light greywater along a continuous pilot-scale reuse system for toilet flushing, quantifies the efficiency of UV disinfection unit, and evaluates the regrowth potential of selected microorganisms along the system. The UV disinfection unit was found to be very efficient in reducing faecal coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, its efficiency of inactivation of HPC (Heterotrophic Plate Count) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was lower. Some regrowth occurred in the reuse system as a result of HPC regrowth which included opportunistic pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. Although the membrane (UF) of the MBR system removed all bacteria from the greywater, bacteria were observed in the reuse system due to "hopping phenomenon." The microbial quality of the disinfected greywater was found to be equal or even better than the microbial quality of "clean" water in toilet bowls flushed with potable water (and used for excretion). Thus, the added health risk associated with reusing the UV-disinfected greywater for toilet flushing (regarding P. aeruginosa and S. aureus), was found to be insignificant. The UV disinfection unit totally removed (100%) the viral indicator (F-RNA phage, host: E. coli F(amp)(+)) injected to the treatment systems simulating transient viral contamination. To conclude, this work contributes to better design of UV disinfection reactors and provides an insight into the long-term behavior of selected microorganisms along on-site greywater reuse systems for toilet flushing.

  16. A Quantitative Study of the Viability of Greywater Heat Recovery (GWHR): GWHR Implemented in Barracks and Dining Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    30 B4 Greywater heat recovery cooling modes (reference 2) ........................................................... 32 ERDC...Cubic meter pints (US liquid) 0.473176 Liters cubic feet 0.02831685 cubic meters ERDC/CERL TR-11-20 x ERDC/CERL TR-11-20 1 1 Introduction...energy to preheat domestic hot water, it is also possible to use the recovered energy (or alternatively, the tech- nology) for space heating or cooling

  17. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  18. Microbial quality assessment of household greywater.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Malawaraarachchi, Manori; Hamilton, Andrew; Barker, S Fiona; Leder, Karin

    2012-09-01

    A monitoring program was undertaken to assess the microbial quality of greywater collected from 93 typical households in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 185 samples, comprising 75 washing machine wash, 74 washing machine rinse and 36 bathroom samples were analysed for the faecal indicator Escherichia coli. Of these, 104 were also analysed for genetic markers of pathogenic E coli and 111 for norovirus (genogroups GI and GII), enterovirus and rotavirus using RT-PCR. Enteric viruses were detected in 20 out of the 111 (18%) samples comprising 16 washing machine wash water and 4 bathroom samples. Eight (7%) samples were positive for enterovirus, twelve (11%) for norovirus genogroup GI, one (1%) for norovirus genogroup GII and another (1%) for rotavirus. Two washing machine samples contained more than one virus. Typical pathogenic E. coli were detected in 3 out of 104 (3%) samples and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli in 11 (11%) of samples. Levels of indicator E. coli were highly variable and the presence of E. coli was not associated with the presence of human enteric viruses in greywater. There was also little correlation between reported gastrointestinal illness in households and detection of pathogens in greywater.

  19. 75 FR 13679 - Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as of April...

  20. 78 FR 18235 - Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses CFR Correction 0 In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as of April...

  1. Greywater reuse for irrigation: effect on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Travis, Micheal J; Wiel-Shafran, Alit; Weisbrod, Noam; Adar, Eilon; Gross, Amit

    2010-05-15

    A controlled study of the effect of greywater (GW) irrigation on soil properties was conducted. Containers of sand, loam and loess soils were planted with lettuce, and irrigated with fresh water, raw artificial GW or treated artificial GW. Greywater was treated using a recirculating vertical-flow constructed wetland. Soil samples were collected every 10 days for the 40-day duration of the study, and plant growth was measured. Soils were analysed for physicochemical and biological parameters to determine changes caused by the different treatments. It was demonstrated that raw artificial GW significantly increased the development of hydrophobicity in the sand and loam soils, as determined by water droplet penetration time. No significant changes were observed for the loess soil under all treatments. Observed hydrophobicity was correlated with increased oil and grease and surfactant concentrations in the soil. Zeta (zeta) potential of the soils was measured to determine changes in the soil particle surface properties as a result of GW irrigation. A significant change in zeta-potential (less negative) was observed in the raw artificial GW-irrigated sand, whereas no difference was observed in the loam or loess. Soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW exhibited no increase in hydrophobicity. Fecal coliform bacteria were absent or <10 CFU g(-1) in soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW, but at least 1 order of magnitude higher in raw artificial GW irrigated soils. Only in the last sampling event and only for the loess soil was plant growth significantly higher for fresh water irrigated vs. raw or treated GW irrigated soils. This study demonstrates that treated GW can be effectively irrigated without detrimental effects on soil or plant growth; however, raw GW may significantly change soil properties that can impact the movement of water in soil and the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    PubMed

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems.

  3. Portable System for Field-feeding Greywater Remediation and Recycling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    batch - dinner 8/31/04 - MTR brand filters Inf 1 F1 Feed – pre-filtered to 50 µm Inf 1 P1 Permeate Inf 1 R2 Mix of 1st & 2nd batch Inf 1 F2 Mix of...Permeate from 1 F3 Inf 1 C1 Final Concentrate Inf 2 R1 Raw greywater from breakfast 9/1/04 Infinitex brand filters Inf 2 F1 Pre-filtered greywater...feed Inf 2 P1 Permeate Inf 2 C1 Final concentrate - Low volume, only 4 parameters tested Inf 3 R1 Raw greywater from dinner 9/1/04 – Infinitex brand

  4. Greywater Disposal Practices in Northern Botswana—The Silent Spring?

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen A.; Godrej, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of greywater is a neglected challenge facing rapidly growing human populations. Here, we define greywater as wastewater that originates from household activities (e.g., washing dishes, bathing, and laundry) but excludes inputs from the toilet. Pollutants in greywater can include both chemical and biological contaminates that can significantly impact human, animal, and environmental health under certain conditions. We evaluate greywater disposal practices in nonsewered, low-income residential areas in Kasane (264 dwellings/ha), Kazungula (100 du/ha), and Lesoma (99 du/ha) villages in Northern Botswana through household surveys (n = 30 per village). Traditional pit latrines were the dominant form of sanitation (69%, n = 90, 95% CI, 59%–79%) while 14% of households did not have access to onsite sanitation (95% CI 0%–22%). While greywater disposal practices varied across villages, respondents in all sites reported dumping greywater into the pit latrine. Frequency varied significantly across villages with the highest level reported in Kasane, where residential density was greatest (p < 0.014, χ2 = 9.13, 61% (n = 23, 95% CI 41%–81%), Kazungula 41% (n = 22, 95% CI 20%–62%), Lesoma 13% (95% CI 0%–29%). Disposal of greywater in this manner was reported to limit contamination of the household compound and reduce odors, as well as pit latrine fecal levels. Some respondents reported being directed by local health authorities to dispose of greywater in this manner. Environmentally hazardous chemicals were also dumped directly into the pit latrine to reduce odors. With high household to pit latrine ratios particularly in rental properties (4.2 households, SD = 3.32, range = 15 units, average household size 5.3, SD = 4.4), these greywater and pit latrine management approaches can significantly alter hydraulic loading and leaching of chemicals, microorganisms, and parasites. This can dramatically expand the environmental footprint of pit latrines and greywater

  5. Greywater Disposal Practices in Northern Botswana--The Silent Spring?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kathleen A; Godrej, Adil

    2015-11-13

    Disposal of greywater is a neglected challenge facing rapidly growing human populations. Here, we define greywater as wastewater that originates from household activities (e.g., washing dishes, bathing, and laundry) but excludes inputs from the toilet. Pollutants in greywater can include both chemical and biological contaminates that can significantly impact human, animal, and environmental health under certain conditions. We evaluate greywater disposal practices in nonsewered, low-income residential areas in Kasane (264 dwellings/ha), Kazungula (100 du/ha), and Lesoma (99 du/ha) villages in Northern Botswana through household surveys (n = 30 per village). Traditional pit latrines were the dominant form of sanitation (69%, n = 90, 95% CI, 59%-79%) while 14% of households did not have access to onsite sanitation (95% CI 0%-22%). While greywater disposal practices varied across villages, respondents in all sites reported dumping greywater into the pit latrine. Frequency varied significantly across villages with the highest level reported in Kasane, where residential density was greatest (p < 0.014, χ² = 9.13, 61% (n = 23, 95% CI 41%-81%), Kazungula 41% (n = 22, 95% CI 20%-62%), Lesoma 13% (95% CI 0%-29%). Disposal of greywater in this manner was reported to limit contamination of the household compound and reduce odors, as well as pit latrine fecal levels. Some respondents reported being directed by local health authorities to dispose of greywater in this manner. Environmentally hazardous chemicals were also dumped directly into the pit latrine to reduce odors. With high household to pit latrine ratios particularly in rental properties (4.2 households, SD = 3.32, range = 15 units, average household size 5.3, SD = 4.4), these greywater and pit latrine management approaches can significantly alter hydraulic loading and leaching of chemicals, microorganisms, and parasites. This can dramatically expand the environmental footprint of pit latrines and greywater

  6. Technology profile: Residential greywater heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Proskiw, G.

    1998-12-31

    This report profiles residential greywater heat recovery (GWHR) systems, beginning with a background review of residential hot water consumption patterns, usage characteristics, and the technology currently used for residential water heating systems. This is followed by a generic description of the various types of residential GWHR systems and the benefits they produce, a summary of the technical obstacles which GWHR technology faces and the barriers to widespread GWHR commercialization, and a description of commercially available GWHR systems. The types of applications for which the technology is best suited are discussed, and the potential markets for GWHR systems are assessed. An action plan concludes the report, suggesting how those markets might be successfully developed.

  7. Advanced oxidation and disinfection processes for onsite net-zero greywater reuse: A review.

    PubMed

    Gassie, Lucien W; Englehardt, James D

    2017-08-30

    Net-zero greywater (NZGW) reuse, or nearly closed-loop recycle of greywater for all original uses, can recover both water and its attendant hot-water thermal energy, while avoiding the installation and maintenance of a separate greywater sewer in residential areas. Such a system, if portable, could also provide wash water for remote emergency health care units. However, such greywater reuse engenders human contact with the recycled water, and hence superior treatment. The purpose of this paper is to review processes applicable to the mineralization of organics, including control of oxidative byproducts such as bromate, and maintenance of disinfection consistent with potable reuse guidelines, in NZGW systems. Specifically, TiO2-UV, UV-hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide-ozone, ozone-UV advanced oxidation processes, and UV, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, filtration, and chlorine disinfection processes were reviewed for performance, energy demand, environmental impact, and operational simplicity. Based on the literature reviewed, peroxone is the most energy-efficient process for organics mineralization. However, in portable applications where delivery of chemicals to the site is a concern, the UV-ozone process appears promising, at higher energy demand. In either case, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, or ED may be useful in controlling the bromide precursor in make-up water, and a minor side-stream of ozone may be used to prevent microbial regrowth in the treated water. Where energy is not paramount, UV-hydrogen peroxide and UV-TiO2 can be used to mineralize organics while avoiding bromate formation, but may require a secondary process to prevent microbial regrowth. Chlorine and ozone may be useful for maintenance of disinfection residual. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage: established technologies and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Foresti, L

    2002-01-01

    The use of anaerobic reactors for domestic sewage treatment has increased significantly since the UASB configuration started to be efficiently applied for this purpose in the beginning of the 1980s. Nowadays, hundreds of UASB reactors, or similar anaerobic units, are used in domestic sewage treatment systems, particularly in developing countries. These units have been operated at ambient temperature, normally higher than 20 degrees C, at hydraulic detention time in the range of 6 to 10 hours, and organic loading rates lower than 3.0 kg COD.m(-3).d(-1). They have presented COD removal efficiencies in the range of 65% to 80%. Besides, new configurations have been developed and assayed in research centres, aiming to amplify the range of application and to improve process performance. At the same time, research is being conducted on the post-treatment of anaerobic effluents attempting to offer alternatives to the existing conventional systems. It takes into consideration not only sanitation and environmental protection, but also considers resources conservation at lower construction and running costs as the main supporting concepts for further development. This text presents some aspects of the consolidated technologies and suggests on further developments in the conception of domestic sewage treatment systems having the anaerobic process as their core.

  9. 1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR-1. VIEW TO NORTWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Domestic Water Supply Treatment House, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  11. EU demonstration project for separate discharge and treatment of urine, faeces and greywater--part II: cost comparison of different sanitation systems.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, M; Peter-Fröhlich, A; Dlabacs, C; Pawlowski, L; Bonhomme, A

    2007-01-01

    The experience from the EU demonstration project was used for a cost analysis of different sanitation systems with regard to nutrient recycling. The analysis was made for an existing residential area, for which the different sanitation systems have been applied. The cost calculations were made for a lifetime of 50 years. The multiple sewer systems cause higher investment costs, mainly for the installation of the additional facilities; the investment costs for the treatment are lower. The cost analysis did not prove lower costs for the new sanitation concepts in this special case in comparison with the conventional system. Economic benefits are demonstrated for the operation costs. The result will be reinforced by the consideration of an increase of the energy costs. The revenues for the nutrient related products have only a very small impact on the result.

  12. Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2014-07-15

    Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Domestic wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands enhanced with bioremediating rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Irina; Cárcamo, Herlen; Carballo, María Elena; Cruz, Mario; Del Carmen Durán, María

    2017-06-23

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) offer several advantages for treating waters; however, the successful application of these systems remains a challenge. Practical solutions to pollution through CWs remain incipient because wetlands are still studied as "black boxes"; further studies are required regarding the involvement of rhizosphere bacteria in the removal of pollutants. This research focused on increasing the performance of CWs treatment systems for the removal of inorganic and organic pollutants from domestic wastewater, by the application of native bioremediating rhizobacteria. A bacterial consortium (CAD/1S) was designed with four rhizobacteria strains isolated from Typha domingensis plants of natural wetlands. Each individual strain was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. This consortium removed organic matter, ammonium, and phosphate with percentages over 70% from model wastewater. The evaluation of abiotic and biotic factors' influence on pollutant removal indicated the best conditions to remove pollutants: a neutral pH, a 72-h contact time, and an inoculum from single growth of each strain. The subsequent bioaugmentation with the consortium of CWs at laboratory scale allowed 100%, greater than 70 and 55% removal of organic matter, ammonium, and phosphate, respectively. The set of results allowed the proposal of a new strategy for the improvement of CWs technology for the treatment of domestic wastewater pollutants.

  14. Treatment of domestic wastewater using conventional and baffled septic tanks.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Fayza Aly; Mikhaeil, Basem

    2013-01-01

    The main theme of the study was a comparative study of domestic wastewater treatment using conventional and baffled septic tanks. The septic tanks were fed continuously with domestic wastewater at three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The HRTs chosen were 24, 48 and 72 h with corresponding organic loads of 0.321, 0.436 and 0.885 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per m3 per day, respectively. The performance of the septic tanks at the three HRTs gave satisfactory results. For the conventional septic tank, COD removal was 53.4%, 56% and 65.3%, at an HRT of 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, with residual COD of 412, 380 and 334mg/l, respectively. At HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h, the following percentages removals were realized for: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 68.4%, 57, 53.5%; total suspended solid (TSS), 65.3%, 58.3, 55%; phosphorus, 29.3%, 26.9, 25.6%; total Kjeldahl nitrogen 26.8%, 20.8, 17.7%, respectively. On the contrary, ammonia concentrations increased by 7.1%, 5.2 and 4.2% under the same conditions. Consequently, the results showed that the removal of fecal coliform at all HRTs was less than one log. The two baffled septic tanks exhibited superior results at HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h. Comparing the treated domestic wastewater quality produced by the two types of septic tanks in terms of physico-chemical and biological characteristics, better results were obtained using the two baffles type.

  15. When Conflict Becomes Crime: Prevention and Treatment for Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Edward P.

    Pima County's (Arizona) Domestic Violence Diversion Program (DVDP) provides assessment and monitoring services, counseling and education, and support services to defendants in cases of domestic violence in lieu of prosecution and sentencing. After a defendant is arrested for domestic violence, the DVDP assessment is scheduled within 72 hours of…

  16. A monitoring of environmental effects from household greywater reuse for garden irrigation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Radin Maya Saphira Radin; Kassim, Amir Hashim Mohd; Anda, Martin; Dallas, Stewart

    2013-10-01

    The option of reusing greywater is proving to be increasingly attractive to address the water shortage issue in many arid and semiarid countries. Greywater represents a constant resource, since an approximately constant amount of greywater is generated from kitchen, laundries, bathroom in every household daily, independent of the weather. However, the use of greywater for irrigation in particular for household gardening may pose major hazards that have not been studied thoroughly. In this study, a 1-year monitoring was conducted in four selected households in Perth, Western Australia. The aim of the monitoring works is to investigate the variability in the greywater flow and quality, and to understand its impact in the surrounding environments. Case studies were selected based on different family structure including number, ages of the occupants, and greywater system they used. Samples of greywater effluent (showers, laundries, bathtub, and sinks), leachate, soil, and plants at each case study were collected between October 2008 and December 2009 which covered the high (spring/summer) and low (autumn/winter) production of greywater. Physical and chemical tests were based on the literature and expected components of laundry and bathroom greywater particularly on greywater components likely to have detrimental impacts on soils, plants, and other water bodies. Monitoring results showed the greywater quality values for BOD, TSS, and pH which sometimes fell outside the range as stipulated in the guidelines. The soil analyses results showed that salinity, SAR, and the organic content of the soil increased as a function of time and affected the plant growth. Nutrient leaching or losses from soil irrigated with greywater shows the movement of nutrients and the sole impact from greywater in uncontrolled plots in case studies is difficult to predicted due to the influence of land dynamics and activities. Investigative and research monitoring was used to understand greywater

  17. UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Yael; Friedler, Eran

    2008-02-01

    The microbial quality of raw greywater was found to be much better than that of municipal wastewater, with 1.6 x 10(7)cfu ml(-1) heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and 3.8 x 10(4), 9.9 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(3) and 4.6 x 10(0)cfu 100 ml(-1) faecal coliforms (FC), Staphylococcus aureus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp. and Clostridium perfringes sp., respectively. Further, three viral indicators monitored (somatic phage, host: Escherichia coli CN(13) and F-RNA phages, hosts: E. coli F+(amp), E. coli K12) were not present in raw greywater. The greywater was treated by an RBC followed by sedimentation. The treatment removed two orders of magnitude of all bacteria. UV disinfection kinetics, survival and regrowth of HPC, FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. were examined. At doses up to 69 mW s cm(-2) FC were found to be the most resistant bacteria, followed by HPC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. (inactivation rate coefficients: 0.0687, 0.113, 0.129 and 0.201 cm2 mW(-1)s(-1), respectively). At higher doses (69-439 mW s cm(-2)) all but HPC (which exhibited a tailing curve) were completely eliminated. Microscopic examination showed that FC self-aggregate in the greywater effluent. This provides FC an advantage at low doses, since the concentration of suspended matter (that can provide shelter from UV radiation) in the effluent was very low. FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. did not exhibit regrowth up to 6h after exposure to increasing UV doses (19-439 mW s cm(-2)). HPC regrowth was proven to be statistically significant in un-disinfected effluent and after irradiation with high UV doses (147 and 439 mW s cm(-2)). At these doses regrowth resulted from growth of UV-resistant bacteria due to decreased competition with other bacteria eliminated by the irradiation.

  18. Domestic wastewater treatment in a novel sequencing batch biofilm filter.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Wei, Li; Chen, Dan; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Zhenhua; Yang, Kai

    2015-07-01

    Biological treatment of domestic sewage low C/N ratio was accomplished in a pilot-scale sequencing batch biofilm filter (SBBF). The novel hybrid bioreactor consisted of bio-band in the upper and anthracite filter media in the bottom, which combined a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) with a biological filter. The average removal efficiency values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 89.4, 83.3, 62.9, and 48.7%, respectively. A 454-pyrosequencing technology was employed to investigate the microbial communities of the influent (J1) and the biofilm (J2) on the bio-band on day 40. Pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the community of the biofilm consisted of Gammaproteobacteria (48.6%), Planctomycetacia (18.0%), Alphaproteobacteria (13.7%), Clostridia (9.6%), Desulfonatronum (18.5%), Actinobacteria (1.9%), and Bacilli (1.7%), accounting for 93.6% of total operational taxonomic units at genera level. Acinetobacter tjernbergiae and Acinetobacter lwoffii were the most abundant species, suggesting that denitrifying phosphorus removal was achieved in the SBBF.

  19. Evaluating greywater reuse potential for sustainable water resources management in Oman.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Prathapar, Sanmugan; Harrasi, Ali Al

    2008-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of greywater availability in Muscat Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman, to establish a methodology for greywater quantity estimation, to test greywater quality in order to assess reuse potential, and to examine public acceptance for reuse.Total fresh water consumption and greywater generation from different household sources were measured by water meters in five selected households during summer and winter. Additionally, a survey was designed and conducted in five administrative areas of Muscat Governorate, with the objective of testing a methodology for estimating greywater generation potential in these areas. Collected data were compared with that used by the Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water, Sultanate of Oman. The survey covered a total of 169 houses and 1,365 people. Greywater samples were collected and analyzed from showers, laundries, kitchens and sinks in some of these households to determine their water quality parameters. Statistical analysis results indicated that there is no significant variance in the total fresh water consumption between data used by the ministry and those measured and estimated during this study, highlighting the applicability of the tested method. The study concluded that the average per capita greywater generation rate is 151 Lpcd. Greywater production ranged from 80 to 83% of the total fresh water consumption and most of the greywater is generated from showers. Further, 55 to 57% of the greywater generated in a typical Omani household originated from the shower, 28 to 33% originated from the kitchen, 6 to 9% originated from laundry, and 5 to 7% originated from sink, which constitutes approximately 81% of the total fresh water consumption. The physical, chemical, and biological analyses of the grab samples revealed that greywater contains significant levels of suspended solids, inorganic constituents, total organic carbon, chemical and biochemical oxygen demands, total Coliforms

  20. Study on a stepped eco-filter for treating greywater from single farm household

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Liao, Zaiyi; Lu, Shaoyong; Hu, Guangcai; Liu, Yaoxin; Tang, Cilai

    2017-02-01

    A stepped eco-filter based greywater treating facility was built on-site in a typical farm house of China. This study was aimed to investigate the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) for the optimal removal efficiency and to analyze the processing performance throughout an entire year. The results showed that, the average value of TP from the influent was much lower while the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate was a little higher compared with other related studies. The removal rates of the indexes were all showed a distinct decline and dropped to a low level while the HLR was raised from 0.2 m3/(m2 day) to 0.4 m3/(m2 day). Therefore, the optimal HLR of the process ought to be in the range of 0.2-0.4 m3/(m2 day). The average system removal rates in summer were all higher than that in winter, but the facility still performed well in winter. Clogging has never occurred in the facility during the operation over an entire year. Together with the good performance, advantaged of lower cost and easier maintenance, this process has shown good applicability for greywater treatment in rural area.

  1. Formulation of synthetic greywater as an evaluation tool for wastewater recycling technologies.

    PubMed

    Hourlier, Fanny; Masse, Anthony; Jaouen, Pascal; Lakel, Abdel; Gerente, Claire; Faur, Catherine; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    On-site greywater recycling is one of the main ways of preserving water resources in urban or arid areas. This study aims to formulate model synthetic greywater (SGW) in order to evaluate and compare the performances of several recycling processes on a reproducible effluent. The formulated SGW is composed of septic effluent to provide indicators of faecal contamination, and technical quality chemical products to simulate organic pollution of greywater. To ensure that the SGW developed is representative of household greywater, its analysis was compared to real greywater collected and analysed (RGWs) and to real greywater mentioned in previous publications (RGW(L)). The performance of a direct nanofiltration process with a concentration factor of 87.5% at 35 bar was then tested on both real greywater and SGW. The laboratory experimental results are promising: fluxes and retention rates were high, and similar for both effluents. The permeation flux was higher than 50 L h(-1) m(-2). Retentions greater than 97% for biochemical oxygen demand for 5 days (BOD5) and 92% for anionic surfactants were observed. No Enterococcus were detected in the two permeates. These results confirm that the model SGW developed in this study shows the same behaviour as real greywater when recycled. Thus, the use of this SGW developed in this study was validated for the evaluation of membrane efficiency to treat greywater. This new tool will be a real asset for future studies.

  2. 26 CFR 1.407-1 - Treatment of certain employees of domestic subsidiaries engaged in business outside the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... supervising the work of other employees of the domestic subsidiary of the domestic parent corporation, he... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of certain employees of domestic subsidiaries engaged in business outside the United States as employees of the domestic parent corporation....

  3. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance.

  4. Applying Ecology: Domestic Pests, a Suitable Case for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Bryan

    1988-01-01

    Proposes domestic pests as ideal material for ecological studies to provide readily accessible and relatively simple communities. Describes the booklouse and a number of other suitable species. Suggests the use of the students' own homes as habitats to investigate and for use in teaching the principles of population dynamics. (RT)

  5. Potential impacts of on-site greywater reuse in landscape irrigation.

    PubMed

    Alfiya, Y; Damti, O; Stoler-Katz, A; Zoubi, A; Shaviv, A; Friedler, E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irrigation with different types of waters on soil, plants, and public health. The test plant was ryegrass grown in 12 planters filled with sandy loam soil and irrigated with three types of waters (4 planters for each type): freshwater, raw domestic light greywater (GW), and treated domestic light GW. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), EC, pH and alkalinity of the three types of irrigation waters did not differ significantly, suggesting that raw or treated light GW should not exhibit negative effects. Concentrations of anionic and cationic surfactants in the freshwater and the treated GW were about the same, while their concentrations in the raw GW were higher. Surfactant levels in the three drainage water types were low. Some accumulation of surfactants occurred in planters irrigated with raw and treated GW. The COD of the drainage water of planters irrigated with raw GW was higher than the COD of other two drainage water types. Although raw and treated GW contained faecal coliforms, they were hardly detected in the drainage waters. All plants did not show any signs of stress. This may be due to the fact that the GW originated mainly from showers and washbasins.

  6. Quality of greywater treated in biochar filter and risk assessment of gastroenteritis due to household exposure during maintenance and irrigation.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, S S; Lalander, C; Pell, M; Vinnerås, B; Jönsson, H

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated treatment of greywater (GW) by a biochar filter in Jordan and assessed the annual risks of infection (Pi-annual ), annual risk of disease (Pd-annual ) and disease burden (in disability-adjusted life years; DALYs) of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella spp. and rotavirus due to ingestion of GW during system maintenance and consumption of green onions irrigated with treated and nontreated GW. The biochar filter efficiently removed 93% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 ) and 85% of solids, while removal of Escherichia coli was insignificant. Treatment of GW decreased the median Pd-annual due to ingestion of GW from 1·39 × 10(-2) to 6·0 × 10(-3) for Salmonella spp. but did not affect Pd-annual caused by rotavirus (9·73 × 10(-1) to 1·0). Consumption of onions irrigated with treated GW had a median Pd-annual of 1·25 × 10(-9) to 1·2 × 10(-8) for Salmonella spp. and 4·96 × 10(-4) to 4·37 × 10(-3) for rotavirus infection, which was 99·9 and 90% lower, respectively, than the risk when consuming onions irrigated with nontreated GW. The highest risks of gastrointestinal disease were thus associated mainly with direct ingestion of GW when maintaining the system. Garden produce irrigated with GW treated in biochar filter did not display intolerable risks of rotavirus-based gastroenteritis during summer season in the study area given that the produce is harvested 1 to 2 days, and washed, before consumption. This study contributes to scientific-based knowledge on the suitability of biochar filters for onsite greywater treatment and confirms the microbial safety of recycling treated greywater for garden irrigation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Sorption and biodegradation of propylparaben in greywater by aerobic attached-growth biomass.

    PubMed

    Song, Haihong; Alfiya, Yuval; Dubowski, Yael; Friedler, Eran

    2017-11-15

    Greywater (GW) is becoming an important alternative water source for non-potable purposes, but requires treatment to remove contaminants, including micropollutants that in GW mainly originate from personal care products. Biofilters are commonly used for onsite GW treatment, but there are still significant knowledge gaps regarding their ability and mechanism of micropollutants removal. This study investigates the removal of propylparaben (PPB) by aerobic attached-growth biomass, quantifying the kinetics and the interplay between sorption and biodegradation. The ability of biomass, collected from a pilot scale biofilter treating real GW, to eliminate PPB from both synthetic greywater (SGW) and deionized (DI) water was studied in laboratory batch experiments. Elimination of PPB was found to proceed via sorption to biomass followed by biodegradation. Sorption of PPB by biomass in SGW and in DI water exhibited similar kinetics, fitting Langmuir isotherm with the maximum adsorbed amount of 9.8mgPPB gbiomass(-1). PPB biodegradation exhibited first-order kinetics in both SGW and DI water, with a 30h lag-phase in SGW and no lag-phase in DI water. This difference is attributed to presence of readily-biodegradable organic matter in the SGW. Actual PPB degradation rate in both cases (excluding the lag phase in SGW) was very similar, 62mgPPB gbiomass(-1)d(-1), yielding almost full mineralization. These findings show the relative contribution of the major processes involved in PPB elimination by biofilters and can be applied for designing GW treatment units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly effective degradation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate and synthetic greywater by Fenton-like reaction over zerovalent iron-based catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shi-Ni; Wang, Chao; Yip, Alex C K; Tsang, Daniel C W

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to recycle greywater for meeting non-portable water demand. However, linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (a form of anionic surfactants) that are commonly found in greywater are less biodegradable at moderate to high concentrations. A fenton-like system is a relatively economic advanced oxidation process that can potentially be used for surfactant degradation in greywater treatment. This study investigated the feasibility of zerovalent iron (ZVI)-mediated Fenton's oxidation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) using Fe0/H2O2 and Fe2+/Fe0/H2O2 systems under a range of operating conditions. For the Fe0/H2O2 binary system, the initial pH value and Fe0 dosage played important roles in final degradation efficiency. For the Fe2+/Fe0/H2O2 ternary systems, a small amount of Fe2+ (0.5-1.7 mM) contributed a synergistic effect to promote iron recycling and SDBS degradation. Approximately, 90% of SDBS mineralization efficiency was accomplished within 15 min at a pH range from 3.0 to 6.5, using 18 mM Fe0 and 15 mM H2O2. However, the removal kinetics was rate-limited by Fe2+ dissolution from the ZVI surfaces. The Fenton-like process of the Fe2+/Fe0/H2O2 ternary system also presents a promising treatment method for synthetic greywater, in which 90% TOC removal was achieved within the first 10 min; 78% COD and 91% BOD5 were achieved after 120 min of reaction.

  9. Veterinary use of exposure techniques in the treatment of phobic domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Baum, M

    1989-01-01

    Exposure techniques as a treatment for human phobias are reviewed, as well as exposure's use in the extinction of avoidance behavior in laboratory animal studies. A third arena in which exposure is employed is reconsidered--in the veterinary treatment of phobic domestic animals. Veterinary use of exposure is illustrated, and the advantages and disadvantages of the veterinary study of exposure are discussed.

  10. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  11. Feasibility of using ornamental plants in subsurface flow wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment

    Treesearch

    Marco A. Belmont

    2000-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are possible low-cost solutions for treating domestic and industrial wastewater in developing countries such as Mexico. However, treatment of wastewater is not a priority in most developing countries unless communities can derive economic benefit from the water resources that are created by the treatment process. As part of our studies directed at...

  12. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  13. A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on-site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2015-03-01

    On-site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost-effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow-fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and composition of biofilm were monitored to evaluate the performance of the tested pilot unit. The introduced process achieved international water reuse guidelines, worked soundly and could, compared to conventional micro MBR, significantly reduce energy demand (<1.4 kWh m(-3)). Fouling control by air scouring and chemical cleaning was not required once flux had stabilized. The biofilm analysis showed a porous, spongy-like structure. Microbiological investigation revealed a community of sheathed bacteria and nematodes that could play an important role in the flux stabilisation effect. In general, the study confirmed the suitability of the presented process for greywater treatment and provides valuable design data for future optimization and systematic analysis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cross sectoral and scale-up impacts of greywater recycling technologies on catchment hydrological flows.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, N; Jefferson, B; Jeffrey, P

    2008-01-01

    With the growth of urban areas and climate change, decisions need to be taken to improve water management. This paper reports an assessment of the impact of greywater recycling systems on catchment scale hydrological flows. A simulation model developed in InfoWorks CS (Wallingford Software Ltd) was used to evaluate how river flows, sewer flows, surface runoff and flooding events may be influenced when grey water recycling systems of different number and scale are implemented in a representative catchment. The simulations show the effectiveness of greywater recycling systems in reducing total wastewater volume and flood volume. However, no hydraulic impacts due to implementation of greywater was identified by the model.

  15. Greywater reuse - Assessment of the health risk induced by Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Blanky, Marina; Sharaby, Yehonatan; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Halpern, Malka; Friedler, Eran

    2017-08-30

    Greywater (GW), domestic wastewater excluding the streams generated by toilets and kitchens, can serve as an alternative water source. The main options for GW reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both generating aerosols. These may transmit inhalable pathogens like Legionella and present a potential health risk. This study quantified the health risk that may arise from inhalation of Legionella-contaminated aerosols due to non-potable GW reuse. Data on Legionella concentrations in potable water and GW was collected. Then, Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) was performed for two possible exposure scenarios: garden irrigation and toilet flushing. This was performed while considering Legionella seasonality. In order to determine the safety of GW reuse regarding Legionella transmission, the obtained results were compared with estimated tolerable risk levels of infection and of disease. Both limits were expressed as Disability-Adjusted Life Years index (DALY) being 10(-4) and 10(-5), respectively. The QMRA revealed that the annual risk associated with reuse of treated and chlorinated GW for garden irrigation and toilet flushing was not significantly higher than the risk associated with using potable water for the same two purposes. In all studied scenarios, the health risk stemming from reusing treated and chlorinated GW was acceptable regarding Legionella infection. In contrast, reuse of untreated or treated but unchlorinated GW should not be practiced, as these are associated with significantly higher health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphorus Fate and Dynamics in Greywater Biofiltration Systems.

    PubMed

    Fowdar, Harsha S; Hatt, Belinda E; Cresswell, Tom; Harrison, Jennifer J; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana

    2017-02-21

    Phosphorus, a critical environmental pollutant, is effectively removed from stormwater by biofiltration systems, mainly via sedimentation and straining. However, the fate of dissolved inflow phosphorus concentrations in these systems is unknown. Given the growing interest in using biofiltration systems to treat other polluted waters, for example greywater, such an understanding is imperative to optimize designs for successful long-term performance. A mass balance method and a radiotracer, (32)P (as H3PO4), were used to investigate the partitioning of phosphorus (concentrations of 2.5-3.5 mg/L, >80% was in dissolved inorganic form) between the various biofilter components at the laboratory scale. Planted columns maintained a phosphorus removal efficiency of >95% over the 15-week study period. Plant storage was found to be the dominant phosphorus sink (64% on average). Approximately 60% of the phosphorus retained in the filter media was recovered in the top 0-6 cm. The (32)P tracer results indicate that adsorption is the immediate primary fate of dissolved phosphorus in the system (up to 57% of input P). Plant assimilation occurs at other times, potentially liberating sorption sites for processing of subsequent incoming phosphorus. Plants with high nutrient uptake capacities and the ability to efficiently extract soil phosphorus, for example Carex appressa, are, thus, recommended for use in greywater biofilters.

  17. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  18. Removal Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals By A Constructed Wetland For On-Site Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that domestic and industrial wastewater can be a source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. Much of this research has focused on municipal and industrial centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These WWTPs have been shown to ...

  19. ESTIMATES OF GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific em...

  20. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  1. Removal Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals By A Constructed Wetland For On-Site Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that domestic and industrial wastewater can be a source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. Much of this research has focused on municipal and industrial centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These WWTPs have been shown to ...

  2. ESTIMATES OF GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific em...

  3. Metered oxygen supply aids treatment of domestic sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weliky, N.; Hooper, T. J.; Silverman, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Microbiological fixed-bed process was developed in which supplementary oxygen required by microbial species is supplied by electrochemical device. Rate of addition of oxygen to waste treatment process is controlled to maintain aerobic metabolism and prevent anaerobic metabolisms which produce odorous or toxic products.

  4. Differences between U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities that do and do not offer domestic violence services.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy; Najavits, Lisa M

    2014-04-01

    Victimization by and perpetration of domestic violence are associated with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. This study used data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services to examine differences in organizational factors, treatment approaches offered, and client-level factors among 13,342 substance abuse treatment facilities by whether or not they offered domestic violence services. Only 36% of the facilities offered domestic violence services. Those that offered such services were more likely than those that did not to treat clients with co-occurring disorders. Principal-components analysis reduced eight treatment approaches to two factors: psychosocial services and traditional substance abuse services. Regression models indicated that the frequency with which psychosocial services were offered depended on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders who were being treated in the facility and whether or not that facility offered domestic violence services. Specifically, facilities that did not offer domestic violence services and that had a high percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders were more likely to offer psychosocial services than facilities that offered domestic violence services. A larger proportion of facilities offering domestic violence services offered traditional substance abuse treatment services, compared with facilities not offering domestic violence services, but this relationship was not contingent on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders at each facility. Improved efforts should be made to tailor treatments to accommodate the links between domestic violence, mental disorders, and substance abuse.

  5. Two years of the operation of a domestic MBR wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikorová, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The paper evaluates the results of data obtained from two years of observing an actual domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with an immersed membrane module. The domestic MBR (membrane bioreactor) WWTP was linked to a dwelling with four residents. Two different commercial flat sheet membrane modules were investigated. The membrane modules, as well as the whole WWTP, were tested with different fluxes as well as the response of the membrane and activated sludge to different conditions, such as actual peak wastewater flows, extremes temperatures (a winter below 5 °C), and high pH values.

  6. Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, W M

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed. PMID:738239

  7. A soil infiltration system incorporated with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification (SISSAD) for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Tong, Shuang; Zhang, Baogang; Hao, Chunbo; Chen, Kun

    2014-05-01

    To enhance the denitrification performance of soil infiltration, a soil infiltration system incorporated with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification (SISSAD) for domestic wastewater treatment was developed, and the SISSAD performance was evaluated using synthetic domestic wastewater in this study. The aerobic respiration and nitrification were mainly taken place in the upper aerobic stage (AES), removed 88.44% COD and 89.99% NH4(+)-N. Moreover, autotrophic denitrification occurred in the bottom anaerobic stage (ANS), using the CO2 produced from AES as inorganic carbon source. Results demonstrated that the SISSAD showed a remarkable performance on COD removal efficiency of 95.09%, 84.86% for NO3(-)-N, 95.25% for NH4(+)-N and 93.15% for TP. This research revealed the developed system exhibits a promising application prospect for domestic wastewater in the future.

  8. Treatment of domestic wastewater by an hydroponic NFT system.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Nathalie; Monnet, Fabien; Sallanon, Huguette; Coudret, Alain; Hitmi, Adnane

    2003-01-01

    The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted for this study and the wastewater was used to irrigate Datura innoxia plants. Influent and effluent samples were collected once a month for six months and analysed to determine the various parameters relating to the water quality. The legal discharge levels for total suspended, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were reached with the plant system after 24 h of wastewater treatment. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus reduction were also obtained. NH4(+)-N was reduced by 93% with nitrification proving to be the predominant removal process. Significant nitrification occurred when the BOD5 level dropped 45 mg/l. Similar results were obtained for six months although the sewage composition varied widely. D. innoxia develops and uses the wastewater as the unique nutritive source.

  9. Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

    2001-05-01

    Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

  10. Oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors treating synthetic greywater.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Jochen; Lemac, Mladen; Wagner, Martin; Cornel, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Mass transfer coefficients (k(L)a) were studied in two pilot scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) with different setup configurations treating 200L/h of synthetic greywater with mixed liquor suspended solids' (MLSS) concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 19.5g/L. Besides the MLSS concentration, mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants of the sludge were measured. Although the pilot plants differed essentially in their configurations and aeration systems, similar alpha-factors at the same MLSS concentration could be determined. A comparison of the results to the published values of other authors showed that not the MLSS concentration but rather the MLVSS concentration seems to be the decisive parameter which influences the oxygen transfer in activated sludge systems operating at a high sludge retention time (SRT).

  11. Greywater use in Israel and worldwide: standards and prospects.

    PubMed

    Oron, Gideon; Adel, Mike; Agmon, Vered; Friedler, Eran; Halperin, Rami; Leshem, Ehud; Weinberg, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Water shortage around the world enhanced the search for alternative sources. Greywater (GW) can serve as a solution for water demands especially in arid and semi-arid zones. However, issues considered which include acceptability of GW segregation as a separate water treated stream, allowing its use onsite. Consequently, it is the one of next forthcoming water resources that will be used, primarily in the growing mega-cities. It will be even more rentable when combined with the roof runoff water harvesting and condensing water from air-conditioning systems. Reuse of GW is as well beneficial in the mega-cities subject to the high expenses associated with wastewater and fresh water conveyance in the opposite direction. The main problem associated with GW reuse is the quality of the water and the targeted reuse options. At least two main options can be identified: the public sector that is ready to reuse the GW and the private sector which raises extra issues related to the reuse risks. These risk stems from the on yard use of GW, relatively close to the household location. The main focus of the Israeli guidelines for GW use is on the private and single house. The problem is less rigorous in public facilities, where the amounts are relatively large and the raw GW is relatively diluted. The two main principles adopted for reuse are: (i) greywater can be minimally treated since it differs from the black wastes, and; (ii) no contact exists with the resident around. The aggravated standards are an indication of the sensitivity issues related to the problem. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Optimized MBR for greywater reuse systems in hotel facilities.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Natasa; Dalmau, Montserrat; Comas, Joaquim; Poch, Manel; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi

    2017-05-15

    Greywater is an important alternative water source, particularly in semi-arid, touristic areas, where the biggest water demand is usually in the dry period. By using this source wisely, tourist facilities can substantially reduce the pressure to scarce water resources. In densely urbanized touristic areas, where space has high value, compact solutions such as MBR based greywater reuse systems appear very appropriate. This research focuses on technical and economical evaluation of such solution by implementing a pilot MBR to a hotel with separated grey water. The pilot was operated for 6 months, with thorough characterisation of the GW performed, its operation was monitored and its energy consumption was optimized by applying a control system for the air scour. Based on the pilot operation a design and economic model was set to estimate the feasibility (CAPEX, OPEX, payback period of investment) of appropriate scales of MBR based GW systems, including separation of GW, MBR technology, clean water storage and disinfection. The model takes into account water and energy prices in Spain and a planning period of 20 years. The results demonstrated an excellent performance in terms of effluent quality, while the energy demand for air-scour was reduced by up to 35.2%, compared to the manufacturer recommendations. Economical evaluation of the entire MBR based GW reuse system shows its feasibility for sizes already at 5 m(3)/day (60 PE). The payback period of the investment for hotels like the demonstration hotel, treating 30 m(3)/day is 3 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Progress for the treatment of the combustible portion of domestic waste for briquetting and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, H.H.; Sonneschein, H.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for the treatment of the combustible portion of crushed domestic waste is disclosed. The waste is pre-dried and separated from dense-medium material such as metal and glass prior to processing. A dried waste moisture level of about 8-10% is maintained throughout the process. High heat value briquets are produced without the addition of a bonding agent by sifting out fine inert material and plastic material prior to briquetting.

  14. Greywater characterization and handling practices among urban households in Ghana: the case of three communities in Kumasi Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Dwumfour-Asare, Bismark; Adantey, Philomina; Nyarko, Kwabena Biritwum; Appiah-Effah, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Greywater management in Ghana receives little or no attention although untreated greywater is associated with environmental and public health risks. This paper assesses greywater characteristics and handling practices among urban households in three selected communities in Kumasi, the second largest city of Ghana. The study involved in-depth surveys (interviews and observations) with 90 households, and collection of 18 greywater samples from nine greywater sources for laboratory analysis. Average greywater generation is 43.36 ± 17 litres per capita per day, equivalent to 36% of average water consumption. Greywater is untreated before disposal (≈99%), and disposal is mainly (89%) into drains and onto streets. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels are high but give very low BOD/COD ratios (0.20 ± 0.07) indicating a very low biodegradability potential. Nutrient levels are high: 12 times (P) and 30 times (N) in excess of standard discharge limits. Other contaminants detected are heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd), microbes (total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.), and organic micropollutants - benzalkonium chloride, parabens (methyl and propyl), sodium benzoate and hypochlorite - and details of the levels are discussed in the paper. Greywater reuse could be useful for biomass production, but it also presents a challenge and threat to natural biological processes and water sources.

  15. Wastewater and greywater reuse on irrigation in centralized and decentralized systems--an integrated approach on water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Matos, C; Pereira, S; Amorim, E V; Bentes, I; Briga-Sá, A

    2014-09-15

    Wastewater and greywater have different scales of end-uses in irrigation in Portugal. Wastewater is treated in a central wastewater treatment plant and reused in public/private large areas of irrigation, like agriculture, public gardens and golf courses. On the contrary, greywater reuse is generally applied in in situ small scales, treated and used in the same place, generally in the production site. The main aim of this paper is to compare the two types of systems: a wastewater centralized reuse system (WWCRS) and a greywater decentralized reuse system (GWDRS) in terms of water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper, the main characteristics of both streams are presented and the degree of treatment required in each stream is analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of its reuse in different scales, in terms of water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are discussed. A methodology to calculate the energy consumptions and CO2 emissions related to wastewater treatment that may be applied in different cases is presented. A hypothetical example of the two systems: one referring to a WWCRS and the other to a GWDRS is presented. The energy consumption and the CO2 emissions are analyzed and compared. The WWCRS needs a higher degree of treatment and so it spends more energy and leads to more CO2 emissions to the environment than the GWDRS that consumed between 11.8 and 37.5% of the energy consumed in the WWCRS considering the same number of inhabitants served. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Life cycle impact assessment of greywater recycling technologies for new developments.

    PubMed

    Memon, F A; Zheng, Z; Butler, D; Shirley-Smith, C; Lui, S; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of four treatment technologies currently under investigation for recycling the greywater generated from households and describes the development of a new LCIA tool set produced in this study. The technologies investigated include reed beds, membrane bioreactors (MBR); membrane chemical reactors (MCR) and an innovative green roof water recycling system (GROW). The materials and energy required for the construction and operation phases of these technologies have been quantified for 20 development scales. All of the information gathered is used to prepare life cycle inventories for each technology. The inventories have been used as an input to Simapro Software for performing LCIA. Two assessment methods (CML-2 and Eco-indc-99) have been employed. For the CML method, the results were processed to express the environmental performance in ten impact categories including climate change/global warming, depletion of abiotic resources, acidification, eutrophication, and human toxicity. For the Eco-indc-99 method, results are shown in three generic environmental indicators: human health, eco system and natural resources. LCIA results obtained for 20 development scales have been used to develop a tool set using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique. The study results indicate that the technologies based on natural treatment processes (GROW and reed beds) have low environmental impact.

  17. Racial differences in treatment effect among men in a substance abuse and domestic violence program.

    PubMed

    Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J

    2010-11-01

    It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.

  18. State standards for domestic violence perpetrator treatment: current status, trends, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Maiuro, Roland D; Eberle, Jane A

    2008-01-01

    We empirically surveyed and analyzed existing standards for the treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence across the United States. Specific areas examined included: presence and scope; administrative entity for certifying; screening and risk assessment protocols; minimum length of treatment; theoretical or conceptual orientation; treatment content; preferred or allowable modalities of treatment; whether research findings are mentioned; methods for revising standards; and minimum education and training required for providers. We examined trends using several methods including comparisons between present and previous survey data (Maiuro et al., 2001). Positive trends were evident including increased use of multivariate models of treatment content, use of an intake assessment prior to treatment, use of a danger/lethality assessment to manage risk, recognition of the need for program evaluation and supportive research, and the requirement of a minimum level of formal education as a prerequisite for providers. We identify specific areas for further research and development and make recommendations for improving existing practice and standards of care.

  19. Assessment of rainwater use and greywater reuse in high-rise buildings in a brownfield site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Grant, Andrew; Sharma, Ashok; Chen, Donghui; Chen, Liang

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of rainwater and greywater (originated from bathroom only) for provision of non-contact indoor and outdoor use in high-rise buildings. A brownfield development site in Box Hill suburb of Melbourne was selected as case study site for this investigation. The performance of alternative servicing options was compared with conventional water supply, stormwater and wastewater servicing. A water balance model UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality) was applied to determine storage capacities and to evaluate the percentage reduction in water supplying, stormwater run-off and wastewater disposal, as well as volumes of rainwater use and greywater reuse. In this study, the impact of variation in collection area (600 m(2) and 900 m(2)) and appliance discharge volumes was examined. A number of demand management options were also investigated. The results of this study indicate greywater reuse is more suited than rainwater use for this development because of the steady, constant supply of greywater compared to the highly fluctuating, storm-event supply of rainwater and the high population density creating comparatively large volumes of greywater.

  20. Simultaneous domestic wastewater treatment and renewable energy production using microbial fuel cells (MFCs).

    PubMed

    Puig, S; Serra, M; Coma, M; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2011-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCS) can be used in wastewater treatment and to simultaneously produce electricity (renewable energy). MFC technology has already been applied successfully in lab-scale studies to treat domestic wastewater, focussing on organic matter removal and energy production. However, domestic wastewater also contains nitrogen that needs to be treated before being discharged. The goal of this paper is to assess simultaneous domestic wastewater treatment and energy production using an air-cathode MFC, paying special attention to nitrogen compound transformations. An air-cathode MFC was designed and run treating 1.39 L d(-1) of wastewater with an organic load rate of 7.2 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) (80% removal efficiency) and producing 1.42 W m(-3). In terms of nitrogen transformations, the study demonstrates that two different processes took place in the MFC: physical-chemical and biological. Nitrogen loss was observed increasing in line with the power produced. A low level of oxygen was present in the anodic compartment, and ammonium was oxidised to nitrite and nitrate.

  1. Domestic wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds for irrigation in Mendoza, Argentina: policies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vélez, O R; Fasciolo, G E; Bertrano, A V

    2002-01-01

    Arid areas call for imaginative water management solutions to avoid the dangers of water shortages. Growing demands of water for domestic and industrial uses decrease the availability of water for agriculture. It therefore becomes necessary to set up a policy for the use of domestic effluents. For the province of Mendoza, Argentina, with 1,500,000 inhabitants, a master plan was designed as of 1991 for the treatment of domestic effluents and subsequent disposal for irrigation. The guidelines set up by WHO for the use of wastewater in agricultural applications were taken into consideration. At present, the Province of Mendoza has available projects which are either complete, in execution or in the bidding process, entailing secondary treatment capacity with reuse of 320,000 cubic metres/day and an estimated possible irrigation area of 10,000 hectares. With this infrastructure, some strategic lines of action are recommended to establish a policy for the agricultural use of wastewater: (a) to program the use of treated wastewater to avoid discharges to irrigation flows; (b) to develop an institutional scheme for the efficient and safe use of these waters; and (c) develop scientific and technologic know-how to accompany the updated policies.

  2. Fenbendazole treatment for Mammomonogamus species infection of a domestic cat on St Kitts, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Gattenuo, Talia; Ketzis, Jennifer; Shell, Linda

    2014-10-01

    A 7-month-old, female, domestic shorthair, indoor/outdoor cat on the island of St Kitts was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine as part of a student training spay-neuter program. Observation of diarrhea prompted a double centrifugation fecal analysis. Ova of Mammomonogamus species, in addition to Ancylostoma species, Trichuris species and Platynosomum species, were found. Mammomonogamus ierei is a parasitic nematode found on many Caribbean islands for which treatment is not well documented. Five days of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg bodyweight) was administered, and fecal analyses gave negative results for Mammomonogamus species eggs 1 week after the last fenbendazole treatment.

  3. Small-scale domestic wastewater treatment using an alternating pumped sequencing batch biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Michael; Zhan, Xinmin; O'Reilly, Edmond

    2006-04-01

    An alternating pumped sequencing batch biofilm reactor (APSBBR) system was developed to treat small-scale domestic wastewater. This laboratory system had two reactor tanks, Reactor 1 and Reactor 2, with two identical plastic biofilm modules in each reactor. Reactor 1 of the APSBBR had five operational phases--fill, anoxic, aerobic, settle and draw. In the aerobic phase, the wastewater was circulated between the two reactor tanks with centrifugal pumps and aeration was mainly achieved through oxygen absorption by microorganisms in the biofilms when they were exposed to the air. This paper details the performance of the APSBBR system in treating synthetic domestic wastewater over 18 months. The effluent from the APSBBR system satisfied the European Wastewater Treatment Directive requirements, with respect to COD, ammonium-nitrogen and suspended solids. The biofilm growth in the two reactor tanks was different due to the difference in substrate loadings and growth conditions.

  4. Immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) for treatment of combined domestic and dairy wastewater in an isolated farm.

    PubMed

    Bick, A; Tuttle, J G P; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

    2005-01-01

    In many regions dairy farms and milk processing industries discharge large quantities of their wastes to the surroundings posing serious environmental risks. This problem is mostly faced in small dairy farms and isolated communities lacking both central collection and conventional wastewater treatment systems. Dairy wastewater is characterized by high concentrations of organic matter, solids, nutrients, as well as fractions of dissolved inorganic pollutants, exceeding those levels considered typical for high strength domestic wastewaters. With the purpose of treating the combined dairy and domestic wastewater from a small dairy farm in the Negev Desert of Israel, the use of a recent emerging technology of Immersed Membrane BioReactor (IMBR) was evaluated over the course of 500 test hours, under a variety of wastewater feed quality conditions (during the test periods, the feed BOD5 ranged from 315 ppm up to 4,170 ppm). The overall performance of a pilot-scale Ultrafiltration (UF) IMBR process for a combined domestic and dairy wastewater was analyzed based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. The IMBR performance in terms of membrane performance (permeate flux, transmembrane pressure, and organic removal) and DEA model (Technical Efficiency) was acceptable. DEA is an empirically based methodology and the research approach has been found to be effective in the depiction and analysis for complex systems, where a large number of mutual interacting variables are involved.

  5. Low temperature treatment of domestic wastewater by purple phototrophic bacteria: Performance, activity, and community.

    PubMed

    Hülsen, Tim; Barry, Edward M; Lu, Yang; Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    Low wastewater temperatures affect microbial growth rates and microbial populations, as well as physical chemical characteristics of the wastewater. Wastewater treatment plant design needs to accommodate changing temperatures, and somewhat limited capacity is a key criticism of low strength anaerobic treatment such as Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBR). This study evaluates the applicability of an alternative platform utilizing purple phototrophic bacteria for low temperature domestic wastewater treatment. Two photo-anaerobic membrane bioreactors (PAnMBR) at ambient (22 °C) and low temperatures (10 °C) were compared to fully evaluate temperature response of critical processes. The results show good functionality at 10 °C in comparison with ambient operation. This enabled operation at 10 °C to discharge limits (TCOD < 100 mg L(-1); TN < 10 mg L(-1) and TP < 1 mg L(-1)) at a HRT < 1 d. While capacity of the system was not limited, microbial community showed a strong shift to a far narrower diversity, almost complete dominance by PPB, and of a single Rhodobacter spp. compared to a more diverse community in the ambient reactor. The outcomes of the current work enable applicability of PPB for domestic wastewater treatment to a broad range of regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Irrigated greywater in an urban sub-division as a potential source of metals to soil, groundwater and surface water.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan D R; Warne, Michael St J; Dawes, Les A; Vardy, Suzanne; Will, Geoffrey D

    2016-12-01

    Increased water demands in dry countries such as Australia, have led to increased adoption of various water reuse practices. Irrigation of greywater (all water discharged from the bathrooms, laundry and kitchen apart from toilet waste) is seen as a potential means of easing water demands; however, there is limited knowledge of how greywater irrigation impacts terrestrial and aquatic environments. This study compared four greywater irrigated residential lots to adjacent non-irrigated lots that acted as controls. Accumulation and potential impacts of metals in soil, groundwater and surface water, as a result of greywater irrigation, were assessed by comparing measured concentrations to national and international guidelines. Greywater increased concentrations of some metals in irrigated soil and resulted in As, B, Cr and Cu exceeding guidelines after only four years of irrigation. Movement of metals from the irrigation areas resulted in metal concentrations in groundwater (Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) and surface water (Cu, Fe and Zn) exceeding environmental quality guidelines again within four years. These results are unlikely to be universally applicable but indicate the need to consider metals in greywater in order to minimize potential adverse environmental effects from greywater irrigation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Comparative Evaluation of the Performance of Two Phytoremediation Systems for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Valipour, A; Azizi, Sh; Raman, V K; Jamshidi, S; Hamnabard, N

    2014-07-01

    The constructed wetlands as well engineered techniques have been used effectively for phytoremediation of wastewater and pollution control during the last decades. In these technologies, the naturally occurring processes of plants alongside micro-organisms present in the bio-film attached to the roots, soil substrate and water column degrade the organic pollutants. The study seeks to compare the potential use of Phragmites sp. reed bed and floating macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system for domestic wastewater treatment. The sewage treatment performance is evaluated as 80% & 76% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 90% & 87% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 24% & 18% total dissolved solids (TDS), 69% & 67% total suspended solids (TSS), 12% & 5% Chlorides, 73% & 69% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 42% & 31% phosphate (PO4-P), 93% & 91% most probable number (MPN) and 95% & 92% total viable count (TVC) reduction at optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 & 43 h in Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth systems, respectively. Likewise, the floating macrophyte pond contrary to reed bed process shows insignificant pollutant diminution at 24 h HRT. This paper also highlights the microbial population present through the wetland systems by estimation of total viable count (TVC). The botanical aspect with reference to the plant growth is shown a significant increase in vegetation yield. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency by preferred Phragmites sp. root zone system at low foot print area for domestic wastewater.

  8. Ciprofloxacin removal during secondary domestic wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Hom-Diaz, Andrea; Norvill, Zane N; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Guieysse, Benoit

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of antibiotic ciprofloxacin during the treatment of real wastewater using high rate algal ponds (HRAP). When spiked at 2 mg/L into primary domestic wastewater, ciprofloxacin (CPX) was efficiently removed from laboratory scale photobioreactors continuously operated under various durations of artificial illumination and hydraulic residence times. Subsequent batch tests conducted with reactor microcosms showed CPX removal was mainly caused by photodegradation during daytime, and sorption to biomass during night time. These findings were confirmed during an experiment conducted in a 1000 L pilot HRAP operated outdoors, as well as during outdoor batch assays conducted using pilot HRAP microcosms. While these results highlight a potentially interesting treatment capacity in comparison to conventional biological treatment, further research must confirm these findings at relevant pollutant concentration (ng-μg/L) and determine the fate and potential toxicity of degradation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Domestic sewage and secondary effluent treatment using vertical submerged biological filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. J.; Tong, Y. M.; Song, Y.; Qi, W. K.; Li, Y. Y.; Guo, Y. L.

    2017-08-01

    Biological filter (bio-filter) exhibits a high potential for sustainability because construction and maintenance cost are low. When bio-filters are used as pre-treatment or post-treatment technology, other treat steps in the combined treat process could prevent clogging and get better process stability and performance efficiency. This study considered bio-filters for reducing the amounts of various wastewaters, i.e., high-strength sewage, municipal wastewater and secondary effluent water, using five kinds of media. The results obtained indicate significant improvement in organics removal when influent COD are 1500 mg/L and 2500 mg/L for anaerobic and aerobic biofilters, respectively. Sufficient alkalinity would obviously improve the substrate removal in an anaerobic bio-filter, when treating high-strength wastewater. The performances of bio-filters are adequate for further removal of the residual organic material and nutrient elements for tertiary domestic wastewater treatment.

  10. Treatment of low strength domestic wastewater by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, N.H.; Torres, C.L.; Speece, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    The tropical environment of Puerto Rico offers great potential for using anaerobic treatment in place of conventional, aerobic activated sludge processes in the treatment of its warm, dilute municipal wastewaters. It will minimize the troublesome problem of land disposal of municipal sludges, achieve secondary effluent standards and not be an energy intensive form of treatment. When the infrastructure of sewage treatment needs to be improved, anaerobic sewage treatment may serve as one of the better alternatives. Anaerobic sewage treatment is a totally enclosed process. It has very little environmental impact on the surrounding areas of the treatment site. However, sometimes its effluent may cause serious odor problems. There are many small communities in Puerto Rico where the anaerobic process can be an ideal form of treatment for their sewage. This study is focused on using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for treating raw domestic sewage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and stability of the UASB process for treating raw sewage and to ascertain the effect on efficiency of hydraulic detention time of the UASB reactor. A further key objective was to evaluate the impact on process performance of a packed bed solids removals device following the UASB reactor.

  11. Decentralized domestic wastewater treatment using intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: impact of influent strengths.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the removal performances of organic pollutants and nitrogen in vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) with and without intermittent aeration fed with different strengths of influent were evaluated as a possible treatment for decentralized domestic wastewater in northern China. The intermittent aeration strategy not only significantly increased removal efficiencies of organic pollutants and ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), but also successfully created alternate aerobic and anaerobic conditions resulting in high total nitrogen (TN) removal. Moreover, increasing influent strength did not affect the removal efficiencies of organic matters and nitrogen in aerated VFCWs. Compared with non-aerated VFCWs, much higher removal of organic pollutants (96%), NH4(+)-N (98%), and TN (85%) was obtained simultaneously in intermittent aeration VFCWs, especially at high influent strengths. The results suggest that the intermittent aeration could be an appropriate strategy for achieving the high removal performance in VFCWs, especially for in-situ treatment of high strength decentralized domestic wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anaerobic treatment of raw domestic sewage at ambient temperatures using a granular bed UASB reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lettinga, G.; Roersma, R.; Grin, P.

    1983-07-01

    Results obtained in a 120 liter 2 m high UASB-reactor with raw domestic sewage and using a granular sugar beet waste cultivated seed sludge, reveal the feasibility of this type of anaerobic treatment for domestic sewage. Under dry weather conditions 65-85% COD reduction can be achieved at temperatues in the range of 8-20 degrees C and at hydraulic loads at high as 2 cu.m. m-3.day-1. In the case of heavy rainfall the COD-reduction drops to 50-70% and occasionally, viz. at very low influent COD, even below 50%. The net methane production amounts to 7.1-7.3 cu.m. PE-1.year-1, and the excess sludge production ranges from 5.0-8.6 kg TS.PE1.year-1. Regarding the results obtained anaerobic treatment of raw sewage not only looks an attractive proposition for tropic areas but also for moderate climatic areas. (Refs. 19).

  13. Does the transtheoretical model predict attrition in domestic violence treatment programs?

    PubMed

    Brodeur, Normand; Rondeau, Gilles; Brochu, Serge; Lindsay, Jocelyn; Phelps, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Attrition in intervention programs for domestically violent men is considered to be a serious and enduring problem. Researchers have found a number of sociodemographic variables that partially explain this phenomenon; however, models based on these variables have a limited predictive power. Scott (2004) argues that a firm theoretical base is needed in future investigations of the problem and suggests the use of the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM), which was found to predict dropout with accuracy in other areas of behavioral change. This study investigated the relationship between four TTM constructs (Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Processes of Change) and premature termination with a sample of Canadian French-speaking men (N = 302) in five domestic violence treatment programs. Contrary to the initial hypotheses, the TTM constructs did not predict dropout. Discussion investigates how social desirability bias affects results being obtained by current TTM measures and whether more motivation to change at intake necessarily relates to involvement in treatment for longer periods of time.

  14. COD removal efficiency and mechanism of HMBR in high volumetric loading for ship domestic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linan; He, Hailing; Wang, Chunli

    2016-10-01

    The hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) has been applied in ship domestic sewage treatment under high volumetric loading for ship space saving. The mechanism and influence factors on the efficiency, including hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were investigated. The HMBR's average COD removal rate was up to 95.13% on volumetric loading of 2.4 kgCOD/(m(3)•d) and the COD concentration in the effluent was 48.5 mg/L, far below the International Maritime Organization (IMO) discharge standard of 125 mg/L. DO had a more remarkable effect on the COD removal efficiency than HRT. In addition, HMBR revealed an excellent capability of resisting organics loading impact. Within the range of volumetric loading of 0.72 to 4.8 kg COD/(m(3)•d), the effluent COD concentration satisfied the discharge requirement of IMO. It was found that the organics degradation in the aeration tank followed the first-order reaction, with obtained kinetic parameters of vmax (2.79 d(-1)) and Ks (395 mg/L). The original finding of this study had shown the effectiveness of HMBR in organic contaminant degradation at high substrate concentration, which can be used as guidance in the full scale of the design, operation and maintenance of ship domestic sewage treatment devices.

  15. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment.

  16. Praziquantel treatment for Platynosomum species infection of a domestic cat on St Kitts, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Ketzis, Jennifer; Hall, Rebecca; Rawlins, Gilda; du Plessis, Wencke

    2015-01-01

    Case summary A 1-year-old, female spayed, domestic shorthair, indoor cat on the island of St Kitts was diagnosed with platynosomiasis, infection with a feline-specific liver fluke, and treated with praziquantel at the marketed dose for tapeworms (5 mg/kg; actual calculated dose 5.75 mg/kg). Serial fecal analyses showed that egg counts decreased to zero within 10 days of treatment but re-emerged at day 17 and persisted at low levels until a second treatment was administered on day 78. After the second treatment, all fecal samples (n = 15) from day 85 to day 350 post-initial treatment were negative for Platynosomum ova. Relevance and novel information Treatment of platynosomiasis is poorly documented; no drugs are labeled for use against Platynosomum and the efficacy of suggested treatments is unknown. Using 5.75 mg/kg once, a dose that is significantly lower than published recommended doses for platynosomiasis, egg counts initially disappeared but re-emerged and persisted at low levels until a second treatment was administered. We hypothesize that immature forms may not have been killed and subsequently matured to produce eggs, or that the one-time dose may not have been completely effective at eliminating all adult flukes. However, administering praziquantel at 5.75 mg/kg twice, several weeks apart, appeared to be effective in treating this cat with platynosomiasis, as evidenced by monitoring of fecal egg counts over the course of 350 days. PMID:28491359

  17. (Use of rainwater and greywater and hybrid passive/wood fire water heating). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The work reported involves three phases. The first addresses water heating using a woodstove and a passive solar hot water system. The second deals with recycling greywater. The purpose of the third phase is to use rainwater to fulfill all hot water needs. (LEW)

  18. Exposure to synthetic greywater inhibits amoebae encystation and alters expression of Legionella pneumophila virulence genes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water conservation efforts have focused on greywater (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoebae (FLA) hosts within GW. Using synthetic gre...

  19. Community-focused greywater management in two informal settlements in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Armitage, N P; Winter, K; Spiegel, A; Kruger, E

    2009-01-01

    South Africa is struggling to provide services to the millions of poor people migrating to the major centres and living in informal settlements (shanty towns). Whilst the local authorities are generally able to provide potable water from the municipal network to communal taps scattered around the settlements, there is usually inadequate provision of sanitation and little or no provision for the drainage of either stormwater or greywater. This paper describes an investigation into ways of engaging with community structures in the settlements with a view to encouraging "self-help" solutions to greywater management requiring minimal capital investment as an interim "crisis" solution until such time that local and national government is able to provide formal services to everyone. The work was carried out in three settlements encompassing a range of different conditions. Only two are described here. It has become clear that the management of greywater has a low priority amongst the residents of informal settlements. The lack of effective political structures and the breakdown in communication with Ward Councillors and local government officials have contributed to the lack of progress. As the project progressed it became evident that greywater cannot be considered separately from stormwater, sanitation and refuse removal.

  20. Exposure to synthetic greywater inhibits amoebae encystation and alters expression of Legionella pneumophila virulence genes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water conservation efforts have focused on greywater (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoebae (FLA) hosts within GW. Using synthetic gre...

  1. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for greywater reuse in municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, Roni; Friedler, Eran; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable design and implementation of greywater reuse (GWR) has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs and potable water demand reduction. Studies show that GWR is an efficient tool for reducing potable water demand. This study presents a multi-objective optimization model for estimating the optimal distribution of different types of GWR homes in an existing municipal sewer system. Six types of GWR homes were examined. The model constrains the momentary wastewater (WW) velocity in the sewer pipes (which is responsible for solids movement). The objective functions in the optimization model are the total WW flow at the outlet of the neighborhoods sewer system and the cost of the on-site GWR treatment system. The optimization routing was achieved by an evolutionary multi-objective optimization coupled with hydrodynamic simulations of a representative sewer system of a neighborhood located at the coast of Israel. The two non-dominated best solutions selected were the ones having either the smallest WW flow discharged at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system or the lowest daily cost. In both solutions most of the GWR types chosen were the types resulting with the smallest water usage. This lead to only a small difference between the two best solutions, regarding the diurnal patterns of the WW flows at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system. However, in the upstream link a substantial difference was depicted between the diurnal patterns. This difference occurred since to the upstream links only few homes, implementing the same type of GWR, discharge their WW, and in each solution a different type of GWR was implemented in these upstream homes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first multi-objective optimization model aimed at quantitatively trading off the cost of local/onsite GW spatially distributed reuse treatments, and the total amount of WW flow discharged into the municipal sewer system under unsteady flow conditions. Copyright © 2013

  2. Halophytes as vertical-flow constructed wetland vegetation for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, M S; Sabathianakis, G; Kritsotakis, I; Kabourakis, E M; Manios, T

    2017-04-01

    Recent findings show that halophytes have the ability to accumulate salts in their tissues, making them a very interesting group of plants for domestic wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs). In that case, it might be possible to reduce the salinity of the final effluent, which is a crucial parameter for wastewater reuse in agriculture. During this study three halophytes, Atriplex halimus, Juncus acutus and Sarcocornia perennis, were tested for phyto-desalination of domestic wastewater in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) and compared with common reeds (Phragmites australis). In addition, the effect of this alternative vegetation on the overall performance of the system regarding organic matter, nutrients, boron and pathogen removal was monitored. The organic loading rate (OLR) was about 21gCOD/m(2)/d and the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was 95mm/d in both cases. Promising results were obtained for A. halimus, which shows high biomass productivity and significant capability to accumulate salts, mainly Na, in its tissues. A positive effect on pathogen removal efficiency was also recorded. However, nitrogen concentration in the effluent of the VFCW planted with halophytes was found to be higher than in the effluent of the VFCW planted with reeds. Finally, no significant effect on organic matter and phosphorus removal efficiency was observed from the use of halophytes in place of reeds.

  3. A novel microbial fuel cell and photobioreactor system for continuous domestic wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiming; Luo, Shengjun; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Dai, Meng; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2012-07-01

    A system containing a sequential anode-cathode configuration microbial fuel cell and a photobioreactor was developed for continuous treatment of wastewater and electricity generation. Wastewater was treated by the fuel cell to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus and nitrogen and to produce electricity. The effluent from the cathode compartment of the cell was continuously fed to an external photobioreactor to remove the remaining P and N using microalgae. Alone, the fuel cell generated a maximum power of 20.3 W/m(3) and achieved removal of 85 % COD, 58 % total phosphorus (TP) and 91 % NH(4) (+)-N. When coupled with the photobioreactor, the system removed 92 % TP and 99 % NH(4) (+)-N. These results demonstrate both the effectiveness and the potential application of the coupled system to continuously treat domestic wastewater and simultaneously generate electricity.

  4. Scaling-up of membraneless microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for domestic wastewater treatment: Bottlenecks and limitations.

    PubMed

    Escapa, A; San-Martín, M I; Mateos, R; Morán, A

    2015-03-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) have the potential to become a sustainable domestic wastewater (dWW) treatment system. However, new scale-up experiences are required to gain knowledge of critical issues in MEC designs. In this study we assess the ability of two twin membraneless MEC units (that are part of a modular pilot-scale MEC) to treat dWW. Batch tests yielded COD removal efficiencies as high as 92%, with most of the hydrogen (>80% of the total production) being produced during the first 48h. During the continuous tests, MECs performance deteriorated significantly (energy consumption was relatively high and COD removal efficiencies fell below 10% in many cases), which was attributed to an inadequate configuration of the anodic chamber, insufficient mixing inside this chamber, inefficient hydrogen management on the cathode side and finally to dWW in itself. Some alternatives to the current design are suggested.

  5. Domestic wastewater treatment using multi-electrode continuous flow MFCs with a separator electrode assembly design.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of domestic wastewater using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require reactors with multiple electrodes, but this presents unique challenges under continuous flow conditions due to large changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration within the reactor. Domestic wastewater treatment was examined using a single-chamber MFC (130 mL) with multiple graphite fiber brush anodes wired together and a single air cathode (cathode specific area of 27 m(2)/m(3)). In fed-batch operation, where the COD concentration was spatially uniform in the reactor but changed over time, the maximum current density was 148 ± 8 mA/m(2) (1,000 Ω), the maximum power density was 120 mW/m(2), and the overall COD removal was >90 %. However, in continuous flow operation (8 h hydraulic retention time, HRT), there was a 57 % change in the COD concentration across the reactor (influent versus effluent) and the current density was only 20 ± 13 mA/m(2). Two approaches were used to increase performance under continuous flow conditions. First, the anodes were separately wired to the cathode, which increased the current density to 55 ± 15 mA/m(2). Second, two MFCs were hydraulically connected in series (each with half the original HRT) to avoid large changes in COD among the anodes in the same reactor. The second approach improved current density to 73 ± 13 mA/m(2). These results show that current generation from wastewaters in MFCs with multiple anodes, under continuous flow conditions, can be improved using multiple reactors in series, as this minimizes changes in COD in each reactor.

  6. Feasibility of a pilot-scale UASB/trickling filter system for domestic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Chernicharo, C A; Nascimento, M C

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot system comprised of one UASB reactor followed by one trickling filter (TF). The UASB reactor had a volume of 416 litres, being operated at an average hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 hours. The trickling filter had a useful volume of 60 litres, being operated at hydraulic and organic loading rates varying from 3.4 to 30.6 m3/m2.d and 0.3 to 3.9 kg BOD/m3.d, respectively. These different operational conditions characterised eight research phases. Both reactors were fed with domestic sewage pumped directly from the main interceptor of Belo Horizonte City, Brazil. After almost 16 months of continuous monitoring, the UASB/TF system produced very good results in terms of COD and BOD removal, and also very low solids concentration in the final effluent. The average results of COD and BOD removal varied from 74 to 88% and from 80 to 94%, respectively, sufficient to maintain the COD concentration in the final effluent in the range of 60 to 120 mg/L and the BOD values systematically below 60 mg/L. The overall averages of SS in the final effluent were kept below 30 mg/L. The UASB/TF system is a very promising alternative for the treatment of domestic sewage in Brazil and other developing countries, since the system can be designed with very short hydraulic retention times, resulting in a very compact and low cost treatment unit. Besides, the energy consumption and the labour costs are minimal.

  7. A cognitive behavioral therapy for alcohol-dependent domestic violence offenders: an integrated substance abuse-domestic violence treatment approach (SADV).

    PubMed

    Easton, Caroline J; Mandel, Dolores L; Hunkele, Karen A; Nich, Charla; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of a twelve-session cognitive behavioral group therapy for alcohol-dependent males with co-occurring interpersonal violence (IPV). Participants were 85 alcohol-dependent males who were arrested for domestic violence within the past year. Seventy-eight male adults were randomized to either a cognitive behavioral Substance Abuse Domestic Violence (SADV) group (N = 40) or a Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF) Group (N = 38). There was no significant difference between SADV versus TSF in the number of sessions attended. Regarding substance use, the group assigned to SADV reported using alcohol significantly fewer days (eg, 90 days of abstinence across the 12 weeks of treatment) as compared to the TSF group. Regarding physical violence, there was a trend for participants in the SADV condition to achieve a greater reduction in the frequency of violent episodes across time compared to individuals in the TSF group. These data suggest the promise of the SADV group therapy approach for alcohol-dependent males with a history of IPV who present for substance abuse treatment.

  8. Domestic wastewater treatment by peatlands in a northern climate: a water quality study

    SciTech Connect

    Dubuc, Y.; Janneteau, P.; Labonte, R.; Roy, C.; Briere, F.

    1986-04-01

    The use of peatlands as the main form of wastewater treatment in a northern climate was studied for the James Bay Energy Society. The Fontanges campsite (70/sub 0/ 17' 30'' W, 54/sup 0/ 34' 00'' N) was chosen as the study site. In less than 1.5 km from the point of discharge BOD/sub 5/, COD, total hardness, inorganic carbon, orthophosphates, total phosphorus, ammonia and total nitrogen were reduced by at least 90%. The peatland treatment system studied is divided into four components, each having a specific function. The first part combines the action of microorganisms and adsorption on peat, thus reducing the organic content while increasing the inorganic constituents. The second part uses peat to adsorb the inorganic elements already present in the wastewater and those produced in the first part of the system. The third component acts as an aerator, increasing the dissolved oxygen and decreasing the BOD/sub 5/ levels of the water. The fourth part removes most of the remaining nutrients, thus acting like a tertiary treatment. Overall, peatlands seemed to be effective in treating domestic settled wastewater in a cold climate.

  9. Sustainability study of domestic communal wastewater treatment plant in Surabaya City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, E.; Sudarno; Zaman, B.

    2017-06-01

    Sanitation is one of the critical infrastructure sectors in order to improve community health status. The Ministry of Public Works of the Republic of Indonesia to define that word sanitation include: domestic waste water management, solid waste management, rain water management (drainage management) as well as the provision of clean water. Surabaya city as the capital of East Java province and Indonesia’s second largest city with a population of 2,853,661 inhabitants in 2014 (the second largest after Jakarta), but the people who have been served by the sanitation infrastructure systems were expected at 176,105 families or about 26.95 % of the population of the city is already using sanitation facilities. In the White Book Sanitation of Surabaya City in 2010, Surabaya City sanitation development mission is to realize the wastewater management of settlements in a sustainable and affordable by the community. This study aims to assess the sustainability of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) domestic communal in the city of Surabaya. The method in this research is quantitative method through observation, structured interviews and laboratory testing of the variables analyzed. Analyses were performed using a technique Multidisciplinary rapid appraisal (Rap-fish) to determine the level of sustainability of the management of communal WWTP based on a number of attributes that easy scored. Attributes of each dimension includes the technical, environmental quality, institutional, economic, and social. The results of this study are sustainability index of environmental quality dimension at 84.32 with highly sustainable status, technical dimension at 62.61 with fairly sustainable status, social dimension at 57.98 with fairly sustainable status, economic dimension at 43.24 with less sustainable status, and institutional dimension at 39.67 with less sustainable status.

  10. Behavioral hypothermia of a domesticated lizard under treatment of the hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoungbong; Shin, Haksup; Ju, Hyunwoo; Chung, Chan-Moon; Choi, Inho

    2017-05-03

    Ectothermic animals rely on behavioral thermoregulation due to low capacity of heat production and storage. Previously, lizards were shown to achieve 'fever' during microbial infection by increasing their preferred body temperature (PBT) behaviorally, thereby attaining a relatively high survival rate. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether domesticated lizards pursued 'behavioral hypothermia' induced by a hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). We found that treatment with 8.0 mg/kg T1AM caused a lizard species, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), to decrease its ventilation and oxygen consumption rates 0.64- and 0.76-fold, respectively, compared to those of the control (P<0.05). The lizards, habituated at an ambient temperature of 30 ± 0.5°C, also showed a significant decrease in the PBT range over a freely accessible thermal gradient between 5°C and 45°C. The upper limit of the PBT in the treated lizards lowered from 31.9°C to 30.6°C, and the lower limit from 29.5°C to 26.3°C (P<0.001). These findings demonstrate that the treated lizards pursued behavioral hypothermia in conjunction with hypoventilation and hypometabolism. Because prior studies reported a similar hypometabolic response in T1AM-injected laboratory mice, the domesticated lizards, as a part of the vertebrate phylogeny, may be a useful laboratory model for biological and pharmacological researches such as drug potency test.

  11. Behavioral hypothermia of a domesticated lizard under treatment of the hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyoungbong; Shin, Haksup; Ju, Hyunwoo; Chung, Chan-Moon; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Ectothermic animals rely on behavioral thermoregulation due to low capacity of heat production and storage. Previously, lizards were shown to achieve ‘fever’ during microbial infection by increasing their preferred body temperature (PBT) behaviorally, thereby attaining a relatively high survival rate. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether domesticated lizards pursued ‘behavioral hypothermia’ induced by a hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). We found that treatment with 8.0 mg/kg T1AM caused a lizard species, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), to decrease its ventilation and oxygen consumption rates 0.64- and 0.76-fold, respectively, compared to those of the control (P<0.05). The lizards, habituated at an ambient temperature of 30 ± 0.5°C, also showed a significant decrease in the PBT range over a freely accessible thermal gradient between 5°C and 45°C. The upper limit of the PBT in the treated lizards lowered from 31.9°C to 30.6°C, and the lower limit from 29.5°C to 26.3°C (P<0.001). These findings demonstrate that the treated lizards pursued behavioral hypothermia in conjunction with hypoventilation and hypometabolism. Because prior studies reported a similar hypometabolic response in T1AM-injected laboratory mice, the domesticated lizards, as a part of the vertebrate phylogeny, may be a useful laboratory model for biological and pharmacological researches such as drug potency test. PMID:27795490

  12. Cell-to-cell pollution reduction effectiveness of subsurface domestic treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Steer, David N; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Seibert, Beth A

    2005-05-01

    Quarterly water quality data from 1998 to 2003 for eight single-family domestic systems serving 2-7 people in Ohio, USA, were studied to determine the cell-to-cell and system wide pathogen reduction efficiency and effectiveness of these systems in meeting compliance standards. Two-cell domestic wastewater treatment systems displayed significant variability in their cell-to-cell performance that directly impacted the overall ability of systems to meet effluent compliance standards. Fecal coliform was effectively reduced (approximately 99%) in these systems while two-thirds of the input biochemical oxygen demand was mitigated in each of the cells of these systems. Fecal coliform and biochemical oxygen demand were typically reduced below 2000 counts per 100 ml and 15 mg/l (respectively) before discharge to surface waters. Total suspended solids were reduced by approximately 80% overall with cell one retaining the majority of the solids (approximately 70%). These systems discharged more than 18 mg/l of suspended solids in less than 5% of the samples thus displaying a very high compliance rate. Ammonia and total phosphorus were less effectively treated (approximately 30-40% reductions in each cell) and exceeded standards (1.5 mg/l) more frequently. Analyses based on the number of occupants indicated that the two-cell design used here was most effective for smaller occupancy systems. More study is required to determine the value of this design for large occupancy systems. In the future, wetlands should be evaluated based on the total loads delivered to the watershed rather than by effluent concentrations.

  13. Concentrations and fate of sugars, proteins and lipids during domestic and agro-industrial aerobic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Dominique; Choubert, Jean-Marc; le Pimpec, Paul; Heduit, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the composition and the fate of sugars, lipids, proteins, amino acids under aerobic conditions for 13 domestic and 4 agro-industrial wastewaters, sampled before and after treatment. The rates of aerobic degradation were moreover studied with a 21-day continuous aeration batch test. It is shown that the sum of the biochemical forms represented 50 to 85% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD). Lipids represented the half of the identified COD; sugars and proteins correspond to a quarter of the identified COD. Aerobic processes provided an increase of the relative fractions for proteins, whereas the ones of lipids decreased and sugars fraction remains stable. For the wastewaters released from cheese dairy (lipid-rich) and slaughterhouses (protein/lipid-rich), the dissolved phase after biological treatment is composed of proteins whereas the particulate one is composed of lipids. After the 21-day test, the concentration in proteins was nearby 10 mg/L. The results should be used for operations of WWTP to detect when a dysfunction is about to occur. They can be used to predict the concentrations in the treated water when upgrading an existing municipal plant that will admit agro-industrial discharge.

  14. Treatment of domestic wastewater by subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with gravel and tire chip media.

    PubMed

    Richter, A Y; Weaver, R W

    2003-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) are becoming increasingly common in on-site treatment of wastewater. Gravel is the most popular form of wetland fill medium, but tire chips provide more porosity, are less dense, and less expensive. This study determines the treatment efficiency of SFCWs filled with gravel or tire chip media to treat domestic wastewater. The influent and effluent of six SFCWs filled with tire chip medium and six SFCWs filled with gravel were monitored for 5 to 16 consecutive months. Parameters measured included pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total and volatile suspended solids, NH4, P, and fecal and total coliforms. The only clear difference between medium types in wetland performance was for P. Soluble P in the effluent averaged 1.6 +/- 1.0 mg l(-1) in the tire chip-filled wetlands and 4.8 +/- 3.2 mg l(-1) in the gravel-filled wetlands. Most likely, Fe from exposed wires in shredded steel-belted tires complexed with P to create an insoluble compound. Tire chips may be a better fill medium for SFCWs than gravel because of higher porosity, lower cost, and greater reduction of P in effluent.

  15. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  16. Domestic sewage treatment in a pilot system composed of UASB and SBR reactors.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Foresti, E

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained from the operation of a treatment system composed of an anaerobic (up-flow sludge blanket-UASB) reactor followed by an aerobic (sequencing batch-SBR) reactor treating domestic sewage are presented and discussed. The pilot plant was monitored during 6 months, aiming to obtain performance data on organic matter, nitrogen and phosphate removal under different operating conditions. The UASB reactor was operated at a constant hydraulic detention time (0) of 6 h while the SBR performance was monitored in four different duration cycles (24, 12, 6 and 4 h) corresponding to aeration times (AT) of 22, 10, 4 and 2 h, respectively. COD and TSS overall removal efficiencies (Eo) up to 91% and 84%, respectively, were achieved independently on the aeration time applied to the SBR. In respect to nitrification and phosphate removal, AT was found to be a determining operating parameter. TKN removal of approximately 90% was achieved for AT equal to or higher than 10 h; complete nitrification occurred for AT higher than 4 h; significant phosphate removal (72%) occurred only at the AT of 2 h. It was not possible to achieve simultaneous efficient removal of nitrogen and phosphate, under the operating conditions imposed on the treatment system.

  17. Treatment of mixed pharmaceutical industry and domestic wastewater by sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Ileri, R; Sengil, I A; Kulac, S; Damar, Y

    2003-01-01

    Raw mixed pharmaceutical industry and domestic wastewater characteristics are such as BOD5 = 90-130 mg L(-1), COD = 200-300 mg L(-1), SS = 900 mg L(-1), pH = 6.4-6.8, T = 20 degrees C, NH3 = 26 mg L(-1), PO4(3-) = 8.5 mg L(-1). In treatment plant, the parameters such as BOD5, NH3, PO4(3-), SS, MLVSS, pH, temperature, sludge volume and microorganisms predominance are studied, under constant sedimentation time (30 min) against variable aeration times. As a second step, the same parameters are studied under the constant aeration time (4 h) against variable sedimentation times. Effluent concentrations from sequencing batch reactor (SBR) are determined BOD5 = 13-18 mg L(-1), COD = 25-37 mg L(-1), SS= 9-21 mg L(-1), pH = 7.3-7.6, TDF = 1-2, T = 23 degrees C, NH3 = 1 mg L(-1), PO4(3-) = 8.1 mg L(-1). At the end of 6 h of aeration time, the efficiency of BOD5 reaches to 83%. The efficiency of BOD5 reaches to 81% under a 4 h aeration time and at 90 min sedimentation time. As a result, the optimum treatment efficiency has been taken under 4 h of aeration time and of 60 min of sedimentation time.

  18. A novel eductor-based MBR for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shibam; Daltrophe, Naphtali Claude; Gilron, Jack

    2016-09-01

    A novel aeration device has been developed that combines the mechanism of a venturi aerator with the flow multiplier effect of an eductor used for pump driven mixing. The performance of this novel eductor was evaluated in a flat-sheet immersed MBR and compared with the same MBR equipped with a conventional diffuser for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The eductor showed a higher rate of oxygen transfer both in clean and wastewater compared to the diffuser. The α value with the eductor (0.91) was also found to be more than that of the diffuser (0.75). Higher recirculation rate through the eductor resulted in a higher mixing/turbulance inside the MBR tank and thus alleviated membrane fouling significantly compared to the diffuser. The performance of the MBR in terms of organics removal was also found to be higher with the eductor than the diffuser. The eductor could have significant potential as a combined aerator and mixer in the field of wastewater treatment by MBR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Seeking a way to promote the use of constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zurita, F; Belmont, M A; De Anda, J; White, J R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the domestic wastewater treatment efficiency as well as the survivability of commercially valuable ornamental plants in subsurface flow wetlands (SSFW) for domestic wastewater (DWW) treatment in laboratory and pilot wetland studies. The laboratory scale study included five different species (Zantedeschia aethiopica, Strelitzia reginae, Anthurium andreanum, Canna hybrids and Hemmerocallis dumortieri) that were evaluated in horizontal flow subsurface treatment cells. All the plants survived during the 6-month experimental period demonstrating high wetland nutrient treatment efficiency. In order to validate and expand these preliminary results, a pilot-scale wetland study was carried out in SSFWs under two different flow regimes (horizontal and vertical flow). Four ornamental species were tested during a 1-year period: Zantedeschia aethiopica, Strelitzia reginae, Anthurium andreanum and Agapanthus africanus. The removal efficiencies were significantly higher in the vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) for all pollutants, except for nitrate (NO(3)-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total suspended solids (TSS). These results show that it is feasible to use select non-wetland plants with high market value in SSFWs without reducing the efficiency of the wastewater treatment system, although future work should continue in order to apply this technology in a large scale. The added value of floriculture in treatment wetlands can help to promote the use of constructed wetlands (CW) for domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries where economical resources are scarce and water pollution with DWW is common.

  20. Environmental impact of irrigation with greywater treated by recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands in two climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Gross, Amit; Alfiya, Yuval; Sklarz, Menachem; Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Reuse of greywater (GW) has raised environmental and public health concerns. Specifically, these concerns relate to onsite treatment operated by non-professionals; systems must therefore be reliable, simple to use and also economically feasible if they are to be widely used. The aims of this study were to: (a) investigate GW treatment efficiency using 20 full-scale recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCWs) operated in households in arid and Mediterranean regions; and (b) study the long-term effects of irrigation with treated GW on soil properties. RVFCW systems were installed and monitored routinely over 3 years. Raw, treated and disinfected treated GW samples were analyzed for various physicochemical and microbial parameters. Native soil plots and nearby freshwater (FW) and treated GW irrigated soil plots were sampled twice a year - at the end of the winter and at the end of the summer. Soil samples were analyzed for various physicochemical and microbial parameters. Overall, the RVFCW proved to be a robust and reliable GW treatment system. The treated GW quality met strict Israeli regulations for urban irrigation. Results also suggest that irrigation with sufficiently treated GW has no adverse effects on soil properties. Yet, continued monitoring to follow longer term trends is recommended.

  1. Electrochemical treatment of domestic wastewater using boron-doped diamond and nanostructured amorphous carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Daghrir, Rimeh; Drogui, Patrick; Tshibangu, Joel; Delegan, Nazar; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-05-01

    The performance of the electrochemical oxidation process for efficient treatment of domestic wastewater loaded with organic matter was studied. The process was firstly evaluated in terms of its capability of producing an oxidant agent (H2O2) using amorphous carbon (or carbon felt) as cathode, whereas Ti/BDD electrode was used as anode. Relatively high concentrations of H2O2 (0.064 mM) was produced after 90 min of electrolysis time, at 4.0 A of current intensity and using amorphous carbon at the cathode. Factorial design and central composite design methodologies were successively used to define the optimal operating conditions to reach maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color. Current intensity and electrolysis time were found to influence the removal of COD and color. The contribution of current intensity on the removal of COD and color was around 59.1 and 58.8%, respectively, whereas the contribution of treatment time on the removal of COD and color was around 23.2 and 22.9%, respectively. The electrochemical treatment applied under 3.0 A of current intensity, during 120 min of electrolysis time and using Ti/BDD as anode, was found to be the optimal operating condition in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these optimal conditions, the average removal rates of COD and color were 78.9 ± 2 and 85.5 ± 2 %, whereas 70% of total organic carbon removal was achieved.

  2. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Room Careers OVW FOIA Contact the Office Domestic Violence Get Help | What is Domestic Violence? Get Help ... 7233) 1-800-787-3224 (TTY) What is Domestic Violence? We define domestic violence as a pattern of ...

  3. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Song, J; Son, J H; Gutierrez, M P; Kang, T; Kim, D; Lee, L P

    2016-09-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli. Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems.

  4. Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  5. Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage in modified septic tanks at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Guan, Huabin; Bakke, Rune; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-01-01

    Three laboratory-scale septic tanks, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)-septic tank (R1), a Yuhuan drawing three-dimensional-carrier-septic tank (R2) and a conventional septic tank (R3), were operated in parallel over half a year under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 36, 24 and 12 h, with a sewage temperature of 16 degrees C. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (CODtot) achieved in R1 and R2 increased by 14%, 21% and 12% and 18%, 3% and 16%, respectively, under three different HRTs, as compared to those in R3. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were negligible. R1 sludges had a higher specific methane production rate as compared to that of R2 and R3 sludges. The results indicated that the two modified septic tanks can improve the performance in terms of COD and total solids removal, both were suitable technologies for domestic sewage (pre) treatment at low temperature in northern China.

  6. Co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater using a submerged aerobic biofilter.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Povinelli, J; Pozzi, E; Vieira, E M; Trofino, J C

    2014-08-01

    This study used a pilot-scale submerged aerobic biofilter (SAB) to evaluate the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate that was pre-treated by air stripping. The leachate tested volumetric ratios were 0, 2, and 5%. At a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, the SAB was best operated with a volumetric ratio of 2% and removed 98% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 90% of the total suspended solids (TSS). A proposed method, which we called the "equivalent in humic acid" (Eq.HA) approach, indicated that the hardly biodegradable organic matter in leachate was removed by partial degradation (71% of DOC Eq.HA removal). Adding leachate at a volumetric ratio of 5%, the concentration of the hardly biodegradable organic matter was decreased primarily as a result of dilution rather than biodegradation, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was mostly removed (90%) by nitrification, and the SAB performances at the volumetric ratios of 0 and 2% were equal. For the three tested volumetric ratios of leachate (0, 2, and 5%), the concentrations of heavy metals in the treated samples were below the local limits.

  7. Effects of changing hydraulic and organic loading rates on pollutant reduction in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Pell, Mikael; Hylander, Lars D; Lalander, Cecilia; Vinnerås, Björn; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Greywater flows and concentrations vary greatly, thus evaluation and prediction of the response of on-site treatment filters to variable loading regimes is challenging. The performance of 0.6 m × 0.2 m (height × diameter) filters of bark, activated charcoal and sand in reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (Tot-N) and total phosphorus (Tot-P) under variable loading regimes was investigated and modelled. During seven runs, the filters were fed with synthetic greywater at hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 32-128 L m(-2) day(-1) and organic loading rates (OLR) of 13-76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1). Based on the changes in HLR and OLR, the reduction in pollutants was modelled using multiple linear regression. The models showed that increasing the HLR from 32 to 128 L m(-2) day(-1) decreased COD reduction in the bark filters from 74 to 40%, but increased COD reduction in the charcoal and sand filters from 76 to 90% and 65 to 83%, respectively. Moreover, the models showed that increasing the OLR from 13 to 76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters except for Tot-P in the bark filters, which decreased slightly from 81 to 73%. Decreasing the HLR from 128 to 32 L m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters, but decreasing the OLR from 76 to 14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) detached biofilm and decreased the Tot-N and Tot-P reduction in the bark and sand filters. Overall, the bark filters had the capacity to treat high OLR, while the charcoal filters had the capacity to treat high HLR and high OLR. Both bark and charcoal filters had higher capacity than sand filters in dealing with high and variable loads. Bark seems to be an attractive substitute for sand filters in settings short in water and its effluent would be valuable for irrigation, while charcoal filters should be an attractive alternative for settings both rich and short in water supply and when

  8. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting successful collaborations between domestic violence and substance abuse treatment service sectors: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Macy, Rebecca J; Goodbourn, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization are more likely to struggle with substance abuse problems than are women who do not experience IPV. Given the connection between IPV victimization and substance abuse, recommended practices urge collaboration between domestic violence service agencies and substance abuse treatment agencies to provide comprehensive services for women with these co-occurring problems. However, domestic violence and substance abuse services have unique histories of development that have led to distinct ways of service delivery. To promote successful collaborations, service providers and researchers are developing strategies to foster relationships across the two service sectors. The authors conducted a review of this emerging body of knowledge with the aim of assembling recommendations for strategies to foster collaboration between domestic violence and substance abuse services. The authors identified 15 documents for review inclusion and our analysis established 5 categories of documents. Findings yield key collaboration strategies and recommended service models. In addition, the review determined the existence of considerable challenges to promoting collaborative relationships between domestic violence and substance abuse treatment service sectors.

  10. A comparative study on the anaerobic membrane bioreactor performance during the treatment of domestic wastewaters of various origins.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, A; Ellouze, M; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the practical performance of a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane coupled to an anaerobic bioreactor, for treatment of raw domestic wastewater (RDW), at a pilot-scale plant. Wastewaters used in this study originated from two different domestic wastewater treatment plans (DWTPs) (Sfax and Ksour Essef). During the treatment in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) of the RDW originating from Sfax DWTP, the bioreactor did not reach its stationary phase because the anaerobic biomass was unable to adapt to the wastewater. This was explained by the considerable fluctuations in the domestic wastewater composition and a possible contamination of Sfax wastewater by industrial discharges. However, the treatment of RDW originating from Ksour Essef (DWTP) was successful. In both cases, the treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. The quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation. The phytotoxicity and the microtoxicity tests, using Lepidium sativum and Vibrio fischeri respectively, demonstrated that wastewater from Sfax exhibited higher toxicity than that from Ksour Sssef.

  11. Domestic violence and partner notification: implications for treatment and counseling of women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, K H; Paskey, S J; Reuland, M M; Zimmerman, S I; North, R L

    1995-01-01

    Current public health policy encourages partner notification to protect those at risk of HIV infection. Provider experiences with partner notification, domestic violence, and women with HIV compel a reassessment of this strategy. In a survey of 136 health care providers in Baltimore, substantial numbers reported knowledge of their HIV-infected patients' experiences with domestic violence before and after partner notification. Providers believed that fear of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and abandonment are important reasons why many female patients resist partner notification. Provider opposition to partner notification was strong in cases where female patients faced a risk of domestic violence. The realization that HIV-infected women fear and experience domestic violence has broad implications for health care practice. The authors recommend changes in provider practices to insure that the risk of domestic violence is identified and addressed, and that partner notification strategies do not threaten the safety of HIV-infected women. They also highlight areas for further research on the connections among partner notification, domestic violence, and women with HIV.

  12. [Domestic imipenem cilastatin sodium for the treatment of severe aspiration pneumonia, a curative effect observation].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hai-yan; Ye, Xiao-ling; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, You-feng

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of domestic imipenem cilastatin sodium for the treatments of severe aspiration pneumonia. A randomize, open, parallel-controlled trial was conducted. Sixty-eight patients with severe aspiration pneumonia were divided into trial group (n=36) and control group (n=32) by random distribution method. The application of trial group domestic imipenem cilastatin sodium was 1.0 g intravenous drip, every 6-8 hours for 7-14 days. The control group application with imported injection imipenem cilastatin sodium was 1.0 g intravenous drip, every 6-8 hours for 7-14 days. The highest daily temperature (T), heart rate (HR), breathing rate (RR), pulse blood oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO(2)), inhaled oxygen concentration (FiO(2)), oxygenation index (PaO(2)/FiO(2)), airway peak pressure (Paw), minute ventilation (MV) and white blood count (WBC), pro calcitonin (PCT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) index before and 1, 3, 7 days after treatment, and liver and kidney function, chest X-rays, and sputum cultures of drug sensitive test were conducted. And the effectiveness and safety were determined according to the standards. After treatment indexes of the two groups were obviously improved, i. e. T, HR, RR, Paw, MV, the WBC, PCT, CRP were gradually declined, PaO(2)/FiO(2) was gradually raised. There were statistical significance before and 3 days after treatment in the trial and the control group [T: 37.35±0.91 centigrade vs. 38.43±1.06 centigrade, 37.28±0.88 centigrade vs. 38.35±1.11 centigrade; HR: 90.25±10.60 bpm vs. 118.94±15.46 bpm, 89.31±11.17 bpm vs. 124.34±17.87 bpm; RR: 25.14±3.17 bpm vs. 32.28±4.49 bpm, 24.81±2.43 bpm vs. 33.13±4.17 bpm; Paw: 23.03±3.04 cm H(2)O vs. 33.22±4.59 cm H(2)O, 22.75±3.22 cm H(2)O vs. 33.63±4.79 cm H(2)O; MV: 8.67±1.26 L/min vs. 11.80±2.01 L/min, 8.88±1.45 L/min vs. 13.21±2.90 L/min; WBC: 11.26±1.96 ×10(9)/L vs. 14.57±3.10 ×10(9)/L, 12.28±3.38

  13. Effect of Organic Loading Rates on biodegradation of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, oil and grease in greywater by Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS).

    PubMed

    Eslami, Hadi; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar

    2017-05-15

    In this study, performance of Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) system in treatment of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS), and oil & grease in synthetic greywater and effect of Organic Loading Rates (OLRs) on removal efficiency within a period of 105 days were investigated. Present study was carried out in a pilot scale under such conditions as temperature of 30 ± 1 °C, dissolved oxygen of 2.32 ± 0.91 mg/l, pH of 8.01 ± 0.95 and OLRs of 0.11-1.3gCOD/L.d. Also, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were employed to specify rate of the biofilm formed on the media inside the reactor IFAS. The best removal efficiency for COD, LAS and oil and grease were respectively obtained as 92.52%, 94.24% and 90.07% in OLR 0.44gCOD/L.d. The assessment of loading rate indicated that with increased OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, removal efficiency of COD, oil and grease was increased while with increased OLR, removal efficiency was decreased. In doing so, based on the statistical test ANOVA, such a difference between removal efficiencies in diverse OLRs was significant for COD (p = 0.003), oil and grease (p = 0.01). However, in terms of LAS, with increased value of OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, the removal efficiency was increased and then with higher OLRs, removal efficiency was slightly decreased that is insignificant (p = 0.35) based on the statistical test ANOVA. The SEM images also showed that the biofilm formed on the media inside IFAS reactor plays a considerable role in adsorption and biodegradation of LAS, and oil & grease in greywater. The linear relation between inlet COD values and rate of removed LAS indicated that the ratio of inlet COD (mg/L) to removed LAS (mg/L) was 0.4. Therefore, use of IFAS system for biodegradation of LAS, oil and grease in greywater can be an applicable option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Domestic wastewater treatment by a submerged MBR (membrane bio-reactor) with enhanced air sparging.

    PubMed

    Chang, I S; Judd, S J

    2003-01-01

    The air sparging technique has been recognised as an effective way to control membrane fouling. However, its application to a submerged MBR (Membrane Bio-Reactor) has not yet been reported. This paper deals with the performances of air sparging on a submerged MBR for wastewater treatment. Two kinds of air sparging techniques were used respectively. First, air is injected into the membrane tube channels so that mixed liquor can circulate in the bioreactor (air-lift mode). Second, a periodic air-jet into the membrane tube is introduced (air-jet mode). Their applicability was evaluated with a series of lab-scale experiments using domestic wastewater. The flux increased from 23 to 33 l m(-2) h(-1) (43% enhancement) when air was injected for the air-lift module. But further increase of flux was not observed as the gas flow increased. The Rc/(Rc+Rf), ratio of cake resistance (Rc) to sum of Rc and Rf (internal fouling resistance), was 23%, indicating that the Rc is not the predominant resistance unlike other MBR studies. It showed that the cake layer was removed sufficiently due to the air injection. Thus, an increase of airflow could not affect the flux performance. The air-jet module suffered from a clogging problem with accumulated sludge inside the lumen. Because the air-jet module has characteristics of dead end filtration, a periodic air-jet was not enough to blast all the accumulated sludge out. But flux was greater than in the air-lift module if the clogging was prevented by an appropriate cleaning regime such as periodical backwashing.

  15. Impact of electrode configurations on retention time and domestic wastewater treatment efficiency using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Yang, Wulin; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    Efficient treatment of domestic wastewater under continuous flow conditions using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires hydraulic retention times (HRTs) that are similar to or less than those of conventional methods such as activated sludge. Two MFCs in series were compared at theoretical HRTs of 8.8, 4.4 and 2.2 h using two different brush-electrode MFC configurations: a full brush evenly spaced between two cathodes (S2C); and trimmed brush anodes near a single cathode (N1C). The MFCs with two cathodes produced more power than the MFCs with a single cathode, with 1.72 mW for the S2C, compared to and 1.12 mW for the N1C at a set HRT = 4.4 h. The single cathode MFCs with less cathode area removed slightly more COD (54.2 ± 2.3%, N1C) than the two-cathode MFCs (48.3 ± 1.0%, S2C). However, the higher COD removal was due to the longer HRTs measured for the MFCs with the N1C configuration (10.7, 5.3 and 3.1 h) than with the S2C configuration (7.2, 3.7 and 2.2 h), despite the same theoretical HRT. The longer HRTs of the N1C MFCs also resulted in slightly higher coulombic efficiencies (≤37%) than those of the S2C MFCs (≤29%). While the S2C MFC configuration would be more advantageous based on electrical power production, the N1C MFC might be more useful on the basis of capital costs relative to COD removal efficiency due to the use of less cathode surface area per volume of reactor.

  16. Isolation and heterotrophic cultivation of mixotrophic microalgae strains for domestic wastewater treatment and lipid production under dark condition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Yin-Hu; Zhu, Shu-feng; Li, Feng-min; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-12-01

    Cultivating microalgae heterotrophically could overcome the light dependency, and thus increase the yield of microalgal lipid per unit area. In this study, three newly isolated strains of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp. ZTY2, Scenedesmus sp. ZTY3 and Chlorella sp. ZTY4) from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were heterotrophically cultivated in domestic wastewater with no illumination. During the cultivation, the algal densities of Scenedesmus species and Chlorella species were increased by 203.0% and 60.5% comparing with the initial densities, respectively. After 11-day cultivation, the lipid contents of Scenedesmus sp. ZTY2, Scenedesmus sp. ZTY3 and Chlorella sp. ZTY4 reached 69.1%, 55.3% and 79.2%, respectively. The DOC removal efficiencies of these three strains were 63.4%, 52.9% and 64.4%, and the biomass yield were 1.65, 1.98 and 2.31mg biomass/mg DOC, respectively. This is the first report about the heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae strains for domestic wastewater treatment and lipid production under dark condition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions from industrial and domestic wastewater treatment. Final report, September 1994-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, M.R.J.; Strait, R.P.; Barnard, W.R.; Eklund, B.

    1997-09-01

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitorus oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific emission estimates for CH4 and N2O. The report concludes that WWT is unlikely to be a significant source of volatile organic carbon and carbon dioxide emissions. The biggest contributor to industrial CH4 emissions from WWT is the pulp and paper industry in developing and Eastern European countries. The second principal contributor to CH4 emissions from WWT is the meat and poultry industry. Russia is believed to be the largest contributor. CH4 emissions from untreated domestic wastewater may be many times higher than those of treated wastewater. The report provides rough estimates for global N2O emissions from WWT.

  18. Diagnosis and successful treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii in a domestic ferret

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Christopher S.; MacWilliams, Peter; Giles, Steve; Paré, Jean

    2006-01-01

    A domestic ferret was presented for episodic regurgitation. Cytologic examination and culture of an enlarged submandibular lymph node revealed Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A). The ferret was successfully treated with itraconazole. This is the first documented case of Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii in a ferret in the United States. PMID:17078253

  19. 6:2 Fluorotelomer alcohol aerobic biotransformation in activated sludge from two domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijie; McCausland, Patricia K; Folsom, Patrick W; Wolstenholme, Barry W; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ning; Buck, Robert C

    2013-07-01

    6:2 Fluorotelomer alcohol [6:2 FTOH, F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH] is a major basic chemical being used to manufacture FTOH-based products. After the end of use, 6:2 FTOH-based products may be released to domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a first major environmental entry point. Activated sludge collected from two WWTPs was dosed with 6:2 FTOH to investigate its biotransformation rate and to identify major transformation products. The volatile 5:2 sFTOH [F(CF2)5CH(OH)CH3] is the most abundant transformation product and accounted for an average of 40mol% of initially dosed 6:2 FTOH after two months of incubation with activated sludge, with 30mol% detected in the headspace. PFPeA [F(CF2)4COOH] averaged 4.4mol% after two months, 2.4-7 times lower than that in sediment and soils. The much lower level of PFPeA formed in activated sludge compared with soil indicates that microbial populations in activated sludge may lack enzymes or suitable environment conditions to promote rapid 5:2 sFTOH decarboxylation to form PFPeA, resulting in more 5:2 sFTOH partitioned to the headspace. PFHxA [F(CF2)5COOH] and 5:3 [F(CF2)5CH2CH2COOH] acid are major non-volatile transformation products in activated sludge. For example, PFHxA averaged 11mol% after two months, which is about 30% higher compared with sediment and soils, suggesting that microbes in WWTPs may utilize similar pathways as that in sediment and soils to convert 5:2 sFTOH to PFHxA. 5:3 Acid averaged 14mol% after two months, comparable to that in soils and slightly lower than in sediment, further confirming that 5:3 acid is a unique product of 6:2 FTOH biotransformation in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... Domestic violence can include any of these behaviors: Physical abuse, including hitting, kicking, biting, slapping, choking, or attacking ...

  1. Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Jönsson, Håkan; Hylander, Lars D; Hui, Nan; Yu, Dan; Pell, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, and dosed with 32 L m(-2) day(-1) of an artificial greywater (14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1)) for 116 days. Potential respiration rate (PRR), determined in filter samples after addition of excess glucose, and bacterial diversity and composition, analysed by 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, were measured at different times and depths in the filters. The bark and charcoal filters were more efficient in removing BOD5 than the sand (98, 97% and 75%, respectively). The highest PRR in the 0-2 cm layer of the columns on day 84 was found in the bark filters, followed by the charcoal and sand filters (632 ± 66, 222 ± 34 and 56 ± 2 mg O2 L(-1), respectively; n = 2). Bacterial community in the bark filters showed the highest richness. The charcoal and sand filters both developed more diverse and dynamic (changing over time and depth) bacterial communities than the bark. In addition to the greywater, the lignocelluosic composition of the bark and its lower pH probably selected for the bacterial community structure and the organic content provided additional substrate, as shown by its higher PRR and its different nitrifying bacterial genera. In the oligotrophic charcoal and sand, the composition of the greywater itself defined the bacterial community. Thus, the initially low bacterial biomass in the latter filters was enriched over time, allowing a diversified bacterial community to develop. The top layers of the bark and charcoal filters displayed a high dominance of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were less evident in the 60 cm layer, whereas in the sand filters these genera were

  2. High-load domestic wastewater treatment using a combined anaerobic-aerobic bio-filter with coal cinder as medium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaoxing; Lei, Yuxin; Xi, Yin; Liao, Zaiyi; Zhang, Xia

    2017-03-13

    A combined anaerobic-aerobic bio-filter technology was used for field treatment of high-organic-load domestic wastewater with coal cinder as the bio-filter medium. The effects of parameters, including hydraulic retention time (HRT) and backflow ratio, on the decrease in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and turbidity were investigated. The results showed the obvious influence of the HRT and ratio of backflow on wastewater treatment. Under the optimal HRT condition of 18 h, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N, TN, TP, and turbidity were 67.9%, 95.6%, 30.4%, 65.6%, and 83.8%, respectively. When the backflow ratio (2:1) was added to the treatment system, the TN removal obviously increased, and the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N, TN, TP, and turbidity were 88.1%, 91.7%, 69.9%, 69.6%, and 97.5%, respectively. These results indicated that the combined technology has the potential as a treatment method for high-organic-load domestic wastewater.

  3. Analysis of Nitrogen Pollution Load by Domestic Waste Water Treatment in the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Toshisuke; Noto, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchihara, Takeo; Tanaka, Tadashi

    An evaluation of the environment nitrogen pollution load with regard to domestic waste water treatment on the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas was conducted. The literature-based water quality data collected before and after the treatment and the basic outflow pollution unit was determined for the several water treatment systems. Next these data were applied for the entire alluvial fan areas resulting in an estimated total nitrogen pollution load of as 186 ton/year. 58% of the total nitrogen pollution load was estimated to be from the private residences that were not connected to the public sewage system (connecting ratio 90.5%) which thus had relation to the pollution of groundwater and water quality in the drainage canal in the region under consideration. The nitrogen pollution load was higher in the urban area more than the rural. The rural domestic waste water system accounted for about 17.9% of the total pollution load, which carried a high probability of groundwater pollution because of seepage or percolation. The pollution load from the direct flow of the public sewage treatment water to the middle stream of the Tedori River, together with the water from small companies and untreated water from local family dwellings made up about 3-10% of total pollution.

  4. Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

    2015-02-17

    Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.

  5. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How ... are available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening ...

  6. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... are available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  7. High-rate anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater at ambient operating temperatures: A review on benefits and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Gomec, Cigdem Yangin

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on high-rate anaerobic sewage treatment at ambient operating temperatures while presenting the benefits and drawbacks. Since domestic sewage is reported as the main point-source pollutant on a global scale, its treatment deserves ample research. In most of the cities and towns of some developing countries, wastewater produced in households is still discharged into the nearest water body without subjected any treatment. Therefore, simple, affordable, and effective sewage treatment systems are required. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater is reported as a sustainable alternative as recovery of energy is provided while nutrients are preserved for reuse. Anaerobic sewage treatment is certainly not limited to regions of hot climates but it also offers treatment potential in sub-tropical and even in moderate climatic regions due to their favorable temperature conditions. Since many sewage-like dilute wastewaters are discharged at low ambient temperatures especially under moderate climate conditions (15 to 20 degrees C), heating the wastewater to maintain mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C) for anaerobic treatment necessitates high energy and certainly high operating costs. Thus, the development of anaerobic treatment systems operated at ambient temperatures without doubt will have a great ecological and economic impact. High-rate anaerobic treatment systems, especially upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, have been occupying a noticeable position for sewage treatment in several tropical countries where artificial heating can be eliminated. However, in spite of their undeniable advantages, there are certain drawbacks of anaerobic sewage treatment at low operating temperatures which should be clarified. Among them, the main concern for anaerobic treatment application is its producing effluents that barely comply with the standarts for reuse in agriculture or discharge to the environment. Therefore, the effluents from

  8. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: Lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Ángel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF ≈ 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

  9. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Angel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF approximately 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time.

  10. Thermal treatment of superconductor thin film of the BSCCO system using domestic microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, J. B.; Carvalho, C. L.; Torsoni, G. B.; Aquino, H. A.; Zadorosny, R.

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we report the preparation of a superconductor thin film of the BSCCO system using a good quality powder with nominal composition Bi1.8Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2Ox which was thermally treated using a domestic microwave oven (2.45 GHz, 800 W). This film was grew on a single crystal of LaAlO3 (1 0 0) substrate and exhibited a crystalline structure with the c-axis perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. An onset superconducting transition temperature was measured at 80 K.

  11. [Performance and its influencing factors of a zeolite biofilter for dilute domestic wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wenhua; Wen, Xianghua; Yang, Aihua; Qian, Yi

    2003-09-01

    To reuse dilute domestic wastewater in power plant region as the makeup of recirculating cooling water, a renovate reactor--zeolite media biological aerated filter (ZBAF) was developed. A pilot scale ZBAF of 0.2 m in diameter and 3 m in media height was tested to treat dilute domestic wastewater. The results showed that turbidity, BOD5, CODcr and NH4(+)-N in effluent was 3.2 NTU, 3.2 mg/L, 14.5 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L when the corresponding influent concentration was 59 NTU, 30 mg/L, 81 mg/L and 16 mg/L, respectively, under the conditions of t = 12 degrees C-17 degrees C, HRT = 1.4 h and gas/liquid = 4:1. The effluent quality met the water quality standards of the treated water reused for cooling water makeup. The removal rate of BOD5, COD and turbidity did not change much with the change of HRT and the ratio of gas to liquid, but NH4(+)-N removal rate changed greatly. The parameters along the depth of ZBAF showed that the biofilm phase was abundant in carbon-oxidation/nitrification(C/N) zone and simplex in nitrification (N) zone. Ciliate was plentiful in C/N zone. Biofilm in N zone was mainly consists of nitrifiers. The point that the number of ciliate decreased apparently was the boundary of the two zones.

  12. On site domestic organic waste treatment through vermitechnology using indigenous earthworm species.

    PubMed

    Rajpal, Ankur; Bhargava, Renu; Sasi, Salin Kumar; Chopra, Ak

    2012-03-01

    In India the exotic epigeic species, Eisenia fetida is mostly used for vermicomposting. The introduction of exotic species into local bio system may affect the indigenous earthworm species population. A comparative study between exotic species (Eisenia fetida) and indigenous species Perionyx sansibaricus and Perionyx excavates was performed to determine the potential of indigenous species of the area vis-à-vis the exotic species for composting of domestic organic waste blended with cattle manure. The results of the study show a significant reduction in initial C/N ratio from 55 to 13 for P. excavates and 15 for P. sansibaricus of the ready product which was within the agronomic acceptable limit ( < 20). The total organic matter reduced by 50% and pH also reduced to be nearer to neutral, but there was an increase in total nitrogen to 102% and total phosphorus increased from the initial concentration of 7.62 g kg(-1) up to 13.2 g kg(-1). Overall, by employing above indigenous species, domestic organic waste can be directly converted into high-quality hygienic stable fertilizer (vermicompost) which is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and free from pathogens.

  13. Simultaneous domestic wastewater and nitrate sewage treatment by DEnitrifying AMmonium OXidation (DEAMOX) in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui; Cao, Shenbin; Li, Baikun; Wang, Shuying; Peng, Yongzhen

    2017-05-01

    A novel DEAMOX system was developed for nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater and nitrate (NO3(-)-N) sewage in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). High nitrite (NO2(-)-N) was produced from NO3(-)-N reduction in partial-denitrification process, which served as electron acceptor for anammox and was removed with ammonia (NH4(+)-N) in domestic wastewater simultaneously. A 500-days operation demonstrated that the efficient and stable nitrogen removal performance could be achieved by DEAMOX. The total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was as high as 95.8% with influent NH4(+)-N of 63.58 mg L(-1) and NO3(-)-N of 69.24 mg L(-1). The maximum NH4(+)-N removal efficiency reached up to 94.7%, corresponding to the NO3(-)-N removal efficiency of 97.8%. The biomass of partial-denitrification and anammox bacteria was observed to be wall-growth. The deteriorated nitrogen removal performance occurred due to excess denitrifying microbial growth in the outer layer of sludge consortium, which prevented the substrate transfer for anammox inside. However, an excellent nitrogen removal could be guaranteed by scrapping the superficial denitrifying biomass at regular intervals. Furthermore, the high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the Thauera genera (26.33%) was possibly responsible for the high NO2(-)-N accumulation in partial-denitrification and Candidatus Brocadia (1.7%) was the major anammox species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors.

  15. A novel anoxic-aerobic biofilter process using new composite packing material for the treatment of rural domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pan, L T; Han, Y

    2016-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of contaminants removal in a continuously two-stage biological process composed of an anoxic biofilter (AF) and an biological aerated filter (BAF). This novel process was developed by introducing new composite packing material (MZF) into bioreactors to treat rural domestic wastewater. A comparative study conducted by the same process with ceramsite as packing material under the same conditions showed that a MZF system with a Fe proportion in the packing material performed better in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (average 91.5%), ammonia (NH4(+)-N) removal (average 98.3%), total nitrogen (TN) removal (average 64.8%) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (average 90%). After treatment of the MZF system, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP in effluent were 20.3 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 11.5 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The simultaneously high efficiencies of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal were achieved by the coupling effects of biological and chemical processes in the MZF system. The results of this study showed that the application of MZF might be a favorable choice as packing material in biofilters for treatment of rural domestic wastewater.

  16. Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Baawain, Mahad S; Al-Omairi, Abdulrahim; Choudri, B S

    2014-05-01

    Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman.

  17. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  18. Investigating membrane fouling associated with GAC fluidization on membrane with effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor in domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2017-08-07

    Effect of mechanical scouring driven by granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidization on membrane fouling was investigated using a laboratory-scaled, fluidized membrane reactor filtering the effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFBR) in domestic wastewater treatment. The GAC particles were fluidized by recirculating a bulk solution only through the membrane reactor to control membrane fouling. The membrane fouling was compared with two different feed solutions, effluent taken from a pilot-scaled, AFBR treating domestic wastewater and its filtrate through 0.1-μm membrane pore size. The GAC fluidization driven by bulk recirculation through the membrane reactor was very effective to reduce membrane fouling. Membrane scouring under GAC fluidization decreased reversible fouling resistance effectively. Fouling mitigation was more pronounced with bigger GAC particles than smaller ones as fluidized media. Regardless of the fluidized GAC sizes, however, there was limited effect on controlling irreversible fouling caused by colloidal materials which is smaller than 0.1 μm. In addition, the deposit of GAC particles that ranged from 180 to 500 μm in size on membrane surface was very significant and accelerated fouling rate. Biopolymers rejected by the membranes were thought to play a role as binding these small GAC particles on membrane surface strongly.

  19. Treatment performance and microorganism community structure of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland plots for domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-qing; Chang, Jun-jun; Dai, Yanran; Wu, Zhen-bin; Liang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the treatment performance and microorganism mechanism of IVCW for domestic wastewater in central of China, two parallel pilot-scale IVCW systems were built to evaluate purification efficiencies, microbial community structure and enzyme activities. The results showed that mean removal efficiencies were 81.03 % for COD, 51.66 % for total nitrogen (TN), 42.50 % for NH4 (+)-N, and 68.01 % for TP. Significant positive correlations between nitrate reductase activities and TN and NH4 (+)-N removal efficiencies, along with a significant correlation between substrate enzyme activity and operation time, were observed. Redundancy analysis demonstrated gram-negative bacteria were mainly responsible for urease and phosphatase activities, and also played a major role in dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase activities. Meanwhile, anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and saturated FA groups, gram-positive bacteria exhibited good correlations with the removal of COD (p=0.388), N (p=0.236), and TP (p=0.074), respectively. The IVCW system can be used to treat domestic wastewater effectively.

  20. Co-digestion of domestic kitchen waste and night soil sludge in a full-scale sludge treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Y; Takeno, K

    2002-01-01

    A study was made on the domestic kitchen waste and night soil treatment performance of a full-scale sludge treatment plant. The sludge treatment at this plant was by thermophilic methane fermentation. The initial treatment, mesophilic to thermophilic fermentation, was able to be started up within a short time by adjusting the amount of influent waste. Thermophilic methane fermentation was carried out for five months (May-October) and the performance under a mean residual time of 22 days indicated a VTS decomposition of 42%, gas generation of 54-1,610 m3/day (average: 755 m3/day), and a mean methane concentration of 60%. The methane gas was used to generate power in the plant and the amount of power generated by methane gas was highest in October (average of 1,200 kWh/day). This was equivalent to about 7% of the power consumed at the entire sludge treatment plant. The BOD/NH4-N of the activated sludge influent water was lower, compared to a case where there is no recycle flow, due to the recycle flow from the methane fermentation process. There was, therefore, a tendency for an increase in the amount of methanol charged into the secondary denitrification tank. However, the quality of the effluent was satisfactory (BOD< 10 mg/L, SS< 5 mg/L, and T-N< 25 mg/L). Study results indicated that it was possible to implement a full-scale plant for recovering organic waste.

  1. Evaluation of Ageratum conyzoides in field scale constructed wetlands (CWs) for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tilak, A S; Wani, Suhas P; Datta, A; Patil, M D; Kaushal, M; Reddy, K R

    2017-05-01

    Ageratum conyzoides were evaluated in field scale subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) to quantify its nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake and compare with wetland plants (Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia and Canna indica). The two-field scale subsurface flow CWs, located in the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, received wastewater from an urban colony. The CW1 and CW2 had the same dimensions (length:10 m, width:3 m, total depth:1.5 m and sand and gravel:1 m), similar flow rates (3 m(3)/d), hydraulic loading rates (HLRs-10 cm/d) and hydraulic retention time (HRT-5 days) from July 2014-August 2015. The vegetation in both CWs consisted of Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia, Canna indica, and Ageratum conyzoides, respectively. The CW1 (% reduction with respect to concentrations) reduced total suspended solids (TSS) (68%), NH4-N (26%), NO3-N (30%), soluble reactive P (SRP) (20%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (45%) and fecal coliforms (71%), while the CW2 (%-reduction with respect to concentrations) reduced TSS (63%), NH4-N (32%), NO3-N (26%), SRP (35%), COD (39%) and fecal coliforms (70%). Ageratum conyzoides can be used in combination with Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia and Canna indica to enhance removal of excessive N, P and fecal coliforms from domestic wastewater.

  2. An integrated UASB-sludge digester system for raw domestic wastewater treatment in temperate climates.

    PubMed

    Lew, Beni; Lustig, Irina; Beliavski, Michael; Tarre, Sheldon; Green, Michal

    2011-04-01

    To improve the performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating raw domestic wastewater under temperate climates conditions, the addition of a sludge digester to the process was investigated. With the decrease in temperature, the COD removal decreased from 78% at 28 °C to 42% at 10 °C for the UASB reactor operating alone at a hydraulic retention time of 6 h. The decrease was attributed to low hydrolytic activity at lower temperatures that reduced suspended matter degradation and resulted in solids accumulation in the top of the sludge blanket. Solids removed from the upper part of the UASB sludge were treated in an anaerobic digester. Based on sludge degradation kinetics at 30 °C, a digester of 0.66 l per liter of UASB reactor was design operating at a 3.20 days retention time. Methane produced by the sludge digester is sufficient to maintain the temperature at 30 °C. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relevance and treatment of coccidiosis in domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) with particular emphasis on toltrazuril.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Zebisch, Ralph; Schmidt, Volker

    2009-03-01

    Coccidia are common pathogenic parasites in pigeons (Columba livia). Coccidiosis is most commonly seen in young pigeons and only rarely in adult birds. Infections in domestic pigeons are typically mixed and commonly include Eimeria columbarum and Eimeria labbeana. The reported prevalence of infection is 5.1%-71.9%, and worldwide mortality in juvenile pigeons varies from 5% to 70%, with most deaths occurring in the third and fourth month of life. This article summarizes the life cycle of E. columbarum and E. labbeana, the route of transmission, and the common clinical and pathologic signs of coccidiosis. Chemotherapeutic options discussed include amprolium, sulfonamides, clazuril, and toltrazuril. Reasons to use toltrazuril include the growing resistance against other drugs, such as sulfonamides and amprolium, the extended effectiveness compared with other substances, for example, clazuril, and the ability of pigeons to develop immunity during treatment.

  4. Aerobic co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater - are slowly biodegradable organics removed or simply diluted?

    PubMed

    Campos, R; Ferraz, F M; Vieira, E M; Povinelli, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate/domestic wastewater in bench-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors to determine whether the slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM) was removed rather than diluted. The AS reactors were loaded with mixtures of raw leachate and leachate that was pretreated by air stripping. The tested volumetric ratios were 0%, 0.2%, 2% and 5%. For all of the tested conditions, the reactors performed better when pretreated leachate was used rather than raw leachate, and the best volumetric ratio was 2%. The following removals were obtained: 97% for the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,20), 79% for total suspended solids, 77% for dissolved organic carbon and 84% for soluble chemical oxygen demand. Most of the pretreated leachate SBOM (65%) was removed rather than diluted or adsorbed into the sludge, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses.

  5. Reuse of laundry greywater as affected by its interaction with saturated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Rabindra K.; Sivongxay, Amphone

    2009-03-01

    SummaryWe conducted laboratory experiments on a well aggregated, non-swelling clay soil to measure water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Ks) and salts present in the irrigation and drainage water to study the impacts of reusing untreated laundry greywater (GW) to irrigate soils in the residential garden beds. We used undisturbed (field) and disturbed (loose and compacted) soil cores to represent situations typical in old and recently established garden beds. Using tap water (TW), soil water retention within 0-10 kPa matric suction was found to be significantly lower and hysteresis significantly higher for the loose soil than the field or compacted soil. Measured values of Ks with TW were in the order loose >field>compacted soil, but these values were reduced to 5-16% when GW was used. Further measurements of Ks with application of TW to soil cores which had been previously saturated with GW, greater reduction in Ks occurred with Ks → 0 for the compacted soil. A comparison of the quality of GW with TW as irrigation water indicated an approx. increase in pH of GW by 3 pH units over TW, twofold increase in EC, fivefold increase in Na concentration and a 10-fold increase in Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). Measurements of drainage water during the water flux measurements for Ks showed that the soil was able to reduce pH and EC of infiltrating water, store some salts (Na and K) and released Ca and Mg from soil so that the quality of drainage water improved substantially to become similar in quality to TW. Thus, long-term use of untreated laundry greywater may reduce salt contamination of groundwater, but predispose soils to future environmental hazards from excess sodium accumulation.

  6. Probabilistic analysis of risks to US drinking water intakes from 1,4-dioxane in domestic wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Simonich, Staci Massey; Sun, Ping; Casteel, Ken; Dyer, Scott; Wernery, Dave; Garber, Kevin; Carr, Gregory; Federle, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The risks of 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) concentrations in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, receiving primarily domestic wastewater, to downstream drinking water intakes was estimated using distributions of measured dioxane concentrations in effluents from 40 WWTPs and surface water dilution factors of 1323 drinking water intakes across the United States. Effluent samples were spiked with a d8 -1,4-dioxane internal standard in the field immediately after sample collection. Dioxane was extracted with ENVI-CARB-Plus solid phase columns and analyzed by GC/MS/MS, with a limit of quantification of 0.30 μg/L. Measured dioxane concentrations in domestic wastewater effluents ranged from <0.30 to 3.30 μg/L, with a mean concentration of 1.11 ± 0.60 μg/L. Dilution of upstream inputs of effluent were estimated for US drinking water intakes using the iSTREEM model at mean flow conditions, assuming no in-stream loss of dioxane. Dilution factors ranged from 2.6 to 48 113, with a mean of 875. The distributions of dilution factors and dioxane concentration in effluent were then combined using Monte Carlo analysis to estimate dioxane concentrations at drinking water intakes. This analysis showed the probability was negligible (p = 0.0031) that dioxane inputs from upstream WWTPs could result in intake concentrations exceeding the USEPA drinking water advisory concentration of 0.35 μg/L, before any treatment of the water for drinking use. © 2013 SETAC.

  7. A novel membrane bioreactor enhanced by effective microorganisms for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Wang, Xin-Wei; Gong, Tai-Shi; Gu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Bin; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Jun-Wen

    2005-11-01

    The activated sludge membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been shown to have some advantages for the processing and reclamation of domestic wastewater. We hypothesized that certain microorganisms, chosen for their abilities to decompose the chemical components of raw sewage, would, when coupled with the MBR, significantly improve the stability and efficiency of this system. We selected environmental bacterial strains which oxidize ammonia and nitrites and produce protease, amylase, and cellulase for the development and testing of a novel biologically enhanced MBR (eMBR). We compared the eMBR with the activated sludge MBR. With the eMBR, the average values of effluent quality were: chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40 mg/l(average efficiency of removal 90.0%); and NH(4) (+)-N, 0.66 mg/l(average efficiency of removal 99.4%). Effluent qualities met the standard and were stable during the entire 90 days of this study. For the activated sludge MBR, the COD removal rate was 91.7%, and the NH(4) (+)-N removal (94.8%) was less than that of the eMBR. Start-up time for the eMBR was only 24-48 h, much shorter than the 7-8 days required to initiate function of the standard MBR. The biomass concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic bacteria in the eMBR did not fluctuate significantly during the course of the study. Various kinds of microorganisms will establish an ecological balance in the reactor. Compared with the activated sludge MBR, the eMBR not only produced an excellent and stable quality of effluent but also resulted in a shorter time to start-up and significantly improved the efficiency of NH(4) (+)-N removal.

  8. Ghosts and angels: Intergenerational patterns in the transmission and treatment of the traumatic sequelae of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Alicia F

    2007-07-01

    The article discusses the impact of exposure to domestic violence on infants, toddlers, and preschoolers; the manifestations of post-traumatic stress disorder in the first years of life; and the parameters of Child-Parent Psychotherapy as a relationship-based treatment that aims at enhancing the parent's effectiveness as a protector as a means of restoring the child's momentum towards healthy development. Obstacles to the child's mental health and to the success of treatment are discussed, with particular attention to the adverse effects of parental psychopathology and of environmental stressors such as poverty, cultural marginalization, and lack of access to resources. It is argued that the infant mental health clinician working with traumatized children and their families needs to adopt a therapeutic approach that actively incorporates collaboration with other service systems, including pediatric care, childcare, law enforcement, child protective services, and the courts, in order to provide ecologically sound and culturally competent treatment. Copyright © 2007 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. The effect of aeration and effluent recycling on domestic wastewater treatment in a pilot-plant system of duckweed ponds.

    PubMed

    Ben-shalom, Miriam; Shandalov, Semion; Brenner, Asher; Oron, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Three pilot-scale duckweed pond (DP) wastewater treatment systems were designed and operated to examine the effect of aeration and effluent recycling on treatment efficiency. Each system consisted of two DPs in series fed by pre-settled domestic sewage. The first system (duckweed+ conventional treatment) was 'natural' and included only duckweed plants. The second system (duckweed aeration) included aeration in the second pond. The third system (duckweed+ aeration+ circulation) included aeration in the second pond and effluent recycling from the second to the first pond. All three systems demonstrated similarly efficient removal of organic matter and nutrients. Supplemental aeration had no effect on either dissolved oxygen levels or on pollutant removal efficiencies. Although recycling had almost no influence on nutrient removal efficiencies, it had a positive impact on chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removals due to equalization of load and pH, which suppressed algae growth. Recycling also improved the appearance and growth rate of the duckweed plants, especially during heavy wastewater loads.

  10. Mathematical modeling of COD removal via the combined treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate based on the PACT process.

    PubMed

    Fernández Bou, Ángel S; Nascentes, Alexandre Lioi; Costa Pereira, Barbara; Da Silva, Leonardo Duarte Batista; Alberto Ferreira, João; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2015-01-01

    The experiments performed in this study consisted of 16 batch reactors fed different mixtures of landfill leachate combined with synthetic wastewater treated using the Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT) process. The objective was to measure the COD mass removal per liter each day for each reactor using two models: the first model combined the variables PAC concentration (0 g·L(-1), 2 g·L(-1), 4 g·L(-1), and 6 g·L(-1)) and leachate rate in the wastewater (0%, 2%, 5%, and 10%), and the second model combined the PAC concentration and the influent COD. The Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design was used to describe the response surface of both models considered in this study. Domestic wastewater was produced under controlled conditions in the laboratory where the experiments were performed. The results indicated that the PAC effect was null when the influent did not contain leachate; however, as the concentration of leachate applied to the mixture was increased, the addition of a higher PAC concentration resulted in a better COD mass removal in the reactors. The adjusted R(2) values of the two models were greater than 0.95, and the predicted R(2) values were greater than 0.93. The models may be useful for wastewater treatment companies to calculate PAC requirements in order to meet COD mass removal objectives in combined treatment.

  11. Microbial fuel cells for energy self-sufficient domestic wastewater treatment-a review and discussion from energetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Uzabiaga, Arnaud; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Byung-Hong; Ng, How Yong

    2011-01-01

    As the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is getting nearer to practical applications such as wastewater treatment, it is crucial to consider the different aspects that will make this technology viable in the future. In this paper, we provide information about the specifications of an energy self-sufficient MFC system as a basis to extrapolate on the potential benefits and limits of a future MFC-based wastewater treatment plant. We particularly emphasize on the importance of two crucial parameters that characterize an MFC: its electromotive force (E (emf)) and its internal resistance (R (int)). A numerical projection using state-of-art values (E (emf) = 0.8 V and R (int) = 5 Ω) emphasized on the difficulty at this moment to reach self-sufficiency using a reasonable number of MFCs at the laboratory scale. We found that a realistic number of MFCs to provide enough voltage (=5 V) at a sufficient current (=0.8 A) to power a pump requiring 4 W would be of 13 MFCs in series and 10 stacks of MFCs in parallel, resulting in a total number of 130 MFCs. That would result in a treatment capacity of 144 L of domestic wastewater (0.5 g-COD L(-1)) per day. The total MFC system would be characterized by an internal resistance of 6.5 Ω.

  12. Application of biochemical products as a bioremediation technique for domestic sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Salim, M R; Hassan, R Md; Tan, K Y

    2007-01-01

    Biochemical products have been widely used for treatment of various types of wastewater. The treatment processes with the addition of biochemical products are quite attractive because of their simplicity, minimal use of equipment, they are environmentally friendly and are suitable for the removal of organic pollutants. The purpose of these products is to enhance the activities of beneficial microbes in order to improve treatment performance. This study was carried out to determine the potential of applying biochemical products in assisting and improving the performance of sewage treatment plants. In this study, four biochemical products, namely: Zeolite, Bio-C, Eco-B and Was-D, were applied to the sewage treatment plant. Analyses were carried out on several water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), oil & grease (O&G), phosphorus (P), ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) and sludge thickness (ST). From the results obtained, it can be seen that the overall performance of the treatment plant improved with most of the parameters studied were found to fulfill the DOE Standard B requirements. The performance of Bio-C was found to give better results than other products.

  13. Military Personnel: Sustained Leadership and Oversight Needed to Improve DoD’s Prevention and Treatment of Domestic Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Manual 6400.1-M-1, Manual for Child Maltreatment and Domestic Abuse Incident Reporting System (July 15, 2005); and Department of Defense Manual 6400.1-M...of experiencing domestic abuse.30 In addition, according to the DOD Manual for Child Maltreatment and Domestic Abuse Incident Reporting System,31...Not everyone who is identified as “at risk” becomes involved in violence. 31 Department of Defense Manual 6400.1-M-1, Manual for Child Maltreatment

  14. A comparative study of five horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different plant species for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor Camacho, J; De Lucas Martínez, A; Gómez Gómez, R; Mena Sanz, J

    2007-12-01

    This project studied domestic wastewater treatment by horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands (CW) and compared the effect of four different plant species on the operating conditions, dissolved oxygen (DO), and redox potential (ORP), and their efficiency on pollutants removal. Five HSSF CWs were fed for 10 months with low loaded synthetic domestic wastewater, using theoretical hydraulic residence time of 7.6 days. The plant species under study were the following: Phragmites australis (CW1), Lythrum salicaria (CW3), Cladium mariscus (CW4) and Iris pseudacorus (CW5). CW2 was not planted and this was used as control. Qualitative measurements determined a greater growth of Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus than the others. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were very low in the entire bulk liquid of all the CWs. Also ORP values were very similar in all wetlands, dealing with facultative anaerobic environments. All planted wetlands improved pollutants removal compared with the unplanted control wetland. The performances in terms of COD, TN, TP and SO4(2-) removal obtained by the different CWs were in the ranges 80-90%, 35-55%, 15-40% and 45-60% respectively. Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus, which exhibited greater growth, were always the most efficient species that improved not only nutrients plant uptake but also other microbial removal processes probably due to a higher aeration potential, such as nitrification or aerobic respiration. Sulphate reduction was the most important mechanism for COD removal. Cladium mariscus, an autochthonous plant that grows in the south-central Iberian Peninsula, was less efficient than Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus, but improved the unplanted wetland wastewater efficiency.

  15. Environmental conditions and pathogen removal in macrophyte- and algal-based domestic wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Awuah, E; Anohene, F; Asante, K; Lubberding, H; Gijzen, H

    2001-01-01

    The environmental conditions and pathogen removal in macrophyte (Pistia stratiotes and Lemna paucicostata) and algal-based wastewater treatment systems were determined over a period of 29 days under tropical conditions. The experiment was conducted on a batch scale in 4.5 plastic containers immersed in moist sand beds. A control of raw sewage stored under dark conditions was included. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature DO and conductivity and heterotrophic and faecal enterococci populations were monitored five times a week at 8, 12 and 20 GMT. BOD was monitored once a week for five weeks. Average temperatures within the systems ranged between 28.3 degrees C in the control to 30.6 degrees C in the algal-based system. Low pH levels of pH of 4.5 and DO levels of 3 mg/L were recorded in the water lettuce treatment systems. High pH levels around 10.5 and DO levels of about 20 mg/L were observed in the algal-based system. The control and duckweed system remained neutral. All treatment systems performed equally well in pathogen removal and BOD reduction. The BOD decreased from 130 mg/L to 5.0, 7.5, 10 and 15 mg/L in the duckweed, water lettuce, control and algal based treatment systems respectively. The faecal enterococci population decreased from 1.18 x 10(5) /ml to values below 100/ml in all treatment systems.

  16. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  17. Domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the usefulness of white feminist domestic intervention to Aboriginal women who are victims of domestic violence. The discussion opens with a brief history of Aboriginal society before the age of colonization, followed by a summary of feminist intervention to fight domestic violence and the reactions of the Aboriginal women and communities towards this. It also presents a brief description of works conducted overseas where more appropriate frameworks are being used in intervening against domestic violence such as anti-racist social work. Towards the end, this paper explores some future possibilities for workers, in both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal societies.

  18. Comparative evaluation on the performance of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Valipour, A; Raman, V K; Badaliansgholikandi, G

    2012-10-01

    Constructed wetlands have been used successfully for treatment of wastewater during the last decades. The bio-rack and shallow pond systems are well engineered wetland process in wastewater treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the potential use of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment either in presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) or heavy metal salts. The sewage treatment performance indicates 75.15% & 80.93% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 86.59% & 90.90% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 27.54% & 15.98% total dissolved solids (TDS), 73.13% & 70.31% total suspended solids (TSS), 8.86% & 3.61% Chlorides, 70.22% & 74.18% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 31.71% & 41.24% phosphate (PO4-P), 92.11% & 96.45% most probable number (MPN) and 93.05% & 98.24% total viable count (TVC) reduction at 10 & 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. Likewise, the Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth can tolerate TDS up to 9000 and 2000 mg/L. The reduction in TDS is minor (14 & 19%) at the highest tolerable limit whereas the heavy metal reduction is 68 & 65%, 69 & 67%, 67 & 63%, 71 & 69% for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency in bio-rack system at low foot print area (91 m2) compared to shallow pond system.

  19. Performance and cost evaluation of constructed wetland for domestic waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Deeptha, V T; Sudarsan, J S; Baskar, G

    2015-09-01

    Root zone treatment through constructed wetlands is an engineered method of purifying wastewater. The aim of the present research was to study the potential of wetland plants Phragmites and Typha in treatment of wastewater and to compare the cost of constructed wetlands with that of conventional treatment systems. A pilot wetland unit of size 2x1x0.9 m was constructed in the campus. 3x3 rows of plants were transplanted into the pilot unit and subjected to wastewater from the hostels and other campus buildings. The raw wastewater and treated wastewater were collected periodically and tested for Total nitrogen (TN),Total Phosphorous (TP), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). It was observed that this pilot unit reduced the concentrations of TN, TP, BOD and COD by 76, 73, 83 and 86%, respectively, on an average. Root zone system achieved standards for tertiary treatment with low operating costs, low maintenance costs, enhance the landscape, provide a natural habitat for birds, and did not emit any odour.

  20. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  1. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  2. Powdered ZELIAC augmented sequencing batch reactors (SBR) process for co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mojiri, Amin; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Zaman, Nastaein Q; Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Zahed, Mohammad Ali

    2014-06-15

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is one of the various methods of biological treatments used for treating wastewater and landfill leachate. This study investigated the treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater by adding a new adsorbent (powdered ZELIAC; PZ) to the SBR technique. ZELIAC consists of zeolite, activated carbon, lime stone, rice husk ash, and Portland cement. The response surface methodology and central composite design were used to elucidate the nature of the response surface in the experimental design and describe the optimum conditions of the independent variables, including aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v), as well as their responses (dependent variables). Appropriate conditions of operating variables were also optimized to predict the best value of responses. To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, four dependent parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and phenols, were measured as responses. The results indicated that the PZ-SBR showed higher performance in removing certain pollutants compared with SBR. Given the optimal conditions of aeration rate (1.74 L/min), leachate to wastewater ratio (20%), and contact time (10.31 h) for the PZ-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, COD, and phenols were 84.11%, 99.01%, 72.84%, and 61.32%, respectively.

  3. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Jun; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-06-15

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1+/-43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6+/-15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 mug/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application.

  4. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  5. Domestic partner abuse treatment programs and cultural competence: the results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Williams, O J; Becker, R L

    1994-01-01

    Partner abuse literature reveals that treatment is less effective with minorities than with their white counterparts. Our survey of partner abuse programs (N = 142) indicates that, for the most part, little or no special effort is being made to understand or accommodate the needs of minority populations. This colorblind approach lacks the effectiveness of a culturally competent approach, which fosters an environment that helps minority groups succeed in treatment. Do partner abuse programs make efforts to be culturally competent? The major characteristics of an organizational transformation towards cultural competence occur when these programs do the following: (a) network with the minority community, (b) locate outside consultants with expertise in working with minority clients, (c) obtain information concerning service delivery and programming for minority clients, and (d) have at least one bilingual counselor. These four characteristics accounted for .58 of the variance in the minority-focused activities.

  6. Integrated coagulation-trickling filter-ultrafiltration processes for domestic wastewater treatment and reclamation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Liang; Zhong, Hui-Yuan; Liu, Jin-Li; Liu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    More and more research effort has been put into the development of affordable and high-efficiency wastewater reclamation technology for small communities. In this study, an integrated chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT), trickling filter (TF) and ultrafiltration (UF) process was developed with success. Coagulant produced from fly ash was used to enhance primary treatment, while trickling filter packed with coal cinder through four-layer structure without aeration was employed for further removal of COD and ammonium-nitrogen from the CEPT effluent. 95 and 88% removal of COD and ammonium were achieved, while total phosphorus (TP) and suspended solid (SS) were found to be removed completely at a coagulant dosage of 2.5 mL/L in the CEPT-TF-UF system. The product water can meet the standard of Reuse of Recycling Water for Urban Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption (GB/T 18920-2002, China).

  7. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    PubMed

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  8. The role of sand, marble chips and Typha latifolia in domestic wastewater treatment - a column study on constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadaverugu, Rakesh; Shingare, Rita P; Raghunathan, Karthik; Juwarkar, Asha A; Thawale, Prashant R; Singh, Sanjeev K

    2016-10-01

    The relative importance of sand, marble chips and wetland plant Typha latifolia is evaluated in constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of domestic wastewater intended for reuse in agriculture. The prototype CWs for the experiments are realized in polyvinyl chloride columns, which are grouped into four treatments, viz. sand (<2 mm) + Typha latifolia (cattail), sand, marble chips (5-20 mm) + cattail and marble chips. The removal percentage of organic and nutritional pollutants from the wastewater is measured at varying hydraulic retention time in the columns. The statistical analysis suggests that the main effects of sand and cattail are found to be significant (p < .05) for the removal of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand from the wastewater. The presence of cattail significantly (p < .01) contributes to the conversion of total nitrogen in wastewater into [Formula: see text] by fostering the growth of favorable microbes for the nitrification. The removal of [Formula: see text] and turbidity from the wastewater is significantly (p < .01) influenced by sand than the presence of cattail. The maximum [Formula: see text] adsorption capacity of the sand is estimated to be 2.5 mg/g. Marble chips have significantly (p < .01) influenced the removal of [Formula: see text]and its maximum removal capacity is estimated to be 9.3 mg/g. The negative correlation between the filter media biofilm and column hydraulic conductivity is also reported for all the treatments. Thus, the findings of this study elucidate the role of low-cost and easily available filter media and it will guide the environmental practitioners in designing cost-effective CWs for wastewater treatment.

  9. Constant rate infusion of glucagon as an emergency treatment for hypoglycemia in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Katarina R; Gaunt, M Casey; Parker, Dennilyn L

    2015-02-15

    A 3-year-old female domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with an insulinoma was treated because of a hypoglycemic crisis prior to scheduled pancreatectomy with concurrent nodulectomy. Previously, the ferret had clinical signs of lethargy and hind limb weakness; at that time, blood glucose concentration was low, and a tentative diagnosis (subsequently confirmed) of insulinoma was made. Prednisolone treatment (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) did not improve clinical signs; the dosage was gradually increased over a 1-month course (1.8 mg/kg [0.82 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) and maintained for 10 days. Overall, the treatment was ineffective, and the ferret remained lethargic and developed inappetence. At a reevaluation, the ferret had severe weakness and nonresponsiveness nearing a comatose state. Standard treatment with dextrose (1 mL of 50% solution, IV), and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC) was administered with resultant improvement in mentation. The ferret was discharged from the hospital and then returned 3 days later for stabilization prior to pancreatectomy with concurrent nodulectomy. The day before surgery, the ferret was administered a glucagon constant rate infusion at a rate of 15 ng/kg/min (6.8 ng/lb/min), which resulted in an increase in blood glucose concentration to a euglycemic state and resolution of clinical signs of hypoglycemia. As illustrated by the case described in this report, a glucagon constant rate infusion can be used successfully for the emergency treatment of hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic crisis in insulinomic ferrets.

  10. Volatile organic compound emissions during the composting of biosolids from a domestic wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C X; Estévez, S L; Giraldo, E

    2002-01-01

    VOCs emitted by two composting static piles of biosolids coming from the "El Salitre" wastewater treatment plant (Bogotá, Colombia) were analysed during the composting process. Each pile in its sampling time was maintained with a different aeration system. The sampling was made using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME); separation and identifications were made using Gas Chromatography (GC) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS). Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated compounds, ketones, mercaptans, alcohols and amines were identified in concentrations greater than the norms stipulated by the EPA for inhalation in humans beings. The emission behavior varied according to the aeration system used.

  11. Characterization and assessment of a large-scale domestic advanced wastewater treatment plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Oktay; Oğuz, Merve; Ozdemir, Ozgür

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents new studies about the removal efficiencies and characterization of the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWWTP) in Kayseri, Turkey, which is serving for 800,000 population equivalents with the capacity of 110,000 m(3)/day, between 2006 and 2009. Kayseri discharges its effluents to Karasu Creek that downstream joins the Kizilirmak river, the longest river in Turkey discharging into the Black Sea. Four years of operation data between 2006 and 2009 calendar years were obtained from KASKI General Directorate. Influent and effluent samples were collected daily and suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD(5)), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were measured, aiming to study the evolution of the removal efficiencies for each year. The following yearly mean removal efficiencies were performed in the treatment plant: 94%, 97%, 97%, 95% for SS; 94%, 96%, 95%, 95% for COD; 98%, 98%, 98%, 98% for BOD(5); 84%, 87%, 89%, 82% for TN; and 71%, 86%, 80%, 86% for TP, in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. The performance of Kayseri MWWTP was given both in terms of influent and effluent quality and in comparison with the current legislation on discharge limits to the receiving body. During the studied period, mean concentrations in the effluent did not exceed the imposed limits, but sometimes, higher values were noticed for SS, TN, and TP. In conclusion, the plant performances concerning these parameters were excellent and Kayseri MWWTP was operating efficiently according to the conventional control parameters.

  12. Effective carbon and nutrient treatment solutions for mixed domestic-industrial wastewater in India.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Badhe, N; Seuntjens, D; Vlaeminck, S E; Biswas, R; Nandy, T

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates effectiveness of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by two post-anaerobic treatment options, namely free-surface, up-flow constructed wetland (FUP-CW) and oxygen-limited anaerobic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) processes in treating sewage from the peri-urban areas in India receiving illegal industrial infiltrations. The UASB studies yielded robust results towards fluctuating strength of sewage and consistently removed 87-98% chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a hydraulic retention time of 1.5-2 d. The FUP-CW removed 68.5±13% COD, 68±3% NH4+-N, 38±5% PO4(3-)-P, 97.6±5% suspended particles and 97±13% fecal coliforms. Nutrient removal was found to be limiting in FUP-CW, especially in winter. Nitrogen removal in the OLAND process were 100 times higher than the FUP-CW process. Results show that UASB followed by FUP-CW can be an excellent, decentralized sewage treatment option, except during winter when nutrient removal is limited in FUP-CW. Hence, the study proposes bio-augmentation of FUP-CW with OLAND biomass for overall improvement in the performance of UASB followed by FUP-CW process.

  13. Cold climate performance analysis of on-site domestic wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Household on-site septic systems with secondary wastewater treatment in Anchorage, Alaska, were sampled and analyzed for performance parameters during the winter to spring months. System types included intermittent dosing sand filters (ISF), three types of recirculating trickling filters (RTF), and suspended-growth aeration tanks. Total nitrogen from the trickling filter and aeration tank effluent was fairly uniform, at approximately 30 mg/L. Total suspended solids (TSS) means were mostly less than 15 mg/L. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) showed considerable variability, with means ranging from 9.2 mg/ L for ISFs up to 39.5 mg/L for one type of RTF, even though this type has shown excellent results in several test programs. The data suggested that effluent temperature within the sample range had almost no effect on effluent concentrations of BOD5 or TSS and only a small effect on the removal of total nitrogen. Non-climatic factors were probably of equal importance to treatment results.

  14. Pilot-scale study of an anaerobic baffled reactor for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dama, P; Bell, J; Foxon, K M; Brouckaert, C J; Huang, T; Buckley, C A; Naidoo, V; Stuckey, D

    2002-01-01

    Large proportions of South Africans live in areas with inadequate sanitation and a poor infrastructure for waterborne sanitation. Service providers are looking for alternative wastewater treatment options. The anaerobic baffled reactor is being considered as a decentralised sanitation option in these areas. A 3,200 L reactor was built and is currently being evaluated at a wastewater treatment works. The reactor was built based on experiences gained from working with a laboratory reactor (10 L) and predicted flow patterns observed on a computational fluid dynamics model. The design and construction of the reactor will be discussed in this paper. The feed to the reactor consists of screen degritted sewage and the flow to the reactor is maintained by means of a programmable logic controller. The pilot-plant layout is discussed in this paper. Samples are analysed for chemical oxygen demand, pH, alkalinity, ammonia, phosphorus, solids and ash content. Reductions of between 70 and 80% are obtained for COD and the pH values for the effluent samples are within the discharge limits.

  15. [Evaluation of the treatment effectiveness of domestic G-SCF preparations in experiments on irradiated dogs].

    PubMed

    Rozhdestvenskiĭ, L M; Shliakova, T G; Shchegoleva, R A; Lisina, N I; Zorin, V V

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the treatment effectiveness of Leucostim and Neupomax in dogs exposed to radiation at lethal doses of 3 and 3.5 Gy, correspondingly, by testing the dynamics of the blood cell number, first of all, leucocytes and neutrophiles, and the 45-day survival. Supportive therapy for all the dogs, including the control ones, consisted in antibiotic treatment during the acute period of 7-24 days. It was shown that both pre-parations administered consecutively for about 17-21 days after irradiation positively influenced the dynamics of all blood cells but predominantly impacted the neutrophile number dynamics. The latter ones manifested a higher nadir level and an earlier onset of restoration in the G-SCF treated dogs in comparison with the control ones. The tendency to a positive influence on the survival has been shown in Neupomax-treated dogs exposed to 3.5 Gy of radiation (plus about 40%). The results of the experiments were in good accordance with the data by foreign authors who used Neupogen. This allows a conclusion that home-produced G-SCF preparations can replace their foreign analogues.

  16. Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Oyama, N; Nair, J; Ho, G E

    2005-01-01

    An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination. This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1) nutrient reduction 2) microbial reduction and 3) growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

  17. Pumice soil: a potential wetland substrate for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Njau, K N; Minja, R J A; Katima, J H Y

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory and fieldwork studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of pumice soil for use as a wetland substrate in wastewater treatment. The composition of pumice soil was analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Adsorption kinetic studies were carried out in a semi-batch recycle system. Fieldwork tests were carried out on Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (SSFCW) cells planted with Phragmites mauritianus and Vetiveria zizanioides. The results have shown that pumice soil composition contains among other elements Al, Ca, Fe and Mg, which are positive indicators for phosphorus adsorption. The main minerals observed by XRD were augite, hematite, and sodium titanium silicate. Phosphorus adsorption kinetics have shown that phosphorus is adsorbed on pumice soil following first order kinetics and the adsorption was highly influenced by mass transfer. Approximately 3% of the phosphorus was removed by plant uptake.

  18. High strength domestic wastewater treatment with submerged forward osmosis membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Bilal; Khan, Sher Jamal; Maqbool, Tahir; Hankins, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Forward osmosis membranes are less prone to fouling with high rejection of salts, and the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) can be considered as an innovative membrane technology for wastewater treatment. In this study, a submerged OMBR having a cellulose triacetate membrane, with the active layer facing the feed solution configuration, was operated at different organic loading rates (OLRs), i.e., 0.4, 1.2 and 2.0 kg-COD/(m(3)·d) with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 200 mg/L, 600 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L, respectively, to evaluate the performance on varying wastewater strengths. High organic content with sufficient amount of nutrients enhanced the biomass growth. High OLR caused more extrapolymeric substances production and less dewaterability. However, no significant differences in fouling trends and flux rates were observed among different OLR operational conditions.

  19. Spore-forming Serratia marcescens subsp. sakuensis subsp. nov., isolated from a domestic wastewater treatment tank.

    PubMed

    Ajithkumar, Bindu; Ajithkumar, Vasudevan P; Iriye, Ryozo; Doi, Yukio; Sakai, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    A strain (KREDT) that formed endospores and produced the pigment prodigiosin was isolated from activated sludge. The presence of spores in cells of strain KREDT was evident upon electron microscopy examination, heat treatment and the detection of dipicolinic acid in the cells. Biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence and DNA-DNA homology data identified strain KREDT as Serratia marcescens. The major respiratory quinone of strain KREDT was found to be ubiquinone Q-8. The formation of endospores by Gram-negative bacteria has not been observed previously, and has never been reported in any species of Serratia. Here, it is shown that strain KREDT (JCM 11315T = CIP 107489T) represents a novel subspecies of S. marcescens, for which the name Serratia marcescens subsp. sakuensis is proposed.

  20. Removal and transformation of organic matters in domestic wastewater during lab-scale chemically enhanced primary treatment and a trickling filter treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhong, Huiyuan; Wang, Kun; Wei, Liangliang; Liu, Jinli; Liu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    To find a simple and economical way for treating the domestic wastewater in small counties and towns, a process combining chemically enhanced primary treatment and a trickling filter (CEPT-TF, representing the physical and biological effects) was constructed and operated in laboratory conditions. The characteristic behaviors of dissolved organic matter in raw wastewater and effluents were examined during steady-state operation. Experimental results showed that the process of CEPT and TF in series was beneficial for the removal of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organics. Specially, the hydrophobic and aromatic materials could be preferentially removed in the CEPT unit, and the hydrophilic fraction in the TF. Structural changes of the organic fractions during the operation of the different units were also characterized via spectrum analysis.

  1. Performance of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland Using Typhalatifolia and Canna Lilies for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, Avinash N; Nema, P; Mhaisalkar, Vasant A

    2014-01-01

    Discharge of untreated wastewater or partially treated wastewater into surface water bodies or on to land is a major cause of surface and ground water pollution thereby posing health hazards. Conventional wastewater treatment is generally not preferred for small communities due to higher capital and maintenance costs and lack of skilled supervision required for operation and maintenance. A constructed wetland treatment appears to be an appropriate alternative that can be employed both in developed and developing countries. A constructed wetland system is simple to construct and operate with low cost, and hence worth considering for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, especially from small communities. In this context, the site for carrying out the studies related to wastewater treatment was chosen at Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science (KITS), Ramtek, Dist. Nagpur. A Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland (FWSCW) of size 22.00m x 6.50 m x 0.60m was constructed at KITS, Ramtek. The performance of FWS CW system was studied for domestic wastewater treatment with theoretical hydraulic retention times of 10 days, 7 days and 5 days. Important parameters, such as BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4-N, PO4-P, DO, pH and faecal coliforms in both raw and treated wastewaters were monitored during a macrophytes life cycle. Based on the studies, it is concluded that minimum 5 days HRT is necessary for the treatment of wastewater in FWSCW using Typhalatifolia or Canna Lilies. Typhalatifolia is better in removal of pollutants from the wastewater in comparison to Canna Lilies and hence, is recommended for use in constructed wetland. The nutrient uptake capacity of Typhalatifolia is also quite encouraging and hence has great potential for application in treating wastewater from fertilizer industry. During the application of kinetic model, the observed and predicted values in respect of BOD, TSS and NH4-N in case of Typhalatifolia and BOD, COD and TSS in case of Canna Lilies were

  2. Modeling phosphate transport and removal in a compact bed filled with a mineral-based sorbent for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Inga; Jourak, Amir; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hedström, Annelie; Lundström, T Staffan; Viklander, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Phosphorus filter units containing mineral-based sorbents with a high phosphate (PO4) binding capacity have been shown to be appropriate for removing PO4 in the treatment of domestic wastewater in on-site facilities. However, a better understanding of their PO4 removal mechanisms, and reactions that could lead to the formation of PO4 compounds, is required to evaluate the potential utility of candidate sorbents. Models based on data obtained from laboratory-scale experiments with columns of selected materials can be valuable for acquiring such understanding. Thus, in this study the transport and removal of PO4 in experiments with a laboratory-scale column filled with a commercial silicate-based sorbent were modeled, using the hydro-geochemical transport code PHREEQC. The resulting models, that incorporated the dissolution of calcite, kinetic constrains for the dissolution of calcium oxide (CaO) and wollastonite (CaSiO3), and the precipitation of amorphous tricalcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, successfully simulated the removal of PO4 observed in the experiments. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling phosphate transport and removal in a compact bed filled with a mineral-based sorbent for domestic wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Inga; Jourak, Amir; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hedström, Annelie; Lundström, T. Staffan; Viklander, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Phosphorus filter units containing mineral-based sorbents with a high phosphate (PO4) binding capacity have been shown to be appropriate for removing PO4 in the treatment of domestic wastewater in on-site facilities. However, a better understanding of their PO4 removal mechanisms, and reactions that could lead to the formation of PO4 compounds, is required to evaluate the potential utility of candidate sorbents. Models based on data obtained from laboratory-scale experiments with columns of selected materials can be valuable for acquiring such understanding. Thus, in this study the transport and removal of PO4 in experiments with a laboratory-scale column filled with a commercial silicate-based sorbent were modeled, using the hydro-geochemical transport code PHREEQC. The resulting models, that incorporated the dissolution of calcite, kinetic constrains for the dissolution of calcium oxide (CaO) and wollastonite (CaSiO3), and the precipitation of amorphous tricalcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, successfully simulated the removal of PO4 observed in the experiments.

  4. An atomic force microscopy study on fouling characteristics of modified PES membrane in submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuo; Han, Hongjun; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Baozhen

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the fouling characteristics of modified PES membrane in submerged Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for domestic wastewater treatment, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) study was conducted to analyze the microstructure characteristics of PES membrane. Surface roughness and section analysis of both virgin and fouled membrane were achieved by software of NanoScope 6.12. Compared to the virgin membrane, the average roughness (Ra), square average roughness (Rms) and ten points average roughness (Rz) of fouled membrane were increased by 100.6nm, 133.7nm and 330.7nm respectively. The section analysis results indicated that the cake layer formed and membrane pore blocked were the main causes for the increase of TMP. Micro-filtration resistance analysis was conducted to support the results of AFM analysis. It is showed that membrane resistance, cake resistance, pore blocking and irreversible fouling resistance is 0.755, 1.721 and 1.386 respectively, which contributed 20%, 44%, and 36%, respectively, to total resistance of submerged MBR (at MLSS 6000mg/L and flux 21.9L/m2Â.h). The results proved that AFM could be used to properly describe the fouling characteristics of modified PES membrane in submerged MBR through roughness and section analysis.

  5. Modified septic tank-anaerobic filter unit as a two-stage onsite domestic wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the performance evaluation of a uniquely designed two-stage system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic bioreactors, a modified septic tank followed by an upflow anaerobic filter, accommodated within a single cylindrical unit. The system was started up without inoculation at 24 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). It achieved a steady-state condition after 120 days. The system was observed to be remarkably efficient in removing pollutants during steady-state condition with the average removal efficiency of 88.6 +/- 3.7% for chemical oxygen demand, 86.3 +/- 4.9% for biochemical oxygen demand and 91.2 +/- 9.7% for total suspended solids. The microbial analysis revealed a high reduction (>90%) capacity of the system for indicator organism and pathogens. It also showed a very good endurance against imposed hydraulic shock load. Tracer study showed that the flow pattern was close to plug flow reactor. Mean HRT was also found to be close to the designed value.

  6. Occurrence and transport of pharmaceuticals in a karst groundwater system affected by domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2010-09-20

    The occurrence of two pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and diclofenac, in a vulnerable karst groundwater system was investigated. The hydrogeology of the karst system was identified by collecting (3)H samples in groundwater over 27years and by performing tracer tests. The isotopes and tracer data were interpreted by mathematical modeling to estimate the mean transit time of water and to characterize the hydrogeological flow paths in the groundwater system. By this approach, a mean (3)H transit time of 4.6 years for the fissured-porous karst aquifer was determined, whereas the fast flowing water in the conduit system showed a mean transit time of days. Both pharmaceuticals which infiltrated along sinkholes and small streams into the karst system were detected in concentrations of up to approximately 1 microg/L in effluent water of the wastewater treatment plants. Diclofenac was present in most samples collected from four springs discharging the karst groundwater to the rivers Altmühl and Anlauter in concentrations between 3.6 and 15.4 ng/L. In contrast, ibuprofen was rarely detected in groundwater. The results of this study suggest that both pharmaceuticals move into the fractured system of the karst system and go into storage. Thus dilution processes are the dominant control on the concentrations of both pharmaceuticals in the fractured system, whereas biodegradation is likely less important. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. COD capture: a feasible option towards energy self-sufficient domestic wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Junfeng; Gu, Jun; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Although the activated sludge process, one of the most remarkable engineering inventions in the 20th century, has made significant contribution to wastewater reclamation in the past 100 years, its high energy consumption is posing a serious impact and challenge on the current wastewater industry worldwide and is also inevitably linked to the issue of global climate change. In this study, we argued that substantial improvement in the energy efficiency might be no longer achievable through further optimization of the activated sludge process. Instead, we should devote more effort to the development or the adoption of novel treatment configurations and emerging technologies. Of which an example is A-B process which can significantly improve the energy recovery potential at A-stage, while markedly reduces energy consumption at B-stage. Various configurations of A-B process with energy analysis are thus discussed. It appears highly possible to achieve an overall energy gain in WWTPs with A-B process as a core. PMID:27121339

  8. COD capture: a feasible option towards energy self-sufficient domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wan, Junfeng; Gu, Jun; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-04-28

    Although the activated sludge process, one of the most remarkable engineering inventions in the 20(th) century, has made significant contribution to wastewater reclamation in the past 100 years, its high energy consumption is posing a serious impact and challenge on the current wastewater industry worldwide and is also inevitably linked to the issue of global climate change. In this study, we argued that substantial improvement in the energy efficiency might be no longer achievable through further optimization of the activated sludge process. Instead, we should devote more effort to the development or the adoption of novel treatment configurations and emerging technologies. Of which an example is A-B process which can significantly improve the energy recovery potential at A-stage, while markedly reduces energy consumption at B-stage. Various configurations of A-B process with energy analysis are thus discussed. It appears highly possible to achieve an overall energy gain in WWTPs with A-B process as a core.

  9. COD capture: a feasible option towards energy self-sufficient domestic wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Junfeng; Gu, Jun; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Although the activated sludge process, one of the most remarkable engineering inventions in the 20th century, has made significant contribution to wastewater reclamation in the past 100 years, its high energy consumption is posing a serious impact and challenge on the current wastewater industry worldwide and is also inevitably linked to the issue of global climate change. In this study, we argued that substantial improvement in the energy efficiency might be no longer achievable through further optimization of the activated sludge process. Instead, we should devote more effort to the development or the adoption of novel treatment configurations and emerging technologies. Of which an example is A-B process which can significantly improve the energy recovery potential at A-stage, while markedly reduces energy consumption at B-stage. Various configurations of A-B process with energy analysis are thus discussed. It appears highly possible to achieve an overall energy gain in WWTPs with A-B process as a core.

  10. Occurrence and transport of pharmaceuticals in a karst groundwater system affected by domestic wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of two pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and diclofenac, in a vulnerable karst groundwater system was investigated. The hydrogeology of the karst system was identified by collecting 3H samples in groundwater over 27 years and by performing tracer tests. The isotopes and tracer data were interpreted by mathematical modeling to estimate the mean transit time of water and to characterize the hydrogeological flow paths in the groundwater system. By this approach, a mean 3H transit time of 4.6 years for the fissured-porous karst aquifer was determined, whereas the fast flowing water in the conduit system showed a mean transit time of days. Both pharmaceuticals which infiltrated along sinkholes and small streams into the karst system were detected in concentrations of up to approximately 1 μg/L in effluent water of the wastewater treatment plants. Diclofenac was present in most samples collected from four springs discharging the karst groundwater to the rivers Altmühl and Anlauter in concentrations between 3.6 and 15.4 ng/L. In contrast, ibuprofen was rarely detected in groundwater. The results of this study suggest that both pharmaceuticals move into the fractured system of the karst system and go into storage. Thus dilution processes are the dominant control on the concentrations of both pharmaceuticals in the fractured system, whereas biodegradation is likely less important.

  11. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia.

    PubMed

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T; Fox, LeAnne M; Cetron, Martin S; Stauffer, William M

    2016-08-01

    Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) "No Program," 2) U.S. "Domestic Screening and Treatment," 3) "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" presumptive treatment, and 4) "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides". Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The "No Program" option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" option ($418,824) is less expensive than "Domestic Screening and Treatment" ($3,832,572) or "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides" ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin," which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to "No Program". Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost-effective intervention that is less expensive and at least as effective as domestic

  12. "Domestic violence".

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joy Newman

    2002-01-01

    Domestic violence is no respector of persons but may involve spouses or cohabiting adults across all socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious groups. It is no respect or of community. The abuse can be physical, sexual, or emotional/psychological. It can be economic and be demonstrated by neglect. Nursing care for the problem of domestic abuse needs to be directed at primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Care for victims and victimizers of domestic violence involves a collaborative relationship with other professionals as well as interagency cross referrals that involve health, welfare, refuge, and judicial protective services.

  13. Performance evaluation of an UASB reactor used for combined treatment of domestic sewage and excess aerobic sludge from a trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Pontes, P P; Chernicharo, C A L; Frade, E C; Porto, M T R

    2003-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of the excess sludge produced in a trickling filter (TF) on the performance of a UASB reactor used for the combined treatment of domestic sewage and aerobic sludge. During phase 1 of the research, the UASB reactor/TF system was fed with domestic sewage pumped directly from the sewer collector of Arrudas stream, in Belo Horizonte-Brazil. During phase 2, besides feeding the reactor with domestic sewage, the UASB reactor was also fed with the aerobic sludge from the trickling filter. The UASB reactor, with a volume of 420 litres, was operated at a mean hydraulic detention time of 5.6 hours in both operational phases. After 133 days of continuous monitoring, no detrimental effect was noticed on the performance of the UASB reactor regarding the return of the aerobic sludge produced in the TF. On the contrary, the COD results indicated a higher percentage of compliance with the discharge standards set forth by the Brazilian environmental legislation. During phase 2 of the research, when the UASB reactor was used for combined treatment of domestic sewage and excess aerobic sludge from the TF, the anaerobic effluent presented mean concentrations of 108 mgCOD x L(-1), 57 mgBOD x L(-1) and 18 mgTSS x L(-1).

  14. Bacteria in non-woven textile filters for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spychała, Marcin; Starzyk, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary identification of heterotrophic and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) cell concentration in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for wastewater treatment. Filters of thicknesses 3.6 and 7.2 mm, made of non-woven textile TS20, were supplied with septic tank effluent and intermittently dosed and filtered under hydrostatic pressure. The cumulative loads of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids were about 1.36 and 1.06 kg/cm2, respectively. The filters under analysis reached a relatively high removal efficiency for organic pollution 70-90% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and 60-85% for COD. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency level proved to be unstable (15-55%). Biomass samples for dry mass identification were taken from two regions: continuously flooded with wastewater and intermittently flooded with wastewater. The culturable heterotrophic bacteria were determined as colony-forming units (CFUs) on microbiological-selective media by means of the plate method. AOB and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were examined using the FISH technique. A relatively wide range of heterotrophic bacteria was observed from 7.4×10(5)/cm2 to 3.8×10(6)/cm2 in geotextile layers. The highest concentration of heterotrophic bacteria (3.8×10(6)/cm2) was observed in the first layer of the textile filter. AOB were identified occasionally--about 8-15% of all bacteria colonizing the last filter layer, but occasionally much higher concentrations and ammonia nitrogen efficiency were achieved. Bacteria oxidizing nitrite to nitrate were not observed. The relation of total and organic fraction of biomass to culturable heterotrophic bacteria was also found.

  15. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S.; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Cetron, Martin S.; Stauffer, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. Methods An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) “No Program,” 2) U.S. “Domestic Screening and Treatment,” 3) “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” presumptive treatment, and 4) “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides”. Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The “No Program” option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” option ($418,824) is less expensive than “Domestic Screening and Treatment” ($3,832,572) or “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides” ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin,” which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to “No Program”. Discussion Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost

  16. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  17. Studies of filter media for zero-discharge systems collecting light greywater.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Fernando Silva; de Oliveira Diniz, Renata Cortes; Araújo, Juliana Calábria; Paulo, Paula Loureiro

    2017-09-01

    Zero-discharge constructed wetland environments are more prone to the accumulation of pollutants. The relationship between filter media and microbial communities in this type of environment is still poorly known. We conducted bench-scale studies of different filter media (polyurethane foam, blast-furnace slag, and loofah) in these systems by simulating the batch operation with light greywater for 433 days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses (scanning electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction electrophoresis denaturing gradient gel) were used. In all systems, anoxic environments prevailed. These environments were crucial for methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis processes, which are primarily responsible for organic material conversion. The chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio was the limiting factor in the competition of microorganisms involved in these processes. This condition, combined with the neutral-alkaline pH, also allowed Chloroflexi phylum bacteria to oxidize sulfide to sulfate and elemental sulfur in all studied media. The results showed strong evidence supporting that the microbial community formed in the present study is more related to operational/environmental conditions than to the different tested filter media. Thus, this demonstrates that the control of interactive effects between pH, redox potential, and the COD/SO4(2-) ratio can prevent the accumulation and/or release of sulfide in anoxic environments.

  18. New process for alleviation of membrane fouling of modified hybrid MBR system for advanced domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuo, Liu; Baozhen, Wang; Hongjun, Han; Yanping, Liu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale hybrid membrane bioreactor using a submerged flat panel membrane was designed and applied for advanced treatment of domestic wastewater. The new process adapted to the hybrid membrane bioreactor exhibits substantial decrease in membrane fouling and much easier cleaning. In this study, the new process configurations including the addition of anoxic/anaerobic zones, the package of synthetic fibrous fabric carrier for biofilm attached growth, activated sludge recycling and modified dosage of polished diatomite with high activity and multi-functions were investigated to select the optimal operational parameters for the hybrid membrane bioreactor system. The carrier package in the aerobic zone contributed 3.65 g/L (maximum) of fixed biomass to the system, thus reducing the suspended biomass, and has decreased the membrane cleaning cycle remarkably. The operation performance at the sludge recycle rate 0, 100%, 200% and 300% showed that, the trans-membrane pressure of flat panel membrane declined sharply with the increase of sludge recycling rate within a certain range, and 200% was decided to be optimal for in the membrane bioreactor system. EPS concentration in each sludge recycling rate was 135 mg/L, 92 mg/L, 68 mg/L and 55 mg/L respectively. The addition of anoxic and anaerobic zones degraded some large molecular organic compounds, which facilitated the biodegradation and removal of organic substances in aerobic zone. The modified dosage of polished diatomite has played a major important role for both preventing of membrane from fouling and its much easier cleaning when it formed. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. Precipitation of Phosphate Minerals by Microorganisms Isolated from a Fixed-Biofilm Reactor Used for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Martin-Ramos, Daniel; Martinez-Toledo, Maria Victoria; Rivadeneyra, Maria Angustias

    2014-01-01

    The ability of bacteria isolated from a fixed-film bioreactor to precipitate phosphate crystals for the treatment of domestic wastewater in both artificial and natural media was studied. When this was demonstrated in artificial solid media for crystal formation, precipitation took place rapidly, and crystal formation began 3 days after inoculation. The percentage of phosphate-forming bacteria was slightly higher than 75%. Twelve major colonies with phosphate precipitation capacity were the dominant heterotrophic platable bacteria growing aerobically in artificial media. According to their taxonomic affiliations (based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA), the 12 strains belonged to the following genera of Gram-negative bacteria: Rhodobacter, Pseudoxanthobacter, Escherichia, Alcaligenes, Roseobacter, Ochrobactrum, Agromyce, Sphingomonas and Paracoccus. The phylogenetic tree shows that most of the identified populations were evolutionarily related to the Alphaproteobacteria (91.66% of sequences). The minerals formed were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). All of these strains formed phosphate crystals and precipitated struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O), bobierrite [Mg3(PO4)2·8H2O] and baricite [(MgFe)3(PO4)2·8H2O]. The results obtained in this study show that struvite and spherulite crystals did not show any cell marks. Moreover, phosphate precipitation was observed in the bacterial mass but also near the colonies. Our results suggest that the microbial population contributed to phosphate precipitation by changing the media as a consequence of their metabolic activity. Moreover, the results of this research suggest that bacteria play an active role in the mineral precipitation of soluble phosphate from urban wastewater in submerged fixed-film bioreactors. PMID:24699031

  20. [Effects of temperature on combined process of ABR and MBR for domestic sewage treatment and analysis of microbial community].

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Lu, Shuang-jun; Xu, Yue-zhong; Liu, Jie; Shen, Yao-liang

    2014-09-01

    Effects of temperature on the combined process of ABR and MBR ( CAMBR) for domestic sewage treatment were investigated and the changes in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique. The HRT, recycle ratio 1, recycle ratio 2, pH and DO were 7.5 h, 200% , 50%, 6.5~8.5 and 3 mg.L-1, respectively. The temperature were controlled at three gradients: middle (25°C ±5°C ), low (10°C±5°C) and high (35°C±5°C ). The results showed that the change of temperature had little influence on COD removal, and the CAMBR in stable state showed good performance in COD removal. In addition, the CAMBR achieved good effluent quality in middle or high temperature environment, and the average TN removal efficiency was 70% with an effluent TN of 9 mg L-1, and the average TP removal efficiency was 73% with the effluent TP below 0. 8 mg L-1. For the process operated in low temperature environment, the average TN removal efficiency was only 57% with an effluent TN of 15 mg L-1, and the average TP removal efficiency was decreased to 67% with an effluent TP of 1 mg.L-1. DGGE analysis indicated that throughout the process, the microbial population within the system maintained its diversity in distribution, while the dominant flora was prominent. During the same period, microbial populations in each compartment were similar. However, the structure of microbial community had significant differences between the ABR and the MBR due to the change of microenvironment in each compartment. Thus, the contributions of the ABR and the MBR were intensified, guaranteeing the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the system.

  1. Effect of C/N ratios on the performance of earthworm eco-filter for treatment of synthetics domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Jun; Yan, Cheng; Li, Yin-Liang; Li, Ji-Hua; Yang, Mo; Nie, Er; Zheng, Zheng; Luo, Xing-Zhang

    2012-11-01

    The performances of filter systems that use earthworms and plants, combined with earthworm eco-filter (EE) systems in treating synthetic domestic sewage (SDS) with different C/N ratios, were investigated for a 9-month period. The effects of the combination of filters, earthworms, plants, as well as the combination of earthworms and plants on SDS nutrient removal efficiency were separately investigated to select the optimum system for treating SDS. The results of the current study could be used to determine how treatment performance responds to different C/N ratios and to explain and predict the performance of an operating EE system. EE systems with earthworms and plants (EP groups) consistently performed better than the other types of systems (CK, E, and P; that is, without earthworms and without plants, with earthworms and without plants, and without earthworms and with plants, respectively) under all C/N ratios. The highest removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon were achieved under C/N ratios of 6:1, 6:1, 6:1, and 9:1, respectively. The optimum nutrient removal efficiency was achieved at C/N = 6, and the contribution order for nutrient removal was EP > P > E > CK. Influent C/N ratios, the time of year, and the synergetic effects of earthworm behavior and microorganisms significantly affected nutrient removal efficiencies. Considering the removal of all nutrients, EE systems with plants and earthworms achieved optimum removal effects in July when the influent C/N ratio was controlled at 6. Appropriate control of carbon and nitrogen source concentrations permitted the achievement of optimal nutrient removal effects.

  2. Vertical flow-constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment under tropical conditions: effect of different design and operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the treatment of domestic wastewater to find the optimum vertical flow-constructed wetland (VFCW) configuration under tropical conditions. Eight pilot-scale configurations units were studied to compare between fine sand and medium gravel used as substrate, two feeding frequencies (20 pulses d(-1) and 10 pulses d(-1)), and the presence or absence of tropical plants (Heliconia psittacorum). The results showed that the sand beds were significantly more efficient in the removal of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, and total suspended solids than gravel beds, presenting average removal rates of 48 and 24 g m(-2) d(-1) of COD; 35 and 16 g m(-2) d(-1) of BOD5; 7 and 4 g m(-2) d(-1) of [Formula: see text]; 9 and 0 g m(-2) d(-1) for sand and gravel, respectively. The oxygen consumption rates were calculated and a value of 65 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained for sand beds while for the gravel beds the consumption rate was 30 g m(-2 )d(-1). The assessment of different kinds of nitrogen showed interesting dynamics in the nitrification processes. The presence of H. psittacorum showed positive effects in the total nitrogen (TN) removal. The different loading frequencies applied did not show significant statistical differences in the removal of the tested contaminants. Preliminary results were found in the pathogen removal, where the sand is favorable as the substrate. This work represents the first step in the research of optimum VFWC design and operation parameters for Colombia as well as the use of plants of the genus Heliconia.

  3. Response of microbial community structure to pre-acclimation strategies in microbial fuel cells for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Younghyun; Cho, Hyunwoo; Yu, Jaechul; Min, Booki; Kim, Hong Suck; Kim, Byung Goon; Lee, Taeho

    2017-02-27

    Microbial community structures and performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with activated sludge from domestic wastewater were investigated to evaluate the effects of three substrate pre-acclimation strategies: 1, serial pre-acclimation with acetate and glucose before supplying domestic wastewater; 2, one step pre-acclimation with acetate before supplying domestic wastewater; and 3, direct supply of domestic wastewater without any pre-acclimation. Strategy 1 showed much higher current generation (1.4mA) and Coulombic efficiency (33.5%) than strategies 2 (0.7mA and 9.4%) and 3 (0.9mA and 10.3%). Pyrosequencing showed that microbial communities were significantly affected by pre-acclimation strategy. Although Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum with all strategies, Actinobacteria was abundant when MFCs were pre-acclimated with glucose after acetate. Not only anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) in the genus Geobacter but also non-ARB belonging to the family Anaerolinaceae seemed to play important roles in air-cathode MFCs to produce electricity from domestic wastewater.

  4. Risk-based enteric pathogen reduction targets for non-potable and direct potable use of roof runoff, stormwater, and greywater

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents risk-based enteric pathogen log reduction targets for non-potable and potable uses of a variety of alternative source waters (i.e., locally-collected greywater, roof runoff, and stormwater). A probabilistic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) was use...

  5. Accumulation of oil and grease in soils irrigated with greywater and their potential role in soil water repellency.

    PubMed

    Travis, Micheal J; Weisbrod, Noam; Gross, Amit

    2008-05-01

    The potential impact of oil and grease (O and G) to soils irrigated with greywater (GW) was investigated. Greywater streams were sampled and analyzed for O and G content, along with corresponding GW-irrigated soils. Untreated kitchen GW averaged 200 mg L(-1) O and G, over an order of magnitude more than other GW streams. GW-irrigated soils showed O and G accumulation of up to 200 mg kg(-l) within the first 20-cm of depth. To determine the potential effects of such O and G accumulation on water movement in soil, capillary rise and water drop penetration time (WDPT) experiments were conducted. The results showed up to 60% decrease in capillary rise when sand containing 250 mg kg(-1) O and G was used. Interestingly, no additional reduction in capillary rise was observed at concentrations above 250 mg kg(-1). WDPT was observed to increase linearly with increased O and G content, up to 1000 mg kg(-1). This work demonstrated that O and G in GW used for irrigation can accumulate in soil and may lead to a significant reduction in the soils ability to transmit water.

  6. Inorganic greywater matrix impact on photocatalytic oxidation: does flocculation of TiO2 nanoparticles impair process efficiency?

    PubMed

    Armanious, A; Ozkan, A; Sohmen, U; Gulyas, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to clarify whether photocatalyst flocculation--as observed in biologically pretreated greywater--contributes to photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) efficiency impairment. Aqueous solutions of tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether spiked with different inorganic salts in concentrations as found in biologically treated greywater were investigated with respect to TiO2 flocculation and PCO mineralisation kinetics. Flocculation of the photocatalyst primarily depended on pH (which was affected by the salts) and how close pH was to the point of zero charge (PZC). Photocatalyst agglomeration was maximum at pH 5.5. With salt concentrations >7 mmol L(-1), flocculation was strong even at pH far above PZC due to electric double layer compression. PCO rate constants were not unequivocally related to flocculation. Increasing pH was observed as the clearest factor deteriorating PCO efficiency. This was interpreted to result from impaired adsorbability of negatively charged oxidation intermediates as well as from enhanced CO2 absorption with increasing pH and subsequent formation of HCO3(-) anions which are OH radical scavengers.

  7. Treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature in a two-anaerobic step system followed by a trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, T A; van Lier, J; Zeeman, G; Lettinga, G

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature was studied in a two-anaerobic-step system followed by an aerobic step, consisting of an anaerobic filter (AF) + an anaerobic hybrid (AH) + polyurethane-foam trickling filter (PTF). The AF+AH system was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3+6 h at a controlled temperature of 13 degrees C, while the PTF was operated without wastewater recirculation at different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 41, 15.4 and 2.6 m3/m2/d at ambient temperature (ca. 15-18 degrees C). The AF reactor removed the major part of the total and suspended COD, viz. 46 and 58% respectively. The AH reactor with granular sludge was efficient in the removal and conversion of the anaerobically biodegradable COD. The AF+AH system removed 63% of total COD and converted 46% of the influent total COD to methane. At a HLR of 41 m3/m2/d, the COD removal was limited in the PTF, while at HLR of 15.4 and 2.6 m3/m2/d, a high total COD removal of 54-57% was achieved without a significant difference between the two HLRs. The PTF was mainly efficient in the removal of particles (suspended and colloidal COD removal were 75-90% and 75-83% respectively), which were not removed in the anaerobic two-step. The overall total COD removal in the AF+AH+PTF system was 85%. Decreasing the HLR from 15.4 to 2.6 m3/m2/d, only increased the nitrification rate efficiency in the PTF from 22% to 60%. Also, at HLR of 15.4 and 2.6 m3/m2/d, PTF showed a similar removal for E. coli by about 2 log. Therefore, the effluent of AF+AH+PTF system can be utilised for restricted irrigation in order to close water and nutrients cycles. Moreover, such a system represents a high-load and a low-cost technology, which is a suitable solution for developing countries.

  8. Requirements and test methods for on site domestic wastewater treatment plants: the European standard (prEN 12566-3) compared to other international standards.

    PubMed

    Nonet, S

    2005-01-01

    To ensure that domestic wastewater treatment plants run in an efficient and reliable way, certifications already exist while others will be implemented soon. To date, we have listed eight standards: four from European countries (Germany, Great Britain, The Netherlands and Norway), one project from the European Union, two from North America (USA and Quebec) and one from Australia and New Zealand together. The European procedure includes verification of structure stability, water tightness and treatment capacity at test centre (38 weeks). The American Standard sets minimal standards for materials, dimensioning, building and performances of the plants. It also highlights the information and minimum service that should be provided by the manufacturer and distributors. The review process relating to treatment performances shares major similarities with the EU project since both documents were elaborated almost simultaneously. Australia and New Zealand have adopted a series entitled On-site Domestic Wastewater Treatment Units made up of three parts. The third one integrates construction requirements and describes quite an interesting procedure to efficiently test the small plant: after approximately 13 weeks of testing (half the total duration), the aeration chamber (provided it exists) is filled with sludge from septic tanks to simulate its operation after several years. Overview of the treatment efficiency test procedures of the three main standards is given.

  9. Domestic violence in America.

    PubMed

    Bash, K L; Jones, F

    1994-09-01

    Domestic violence is an underrecognized problem of immense cost. It is a crime; its victims must be identified and protected. The medical and judicial communities share responsibility in addressing this issue and providing support for victims. The role of health care workers in recognizing and preventing domestic violence cannot be overestimated. Direct questioning of patients, especially about the source of any injuries and about safety at home, is the first step in uncovering abuse. Educational programs for health care providers and the general public can change society's view and tolerance of this problem. Physicians must take an active role in changing community attitudes about domestic violence and in instituting programs to reduce its incidence. Medical treatment of the injuries resulting from domestic violence is not sufficient. Abused women need the care of a team of professionals who can address psychological, emotional, and physical injuries. They must also be provided with safe housing and financial and legal assistance in order to escape the abusive relationship. Physicians and legislators must work together to effect change. Domestic violence is a public health menace. We need to break the cycle of abuse that has become an integral part of our society.

  10. Evaluation of the process performance of a down-flow hanging sponge reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Yuma; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Banjongproo, Pathan; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Onodera, Takashi; Okadera, Tomohiro; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2017-08-24

    This study assesses the performance of an aerobic trickling filter, down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor, as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology. Also, the characteristic eukaryotic community structure in DHS reactor was investigated. Long-term operation of a DHS reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater (COD = 150-170 mg/L and BOD = 60-90 mg/L) was performed under the average ambient temperature ranged from 28°C to 31°C in Bangkok, Thailand. Throughout the evaluation period of 550 days, the DHS reactor at a hydraulic retention time of 3 h showed better performance than the existing oxidation ditch process in the removal of organic carbon (COD removal rate = 80-83% and BOD removal rate = 91%), nitrogen compounds (total nitrogen removal rate = 45-51% and NH4(+)-N removal rate = 95-98%), and low excess sludge production (0.04 gTS/gCOD removed). The clone library based on the 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence revealed that phylogenetic diversity of 18S rRNA gene in the DHS reactor was higher than that of the present oxidation ditch process. Furthermore, the DHS reactor also demonstrated sufficient COD and NH4(+)-N removal efficiency under flow rate fluctuation conditions that simulates a small-scale treatment facility. The results show that a DHS reactor could be applied as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology in tropical regions such as Bangkok, Thailand.

  11. Optimizing COD removal from greywater by photoelectro-persulfate process using Box-Behnken design: assessment of effluent quality and electrical energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ghanbari, Farshid

    2016-10-01

    Greywater (GW) is a potential source for water reuse in various applications. However, GW treatment is still a vital issue in water reuse in cases of environmental standards and risk to public health. This study investigates optimization and modeling of a hybrid process for COD removal from GW. Persulfate (PS) was simultaneously activated by electrogenerated ferrous ion (EC) and UV to generate sulfate radical. Photoelectro-persulfate (PEPS) was optimized by Box-Behnken design and the effects of four variables (pH, PS dosage, current density, and electrolysis time) were evaluated on COD removal. The results and several coefficients showed that the obtained model was acceptable for predicting the COD removal. Moreover, under optimum conditions (pH = 6.9, PS = 8.8 mM, current density = 2.0 mA/cm(2), and 49.3 min electrolysis time), BOD5, turbidity, TSS, phosphate, and UV254 were effectively removed and COD and BOD5 values reached to discharge standards. Different configurations of the processes were assessed for COD removal. The order of COD removal efficiency followed: PS < Fe(II) < UV/PS ≤ Fe(II)/PS < Fe(II)/PS/UV < electrocoagulation ≤ electrocoagulation/UV < electro-PS < PEPS. The monitoring PS concentration during 60 min reaction time in the aforesaid processes indicated that PEPS could remarkably activate PS. The solution pH was also monitored and related results revealed that the presence of PS during the 10 min first time decreased pH value while production of hydroxide ion at cathode increased pH significantly. Finally, the contribution of electrochemical process in the electrical energy consumption was far less than that of photolysis process in hybrid PEPS process.

  12. Electricity generation and microbial community in a submerged-exchangeable microbial fuel cell system for low-strength domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaecheul; Seon, Jiyun; Park, Younghyun; Cho, Sunja; Lee, Taeho

    2012-08-01

    A submerged type microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, which consisted of six readily exchangeable air-cathode MFCs, was evaluated for continuous treatment of low-strength domestic wastewater. When supplied with synthetic wastewater (COD 100 mg/L), the system showed increasing maximum power densities from 191 to 754 mW/m2 as COD loading rates increased (0.20-0.40 kg/m3/day). COD removal efficiencies decreased with increased COD loading rates but the effluent COD concentrations met the relevant effluent quality standard (CODMn 20 mg/L) at all conditions. The system was then operated with domestic wastewater (c.a. 100 mg COD/L) at 0.32 and 0.43 kg/m3/day. The system showed much lower power densities (116-149 mW/m2) at both loading rates, compared to synthetic wastewater. Anodic microbial communities were completely different when the wastewater type was changed. These results suggest that the newly developed MFC system could be applied to treat low-strength domestic wastewater without requiring any additional organic removal stage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of food waste recycling wastewater using anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor for biogas production in mainstream treatment process of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W; Park, Chanhyuk

    2017-10-15

    A bench-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) equipped with submerged flat-sheet ceramic membranes was operated at mesophilic conditions (30-35 °C) treating domestic wastewater (DWW) supplemented with food wasterecycling wastewater (FRW) to increase the organic loading rate (OLR) for better biogas production. Coupling ceramic membrane filtration with AnMBR treatment provides an alternative strategy for high organic wastewater treatment at short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the potential benefits of membrane fouling because they have a high hydrophilicity and more robust at extreme conditions. The anaerobic ceramic MBR (AnCMBR) treating mixture of actual FRW with DWW (with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,115 mg/L) was studied to evaluate the treatment performance in terms of organic matter removal and methane production. COD removal during actual FRW with DWW operation averaged 98.3 ± 1.0% corresponding to an average methane production of 0.21 ± 0.1 L CH4/g CODremoved. Biogas sparging, relaxation and permeate back-flushing were concurrently employed to manage membrane fouling. A flux greater than 9.2 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH) was maintained at 13 h HRT for approximately 200 days without chemical cleaning at an OLR of 2.95 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). On day 100, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads were added into the AnCMBR to alleviate the membrane fouling, suggesting that their mechanical scouring effect contributed positively in reducing the fouling index (FI). Although these bio-carriers might accelerate the breaking up of bio-flocs, which released a higher amount of soluble microbial products (SMP), a 95.4% SMP rejection was achieved. Although the retention efficiency of dissolved organic carbons (DOC) was 91.4% across the ceramic membrane, a meaningful interpretation of organic carbon detection (OCD) fingerprints was conducted to better understand the ceramic membrane performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of vegetation and temperature on the treatment of domestic sewage in constructed wetlands incorporated with Ferric-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis material.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingwei; Zhu, Hui; Bañuelos, Gary; Yan, Baixing; Liang, Yinxiu; Yu, Jing; Li, Huai

    2017-03-20

    Ferric-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis (Fe/C-M/E) material had been widely used for the pretreatment of wastewater. Therefore, we hypothesized that Fe/C-M/E material could enhance the treatment of domestic sewage when integrated into CWs. In this study, constructed wetlands (CWs) integrated with Fe/C-M/E material were developed. During the experiment of vegetation influence, percentages of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, TN, and COD removed in polyculture (W1) were up to 91.8%, 97.0%, 92.3%, and 85.4%, respectively, which were much higher than those in Lythrum salicaria monoculture (W2) and Canna indica monoculture (W3). In the experiment of temperature influences, temperature substantially influenced the performance of CWs. For example, NO3(-)-N removal percentages of W1, W2 and W3 at high temperature (25.5°C and 19.8°C) were relatively stable and greater than 85.4%. At 8.9°C, however, a sharp decline of NO3(-)-N removal percentage was observed in all CWs. Temperature also influenced the COD removal and soil microbial activity and biomass. Overall, the polyculture showed the best performance during most of the operating time, average temperature ≥ 19.8°C, due to the functional complementarity between vegetation. All the CWs consistently achieved high removal efficiency (above 96%) for TP in all experiments, irrespective of vegetation types, phosphorous loadings and temperatures. In conclusion, polyculture was an attractive solution for the treatment of domestic sewage during most of the operating time, average temperature ≥ 19.8°C). Furthermore, CWs with Fe/C-M/E material were ideally suitable for domestic sewage treatment, especially for TP removal.

  15. A two-stage microbial fuel cell and anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) system for effective domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lijiao; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m(2)/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m(3), which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m(3)). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m(3)). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements.

  16. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m2/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m3, which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m3). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m3). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements. PMID:24568605

  17. The use of laboratory sand, soil and crushed-glass filter columns for polishing domestic-strength synthetic wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment.

    PubMed

    Healy, M G; Burke, P; Rodgers, M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of intermittently loaded, 150 mm-diameter stratified filter columns of 2 depths (0.65 and 0.375 m) comprising different media--sand, crushed glass and soil--in polishing the effluent from a laboratory horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) treating synthetic domestic-strength wastewater. The HFBR has been successfully used to remove organic carbon and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from domestic wastewater. In this treatment method, wastewater is allowed to flow over and back along a stack of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. Biofilms on the sheets reduce organic carbon, suspended matter, and nutrients in the wastewater, but to achieve the quality of a septic tank system, additional treatment is required. In all filters, at a hydraulic loading rate of 100 L m(-2) d(-1), 40-65% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and practically 100% of total suspended solids (TSS) were removed, nitrification was complete, and bacterial numbers were reduced by over 80%, with best removals achieved in the soil filters (93%). Soil polishing filters with the depth of 0.65 m performed best in terms of organic carbon, total nitrogen (Tot-N) and bacterial removal. Data from this preliminary study are useful in the design of treatment systems to polish secondary wastewaters with similar water quality characteristics.

  18. Concurrent Treatment of Substance Abuse, Child Neglect, Bipolar Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Domestic Violence: A Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; Lapota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between substance abuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self-report inventories and objective urinalysis, treatment was found to result in the cessation of substance use, lower risk of child maltreatment, improved parenting attitudes and practices, and reduced instances of violence in the home. The importance of utilizing validity scales in the assessment of referrals from child welfare settings is discussed, and future directions are reported in light of the results. PMID:23457426

  19. Optimization of operating parameters of hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland systems for domestic sewerage treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhujian; Zhang, Xianning; Cui, Lihua; Yu, Guangwei

    2016-09-15

    In this work, three hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland (HVDF-CW) systems with different compound substrates were fed with domestic sewage and their pollutants removal performance under different hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio was investigated. The results showed that the hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio were two crucial factors determining the removal efficiency of most pollutants, while substrate types only significantly affected the removal of COD and NH4(+)-N. Generally, the lower the hydraulic loading, the better removal efficiency of all contaminants, except for TN. By contrast, the increase of step-feeding ratio would slightly reduce the removal rate of ammonium and TP but obviously promoted the TN removal. Therefore, the optimal operation of this CWs could be achieved with low hydraulic loading combined with 50% of step-feeding ratio when TN removal is the priority, whereas medium or low hydraulic loading without step-feeding would be suitable when TN removal is not taken into consideration. The obtained results in this study can provide us with a guideline for design and optimization of hybrid vertical flow constructed wetland systems to improve the pollutants removal from domestic sewage.

  20. PERCEIVED FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING DEDICATED ELDER ABUSE PROGRAMS OF CARE AT HOSPITAL-BASED SEXUAL ASSAULT/DOMESTIC VIOLENCE TREATMENT CENTETR.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Mirzaei, Aftab; Macdonald, Sheila; White, Meghan; Kosa, Daisy; Reimer, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Elder abuse is an increasingly important issue that must be addressed in a systematic and coordinated way. Our objective was to evaluate the perceived feasibility of establishing an elder abuse care program at hospital-based sexual assault and domestic violence treatment centers in Ontario, Canada. In July 2012, a questionnaire focused on elder abuse care was distributed to all of Ontario's Sexual Assault/Domestic Violence Treatment Centre (SA/DVTC) Program Coordinators/Managers. We found that the majority of Program Coordinators/ Managers favored expansion of their program mandates to include an elder abuse care program. However, these respondents viewed collaboration with a large network of well trained professionals and available services in the community that address elder abuse as integral to responding in a coordinated manner. The expansion of health services to address the needs of abused older adults in a comprehensive and integrated manner should be considered as an important next step for hospital-based violence care programs worldwide.

  1. Comparative literature study between investigations in foreign Science Citation Index journals and Chinese core domestic journals in the treatment of low back pain with acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiangjun; Li, Rui

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the quality and methods of clinical research literature published in foreign Science Citation Index (SCI) journals studying the treatment of low back pain with acupuncture. To conduct a comparative study with clinical research literature published in Chinese core domestic journals, and to understand the prospects of current research trends of acupuncture clinical studies in Western countries and China. Studies on clinical acupuncture treatment of low back pain in English SCI journals and four Chinese core domestic journals dated from 2002 to 2012 were sourced and summarized for this study. Objective analysis and evaluation on the differences in subject and scope of study on low back pain by foreign and Chinese researchers were conducted. Forty-seven English studies and 115 Chinese studies met our inclusion criteria. A keyword search revealed different kinds of low back pain related conditions in English and Chinese studies. The English studies were broad in scope, while the Chinese studies were more focused. There were also differences in the understanding and definition of concepts and study orientation. More study should be undertaken to understand the contradictions that acupuncture faces in view of modern research to further advance the field.

  2. Performance of high-rate constructed phytoremediation process with attached growth for domestic wastewater treatment: effect of high TDS and Cu.

    PubMed

    Valipour, Alireza; Hamnabard, Nazanin; Woo, Kwang-Sung; Ahn, Young-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Domestic wastewater treatment under specific influent conditions seriously stressed with total dissolved solids (TDS) and copper (Cu) metal was examined by a laboratory-scale model of the phytoremediation process with the attached growth system using Typha sp. As compared with conventional wetland systems, the process showed more stability and improved performance (88 ± 1.1% BOD5, 73 ± 1.0% NH3-N, 48 ± 2.0% PO4-P) at high organic loading rate (314 ± 18 g BOD5/m(3)/d) either in the presence of high TDS (∼2500 mg/L) or Cu metal (∼30 mg/L). Typha sp. could tolerate TDS concentrations up to 2500 mg/L. Cu-contaminated sewage can cause plant morphological deformities if the metal exceeds the saturation limit of 2416 and 21,036 mg/kg Cu in the shoots and roots, respectively. A minor reduction in the TDS (21%) was observed at the highest tolerable limit, whereas 67% reduction of Cu was observed at the process effluent. The process holds a great promise for main advantages of improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings and increased efficiency in domestic wastewater treatment even under unfavorable conditions stressed by TDS and Cu.

  3. Technical and environmental evaluation of an integrated scheme for the co-treatment of wastewater and domestic organic waste in small communities.

    PubMed

    Lijó, Lucía; Malamis, Simos; González-García, Sara; Fatone, Francesco; Moreira, María Teresa; Katsou, Evina

    2017-02-01

    A technical and environmental evaluation of an innovative scheme for the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and domestic organic waste (DOW) was undertaken by coupling an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a fermentation reactor. Alternative treatment configurations were evaluated with different waste collection practices as well as various schemes for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. All treatment systems fulfilled the required quality of the treated effluent in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. However, only the configurations performing the short-cut nitrification/denitrification with biological phosphorus removal met the specifications for water reuse. The environmental assessment included the analysis of impacts on climate change (CC), freshwater eutrophication (FE) and marine eutrophication (ME). A functional unit (FU) of 2000 people receiving treatment services was considered. The most relevant sources of environmental impacts were associated to the concentration of dissolved methane in the UASB effluent that is emitted to the atmosphere in the SBR process (accounting for 41% of impacts in CC), electricity consumption, mainly for aeration in the SBR (representing 14% of the impacts produced in CC), and the discharge of the treated effluent in receiving waters (contributing 98% and 57% of impacts in FE and ME, respectively). The scheme of separate waste collection together with biological nitrogen removal and phosphorus uptake via nitrite was identified as the best configuration, with good treated effluent quality and environmental impacts lower than those of the other examined configurations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study of microbial community structure in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic and nitrified wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun-Jun; Wu, Su-Qing; Liang, Kang; Wu, Zhenbin; Liang, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial processes play a vital important role in the removal of contaminants in constructed wetland (CW). However, the microbial physiology and community structure can be influenced by environmental conditions. In this study, four pilot-scale integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs) were employed to treat domestic and nitrified wastewaters. The microbial properties, along with their response to wastewater quality characteristics and seasonal variation, were determined. The results showed higher Shannon-Weiner diversity (H) and evenness (E) index of fatty acids (FAs), and relative abundances of signature FAs in down-flow cells and in the systems fed with domestic wastewater (DW). The relative abundances of fungi and gram-negative and aerobic bacteria were greater in up-flow cells. The dominant anaerobic bacteria found in most cells might be accounted for the prevailing anaerobic environment within the wetland beds, which could mean that the system fed with nitrified wastewater (NW) should perform better in nitrogen removal. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that pollutant concentrations, especially organic matter, influence the FA compositions greatly, and the most significant difference of microbial community structures was detected in down-flow cells fed with DW and up-flow ones with NW. The branched FAs, which could be used to represent anaerobic bacteria, were observed in down-flow cells treating DW and had a significant positive correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, probably suggesting the important role of anaerobic bacteria in organic matter degradation in the IVCWs. Seasonal variation, however, did not greatly influence the microbial community structure in the IVCWs.

  5. A decision model for selecting sustainable drinking water supply and greywater reuse systems for developing communities with a case study in Cimahi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Justin J; Louis, Garrick E

    2011-01-01

    Capacity Factor Analysis is a decision support system for selection of appropriate technologies for municipal sanitation services in developing communities. Developing communities are those that lack the capability to provide adequate access to one or more essential services, such as water and sanitation, to their residents. This research developed two elements of Capacity Factor Analysis: a capacity factor based classification for technologies using requirements analysis, and a matching policy for choosing technology options. First, requirements analysis is used to develop a ranking for drinking water supply and greywater reuse technologies. Second, using the Capacity Factor Analysis approach, a matching policy is developed to guide decision makers in selecting the appropriate drinking water supply or greywater reuse technology option for their community. Finally, a scenario-based informal hypothesis test is developed to assist in qualitative model validation through case study. Capacity Factor Analysis is then applied in Cimahi Indonesia as a form of validation. The completed Capacity Factor Analysis model will allow developing communities to select drinking water supply and greywater reuse systems that are safe, affordable, able to be built and managed by the community using local resources, and are amenable to expansion as the community's management capacity increases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Domestic Violence: Issues and Dynamics. Informal Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Oyley, Vincent, Ed.

    The proceedings from the Toronto Conference present an overview of domestic violence, the roles of the police and judicial system, male/female relationships in domestic violence, the clinical treatment of domestic violence, domestic violence and education, social services, and a bibliography on battered wives. The multi-dimensionality of, and the…

  7. Domestic Violence: Issues and Dynamics. Informal Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Oyley, Vincent, Ed.

    The proceedings from the Toronto Conference present an overview of domestic violence, the roles of the police and judicial system, male/female relationships in domestic violence, the clinical treatment of domestic violence, domestic violence and education, social services, and a bibliography on battered wives. The multi-dimensionality of, and the…

  8. Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others.

  9. [The efficacy and safety of domestic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue and low-dose norethindrone "add-back" therapy in the treatment of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Ye, G; Chen, H

    2000-08-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of combining domestic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue(LHRH-a) with low-dose norethindrone in the treatment of endometriosis. Seventy-seven women with endometriosis were randomized into one of the following two groups. Group A (n = 36) were treated with LHRH-a (150 micrograms/d, i.m.) plus norethindrone (2.5 mg/d, p.o.) and group B (n = 41) received only LHRH-a (150 micrograms/d, i.m.) for 3 to 6 months. Symptoms and signs were recorded before and after the treatment. Liver and renal functions, lipid and bone metabolism and speed of sound (SOS) in the tibia were also examined at the same time. All data were analyzed using paired and grouped Student's t-tests. Total subjective symptom scores of group A showed 82% decrease at 3 months and 94% at 6 months of treatment (P < 0.01). Reductions in endometriotic foci were 34% and 61% at 3 and 6 months, respectively (P < 0.01). Of group B, there were 77% and 90% decreases in total subjective symptom scores at 3 and 6 months of treatment (P < 0.01). Reductions of 37% and 38% in endometriotic foci were observed at 3 and 6 months, respectively (P < 0.01). Liver and renal functions and fast blood sugar of both groups were all in normal range. Triglyceride (TG), apolipoproteinA (ApoA), serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels of group B increased significantly after treatment. And significant differences between the two groups were observed. There's no change of SOS in the tibia within or between the two groups before and after treatment. The percentages of hemorrhage in the group A and B were 18% and 38%, respectively. The percentages of hot flush and the other vasomotor symptoms were 14% and 41%, respectively (P < 0.01). Domestic LHRH-a combined with low-dose norethindrone was effective in the treatment of endometriosis. It could also improve the symptom of hypoestrogenemia, decrease hemorrhage rete and bone turn-over.

  10. Conception and optimization of a membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (MEA-MFC) for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, O; Uzabiaga, A; Shen, Y J; Tan, Z; Cheng, Y P; Liu, W; Ng, H Y

    2011-01-01

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for microbial fuel cells (MEA-MFC) was developed for continuous electricity production while treating domestic wastewater concurrently. It was optimized via three upgraded versions (noted α, β and γ) in terms of design (current collectors, hydrophilic separator nature) and operating conditions (hydraulic retention time, external resistance, aeration rate, recirculation). An overall rise of power by over 100% from version α to γ shows the importance of factors such as the choice of proper construction materials and prevention of short-circuits. A power of 2.5 mW was generated with a hydraulic retention time of 2.3 h when a Selemion proton exchange membrane was used as a hydrophilic separator in the MEA and 2.8 mW were attained with a reverse osmosis membrane. The MFC also showed a competitive value of internal resistance (≈40-50 Ω) as compared to the literature, especially considering its large volume (3 L). However, the operation of our system in a complete loop where the anolyte was allowed to trickle over the cathode (version γ) resulted in system failure.

  11. Microbial community in a pilot-scale bioreactor promoting anaerobic digestion and sulfur-driven denitrification for domestic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Saia, Flávia Talarico; Souza, Theo S O; Duarte, Rubens Tadeu Delgado; Pozzi, Eloisa; Fonseca, Débora; Foresti, Eugenio

    2016-02-01

    A pilot-scale reactor treating domestic sewage was operated to promote anaerobic digestion and denitrification using endogenous electron donors. While 55 % of organic matter was removed, nitrogen and sulfur showed a different dynamics during the operation. Pyrosequencing analysis clarified this behavior revealing that specific microbial communities inhabited the anaerobic (47.05 % of OTUs) and anoxic (31.39 % of OTUs) chambers. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene partial sequences obtained through pyrosequencing revealed a total of 1727 OTUs clustered at a 3 % distance cutoff. In the anaerobic chamber, microbial community was comprised of fermentative, syntrophic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The majority of sequences were related to Aminobacterium and Syntrophorhabdus. In the anoxic chamber, the majority of sequences were related to mixotrophic and strictly autotrophic denitrifiers Arcobacter and Sulfuricurvum, respectively, both involved in sulfur-driven denitrification. These results show that pyrosequencing was a powerful tool to investigate the microbial panorama of a complex system, providing new insights to the improvement of the system.

  12. 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine-like activity in effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants detected by in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents from municipal domestic sewage treatment plants was detected using three in vitro assays and one in vivo assay. Contaminants in the effluents were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and eluted stepwise with different organic solvents. The majority of the thyroid system-disrupting activity was detected in the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction after SPE in all three in vitro assays: competitive assays of 3,3',5-[{sup 125}I]triiodo-L-thyronine ([{sup 125}I]T{sub 3}) binding to the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR assay) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR assay) and T{sub 3}-dependent luciferase assay (Luc assay). Subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction separated contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays from those potent in the TTR assay. The contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays were also potent in an in vivo short-term gene expression assay in Xenopus laevis (Tadpole assay). The present study demonstrated that the effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants contain contaminants with T{sub 3}-like activity of {approx} 10{sup -10} M T{sub 3}-equivalent concentration (T{sub 3}EQ) and that the TR and Luc assays are powerful in vitro bioassays for detecting thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents. The availability and applicability of these bioassays for screening contaminants with thyroid system-disrupting activity in the water environment are discussed.

  13. A Comparison of the Structural Factors of the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale for Women and Men in a Domestic Violence Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara

    2015-08-01

    Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively.

  15. Effect of by-pass and effluent recirculation on nitrogen removal in hybrid constructed wetlands for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Torrijos, V; Gonzalo, O G; Trueba-Santiso, A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2016-10-15

    Hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs) including subsurface horizontal flow (HF) and vertical flow (VF) steps look for effective nitrification and denitrification through the combination of anaerobic/anoxic and aerobic conditions. Several CW configurations including several configurations of single pass systems (HF + HF, VF + VF, VF + HF), the Bp(VF + HF) arrangement (with feeding by-pass) and the R(HF + VF) system (with effluent recirculation) were tested treating synthetic domestic wastewater. Two HF/VF area ratios (AR) were tested for the VF + HF and Bp(VF + HF) systems. In addition, a R(VF + VF) system was tested for the treatment of a high strength industrial wastewater. The percentage removal of TSS, COD and BOD5 was usually higher than 95% in all systems. The single pass systems showed TN removal below the threshold of 50% and low removal rates (0.6-1.2 g TN/m(2) d), except the VF + VF system which reached 63% and 3.5 g TN/m(2) d removal but only at high loading rates. Bp(VF + HF) systems required by-pass ratios of 40-50% and increased TN removal rates to approximately 50-60% in a sustainable manner. Removal rates depended on the AR value, increasing from 1.6 (AR 2.0) to 5.2 g TN/m(2) d (AR 0.5), both working with synthetic domestic wastewater. On real domestic wastewater the Bp (VF + HF) (AR 0.5 and 30% by-pass) reached 2.5 g TN/m(2) d removal rate. Effluent recirculation significantly improved the TN removal efficiency and rate. The R(HF + VF) system showed stable TN removals of approximately 80% at loading rates ranging from 2 to 8 g TN/m(2) d. High TN removal rates (up to 73% TN and 8.4 g TN/m(2) d) were also obtained for the R(VF + VF) system treating industrial wastewater.

  16. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bahgat, Magdy M; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2014-07-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water.

  17. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    El-Serehy, Hamed A.; Bahgat, Magdy M.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2013-01-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water. PMID:24955010

  18. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced.

  19. FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL. Third, Dallas, Texas, June 11-13, 1991 - TECHNICAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 11 -13,1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Technology Innovation Office and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory hosted an international conference in Dallas, TX, to exchange solutions to hazardous waste treatment problems. This conference, the Third Forum...

  20. A Clinical Model in Action in Intensive Residential Treatment: Meeting the Needs of Adolescent Boys Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Janet; Todd, Nick; Kopeck, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    The Habitat Program at Wood's Homes, Calgary, Alberta, is an eight bed residential treatment program for conduct-disordered youth who have been exposed or subjected to high levels of violence in their family home. The program was based on the assumption that working effectively with such youth requires consideration of the background experiences…

  1. Removal of trace organic contaminants from domestic wastewater: A meta-analysis comparison of sewage treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), represent global threats to aquatic animals and ecosystems. A major source of TrOCs in the aquatic environment is via the discharge of treated sewage, so there is an urgent need to evaluate the comparative efficiencies of the most widely used sewage treatment technologies as regards elimination of these compounds from wastewater. To address this need, 976 published articles were compiled focusing on estimates of removal (%) for 20 common environmental TrOCs, from five major sewage treatment technologies: conventional activated sludge (CAS), oxidation ditch (OD), membrane bioreactor (MBR), ponds and constructed wetlands (PCW), and trickling biological filters (TBF). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare standardized relative removal efficiencies (SREs) of the compounds amongst these technologies, and where possible potential sources of heterogeneity were considered (e.g., flow rates and chemical sorption potential). The results indicate that the most widely used CAS treatment and the less common TBF provide comparatively poor overall removal of common organic micropollutants. Membrane bioreactors appear to be capable of achieving the greatest overall removal efficiencies, but the sustainability and economic viability of this option has been questioned. Treatment with OD systems may be more economical while still achieving comparatively high removal efficiencies, and the analysis revealed OD to be the best option for targeting highly potent estrogenic EDCs. This study offers a unique global assessment of TrOC removal via leading sewage treatment technologies, and is an important step in the identification of effective options for treating municipal sewage.

  2. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland for stormwater runoff and domestic sewage treatment on the banks of a polluted urban river.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weijie; Li, Zhu; Cheng, Shuiping; Liang, Wei; He, Feng; Wu, Zhenbin

    2014-01-01

    To examine the performance of a constructed wetland system on stormwater runoff and domestic sewage (SRS) treatment in central east China, two parallel pilot-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems were operated for one year. Each ICW consisted of a down-flow bed, an up-flow bed and a horizontal subsurface flow bed. The average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 63.6, 91.9, 38.7, 43.0 and 70.0%, respectively, and the corresponding amounts of pollutant retention were approximately 368.3, 284.9, 23.2, 44.6 and 5.9 g m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. High hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 200 mm/d and low water temperatures (<15 °C) resulted in significant decrease in removals for TP and NH4(+)-N, but had no significant effects on removals of COD and TSS. These results indicated that the operation of this ICW at higher HLR (200 mm/d) might be effective and feasible for TSS and COD removal, but for acceptable removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus it should be operated at lower HLR (100 mm/d). This kind of ICW could be employed as an effective technique for SRS treatment.

  3. A pilot-scale study of domestic wastewater treatment by different type constructed wetland systems and its potential green house gases emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Gui, P.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Constructed wetland (CV) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. There for CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countriens. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, three typical constructed wetlands: Vertical Flow (VF), Free Water Surface (FWS) and Subsurface Flow (SF), and combined VF-SF-FWS constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gas emissions characteristics. The results indicated that the four types of CWs had high removal efficiencies for organic matter and SS. Moreover, the combined wetland also showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, which was 93.6%, 92.8%, 81.3% and 84.5% for BOD5, SS, TN and TP, respectively. It was found that the combined CW and VF CW has a comparative lower global warming potential. The FWS CW had the highest tendency to emit CH4 and led to a higher global warming potential among four types of CWs, which was about the same as 425mgCO2/m2/h.

  4. A comparative study of vertical flow and free-water surface constructed wetlands for low C/N ratio domestic wastewater treatment and its greenhouse gases emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. Therefore, CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countries. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, two typical constructed wetlands: Vertical flow (VF) and Free-water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gases emission characteristics. The results indicated that the VF CW showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal than FWS constructed wetland, which was 98.5, 95.9, 93.2 and 90.7 percent for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6 days HRT, respectively. It was found that the FWS CW had the higher tendency to emit CH4 than the VF CW during four seasons of one year.

  5. Coagulation increased the growth potential of various species bacteria of the effluent of a MBR for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong; Li, Guoqiang; Lin, Wenqi; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Microbial regrowth in reclaimed water is an important issue restricting water reclamation and reuse. Previous studies about the effect of coagulation on microbial growth in reclaimed water were limited and inconsistent. In this study, microbial growth potentials of the effluent of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of domestic wastewater after coagulation was evaluated by using bacteria of various phyla, classes (α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteriaa) or species isolated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test strains. Bacterial growth increased considerably after coagulation with polyaluminum for the samples investigated in this study. The results revealed that the microbial growth potentials in the effluent of the MBR evidently increased after coagulation. The increase ratio of bacterial growth could reach up to 929 %. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) of the samples averagely decreased 16.3 %, but the removal efficiencies of the excitation emission matrices (EEMs) were less than 5 % after coagulation. It is suggested that the organic matter which affected the bacterial growth might be substances having aromaticity (i.e., UV254 absorbance) but little fluorescence. According to molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis, the coagulation was indeed effective in removing organic matters with large MW. The removal of large MW organic matters might be related to bacterial growth increase. The results indicated that posttreatments are needed after coagulation to maintain the biological stability of reclaimed water.

  6. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulic loading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, M S; Terzakis, S; Chatzinotas, A; Brix, H; Kalogerakis, N; Manios, T

    2009-04-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a free water surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor (RBC), and (d) a packed bed filter (PBF). All units operated in parallel at various hydraulic loading rates (HLR) ranging from 50% to 175% of designed operating HLR. The study was conducted during an 8 month period and showed that COD removal efficiency of HSF was comparable (>75%) to that of RBC and PBF, whereas that of the FWS system was only 57%. Average nutrient removal efficiencies for FWS, HSF, RBC and PBF were 6%, 21%, 40% and 43%, respectively for total nitrogen and 21%, 39%, 41% and 42%, respectively for total phosphorus. Removals of total coliforms were lowest in FWS and PBF (1.3 log units) and higher in HSF and RBC (2.3 to 2.6 log units). HSF showed slightly lower but comparable effluent quality to that of RBC and PBF systems, but the construction cost and energy requirements for this system are significantly lower. Overall the final decision for the best non-conventional wastewater treatment system depends on the construction and operation cost, the area demand and the required quality of effluent.

  7. 13C-NMR Assessment of the Pattern of Organic Matter Transformation during Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Autothermal Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Barlett, John; Pembroke, J. Tony

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of biodegradation and the chemical changes occurring in the macromolecular fraction of domestic sludge during autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) was monitored and characterised via solid-state 13C-NMR CP-MAS. Major indexes such as aromaticity, hydrophobicity and alkyl/O-alkyl ratios calculated for the ATAD processed biosolids were compared by means of these values to corresponding indexes reported for sludges of different origin such as manures, soil organic matter and certain types of compost. Given that this is the first time that these techniques have been applied to ATAD sludge, the data indicates that long-chain aliphatics are easily utilized by the microbial populations as substrates for metabolic activities at all stages of aerobic digestion and serve as a key substrate for the temperature increase, which in turn results in sludge sterilization. The ATAD biosolids following treatment had a prevalence of O-alkyl domains, a low aromaticity index (10.4%) and an alkyl/O-alkyl ratio of 0.48 while the hydrophobicity index of the sludge decreased from 1.12 to 0.62 during the treatment. These results have important implications for the evolution of new ATAD modalities particularly in relation to dewatering and the future use of ATAD processed biosolids as a fertilizer, particularly with respect to hydrological impacts on the soil behaviour. PMID:19742161

  8. Variability in the chemistry of private drinking water supplies and the impact of domestic treatment systems on water quality.

    PubMed

    Ander, E L; Watts, M J; Smedley, P L; Hamilton, E M; Close, R; Crabbe, H; Fletcher, T; Rimell, A; Studden, M; Leonardi, G

    2016-12-01

    Tap water from 497 properties using private water supplies, in an area of metalliferous and arsenic mineralisation (Cornwall, UK), was measured to assess the extent of compliance with chemical drinking water quality standards, and how this is influenced by householder water treatment decisions. The proportion of analyses exceeding water quality standards were high, with 65 % of tap water samples exceeding one or more chemical standards. The highest exceedances for health-based standards were nitrate (11 %) and arsenic (5 %). Arsenic had a maximum observed concentration of 440 µg/L. Exceedances were also high for pH (47 %), manganese (12 %) and aluminium (7 %), for which standards are set primarily on aesthetic grounds. However, the highest observed concentrations of manganese and aluminium also exceeded relevant health-based guidelines. Significant reductions in concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead and/or nickel were found in tap waters where households were successfully treating low-pH groundwaters, and similar adventitious results were found for arsenic and nickel where treatment was installed for iron and/or manganese removal, and successful treatment specifically to decrease tap water arsenic concentrations was observed at two properties where it was installed. However, 31 % of samples where pH treatment was reported had pH < 6.5 (the minimum value in the drinking water regulations), suggesting widespread problems with system maintenance. Other examples of ineffectual treatment are seen in failed responses post-treatment, including for nitrate. This demonstrates that even where the tap waters are considered to be treated, they may still fail one or more drinking water quality standards. We find that the degree of drinking water standard exceedances warrant further work to understand environmental controls and the location of high concentrations. We also found that residents were more willing to accept drinking water with high metal

  9. From Crop Domestication to Super-domestication

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, D. A.; Balázs, E.; Heslop-Harrison, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact – we consider this to be ‘super-domestication’. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might – and can – advance in the future. PMID:17940074

  10. Assessing the feasibility of a web-based domestic violence intervention using chronic disease frameworks: reducing the burden of 'treatment' and promoting capacity for action in women abused by a partner.

    PubMed

    Tarzia, Laura; May, Carl; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2016-11-24

    Domestic violence shares many features with chronic disease, including ongoing physical and mental health problems and eroded self-efficacy. Given the challenges around help-seeking for women experiencing domestic violence, it is essential that they be given support to 'self-manage' their condition. The growing popularity of web-based applications for chronic disease self-management suggests that there may be opportunities to use them as an intervention strategy for women experiencing domestic violence, however, as yet, little is known about whether this might work in practice. It is critical that interventions for domestic violence-whether web-based or otherwise-promote agency and capacity for action rather than adding to the 'workload' of already stressed and vulnerable women. Although randomised controlled trials are vital to determine the effectiveness of interventions, robust theoretical frameworks can complement them as a way of examining the feasibility of implementing an intervention in practice. To date, no such frameworks have been developed for the domestic violence context. Consequently, in this paper we propose that it may be useful to appraise interventions for domestic violence using frameworks developed to help understand the barriers and facilitators around self-management of chronic conditions. Using a case study of an online healthy relationship tool and safety decision aid developed in Australia (I-DECIDE), this paper adapts and applies two theories: Burden of Treatment Theory and Normalisation Process Theory, to assess whether the intervention might increase women's agency and capacity for action. In doing this, it proposes a new theoretical model with which the practical application of domestic violence interventions could be appraised in conjunction with other evaluation frameworks. This paper argues that theoretical frameworks for chronic disease are appropriate to assess the feasibility of implementing interventions for domestic violence in

  11. Developing a model based decision support tool for the identification of sustainable treatment options for domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Balkema, A J; Preisig, H A; Otterpohl, R; Lambert, A J; Weijers, S R

    2001-01-01

    To enable decision makers to select sustainable wastewater treatment systems, insight into the sustainability of a wide variety of systems should be provided in a transparent way leaving room for adaptation and interpretation according to the local situation. To provide this insight a structured methodology comparing wastewater treatment systems with respect to sustainability is defined. Similar to life cycle assessment (LCA) three phases can be distinguished: (1) goal and scope definition, (2) inventory analysis, and (3) optimisation and results. In the goal and scope definition we set the system boundaries to include most of the water cycle and part of the food cycle. Furthermore, we defined a multi-disciplinary set of sustainability indicators including technical, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural aspects. In the inventory analysis these sustainability indicators are quantified using simple static models of wastewater unit operations. Selection of unit operations results in a model of a complete wastewater treatment system. In the optimisation phase the decision maker can weigh the different sustainability indicators and select sustainable options through integer programming.

  12. Modelling the effects of on-site greywater reuse and low flush toilets on municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-15

    On-site greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WET) reduce urban freshwater demand. Research on GWR and WET has generally overlooked the effects that GWR may have on municipal sewer systems. This paper discusses and quantifies these effects. The effects of GWR and WET, positive and negative, were studied by modelling a representative urban sewer system. GWR scenarios were modelled and analysed using the SIMBA simulation system. The results show that, as expected, the flow, velocity and proportional depth decrease as GWR increases. Nevertheless, the reduction is not evenly distributed throughout the day but mainly occurs during the morning and evening peaks. Examination of the effects of reduced toilet flush volumes revealed that in some of the GWR scenarios flows, velocities and proportional depths in the sewer were reduced, while in other GWR scenarios discharge volumes, velocities and proportional depths did not change. Further, it is indicated that as a result of GWR and installation of WET, sewer blockage rates are not expected to increase significantly. The results support the option to construct new sewer systems with smaller pipe diameters. The analysis shows that as the penetration of GWR systems increase, and with the installation of WET, concentrations of pollutants also increase. In GWR scenarios (when toilet flush volume is not reduced) the increase in pollutant concentrations is lower than the proportional reduction of sewage flow. Moreover, the results show that the spatial distribution of houses reusing GW does not significantly affect the parameters examined.

  13. Treatment and desalination of domestic wastewater for water reuse in a four-chamber microbial desalination cell.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) have been studied for contaminant removal from wastewater and salinity reduction in saline water. However, in an MDC wastewater treatment and desalination occurs in different streams, and high salinity of the treated wastewater creates challenges for wastewater reuse. Herein, a single-stream MDC (SMDC) with four chambers was developed for simultaneous organic removal and desalination in the same synthetic wastewater. This SMDC could achieve a desalination rate of 12.2-31.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) and remove more than 90 % of the organics and 75 % of NH4 (+)-N; the pH imbalance between the anode and cathode chambers was also reduced. Several strategies such as controlling catholyte pH, increasing influent COD concentration, adopting the batch mode, applying external voltage, and increasing the alkalinity of wastewater were investigated for improving the SMDC performance. Under a condition of 0.4 V external voltage, anolyte pH adjustment, and a batch mode, the SMDC decreased the wastewater salinity from 1.45 to below 0.75 mS cm(-1), which met the salinity standard of wastewater for irrigation. Those results encourage further development of the SMDC technology for sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  14. Residues of azoxystrobin, fenhexamid and pyrimethanil in strawberry following field treatments and the effect of domestic washing.

    PubMed

    Angioni, A; Schirra, M; Garau, V L; Melis, M; Tuberoso, C I G; Cabras, P

    2004-11-01

    Residues of the pesticides azoxystrobin, fenhexamid and pyrimethanil were determined in strawberry after field treatment. The effect of 'home' washing with tap water and a commercially available vegetable detergent on residue levels was also studied. After treatment, azoxystrobin and pyrimethanil residues on strawberry were on average 0.55 and 2.98 mg kg(-1), respectively, values below the maximum residue level (MRL) fixed by the European Union (2.0 and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively), while fenhexamid residues were on average 2.99 mg kg(-1), which is very close to the MRL of 3.0 mg kg(-1), but some samples were over the MRL. Thereafter, all residues declined, with a half-life of about 8 days (azoxystrobin and fenhexamid) and 4.8 days (pyrimethanil). Washing the fruit with tap water reduced the residues of azoxystrobin and fenhexamid but did not affect pyrimethanil residues. Finally, when fruits were washed with a commercial detergent, greater amounts were removed (about 45% of azoxystrobin and pyrimethanil and 60% of fenhexamid).

  15. Treatment of domestic wastewater in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; El-Gohary, F; Temmink, H

    2010-02-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale sewage treatment system composed of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at a temperature of (22-35 degrees C) was evaluated. The entire treatment system was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT's) of 13.3, 10 and 5.0 h. An overall reduction of 80-86% for COD(total); 51-73% for COD(colloidal) and 20-55% for COD(soluble) was found at a total HRT of 5-10 h, respectively. By prolonging the HRT to 13.3 h, the removal efficiencies of COD(total), COD(colloidal) and COD(soluble) increased up to 92, 89 and 80%, respectively. However, the removal efficiency of COD(suspended) in the combined system remained unaffected when increasing the total HRT from 5 to 10 h and from 10 to 13.3 h. This indicates that, the removal of COD(suspended) was independent on the imposed HRT. Ammonia-nitrogen removal in MBBR treating UASB reactor effluent was significantly influenced by organic loading rate (OLR). 62% of ammonia was eliminated at OLR of 4.6 g COD m(-2) day(-1). The removal efficiency was decreased by a value of 34 and 43% at a higher OLR's of 7.4 and 17.8 g COD m(-2) day(-1), respectively. The mean overall residual counts of faecal coliform in the final effluent were 8.9 x 10(4) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 13.3 h, 4.9 x 10(5) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 10 h and 9.4 x 10(5) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 5.0 h, corresponding to overall log(10) reduction of 2.3, 1.4 and 0.7, respectively. The discharged sludge from UASB-MBBR exerts an excellent settling property. Moreover, the mean value of the net sludge yield was only 6% in UASB reactor and 7% in the MBBR of the total influent COD at a total HRT of 13.3 h. Accordingly, the use of the combined UASB-MBBR system for sewage treatment is recommended at a total HRT of 13.3 h.

  16. Application of patent bio-rack wetland system using Phragmites sp. for domestic wastewater treatment in the presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) and heavy metal salts.

    PubMed

    Valipour, Alireza; Raman, V Kalyan; Ghole, V S

    2011-07-01

    The quality of water recourses is degrading due to improper wastewater management. The aim of this study is to examine the potential of bio-rack system for treatment of domestic wastewater in the presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) and heavy metal salts. The bio-rack is a modified wetland system incorporated with the advantages of phytoremediation and attached growth microbial process. The bio-rack is void of the soil strata based root zone system and in lieu a support matrix is provided to enrich the micro flora. The studies indicate that, Phragmites sp. can tolerate TDS up to 9000 mg/L in the bio-rack. The heavy metal removal is a function of phytoaccumulation or phytoextraction, which can lead to morphological deformity if heavy metals exceed the saturation limit of 786 and 5760 mg/kg Cd, 854 and 9280 mg/kg Cu, 639 and 4720 mg/kg Ni, 1187 and 7516 mg/kg Zn, in shoots and roots respectively. The reduction in TDS is marginal (14%) at the highest tolerable limit whereas the heavy metal reduction is 68%, 69%, 67%, 71% for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn respectively at the outlet of the treatment system. The sewage treatment performance of the bio-rack system for all other parameters is estimated as 75 % Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), 86 % Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), 27% Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), 73% Total Suspended Solids (TSS), 9% chlorides, 70% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 32% phosphate (PO4-P), 92% most probable number (MPN) and 93% total viable count (TVC) reduction.

  17. Feasibility of UASB/trickling filter systems without final clarifiers for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small communities in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chernicharo, C A L; Almeida, P G S

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the concept and performance of different configurations of compact UASB/TF systems, without the final clarification stage, in relation to the removal of organic matter. The experiments were carried out in two sets of UASB/TF systems operating without secondary clarifiers, as follows: (i) four shallow (2.50 m height) TFs, each one filled with a different packing material; and (ii) two deep (4.20 m height) TFs, one filled with polyethylene corrugated sheets and the other with mixed polyethylene and sponge sheets. For the conditions tested (different packing material in shallow and deep TF), the UASB/TF systems had consistently complied (90 to 100% of the results) with the Brazilian discharge standards regarding to BOD, COD, and TSS parameters. The average BOD, COD and TSS effluent concentrations stayed below 40 mg BOD L(-1), 100 mg COD L(-1) and 50 mg TSS L(-1), respectively. UASB/TF systems can constitute an attractive alternative for domestic wastewater treatment in small communities in developing countries, especially considering its operational simplicity and very low running costs.

  18. Changes in microbial populations and enzyme activities during nitrogen biodegradation of domestic sewage treatment in the Subsurface Wastewater Infiltration System (SWIS).

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Li, Haibo; Wang, Xin; Sun, Tieheng

    2011-10-01

    During the process of domestic sewage treatment in the Subsurface Wastewater Infiltration System (SWIS), changes in the microbial populations (nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria) and enzyme activities (urease, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in the nitrogen removal process were evaluated over a 2-year period. The results showed nitrifying bacteria number declined with depths increasing, while denitrifying bacteria increased, both of which increased nearer the inlet. The depth for nitrate reductase activity from high to low in sequence was 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1 m. For nitrite reductase, the sequence was 0.5, 0.3, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1 m. Urease and nitrite reductase activities were in positive correlation with the total nitrogen removal efficiency, with correlation coefficients 0.8662 and 0.9140, respectively and could be alternative to monitor the nitrogen biodegradation process in SWIS. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  19. Effects of earthworms and substrate on diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS and nirK) and denitrifying rate during rural domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longmian; Zhang, Yimin; Luo, Xingzhang; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the performance of an ecological filter (EF) and vermifiltration (VF) system, the effects of substrate and earthworms on the diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes coding for nitrite (nirS and nirK) reductases and on denitrifying rate, and the factors influencing denitrification. The majority of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen from sewage was removed by the soil layer in both reactors, and their total removal efficiencies increased in VF compared with those in EF. Additionally, substrate in the reactors significantly influenced the Shannon diversity index and abundance of nirS and nirK, as well as the denitrifying rate. However, the earthworms only significantly influenced nirS diversity. Furthermore, evaluation of the factors controlling denitrification implied that increasing NH3-N availability, diversity and abundance of nirS and nirK or decreasing available NO3-N might be responsible for the enhanced denitrification activity obtained using VF for rural domestic wastewater treatment.

  20. Optimizing external carbon source addition in domestics wastewater treatment based on online sensoring data and a numerical model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qibin; Chen, Qiuwen; Chen, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The removal of total nitrogen in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is often unsatisfactory for a variety of reasons. One possible measure to improve nitrogen removal is the addition of external carbon. However, the amount of carbon addition is directly related to WWTP operation costs, highlighting the importance of accurately determining the amount of external carbon required. The objective of this study was to obtain a low nitrate concentration in the anoxic zone of WWTPs efficiently and economically by optimizing the external carbon source dosage. Experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale pre-denitrification reactor at a Nanjing WWTP in China. External carbon source addition based on online monitoring of influent wastewater quality and a developed nitrification-denitrification numerical model was investigated. Results showed that carbon addition was reduced by 47.7% and aeration costs were reduced by 8.0% compared with those using a fixed-dose addition mode in the pilot reactor. The obtained technology was applied to the full-scale Jiangxinzhou WWTP in Nanjing with promising results.

  1. Nitrogen Removal in a Full-Scale Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant with Activated Sludge and Trickling Filter

    PubMed Central

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple. PMID:23710197

  2. Nitrogen removal in a full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant with activated sludge and trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple.

  3. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. A study on the effects of different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) on pollutant removal efficiency of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands used for treatment of domestic wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Çakir, Recep; Gidirislioglu, Ali; Çebi, Ulviye

    2015-12-01

    The research into the treatment of domestic wastewaters originating from Büyükdöllük village in Edirne Province was carried out over a 3 year experimental period. The wastewaters of the settlement were treated using a constructed wetland with subsurface horizontal flow, and the effects of different hydraulic loading levels on removal efficiency were studied. In order to achieve this goal, three equal chambers (ponds) of 300 m(2) each were constructed and planted with Phragmites australis. Each of the chambers was loaded with domestic wastewater with average flow discharge creating hydraulic loading rates of 0. m(3) day(-1) m(-2); 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2) and 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2), respectively. According to the results of the study, the inlet levels of the pollutant parameters with carbon origin in the water samples taken from the system entrance are high and the average values for three years are respectively: Biological Oxygen Demand, BOD5 -324.5 mg L(-1); Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD -484,0 mg L(-1); suspended solids (TSS) -147.3 mg L(-1) and Oil and Grease -0.123 mg L(-1). It was also determined that the removal rates of the system were closely dependent on the applied hydraulic loading levels and the highest removal rates of 64.9%, 62.5%, 86.3% and 80.34% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease, respectively, were determined in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.050 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). Lower removal of 57.9%, 55.5%, 81.4% and 74.5% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease were recorded in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2); and these values were 49.1%, 47.8%, 70.9% and 62.1% for the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). High removal rates were also recorded for the other investigated pollution parameters.

  5. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  6. Use of a GnRH vaccine, GonaCon, for prevention and treatment of adrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Wagner, Robert A; Finkler, Mark

    2013-09-23

    Adrenocortical disease (ACD) is a common problem in surgically sterilized, middle-aged to old ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). The adrenal tissues of these ferrets develop hyperplasia, adenomas, or adenocarcinomas, which produce steroid hormones including estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione. Major clinical signs attributable to overproduction of these hormones are alopecia (hair loss) in both sexes and a swollen vulva in females. Pruritus, muscle atrophy, hind limb weakness, and sexual activity or aggression are also observed in both sexes. Males can develop prostatic cysts, prostatitis, and urethral obstruction. ACD is thought to be linked to continuous and increased LH secretion, due to lack of gonadal hormone feedback in neutered ferrets. This continuous elevated LH acts on adrenal cortex LH receptors, resulting in adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal tumor. This study investigated whether the immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon, a GnRH vaccine developed to reduce the fertility of wildlife species and the spread of disease, could prevent or delay onset of ACD and treat alopecia in ferrets with existing ACD. Results showed that GonaCon provided relief from ACD by causing production of antibodies to GnRH, probably suppressing production and/or release of LH. Treatment caused many ACD symptoms to disappear, allowing the ferrets to return to a normal life. The study also found that the probability of developing ACD was significantly reduced in ferrets treated with GonaCon when young (1-3 years old) compared to untreated control animals. GonaCon caused injection site reaction in some animals when administered as an intramuscular injection but caused few side effects when administered subcutaneously. Both intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccination resulted in similar levels of GnRH antibody titers. Subcutaneous vaccination with GonaCon is thus recommended to prevent the onset of ACD and as a possible treatment for ACD-signs in domestic ferrets. Published

  7. Financial feasibility of end-user designed rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse systems for high water use households.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Ocaña, Edgar Ricardo; Dominguez, Isabel; Ward, Sarah; Rivera-Sanchez, Miryam Lizeth; Zaraza-Peña, Julian Mauricio

    2017-03-30

    Water availability pressures, competing end-uses and sewers at capacity are all drivers for change in urban water management. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) and greywater reuse (GWR) systems constitute alternatives to reduce drinking water usage and in the case of RWH, reduce roof runoff entering sewers. Despite the increasing popularity of installations in commercial buildings, RWH and GWR technologies at a household scale have proved less popular, across a range of global contexts. For systems designed from the top-down, this is often due to the lack of a favourable cost-benefit (where subsidies are unavailable), though few studies have focused on performing full capital and operational financial assessments, particularly in high water consumption households. Using a bottom-up design approach, based on a questionnaire survey with 35 households in a residential complex in Bucaramanga, Colombia, this article considers the initial financial feasibility of three RWH and GWR system configurations proposed for high water using households (equivalent to >203 L per capita per day). A full capital and operational financial assessment was performed at a more detailed level for the most viable design using historic rainfall data. For the selected configuration ('Alt 2'), the estimated potable water saving was 44% (equivalent to 131 m(3)/year) with a rate of return on investment of 6.5% and an estimated payback period of 23 years. As an initial end-user-driven design exercise, these results are promising and constitute a starting point for facilitating such approaches to urban water management at the household scale.

  8. Evapotranspiration for domestic wastewater reuse in remote indigenous communities of Australia.

    PubMed

    Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    In the past sewage ponding in indigenous settlements was commonplace as a result of overcrowding combined with inappropriate septic tank and leach drain design, installation and operation. The response over the past 10 years has been to develop reticulated sewerage systems to lagoons when the funds become available. These are often successful in terms of operation, improved public health and low maintenance but are expensive and wasteful of limited water supplies. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an effective method for on-site domestic effluent disposal in areas of Western Australia with soils of low permeability. Evapotranspiration systems have been established in a number of communities both for research/demonstration and as specified by architects. The systems usually follow two septic tanks for the disposal of all domestic effluent. A case study will be presented for a remote indigenous community where the ET systems installed for greywater only have been monitored over the last two years since installation. The use of evapotranspiration has enabled reuse of effluent for successful examples of revegetation and food production and points to the need for a holistic approach to design and service delivery in these communities that includes a total environmental management plan.

  9. Exploring the Relevance of Attachment Theory as a Dependent Variable in the Treatment of Women Mandated into Treatment for Domestic Violence Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Michelle Mohr; Buttell, Frederick P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to: (a) investigate the pre-treatment levels of interpersonal dependency and violence among women entering a 16-week, court-mandated, batterer intervention program (BIP) and determine if there were any associations between interpersonal dependency and violence; (b) investigate differences in demographic…

  10. Exploring the Relevance of Attachment Theory as a Dependent Variable in the Treatment of Women Mandated into Treatment for Domestic Violence Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Michelle Mohr; Buttell, Frederick P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to: (a) investigate the pre-treatment levels of interpersonal dependency and violence among women entering a 16-week, court-mandated, batterer intervention program (BIP) and determine if there were any associations between interpersonal dependency and violence; (b) investigate differences in demographic…

  11. Drivers and barriers among householders to managing domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland; implications for risk prevention behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, Catherine; O'Neill, Eoin; Waldron, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Septic systems that are malfunctioning, improperly sited or designed, present a contamination risk to drinking water sources, and subsequently, to human health. However, the international literature identifies gaps in householder knowledge regarding the function and maintenance requirements of septic systems, and also the potential health and environmental risk implications. Allied with householder fears related to the financial cost of risk management, these factors tend to reduce concern to recognise a malfunctioning system. In the Republic of Ireland, three-quarters of households in rural areas utilise an individual domestic wastewater treatment system (or septic system). Consequently, a significant portion of rural households that rely on groundwater sources via private-well use are at risk. Ireland reports one of the highest crude incidence rates of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in the European Union, and waterborne transmission related to contact with untreated or poorly treated water from private water sources is a factor in its transmission. Following recent Irish legislative change that places a duty of care on individual householders to ensure a proper system functioning, this exploratory study examines perceptions towards the risk management of septic systems among Irish householders. Using qualitative research methods, four focus groups selected on the basis of geographical variation, and two semi-structured interviews were conducted. While most householders agreed that poorly maintained septic systems represented a threat to the environment and to public health, none reported to having a regular maintenance routine in place. Thematic analysis revealed the drivers and barriers to septic system maintenance, and preferences of householders pertaining to communication on septic systems. The Health Belief Model is employed to help understand results. Results suggest that householder capacity to engage in regular risk management is reduced

  12. Effects of vegetations and temperature on nutrient removal and microbiology in horizontal subsurface low constructed wetland for treatment of domestic sewage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The direct discharge of untreated domestic wastewater represents a major source of nutrients entering into aquatic environments, which may cause serious ecological problems, e.g., eutrophication. In this regard, low-cost and easily managed technologies such as constructed wetlands (CWs) provide a go...

  13. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    modified their behavior, as have the victims, although for a lesser extent. Perpetrators are increasingly subject to restraining orders, with an obligation to undergo treatment and to attend awareness sessions. Victims are also more likely to go to the police. Social workers, self-help groups and, since 2006, psychologists are now available for victim support in police stations. Management of perpetrators has improved. Finally, despite the continuing reluctance of many physicians, an encouraging trend is emerging among younger members of the profession. A recent survey of 1472 French medical students showed that, while 90 % of them said they had received no training in this area, 93 % considered that doctors should play a role and 95 % said they felt highly concerned. Specific university diplomas have been created and domestic violence is now included in the midwifery curriculum. The delicate question of prevention remains to be resolved; a program is currently being tested.

  14. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data

  15. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  16. Domestic violence against men.

    PubMed

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  17. Simulation of enteric pathogen concentrations in locally-collected greywater and wastewater for microbial risk assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    As decentralized water reuse continues to gain popularity, risk-based treatment guidance is increasingly sought for the protection of public health. However, efforts to evaluate pathogen risks and log-reduction requirements have been hindered by an incomplete understanding of pat...

  18. EU demonstration project for separate discharge and treatment of urine, faeces and greywater--part I: results.

    PubMed

    Peter-Fröhlich, A; Pawlowski, L; Bonhomme, A; Oldenburg, M

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this EU demonstration project was to test two new sanitation concepts to determine if these concepts are more sustainable, compared with the conventional sanitation system, particularly with regard to nutrient recycling. Two different sanitation concepts were tested. One concept comprised the use of gravity separation toilets, the other used vacuum separation toilets. Results from a life-cycle-assessment investigation show that the new sanitation concepts are more sustainable. A cost analysis for an existing residential area did not prove lower costs for the new sanitation concepts in this special case. The experience from this demonstration project shows that prior to a widespread use of the new sanitation concepts, several improvements have to be made. One important issue is the improvement of separation toilets. Since nutrient recycling, water saving and reuse as well energy reduction become more and more important, further research should be undertaken in this field.

  19. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  20. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  1. [Atopic dermatitis and domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Song, M

    2000-09-01

    Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.

  2. Determining the domestic specific loads of two wastewater plants of the Paris conurbation (France) with contrasted treatments: a step for exploring the effects of the application of the European Directive.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Josette; Laroche, Laëtitia; Pinault, Séverine

    2006-10-01

    The effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WTTP) discharged into the rivers considerably affect the biogeochemical functioning of the system. In this paper, we characterize both raw and treated domestic wastewater from two WTTPs of Parisian agglomeration using different process treatments (Achères WWTP with a secondary treatment and Colombes WWTP with a tertiary one). In addition to the classical variables, we analyse the input of bacteria, both the heterotrophs and the nitrifyers. Tertiary treatment leads to significantly decrease ammonium-specific load (< 2 g KjN inhab equ.(-1) instead of 9 g KjN inhab equ.(-1) for secondary treatment) and notably reduces the one of organic matter (approximately 2.5 g biological oxygen demand (BOD) inhab equ.(-1) instead of approximately 7.5 g BOD inhab equ.(-1) for secondary treatment); it is therefore promising to improve oxygen status of both the Seine river and its estuary. In terms of total bacterial biomass abatement (the heterotrophs mostly), bioreactors (at Colombes WWTP) eliminate 12% more bacterial biomass than the activated sludge treatment (at Achères WWTP). Regarding the nitrifying bacteria, a tertiary treatment in bioreactors eliminates reverse similar 90% of both nitrifying bacteria and nitrogen pollution of wastewater. Bacterial populations are characterized by large size bacteria (> 1 microm) with a higher growth rate, that represent in the treatment plant effluents 70% of the biomass. These large size bacteria have therefore a strong impact in the organic matter degradation and oxygen consumption. Relationships between classical physical-chemical variables routinely analysed in WWTPs laboratory and bacterial biomass (heterotrophic and nitrifying) are established, in order to quantify the ecological role of the allochthonous bacteria brought into the river system. In addition, domestic specific loads are calculated for both raw and treated effluents of the two types of WWTPs. As the application of the

  3. Greywater heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, D.

    1983-11-21

    A kilowatt meter and water meter were installed to monitor pregreywater usage. The design considerations, the heat exchanger construction and installation, and the monitoring of usage levels are described.

  4. A Retrospective Program Evaluation of a Domestic Violence Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakaryan, Hasmik

    2013-01-01

    Domestic Violence (DV) continues to be a worldwide public health problem. Research in the area indicates that domestic violence has damaging, long-term serious mental, emotional, as well as physiological consequences both for the partners of the perpetrators and for their children. Even though various programs focused on treatments of the damaging…

  5. Care Pathway Guidelines for Assessment and Counseling for Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Thomas W.; Veltkamp, Lane J.; Lane, Tina; Bilyeu, Jaye; Elzie, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Examines a care pathway guideline developed to ensure consistency in the evaluation and treatment offered when domestic violence is identified in the course of screening and counseling. Provides a summary of at-risk factors counselors should recognize in screening for abuse, a syndrome often associated with domestic violence, and the physical and…

  6. A Retrospective Program Evaluation of a Domestic Violence Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakaryan, Hasmik

    2013-01-01

    Domestic Violence (DV) continues to be a worldwide public health problem. Research in the area indicates that domestic violence has damaging, long-term serious mental, emotional, as well as physiological consequences both for the partners of the perpetrators and for their children. Even though various programs focused on treatments of the damaging…

  7. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  8. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  9. Domestic Research at Rand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    This third descriptive inventory of the Rand Corporation's domestic non-military research covers all projects since 1972, as well as its special 1969-1975 program for New York City. For each of over 300 research projects in nine program areas, brief summaries identify the project title and sponsor, beginning and ending dates, person-years of work…

  10. Domestic Research at Rand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    This third descriptive inventory of the Rand Corporation's domestic non-military research covers all projects since 1972, as well as its special 1969-1975 program for New York City. For each of over 300 research projects in nine program areas, brief summaries identify the project title and sponsor, beginning and ending dates, person-years of work…

  11. Domestic Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Network Project Notebook, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The June, 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) decision allowed an "open skies" policy in regard to domestic communication satellites and raised Liberal opposition to a situation where exclusive and unchecked communications power is now in the hands of private entrepreneurs, primarily the big Defense Department oriented…

  12. Challenging Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarlett, Chris

    2002-01-01

    In Britain, a Women's Aid program offers practical support and assistance to abused women. Survivors of domestic abuse can benefit from the opportunity afforded by an objective appraisal of the social context of their personal experiences, facilitated by trained volunteers. (JOW)

  13. Signs of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  14. Domestic Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Network Project Notebook, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The June, 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) decision allowed an "open skies" policy in regard to domestic communication satellites and raised Liberal opposition to a situation where exclusive and unchecked communications power is now in the hands of private entrepreneurs, primarily the big Defense Department oriented…

  15. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women. PMID:25695010

  16. Electrochemical disinfection of biologically treated wastewater from small treatment systems by using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes--contribution for direct reuse of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Viktor; Dittmar, Thomas; Haaken, Daniela; Worch, Eckhard

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the application potential of boron-doped diamond electrodes (BDD) in electrochemical disinfection of biologically treated sewage for direct recycling of domestic wastewater. Discontinuous bulk disinfection experiments with secondary effluents and model solutions were performed to investigate the influence of operating conditions and wastewater parameters on disinfection efficiency and formation of disinfection by-products (adsorbable organically bound halogens, AOX). The inactivation rate accelerates with increasing current density caused by a faster generation of electrochemical oxidants (ECO). It could be shown that the effect of OH radicals in case of the direct electrochemical disinfection of chloride-containing secondary effluents with BDD is negligible because of their fast reaction with typical radical scavengers. The dominating role of electrochemically generated free chlorine in the disinfection process could be explicitly verified. It could be also shown that the disinfection efficiency is strongly affected by the specific wastewater parameters temperature and pH. These effects can be explained by the behaviour of the reactive species. The migration-controlled generation of ECO can be accelerated under turbulent hydrodynamic conditions. The formation of disinfection by-products (AOX) correlates with the introduced electric charge Q applied per volume and is independent of the applied current density.

  17. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... of work • harassing telephone calls • spying on you • child abuse Domestic violence can be handled in three different ... or visitation privileges) Domestic violence might also involve child abuse and neglect and might impact on other areas ...

  18. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... of work • harassing telephone calls • spying on you • child abuse Domestic violence can be handled in three different ... or visitation privileges) Domestic violence might also involve child abuse and neglect and might impact on other areas ...

  19. Domestic violence surveillance system:a model

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Rafael; Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Mena-Muñoz, Jorge Humberto; Córdoba, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a domestic violence surveillance system. Material and Methods The strategies included implementation of a standard digitalized reporting and analysis system along with advocacy with community decision makers, strengthening inter-institutional attention networks, consultation for constructing internal flow charts, sensitizing and training network teams in charge of providing health care in cases of domestic violence and supporting improved public policy prevention initiatives. Results A total of 6 893 cases were observed using 2004 and 2005 surveillance system data. The system reports that 80% of the affected were women, followed by 36% children under 14 years. The identified aggressors were mainly females' partners. The system was useful for improving victim services. Conclusions Findings indicate that significant gains were made in facilitating the attention and treatment of victims of domestic violence, improving the procedural response process and enhancing the quality of information provided to policy-making bodies. PMID:18373003

  20. Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Valipour, Alireza; Raman, V Kalyan; Ghole, V S

    2011-04-01

    Safe, economic and effective treatment of domestic wastewater is the biggest challenge the world experienced in modern times. Phytoremediation studies were undertaken in a laboratory scale using shallow pond water hyacinth (Echhornia crassipes) system and analytical data was collected before and after treatment. The studies also include microbial flora present in the system by isolating and identifying the microorganisms. At optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21 h, approximately 81% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 91% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 16% total dissolved solids (TDS), 70% total suspended solids (TSS), 4% Chlorides, 74% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 41% phosphate (PO4-P), 96% most probable number (MPN) and 98% total viable count (TVC) reduction was achieved in shallow pond water hyacinth system. The shallow pond water hyacinth system shows better treatment efficiency compared to conventional water hyacinth system. The process indicates a possibility of development of a substantially effective shallow pond water hyacinth system for domestic wastewater treatment.

  1. Handbook for Domestic Violence Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Springfield.

    This handbook provides guidance for women in Illinois who are victims of domestic violence and spouse abuse. It consists of facts about domestic violence, a survival sheet telling what to do before, during, and after incidents of domestic violence, and advice on seeking emergency assistance and shelter. It then provides advice and resources on…

  2. Domestic fuelwood use in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1986-01-01

    A telephone survey of Louisiana households and commercial vendors of domestic fuelwood was conducted in 1984 to assess domestic fuelwood use and sources of production.Twenty-two percent of the households surveyed used fuelwood during the 1983-84 heating season.Domestic fuelwood production amounted to 981,000 m3, an amount comparable to 10% of Louisiana's 1982...

  3. Handbook for Domestic Violence Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Springfield.

    This handbook provides guidance for women in Illinois who are victims of domestic violence and spouse abuse. It consists of facts about domestic violence, a survival sheet telling what to do before, during, and after incidents of domestic violence, and advice on seeking emergency assistance and shelter. It then provides advice and resources on…

  4. The synergistic effects of dissolved oxygen and pH on N2O production in biological domestic wastewater treatment under nitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengzhang; Wang, Shuying; Peng, Yongzhen; Liu, Yue; He, Janzhong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas, which is produced during nitrifying and denitrifying processes. Some factors and mechanisms affecting N2O emission have been reported in previous literature, but wastewater biological nitrification is accompanied by a dynamic process of dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption and pH reduction, it is more meaningful to study the synergistic effects between DO and pH on N2O production. In this study, the synergistic effects between DO and pH on N2O production were investigated with real domestic wastewater. The results showed that high DO levels and a high pH could improve the oxidation ratio of NH4+-N and the production ratio of NO2--N, while effectively reducing the accumulation ratio of N2O. The NH4+-N was a prerequisite for nitrifier denitrification; when NH4+-N was oxidized completely, there would be no N2O production and an even higher concentration of NO2- The pH factor is shown to directly affect N2O emission, although free ammonia and free nitrous acid which changed with pH had no correlation with N2O emission. There were two reasons: (1) pH can influence the flow direction of electrons afforded by NH2OH oxidation; at high pH, electrons were mainly used for combining H+ and O2 (O2+4H++4e-=2H2O), the accumulation of NO2- cannot be a result of denitrification, and a higher DO can get more electrons to prefer NO2- and (2) NH4+ was the prerequisite for NH2OH oxidation, since NH2OH oxidation process was the way to provide electrons for nitrifier denitrification.

  5. The Role of Attitudes to, and the Frequency of, Domestic Violence Encounters in the Healthcare Professionals’ Handling of Domestic Violence Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zorjan, Saša; Smrke, Urška; Šprah, Lilijana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic violence is recognized as a public health problem with a high prevalence in the general population. Healthcare professionals play an important role in the recognition and treatment of domestic violence. Hence, conducting research on factors that facilitate or inhibit appropriate actions by healthcare professionals is of the upmost importance. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between healthcare professionals’ attitudes toward the acceptability of domestic violence and their responses when dealing with victims of domestic violence. Methods The sample consisted of 322 healthcare professionals (physicians, dentists, nursing staff and other healthcare workers; 85.2% female), who completed a questionnaire, assessing their attitudes towards domestic violence, experience, behaviour and perceived barriers in recognizing and treating domestic violence in the health care sector. The study was cross-sectional and used availability sampling. Results The results showed no significant differences in domestic violence acceptability attitudes when comparing groups of healthcare professionals who reported low or high frequency of domestic violence cases encounters. Furthermore, we found that domestic violence acceptability attitudes were negatively associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was high and medium. However, the attitudes were not associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was low. Conclusions The results highlight the important role of attitudes in action taking of healthcare professionals when it comes to domestic violence. This indicates the need for educational interventions that specifically target healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards domestic violence. PMID:28713445

  6. The Role of Attitudes to, and the Frequency of, Domestic Violence Encounters in the Healthcare Professionals' Handling of Domestic Violence Cases.

    PubMed

    Zorjan, Saša; Smrke, Urška; Šprah, Lilijana

    2017-09-01

    Domestic violence is recognized as a public health problem with a high prevalence in the general population. Healthcare professionals play an important role in the recognition and treatment of domestic violence. Hence, conducting research on factors that facilitate or inhibit appropriate actions by healthcare professionals is of the upmost importance. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between healthcare professionals' attitudes toward the acceptability of domestic violence and their responses when dealing with victims of domestic violence. The sample consisted of 322 healthcare professionals (physicians, dentists, nursing staff and other healthcare workers; 85.2% female), who completed a questionnaire, assessing their attitudes towards domestic violence, experience, behaviour and perceived barriers in recognizing and treating domestic violence in the health care sector. The study was cross-sectional and used availability sampling. The results showed no significant differences in domestic violence acceptability attitudes when comparing groups of healthcare professionals who reported low or high frequency of domestic violence cases encounters. Furthermore, we found that domestic violence acceptability attitudes were negatively associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was high and medium. However, the attitudes were not associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was low. The results highlight the important role of attitudes in action taking of healthcare professionals when it comes to domestic violence. This indicates the need for educational interventions that specifically target healthcare professionals' attitudes towards domestic violence.

  7. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    PubMed

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed.

  8. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-27

    Council in Los Angeles, California, July 25, 1996. 9 Robert B Murrett, “NGA — Then and Now; Celebrating 10 Years of GEOINT,” Pathfinder , September/October...Domestic Spy Satellites before the House Committee on Homeland Security, September 6, 2007; also, Statement of Lisa Graves, Deputy Director of the Center...United States House of Representatives, September 1, 2007. 24 Lisa Graves, Deputy Director of the Center for National Security Studies, Statement before

  9. Dermatophytoses in domesticated animals.

    PubMed

    Nweze, Emeka I

    2011-01-01

    Dermatophytes are among the most frequent causes of ringworm infections in domesticated animals. They are known to serve as reservoirs of the zoophilic dermatophytes and these infections have important zoonotic implication. In Nigeria and probably West Africa, there are not many studies on the incidence of dermatophytosis in domesticated animals. In the current study, 538 domesticated animals with clinically suggestive lesions were investigated for dermatophytes. Identification of dermatophyte species was performed by macro- and micro morphological examination of colonies and by biochemical methods. In the cases of isolates that had atypical morphology and/or biochemical test results, the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS 2) sequencing was performed. Out of this number, 214 (39.8%) were found to be colonized by a variety of ten species of dermatophytes. M. canis was the most frequently isolated species (37.4%), followed by T. mentagrophytes (22.9%) and T. verrucosum (15.9%). M. persicolor and T. gallinae were jointly the least species isolated with a frequency of 0.55% respectively. The recovery of dermatophyte isolates previously shown to be common etiological agents of dermatophytosis especially from children in the same region suggests that animal to human transmission may be common. Possible implications and recommendations are discussed.

  10. Endorsement of Couples Counseling in a Domestic Violence Case as a Function of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bapat, Mona; Tracey, Terence

    2009-01-01

    Reactions of students in helping professions to domestic violence were examined with respect to whether or not the students had any training in domestic violence. One hundred, four students read one of two vignettes describing a domestic violence case and responded to statements related to treatment options. The vignettes differed only in…

  11. Endorsement of Couples Counseling in a Domestic Violence Case as a Function of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bapat, Mona; Tracey, Terence

    2009-01-01

    Reactions of students in helping professions to domestic violence were examined with respect to whether or not the students had any training in domestic violence. One hundred, four students read one of two vignettes describing a domestic violence case and responded to statements related to treatment options. The vignettes differed only in…

  12. Domestically and Generally Violent Forensic Psychiatric Outpatients: Personality Traits and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsveld, Ruud H. J.; Bezuijen, Siemon; Leenaars, Ellie E. M.; Kraaimaat, Floris W.

    2008-01-01

    A group of 63 domestically violent patients and a group of 103 generally violent patients at a Dutch forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic are examined with regard to personality traits and problem behaviors to develop treatment programs for domestically violent patients. The domestically violent patients are more unstable from a psychological…

  13. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Briana L.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that these genetic inferences are fundamentally compatible with recent archaeological data that support a view of domestication as a geographically diffuse, gradual process. In this review, we summarize methodologies ranging from QTL mapping to resequencing used in genetic analyses of crop evolution. We also highlight recent major insights regarding the timing and spatial patterning of crop domestication and the distinct genetic underpinnings of domestication, diversification, and improvement traits. PMID:20541451

  14. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

    PubMed

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  15. Determination of selected natural hormones and endocrine disrupting compounds in domestic wastewater treatment plants by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Muz, Melis; Sönmez, M Selcen; Komesli, Okan Tarık; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Gökçay, Celal Ferdi

    2012-02-21

    A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of two natural hormones (progesterone and estrone) and two selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs) (diltiazem and carbamazepine (Cbz)) was developed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) after pre-concentration with solid phase extraction (SPE). Influent and effluent samples taken from five different wastewater treatment plants throughout Turkey namely Hurma/Antalya, Lara/Antalya, Kemer-1 and Kemer-2 and METU/Ankara were analyzed for their EDCs contents under the optimum conditions. All of the parameters in the pre-concentration step were optimized and the best recoveries for all compounds of interest were achieved at pH 7 (about 100%). Progesterone was not detected in any of the treatment plants while diltiazem was found in all samples with the exception of Lara effluent.

  16. Diverse faces of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tanya R; Aviles, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the most common causes of serious injury among women. Domestic violence victims endure physical and psychological sequelae that often go undetected by the health care professionals they encounter. There are many barriers women who are victims of domestic violence face. Women of color encounter additional barriers such as stereotypes that construct domestic violence as a "minority" issue. This article surveys the relevant literature to provide the reader with a review of the current state of knowledge for this special sub-population of domestic violence victims. Health care professionals need to be aware of the issues of this sub-population and be appropriately educated and trained to actively screen them. In addition, health care professionals need to be culturally sensitive to the needs of women of color who may experience domestic violence in order to appropriately screen and refer women for services that meet their needs.

  17. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    PubMed

    Zhangyuan, Pan; Xiaoyun, He; Xiangyu, Wang; Xiaofei, Guo; Xiaohan, Cao; Wenping, Hu; Ran, Di; Qiuyue, Liu; Mingxing, Chu

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  18. Core questions in domestication research

    PubMed Central

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared. PMID:25713127

  19. Occurrence and fate of phthalate esters in full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plants and their impact on receiving waters along the Songhua River in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dawen; Li, Zhe; Wen, Zhidan; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of six phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were investigated as phthalates passed through three full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment processes, and ultimately into the recipient Songhua River water in Harbin (China). The six phthalates were detected in the majority of aqueous and solid samples, with DEHP being the most abundant compound. The overall removal efficiency of ΣPAEs in the Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) process was over 72%, while both the A/O and A/A/O processes achieved approximately 30% removal. The better performance of the CAST process relative to the Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic (A/A/O) processes was attributed to the indoor-conditions of the CAST plants, which effectively maintained the temperature of the treatment system. The fate of PAEs within two different types of WWTPs (CAST and A/A/O) were assessed qualitatively using mass balances. The results suggested that PAEs removal resulted from both biotransformation and adsorption, of which the former was particularly significant in the CAST process, while the latter was more significant in the A/A/O process. Substantial levels of several PAEs were detected in the Songhua River, especially downstream of the WWTPs, which means that the discharge from WWTPs has a strong impact on the water quality of the Songhua River during cold winter conditions.

  20. Efficiency of a locally designed pilot-scale trickling biofilter (TBF) system in natural environment for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Tabassum; Rehman, Abdul; Naz, Iffat; Ullah, Rahat; Ahmed, Safia

    2017-06-07

    In the present study, a cost-effective and simple stone media pilot-scale trickling biofilter (TBF) was designed, constructed and operated in a continuous recirculation mode for wastewater treatment with a hydraulic flow rate of 1.2 L/min (Q = 0.072 m(3)/h) and hydraulic loading (Q/A) of 0.147 m(3)/day for 15 weeks at a temperature range of 14.5-36°C. A substantial reduction in the average concentration of different pollution indicators, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85.6%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) (85.6%), total dissolved solid (TDS) (62.8%), total suspended solid (TSS) (99.9%), electrical conductivity (EC) (15.1%), phosphates (63.22%), sulfates (28.5%) and total nitrogen (TN) (34.4%), was observed during 15 weeks of operational period. Whereas a considerable average increase in the levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) (63.2%) was found after treatment of wastewater by the TBF system. No significant reduction in most probable number (MPN) index of fecal coliforms was observed in the effluent in first 9 weeks of operation. However, a significant reduction in the MPN of fecal coliforms was observed, i.e. 80-90% in the last few weeks of treatment. Thus, overall results suggest that pilot-scale TBF has a great potential to be transferred to field scale for treating sewage for small communities in developing countries, in order to produce effluent of good quality, which can be safely used for irrigation as well as ornamental purposes.

  1. Degradation of emergent contaminants by UV, UV/H2O2 and neutral photo-Fenton at pilot scale in a domestic wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, N; Esquius, L; Grandjean, D; Magnet, A; Tungler, A; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the removal of 22 selected micropollutants in an effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) at pilot scale. A reactor of 37 L with five low pressure mercury lamps emitting at 254 nm (UV254) was used. The 22 micropollutants include 15 pharmaceuticals, 2 X-Ray contrast medias, 1 corrosion inhibitor and 4 biocides/pesticides. Five of these 22 compounds were used as indicative substances as proposed by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) (carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole and mecoprop). Treatments included UV254 light alone, UV254 + H2O2 and UV254 + H2O2+Fe(3+). Wastewater coming from the MWTP already contained iron with an average total iron of 1.6 mg L(-1). Original pH was not modified and remained between 6 and 7. The parameters changed during the experiments to find the optimal conditions were: wastewater flow rate (2-14 m(3) h(-1)), H2O2 concentration (20-50 mg L(-1)) and Fe (III) concentration (0-4 mg L(-1)). Chemicals removal rates were greater than 80% for the majority of the flow rates tested. Operating costs for the different conditions evaluated were also estimated and compared.

  2. Domestic and Domesticating Education in the Late Victorian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the various types of domestic education, particularly cookery, available in Manchester between 1870 and 1902. The work of the two local School Boards and the Manchester School of Domestic Economy are shown as part of a complicated network of provision--a mixed economy of welfare, including enthusiastic philanthropists and…

  3. Domestic and Domesticating Education in the Late Victorian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the various types of domestic education, particularly cookery, available in Manchester between 1870 and 1902. The work of the two local School Boards and the Manchester School of Domestic Economy are shown as part of a complicated network of provision--a mixed economy of welfare, including enthusiastic philanthropists and…

  4. Global Positioning System Derived Performance Measures Are Responsive Indicators of Physical Activity, Disease and the Success of Clinical Treatments in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761

  5. Comparative investigation on integrated vertical-flow biofilters applying sulfur-based and pyrite-based autotrophic denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Dong, Shanshan; Chen, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Two parallel biofilters applying sulfur/pyrite-based autotrophic denitrification were investigated for removing COD, TP and TN by a coordinated process. Results demonstrated good performance by removing 86.32% vs 87.14% COD and 92.56% vs 89.65% NH4(+)-N. Biofilter with sulfur (BS) was superior on nitrate (89.74% vs 80.72%) and TN removal (83.18% vs 70.42%) while biofilter with pyrite (BP) was better on TP removal (82.58% vs 77.40%) and maintaining sulfate (27.56mgL(-1) vs 41.55mgL(-1)) and pH (7.13 vs 6.31). Water-permeable adsorbents lowered clogging risk and buffered loading. Clone library revealed reasons of diversities, pH variation and sulfate accumulation of both biofilters. Sulfur was efficient on denitrification but whose byproducts were troublesome, pyrite produced less byproduct but which was sensitive to organics. This research was the first attempt to systematically compare two promising alternatives and their merits/demerits for rural wastewater on-site treatment.

  6. Performance comparison and economics analysis of waste stabilization ponds and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: a case study of the Juja sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Njenga; Tebitendwa, Sylvie M; van Bruggen, Johan J A; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-10-15

    The performance, effluent quality, land area requirement, investment and operation costs of a full-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) and a pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) were investigated between November 2010 to January 2011. Both systems gave comparable medium to high levels of organic matter and suspended solids removal. However, the WSP showed a better removal for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Ammonium (NH4(+)-N). Based on the population equivalent calculations, the land area requirement per person equivalent of the WSP system was 3 times the area that would be required for the HSSF-CW to treat the same amount of wastewater. The total annual cost estimates consisting of capital, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs were comparable for both systems. However, the evaluation of the capital cost of either system showed that it is largely influenced by the size of the population served, local cost of land and the construction materials involved. Hence, one can select either system in terms of treatment efficiency. When land is available other factor including the volume of wastewater or the investment, and O&M costs determine the technology selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Complexities of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by Robert Bornstein, "The complex relationship between dependency and domestic violence: Converging psychological factors and social forces." Although a more focused examination of the psychological factors involved in domestic violence is welcome, there are some factual errors in Bornstein's article that need attention and…

  8. The Complexities of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by Robert Bornstein, "The complex relationship between dependency and domestic violence: Converging psychological factors and social forces." Although a more focused examination of the psychological factors involved in domestic violence is welcome, there are some factual errors in Bornstein's article that need attention and…

  9. A cup full of domesticity: the "Duke-Fingard" vaporizer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Mallory

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the history of the "Duke-Fingard" domestic medical vaporizer. It considers the emergence of this Canadian device out of Rudolph Duke and David Fingard's larger institutional inhalation treatment system, and seeks to trace and explain the medical, social, commercial and cultural influences that shaped its subsequent sale, use of electricity, and design. What emerges through this synchronic and microhistorical analysis is a more concrete sense of the practice of domestic medicine during a transformative period of Canadian medical history.

  10. Occurrence and removal of butyltin compounds in a waste stabilisation pond of a domestic waste water treatment plant of a rural French town.

    PubMed

    Sabah, A; Bancon-Montigny, C; Rodier, C; Marchand, P; Delpoux, S; Ijjaali, M; Tournoud, M-G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate and behaviour of butyltin pollutants, including monobutyltin (MBT), dibutylin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT), in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The study was conducted as part of a baseline survey and included five sampling campaigns comprising bottom sludge and the water column from each pond from a typical WSP in France. Butyltins were detected in all raw wastewater and effluents, reflecting their widespread use. Our results revealed high affinity between butyltins and particulate matter and high accumulation of butyltins in the sludge taken from anaerobic ponds. The dissolved butyltins in the influent ranged from 21.5 to 28.1 ng(Sn).L(-1) and in the effluent, from 8.8 to 29.3 ng(Sn).L(-1). The butyltin concentrations in the sludge ranged from 45.1 to 164 and 3.6-8.1 ng(Sn).g(-1) respectively in the first and last ponds. Our results showed an average treatment efficiency of 71% for MBT, 47% for DBT, 55% for TBT. Laboratory sorption experiments enabled the calculation of a distribution coefficient (Kd = 75,000 L.kg-1) between TBT and particulate matter from the WSPs. The Kd explained the accumulation and persistence of the TBT in the sludge after settling of particulate matter. The continuous supply of contaminated raw wastewater and the sorption-desorption processes in the ponds led to incomplete bio- and photolytic degradation and to the persistence of butyltins in dissolved and particulate matrices throughout the survey period. It is thus recommended to use shallow ponds and to pay particular attention when sludge is used for soil amendment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics.

  12. Myofasciitis in the domestic ferret.

    PubMed

    Garner, M M; Ramsell, K; Schoemaker, N J; Sidor, I F; Nordhausen, R W; Bolin, S; Evermann, J F; Kiupel, M

    2007-01-01

    Since late 2003, an inflammatory disease of muscle and fascia has been diagnosed in several ferrets at Northwest ZooPath, and this report describes the condition in 17 ferrets. It is a disease of young ferrets, characterized by rapid onset of clinical signs, high fever, neutrophilic leukocytosis, treatment failure, and death (or euthanasia). Gross lesions include atrophy of skeletal muscle; red and white mottling and dilatation of the esophagus; and splenomegaly. Histologically, moderate to severe suppurative to pyogranulomatous inflammation is in the skeletal muscle and the fascia at multiple sites, including esophagus, heart, limbs, body wall, head, and lumbar regions. Myeloid hyperplasia of spleen and/or bone marrow also is a prominent feature. Ultrastructural lesions include mitochondrial swelling, intracellular edema, disruption of myofibrils and Z bands. Bacterial and viral cultures, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction were negative for a variety of infectious agents. The clinical presentation and distribution of lesions suggests that polymyositis in domestic ferrets is likely a distinct entity. The etiopathogenesis if this condition is not known.

  13. Readiness of nursing students to screen women for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Khater, Marva; Ighbariyea, Raeqa; Herbet, Hanin

    2016-09-01

    Although domestic violence against women is common in Israel and elsewhere, and though medical staff in Israel have a universal obligation to screen women for domestic violence, actual screening rates remain low. To examine which variables affect nursing students' intention to screen women for domestic violence when providing treatment, and whether the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) developed by Ajzen (1991) predicts this intention. This study is a quantitative cross sectional study. A large academic nursing school in central Israel. A convenience sample of 200 nursing students who had completed at least one year of studies took part in the study. Students completed a questionnaire based on the TPB. Nursing students showed high intention to screen women for domestic violence when providing treatment. Normative beliefs, subjective norms, behavioral beliefs, perceived control, and knowledge were found to affect students' intention to screen women for domestic violence. The opinion of the clinical instructor was most significant for students. The theoretical model predicted 32% of students' intention to screen women for domestic violence, with normative beliefs being the most significant variable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal biology of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Collier, Robert J; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment is the most important ecological factor determining the growth, development, and productivity of domestic animals. Routes of energy exchange (sensible heat and latent heat) between animals and their environment are greatly influenced by body weight, fat deposition, hair-coat properties, functional activity, and number of sweat glands, as well as the presence or absence of anatomical respiratory countercurrent heat exchange capability. Differences in these anatomical features across species have led to specialization of heat exchange. Thermal plasticity and degree of acclimation are critical factors determining the ability of animals to respond to environmental change. Increases in productive capability of domestic animals can compromise thermal acclimation and plasticity, requiring greater investments in housing systems that reduce variability of the thermal environment. The combination of steadily increasing metabolic heat production as domestic animal productivity increases and a rising world temperature poses ongoing and future challenges to maintaining health and well-being of domestic animals.

  15. How to make a domesticate.

    PubMed

    Stetter, Markus G; Gates, Daniel J; Mei, Wenbin; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2017-09-11

    The Neolithic Revolution brought about the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary societies, laying the foundation for the development of modern civilizations. The primary innovation that facilitated these changes was the domestication of plants and animals. In the case of plants, this involved the cultivation and selection of individuals with larger edible parts, easier harvesting, and decreased defenses, traits that allowed for the production of a food surplus and occupational specialization. Plant domestication is a process which started approximately 10,000 years ago and has thereafter been repeated independently in many locales around the world. Here, we offer a perspective that seeks to predict what factors influence the success of domestication, how many genes contributed to the process, where these genes originated and the implications for de novo domestication. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Mycoses in domestic animals].

    PubMed

    García, M E; Blanco, J L

    2000-03-01

    In the present paper we will present a general view of the main mycoses affecting domestic animals. In the dog, we show the importance of the dermatophytoses, increased by its zoonosic character and the problem of the false negatives in the traditional microbiological culture. Under the general term of systemic mycoses we include a series of conditions considered usually as aspergillosis, bat with more and more fungal species implicated as possible etiological agents. In addition, fungi, especially yeasts, are being implicated in canine otitis; in our laboratory 86 % of canine chronic otitis involve a yeast etiology, alone or in collaboration with bacteria. In the cat, dermatophytes are more common than in the dog, and are the main source of infection in man, with the description of a high percentage of healthy carrier animals. Cryptococcosis is a severe disease, usually secondary to other process, especially feline immunodeficiency. In cows we refer to fungal abortion, with three main fungi implicated: Aspergillus, Candida and Zygomycetes. In some areas of our country the percentage of fungal abortion is around 10 %. A consequence of the multiple use of antibiotics in mastitis is selection of yeasts, especially those included in the genera Candida and Cryptococcus. Bovine dermatophytoses is an extensively disseminated disease in our country, with a commercial specific vaccine available. In small ruminants, Cryptococcus causes severe pneumonic processes that could be confused clinically with other conditions. An additional important question is the description of isolation of this fungus from tree leaves. In poultry, aspergillosis is a known and controlled disease, but with more importance in captive wild birds with an ecological value. In horses, we emphasize the lung infections by different fungi, specially Pneumocystis carinii, and arthritis by yeasts as consequence of wound contamination or surgery.

  17. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M.; Jones, A. Maxwell P.; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M.

    2012-01-01

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security. PMID:21920983

  18. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M

    2012-03-22

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security.

  19. Domestic violence: an educational imperative?

    PubMed

    Chambliss, L R; Bay, R C; Jones, R F

    1995-03-01

    In the US, domestic violence is the most common cause of injury to women, and, because they are women's primary care physicians, obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are in a position to identify battered women. With legislation pending that would require federally-funded medical education to include domestic violence in its curriculum, a survey was conducted of all OB-GYN residencies to determine their current status in the provision of domestic violence education. With 83% of the programs responding (n = 264), it was found that 28% had at least one faculty member with expertise in domestic violence, that the incidence of domestic violence among clients was underestimated, and that 75% of respondents did not recognize at least 1 of the 10 common clinical scenarios as suggestive of battering (at least 44% failed to recognize the risk factors of no prenatal care, preterm labor, emergency room visits, and psychiatric diagnoses). Only 28% of respondents reported that they teach residents to ask all or almost all patients about battering. Most respondents expressed dissatisfaction with their coverage of this topic and asked for help in curriculum development. In addition, 40% were unaware of the pending federal legislation. This study concluded that there is a strong need to develop an OB-GYN curriculum that deals with domestic violence but that further study is needed to determine the optimal teaching methods.

  20. A collection and treatment system for organic waste and wastewater in a sensitive rural area.

    PubMed

    Malmén, L; Palm, O; Norin, E

    2003-01-01

    In the municipality of Sund, located in a sensitive rural area in Aland, a demonstration project is now carried out with the overall objective to move the most concentrated fractions of wastewater from the coastal area to a treatment plant situated close to arable land. Blackwater and greywater septic sludge from about twenty households and two tourist camps are treated together with energy rich organic material from a nearby potato-chip factory. The collection concept is based on the use of extremely efficient water-saving toilets, with separate systems for the blackwater and greywater in the households. The collected materials are co-treated in a batchwise aerobic thermophilic treatment process (wet composting process), where the materials reach at least 55 degrees C during a minimum of 10 hours. The dry matter content of the collected material was about 2%. After stabilisation and sanitation (by the temperature rise caused by microbial activity during the treatment process), the compost slurry is utilized as a liquid organic fertilizer on arable land.

  1. Female domestic violence offenders: their attachment security, trauma symptoms, and personality organization.

    PubMed

    Goldenson, Julie; Geffner, Robert; Foster, Sharon L; Clipson, Clark R

    2007-01-01

    Unlike male domestic violence offenders, female domestic violence offenders have traditionally been overlooked in research and theory, despite the fact that females also have high rates of domestic violence perpetration. Towards the aim of extending extant research on male and female pepetrators of domestic violence, we examined attachment style, trauma symptoms, and personality organization in 33 female offenders receiving mandated treatment for domestic violence. These offenders were compared to 32 nonoffending women receiving psychological treatment. The Experiences in Close Relationships Revised (ECR-Revised) was used to examine adult attachment, the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) was used to examine trauma symptomology, and finally, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) was used to examine cluster B personality traits. Analyses indicated that female domestic violence offenders reported less attachment security, more trauma-related symptoms, and more personality psychopathology (Antisocial, Borderline, and Dependent Subscales) than did nonoffender clinical comparison women.

  2. 31 CFR 500.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 500.320 Section 500... § 500.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States... Secretary of the Treasury may also authorize any other banking institution to be treated as a “domestic...

  3. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of... Treasury may also authorize any other banking institution to be treated as a “domestic bank” for...

  4. 37 CFR 3.61 - Domestic representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic representative. 3.61... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Domestic Representative § 3.61 Domestic... is not domiciled in the United States, the assignee may designate a domestic representative in...

  5. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States... Treasury may also authorize any other banking institution to be treated as a “domestic bank” for...

  6. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535... § 535.320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United... Treasury may also authorize any other banking institution to be treated as a “domestic bank” for...

  7. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515... § 515.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States... Secretary of the Treasury may also authorize any other banking institution to be treated as a “domestic...

  8. 37 CFR 3.61 - Domestic representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic representative. 3.61... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Domestic Representative § 3.61 Domestic... is not domiciled in the United States, the assignee may designate a domestic representative in...

  9. Child Domestic Work. Innocenti Digest 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Comp.; Blagbrough, Jonathan, Comp.

    Child "domestics" or "domestic workers" are defined here as children under the age of 18 who work in other people's households, doing domestic chores, caring for children and running errands, among other tasks. This digest focuses mainly on the situation of live-in child domestics, that is, children who work full time in…

  10. Child Domestic Work. Innocenti Digest 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Comp.; Blagbrough, Jonathan, Comp.

    Child "domestics" or "domestic workers" are defined here as children under the age of 18 who work in other people's households, doing domestic chores, caring for children and running errands, among other tasks. This digest focuses mainly on the situation of live-in child domestics, that is, children who work full time in…

  11. The Therapeutic Efficacy of Domestic Violence Victim Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan

    2016-04-01

    A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Association between domestic violence and women's quality of life 1

    PubMed Central

    de Lucena, Kerle Dayana Tavares; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo; do Nascimento, João Agnaldo; Campos, Hemílio Fernandes Coelho; Oliveira, Elaine Cristina Tôrres

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the association between domestic violence against women and quality of life. Method: a cross-sectional population-based household survey conducted with women 18 years and older, using a stratified sample by neighborhoods. For analysis, prevalence of domestic violence and quality of life index was verified and logistic regression was used to determine associations, with a significance level of 5%. Results: 424 women who had a prevalence of domestic violence of 54.4% and a quality of life index of 61.59 participated in this study. It was verified, through logistic regression, that domestic violence is associated with women's quality of life (p=0,017). The observed variables that influence the occurrence of domestic violence were in the social relations domain (p=0,000), provision of medical treatment for women (p=0,019) and safety (p=0,006). Conclusion: the study confirmed the evidence of an association between domestic violence against women and quality of life, a situation that reaffirms the importance of constructing public policies focused on gender emancipation. PMID:28591305

  13. Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.

    PubMed

    Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-01-01

    This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed.

  14. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; REID, MEGAN; STRICKLER, JENNIFER; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm. PMID:24273358

  15. State Support of Domestic Production

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  16. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  17. Domestic violence documentation project 2012.

    PubMed

    Nittis, Maria; Hughes, Rod; Gray, Cecile; Ashton, Mandy

    2013-08-01

    One in four women presenting to Emergency Departments in Australia have experienced domestic violence in their lives but there are no specialist services for victims of domestic violence in the state of New South Wales, population of 7.25 million. Fundamental forensic medical and nursing skills developed for the comprehensive assessment of complainants of sexual assault were utilised in the examination of victims of domestic violence in a trial project at Nepean Hospital, Sydney. The project was then reviewed via a series of qualitative patient and police interviews along with an analysis of court outcomes. Assessment by specialists in forensic documentation and interpretation of injuries with the provision of balanced expert opinions for court purposes can result in a number of benefits for the victims and the criminal justice system, including an increase in the rate of successful prosecutions. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Superheroes and masterminds of plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ainsworth, Natalia E; Tenaillon, Maud I

    2016-01-01

    Domestication is one of the most fundamental changes in the evolution of human societies. The geographical origins of domesticated plants are inferred from archaeology, ecology and genetic data. Scenarios vary among species and include single, diffuse or multiple independent domestications. Cultivated plants present a panel of traits, the "domestication syndrome" that distinguish them from their wild relatives. It encompasses yield-, food usage-, and cultivation-related traits. Most genes underlying those traits are "masterminds" affecting the regulation of gene networks. Phenotypic convergence of domestication traits across species or within species between independently domesticated forms rarely coincides with convergence at the gene level. We review here current data/models that propose a protracted transition model for domestication and investigate the impact of mating system, life cycle and gene flow on the pace of domestication. Finally, we discuss the cost of domestication, pointing to the importance of characterizing adaptive functional variation in wild resources.

  19. Assessment of Domestic Appliance Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeanette Rosamond

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify the factors involved in eliciting a subjective reaction to domestic appliance noise, (ii) to identify the noise index (or indices) that correlate highly with a subjective reaction to the noise, and (iii) to investigate the contribution of domestic appliance noise to an individual's daily noise dose. Two series of experimental studies were carried out using several examples of each of five types of domestic appliances. One determined the index values of domestic appliance noise--namely L_{WA} (using ISO 3741), L_{pA} , L_{pD}, L _{p}, PNL, L_{Aeq, 30 sec}, L_{Amax} and L_{AX}; the other determined subjective reactions to domestic appliance noise (judgements of noisiness, annoyance, the acceptability of the appliance noise and appraisals of usefulness). The success or failure of the research hypotheses was assessed statistically by analysis of variance, regression analysis, log linear analysis, Hotelling test, bootstrapping, t-test and post-hoc comparisons. Ratings of annoyance, noisiness and the acceptability of the noise of the appliance were found to be interrelated and interdependent, and not influenced by appraisals of usefulness of the appliances. Noisiness ratings were the most consistent of the subjective ratings investigated, and were influenced by the duration of the exposure, and the actual appliance type under investigation. Significant correlations were obtained between noisiness ratings and all the noise indices under investigation. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that L_ {WA} correlated less successfully with noisiness ratings than all other indices. L_ {Amax},L_{Aeq,30 sec }, and L_{AX} indices were the most successful. It is therefore suggested that the labelling of domestic appliance noise consist of L_{WA} and L _{Aeq} as measured in a standardised test environment. The percentage contribution of domestic appliance noise to the total

  20. A 10-year analysis of rearrests among a cohort of domestic violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Jennings, Wesley G; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In this study, survival analysis is used to examine time to rearrest for both domestic violence and nondomestic violence crimes among a cohort of domestic violence offenders (N = 286) over a 10-year period. In addition, risk factors for rearrest such as demographic, offending history, and batterer treatment variables are examined to determine their influence on domestic and nondomestic violence recidivism. Overall, the results suggest that approximately half of domestic violence offenders are rearrested. Furthermore, among those who are rearrested, they are rearrested fairly quickly and for generalized (both domestic and nondomestic violence offenses) versus specialized offending. Risk factors associated with both types of rearrest included age, marriage, and domestic violence offense history. Several additional risk factors were unique to rearrest type. Study limitations are explicitly stated and policy implications are discussed.

  1. 76 FR 62291 - National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... reauthorized the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, giving communities life- saving tools to help identify and treat child abuse or neglect. It also supports shelters, service programs, and the National... physical, psychological, and emotional harm. Children who experience domestic violence are at a higher...

  2. An unidentified Babesia of the domestic cat (Felis domesticus).

    PubMed

    Stewart, C G; Hackett, K J; Collett, M G

    1980-12-01

    An unidentified Babesia was seen in a blood smear from a cat showing signs of anaemia. The cat responded to treatment with diminazene (Berenil). The morphology of the parasite is described and a comparison is made with other Babesia which have been described from the domestic cat and wild felids. This parasite most closely resembled B. herpailuri described from a jaguarundi in South America.

  3. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  4. Domestic Violence. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse has long been recognized as a precipitating factor in many domestic violence incidents. The main type of substance abuse is alcohol usage. Forty-six percent of the offenders reported being dependent on or abusing alcohol, while another 28% were found to be dependent on opiates, cocaine, marijuana, or inhalants. Nearly two-fifths of…

  5. Girl domestic workers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mzungu, M

    1999-03-01

    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  6. Collaborating to Eliminate Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Ami

    2004-01-01

    On June 16, 2004, the College of Human Ecology (CHE), University of Minnesota partnered with a Twin Cities community service agency to host an event that raised awareness of domestic violence and also raised funds. "The Sheila Shawl Extravaganza," was a celebration of Sheila Wellstone's life (she was the wife of Minnesota senator Paul…

  7. Bringing attention to domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2014-06-03

    Nursing skills are vital to the roles of those working with victims of domestic abuse in Nottinghamshire. Specialist nurses at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust are involved in referring patients on to further support services and training hospital staff to identify and respond to signs of abuse.

  8. Effect of domestic violence training

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Eman; Keogh, Kelly; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of domestic violence education in improving physicians’ knowledge, recognition, and management of abused women. Data sources The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000, and November 1, 2012. This search was supplemented by manual searches for relevant articles using a combined text-word and MeSH-heading search strategy. Study selection Randomized controlled trials were selected that used educational interventions among physicians and provided data on the effects of the interventions. Synthesis Nine randomized controlled trials were included that described different educational approaches with various outcome measures. Three studies examined the effects of educational interventions among postgraduate trainee physicians and found an increase in knowledge but no change in behaviour with regard to identifying victims of domestic violence. Six studies examined educational interventions for practising physicians. Three of these studies used multifaceted physician training that combined education with system support interventions to change physician behaviour, such as increasing general awareness of domestic violence with brochures and posters, providing aids to remind physicians how to identify victims, facilitating physician access to victim support services, and providing audits and feedback. Multifaceted educational interventions included interactive workshops, Web-based learning, and experiential training. Another study used focus-group discussions and training, and showed improved domestic violence reporting among physicians. The remaining 2 studies showed improved perceptions of practising physicians’ self-efficacy using problem-based online learning. Conclusion It was difficult to determine the most effective educational strategy, as the educational interventions and the outcome measures varied

  9. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  10. Mental retardation and domestic violence: an ecological approach to intervention.

    PubMed

    Carlson, B E

    1997-01-01

    The public and health and law enforcement professionals have finally become aware of the problem of domestic violence among community-dwelling women with developmental disabilities such as mental retardation. This article presents an ecological approach to analyzing factors that contribute to and maintain such abuse. Service needs of women with developmental disabilities who experience domestic violence as well as assumptions that should underlie treatment are addressed within an ecological framework. Assessment and individual and group intervention are discussed, including the development of a personal safety plan. A case example is provided.

  11. Rice domestication: histories and mysteries.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L

    2012-09-01

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice.

  12. Genetic analysis of safflower domestication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an oilseed crop in the Compositae (a.k.a. Asteraceae) that is valued for its oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present an analysis of the genetic architecture of safflower domestication and compare our findings to those from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an independently domesticated oilseed crop within the same family. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying 24 domestication-related traits in progeny from a cross between safflower and its wild progenitor, Carthamus palaestinus Eig. Also, we compared QTL positions in safflower against those that have been previously identified in cultivated x wild sunflower crosses to identify instances of colocalization. Results We mapped 61 QTL, the vast majority of which (59) exhibited minor or moderate phenotypic effects. The two large-effect QTL corresponded to one each for flower color and leaf spininess. A total of 14 safflower QTL colocalized with previously reported sunflower QTL for the same traits. Of these, QTL for three traits (days to flower, achene length, and number of selfed seed) had cultivar alleles that conferred effects in the same direction in both species. Conclusions As has been observed in sunflower, and unlike many other crops, our results suggest that the genetics of safflower domestication is quite complex. Moreover, our comparative mapping results indicate that safflower and sunflower exhibit numerous instances of QTL colocalization, suggesting that parallel trait transitions during domestication may have been driven, at least in part, by parallel genotypic evolution at some of the same underlying genes. PMID:24502326

  13. Making sense of domestic violence intervention in professional health care.

    PubMed

    Husso, Marita; Virkki, Tuija; Notko, Marianne; Holma, Juha; Laitila, Aarno; Mäntysaari, Mikko

    2012-07-01

    Intervening in domestic violence in the health care and social service settings is a complex and contested issue. In this qualitative, multidisciplinary study, the barriers to but also the possibilities for health care professionals in encountering victims of violence were scrutinised. The focus was on omissions in service structure and practices. The data consisted of six focus group interviews with nurses, physicians, social workers and psychologists in specialist health care (n = 30) conducted in Finland in 2009. The aim was to explore professionals' processes of making sense of violence interventions and the organisational practices of violence interventions. Four types of framing of the domestic violence issue were identified: (i) practical frame, (ii) medical frame, (iii) individualistic frame and (iv) psychological frame. Each frame consisted of particular features relating to explaining, structuring or dismissing the question of domestic violence in health care settings. The main themes included the division of responsibilities and feasibility of treatment. All four frames underlie the tendency for healthcare professionals to arrive at sense-making practices where it is possible to focus on fixing the injuries and consequences of domestic violence and bypassing the issue of violence as the cause of symptoms and injuries. The results indicate that developing successful practices both in identifying survivors of domestic violence and in preventing further victimisation requires a broad understanding of the effects of domestic violence and the challenges for health care professionals in dealing with it. New perspectives are needed in creating adequate practices both for victims of violence seeking help and for professionals working with this issue. Strong support at the organisational level and established practices throughout the fields of health and social care are the key elements in building a responsible approach to domestic violence.

  14. 48 CFR 2129.401 - Domestic contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Domestic contracts. 2129.401 Section 2129.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... Contract Clauses 2129.401 Domestic contracts....

  15. 48 CFR 2129.401 - Domestic contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Domestic contracts. 2129.401 Section 2129.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... Contract Clauses 2129.401 Domestic contracts....

  16. EXPOSURE TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND CHILDHOOD EMOTIONAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    MBILINYI, LYUNGAI F.; LOGAN-GREENE, PATRICIA B.; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; WALKER, DENISE D.; ROFFMAN, ROGER A.; ZEGREE, JOAN

    2017-01-01

    The association between childhood exposure to domestic violence and later intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood has been well established in the literature. However, the literature examining the factors of exposure that contribute to perpetration in adulthood is fraught with mixed findings, with some studies finding a direct link between childhood domestic violence exposure and later IPV perpetration and others ruling out a link after controlling for other contextual barriers such as community violence and socioeconomic status. This study examined 124 non-treatment-seeking and unadjudicated adult male IPV perpetrators and found exposure to domestic violence in childhood contributes to the normalization of violence, which could predict future adult IPV perpetration. Practice implications are discussed, namely primary and secondary prevention of intimate partner violence.

  17. 7 CFR 993.21 - Domestic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic. 993.21 Section 993.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21 Domestic. Domestic means the United States, Canal...

  18. 12 CFR 613.3100 - Domestic lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic lending. 613.3100 Section 613.3100... Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3100 Domestic lending. (a... disposal facilities in rural areas. (e) Domestic lessors. A bank for cooperatives or agricultural...

  19. 7 CFR 993.21 - Domestic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic. 993.21 Section 993.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21 Domestic. Domestic means the United States, Canal...

  20. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.12 Domestic shipments. Domestic shipments means shipments to...

  1. 78 FR 14913 - Domestic Baggage Liability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 254 RIN 2105-AE21 Domestic Baggage Liability AGENCY: Office of the... existing regulations, this final rule raises the minimum limit on domestic baggage liability applicable to... applicable to domestic air service. Section 254.6 of this rule requires the Department to review every...

  2. 19 CFR 146.43 - Domestic status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic status. 146.43 Section 146.43 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Status of Merchandise in a Zone § 146.43 Domestic status. (a) General. Domestic status may be granted to merchandise: (1) The growth, product, or manufacture of the U.S. on...

  3. 12 CFR 613.3100 - Domestic lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lending. 613.3100 Section 613.3100... Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3100 Domestic lending. (a... disposal facilities in rural areas. (e) Domestic lessors. A bank for cooperatives or agricultural...

  4. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.12 Domestic shipments. Domestic shipments means shipments to...

  5. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  6. 19 CFR 146.43 - Domestic status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Domestic status. 146.43 Section 146.43 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Status of Merchandise in a Zone § 146.43 Domestic status. (a) General. Domestic status may be granted to merchandise: (1) The growth, product, or manufacture of the U.S. on...

  7. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  8. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by...

  9. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by...

  10. Domestic Violence against Men: Know the Signs

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Domestic violence against men isn't always easy to identify, but it can be a serious threat. Know how to recognize if ... Staff Women aren't the only victims of domestic violence. Understand the signs of domestic violence against men, ...

  11. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by...

  12. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by...

  13. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by inflicting...

  14. Domestic competitiveness in secondary wood industries

    Treesearch

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson

    2004-01-01

    As imports capture a substantial portion of the domestic wood furniture market, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain an industry perspective of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that might enhance domestic competitiveness. A mail survey was conducted...

  15. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3,000 and 10,000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced ...

  16. A pipeline strategy for grain crop domestication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...

  17. Domestic parking estimation using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzi, Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.

  18. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment....

  19. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account....

  20. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further...

  1. 49 CFR 526.3 - Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.3 Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet. Each plan submitted under section 503(b)(4) of the Motor Vehicle Information and...

  2. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment....

  3. 49 CFR 526.3 - Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.3 Transfer of vehicle from non-domestic to domestic fleet. Each plan submitted under section 503(b)(4) of the Motor Vehicle Information and...

  4. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  5. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  6. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  7. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system

  8. Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors.

  9. Ferrochromium from Domestic Lateritic Chromites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafziger, R. H.

    1988-09-01

    As part of its effort to devise suitable technology for processing low-grade domestic materials and recycling wastes, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has evaluated the feasibility of smelting a chromite concentrate derived from residues generated by the processing of nickel and cobalt from domestic later-ites. The product sought was a high-carbon ferrochromium suitable for stainless- and alloy-steel production. The concentrate was blended with re-ductants and fluxing constituents and was smelted under submerged arc conditions in a laboratory-scale, single-phase ac electric arc furnace. The results revealed that metallurgical-grade coke provides the best quality product. High-carbon ferrochromium, which met ASTM specifications except for phosphorus and sulfur, was obtained. Agglomeration of the charge materials was not required.

  10. Effects of domestication on animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kretchmer, K R; Fox, M W

    1975-02-01

    Centuries of domestication of animals by civilised man have had many measurable effects on the various species involved, but only in relatively recent history has scientific curiosity been directed to assessing their extent. The process of domestication is analysed and its known effects on animals reviewed through observations of and experiments with various species of domesticated animals conducted by researchers into animal psychology and biology. The known facts on the effects of domestication in animals are extrapolated in an attempt to determine to what extent modern man himself has been domesticated in the urban environment.

  11. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  12. Artificial cloning of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. PMID:26195770

  13. Psychopathology in women arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N= 103) completed measures of IPV victimization, perpetration, and psychopathology. Results revealed high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, substance use disorders, borderline personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Violence victimization was significantly associated with symptoms of psychopathology. Logistic regression analyses showed that sexual and psychological abuse by partners were associated with the presence of PTSD, depression, and GAD diagnoses. Results highlight the potential importance of the role of violence victimization in psychopathology. Results suggest that Axis I and Axis II psychopathology should routinely be assessed as part of violence intervention programs for women and that intervention programs could be improved by offering adjunct or integrated mental health treatment.

  14. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic... Without the United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account... domestic losses, for establishing overall domestic loss accounts, and for making additions to...

  15. Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2012-02-01

    We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative.

  16. Deciphering the genetic basis of animal domestication

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Pamela; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Genomic technologies for livestock and companion animal species have revolutionized the study of animal domestication, allowing an increasingly detailed description of the genetic changes accompanying domestication and breed development. This review describes important recent results derived from the application of population and quantitative genetic approaches to the study of genetic changes in the major domesticated species. These include findings of regions of the genome that show between-breed differentiation, evidence of selective sweeps within individual genomes and signatures of demographic events. Particular attention is focused on the study of the genetics of behavioural traits and the implications for domestication. Despite the operation of severe bottlenecks, high levels of inbreeding and intensive selection during the history of domestication, most domestic animal species are genetically diverse. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. The major insights from the surveyed studies are highlighted and directions for future study are suggested. PMID:21885467

  17. Wheat domestication: lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Charmet, Gilles

    2011-03-01

    Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated more than 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed the reconstruction of plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars. For diploid einkorn and tetraploid durum wheat, a single domestication event has likely occurred in the Karacadag Mountains, Turkey. Following a cross between tetraploid durum and diploid T. tauschii, the resultant hexaploid bread wheat was domesticated and disseminated around the Caucasian region. These polyploidisation events facilitated wheat domestication and created genetic bottlenecks, which excluded potentially adaptive alleles. With the urgent need to accelerate genetic progress to confront the challenges of climate change and sustainable agriculture, wild ancestors and old landraces represent a reservoir of underexploited genetic diversity that may be utilized through modern breeding methods. Understanding domestication processes may thus help identifying new strategies. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    PubMed Central

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic. PMID:908297

  19. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  20. Domestic Abuse in Behshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatian, Ali Akbar; Hosseini, Seyyed Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The United Nations in a resolution defined abuse as any violent act that is primarily or exclusively committed against females and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the contributing factors of husband’s violence against females residing in the city of Behshahr, Iran. Materials and Methods: We distributed a specifically designed questionnaire among 380 married females aged between 15 and 65 years. According to the Morgan table, the subjects were randomly selected from a list of 301000 females. Demographic data and data on spouse abuse were then analyzed using the SPSS software, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. According to Cronbach’s alpha, the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. Results: All of the females reported at least one form of violence within the past year, with R square 0.20, indicating that the independent variable can explain 20% of the violence against females. years of marriage, female’s education, male’s addiction and the number of children each had their share in the explanation of violence against females. Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of domestic violence in the sample population. Violence existed among all ages, social categories and male occupational groups, and also involved both employed and unemployed females. The situation regarding domestic abuse is similar worldwide. PMID:26834799