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Sample records for domestic greywater treatment

  1. Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems.

    PubMed

    Donner, E; Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Scholes, L; Lützhøft, H-C Holten; Ledin, A

    2010-05-15

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive.

  2. Quality of individual domestic greywater streams and its implication for on-site treatment and reuse possibilities.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E

    2004-09-01

    A sampling campaign was conducted in order to characterise the quality and quantity of individual domestic greywater streams. Based on the results, various scenarios of inclusion and / or exclusion of different greywater streams were explored, and their implication for on-site greywater treatment and reuse options are discussed. Domestic greywater was found to contribute as much as 55-70% of the specific daily load of TSS and BOD, in municipal sewage. The kitchen sink was signalled out as a major contributor of VSS, CODt, and BODt with 58%, 42% and 48%, of their total daily load respectively. The washing machine was established as a significant contributor of sodium, phosphate and CODt (40%, 37% and 22% of the total load). The dishwasher, although contributing only 5% of the flow, was found to be a significant contributor of phosphate and boron. The wash basin was found to be the least polluting appliance. As "demand" for greywater within the urban environment is lower than its "production", it is logical to recycle only the less polluted greywater streams. In order to explore the consequences of the above concept on discharge volume, pollutants loads and concentrations, 18 scenarios were studied, in each at least one stream was excluded from the combined greywater stream. Exclusion of the joined stream of the kitchen sink plus the highly polluted streams of the washing machine (wash + 1st rinse) and dishwasher (pre-rinse + wash) significantly improved greywater quality, with the advantage of leaving enough greywater to be reused (65-70 l/c/d).

  3. Quantification and risks associated with bacterial aerosols near domestic greywater-treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Benami, Maya; Busgang, Allison; Gillor, Osnat; Gross, Amit

    2016-08-15

    Greywater (GW) reuse can alleviate water stress by lowering freshwater consumption. However, GW contains pathogens that may compromise public health. During the GW-treatment process, bioaerosols can be produced and may be hazardous to human health if inhaled, ingested, or come in contact with skin. Using air-particle monitoring, BioSampler®, and settle plates we sampled bioaerosols emitted from recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) - a domestic GW-treatment system. An array of pathogens and indicators were monitored using settle plates and by culturing the BioSampler® liquid. Further enumeration of viable pathogens in the BioSampler® liquid utilized a newer method combining the benefits of enrichment with molecular detection (MPN-qPCR). Additionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was applied to assess risks of infection from a representative skin pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. According to the settle-plate technique, low amounts (0-9.7×10(4)CFUm(-2)h(-1)) of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli were found to aerosolize up to 1m away from the GW systems. At the 5m distance amounts of these bacteria were not statistically different (p>0.05) from background concentrations tested over 50m away from the systems. Using the BioSampler®, no bacteria were detected before enrichment of the GW-aerosols. However, after enrichment, using an MPN-qPCR technique, viable indicators and pathogens were occasionally detected. Consequently, the QMRA results were below the critical disability-adjusted life year (DALY) safety limits, a measure of overall disease burden, for S. aureus under the tested exposure scenarios. Our study suggests that health risks from aerosolizing pathogens near RVFCW GW-treatment systems are likely low. This study also emphasizes the growing need for standardization of bioaerosol-evaluation techniques to provide more accurate

  4. Quantification and risks associated with bacterial aerosols near domestic greywater-treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Benami, Maya; Busgang, Allison; Gillor, Osnat; Gross, Amit

    2016-08-15

    Greywater (GW) reuse can alleviate water stress by lowering freshwater consumption. However, GW contains pathogens that may compromise public health. During the GW-treatment process, bioaerosols can be produced and may be hazardous to human health if inhaled, ingested, or come in contact with skin. Using air-particle monitoring, BioSampler®, and settle plates we sampled bioaerosols emitted from recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) - a domestic GW-treatment system. An array of pathogens and indicators were monitored using settle plates and by culturing the BioSampler® liquid. Further enumeration of viable pathogens in the BioSampler® liquid utilized a newer method combining the benefits of enrichment with molecular detection (MPN-qPCR). Additionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was applied to assess risks of infection from a representative skin pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. According to the settle-plate technique, low amounts (0-9.7×10(4)CFUm(-2)h(-1)) of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli were found to aerosolize up to 1m away from the GW systems. At the 5m distance amounts of these bacteria were not statistically different (p>0.05) from background concentrations tested over 50m away from the systems. Using the BioSampler®, no bacteria were detected before enrichment of the GW-aerosols. However, after enrichment, using an MPN-qPCR technique, viable indicators and pathogens were occasionally detected. Consequently, the QMRA results were below the critical disability-adjusted life year (DALY) safety limits, a measure of overall disease burden, for S. aureus under the tested exposure scenarios. Our study suggests that health risks from aerosolizing pathogens near RVFCW GW-treatment systems are likely low. This study also emphasizes the growing need for standardization of bioaerosol-evaluation techniques to provide more accurate

  5. Subsurface flow reedbeds using alternative media for the treatment of domestic greywater in Monteverde, Costa Rica, Central America.

    PubMed

    Dallas, S; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of reedbeds using plastic (PET) bottle segments as an alternative low-cost media for the treatment of domestic greywater in Monteverde, Costa Rica, Central America. Twelve reedbeds consisting of four sets of triplicates were monitored through wet and dry seasons in order to determine the effect of media type (PET versus crushed rock) and the effect of plants. In both seasons, performance of the planted reedbeds with PET media, for BOD and fecal coliform removal, was either comparable to, or better than, that of the crushed rock systems. The planted PET reedbeds achieved fecal coliform removal rates > 99.9% in all cases equating to reductions of between 3 and nearly 5 log, with an average BOD outflow of 12.9 mg/L over both seasons. The hydraulic loading rate varied between 1.33 and 2.67 cm/day and hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranged from 3.5 to 7.5 days. The six reedbeds planted with Coix lacryma-jobi proved to be significantly more effective in pathogen removal and BOD reduction than the unplanted reedbeds. The planted PET reedbeds also increased their biomass by twice that of the planted crushed rock reedbeds during the study period. The majority of this increase was shown to be due to root growth. This paper discusses the implications of the above results for developing countries and identifies potential areas for further research.

  6. Characterisation and biological treatment of greywater.

    PubMed

    Hernández Leal, L; Zeeman, G; Temmink, H; Buisman, C

    2007-01-01

    Characterisation of greywater was conducted in two different greywater streams in the Netherlands (Groningen and Sneek). The concentrations of macropollutants and nutrients measured were very different in both streams; in particular the COD was 425 mg/L in Groningen's water whereas in Sneek it was 1,583 mg/L. The aerobic treatment of greywater in a fed-batch reactor led to a 90% removal of COD at different organic loading rates. Anaerobically, the removal reached 40% COD removal on average, the possible reason being the high amount of surfactants present in the influent.

  7. Nutrient addition to enhance biological treatment of greywater.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, B; Burgess, J E; Pichon, A; Harkness, J; Judd, S J

    2001-08-01

    This study compares the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and respiration rates of a microbial population treating real and synthetic greywaters dosed with nutrient supplements. The nutrient composition of the real and synthetic greywaters was analysed and the dosing regime for nitrogen, phosphorus and a range of trace metals planned accordingly. The doses consisted of eight single additives (macronutrients and trace metals) to the control greywater and six trace metal additions to C: N : P balanced greywater. The COD removal for the control real and synthetic greywater in lab-scale activated sludge systems (0.038 and 0.286 kg COD kg MLSS(-1) d(-1), respectively) confirmed nutrient limitation and the poor degree of greywater treatment. Nutrient dosing increased the COD removal rate and oxygen uptake rate in many cases. The greatest stimulation of microbial activity was observed with zinc additions to C: N: P balanced real greywater (1.291 kg COD kg MLSS(-1) d(-1) over 30 times the control). Inhibitory effects to various extents were rare and limited mainly to the additions of metals to synthetic greywater. The dominance of chemicals effects was observed on addition of some micronutrients; notably iron and aluminium, metals on which many coagulants for use in biotreatment of other wastewaters are based. The data indicate that the impact of understanding microbial processes and the nutrients required for wastewater treatment can only serve to optimise process efficiency for the proposed treatment of greywater.

  8. Characterisation of indicator organisms and pathogens in domestic greywater for recycling.

    PubMed

    Birks, R; Hills, S

    2007-06-01

    Greywater from baths, showers and washbasins was collected separately from all other domestic wastewater at a university block of flats with a dual reticulation system and analysed for a range of contaminants including indicator organisms and pathogens. Greywater flow and temperature were also monitored and a diurnal variation was observed. Physical and chemical water quality parameters were similar to previously published data, although measured COD and BOD levels appeared to be lower, possibly due to settlement or biodegradation in the storage tanks. Plate counts and indicator organism concentrations were consistently high suggesting a high level of human bacterial contamination necessitating biological treatment and disinfection if the water is to be used for recycling. However, these high levels of indicator organisms did not correlate to pathogen presence and should not be used as pathogen indicators in greywater. One positive count of Salmonella veltereden was observed as well as low levels of Giardia. Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, enteroviruses and Legionella were not identified in any of the samples. The research also highlighted a number of problems with the complexity of this type of sampling programme, such as identifying the most likely time to isolate pathogens and analysing an 'unusual' water source.

  9. The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Eriksson, Eva; Donner, Erica

    2011-02-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used for highlighting the potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the wider urban water cycle. Potential potable water savings of up to 43% are predicted for greywater recycling based on Danish water use statistics and priority substance monitoring at a greywater treatment plant in Denmark. Adsorption represents an important mechanism for the removal of cadmium, nickel, lead and nonylphenol from influent greywater and therefore the disposal route adopted for the generated sludge can exert a major impact on the overall efficiency and environmental sustainability of greywater treatment.

  10. The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Eriksson, Eva; Donner, Erica

    2011-02-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used for highlighting the potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the wider urban water cycle. Potential potable water savings of up to 43% are predicted for greywater recycling based on Danish water use statistics and priority substance monitoring at a greywater treatment plant in Denmark. Adsorption represents an important mechanism for the removal of cadmium, nickel, lead and nonylphenol from influent greywater and therefore the disposal route adopted for the generated sludge can exert a major impact on the overall efficiency and environmental sustainability of greywater treatment. PMID:21167548

  11. A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Boyjoo, Yash; Pareek, Vishnu K; Ang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of different characteristics of greywater (GW) and current treatment methods. GW is domestic wastewater excluding toilet waste and can be classified as either low-load GW (excluding kitchen and laundry GW) or high-load GW (including kitchen and/or laundry). This review provides information on the quantity of GW produced, its constituents (macro and micro), existing guidelines for wastewater reuse, current treatment methods (from storage to disinfection) as well as related costs and environmental impacts. Moreover some successful examples from various countries around the world are examined. The current preferred treatments for GW use physical and biological/natural systems. Recently, chemical systems like coagulation, adsorption and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been considered and have been successful for low to moderate strength GW. The presence of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOC), which are hazardous micropollutants in GW, is emphasised. Since conventional treatments are not efficient at removing XOC, it is recommended that future studies look at chemical treatment, especially AOPs that have been found to be successful at mineralising recalcitrant organic compounds in wastewater. PMID:23552228

  12. A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Boyjoo, Yash; Pareek, Vishnu K; Ang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of different characteristics of greywater (GW) and current treatment methods. GW is domestic wastewater excluding toilet waste and can be classified as either low-load GW (excluding kitchen and laundry GW) or high-load GW (including kitchen and/or laundry). This review provides information on the quantity of GW produced, its constituents (macro and micro), existing guidelines for wastewater reuse, current treatment methods (from storage to disinfection) as well as related costs and environmental impacts. Moreover some successful examples from various countries around the world are examined. The current preferred treatments for GW use physical and biological/natural systems. Recently, chemical systems like coagulation, adsorption and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been considered and have been successful for low to moderate strength GW. The presence of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOC), which are hazardous micropollutants in GW, is emphasised. Since conventional treatments are not efficient at removing XOC, it is recommended that future studies look at chemical treatment, especially AOPs that have been found to be successful at mineralising recalcitrant organic compounds in wastewater.

  13. Characteristics and treatment of greywater--a review.

    PubMed

    Ghaitidak, Dilip M; Yadav, Kunwar D

    2013-05-01

    Safe and sufficient quantity of water is necessary for a healthy growth of human beings. The gap between water demand and available water supply is increasing day by day. Proper sanitation, especially decentralized approach, can solve the problem of water supply and wastewater management and that can be done by reuse of greywater. Typically, from a household, greywater (GW) flow is around 65 % of the total wastewater flow. Further light greywater is around 50 % of the total GW. Hence, GW has a high potential for recycle and reuse. The aim of this article is to reveal the present state of art in GW treatment and to identify the further scope for research. Present article contains a review on per capita GW generation, GW characteristics, and its treatment. Around 22 treatment systems comprising different treatment processes are discussed in detail for removal efficiency of pollutants, effluent concentrations and their compliance with wastewater reuse guidelines and standards. Constructed wetland and filtration were found efficient in the removal of most of the reuse parameters compared to other technologies. Anaerobic followed by aerobic system with post-disinfection unit may be a sustainable option for GW treatment for reuse. There is a need to develop the technologies for GW treatment at household level to increase the reuse practises at grass root level. Further, there is need of development of flow diagram with different technologies by targeting the type of reuse (flushing, gardening, agriculture, etc.).

  14. Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Chin, W H; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2009-09-01

    Greywater treatment by UVC/H(2)O(2) was investigated with regard to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A COD reduction from 225 to 30 mgl(-1) (overall removal of 87%) was achieved after settling overnight and subsequent irradiation for 3h with 10mM H(2)O(2). Most of the contaminants were removed by oxidation since only 13% COD was removed by settlement. The removal of COD in the greywater followed a second-order kinetic equation, r=0.0637[COD][H(2)O(2)], up to 10mM H(2)O(2). A slightly enhanced COD removal was observed at the initial pH of 10 compared with pH 3 and 7. This was attributed to the dissociation of H(2)O(2) to O(2)H(-). The treatment was not affected by total concentration of carbonate (c(T)) of at least 3 mM, above which operation between pH 3 and 5 was essential. The initial biodegradability of the settled greywater (as BOD(5):COD) was 0.22. After 2h UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment, a higher proportion of the residual contaminants was biodegradable (BOD(5):COD=0.41) which indicated its potential as a pre-treatment for a biological process. PMID:19656542

  15. Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Chin, W H; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2009-09-01

    Greywater treatment by UVC/H(2)O(2) was investigated with regard to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A COD reduction from 225 to 30 mgl(-1) (overall removal of 87%) was achieved after settling overnight and subsequent irradiation for 3h with 10mM H(2)O(2). Most of the contaminants were removed by oxidation since only 13% COD was removed by settlement. The removal of COD in the greywater followed a second-order kinetic equation, r=0.0637[COD][H(2)O(2)], up to 10mM H(2)O(2). A slightly enhanced COD removal was observed at the initial pH of 10 compared with pH 3 and 7. This was attributed to the dissociation of H(2)O(2) to O(2)H(-). The treatment was not affected by total concentration of carbonate (c(T)) of at least 3 mM, above which operation between pH 3 and 5 was essential. The initial biodegradability of the settled greywater (as BOD(5):COD) was 0.22. After 2h UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment, a higher proportion of the residual contaminants was biodegradable (BOD(5):COD=0.41) which indicated its potential as a pre-treatment for a biological process.

  16. Legionella pneumophila: From potable water to treated greywater; quantification and removal during treatment.

    PubMed

    Blanky, Marina; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Halpern, Malka; Friedler, Eran

    2015-11-15

    Greywater is an alternative water source that can help alleviate stress on depleted water resources. The main options for greywater reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both producing aerosols. For that reason transmission of inhalable pathogens like Legionella present a potential risk. To improve the understanding about Legionella in greywater, we traced the pathogen seasonally from the potable water system to the final steps of the greywater treatment in four houses in northern Israel. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in order to assess background greywater quality and to establish possible associations with Legionella. The mean concentrations of Legionella pneumophila isolated from the potable water system were 6.4×10(2) and 5.9×10(3) cfu/l in cold and hot water respectively. By amending the ISO protocol for Legionella isolation from drinking water, we succeeded in quantifying Legionella in greywater. The mean Legionella concentrations that were found in raw, treated and treated chlorinated greywater were 1.2×10(5), 2.4×10(4) and 5.7×10(3) cfu/l respectively. While Legionella counts in potable water presented a seasonal pattern with high concentrations in summer, its counts in greywater presented an almost inversed pattern. Greywater treatment resulted in 95% decrease in Legionella counts. No significant difference was found between Legionella concentrations in potable water and the treated chlorinated greywater. These findings indicate that regarding Legionella, reusing treated chlorinated greywater would exhibit a risk that is very similar to the risk associated with using potable water for the same non-potable uses.

  17. Contribution of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors to Domestic Sewage by Greywaters and Blackwaters.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    N-nitrosamines and their precursors are significant concerns for water utilities exploiting wastewater-impacted water supplies, particularly those practicing potable reuse of wastewater. Previous efforts to identify specific precursors in municipal wastewater accounting for N-nitrosamine formation have met with limited success. As an alternative, we quantified the relative importance of greywater (i.e., shower, kitchen sink, bathroom washbasin, and laundry) and blackwater (i.e., urine and feces) streams in terms of their loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors to domestic sewage. Accounting for the volume fractions of individual greywater and blackwater streams, laundry water represented the most significant source of N-nitrosamines and their precursors, followed by shower water and urine. Laundry water was particularly important for ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors, accounting for ∼99% of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and ∼69% of precursors for other uncharacterized N-nitrosamines. For the other greywater streams, consumer products contributed additional N-nitrosamines and precursors, but the remarkable uniformity across different products suggested the importance of common macroconstituents. The consumption of a standard dose of the antacid ranitidine substantially increased NDMA and its chloramine-reactive precursors in urine. Nevertheless, nearly 40% of the American population would need to consume ranitidine daily to match the NDMA loadings from laundry water.

  18. Contribution of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors to Domestic Sewage by Greywaters and Blackwaters.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    N-nitrosamines and their precursors are significant concerns for water utilities exploiting wastewater-impacted water supplies, particularly those practicing potable reuse of wastewater. Previous efforts to identify specific precursors in municipal wastewater accounting for N-nitrosamine formation have met with limited success. As an alternative, we quantified the relative importance of greywater (i.e., shower, kitchen sink, bathroom washbasin, and laundry) and blackwater (i.e., urine and feces) streams in terms of their loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors to domestic sewage. Accounting for the volume fractions of individual greywater and blackwater streams, laundry water represented the most significant source of N-nitrosamines and their precursors, followed by shower water and urine. Laundry water was particularly important for ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors, accounting for ∼99% of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and ∼69% of precursors for other uncharacterized N-nitrosamines. For the other greywater streams, consumer products contributed additional N-nitrosamines and precursors, but the remarkable uniformity across different products suggested the importance of common macroconstituents. The consumption of a standard dose of the antacid ranitidine substantially increased NDMA and its chloramine-reactive precursors in urine. Nevertheless, nearly 40% of the American population would need to consume ranitidine daily to match the NDMA loadings from laundry water. PMID:26496512

  19. Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

    Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative greywater characterization in Greek households and investigation of their treatment using physicochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Kirkou, Amalia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2013-06-01

    Data for the quantity of greywater produced in Greek households was collected from two different cities, while samples from different residences were taken for greywater's quality characterization. Laboratory experiments were also performed to investigate the use of coagulation on COD and TSS removal from two different types of greywater, while a combined treatment consisting of coagulation, sand filtration and adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) was applied to achieve adequate quality for greywater reuse. According to the results, average greywater production in Greek residences was 82.6 ± 49.3 L per inhabitant and day, while the major sources were shower/bathtub and laundry, contributing to 41% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, blackwater production was estimated at 59.4 ± 29.6L per inhabitant and day. Greywater produced in shower/bathtub and hand basin had similar quality characteristics, while kitchen sink's greywater were more contaminated, presenting lower pH values and higher concentrations of TSS and total COD. Coagulation experiments with FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 showed that process efficiency was differentiated significantly according to the type of greywater and the coagulant used. The highest removal efficiency (COD: 81%; TSS: 79%) was achieved for greywater that did not contain wastewater from the laundry and for Al2(SO4)3×14 H2O dosage of 800 mg L(-1). The application of coagulation, sand filtration and GAC adsorption resulted to average concentrations of COD and TSS equal to 28 ± 11 and 11 ± 3 mg L(-1), respectively, in treated greywater.

  1. Physicochemical treatment of office and public buildings greywater.

    PubMed

    Friedler, Eran; Alfiya, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    The current study analyses the performance of deep sand filtration of greywater from an office building and the performance of a combined physicochemical process comprising of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration. Raw greywater quality exhibited very high variability with average turbidity of 35 NTU, and TSS, COD(t), and BOD of 45, 240, 75 mg/l respectively. The stand-alone filter removed 50 and 70% of the turbidity and TSS, but failed to remove COD and BOD. Quality of the produced effluent was too low to allow any reuse. Clogging rate of the filter was high and under hydraulic loading of 3-4 m(3)/(m(2) h) the filtration cycle had to be terminated after 5-8 h. Clogging occurred mainly on the upper layer, indicating the dominance of "cake" filtration mechanism. Addition of coagulation and sedimentation prior to sedimentation dramatically improved effluent quality, reaching overall removal efficiencies of 92, 94, 65 and 57% of turbidity, TSS COD(t) and BOD respectively. The filtration cycle could be prolonged to 20 h. The effluent produced was of much better quality, yet, it has to be further treated (either biological treatment or membrane filtration). Most of the removal occurred in the coagulation-sedimentation step, while the filter acted as a polishing unit.

  2. Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

    2014-01-01

    To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step.

  3. Comparative study of the microbial quality of greywater treated by three on-site treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Kovalio, R; Ben-Zvi, A

    2006-06-01

    This paper analyses the performance of a pilot scale treatment plant, treating light domestic greywater. The treatment included three parallel treatment units: stand-alone sand filtration (SFEB), RBC followed by sand filtration (SFRBC), and an MBR equipped with UF membranes (MBR). The performance of the SFEB unit was rather poor. The RBC and MBR units produced effluent of excellent quality, with COD of 42 and 40 mg l(-1), BOD of 1.8 and 1.1 mg l(-1), and turbidity of 0.6 and 0.2 NTU respectively. The SFEB failed to remove heterotrophic microorganisms (HPC), while the SFRBC and the MBR exhibited 2.1 and 3.6 logs removal, leading to effluent concentrations of 1.1 x 10(3) and 8.8 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) respectively. Faecal coliforms (FC) counts were 3.4 x 10(5) 1.4 x 10(5) 1.1 x 10(3) and 3.5 x 10(2) cfu 100 ml(-1) in raw greywater, and in the SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively. Further, in 60% of the samples no FC were detected in the MBR effluent. In order to simulate residence times in full scale systems, effluents were disinfected and stored for 0.5 h, 3 h, 6 h (normal operation), and one week (extreme event). The average chlorine demand was 8.1, 3.8 and 2.9 mg l(-1) for SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively. Low residual chlorine (0.15-0.22 mg l(-1)) remained in all effluents even after a week-long storage. Disinfection reduced HPC by 5, 2 and 2 orders of magnitude in the SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively, with no regrowth in short contact times (up to 6 hours). Some regrowth was observed after a week-long storage leading to 10(6), 10(4) and 10(3) cfu ml(-1) (SFEB SFRBC and MBR respectively). Disinfection reduced FC counts in all three types of effluent to 0 cfu 100 ml(-1), whilst no FC regrowth was observed after week-long storage. The results show that both RBC and MBR treatment units are viable options for on-site greywater reuse. The disinfection experiments strongly indicate that the health risk associated with the reuse of these effluents

  4. Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, E; Donner, E; Ledin, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, although important information such as greywater substance loadings is still only rarely available. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive the focus on controlling and phasing-out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom greywater, and to thereby assess the contribution of household activities to municipal wastewater loads for these substances. Nickel and mercury may be sourced substantially from household activities as it shown in the paper that bathroom greywater contributed a significant proportion of the overall load of these substances at the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Organic matter in the influent greywater was found to be principally associated with large particles (>8 µm), however it was the dissolved and small sized particles that were predominantly removed in the treatment.

  5. Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, E; Donner, E; Ledin, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, although important information such as greywater substance loadings is still only rarely available. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive the focus on controlling and phasing-out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom greywater, and to thereby assess the contribution of household activities to municipal wastewater loads for these substances. Nickel and mercury may be sourced substantially from household activities as it shown in the paper that bathroom greywater contributed a significant proportion of the overall load of these substances at the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Organic matter in the influent greywater was found to be principally associated with large particles (>8 µm), however it was the dissolved and small sized particles that were predominantly removed in the treatment. PMID:21123919

  6. On-site greywater treatment and reuse in multi-storey buildings.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Kovalio, R; Galil, N I

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of a pilot plant treating light greywater for seven flats. The pilot plant combines biological treatment (RBC) with physicochemical treatment (sand filtration and disinfection). The pilot plant produced effluent of excellent quality, meeting the urban reuse quality regulations, and was very efficient in TSS turbidity and BOD removal: 82%, 98% and 96%, respectively. COD removal was somewhat lower (70-75%) indicating that the greywater may contain slowly-biodegradable organics. The RBC (attached growth biological system) was able to retain most of the solids as a result of bioflocculation; further it was proven to have very stable and reliable performance. Faecal coliforms and heterotrophic reductions were very high (100% and 99.99%, respectively) producing effluent that also met drinking water standards. The combination of low organic matter, nutrients and microbial indicators reduces the regrowth and fouling potentials in the reuse system, thus ensuring safe reuse of the treated greywater for toilet flushing.

  7. Quantification and characterization of greywater from schools.

    PubMed

    Alsulaili, Abdalrahman D; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2015-01-01

    Survey of schools of different education levels (primary, intermediate and secondary) in Kuwait showed an average greywater generation rate of 7.3 L/p/d and varied in the range of 2.9-16 l/p/d, reflecting the school level of education (i.e. student age). The highest rates were observed for primary schools while the lowest rates were observed in secondary schools where students are more mature and use the water more wisely. The greywater characteristics indicated waste with low chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) values but relatively high solids, conductivity, and sodium content due to excessive use of hand soap. Total coliform values ranged between 89 and 352 most probable number (MPN)/mL with an average of 196 MPN/mL while no fecal coliform values were detected. Greywater collected from schools is classified as light greywater and contains much lower levels of organic matter and nutrients compared to residential greywater and domestic wastewater. It is suitable for non-potable reuse after minimal treatment since microbial contamination may pose a serious threat to health if greywater comes into contact with humans. It also provides a good opportunity for reuse in toilet flushing since it can be easily collected from wash sinks and fountains, as major sources, and recycled. PMID:26606091

  8. Quantification and characterization of greywater from schools.

    PubMed

    Alsulaili, Abdalrahman D; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2015-01-01

    Survey of schools of different education levels (primary, intermediate and secondary) in Kuwait showed an average greywater generation rate of 7.3 L/p/d and varied in the range of 2.9-16 l/p/d, reflecting the school level of education (i.e. student age). The highest rates were observed for primary schools while the lowest rates were observed in secondary schools where students are more mature and use the water more wisely. The greywater characteristics indicated waste with low chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) values but relatively high solids, conductivity, and sodium content due to excessive use of hand soap. Total coliform values ranged between 89 and 352 most probable number (MPN)/mL with an average of 196 MPN/mL while no fecal coliform values were detected. Greywater collected from schools is classified as light greywater and contains much lower levels of organic matter and nutrients compared to residential greywater and domestic wastewater. It is suitable for non-potable reuse after minimal treatment since microbial contamination may pose a serious threat to health if greywater comes into contact with humans. It also provides a good opportunity for reuse in toilet flushing since it can be easily collected from wash sinks and fountains, as major sources, and recycled.

  9. Bathroom greywater recycling using polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane: Advanced study of membrane structure and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Oh, K S; Poh, P E; Chong, M N; Chan, E S; Lau, E V; Saint, C P

    2016-09-01

    Polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane (PCBM) was fabricated using biodegradable chitosan and alginate polymers for subsequent application in the treatment of bathroom greywater. In this study, the properties of PCBMs were studied and it was found that the formation of polyelectrolyte network reduced the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) from 242kDa in chitosan membrane to 2.71kDa in PCBM. The decrease in MWCO of PCBM results in better greywater treatment efficiency, subsequently demonstrated in a greywater filtration study where treated greywater effluent met the household reclaimed water standard of <2 NTU turbidity and <30ppm total suspended solids (TSS). In addition, a further 20% improvement in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved as compared to a single layer chitosan membrane. Results from this study show that the biodegradable PCBM is a potential membrane material in producing clean treated greywater for non-potable applications. PMID:27185127

  10. Bathroom greywater recycling using polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane: Advanced study of membrane structure and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Oh, K S; Poh, P E; Chong, M N; Chan, E S; Lau, E V; Saint, C P

    2016-09-01

    Polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane (PCBM) was fabricated using biodegradable chitosan and alginate polymers for subsequent application in the treatment of bathroom greywater. In this study, the properties of PCBMs were studied and it was found that the formation of polyelectrolyte network reduced the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) from 242kDa in chitosan membrane to 2.71kDa in PCBM. The decrease in MWCO of PCBM results in better greywater treatment efficiency, subsequently demonstrated in a greywater filtration study where treated greywater effluent met the household reclaimed water standard of <2 NTU turbidity and <30ppm total suspended solids (TSS). In addition, a further 20% improvement in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved as compared to a single layer chitosan membrane. Results from this study show that the biodegradable PCBM is a potential membrane material in producing clean treated greywater for non-potable applications.

  11. Application of a low cost ceramic filter to a membrane bioreactor for greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Shafiquzzaman, Md; Nakajima, Jun; Ahmed, Abdel Kader T; Azam, Mohammad Shafiul

    2015-03-01

    The performance of a low cost and simple ceramic filter to a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process was evaluated for greywater treatment. The ceramic filter was submerged in an acrylic cylindrical column bioreactor. Synthetic greywater (prepared by shampoo, dish cleaner and laundry detergent) was fed continuously into the reactor. The filter effluent was obtained by gravitational pressure. The average flux performance was observed to be 11.5 LMH with an average hydraulic retention time of 1.7 days. Complete biodegradation of surfactant (methylene blue active substance removal: 99-100%) as well as high organic removal performance (biochemical oxygen demand: 97-100% and total organic carbon: >88%) was obtained. The consistency of flux (11.5 LMH) indicated that the filter can be operated for a long time without fouling. The application of this simple ceramic filter would make MBR technology cost-effective in developing countries for greywater reclamation and reuse. PMID:25842534

  12. Application of a low cost ceramic filter to a membrane bioreactor for greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Shafiquzzaman, Md; Nakajima, Jun; Ahmed, Abdel Kader T; Azam, Mohammad Shafiul

    2015-03-01

    The performance of a low cost and simple ceramic filter to a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process was evaluated for greywater treatment. The ceramic filter was submerged in an acrylic cylindrical column bioreactor. Synthetic greywater (prepared by shampoo, dish cleaner and laundry detergent) was fed continuously into the reactor. The filter effluent was obtained by gravitational pressure. The average flux performance was observed to be 11.5 LMH with an average hydraulic retention time of 1.7 days. Complete biodegradation of surfactant (methylene blue active substance removal: 99-100%) as well as high organic removal performance (biochemical oxygen demand: 97-100% and total organic carbon: >88%) was obtained. The consistency of flux (11.5 LMH) indicated that the filter can be operated for a long time without fouling. The application of this simple ceramic filter would make MBR technology cost-effective in developing countries for greywater reclamation and reuse.

  13. Laundry greywater treatment using a fluidized bed reactor: a proposed model based on greywater biodegradation and residence time distribution approach.

    PubMed

    David, Pierre-luc; Bulteau, Gaëlle; Humeau, Philippe; Gérente, Claire; Andrès, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for water and the decrease in global water resources require research into alternative solutions to preserve them. The present study deals with the optimization of a treatment process, i.e. an aerobic fluidized bed reactor and the modelling of the degradation that takes place within it. The methodology employed is based on the hydrodynamics of the treatment process linked to the biodegradation kinetics of greywater coming from a washing machine. The residence time distribution (RTD) approach is selected for the hydrodynamic study. Biodegradation kinetics are quantified by respirometry and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis on several mass quantities of colonized particles. RTD determinations show that there are no dysfunctions in the fluidized bed. Its hydrodynamic behaviour is similar to the one of a continuous stirred-tank reactor. A first-order reaction is obtained from the DOC biodegradation study. A model describing the degradation that takes place into the reactor is proposed, and from a sensitive study, the influence of the operating conditions on DOC biodegradation is defined. The theoretical results calculated from the first-order equation C(t) = 0.593 x C(0) x e(-kt) are compared with the experimental results and validated by a Student test. The value of the kinetic constant k is 0.011 h(-1) in the presence of a biomass carrier. The results highlight that it is possible to design a reactor in order to obtain a carbon content lower than 15 mg C L(-1) when the characteristics of raw greywater are known.

  14. Socio-economic and psychological predictors of domestic greywater and rainwater collection: Evidence from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Anthony M.; Spash, Clive L.; Measham, Thomas G.

    2009-12-01

    SummaryThe importance of securing water supply necessitates that all options be explored. Research has indicated that demand on water catchments can be substantially decreased when a large proportion of households reuse greywater and/or install rainwater tanks. This paper reports on an internet survey completed by 354 households residing in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounding regions. Statistical analyses examined the relationship between socio-economic and psychological variables and the likelihood of the garden being irrigated with greywater and/or rainwater. The results show income, gender, age and education could not differentiate residents who were irrigating their garden with water from a tank from residents who were not. Residents who used tank water on their gardens had a higher self-reported understanding of a range of water supply options. Female participants and lower income residents were more likely to use greywater on their garden. Participants who irrigated the garden with greywater were more likely to judge various other water collection and recycling proposals as being appropriate. General concerns about water collection and reuse risks were not found to predict which households used tank water and/or greywater on their garden.

  15. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse.

  16. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates

    PubMed Central

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ΦX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

  17. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  18. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of greywater via UASB and MBR for unrestricted reuse.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I; Al-Sulaiman, Ahmed Makki; Mansour, Mona S M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of integrated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) as anaerobic system followed by membrane bioreactor (MBR) as aerobic system for the treatment of greywater for unrestricted reuse. Pilot-scale UASB and MBR units were installed and operated in the NRC, Egypt. Real raw greywater was subjected to UASB and the effluent was further treated with microfiltration MBR. The necessary trans-membrane pressure difference is applied by the water head above the membrane (gravity flow) without any energy input. The average characteristics of the raw greywater were 95, 392, 298, 10.45, 0.4, 118.5 and 28 mg/L for total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total phosphates, nitrates, oil and grease, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), respectively. The pH was 6.71. The UASB treatment efficiency reached 19.3, 57.8, 67.5 and 83.7% for TSS, COD, BOD5 and oil and grease, respectively. When the UASB effluent was further treated with MBR, the overall removal rate achieved 97.7, 97.8, 97.4 and 95.8% for the same parameters successively. The characteristics of the final effluent reached 2.5, 8.5, 6.1, 0.95, 4.6 and 2.3 mg/L for TSS, COD, BOD, phosphates, oil and grease and TKN, respectively. This final treated effluent could cope with the unrestricted water reuse of local Egyptian guidelines.

  19. Assessment of the reliability of an on-site MBR system for greywater treatment and the associated aesthetic and health risks.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Shwartzman, Z; Ostfeld, A

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the reliability of an on-site MBR system for greywater treatment and reuse. To achieve this goal simulation was performed based on the IWA ASM1 model which was adapted to describe biological and physical mechanisms for MBR greywater treatment based systems. Model results were found to agree well with experimental data from an on site pilot greywater treatment plant, after which the calibrated model was used in a Monte Carlo mode for generating statistical data on the MBR system performance under different scenarios of failures and inflow loads variations. Effluents quality and their associated risks were successfully estimated.

  20. Resources and nutrients oriented greywater treatment for non-potable reuses.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangyue; Behrendt, Joachim; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluated the performance and suitability of a resources and nutrients oriented decentralized greywater treatment system which uses a submerged spiral wound module. This greywater treatment system is aimed at treating and recovering the resources present in the wastewater. The study revealed that the UF membrane filtration system was able to maintain a permeate flux between 6 and 10 L/m2/h. TOC can be reduced from the influent value of 161 to 28.6 mg/L in the permeate, meaning an average elimination rate of 83.4%. In addition, soluble nutrients such as ammonia and phosphorus can pass through the UF membrane and remain in the permeate. The total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the permeate were 16.7 and 6.7 mg/L respectively. The permeate was low in turbidity (below 1 NTU) and free of suspended solids and E. coli and had an excellent physical appearance. The permeate can be used in gardening and agriculture for irrigation and soil fertilization or alternatively for toilet flushing after disinfection. The retentate generated in this system can be treated with blackwater and kitchen waste in an anaerobic digester at a later stage for producing biogas or compost.

  1. Greywater treatment by constructed wetlands in combination with TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation for suburban and rural areas without sewer system.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Gulyas, H; Jahn, M; Gajurel, D R; Otterpohl, R

    2003-01-01

    In this study greywater treatment through constructed wetlands and subsequently through TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation was investigated. Through constructed wetlands treatment the organic substances have been reduced greatly. For further removal of organic substances and pathogens, a TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation process was used subsequently. The results showed that the treated greywater through constructed wetlands and subsequent through TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation with short irradiation time (3 hours irradiation time) met the requirements of European bathing water quality easily. Therefore, the greywater treated with the processes combination can directly be reused for non-potable purposes. Moreover, since residual organic substances through TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation with long irradiation time can be eliminated almost totally, it is also possible that treated greywater is used for groundwater recharge as a drinking water resource.

  2. Simplified greywater treatment systems: Slow filters of sand and slate waste followed by granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zipf, Mariah Siebert; Pinheiro, Ivone Gohr; Conegero, Mariana Garcia

    2016-07-01

    One of the main actions of sustainability that is applicable to residential, commercial, and public buildings is the rational use of water that contemplates the reuse of greywater as one of the main options for reducing the consumption of drinking water. Therefore, this research aimed to study the efficiencies of simplified treatments for greywater reuse using slow sand and slow slate waste filtration, both followed by granular activated carbon filters. The system monitoring was conducted over 28 weeks, using analyses of the following parameters: pH, turbidity, apparent color, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), surfactants, total coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms. The system was run at two different filtration rates: 6 and 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences in the majority of the results when filtration rate changed from 6 to 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. The average removal efficiencies with regard to the turbidity, apparent color, COD and BOD were 61, 54, 56, and 56%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 66, 61, 60, and 51%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. Both systems showed good efficiencies in removing surfactants, around 70%, while the pH reached values of around 7.80. The average removal efficiencies of the total and thermotolerant coliforms were of 61 and 90%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 67 and 80%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. The statistical analysis found no significant differences between the responses of the two systems, which attest to the fact that the slate waste can be a substitute for sand. The maximum levels of efficiency were high, indicating the potential of the systems, and suggesting their optimization in order to achieve much higher average efficiencies.

  3. Membrane process treatment for greywater recycling: investigations on direct tubular nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Hourlier, F; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Lakel, A; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Cloirec, P Le

    2010-01-01

    On-site greywater recycling and reuse is one of the main ways to reduce potable water requirement in urban areas. Direct membrane filtration is a promising technology to recycle greywater on-site. This study aimed at selecting a tubular nanofiltration (NF) membrane and its operating conditions in order to treat and reuse greywater in buildings. To do so, a synthetic greywater (SGW) was reconstituted in order to conduct experiments on a reproducible effluent. Then, three PCI NF membranes (AFC30, AFC40 and AFC80) having distinct molecular weight cut-offs were tested to recycle this SGW with a constant concentration at 25°C at two different transmembrane pressures (20 and 35 bar). The best results were obtained with AFC80 at 35 bar: the flux was close to 50 L m⁻²  h⁻¹, retentions of 95% for chemical oxygen demand and anionic surfactants were observed, and no Enterococcus were detected in the permeate. The performances of AFC80 were also evaluated on a real greywater: fluxes and retentions were similar to those observed on SGW. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of direct nanofiltration to recycle and reuse greywater.

  4. Reliability of on-site greywater treatment systems in Mediterranean and arid environments - a case study.

    PubMed

    Alfiya, Y; Gross, A; Sklarz, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-01

    On-site greywater (GW) treatment and reuse is gaining popularity. However, a main point of concern is that inadequate treatment of such water may lead to negative environmental and health effects. Maintenance of single-family home GW systems is usually performed by home owners with limited professional support. Therefore, unless GW systems are reliable, environmental and public health might be compromised. This study is aimed at investigating the reliability of on-site recirculated vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) in 20 single-family homes. In order to ensure reliability, the failure-tree approach was adopted during the design and construction of the systems. The performance of the systems was monitored for 1.5 years, by evaluating treated GW flow and quality, and by recording all malfunctions and maintenance work. Only 39 failures occurred during this period, of which four caused irrigation with impaired quality GW, while the rest led to no irrigation. The mean time between failures (MTBF) was 305 days; two out of the 20 systems suffered from seven malfunctions (each), while nine systems did not fail at all. Thus, it can be postulated that if on-site GW treatment systems are designed with the right controls, and if scheduled (basic and relatively infrequent) maintenance is performed, GW reuse can be safe to the environment and human health.

  5. Simulation and verification of hydraulic properties and organic matter degradation in sand filters for greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Susanna Ciuk; Langergraber, G; Pell, M; Dalahmeh, S; Vinnerås, B; Jönsson, H

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment performance of vertical flow sand filters, the HYDRUS wetland module was used to simulate treatment in an experimental set-up. The laboratory filters were intermittently dosed with artificial greywater at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.032 m³ m⁻² day⁻¹ and an organic loading rate of 0.014 kg BOD5 m⁻² day⁻¹. The hydraulic properties of the filter were characterised, as were inflow and outflow concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia, nitrate and total nitrogen. The inverse simulation function of the HYDRUS software was used to calibrate the water flow model. The observed effect of water flowing faster along the column wall was included in the inverse simulations. The biokinetic model was calibrated by fitting heterotrophic biomass growth to measurements of potential respiration rate. Emphasis was put on simulating outflow concentrations of organic pollutants. The simulations were conducted using three models of varying degree of calibration effort and output accuracy. The effluent concentration was 245 mg COD L⁻¹ for the laboratory filters, 134 mg COD mg L⁻¹ for the model excluding wall flow effects and 338 mg COD mg L⁻¹ for the model including wall flow effects.

  6. Simulation and verification of hydraulic properties and organic matter degradation in sand filters for greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Susanna Ciuk; Langergraber, G; Pell, M; Dalahmeh, S; Vinnerås, B; Jönsson, H

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment performance of vertical flow sand filters, the HYDRUS wetland module was used to simulate treatment in an experimental set-up. The laboratory filters were intermittently dosed with artificial greywater at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.032 m³ m⁻² day⁻¹ and an organic loading rate of 0.014 kg BOD5 m⁻² day⁻¹. The hydraulic properties of the filter were characterised, as were inflow and outflow concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia, nitrate and total nitrogen. The inverse simulation function of the HYDRUS software was used to calibrate the water flow model. The observed effect of water flowing faster along the column wall was included in the inverse simulations. The biokinetic model was calibrated by fitting heterotrophic biomass growth to measurements of potential respiration rate. Emphasis was put on simulating outflow concentrations of organic pollutants. The simulations were conducted using three models of varying degree of calibration effort and output accuracy. The effluent concentration was 245 mg COD L⁻¹ for the laboratory filters, 134 mg COD mg L⁻¹ for the model excluding wall flow effects and 338 mg COD mg L⁻¹ for the model including wall flow effects. PMID:25714643

  7. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  8. Modelling of moving bed biofilm membrane reactors (MBBMR) for on-site greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates with a mechanistic model the pilot plant results of a combined moving bed biofilm process and membrane filtration (MBBMR) treating single household greywater. It mainly includes the simulation of reactor hydraulics, degradation of pollutants, development of biomass and settlement of sludge. Iterative calibration was made with steady-state results of a 10-month pilot test. The model shows good predictions of readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal, as well as biomass concentration on carriers and in suspension. Also, a sensitivity analysis was made which calculates the relative significance factor of each model coefficient and by this provides comparability with other studies. Simulation data and actually measured parameters show that the suggested process was rather independent of ambient temperatures and short-term load fluctuations. Obtained datasets and model structure could be of use for future designers, as well as sellers and users of this process for on-site greywater reclamation. PMID:25909728

  9. Modelling of moving bed biofilm membrane reactors (MBBMR) for on-site greywater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates with a mechanistic model the pilot plant results of a combined moving bed biofilm process and membrane filtration (MBBMR) treating single household greywater. It mainly includes the simulation of reactor hydraulics, degradation of pollutants, development of biomass and settlement of sludge. Iterative calibration was made with steady-state results of a 10-month pilot test. The model shows good predictions of readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal, as well as biomass concentration on carriers and in suspension. Also, a sensitivity analysis was made which calculates the relative significance factor of each model coefficient and by this provides comparability with other studies. Simulation data and actually measured parameters show that the suggested process was rather independent of ambient temperatures and short-term load fluctuations. Obtained datasets and model structure could be of use for future designers, as well as sellers and users of this process for on-site greywater reclamation.

  10. Phosphorus as a limiting factor on sustainable greywater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan D R; Will, Geoffrey D; Dawes, Les A; Gardner, Edward A; Lyons, David J

    2013-07-01

    Water reuse through greywater irrigation has been adopted worldwide and has been proposed as a potential sustainable solution to increased water demands. Despite widespread adoption, there is limited domestic knowledge of greywater reuse. There is no pressure to produce low-level phosphorus products and current guidelines and legislation, such as those in Australia, may be inadequate due to the lack of long-term data to provide a sound scientific basis. Research has clearly identified phosphorus as a potential environmental risk to waterways from many forms of irrigation. To assess the sustainability of greywater irrigation, this study compared four residential lots that had been irrigated with greywater for four years and adjacent non-irrigated lots that acted as controls. Each lot was monitored for the volume of greywater applied and selected physic-chemical water quality parameters and soil chemistry profiles were analysed. The non-irrigated soil profiles showed low levels of phosphorus and were used as controls. The Mechlich3 Phosphorus ratio (M3PSR) and Phosphate Environmental Risk Index (PERI) were used to determine the environmental risk of phosphorus leaching from the irrigated soils. Soil phosphorus concentrations were compared to theoretical greywater irrigation loadings. The measured phosphorus soil concentrations and the estimated greywater loadings were of similar magnitude. Sustainable greywater reuse is possible; however incorrect use and/or lack of understanding of how household products affect greywater can result in phosphorus posing a significant risk to the environment.

  11. Chemical simulation of greywater.

    PubMed

    Abed, Suhail Najem; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management attracts considerable attention in today's world. Recycling and reuse of both wastewater and greywater are becoming more attractive. The strategy is to protect ecosystem services by balancing the withdrawal of water and the disposal of wastewater. In the present study, a timely and novel synthetic greywater composition has been proposed with respect to the composition of heavy metals, nutrients and organic matter. The change in water quality of the synthetic greywater due to increasing storage time was monitored to evaluate the stability of the proposed chemical formula. The new greywater is prepared artificially using analytical-grade chemicals to simulate either low (LC) or high (HC) pollutant concentrations. The characteristics of the synthetic greywater were tested (just before starting the experiment, after two days and a week of storage under real weather conditions) and compared to those reported for real greywater. Test results for both synthetic greywater types showed great similarities with the physiochemical properties of published findings concerning real greywater. Furthermore, the synthetic greywater is relatively stable in terms of its characteristics for different storage periods. However, there was a significant (p < .05) reduction in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for both low (LC) and high (HC) concentrations of greywater after two days of storage with reductions of 62% and 55%, respectively. A significant (p < .05) change was also noted for the reduction (70%) of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concerning HC greywater after seven days of storage. PMID:26745659

  12. Chemical simulation of greywater.

    PubMed

    Abed, Suhail Najem; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management attracts considerable attention in today's world. Recycling and reuse of both wastewater and greywater are becoming more attractive. The strategy is to protect ecosystem services by balancing the withdrawal of water and the disposal of wastewater. In the present study, a timely and novel synthetic greywater composition has been proposed with respect to the composition of heavy metals, nutrients and organic matter. The change in water quality of the synthetic greywater due to increasing storage time was monitored to evaluate the stability of the proposed chemical formula. The new greywater is prepared artificially using analytical-grade chemicals to simulate either low (LC) or high (HC) pollutant concentrations. The characteristics of the synthetic greywater were tested (just before starting the experiment, after two days and a week of storage under real weather conditions) and compared to those reported for real greywater. Test results for both synthetic greywater types showed great similarities with the physiochemical properties of published findings concerning real greywater. Furthermore, the synthetic greywater is relatively stable in terms of its characteristics for different storage periods. However, there was a significant (p < .05) reduction in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for both low (LC) and high (HC) concentrations of greywater after two days of storage with reductions of 62% and 55%, respectively. A significant (p < .05) change was also noted for the reduction (70%) of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concerning HC greywater after seven days of storage.

  13. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  14. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample.

  15. Solar disinfection for the post-treatment of greywater by means of a continuous flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Pansonato, Natália; Afonso, Marcos V G; Salles, Carlos A; Boncz, Marc A; Paulo, Paula L

    2011-01-01

    SODIS (solar disinfection) is a low-cost alternative for water decontamination. The method is based on the exposure of water, contained in PET bottles, to direct sunlight, and mainly its UV-A and infrared components. The present research studied SODIS as a low cost alternative for the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in treated greywater, aiming at its reuse for more noble applications. Experiments were performed in (i) batch mode (2 L PET-bottles), testing the effect of turbidity on system efficiency and, (ii) in a continuous pilot-scale reactor prototype (51 L, using interconnected 2 L-PET bottles), testing hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 18 and 24 h. Samples were exposed to an average solar radiation intensity of 518 W/m2. The results obtained indicate that the SODIS system has potential for total coliforms and E. coli inactivation in the pre-treated greywater, reaching 2.1 log units E. coli inactivation in batch experiments for low turbidity samples (21 NTU), and > 2 log units inactivation of total coliforms (and E. coli, when present) for the 24 h HRT-continuous prototype. The continuous flow prototype needs more testing and structural improvements to cope with the difficulties posed by algae growth, as they complicate maintaining conditions of constant flow and make frequent maintenance inevitable.

  16. Breakpoint chlorination curves of greywater.

    PubMed

    March, J G; Gual, M

    2007-08-01

    A study on chlorination of raw greywater with hypochlorite is reported in this paper. Samples were chlorinated in a variety of conditions, and residual chlorine (Cl2) was measured spectrophotometrically. For each sample, the chlorination curve (chlorine residuals versus chlorine dose) was obtained. Curves showed the typical hump-and-dip profile attributable to the formation and destruction of chloramines. It was observed that, after reactions with strong reductants and chloramines-forming compounds, the remaining organic matter exerted a certain demand of chlorine. The evolution of chlorination curves with addition of ammonia and dodecylbencene sulfonate sodium salt and with dilution of the greywater sample were studied. In addition, chlorination curves at several contact times have been obtained, resulting in slower chlorine decay in the hump zone than in the dip zone. In addition, the decay of coliforms in chlorinated samples was also investigated. It was found that, for a chlorination dosage corresponding to the maximum of the hump zone (average 8.9 mg Cl2/ L), samples were negative in coliforms after 10 to 30 minutes of contact time. After-growth was not observed within 3 days after chlorination. Implications in chlorination treatments of raw greywater can be derived from these results. PMID:17824528

  17. Breakpoint chlorination curves of greywater.

    PubMed

    March, J G; Gual, M

    2007-08-01

    A study on chlorination of raw greywater with hypochlorite is reported in this paper. Samples were chlorinated in a variety of conditions, and residual chlorine (Cl2) was measured spectrophotometrically. For each sample, the chlorination curve (chlorine residuals versus chlorine dose) was obtained. Curves showed the typical hump-and-dip profile attributable to the formation and destruction of chloramines. It was observed that, after reactions with strong reductants and chloramines-forming compounds, the remaining organic matter exerted a certain demand of chlorine. The evolution of chlorination curves with addition of ammonia and dodecylbencene sulfonate sodium salt and with dilution of the greywater sample were studied. In addition, chlorination curves at several contact times have been obtained, resulting in slower chlorine decay in the hump zone than in the dip zone. In addition, the decay of coliforms in chlorinated samples was also investigated. It was found that, for a chlorination dosage corresponding to the maximum of the hump zone (average 8.9 mg Cl2/ L), samples were negative in coliforms after 10 to 30 minutes of contact time. After-growth was not observed within 3 days after chlorination. Implications in chlorination treatments of raw greywater can be derived from these results.

  18. Effects of long-term greywater disposal on soil: A case study.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Alma; Burton, Vanessa; Ross, Craig; Lowe, Hamish; Horswell, Jacqui

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the environmental health risks to soil and potential risks to groundwater associated with long term (8-18years) greywater disposal practices. Land application of greywater is likely to have environmental impacts, which may be positive or negative. Greywater can contain plant macronutrients that may benefit plant growth. Conversely, high levels of surfactants, oils, grease, sodium and potentially pathogenic organisms may negatively impact environmental and human health. In this study, land disposal of untreated greywater was practiced at five coastal domestic properties. At each property, soil samples were collected at two depths from areas used for greywater disposal and from control areas that were not exposed to greywater. Soils were analysed for chemical and biological responses to greywater exposure. Generally, greywater irrigated soils had higher pH, Olsen P, base saturation, and increased soil microbial activity (as measured by biomass carbon, basal respiration and dehydrogenase activity). A pH of >9 was recorded for some greywater treated soil samples. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected at up to 10(3)MPN/g in the greywater exposed surface soils at some sites. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that greywater affected the soil microbial community structure, which may have implications for soil health and fertility. Overall, this study shows that the long-term application of greywater at the investigated sites had a moderate impact on the soil environment. This may have been due to the sandy soils and high rainfall that would flush the soil. Increases in microbial biomass and dehydrogenase indicate that greywater application may be beneficial for plant growth. However, high levels of E. coli in some soils may be a risk to human health and sub-surface irrigation should be the recommended application method. PMID:27037884

  19. Effects of long-term greywater disposal on soil: A case study.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Alma; Burton, Vanessa; Ross, Craig; Lowe, Hamish; Horswell, Jacqui

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the environmental health risks to soil and potential risks to groundwater associated with long term (8-18years) greywater disposal practices. Land application of greywater is likely to have environmental impacts, which may be positive or negative. Greywater can contain plant macronutrients that may benefit plant growth. Conversely, high levels of surfactants, oils, grease, sodium and potentially pathogenic organisms may negatively impact environmental and human health. In this study, land disposal of untreated greywater was practiced at five coastal domestic properties. At each property, soil samples were collected at two depths from areas used for greywater disposal and from control areas that were not exposed to greywater. Soils were analysed for chemical and biological responses to greywater exposure. Generally, greywater irrigated soils had higher pH, Olsen P, base saturation, and increased soil microbial activity (as measured by biomass carbon, basal respiration and dehydrogenase activity). A pH of >9 was recorded for some greywater treated soil samples. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected at up to 10(3)MPN/g in the greywater exposed surface soils at some sites. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that greywater affected the soil microbial community structure, which may have implications for soil health and fertility. Overall, this study shows that the long-term application of greywater at the investigated sites had a moderate impact on the soil environment. This may have been due to the sandy soils and high rainfall that would flush the soil. Increases in microbial biomass and dehydrogenase indicate that greywater application may be beneficial for plant growth. However, high levels of E. coli in some soils may be a risk to human health and sub-surface irrigation should be the recommended application method.

  20. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  1. Reduction of microbial risk associated with greywater by disinfection processes for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Al-Gheethi, A A; Mohamed, R M S Radin; Efaq, A N; Amir Hashim, M K

    2016-06-01

    Greywater is one of the most important alternative sources for irrigation in arid and semi-arid countries. However, the health risk associated with the microbial contents of these waters limits their utilization. Many techniques have been developed and used to generate a high microbiological quality of greywater. The main problem in the treatment of greywater lies in the nature of pathogenic bacteria in terms of their ability to survive during/after the treatment process. The present review focused on the health risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in greywater and the treatment technologies used for the disinfection processes. PMID:27280605

  2. Reduction of microbial risk associated with greywater by disinfection processes for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Al-Gheethi, A A; Mohamed, R M S Radin; Efaq, A N; Amir Hashim, M K

    2016-06-01

    Greywater is one of the most important alternative sources for irrigation in arid and semi-arid countries. However, the health risk associated with the microbial contents of these waters limits their utilization. Many techniques have been developed and used to generate a high microbiological quality of greywater. The main problem in the treatment of greywater lies in the nature of pathogenic bacteria in terms of their ability to survive during/after the treatment process. The present review focused on the health risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in greywater and the treatment technologies used for the disinfection processes.

  3. Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Azulai, N; Oron, G; Ronen, Z; Arnold, M; Nejidat, A

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion that greywater is of better quality than wastewater and therefore does not need extensive treatment beyond addressing public health issues. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impact and health risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three-year period, each of three plots on a farm was irrigated with either freshwater, fertilized water, or greywater. Irrigation water and soil from the plots were analyzed for a wide range of chemical and microbial variables. Results suggest that greywater may be of similar quality to wastewater in several parameters such as BOD and faecal coliforms. For some other variables such as boron and surfactants, greywater may even be of worse quality than wastewater. Long-term irrigation of arid loess soil with greywater may result in accumulation of salts, surfactants and boron in the soil, causing changes in soil properties and toxicity to plants. Faecal coliforms did not survive in the soil. Treating greywater before using it for irrigation is recommended, even in places where this is not a requirement. PMID:16312963

  4. Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Khaldoon A; Berndtsson, Justyna C; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2011-10-01

    Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water.

  5. Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Azulai, N; Oron, G; Ronen, Z; Arnold, M; Nejidat, A

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion that greywater is of better quality than wastewater and therefore does not need extensive treatment beyond addressing public health issues. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impact and health risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three-year period, each of three plots on a farm was irrigated with either freshwater, fertilized water, or greywater. Irrigation water and soil from the plots were analyzed for a wide range of chemical and microbial variables. Results suggest that greywater may be of similar quality to wastewater in several parameters such as BOD and faecal coliforms. For some other variables such as boron and surfactants, greywater may even be of worse quality than wastewater. Long-term irrigation of arid loess soil with greywater may result in accumulation of salts, surfactants and boron in the soil, causing changes in soil properties and toxicity to plants. Faecal coliforms did not survive in the soil. Treating greywater before using it for irrigation is recommended, even in places where this is not a requirement.

  6. Safe on-site reuse of greywater for irrigation - a critical review of current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Tal, Alon; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2010-05-01

    Reuse of greywater for landscape irrigation can significantly reduce domestic water consumption. Alongside its benefits, there are potential drawbacks to greywater reuse, raising legitimate concerns about the impact on human and environmental health. In this review, a risk assessment framework is used to assess the adequacy of different regulations to ensure safe and long-lasting, onsite greywater reuse for irrigation. Existing regulations from around the world are assessed along with a standardized evaluation of measures taken to protect public and environmental health. In most cases, human health considerations currently dominate regulatory strategies, while environmental risks are either ignored or underrepresented. A distinction between single and multiple households was found to be a fundamental component of the regulations which often lead to approved utilization of untreated greywater among single households. We concluded that the use of untreated greywater is not recommended, especially in multihousehold systems as it may compromise public health, with single household systems posing more likely risks to the environment. Existing rules to control greywater use should be further revised toward the establishment of a more advanced regulatory system which can avert the salient potential risks associated with greywater reuse, while exploiting the enormous potential of this alternative water resource. PMID:20380412

  7. Safe on-site reuse of greywater for irrigation - a critical review of current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Tal, Alon; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2010-05-01

    Reuse of greywater for landscape irrigation can significantly reduce domestic water consumption. Alongside its benefits, there are potential drawbacks to greywater reuse, raising legitimate concerns about the impact on human and environmental health. In this review, a risk assessment framework is used to assess the adequacy of different regulations to ensure safe and long-lasting, onsite greywater reuse for irrigation. Existing regulations from around the world are assessed along with a standardized evaluation of measures taken to protect public and environmental health. In most cases, human health considerations currently dominate regulatory strategies, while environmental risks are either ignored or underrepresented. A distinction between single and multiple households was found to be a fundamental component of the regulations which often lead to approved utilization of untreated greywater among single households. We concluded that the use of untreated greywater is not recommended, especially in multihousehold systems as it may compromise public health, with single household systems posing more likely risks to the environment. Existing rules to control greywater use should be further revised toward the establishment of a more advanced regulatory system which can avert the salient potential risks associated with greywater reuse, while exploiting the enormous potential of this alternative water resource.

  8. Estrogenic personal care products in a greywater reuse system.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H R; Lundsbye, M; Wedel, H V; Eriksson, E; Ledin, A

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of parabens in a greywater system was assessed. The potential for removal of residual paraben concentrations in effluent greywater with chlorine dioxide was also investigated. The influent to the greywater plant was characterised by considerable variation, with concentrations from below the detection limit to 40 microg/L and the five commonly used parabens in consumer products were frequently detected. After the biological treatment only two paraben were detected with concentration from 65-120 ng/L. Chlorine dioxide treatment of the biologically treated effluent with dosages down to 0.75 mg/L resulted in more than 97% reduction of all parabens. Formation of the by-product chloroform was insignificant from the chlorine dioxide treatment.

  9. A probabilistic model of norovirus disease burden associated with greywater irrigation of home-produced lettuce in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fiona Barker, S; O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha I; Leder, Karin; Malawaraarachchi, Manori; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    The reuse of domestic greywater has become common in Australia, especially during periods of extreme drought. Greywater is typically used in a raw, untreated form, primarily for landscape irrigation, but more than a quarter of greywater users irrigate vegetable gardens with the water, despite government advice against this practice. Greywater can be contaminated with enteric pathogens and may therefore pose a health risk if irrigated produce is consumed raw. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model was constructed to estimate the norovirus disease burden associated with consumption of greywater-irrigated lettuce. The annual disease burdens (95th percentile; DALYs per person) attributed to greywater irrigation ranged from 2 × 10(-8) to 5 × 10(-4), depending on the source of greywater and the existence of produce washing within households. Accounting for the prevalence of produce-washing behaviours across Melbourne, the model predicted annual disease burdens ranging from 4 × 10(-9) for bathroom water use only to 3 × 10(-6) for laundry water use only, and accounting for the proportionate use of each greywater type, the annual disease burden was 2 × 10(-6). We recommend the preferential use of bathroom water over laundry water where possible as this would reduce the annual burden of disease to align with the current Australian recycled water guidelines, which recommend a threshold of 10(-6) DALYs per person. It is also important to consider other exposure pathways, particularly considering the high secondary attack rate of norovirus, as it is highly likely that the estimated norovirus disease burden associated with greywater irrigation of vegetables is negligible relative to household contact with an infected individual.

  10. Greywater reuse through a bioretention system prototype in the arid region.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rezaul K

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a greywater-fed bioretention system in arid regions was investigated in this study. Bioretention systems are conventionally used as a source control mechanism for urban runoff. Nevertheless, in arid regions, where rain and urban runoff are not an abundant water resource, their application is limited. Greywater (residential wastewater without toilet and kitchen sources) is comparatively less polluted and has the potential for reuse in irrigation and non-potable water uses. However, selection of an appropriate treatment is a challenge. A prototype bioretention system was made and its ability to improve greywater quality was monitored for more than 10 consecutive days. A vegetative and non-vegetative system were monitored separately. After 24 hours of retention in both systems, greywater quality was improved significantly. Both systems performed almost equally well; however, the vegetative system (with canary reed grass, Phalaris arundinacea) was found to be more effective in reducing the sodium and chemical oxygen demand contents. The study revealed that the concept of the greywater-fed bioretention system has the potential to add multi-functional benefits (greywater treatment, water conservation, landscape aesthetic and biodiversity) to the arid regions' urban environment. PMID:26676008

  11. Greywater reuse through a bioretention system prototype in the arid region.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rezaul K

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a greywater-fed bioretention system in arid regions was investigated in this study. Bioretention systems are conventionally used as a source control mechanism for urban runoff. Nevertheless, in arid regions, where rain and urban runoff are not an abundant water resource, their application is limited. Greywater (residential wastewater without toilet and kitchen sources) is comparatively less polluted and has the potential for reuse in irrigation and non-potable water uses. However, selection of an appropriate treatment is a challenge. A prototype bioretention system was made and its ability to improve greywater quality was monitored for more than 10 consecutive days. A vegetative and non-vegetative system were monitored separately. After 24 hours of retention in both systems, greywater quality was improved significantly. Both systems performed almost equally well; however, the vegetative system (with canary reed grass, Phalaris arundinacea) was found to be more effective in reducing the sodium and chemical oxygen demand contents. The study revealed that the concept of the greywater-fed bioretention system has the potential to add multi-functional benefits (greywater treatment, water conservation, landscape aesthetic and biodiversity) to the arid regions' urban environment.

  12. Potential of organic filter materials for treating greywater to achieve irrigation quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Hylander, Lars D; Vinnerås, Björn; Pell, Mikael; Oborn, Ingrid; Jönsson, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this literature review were to: (i) evaluate the impact of greywater generated in rural communities, with the emphasis on Jordanian conditions, on soil, plant and public health and assess the need for treatment of this greywater before it is used for irrigation, and (ii) assess the potential of different types of organic by-products as carrier material in different filter units for removal of pollutants from greywater. Greywater with high BOD5, COD, high concentrations of SS, fat, oil and grease and high levels of surfactants is commonly found in rural areas in Jordan. Oxygen depletion, odour emission, hydrophobic soil phenomena, plant toxicity, blockage of piping systems and microbiological health risks are common problems associated with greywater without previous treatment. Organic by-products such as wood chips, bark, peat, wheat straw and corncob may be used as carrier material in so-called mulch filters for treating wastewater and greywater from different sources. A down-flow-mode vertical filter is a common setup used in mulch filters. Wastewaters with a wide range of SS, cBOD5 and COD fed into different mulch filters have been studied. The different mulch materials achieved SS removal ranging between 51 and 91%, a BOD5 reduction range of 55-99.9%, and COD removal of 51-98%. Most types of mulches achieved a higher organic matter removal than that achieved by an ordinary septic tank. Bark, peat and wood chips filters removed organic matter better than sand and trickling filters, under similar conditions. Release of filter material and increase in COD in the effluent was reported using some mulch materials. In conclusion, some mulch materials such as bark, peat and woodchips seem to have a great potential for treatment of greywater in robust, low-tech systems. They can be expected to be resilient in dealing with variable low and high organic loads and shock loads.

  13. Faecal contamination of greywater and associated microbial risks.

    PubMed

    Ottoson, Jakob; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2003-02-01

    The faecal contamination of greywater in a local treatment system at Vibyåsen, north of Stockholm, Sweden was quantified using faecal indicator bacteria and chemical biomarkers. Bacterial indicator densities overestimated the faecal load by 100-1000-fold when compared to chemical biomarkers. Based on measured levels of coprostanol, the faecal load was estimated to be 0.04 g person(-1) day(-1). Prevalence of pathogens in the population and the faecal load were used to form the basis of a screening-level quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) that was undertaken for rotavirus, Salmonella typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. The different exposure scenarios simulated--direct contact, irrigation of sport fields and groundwater recharge--gave unacceptably high rotavirus risks (0.04 < Pinf < 0.60) despite a low faecal load. The poor reduction of somatic coliphages, which were used as a virus model, in the treatment was one main reason and additional treatment of the greywater is suggested. Somatic coliphages can under extreme circumstances replicate in the wastewater treatment system and thereby underestimate the virus reduction. An alternative QMRA method based on faecal enterococci densities estimated similar risks as for rotavirus. Growth conditions for Salmonella in greywater sediments were also investigated and risk modelling based on replication in the system increased the probability of infection from Salmonella 1000-fold, but it was still lower than the risk of a rotavirus infection.

  14. Health risk assessment of organic micropollutants in greywater for potable reuse.

    PubMed

    Etchepare, Ramiro; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2015-04-01

    In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production. PMID:25472689

  15. Health risk assessment of organic micropollutants in greywater for potable reuse.

    PubMed

    Etchepare, Ramiro; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2015-04-01

    In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production.

  16. Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW)--a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities and households.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Shmueli, O; Ronen, Z; Raveh, E

    2007-01-01

    The use of greywater for irrigation is becoming increasingly common. However, raw greywater is often contaminated and can cause environmental harm and pose health risks. Nevertheless, it is often used without any significant pretreatment, a practice mistakenly considered safe. The aim of this study was to develop an economically sound, low-tech and easily maintainable treatment system that would allow safe and sustainable use of greywater for landscape irrigation in small communities and households. The system is based on a combination of vertical flow constructed wetland with water recycling and trickling filter, and is termed recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW). The RVFCW's properties, removal efficiency, hydraulic parameters and feasibility were studied, as well as the environmental effects of the treated greywater, as reflected by soil and plant parameters over time. The RVFCW was efficient at removing virtually all of the suspended solids and biological oxygen demand, and about 80% of the chemical oxygen demand after 8h. Fecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial concentration after 8h, but this was not always enough to meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation. The treated greywater had no significant negative impact on plants or soil during the study period. The feasibility analysis indicated a return over investment after approximately three years. We concluded that the RVFCW is a sustainable and promising treatment system for greywater use that can be run and maintained by unskilled operators.

  17. Design and configuration criteria for wetland systems treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Paulo, P L; Begosso, L; Pansonato, N; Shrestha, Roshan R; Boncz, M A

    2009-01-01

    Design and configuration for wetlands treating greywater are usually based on literature data obtained from domestic wastewater operating wetlands. It is very important to determine proper criteria for design and configuration to provide efficiency and minimum maintenance, avoiding bad odour and clogging amongst others, ensuring the acceptance of householders. The aim of this work was to design a wetland system treating greywater for a household and determine whether the chosen criteria were appropriate. Some of the criteria taken into consideration for design and configuration were: quantitative and qualitative characteristics, desired removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (TSS), substrate and ornamental aspect of the system. The system was composed of a grease trap (kitchen), sedimentation tank, a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF-CW), intermittent feeding system, and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VF-CW). The results showed that the suggested design and configuration were in accordance with the expected efficiency. Being a compact system, it was susceptible to peak flows, temporarily deteriorating the performance of the HF-CW. The hybrid system, however, showed to cope well with influent fluctuations. The overall performance of the system shows that the removal of turbidity, TSS, COD and BOD were over 88%, reaching 95% removal for both BOD and turbidity. PMID:19844046

  18. Design and configuration criteria for wetland systems treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Paulo, P L; Begosso, L; Pansonato, N; Shrestha, Roshan R; Boncz, M A

    2009-01-01

    Design and configuration for wetlands treating greywater are usually based on literature data obtained from domestic wastewater operating wetlands. It is very important to determine proper criteria for design and configuration to provide efficiency and minimum maintenance, avoiding bad odour and clogging amongst others, ensuring the acceptance of householders. The aim of this work was to design a wetland system treating greywater for a household and determine whether the chosen criteria were appropriate. Some of the criteria taken into consideration for design and configuration were: quantitative and qualitative characteristics, desired removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (TSS), substrate and ornamental aspect of the system. The system was composed of a grease trap (kitchen), sedimentation tank, a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF-CW), intermittent feeding system, and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VF-CW). The results showed that the suggested design and configuration were in accordance with the expected efficiency. Being a compact system, it was susceptible to peak flows, temporarily deteriorating the performance of the HF-CW. The hybrid system, however, showed to cope well with influent fluctuations. The overall performance of the system shows that the removal of turbidity, TSS, COD and BOD were over 88%, reaching 95% removal for both BOD and turbidity.

  19. Effects of surfactants originating from reuse of greywater on capillary rise in the soil.

    PubMed

    Shafran, A W; Gross, A; Ronen, Z; Weisbrod, N; Adar, E

    2005-01-01

    Greywater is all domestic wastewater excluding toilet effluents. Detergents contain surfactants, which account for the highest concentration of organic chemicals in average domestic wastewater. Accumulation of surfactants in greywater-irrigated soils was determined in three household gardens. The effect of surfactants on capillary rise in loess and sand was then tested in the range of concentrations found in the garden soils. The capillary rise of freshwater in sieved oven-dried soil mixed with different concentrations of laundry detergent solution (10% w/w moisture content) was determined. In a second setup, the soil was mixed with freshwater and the rising solution contained different concentrations of detergent solution. The introduction of laundry solution to the soils caused a significant decrease in the capillary rise over the range of concentrations that is found in greywater-irrigated soils. The effect was more noticeable in the sand than in the loess. Interestingly, in the second setup, the capillary rise of the laundry solutions in the sand was almost similar to that of freshwater, whereas in the loess the capillary rise was significantly reduced. It is suggested that accumulation of surfactants in the soil might form water repellent soils that have a significant effect on agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability.

  20. Estimated costs of implementation of membrane processes for on-site greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Humeau, P; Hourlier, F; Bulteau, G; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2011-01-01

    Greywater reuse inside buildings is a possible way to preserve water resources and face up to water scarcity. This study is focused on a technical-economic analysis of greywater treatment by a direct nanofiltration (NF) process or by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for on-site recycling. The aim of this paper is to analyse the cost of recycled water for two different configurations (50 and 500 inhabitants) in order to demonstrate the relevance of the implementation of membrane processes for greywater recycling, depending on the production capacity of the equipment and the price of drinking water. The first step was to define a method to access the description of the cost of producing recycled water. The direct costs were defined as a sum of fixed costs due to equipment, maintenance and depreciation, and variable costs generated by chemical products and electricity consumptions. They were estimated from an experimental approach and from data found in literature, enabling operating conditions for greywater recycling to be determined. The cost of treated water by a SMBR unit with a processing capacity of 500 persons is close to 4.40 euros m(-3), while the cost is 4.81 euros m(-3) with a NF process running in the same conditions. These costs are similar to the price of drinking water in some European countries. PMID:22049724

  1. Estimated costs of implementation of membrane processes for on-site greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Humeau, P; Hourlier, F; Bulteau, G; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2011-01-01

    Greywater reuse inside buildings is a possible way to preserve water resources and face up to water scarcity. This study is focused on a technical-economic analysis of greywater treatment by a direct nanofiltration (NF) process or by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for on-site recycling. The aim of this paper is to analyse the cost of recycled water for two different configurations (50 and 500 inhabitants) in order to demonstrate the relevance of the implementation of membrane processes for greywater recycling, depending on the production capacity of the equipment and the price of drinking water. The first step was to define a method to access the description of the cost of producing recycled water. The direct costs were defined as a sum of fixed costs due to equipment, maintenance and depreciation, and variable costs generated by chemical products and electricity consumptions. They were estimated from an experimental approach and from data found in literature, enabling operating conditions for greywater recycling to be determined. The cost of treated water by a SMBR unit with a processing capacity of 500 persons is close to 4.40 euros m(-3), while the cost is 4.81 euros m(-3) with a NF process running in the same conditions. These costs are similar to the price of drinking water in some European countries.

  2. Safe greywater reuse to augment water supply and provide sanitation in semi-arid areas of rural India.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, S; Labhasetwar, P; Wate, S; Jimenez, B

    2010-01-01

    Water reuse is recognized as a tool to increase water supply in peri-urban areas of semi-arid and arid regions of the world. However, it is an option rarely explored for rural areas in developing countries, and has not been documented extensively in the scientific literature. This paper presents results from 6 greywater reuse systems which were built with the objective to augment water supply and to provide sanitation in rural low income areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. The systems are based on reclaiming greywater from bathing for the use in toilet flushing and kitchen garden irrigation. The reuse systems were implemented based on the scientific rationale presented in the WHO (2006) guidelines. The paper presents evidence from the operation and evaluation of the greywater treatment plants under field conditions between 2005 and 2008. The paper concludes that greywater is a highly cost effective solution for water scarcity. In this study, reusing greywater resulted in a 60% increase in water availability, a reduction in open defecation and a fourfold increase in food availability.

  3. Performance of UV disinfection and the microbial quality of greywater effluent along a reuse system for toilet flushing.

    PubMed

    Friedler, Eran; Gilboa, Yael

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the microbial quality of treated RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor) and MBR (Membrane Bioreactor) light greywater along a continuous pilot-scale reuse system for toilet flushing, quantifies the efficiency of UV disinfection unit, and evaluates the regrowth potential of selected microorganisms along the system. The UV disinfection unit was found to be very efficient in reducing faecal coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, its efficiency of inactivation of HPC (Heterotrophic Plate Count) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was lower. Some regrowth occurred in the reuse system as a result of HPC regrowth which included opportunistic pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. Although the membrane (UF) of the MBR system removed all bacteria from the greywater, bacteria were observed in the reuse system due to "hopping phenomenon." The microbial quality of the disinfected greywater was found to be equal or even better than the microbial quality of "clean" water in toilet bowls flushed with potable water (and used for excretion). Thus, the added health risk associated with reusing the UV-disinfected greywater for toilet flushing (regarding P. aeruginosa and S. aureus), was found to be insignificant. The UV disinfection unit totally removed (100%) the viral indicator (F-RNA phage, host: E. coli F(amp)(+)) injected to the treatment systems simulating transient viral contamination. To conclude, this work contributes to better design of UV disinfection reactors and provides an insight into the long-term behavior of selected microorganisms along on-site greywater reuse systems for toilet flushing.

  4. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  5. Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works.

  6. Greywater disinfection with the environmentally friendly Hydrogen Peroxide Plus (HPP).

    PubMed

    Ronen, Zeev; Guerrero, Adriana; Gross, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen Peroxide Plus (HPP) is a newly developed, stabilized-H(2)O(2)-based compound. This study was aimed at determining the disinfection efficiency of HPP in greywater (GW), assessing HPP dose requirements and evaluating the feasibility of its use in small-scale GW-treatment systems. Fecal coliforms were the most sensitive to treatment, followed by somatic coliphages and F+ bacteriophages. The calculated HPP dose required to reduce fecal coliform counts by 99% was 125mg H(2)O(2)L(-1), with a contact time of 35min. The use of HPP was found feasible and comparable to the use of chlorine for small systems with a flow rate of 5m(3)d(-1). HPP is suggested as an alternative for GW disinfection in small communities and private houses.

  7. Microbial quality assessment of household greywater.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Malawaraarachchi, Manori; Hamilton, Andrew; Barker, S Fiona; Leder, Karin

    2012-09-01

    A monitoring program was undertaken to assess the microbial quality of greywater collected from 93 typical households in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 185 samples, comprising 75 washing machine wash, 74 washing machine rinse and 36 bathroom samples were analysed for the faecal indicator Escherichia coli. Of these, 104 were also analysed for genetic markers of pathogenic E coli and 111 for norovirus (genogroups GI and GII), enterovirus and rotavirus using RT-PCR. Enteric viruses were detected in 20 out of the 111 (18%) samples comprising 16 washing machine wash water and 4 bathroom samples. Eight (7%) samples were positive for enterovirus, twelve (11%) for norovirus genogroup GI, one (1%) for norovirus genogroup GII and another (1%) for rotavirus. Two washing machine samples contained more than one virus. Typical pathogenic E. coli were detected in 3 out of 104 (3%) samples and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli in 11 (11%) of samples. Levels of indicator E. coli were highly variable and the presence of E. coli was not associated with the presence of human enteric viruses in greywater. There was also little correlation between reported gastrointestinal illness in households and detection of pathogens in greywater.

  8. 75 FR 13679 - Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as of April...

  9. 78 FR 18235 - Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses CFR Correction 0 In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as of April...

  10. A sensitive extracto-photometric method for determination of residual chlorine in greywater.

    PubMed

    March, Juan G; Gual, Mateu; Simonet, Bartolomé M

    2004-01-01

    A new photometric method for chlorine determination based on the oxidative transformation of iodide to iodine and subsequent extraction in ethyl acetate has been developed. The effects of several chemical variables (pH, ionic strength, and iodide concentration) have been studied. Characteristics of the method were linear range 0-0.6 mg C12/L, limit of detection 5 microg Cl2/L, and coefficient of variation 0.6%. The method has been applied to greywater without previous sample treatment.

  11. Fouling control of a membrane coupled photocatalytic process treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Pidou, Marc; Parsons, Simon A; Raymond, Gaëlle; Jeffrey, Paul; Stephenson, Tom; Jefferson, Bruce

    2009-09-01

    Fouling in membrane coupled photocatalytic reactors was investigated in the case of greywater treatment by establishing the link between product type, dose, irradiation time and fouling rates in a cross flow membrane cell fitted with a 0.4 microm pore sized polyethylene membrane. Rapid fouling occurred only with shower gels and conditioners and was linked to changes in the organo-TiO(2) aggregate size postulated to be caused by polymers within the products. Fouling was reduced to a negligible level when sufficient irradiation was applied demonstrating that the membrane component of the process is not the issue and that scale up and implementation of the process relates to effective design of the UV reactor.

  12. Greywater reuse for irrigation: effect on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Travis, Micheal J; Wiel-Shafran, Alit; Weisbrod, Noam; Adar, Eilon; Gross, Amit

    2010-05-15

    A controlled study of the effect of greywater (GW) irrigation on soil properties was conducted. Containers of sand, loam and loess soils were planted with lettuce, and irrigated with fresh water, raw artificial GW or treated artificial GW. Greywater was treated using a recirculating vertical-flow constructed wetland. Soil samples were collected every 10 days for the 40-day duration of the study, and plant growth was measured. Soils were analysed for physicochemical and biological parameters to determine changes caused by the different treatments. It was demonstrated that raw artificial GW significantly increased the development of hydrophobicity in the sand and loam soils, as determined by water droplet penetration time. No significant changes were observed for the loess soil under all treatments. Observed hydrophobicity was correlated with increased oil and grease and surfactant concentrations in the soil. Zeta (zeta) potential of the soils was measured to determine changes in the soil particle surface properties as a result of GW irrigation. A significant change in zeta-potential (less negative) was observed in the raw artificial GW-irrigated sand, whereas no difference was observed in the loam or loess. Soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW exhibited no increase in hydrophobicity. Fecal coliform bacteria were absent or <10 CFU g(-1) in soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW, but at least 1 order of magnitude higher in raw artificial GW irrigated soils. Only in the last sampling event and only for the loess soil was plant growth significantly higher for fresh water irrigated vs. raw or treated GW irrigated soils. This study demonstrates that treated GW can be effectively irrigated without detrimental effects on soil or plant growth; however, raw GW may significantly change soil properties that can impact the movement of water in soil and the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone.

  13. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    PubMed

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems. PMID:25608932

  14. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    PubMed

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems.

  15. Greywater Disposal Practices in Northern Botswana--The Silent Spring?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kathleen A; Godrej, Adil

    2015-11-01

    Disposal of greywater is a neglected challenge facing rapidly growing human populations. Here, we define greywater as wastewater that originates from household activities (e.g., washing dishes, bathing, and laundry) but excludes inputs from the toilet. Pollutants in greywater can include both chemical and biological contaminates that can significantly impact human, animal, and environmental health under certain conditions. We evaluate greywater disposal practices in nonsewered, low-income residential areas in Kasane (264 dwellings/ha), Kazungula (100 du/ha), and Lesoma (99 du/ha) villages in Northern Botswana through household surveys (n = 30 per village). Traditional pit latrines were the dominant form of sanitation (69%, n = 90, 95% CI, 59%-79%) while 14% of households did not have access to onsite sanitation (95% CI 0%-22%). While greywater disposal practices varied across villages, respondents in all sites reported dumping greywater into the pit latrine. Frequency varied significantly across villages with the highest level reported in Kasane, where residential density was greatest (p < 0.014, χ² = 9.13, 61% (n = 23, 95% CI 41%-81%), Kazungula 41% (n = 22, 95% CI 20%-62%), Lesoma 13% (95% CI 0%-29%). Disposal of greywater in this manner was reported to limit contamination of the household compound and reduce odors, as well as pit latrine fecal levels. Some respondents reported being directed by local health authorities to dispose of greywater in this manner. Environmentally hazardous chemicals were also dumped directly into the pit latrine to reduce odors. With high household to pit latrine ratios particularly in rental properties (4.2 households, SD = 3.32, range = 15 units, average household size 5.3, SD = 4.4), these greywater and pit latrine management approaches can significantly alter hydraulic loading and leaching of chemicals, microorganisms, and parasites. This can dramatically expand the environmental footprint of pit latrines and greywater

  16. Greywater Disposal Practices in Northern Botswana—The Silent Spring?

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen A.; Godrej, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of greywater is a neglected challenge facing rapidly growing human populations. Here, we define greywater as wastewater that originates from household activities (e.g., washing dishes, bathing, and laundry) but excludes inputs from the toilet. Pollutants in greywater can include both chemical and biological contaminates that can significantly impact human, animal, and environmental health under certain conditions. We evaluate greywater disposal practices in nonsewered, low-income residential areas in Kasane (264 dwellings/ha), Kazungula (100 du/ha), and Lesoma (99 du/ha) villages in Northern Botswana through household surveys (n = 30 per village). Traditional pit latrines were the dominant form of sanitation (69%, n = 90, 95% CI, 59%–79%) while 14% of households did not have access to onsite sanitation (95% CI 0%–22%). While greywater disposal practices varied across villages, respondents in all sites reported dumping greywater into the pit latrine. Frequency varied significantly across villages with the highest level reported in Kasane, where residential density was greatest (p < 0.014, χ2 = 9.13, 61% (n = 23, 95% CI 41%–81%), Kazungula 41% (n = 22, 95% CI 20%–62%), Lesoma 13% (95% CI 0%–29%). Disposal of greywater in this manner was reported to limit contamination of the household compound and reduce odors, as well as pit latrine fecal levels. Some respondents reported being directed by local health authorities to dispose of greywater in this manner. Environmentally hazardous chemicals were also dumped directly into the pit latrine to reduce odors. With high household to pit latrine ratios particularly in rental properties (4.2 households, SD = 3.32, range = 15 units, average household size 5.3, SD = 4.4), these greywater and pit latrine management approaches can significantly alter hydraulic loading and leaching of chemicals, microorganisms, and parasites. This can dramatically expand the environmental footprint of pit latrines and greywater

  17. Greywater Disposal Practices in Northern Botswana--The Silent Spring?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kathleen A; Godrej, Adil

    2015-11-13

    Disposal of greywater is a neglected challenge facing rapidly growing human populations. Here, we define greywater as wastewater that originates from household activities (e.g., washing dishes, bathing, and laundry) but excludes inputs from the toilet. Pollutants in greywater can include both chemical and biological contaminates that can significantly impact human, animal, and environmental health under certain conditions. We evaluate greywater disposal practices in nonsewered, low-income residential areas in Kasane (264 dwellings/ha), Kazungula (100 du/ha), and Lesoma (99 du/ha) villages in Northern Botswana through household surveys (n = 30 per village). Traditional pit latrines were the dominant form of sanitation (69%, n = 90, 95% CI, 59%-79%) while 14% of households did not have access to onsite sanitation (95% CI 0%-22%). While greywater disposal practices varied across villages, respondents in all sites reported dumping greywater into the pit latrine. Frequency varied significantly across villages with the highest level reported in Kasane, where residential density was greatest (p < 0.014, χ² = 9.13, 61% (n = 23, 95% CI 41%-81%), Kazungula 41% (n = 22, 95% CI 20%-62%), Lesoma 13% (95% CI 0%-29%). Disposal of greywater in this manner was reported to limit contamination of the household compound and reduce odors, as well as pit latrine fecal levels. Some respondents reported being directed by local health authorities to dispose of greywater in this manner. Environmentally hazardous chemicals were also dumped directly into the pit latrine to reduce odors. With high household to pit latrine ratios particularly in rental properties (4.2 households, SD = 3.32, range = 15 units, average household size 5.3, SD = 4.4), these greywater and pit latrine management approaches can significantly alter hydraulic loading and leaching of chemicals, microorganisms, and parasites. This can dramatically expand the environmental footprint of pit latrines and greywater

  18. 1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR-1. VIEW TO NORTWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Domestic Water Supply Treatment House, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Technology profile: Residential greywater heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Proskiw, G.

    1998-12-31

    This report profiles residential greywater heat recovery (GWHR) systems, beginning with a background review of residential hot water consumption patterns, usage characteristics, and the technology currently used for residential water heating systems. This is followed by a generic description of the various types of residential GWHR systems and the benefits they produce, a summary of the technical obstacles which GWHR technology faces and the barriers to widespread GWHR commercialization, and a description of commercially available GWHR systems. The types of applications for which the technology is best suited are discussed, and the potential markets for GWHR systems are assessed. An action plan concludes the report, suggesting how those markets might be successfully developed.

  20. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  1. EU demonstration project for separate discharge and treatment of urine, faeces and greywater--part II: cost comparison of different sanitation systems.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, M; Peter-Fröhlich, A; Dlabacs, C; Pawlowski, L; Bonhomme, A

    2007-01-01

    The experience from the EU demonstration project was used for a cost analysis of different sanitation systems with regard to nutrient recycling. The analysis was made for an existing residential area, for which the different sanitation systems have been applied. The cost calculations were made for a lifetime of 50 years. The multiple sewer systems cause higher investment costs, mainly for the installation of the additional facilities; the investment costs for the treatment are lower. The cost analysis did not prove lower costs for the new sanitation concepts in this special case in comparison with the conventional system. Economic benefits are demonstrated for the operation costs. The result will be reinforced by the consideration of an increase of the energy costs. The revenues for the nutrient related products have only a very small impact on the result. PMID:17881859

  2. EU demonstration project for separate discharge and treatment of urine, faeces and greywater--part II: cost comparison of different sanitation systems.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, M; Peter-Fröhlich, A; Dlabacs, C; Pawlowski, L; Bonhomme, A

    2007-01-01

    The experience from the EU demonstration project was used for a cost analysis of different sanitation systems with regard to nutrient recycling. The analysis was made for an existing residential area, for which the different sanitation systems have been applied. The cost calculations were made for a lifetime of 50 years. The multiple sewer systems cause higher investment costs, mainly for the installation of the additional facilities; the investment costs for the treatment are lower. The cost analysis did not prove lower costs for the new sanitation concepts in this special case in comparison with the conventional system. Economic benefits are demonstrated for the operation costs. The result will be reinforced by the consideration of an increase of the energy costs. The revenues for the nutrient related products have only a very small impact on the result.

  3. Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2014-07-15

    Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems.

  4. Treatment of domestic wastewater using conventional and baffled septic tanks.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Fayza Aly; Mikhaeil, Basem

    2013-01-01

    The main theme of the study was a comparative study of domestic wastewater treatment using conventional and baffled septic tanks. The septic tanks were fed continuously with domestic wastewater at three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The HRTs chosen were 24, 48 and 72 h with corresponding organic loads of 0.321, 0.436 and 0.885 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per m3 per day, respectively. The performance of the septic tanks at the three HRTs gave satisfactory results. For the conventional septic tank, COD removal was 53.4%, 56% and 65.3%, at an HRT of 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, with residual COD of 412, 380 and 334mg/l, respectively. At HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h, the following percentages removals were realized for: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 68.4%, 57, 53.5%; total suspended solid (TSS), 65.3%, 58.3, 55%; phosphorus, 29.3%, 26.9, 25.6%; total Kjeldahl nitrogen 26.8%, 20.8, 17.7%, respectively. On the contrary, ammonia concentrations increased by 7.1%, 5.2 and 4.2% under the same conditions. Consequently, the results showed that the removal of fecal coliform at all HRTs was less than one log. The two baffled septic tanks exhibited superior results at HRTs of 72, 48 and 24 h. Comparing the treated domestic wastewater quality produced by the two types of septic tanks in terms of physico-chemical and biological characteristics, better results were obtained using the two baffles type.

  5. Substance Abuse Treatment and Domestic Violence. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Paddy; Gartner, Constance Grant; Markl, Lise; Henderson, Randi; Brooks, Margaret K.; Wesson, Donald; Dogoloff, Mary Lou; Vitzthum, Virginia; Hayes, Elizabeth

    The major goal of this TIP, on the best practice guidelines to improve the treatment of substance abuse, is to provide clinicians, educators, and paraprofessionals with the latest findings concerning domestic violence. The information is intended to educate providers about the needs and behaviors of batterers and survivors, and how to tailor…

  6. A monitoring of environmental effects from household greywater reuse for garden irrigation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Radin Maya Saphira Radin; Kassim, Amir Hashim Mohd; Anda, Martin; Dallas, Stewart

    2013-10-01

    The option of reusing greywater is proving to be increasingly attractive to address the water shortage issue in many arid and semiarid countries. Greywater represents a constant resource, since an approximately constant amount of greywater is generated from kitchen, laundries, bathroom in every household daily, independent of the weather. However, the use of greywater for irrigation in particular for household gardening may pose major hazards that have not been studied thoroughly. In this study, a 1-year monitoring was conducted in four selected households in Perth, Western Australia. The aim of the monitoring works is to investigate the variability in the greywater flow and quality, and to understand its impact in the surrounding environments. Case studies were selected based on different family structure including number, ages of the occupants, and greywater system they used. Samples of greywater effluent (showers, laundries, bathtub, and sinks), leachate, soil, and plants at each case study were collected between October 2008 and December 2009 which covered the high (spring/summer) and low (autumn/winter) production of greywater. Physical and chemical tests were based on the literature and expected components of laundry and bathroom greywater particularly on greywater components likely to have detrimental impacts on soils, plants, and other water bodies. Monitoring results showed the greywater quality values for BOD, TSS, and pH which sometimes fell outside the range as stipulated in the guidelines. The soil analyses results showed that salinity, SAR, and the organic content of the soil increased as a function of time and affected the plant growth. Nutrient leaching or losses from soil irrigated with greywater shows the movement of nutrients and the sole impact from greywater in uncontrolled plots in case studies is difficult to predicted due to the influence of land dynamics and activities. Investigative and research monitoring was used to understand greywater

  7. UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Yael; Friedler, Eran

    2008-02-01

    The microbial quality of raw greywater was found to be much better than that of municipal wastewater, with 1.6 x 10(7)cfu ml(-1) heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and 3.8 x 10(4), 9.9 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(3) and 4.6 x 10(0)cfu 100 ml(-1) faecal coliforms (FC), Staphylococcus aureus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp. and Clostridium perfringes sp., respectively. Further, three viral indicators monitored (somatic phage, host: Escherichia coli CN(13) and F-RNA phages, hosts: E. coli F+(amp), E. coli K12) were not present in raw greywater. The greywater was treated by an RBC followed by sedimentation. The treatment removed two orders of magnitude of all bacteria. UV disinfection kinetics, survival and regrowth of HPC, FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. were examined. At doses up to 69 mW s cm(-2) FC were found to be the most resistant bacteria, followed by HPC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. (inactivation rate coefficients: 0.0687, 0.113, 0.129 and 0.201 cm2 mW(-1)s(-1), respectively). At higher doses (69-439 mW s cm(-2)) all but HPC (which exhibited a tailing curve) were completely eliminated. Microscopic examination showed that FC self-aggregate in the greywater effluent. This provides FC an advantage at low doses, since the concentration of suspended matter (that can provide shelter from UV radiation) in the effluent was very low. FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. did not exhibit regrowth up to 6h after exposure to increasing UV doses (19-439 mW s cm(-2)). HPC regrowth was proven to be statistically significant in un-disinfected effluent and after irradiation with high UV doses (147 and 439 mW s cm(-2)). At these doses regrowth resulted from growth of UV-resistant bacteria due to decreased competition with other bacteria eliminated by the irradiation.

  8. Domestic wastewater treatment in a novel sequencing batch biofilm filter.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Wei, Li; Chen, Dan; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Zhenhua; Yang, Kai

    2015-07-01

    Biological treatment of domestic sewage low C/N ratio was accomplished in a pilot-scale sequencing batch biofilm filter (SBBF). The novel hybrid bioreactor consisted of bio-band in the upper and anthracite filter media in the bottom, which combined a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) with a biological filter. The average removal efficiency values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 89.4, 83.3, 62.9, and 48.7%, respectively. A 454-pyrosequencing technology was employed to investigate the microbial communities of the influent (J1) and the biofilm (J2) on the bio-band on day 40. Pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the community of the biofilm consisted of Gammaproteobacteria (48.6%), Planctomycetacia (18.0%), Alphaproteobacteria (13.7%), Clostridia (9.6%), Desulfonatronum (18.5%), Actinobacteria (1.9%), and Bacilli (1.7%), accounting for 93.6% of total operational taxonomic units at genera level. Acinetobacter tjernbergiae and Acinetobacter lwoffii were the most abundant species, suggesting that denitrifying phosphorus removal was achieved in the SBBF. PMID:25967659

  9. [Treatment characteristics of saline domestic wastewater by constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Li, Chen; Jin, Wei-Hong; Deng, Yi-Bing

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetland (CW) to remove pollutants from saline domestic sewage. The experimental results indicated that the effects of salinity on the contaminant removal were insignificant when the influent salinities of the CWs were less than or equal to 1.5%. For the influent salinity of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the average removal rates of the CWs were found to be above 68.3% for COD and above 66.1% for NH4(+) -N. When the influent salinity was increased to 2.0%, the individual numbers of microorganisms in the CW reduced obviously. It was similar to the change of the soil enzyme activity in the CW. Then the removal efficiency of the CW also dropped significantly. The average removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N dropped to 52.9% and 50.3%, respectively. The effects of HRT on the treatment performance of CW under the saline condition of 1.5% were also investigated in this study. And the results showed that nitrogen removal was more greatly affected by HRT than organic matter removal. The NH4(+) -N removal efficiency in CW decreased from 65.1% -78.2% to 47.1% when the HRT of the CW varied from 3-5 d to 2 d. PMID:23323411

  10. Performance Evaluation of Integrated Constructed Wetland for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sehar, Shama; Naz, Iffat; Khan, Sumera; Naeem, Sana; Perveen, Irum; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-03-01

    Simple, budget friendly, laboratory-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) was designed to assess domestic wastewater treatment performance at a loading rate of 75 mm/d, planted with native plant species: Veronica-angallis aquatica and compared with non-vegetative control system at various residence times of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 days. Results revealed that the vegetated ICW demonstrated superior performance over non-vegetated control: 69.12 vs 17.12%, 67.77 vs 16.04%, 68 vs 16.48%, 71.19 vs 6.56%, 71.54 vs 14.80%, and 72.04 vs 11.41% for total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, phosphates (PO4(-)), sulfate (SO4(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrite (NO2(-)), respectively, at 20 days residence times. Reduction in bacterial counts (2.79 × 10(4) CFU/mL) and fecal pathogens (345.5 MPN index/100 mL) was observed in V. aquatica at 20 days residence time. Therefore, the present study highlights not only the presence of vegetation but also appropriate residence time in constructed wetlands for better performances. PMID:26931539

  11. Evaluating greywater reuse potential for sustainable water resources management in Oman.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Prathapar, Sanmugan; Harrasi, Ali Al

    2008-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of greywater availability in Muscat Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman, to establish a methodology for greywater quantity estimation, to test greywater quality in order to assess reuse potential, and to examine public acceptance for reuse.Total fresh water consumption and greywater generation from different household sources were measured by water meters in five selected households during summer and winter. Additionally, a survey was designed and conducted in five administrative areas of Muscat Governorate, with the objective of testing a methodology for estimating greywater generation potential in these areas. Collected data were compared with that used by the Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water, Sultanate of Oman. The survey covered a total of 169 houses and 1,365 people. Greywater samples were collected and analyzed from showers, laundries, kitchens and sinks in some of these households to determine their water quality parameters. Statistical analysis results indicated that there is no significant variance in the total fresh water consumption between data used by the ministry and those measured and estimated during this study, highlighting the applicability of the tested method. The study concluded that the average per capita greywater generation rate is 151 Lpcd. Greywater production ranged from 80 to 83% of the total fresh water consumption and most of the greywater is generated from showers. Further, 55 to 57% of the greywater generated in a typical Omani household originated from the shower, 28 to 33% originated from the kitchen, 6 to 9% originated from laundry, and 5 to 7% originated from sink, which constitutes approximately 81% of the total fresh water consumption. The physical, chemical, and biological analyses of the grab samples revealed that greywater contains significant levels of suspended solids, inorganic constituents, total organic carbon, chemical and biochemical oxygen demands, total Coliforms

  12. Formulation of synthetic greywater as an evaluation tool for wastewater recycling technologies.

    PubMed

    Hourlier, Fanny; Masse, Anthony; Jaouen, Pascal; Lakel, Abdel; Gerente, Claire; Faur, Catherine; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    On-site greywater recycling is one of the main ways of preserving water resources in urban or arid areas. This study aims to formulate model synthetic greywater (SGW) in order to evaluate and compare the performances of several recycling processes on a reproducible effluent. The formulated SGW is composed of septic effluent to provide indicators of faecal contamination, and technical quality chemical products to simulate organic pollution of greywater. To ensure that the SGW developed is representative of household greywater, its analysis was compared to real greywater collected and analysed (RGWs) and to real greywater mentioned in previous publications (RGW(L)). The performance of a direct nanofiltration process with a concentration factor of 87.5% at 35 bar was then tested on both real greywater and SGW. The laboratory experimental results are promising: fluxes and retention rates were high, and similar for both effluents. The permeation flux was higher than 50 L h(-1) m(-2). Retentions greater than 97% for biochemical oxygen demand for 5 days (BOD5) and 92% for anionic surfactants were observed. No Enterococcus were detected in the two permeates. These results confirm that the model SGW developed in this study shows the same behaviour as real greywater when recycled. Thus, the use of this SGW developed in this study was validated for the evaluation of membrane efficiency to treat greywater. This new tool will be a real asset for future studies.

  13. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance. PMID:27435622

  14. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance.

  15. 77 FR 37576 - Treatment of Overall Foreign and Domestic Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... before allocating losses or recapturing loss accounts in steps 3 through 7. Finally, the regulations have... Sec. 1.904(f)-7. (h) Step Seven: Recapture of overall domestic loss accounts. If the taxpayer's U.S....904(f)-1(g), 1.904(f)-2(e), 1.904(f)-7(f), 1.904(f)-8(c), 1.904(g)- 1(f), 1.904(g)-2(d),...

  16. Wastewater and greywater reuse on irrigation in centralized and decentralized systems--an integrated approach on water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Matos, C; Pereira, S; Amorim, E V; Bentes, I; Briga-Sá, A

    2014-09-15

    Wastewater and greywater have different scales of end-uses in irrigation in Portugal. Wastewater is treated in a central wastewater treatment plant and reused in public/private large areas of irrigation, like agriculture, public gardens and golf courses. On the contrary, greywater reuse is generally applied in in situ small scales, treated and used in the same place, generally in the production site. The main aim of this paper is to compare the two types of systems: a wastewater centralized reuse system (WWCRS) and a greywater decentralized reuse system (GWDRS) in terms of water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper, the main characteristics of both streams are presented and the degree of treatment required in each stream is analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of its reuse in different scales, in terms of water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are discussed. A methodology to calculate the energy consumptions and CO2 emissions related to wastewater treatment that may be applied in different cases is presented. A hypothetical example of the two systems: one referring to a WWCRS and the other to a GWDRS is presented. The energy consumption and the CO2 emissions are analyzed and compared. The WWCRS needs a higher degree of treatment and so it spends more energy and leads to more CO2 emissions to the environment than the GWDRS that consumed between 11.8 and 37.5% of the energy consumed in the WWCRS considering the same number of inhabitants served.

  17. Potential impacts of on-site greywater reuse in landscape irrigation.

    PubMed

    Alfiya, Y; Damti, O; Stoler-Katz, A; Zoubi, A; Shaviv, A; Friedler, E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irrigation with different types of waters on soil, plants, and public health. The test plant was ryegrass grown in 12 planters filled with sandy loam soil and irrigated with three types of waters (4 planters for each type): freshwater, raw domestic light greywater (GW), and treated domestic light GW. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), EC, pH and alkalinity of the three types of irrigation waters did not differ significantly, suggesting that raw or treated light GW should not exhibit negative effects. Concentrations of anionic and cationic surfactants in the freshwater and the treated GW were about the same, while their concentrations in the raw GW were higher. Surfactant levels in the three drainage water types were low. Some accumulation of surfactants occurred in planters irrigated with raw and treated GW. The COD of the drainage water of planters irrigated with raw GW was higher than the COD of other two drainage water types. Although raw and treated GW contained faecal coliforms, they were hardly detected in the drainage waters. All plants did not show any signs of stress. This may be due to the fact that the GW originated mainly from showers and washbasins.

  18. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent. PMID:26362530

  19. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  20. Highly effective degradation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate and synthetic greywater by Fenton-like reaction over zerovalent iron-based catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shi-Ni; Wang, Chao; Yip, Alex C K; Tsang, Daniel C W

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to recycle greywater for meeting non-portable water demand. However, linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (a form of anionic surfactants) that are commonly found in greywater are less biodegradable at moderate to high concentrations. A fenton-like system is a relatively economic advanced oxidation process that can potentially be used for surfactant degradation in greywater treatment. This study investigated the feasibility of zerovalent iron (ZVI)-mediated Fenton's oxidation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) using Fe0/H2O2 and Fe2+/Fe0/H2O2 systems under a range of operating conditions. For the Fe0/H2O2 binary system, the initial pH value and Fe0 dosage played important roles in final degradation efficiency. For the Fe2+/Fe0/H2O2 ternary systems, a small amount of Fe2+ (0.5-1.7 mM) contributed a synergistic effect to promote iron recycling and SDBS degradation. Approximately, 90% of SDBS mineralization efficiency was accomplished within 15 min at a pH range from 3.0 to 6.5, using 18 mM Fe0 and 15 mM H2O2. However, the removal kinetics was rate-limited by Fe2+ dissolution from the ZVI surfaces. The Fenton-like process of the Fe2+/Fe0/H2O2 ternary system also presents a promising treatment method for synthetic greywater, in which 90% TOC removal was achieved within the first 10 min; 78% COD and 91% BOD5 were achieved after 120 min of reaction.

  1. A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on-site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2015-03-01

    On-site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost-effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow-fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and composition of biofilm were monitored to evaluate the performance of the tested pilot unit. The introduced process achieved international water reuse guidelines, worked soundly and could, compared to conventional micro MBR, significantly reduce energy demand (<1.4 kWh m(-3)). Fouling control by air scouring and chemical cleaning was not required once flux had stabilized. The biofilm analysis showed a porous, spongy-like structure. Microbiological investigation revealed a community of sheathed bacteria and nematodes that could play an important role in the flux stabilisation effect. In general, the study confirmed the suitability of the presented process for greywater treatment and provides valuable design data for future optimization and systematic analysis. PMID:25220525

  2. A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on-site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2015-03-01

    On-site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost-effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow-fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and composition of biofilm were monitored to evaluate the performance of the tested pilot unit. The introduced process achieved international water reuse guidelines, worked soundly and could, compared to conventional micro MBR, significantly reduce energy demand (<1.4 kWh m(-3)). Fouling control by air scouring and chemical cleaning was not required once flux had stabilized. The biofilm analysis showed a porous, spongy-like structure. Microbiological investigation revealed a community of sheathed bacteria and nematodes that could play an important role in the flux stabilisation effect. In general, the study confirmed the suitability of the presented process for greywater treatment and provides valuable design data for future optimization and systematic analysis.

  3. Bioremediation of acid mine drainage coupled with domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Triana, David; Sanz, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) - characterized by high acidity and elevated sulfate and metal concentrations - represents a big environmental concern. Biological sulfate reduction has become an alternative to the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, domestic wastewater (DW) was tested as a cost-effective carbon-source for the remediation of AMD. Sediments from Tinto River, an extreme acidic environment with an elevated concentration of metals, were used as inoculum. Three anaerobic bioreactors with different microbial supports were fed with a 1:10 (v:v) mixture of synthetic AMD:DW. Around 50% of the organic matter present in the DW co-precipitated with the metals from the AMD previous to feeding the reactor. Therefore, the reactors had to be supplemented with an extra carbon-source (acetate) to achieve higher S elimination. Elevated removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (>88%), sulfate (>75%), Fe (>85%) and other dissolved metals (>99% except for Mn) were achieved. Bacterial communities were examined through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy. Higher biodiversity was found in the bioreactors compared with that of the inoculum. Dominant species belong to two metabolic groups: fermentative (Clostridium spp., Delftia spp., Paludibacter spp. and Pelotomaculum spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfomonile spp., Desulfovibrio spp., Desulfosporosinus spp. and Desulfotomaculum spp.). PMID:23032774

  4. Cross sectoral and scale-up impacts of greywater recycling technologies on catchment hydrological flows.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, N; Jefferson, B; Jeffrey, P

    2008-01-01

    With the growth of urban areas and climate change, decisions need to be taken to improve water management. This paper reports an assessment of the impact of greywater recycling systems on catchment scale hydrological flows. A simulation model developed in InfoWorks CS (Wallingford Software Ltd) was used to evaluate how river flows, sewer flows, surface runoff and flooding events may be influenced when grey water recycling systems of different number and scale are implemented in a representative catchment. The simulations show the effectiveness of greywater recycling systems in reducing total wastewater volume and flood volume. However, no hydraulic impacts due to implementation of greywater was identified by the model.

  5. Psychrophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Skerlos, Steven J; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2013-03-15

    A bench-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) equipped with submerged flat-sheet microfiltration membranes was operated at psychrophilic temperature (15 °C) treating simulated and actual domestic wastewater (DWW). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal during simulated DWW operation averaged 92 ± 5% corresponding to an average permeate COD of 36 ± 21 mg/L. Dissolved methane in the permeate stream represented a substantial fraction (40-50%) of the total methane generated by the system due to methane solubility at psychrophilic temperatures and oversaturation relative to Henry's law. During actual DWW operation, COD removal averaged 69 ± 10%. The permeate COD and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) averaged 76 ± 10 mg/L and 24 ± 3 mg/L, respectively, indicating compliance with the U.S. EPA's standard for secondary effluent (30 mg/L BOD(5)). Membrane fouling was managed using biogas sparging and permeate backflushing and a flux greater than 7 LMH was maintained for 30 days. Comparative fouling experiments suggested that the combination of the two fouling control measures was more effective than either fouling prevention method alone. A UniFrac based comparison of bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in the AnMBR and three different inocula using pyrosequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes suggested that mesophilic inocula are suitable for seeding psychrophilic AnMBRs treating low strength wastewater. Overall, the research described relatively stable COD removal, acceptable flux, and the ability to seed a psychrophilic AnMBR with mesophilic inocula, indicating future potential for the technology in practice, particularly in cold and temperate climates where DWW temperatures are low during part of the year. PMID:23295067

  6. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  7. Metered oxygen supply aids treatment of domestic sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weliky, N.; Hooper, T. J.; Silverman, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Microbiological fixed-bed process was developed in which supplementary oxygen required by microbial species is supplied by electrochemical device. Rate of addition of oxygen to waste treatment process is controlled to maintain aerobic metabolism and prevent anaerobic metabolisms which produce odorous or toxic products.

  8. Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, W M

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed. PMID:738239

  9. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  10. ESTIMATES OF GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific em...

  11. Removal Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals By A Constructed Wetland For On-Site Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that domestic and industrial wastewater can be a source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. Much of this research has focused on municipal and industrial centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These WWTPs have been shown to ...

  12. Determination of residual chlorine in greywater using o-tolidine.

    PubMed

    March, J G; Gual, M; Simonet, B M

    2002-11-12

    The determination of chlorine with o-tolidine in greywater has been studied, and a batch method and a sequential injection method have been proposed. It was found that the reaction of o-tolidine with chlorine was slower in a greywater matrix. Grey water samples must be filtered before analysis, or alternatively, a blank of sample must be measured. The samples are very unstable, and after 2 h of storage in dark conditions at 4 degrees C the chlorine concentration can diminish. The standard addition method, in some samples gave unsatisfactory results as a consequence of matrix effects. It was concluded that samples with a total organic carbon (TOC) higher than 60 mgCl(-1) can not be accurately analysed using these methods. However, samples with a TOC lower than 60 mgCl(-1) gave 100+/-3% recoveries. The linear range of the methods was 0-3.0 and 0-5.0 mgCl(2)l(-1), and the limit of quantification 0.2 and 0.5 mgCl(2)l(-1), for the batch method and the sequential injection method, respectively. This is the first paper devoted to grey water from the analytical chemistry point of view.

  13. Two years of the operation of a domestic MBR wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikorová, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The paper evaluates the results of data obtained from two years of observing an actual domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with an immersed membrane module. The domestic MBR (membrane bioreactor) WWTP was linked to a dwelling with four residents. Two different commercial flat sheet membrane modules were investigated. The membrane modules, as well as the whole WWTP, were tested with different fluxes as well as the response of the membrane and activated sludge to different conditions, such as actual peak wastewater flows, extremes temperatures (a winter below 5 °C), and high pH values.

  14. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions. PMID:25851807

  15. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions.

  16. Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

    2001-05-01

    Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

  17. Oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors treating synthetic greywater.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Jochen; Lemac, Mladen; Wagner, Martin; Cornel, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Mass transfer coefficients (k(L)a) were studied in two pilot scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) with different setup configurations treating 200L/h of synthetic greywater with mixed liquor suspended solids' (MLSS) concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 19.5g/L. Besides the MLSS concentration, mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants of the sludge were measured. Although the pilot plants differed essentially in their configurations and aeration systems, similar alpha-factors at the same MLSS concentration could be determined. A comparison of the results to the published values of other authors showed that not the MLSS concentration but rather the MLVSS concentration seems to be the decisive parameter which influences the oxygen transfer in activated sludge systems operating at a high sludge retention time (SRT).

  18. Greywater use in Israel and worldwide: standards and prospects.

    PubMed

    Oron, Gideon; Adel, Mike; Agmon, Vered; Friedler, Eran; Halperin, Rami; Leshem, Ehud; Weinberg, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Water shortage around the world enhanced the search for alternative sources. Greywater (GW) can serve as a solution for water demands especially in arid and semi-arid zones. However, issues considered which include acceptability of GW segregation as a separate water treated stream, allowing its use onsite. Consequently, it is the one of next forthcoming water resources that will be used, primarily in the growing mega-cities. It will be even more rentable when combined with the roof runoff water harvesting and condensing water from air-conditioning systems. Reuse of GW is as well beneficial in the mega-cities subject to the high expenses associated with wastewater and fresh water conveyance in the opposite direction. The main problem associated with GW reuse is the quality of the water and the targeted reuse options. At least two main options can be identified: the public sector that is ready to reuse the GW and the private sector which raises extra issues related to the reuse risks. These risk stems from the on yard use of GW, relatively close to the household location. The main focus of the Israeli guidelines for GW use is on the private and single house. The problem is less rigorous in public facilities, where the amounts are relatively large and the raw GW is relatively diluted. The two main principles adopted for reuse are: (i) greywater can be minimally treated since it differs from the black wastes, and; (ii) no contact exists with the resident around. The aggravated standards are an indication of the sensitivity issues related to the problem. PMID:24747140

  19. Greywater use in Israel and worldwide: standards and prospects.

    PubMed

    Oron, Gideon; Adel, Mike; Agmon, Vered; Friedler, Eran; Halperin, Rami; Leshem, Ehud; Weinberg, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Water shortage around the world enhanced the search for alternative sources. Greywater (GW) can serve as a solution for water demands especially in arid and semi-arid zones. However, issues considered which include acceptability of GW segregation as a separate water treated stream, allowing its use onsite. Consequently, it is the one of next forthcoming water resources that will be used, primarily in the growing mega-cities. It will be even more rentable when combined with the roof runoff water harvesting and condensing water from air-conditioning systems. Reuse of GW is as well beneficial in the mega-cities subject to the high expenses associated with wastewater and fresh water conveyance in the opposite direction. The main problem associated with GW reuse is the quality of the water and the targeted reuse options. At least two main options can be identified: the public sector that is ready to reuse the GW and the private sector which raises extra issues related to the reuse risks. These risk stems from the on yard use of GW, relatively close to the household location. The main focus of the Israeli guidelines for GW use is on the private and single house. The problem is less rigorous in public facilities, where the amounts are relatively large and the raw GW is relatively diluted. The two main principles adopted for reuse are: (i) greywater can be minimally treated since it differs from the black wastes, and; (ii) no contact exists with the resident around. The aggravated standards are an indication of the sensitivity issues related to the problem.

  20. Life cycle impact assessment of greywater recycling technologies for new developments.

    PubMed

    Memon, F A; Zheng, Z; Butler, D; Shirley-Smith, C; Lui, S; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of four treatment technologies currently under investigation for recycling the greywater generated from households and describes the development of a new LCIA tool set produced in this study. The technologies investigated include reed beds, membrane bioreactors (MBR); membrane chemical reactors (MCR) and an innovative green roof water recycling system (GROW). The materials and energy required for the construction and operation phases of these technologies have been quantified for 20 development scales. All of the information gathered is used to prepare life cycle inventories for each technology. The inventories have been used as an input to Simapro Software for performing LCIA. Two assessment methods (CML-2 and Eco-indc-99) have been employed. For the CML method, the results were processed to express the environmental performance in ten impact categories including climate change/global warming, depletion of abiotic resources, acidification, eutrophication, and human toxicity. For the Eco-indc-99 method, results are shown in three generic environmental indicators: human health, eco system and natural resources. LCIA results obtained for 20 development scales have been used to develop a tool set using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique. The study results indicate that the technologies based on natural treatment processes (GROW and reed beds) have low environmental impact. PMID:17242974

  1. Life cycle impact assessment of greywater recycling technologies for new developments.

    PubMed

    Memon, F A; Zheng, Z; Butler, D; Shirley-Smith, C; Lui, S; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of four treatment technologies currently under investigation for recycling the greywater generated from households and describes the development of a new LCIA tool set produced in this study. The technologies investigated include reed beds, membrane bioreactors (MBR); membrane chemical reactors (MCR) and an innovative green roof water recycling system (GROW). The materials and energy required for the construction and operation phases of these technologies have been quantified for 20 development scales. All of the information gathered is used to prepare life cycle inventories for each technology. The inventories have been used as an input to Simapro Software for performing LCIA. Two assessment methods (CML-2 and Eco-indc-99) have been employed. For the CML method, the results were processed to express the environmental performance in ten impact categories including climate change/global warming, depletion of abiotic resources, acidification, eutrophication, and human toxicity. For the Eco-indc-99 method, results are shown in three generic environmental indicators: human health, eco system and natural resources. LCIA results obtained for 20 development scales have been used to develop a tool set using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique. The study results indicate that the technologies based on natural treatment processes (GROW and reed beds) have low environmental impact.

  2. Fenbendazole treatment for Mammomonogamus species infection of a domestic cat on St Kitts, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Gattenuo, Talia; Ketzis, Jennifer; Shell, Linda

    2014-10-01

    A 7-month-old, female, domestic shorthair, indoor/outdoor cat on the island of St Kitts was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine as part of a student training spay-neuter program. Observation of diarrhea prompted a double centrifugation fecal analysis. Ova of Mammomonogamus species, in addition to Ancylostoma species, Trichuris species and Platynosomum species, were found. Mammomonogamus ierei is a parasitic nematode found on many Caribbean islands for which treatment is not well documented. Five days of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg bodyweight) was administered, and fecal analyses gave negative results for Mammomonogamus species eggs 1 week after the last fenbendazole treatment.

  3. Domestic wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds for irrigation in Mendoza, Argentina: policies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vélez, O R; Fasciolo, G E; Bertrano, A V

    2002-01-01

    Arid areas call for imaginative water management solutions to avoid the dangers of water shortages. Growing demands of water for domestic and industrial uses decrease the availability of water for agriculture. It therefore becomes necessary to set up a policy for the use of domestic effluents. For the province of Mendoza, Argentina, with 1,500,000 inhabitants, a master plan was designed as of 1991 for the treatment of domestic effluents and subsequent disposal for irrigation. The guidelines set up by WHO for the use of wastewater in agricultural applications were taken into consideration. At present, the Province of Mendoza has available projects which are either complete, in execution or in the bidding process, entailing secondary treatment capacity with reuse of 320,000 cubic metres/day and an estimated possible irrigation area of 10,000 hectares. With this infrastructure, some strategic lines of action are recommended to establish a policy for the agricultural use of wastewater: (a) to program the use of treated wastewater to avoid discharges to irrigation flows; (b) to develop an institutional scheme for the efficient and safe use of these waters; and (c) develop scientific and technologic know-how to accompany the updated policies. PMID:11833726

  4. Assessment of rainwater use and greywater reuse in high-rise buildings in a brownfield site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Grant, Andrew; Sharma, Ashok; Chen, Donghui; Chen, Liang

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of rainwater and greywater (originated from bathroom only) for provision of non-contact indoor and outdoor use in high-rise buildings. A brownfield development site in Box Hill suburb of Melbourne was selected as case study site for this investigation. The performance of alternative servicing options was compared with conventional water supply, stormwater and wastewater servicing. A water balance model UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality) was applied to determine storage capacities and to evaluate the percentage reduction in water supplying, stormwater run-off and wastewater disposal, as well as volumes of rainwater use and greywater reuse. In this study, the impact of variation in collection area (600 m(2) and 900 m(2)) and appliance discharge volumes was examined. A number of demand management options were also investigated. The results of this study indicate greywater reuse is more suited than rainwater use for this development because of the steady, constant supply of greywater compared to the highly fluctuating, storm-event supply of rainwater and the high population density creating comparatively large volumes of greywater.

  5. Domestic wastewater treatment with purple phototrophic bacteria using a novel continuous photo anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Hülsen, Tim; Barry, Edward M; Lu, Yang; Puyol, Daniel; Keller, Jürg; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    A key future challenge of domestic wastewater treatment is nutrient recovery while still achieving acceptable discharge limits. Nutrient partitioning using purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) has the potential to biologically concentrate nutrients through growth. This study evaluates the use of PPB in a continuous photo-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (PAnMBR) for simultaneous organics and nutrient removal from domestic wastewater. This process could continuously treat domestic wastewater to discharge limits (<50 mgCOD L(-1), 5 mgN L(-1), 1.0 mgP L(-1)). Approximately 6.4 ± 1.3 gNH4-N and 1.1 ± 0.2 gPO4-P for every 100 gSCOD were removed at a hydraulic retention time of 8-24 h and volumetric loading rates of 0.8-2.5 COD kg m(3) d(-1). Thus, a minimum of 200 mg L(-1) of ethanol (to provide soluble COD) was required to achieve these discharge limits. Microbial community through sequencing indicated dominance of >60% of PPB, though the PPB community was highly variable. The outcomes from the current work demonstrate the potential of PPB for continuous domestic (and possibly industrial) wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. Technical challenges include the in situ COD supply in a continuous reactor system, as well as efficient light delivery. Addition of external (agricultural or fossil) derived organics is not financially nor environmentally justified, and carbon needs to be sourced internally from the biomass itself to enable this technology. Reduced energy consumption for lighting is technically feasible, and needs to be addressed as a key objective in scaleup. PMID:27232993

  6. Low temperature treatment of domestic wastewater by purple phototrophic bacteria: Performance, activity, and community.

    PubMed

    Hülsen, Tim; Barry, Edward M; Lu, Yang; Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    Low wastewater temperatures affect microbial growth rates and microbial populations, as well as physical chemical characteristics of the wastewater. Wastewater treatment plant design needs to accommodate changing temperatures, and somewhat limited capacity is a key criticism of low strength anaerobic treatment such as Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBR). This study evaluates the applicability of an alternative platform utilizing purple phototrophic bacteria for low temperature domestic wastewater treatment. Two photo-anaerobic membrane bioreactors (PAnMBR) at ambient (22 °C) and low temperatures (10 °C) were compared to fully evaluate temperature response of critical processes. The results show good functionality at 10 °C in comparison with ambient operation. This enabled operation at 10 °C to discharge limits (TCOD < 100 mg L(-1); TN < 10 mg L(-1) and TP < 1 mg L(-1)) at a HRT < 1 d. While capacity of the system was not limited, microbial community showed a strong shift to a far narrower diversity, almost complete dominance by PPB, and of a single Rhodobacter spp. compared to a more diverse community in the ambient reactor. The outcomes of the current work enable applicability of PPB for domestic wastewater treatment to a broad range of regions. PMID:27235774

  7. The Comparative Evaluation of the Performance of Two Phytoremediation Systems for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Valipour, A; Azizi, Sh; Raman, V K; Jamshidi, S; Hamnabard, N

    2014-07-01

    The constructed wetlands as well engineered techniques have been used effectively for phytoremediation of wastewater and pollution control during the last decades. In these technologies, the naturally occurring processes of plants alongside micro-organisms present in the bio-film attached to the roots, soil substrate and water column degrade the organic pollutants. The study seeks to compare the potential use of Phragmites sp. reed bed and floating macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system for domestic wastewater treatment. The sewage treatment performance is evaluated as 80% & 76% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 90% & 87% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 24% & 18% total dissolved solids (TDS), 69% & 67% total suspended solids (TSS), 12% & 5% Chlorides, 73% & 69% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 42% & 31% phosphate (PO4-P), 93% & 91% most probable number (MPN) and 95% & 92% total viable count (TVC) reduction at optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 & 43 h in Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth systems, respectively. Likewise, the floating macrophyte pond contrary to reed bed process shows insignificant pollutant diminution at 24 h HRT. This paper also highlights the microbial population present through the wetland systems by estimation of total viable count (TVC). The botanical aspect with reference to the plant growth is shown a significant increase in vegetation yield. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency by preferred Phragmites sp. root zone system at low foot print area for domestic wastewater. PMID:26563084

  8. Characteristics of PAHs adsorption on inorganic particles and activated sludge in domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, J J; Wang, X C; Fan, B

    2011-05-01

    The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was investigated in a 1 year period. In order to understand how PAHs were removed at different stages of the treatment process, adsorption experiments were conducted using quartz sand, kaolinite, and natural clay as inorganic adsorbents and activated sludge as organic adsorbent for adsorbing naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. As a result, the adsorption of PAHs by the inorganic adsorbents well followed the Langmuir isotherm while that by the activated sludge well followed the Freundlich isotherm. By bridging equilibrium partitioning coefficient with the parameters of adsorption isotherm, a set of mathematical models were developed. Under an assumption that in the primary settler PAHs removal was by adsorption onto inorganic particles and in the biological treatment unit it was by adsorption onto activated sludge, the model calculation results fairly reflected the practical condition in the WWTP.

  9. Treatment of low strength domestic wastewater by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, N.H.; Torres, C.L.; Speece, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    The tropical environment of Puerto Rico offers great potential for using anaerobic treatment in place of conventional, aerobic activated sludge processes in the treatment of its warm, dilute municipal wastewaters. It will minimize the troublesome problem of land disposal of municipal sludges, achieve secondary effluent standards and not be an energy intensive form of treatment. When the infrastructure of sewage treatment needs to be improved, anaerobic sewage treatment may serve as one of the better alternatives. Anaerobic sewage treatment is a totally enclosed process. It has very little environmental impact on the surrounding areas of the treatment site. However, sometimes its effluent may cause serious odor problems. There are many small communities in Puerto Rico where the anaerobic process can be an ideal form of treatment for their sewage. This study is focused on using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for treating raw domestic sewage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and stability of the UASB process for treating raw sewage and to ascertain the effect on efficiency of hydraulic detention time of the UASB reactor. A further key objective was to evaluate the impact on process performance of a packed bed solids removals device following the UASB reactor.

  10. On site experiments of the slanted soil treatment systems for domestic gray water.

    PubMed

    Itayama, Tomoaki; Kiji, Masato; Suetsugu, Aya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Iwami, Norio; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Inamori, Yuhei

    2006-01-01

    In order to make a breakthrough for the acute problem of water shortage in the world, the key words "decentralization and re-use" are very important for new sustainable sanitation systems that will be developed. Therefore, we focused on a new treatments system called "a slanted soil treatment system" which combines a biotoilet system with a domestic grey water treatment system. Because this system is a low cost and compact system, the system can be easily introduced to homes in urban areas or in the suburbs of cities in many developing countries. In this study, we performed on site experiments carried out on Shikoku Island, Japan, for several years. We obtained the following results. The slanted soil treatment system could remove organic pollutants and total nitrogen and total phosphorus in grey water effectively. Furthermore, the system performance became high in the case of the high concentration of the influent water. The nitrification reaction and denitrification reaction were speculated to exist due to aerobic zones and anaerobic zones present in the slanted soil treatment system. The slanted soil treatment system could perform for approximately 3 years with zero maintenance. The plug flow model of 1st order reaction kinetics could describe the reaction in the slanted soil treatment system. However, it is necessary to improve the system to maintain the performance in all seasons.

  11. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:25827248

  12. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment.

  13. Anaerobic treatment of raw domestic sewage at ambient temperatures using a granular bed UASB reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lettinga, G.; Roersma, R.; Grin, P.

    1983-07-01

    Results obtained in a 120 liter 2 m high UASB-reactor with raw domestic sewage and using a granular sugar beet waste cultivated seed sludge, reveal the feasibility of this type of anaerobic treatment for domestic sewage. Under dry weather conditions 65-85% COD reduction can be achieved at temperatues in the range of 8-20 degrees C and at hydraulic loads at high as 2 cu.m. m-3.day-1. In the case of heavy rainfall the COD-reduction drops to 50-70% and occasionally, viz. at very low influent COD, even below 50%. The net methane production amounts to 7.1-7.3 cu.m. PE-1.year-1, and the excess sludge production ranges from 5.0-8.6 kg TS.PE1.year-1. Regarding the results obtained anaerobic treatment of raw sewage not only looks an attractive proposition for tropic areas but also for moderate climatic areas. (Refs. 19).

  14. Disinfection of greywater effluent and regrowth potential of selected bacteria.

    PubMed

    Friedler, Eran; Yardeni, Anat; Gilboa, Yael; Alfiya, Yuval

    2011-01-01

    Chlorination and UV irradiation of RBC (rotating biological contactor)-treated light GW (greywater) was investigated. The ability of chlorine and UV to inactivate indictor bacteria (FC - Faecal Coliforms, HPC - Heterotrophic Plate Count) and specific pathogens (P.a. - Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp., S.a. - Staphylococcus aureus sp.), was assessed and their regrowth potential was examined. The RBC removed 88.5-99.9% of all four bacteria groups. Nevertheless, the treated GW had to be disinfected. Most of the chlorine was consumed during the first 0.5 h, while later its decay rate decreased significantly, leaving enough residual after 6 h to prevent regrowth and to further inactivate bacteria in the stored GW effluent. Under exposure to low UV doses (≤69 mJ/cm(2)) FC was the most resistant bacteria group, followed by HPC, P.a. and S.a. Exposure to higher doses (≤439 mJs/cm(2)) completely inactivated FC, P.a. and S.a., while no further HPC inactivation was observed. FC, P.a. and S.a. did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to all the UV doses applied (up to 6 h storage). HPC did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to low UV doses (19-69 mJ/cm2), while it presented statistically significant regrowth in un-disinfected effluent and after exposure to higher UV doses (147-439 mJ/cm(2)).

  15. Semi-nitritation process producing optimum influent for anammox process in treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoxue; Yang, Qing; Li, Jianlin; Peng, Yongzhen; Xu, Zhubing; He, Jianzhong

    2016-06-01

    The process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) requires a proper ratio of NH4(+)-N and NO2(-)-N in the influent, which is difficult to control upon treating domestic wastewater. In this study, a control strategy of semi-nitritation (SN) process based on monitoring the pH profile and NH4(+)-N concentration in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed. The aeration time of each cycle in SN-SBR was calculated using the established equation tSN=tCOD+0.56αnS0/(S0-Sn). To verify the suitability of the control strategy, SN-SBR was operated continuously for 20 cycles, fed with real domestic wastewater with a fluctuating COD of 200-400 mg L(-1) and NH4(+)-N of 65-80 mg L(-1). The nitrogen removal performance of SN-anammox system using the developed control strategy was also monitored. Results showed that SN-SBR was able to generate a suitable ratio of NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N for the following anammox process, the TN removal rate of the SN-anammox system achieved 91.7 ± 0.4% and the average ammonium, nitrite and nitrate concentration of effluent was only 0.50 ± 0.24, 0.13 ± 0.09 and 4.9 ± 0.22 mg L(-1), respectively. This study has potential application in the treatment of domestic wastewater using combined SN-anammox process. PMID:26963236

  16. Wastewater treatment by a modular, domestic-scale reedbed system for safe horticultural irrigation.

    PubMed

    Derry, Chris; Maheshwari, Basant

    2015-12-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the sequential treatment performance of a commercial, domestic-scale modular reedbed system intended to provide safe horticultural irrigation water. Previously only mechanical treatment systems involving forced aeration with subsequent disinfection, usually by tablet-chlorination, had been accredited in Australia. The modular design of the hybrid, subsurface-flow reedbed system offered 5 control points where monitoring and management of the treatment train could be carried out. Ten chemical parameters (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved oxygen percentage saturation and suspended solids) and 4 microbial parameters (total coliform, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) reached satisfactory levels as a result of the treatment process. Health requirements for safe horticultural irrigation were met by the outlet of the second reedbed, providing a high level of treatment-backup capacity in terms of the remaining 2 reedbeds. This suggested that chlorination was a redundant backup precaution in treating irrigation water to the acceptable regional guideline level for all horticultural uses, including the spray irrigation of salad crops eaten raw.

  17. Exposure to synthetic greywater inhibits amoebae encystation and alters expression of Legionella pneumophila virulence genes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water conservation efforts have focused on greywater (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoebae (FLA) hosts within GW. Using synthetic gre...

  18. Community-focused greywater management in two informal settlements in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Armitage, N P; Winter, K; Spiegel, A; Kruger, E

    2009-01-01

    South Africa is struggling to provide services to the millions of poor people migrating to the major centres and living in informal settlements (shanty towns). Whilst the local authorities are generally able to provide potable water from the municipal network to communal taps scattered around the settlements, there is usually inadequate provision of sanitation and little or no provision for the drainage of either stormwater or greywater. This paper describes an investigation into ways of engaging with community structures in the settlements with a view to encouraging "self-help" solutions to greywater management requiring minimal capital investment as an interim "crisis" solution until such time that local and national government is able to provide formal services to everyone. The work was carried out in three settlements encompassing a range of different conditions. Only two are described here. It has become clear that the management of greywater has a low priority amongst the residents of informal settlements. The lack of effective political structures and the breakdown in communication with Ward Councillors and local government officials have contributed to the lack of progress. As the project progressed it became evident that greywater cannot be considered separately from stormwater, sanitation and refuse removal.

  19. (Use of rainwater and greywater and hybrid passive/wood fire water heating). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The work reported involves three phases. The first addresses water heating using a woodstove and a passive solar hot water system. The second deals with recycling greywater. The purpose of the third phase is to use rainwater to fulfill all hot water needs. (LEW)

  20. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for greywater reuse in municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, Roni; Friedler, Eran; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable design and implementation of greywater reuse (GWR) has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs and potable water demand reduction. Studies show that GWR is an efficient tool for reducing potable water demand. This study presents a multi-objective optimization model for estimating the optimal distribution of different types of GWR homes in an existing municipal sewer system. Six types of GWR homes were examined. The model constrains the momentary wastewater (WW) velocity in the sewer pipes (which is responsible for solids movement). The objective functions in the optimization model are the total WW flow at the outlet of the neighborhoods sewer system and the cost of the on-site GWR treatment system. The optimization routing was achieved by an evolutionary multi-objective optimization coupled with hydrodynamic simulations of a representative sewer system of a neighborhood located at the coast of Israel. The two non-dominated best solutions selected were the ones having either the smallest WW flow discharged at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system or the lowest daily cost. In both solutions most of the GWR types chosen were the types resulting with the smallest water usage. This lead to only a small difference between the two best solutions, regarding the diurnal patterns of the WW flows at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system. However, in the upstream link a substantial difference was depicted between the diurnal patterns. This difference occurred since to the upstream links only few homes, implementing the same type of GWR, discharge their WW, and in each solution a different type of GWR was implemented in these upstream homes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first multi-objective optimization model aimed at quantitatively trading off the cost of local/onsite GW spatially distributed reuse treatments, and the total amount of WW flow discharged into the municipal sewer system under unsteady flow conditions.

  1. Domestic wastewater treatment using multi-electrode continuous flow MFCs with a separator electrode assembly design.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of domestic wastewater using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require reactors with multiple electrodes, but this presents unique challenges under continuous flow conditions due to large changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration within the reactor. Domestic wastewater treatment was examined using a single-chamber MFC (130 mL) with multiple graphite fiber brush anodes wired together and a single air cathode (cathode specific area of 27 m(2)/m(3)). In fed-batch operation, where the COD concentration was spatially uniform in the reactor but changed over time, the maximum current density was 148 ± 8 mA/m(2) (1,000 Ω), the maximum power density was 120 mW/m(2), and the overall COD removal was >90 %. However, in continuous flow operation (8 h hydraulic retention time, HRT), there was a 57 % change in the COD concentration across the reactor (influent versus effluent) and the current density was only 20 ± 13 mA/m(2). Two approaches were used to increase performance under continuous flow conditions. First, the anodes were separately wired to the cathode, which increased the current density to 55 ± 15 mA/m(2). Second, two MFCs were hydraulically connected in series (each with half the original HRT) to avoid large changes in COD among the anodes in the same reactor. The second approach improved current density to 73 ± 13 mA/m(2). These results show that current generation from wastewaters in MFCs with multiple anodes, under continuous flow conditions, can be improved using multiple reactors in series, as this minimizes changes in COD in each reactor. PMID:23053104

  2. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in a watershed in central Mexico and removal from domestic sewage in a treatment wetland.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Marco A; Ikonomou, Michael; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    The Texcoco River in central Mexico is polluted with domestic wastewater as a result of discharges of untreated or inadequately treated sewage. Since nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) surfactants and their intermediate degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and NP mono- and diethoxylate (NP1EO, NP2EO) have been found in domestic wastewater and in surface waters near wastewater discharges in industrialized countries, the Texcoco River was sampled to determine whether these compounds were present. The results indicated that NPEOs were present at very high concentrations (> 100 microg/L) in the lower reaches of the Texcoco River, but unlike rivers in industrialized countries, relatively low concentrations of intermediate degradation products, including NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP, were present. The presence and fate of NPEOs compounds in wastewater treatment plants have been studied only in conventional treatment systems in industrialized countries. In this study, the fate of these compounds was studied in a pilot-scale treatment wetland constructed in the small community of Santa Maria Nativitas in the Texcoco River watershed. The treatment wetland removed > 75% of NPEOs from the domestic wastewater, but the greatest proportion of removal occurred in parts of the treatment wetland where sedimentation existed. This is the first report of NPEO compounds in the water resources of a developing country. These data indicate that construction of low-cost and technologically simple treatment wetlands may be one solution to reducing the impacts of contaminants from domestic sewage in developing countries, such as Mexico.

  3. Domestic sewage treatment in a pilot system composed of UASB and SBR reactors.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Foresti, E

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained from the operation of a treatment system composed of an anaerobic (up-flow sludge blanket-UASB) reactor followed by an aerobic (sequencing batch-SBR) reactor treating domestic sewage are presented and discussed. The pilot plant was monitored during 6 months, aiming to obtain performance data on organic matter, nitrogen and phosphate removal under different operating conditions. The UASB reactor was operated at a constant hydraulic detention time (0) of 6 h while the SBR performance was monitored in four different duration cycles (24, 12, 6 and 4 h) corresponding to aeration times (AT) of 22, 10, 4 and 2 h, respectively. COD and TSS overall removal efficiencies (Eo) up to 91% and 84%, respectively, were achieved independently on the aeration time applied to the SBR. In respect to nitrification and phosphate removal, AT was found to be a determining operating parameter. TKN removal of approximately 90% was achieved for AT equal to or higher than 10 h; complete nitrification occurred for AT higher than 4 h; significant phosphate removal (72%) occurred only at the AT of 2 h. It was not possible to achieve simultaneous efficient removal of nitrogen and phosphate, under the operating conditions imposed on the treatment system. PMID:11575090

  4. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  5. Treatment of domestic wastewater by subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with gravel and tire chip media.

    PubMed

    Richter, A Y; Weaver, R W

    2003-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) are becoming increasingly common in on-site treatment of wastewater. Gravel is the most popular form of wetland fill medium, but tire chips provide more porosity, are less dense, and less expensive. This study determines the treatment efficiency of SFCWs filled with gravel or tire chip media to treat domestic wastewater. The influent and effluent of six SFCWs filled with tire chip medium and six SFCWs filled with gravel were monitored for 5 to 16 consecutive months. Parameters measured included pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total and volatile suspended solids, NH4, P, and fecal and total coliforms. The only clear difference between medium types in wetland performance was for P. Soluble P in the effluent averaged 1.6 +/- 1.0 mg l(-1) in the tire chip-filled wetlands and 4.8 +/- 3.2 mg l(-1) in the gravel-filled wetlands. Most likely, Fe from exposed wires in shredded steel-belted tires complexed with P to create an insoluble compound. Tire chips may be a better fill medium for SFCWs than gravel because of higher porosity, lower cost, and greater reduction of P in effluent.

  6. A novel eductor-based MBR for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shibam; Daltrophe, Naphtali Claude; Gilron, Jack

    2016-09-01

    A novel aeration device has been developed that combines the mechanism of a venturi aerator with the flow multiplier effect of an eductor used for pump driven mixing. The performance of this novel eductor was evaluated in a flat-sheet immersed MBR and compared with the same MBR equipped with a conventional diffuser for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The eductor showed a higher rate of oxygen transfer both in clean and wastewater compared to the diffuser. The α value with the eductor (0.91) was also found to be more than that of the diffuser (0.75). Higher recirculation rate through the eductor resulted in a higher mixing/turbulance inside the MBR tank and thus alleviated membrane fouling significantly compared to the diffuser. The performance of the MBR in terms of organics removal was also found to be higher with the eductor than the diffuser. The eductor could have significant potential as a combined aerator and mixer in the field of wastewater treatment by MBR.

  7. Treatment of domestic wastewater by subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with gravel and tire chip media.

    PubMed

    Richter, A Y; Weaver, R W

    2003-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) are becoming increasingly common in on-site treatment of wastewater. Gravel is the most popular form of wetland fill medium, but tire chips provide more porosity, are less dense, and less expensive. This study determines the treatment efficiency of SFCWs filled with gravel or tire chip media to treat domestic wastewater. The influent and effluent of six SFCWs filled with tire chip medium and six SFCWs filled with gravel were monitored for 5 to 16 consecutive months. Parameters measured included pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total and volatile suspended solids, NH4, P, and fecal and total coliforms. The only clear difference between medium types in wetland performance was for P. Soluble P in the effluent averaged 1.6 +/- 1.0 mg l(-1) in the tire chip-filled wetlands and 4.8 +/- 3.2 mg l(-1) in the gravel-filled wetlands. Most likely, Fe from exposed wires in shredded steel-belted tires complexed with P to create an insoluble compound. Tire chips may be a better fill medium for SFCWs than gravel because of higher porosity, lower cost, and greater reduction of P in effluent. PMID:14977152

  8. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates. PMID:24056433

  9. Detection of polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating bacteria from domestic wastewater treatment plant using highly sensitive PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Pi-Ling; Semblante, Galilee Uy; You, Sheng-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a class of biodegradable plastics that have great potential applications in the near future. In this study, the micro-biodiversity and productivity of PHA-accumulating bacteria in activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were investigated. A previously reported primer set and a selfdesigned primer set (phaCF1BO/phaCR2BO) were both used to amplify the PHA synthase (phaC) gene of isolated colonies. The new primers demonstrated higher sensitivity for phaC, and combining the PCR results of the two primer sets was able to widen the range of detected genera and raise the sensitivity to nearly 90%. Results showed that 85.3% of the identified bacteria were Gram-negative, with Ralstonia as the dominant genus, and 14.7% were Gram-positive. In addition, Zoogloea and Rhizobium contained the highest amounts of intracellular PHA. It is apparent that glucose was a better carbon source than pentone or tryptone for promoting PHA production in Micrococcus. Two different classes, class I and class II, of phaC were detected from alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, and gammaproteobacteria, indicating the wide diversity of PHA-accumulating bacteria in this particular sampling site. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and PHA production is promising by adopting the high PHAaccumulating bacteria isolated from activated sludge.

  10. Effect of temperature on the treatment of domestic wastewater with a staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yoo, R H; Kim, J H; McCarty, P L; Bae, J H

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR) system was applied to the treatment of primary clarifier effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant with temperature decreasing from 25 to 10 °C. At all temperatures and with a total hydraulic retention time of 2.3 h, overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) removals were 89% and 94% or higher, with permeate COD and BOD5 of 30 and 7 mg/L or lower, respectively. No noticeable negative effects of low temperature on organic removal were found, although a slight increase to 3 mg/L in volatile fatty acids concentrations in the effluent was observed. Biosolids production was 0.01-0.03 kg volatile suspended solids/kg COD, which is far less than that with aerobic processes. Although the rate of trans-membrane pressure at the membrane flux of 9 L/m(2)/h increased as temperature decreased, the SAF-MBR was operated for longer than 200 d before chemical cleaning was needed. Electrical energy potential from combustion of the total methane production (gaseous and dissolved) was more than that required for system operation.

  11. A novel eductor-based MBR for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shibam; Daltrophe, Naphtali Claude; Gilron, Jack

    2016-09-01

    A novel aeration device has been developed that combines the mechanism of a venturi aerator with the flow multiplier effect of an eductor used for pump driven mixing. The performance of this novel eductor was evaluated in a flat-sheet immersed MBR and compared with the same MBR equipped with a conventional diffuser for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The eductor showed a higher rate of oxygen transfer both in clean and wastewater compared to the diffuser. The α value with the eductor (0.91) was also found to be more than that of the diffuser (0.75). Higher recirculation rate through the eductor resulted in a higher mixing/turbulance inside the MBR tank and thus alleviated membrane fouling significantly compared to the diffuser. The performance of the MBR in terms of organics removal was also found to be higher with the eductor than the diffuser. The eductor could have significant potential as a combined aerator and mixer in the field of wastewater treatment by MBR. PMID:27179340

  12. Seeking a way to promote the use of constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zurita, F; Belmont, M A; De Anda, J; White, J R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the domestic wastewater treatment efficiency as well as the survivability of commercially valuable ornamental plants in subsurface flow wetlands (SSFW) for domestic wastewater (DWW) treatment in laboratory and pilot wetland studies. The laboratory scale study included five different species (Zantedeschia aethiopica, Strelitzia reginae, Anthurium andreanum, Canna hybrids and Hemmerocallis dumortieri) that were evaluated in horizontal flow subsurface treatment cells. All the plants survived during the 6-month experimental period demonstrating high wetland nutrient treatment efficiency. In order to validate and expand these preliminary results, a pilot-scale wetland study was carried out in SSFWs under two different flow regimes (horizontal and vertical flow). Four ornamental species were tested during a 1-year period: Zantedeschia aethiopica, Strelitzia reginae, Anthurium andreanum and Agapanthus africanus. The removal efficiencies were significantly higher in the vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) for all pollutants, except for nitrate (NO(3)-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total suspended solids (TSS). These results show that it is feasible to use select non-wetland plants with high market value in SSFWs without reducing the efficiency of the wastewater treatment system, although future work should continue in order to apply this technology in a large scale. The added value of floriculture in treatment wetlands can help to promote the use of constructed wetlands (CW) for domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries where economical resources are scarce and water pollution with DWW is common. PMID:21330710

  13. Electrochemical treatment of domestic wastewater using boron-doped diamond and nanostructured amorphous carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Daghrir, Rimeh; Drogui, Patrick; Tshibangu, Joel; Delegan, Nazar; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-05-01

    The performance of the electrochemical oxidation process for efficient treatment of domestic wastewater loaded with organic matter was studied. The process was firstly evaluated in terms of its capability of producing an oxidant agent (H2O2) using amorphous carbon (or carbon felt) as cathode, whereas Ti/BDD electrode was used as anode. Relatively high concentrations of H2O2 (0.064 mM) was produced after 90 min of electrolysis time, at 4.0 A of current intensity and using amorphous carbon at the cathode. Factorial design and central composite design methodologies were successively used to define the optimal operating conditions to reach maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color. Current intensity and electrolysis time were found to influence the removal of COD and color. The contribution of current intensity on the removal of COD and color was around 59.1 and 58.8%, respectively, whereas the contribution of treatment time on the removal of COD and color was around 23.2 and 22.9%, respectively. The electrochemical treatment applied under 3.0 A of current intensity, during 120 min of electrolysis time and using Ti/BDD as anode, was found to be the optimal operating condition in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these optimal conditions, the average removal rates of COD and color were 78.9 ± 2 and 85.5 ± 2 %, whereas 70% of total organic carbon removal was achieved.

  14. Electrochemical treatment of domestic wastewater using boron-doped diamond and nanostructured amorphous carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Daghrir, Rimeh; Drogui, Patrick; Tshibangu, Joel; Delegan, Nazar; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-05-01

    The performance of the electrochemical oxidation process for efficient treatment of domestic wastewater loaded with organic matter was studied. The process was firstly evaluated in terms of its capability of producing an oxidant agent (H2O2) using amorphous carbon (or carbon felt) as cathode, whereas Ti/BDD electrode was used as anode. Relatively high concentrations of H2O2 (0.064 mM) was produced after 90 min of electrolysis time, at 4.0 A of current intensity and using amorphous carbon at the cathode. Factorial design and central composite design methodologies were successively used to define the optimal operating conditions to reach maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color. Current intensity and electrolysis time were found to influence the removal of COD and color. The contribution of current intensity on the removal of COD and color was around 59.1 and 58.8%, respectively, whereas the contribution of treatment time on the removal of COD and color was around 23.2 and 22.9%, respectively. The electrochemical treatment applied under 3.0 A of current intensity, during 120 min of electrolysis time and using Ti/BDD as anode, was found to be the optimal operating condition in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these optimal conditions, the average removal rates of COD and color were 78.9 ± 2 and 85.5 ± 2 %, whereas 70% of total organic carbon removal was achieved. PMID:24493133

  15. Environmental impact of irrigation with greywater treated by recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands in two climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Gross, Amit; Alfiya, Yuval; Sklarz, Menachem; Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Reuse of greywater (GW) has raised environmental and public health concerns. Specifically, these concerns relate to onsite treatment operated by non-professionals; systems must therefore be reliable, simple to use and also economically feasible if they are to be widely used. The aims of this study were to: (a) investigate GW treatment efficiency using 20 full-scale recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCWs) operated in households in arid and Mediterranean regions; and (b) study the long-term effects of irrigation with treated GW on soil properties. RVFCW systems were installed and monitored routinely over 3 years. Raw, treated and disinfected treated GW samples were analyzed for various physicochemical and microbial parameters. Native soil plots and nearby freshwater (FW) and treated GW irrigated soil plots were sampled twice a year - at the end of the winter and at the end of the summer. Soil samples were analyzed for various physicochemical and microbial parameters. Overall, the RVFCW proved to be a robust and reliable GW treatment system. The treated GW quality met strict Israeli regulations for urban irrigation. Results also suggest that irrigation with sufficiently treated GW has no adverse effects on soil properties. Yet, continued monitoring to follow longer term trends is recommended.

  16. Co-treatment of domestic and dairy wastewater in an activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Sparchez, E; Elefsiniotis, P; Wareham, D G; Fongsatitkul, P

    2015-01-01

    This research assesses the potential for co-treatment of a dairy wastewater with a domestic wastewater in a lab-scale, continuous-flow, activated sludge system. To evaluate the influence of the dairy waste contribution, seven runs were conducted with each run being a mixture of dairy wastewater (either cheese or milk) in different ratios ranging from 1:0.01 to 1:0.30 by volume. More than 87% of the carbon was removed for both waste additions; however, while 95% ammonia-nitrogen removal was recorded for the cheese waste, only 75% removal was obtained for the milk. Kinetic studies for carbon consumption revealed a first-order model with lower kinetic constants as the cheese waste proportion increased. Specific carbon consumption rates indicated that the biomass had not reached its maximum potential to degrade carbon. The ability of the biomass to settle was hindered when the Gram negative to Gram positive filamentous bacteria ratio increased to approximately 1.5. PMID:25204524

  17. Co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater using a submerged aerobic biofilter.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Povinelli, J; Pozzi, E; Vieira, E M; Trofino, J C

    2014-08-01

    This study used a pilot-scale submerged aerobic biofilter (SAB) to evaluate the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate that was pre-treated by air stripping. The leachate tested volumetric ratios were 0, 2, and 5%. At a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, the SAB was best operated with a volumetric ratio of 2% and removed 98% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 90% of the total suspended solids (TSS). A proposed method, which we called the "equivalent in humic acid" (Eq.HA) approach, indicated that the hardly biodegradable organic matter in leachate was removed by partial degradation (71% of DOC Eq.HA removal). Adding leachate at a volumetric ratio of 5%, the concentration of the hardly biodegradable organic matter was decreased primarily as a result of dilution rather than biodegradation, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was mostly removed (90%) by nitrification, and the SAB performances at the volumetric ratios of 0 and 2% were equal. For the three tested volumetric ratios of leachate (0, 2, and 5%), the concentrations of heavy metals in the treated samples were below the local limits.

  18. Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  19. Co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater using a submerged aerobic biofilter.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Povinelli, J; Pozzi, E; Vieira, E M; Trofino, J C

    2014-08-01

    This study used a pilot-scale submerged aerobic biofilter (SAB) to evaluate the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate that was pre-treated by air stripping. The leachate tested volumetric ratios were 0, 2, and 5%. At a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, the SAB was best operated with a volumetric ratio of 2% and removed 98% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 90% of the total suspended solids (TSS). A proposed method, which we called the "equivalent in humic acid" (Eq.HA) approach, indicated that the hardly biodegradable organic matter in leachate was removed by partial degradation (71% of DOC Eq.HA removal). Adding leachate at a volumetric ratio of 5%, the concentration of the hardly biodegradable organic matter was decreased primarily as a result of dilution rather than biodegradation, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was mostly removed (90%) by nitrification, and the SAB performances at the volumetric ratios of 0 and 2% were equal. For the three tested volumetric ratios of leachate (0, 2, and 5%), the concentrations of heavy metals in the treated samples were below the local limits. PMID:24762568

  20. Comparison of bioreactors with different kinds of submerged packed beds for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nacheva, P Mijaylova; Moeller Chávez, G; Bustos, C; Garzón Zúñiga, M A; Hornelas Orozco, Y

    2008-01-01

    The performance of aerobic submerged packed bed reactors was studied for the treatment of domestic wastewater using different kinds of packing materials with high specific areas (760-1,200 m(2)/m(3)). The tested materials were ceramic spheres, crushed tezontle, grains of high density polyethylene (HDPE), of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and of polypropylene (PP), cubes of polyurethane (PU) and polyethylene tape (SESSIL). The bioreactors were operated in continuous regime, applying organic loads in the range of 0.8-6.0 g COD.m(-2).d(-1). The obtained specific COD removal rates were very similar in all the reactors when they were operated at organic loads up to 2.0 g COD.m(-2).d(-1), after which differences in effectiveness appeared and the best results were determined in the reactors with SESSIL, LDPE and PU. Very low TSS, O&G and turbidity were obtained in all the effluents. The NH(3)-N and TN removals were dependent on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the removals at DO of 5 mg/l were 84-99% and 61-74% respectively. The best removals were determined in the reactors with PU, SESSIL and LDPE. The reactor with tezontle had also a good performance when operated with loads up to 1.0 g TN.m(-2).d(-1). The best phosphate removals (38-49%) were obtained in the reactors with PU, tezontle, ceramic sheres and SESSIL.

  1. Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage in modified septic tanks at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Guan, Huabin; Bakke, Rune; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-01-01

    Three laboratory-scale septic tanks, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)-septic tank (R1), a Yuhuan drawing three-dimensional-carrier-septic tank (R2) and a conventional septic tank (R3), were operated in parallel over half a year under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 36, 24 and 12 h, with a sewage temperature of 16 degrees C. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (CODtot) achieved in R1 and R2 increased by 14%, 21% and 12% and 18%, 3% and 16%, respectively, under three different HRTs, as compared to those in R3. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were negligible. R1 sludges had a higher specific methane production rate as compared to that of R2 and R3 sludges. The results indicated that the two modified septic tanks can improve the performance in terms of COD and total solids removal, both were suitable technologies for domestic sewage (pre) treatment at low temperature in northern China.

  2. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment.

  3. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:23880131

  4. Effects of changing hydraulic and organic loading rates on pollutant reduction in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Pell, Mikael; Hylander, Lars D; Lalander, Cecilia; Vinnerås, Björn; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Greywater flows and concentrations vary greatly, thus evaluation and prediction of the response of on-site treatment filters to variable loading regimes is challenging. The performance of 0.6 m × 0.2 m (height × diameter) filters of bark, activated charcoal and sand in reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (Tot-N) and total phosphorus (Tot-P) under variable loading regimes was investigated and modelled. During seven runs, the filters were fed with synthetic greywater at hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 32-128 L m(-2) day(-1) and organic loading rates (OLR) of 13-76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1). Based on the changes in HLR and OLR, the reduction in pollutants was modelled using multiple linear regression. The models showed that increasing the HLR from 32 to 128 L m(-2) day(-1) decreased COD reduction in the bark filters from 74 to 40%, but increased COD reduction in the charcoal and sand filters from 76 to 90% and 65 to 83%, respectively. Moreover, the models showed that increasing the OLR from 13 to 76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters except for Tot-P in the bark filters, which decreased slightly from 81 to 73%. Decreasing the HLR from 128 to 32 L m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters, but decreasing the OLR from 76 to 14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) detached biofilm and decreased the Tot-N and Tot-P reduction in the bark and sand filters. Overall, the bark filters had the capacity to treat high OLR, while the charcoal filters had the capacity to treat high HLR and high OLR. Both bark and charcoal filters had higher capacity than sand filters in dealing with high and variable loads. Bark seems to be an attractive substitute for sand filters in settings short in water and its effluent would be valuable for irrigation, while charcoal filters should be an attractive alternative for settings both rich and short in water supply and when

  5. Treatment of Concurrent Substance Dependence, Child Neglect and Domestic Violence: A Single Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Valerie; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Although child neglect and substance abuse co-occur in greater than 60% of child protective service cases, intervention outcome studies are deplorably lacking. Therefore, a home-based Family Behavior Therapy is described in the treatment of a woman evidencing child neglect, substance dependence, domestic violence and other co-occurring problems. Treatment included contingency management, self control, stimulus control, communication and child management skills training exercises, and financial management components. Results indicated improvements in child abuse potential, home hazards, domestic violence, and drug use, which were substantiated by objective urinalysis testing, and tours of her home. Validity checks indicated the participant was being truthful in her responses to standardized questionnaires, and assessors were “blind” to study intent. Limitations (i.e., lack of experimental control and follow-up data collection) of this case example are discussed in light of these results. PMID:23226920

  6. Impact of electrode configurations on retention time and domestic wastewater treatment efficiency using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Yang, Wulin; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    Efficient treatment of domestic wastewater under continuous flow conditions using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires hydraulic retention times (HRTs) that are similar to or less than those of conventional methods such as activated sludge. Two MFCs in series were compared at theoretical HRTs of 8.8, 4.4 and 2.2 h using two different brush-electrode MFC configurations: a full brush evenly spaced between two cathodes (S2C); and trimmed brush anodes near a single cathode (N1C). The MFCs with two cathodes produced more power than the MFCs with a single cathode, with 1.72 mW for the S2C, compared to and 1.12 mW for the N1C at a set HRT = 4.4 h. The single cathode MFCs with less cathode area removed slightly more COD (54.2 ± 2.3%, N1C) than the two-cathode MFCs (48.3 ± 1.0%, S2C). However, the higher COD removal was due to the longer HRTs measured for the MFCs with the N1C configuration (10.7, 5.3 and 3.1 h) than with the S2C configuration (7.2, 3.7 and 2.2 h), despite the same theoretical HRT. The longer HRTs of the N1C MFCs also resulted in slightly higher coulombic efficiencies (≤37%) than those of the S2C MFCs (≤29%). While the S2C MFC configuration would be more advantageous based on electrical power production, the N1C MFC might be more useful on the basis of capital costs relative to COD removal efficiency due to the use of less cathode surface area per volume of reactor.

  7. Impact of electrode configurations on retention time and domestic wastewater treatment efficiency using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Yang, Wulin; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    Efficient treatment of domestic wastewater under continuous flow conditions using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires hydraulic retention times (HRTs) that are similar to or less than those of conventional methods such as activated sludge. Two MFCs in series were compared at theoretical HRTs of 8.8, 4.4 and 2.2 h using two different brush-electrode MFC configurations: a full brush evenly spaced between two cathodes (S2C); and trimmed brush anodes near a single cathode (N1C). The MFCs with two cathodes produced more power than the MFCs with a single cathode, with 1.72 mW for the S2C, compared to and 1.12 mW for the N1C at a set HRT = 4.4 h. The single cathode MFCs with less cathode area removed slightly more COD (54.2 ± 2.3%, N1C) than the two-cathode MFCs (48.3 ± 1.0%, S2C). However, the higher COD removal was due to the longer HRTs measured for the MFCs with the N1C configuration (10.7, 5.3 and 3.1 h) than with the S2C configuration (7.2, 3.7 and 2.2 h), despite the same theoretical HRT. The longer HRTs of the N1C MFCs also resulted in slightly higher coulombic efficiencies (≤37%) than those of the S2C MFCs (≤29%). While the S2C MFC configuration would be more advantageous based on electrical power production, the N1C MFC might be more useful on the basis of capital costs relative to COD removal efficiency due to the use of less cathode surface area per volume of reactor. PMID:25996751

  8. Public awareness, behaviours and attitudes towards domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, O.; Hynds, P. D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have highlighted and quantified the role of domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTSs) as significant sources of human-specific aquatic contaminants in both developed and developing regions, particularly with respect to private and municipal groundwater supplies. However, from a socio-hydrological perspective, little work has focused on these systems and the potential environmental and human burden posed. This is of particular relevance in the Republic of Ireland, where approximately one third of the population is serviced by DWWTSs. The objective of the current study was to examine levels of awareness and subsequent behavioural tendencies among owners and users of DWWTSs in the Republic of Ireland, particularly in light of recent and future (national and EU) legislative amendments. Structured questionnaires were completed bi-modally with 1106 Irish respondents. Analysis identified a number of significant knowledge gaps which currently exist among DWWTS users in Ireland. These were associated with environmentally inadvisable behavioural practises, potentially leading to increased contamination vulnerability and subsequently, increased human exposure to waterborne contaminants. Household water supply type was significantly associated with DWWTS threat acknowledgement (p = 0.014), with unregulated private groundwater users exhibited the lowest awareness of DWWTS as a potential source of aquatic contaminants despite being the group at greatest risk. A bi-modal clustering approach was employed, with respondents found to fall into one of three distinct “attitudinal” clusters. Future engagement strategies should strive to provide guidance regarding the role of people and their activities within the hydrological cycle. The current study reinforces this conclusion, while providing evidence-based recommendations regarding provision of demographically focused educational strategies; these will further increase environmental policy compliance, and in

  9. Estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions from industrial and domestic wastewater treatment. Final report, September 1994-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, M.R.J.; Strait, R.P.; Barnard, W.R.; Eklund, B.

    1997-09-01

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitorus oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific emission estimates for CH4 and N2O. The report concludes that WWT is unlikely to be a significant source of volatile organic carbon and carbon dioxide emissions. The biggest contributor to industrial CH4 emissions from WWT is the pulp and paper industry in developing and Eastern European countries. The second principal contributor to CH4 emissions from WWT is the meat and poultry industry. Russia is believed to be the largest contributor. CH4 emissions from untreated domestic wastewater may be many times higher than those of treated wastewater. The report provides rough estimates for global N2O emissions from WWT.

  10. Occurrence and removal of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater and rural domestic sewage treatment systems in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Mingmei

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants and pose a threat to public health. In this study, four tetracycline resistance genes (tetM, tetO, tetQ and tetW) and two sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI and sulII) were evaluated in 4 municipal wastewater and 8 rural domestic sewage treatment systems with different wastewater handling abilities and treatment processes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In the influents, the relative abundance of different ARGs showed significant variations among the sampling sites. In addition, significant correlations (tetQ: R(2)=0.712, P<0.05; tetO: R(2)=0.394, P<0.05) between the gene copy numbers and wastewater-receiving capacity were observed. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation (R(2)=0.756, P<0.05) between the gene copy numbers of sulI and intI1, whereas the gene numbers of tetM and sulI were strongly correlated with 16S rDNA. Significant reductions (1-3 orders of magnitude) in ARGs were observed in municipal wastewater treatment systems, but a smaller reduction was found in the rural domestic sewage treatment systems. These results provide insights into the occurrence and removal of ARGs in wastewater treatment systems in both rural and urban areas in eastern China.

  11. Analysis of Nitrogen Pollution Load by Domestic Waste Water Treatment in the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Toshisuke; Noto, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchihara, Takeo; Tanaka, Tadashi

    An evaluation of the environment nitrogen pollution load with regard to domestic waste water treatment on the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas was conducted. The literature-based water quality data collected before and after the treatment and the basic outflow pollution unit was determined for the several water treatment systems. Next these data were applied for the entire alluvial fan areas resulting in an estimated total nitrogen pollution load of as 186 ton/year. 58% of the total nitrogen pollution load was estimated to be from the private residences that were not connected to the public sewage system (connecting ratio 90.5%) which thus had relation to the pollution of groundwater and water quality in the drainage canal in the region under consideration. The nitrogen pollution load was higher in the urban area more than the rural. The rural domestic waste water system accounted for about 17.9% of the total pollution load, which carried a high probability of groundwater pollution because of seepage or percolation. The pollution load from the direct flow of the public sewage treatment water to the middle stream of the Tedori River, together with the water from small companies and untreated water from local family dwellings made up about 3-10% of total pollution.

  12. Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

    2015-02-17

    Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.

  13. High-rate anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater at ambient operating temperatures: A review on benefits and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Gomec, Cigdem Yangin

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on high-rate anaerobic sewage treatment at ambient operating temperatures while presenting the benefits and drawbacks. Since domestic sewage is reported as the main point-source pollutant on a global scale, its treatment deserves ample research. In most of the cities and towns of some developing countries, wastewater produced in households is still discharged into the nearest water body without subjected any treatment. Therefore, simple, affordable, and effective sewage treatment systems are required. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater is reported as a sustainable alternative as recovery of energy is provided while nutrients are preserved for reuse. Anaerobic sewage treatment is certainly not limited to regions of hot climates but it also offers treatment potential in sub-tropical and even in moderate climatic regions due to their favorable temperature conditions. Since many sewage-like dilute wastewaters are discharged at low ambient temperatures especially under moderate climate conditions (15 to 20 degrees C), heating the wastewater to maintain mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C) for anaerobic treatment necessitates high energy and certainly high operating costs. Thus, the development of anaerobic treatment systems operated at ambient temperatures without doubt will have a great ecological and economic impact. High-rate anaerobic treatment systems, especially upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, have been occupying a noticeable position for sewage treatment in several tropical countries where artificial heating can be eliminated. However, in spite of their undeniable advantages, there are certain drawbacks of anaerobic sewage treatment at low operating temperatures which should be clarified. Among them, the main concern for anaerobic treatment application is its producing effluents that barely comply with the standarts for reuse in agriculture or discharge to the environment. Therefore, the effluents from

  14. Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Jönsson, Håkan; Hylander, Lars D; Hui, Nan; Yu, Dan; Pell, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, and dosed with 32 L m(-2) day(-1) of an artificial greywater (14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1)) for 116 days. Potential respiration rate (PRR), determined in filter samples after addition of excess glucose, and bacterial diversity and composition, analysed by 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, were measured at different times and depths in the filters. The bark and charcoal filters were more efficient in removing BOD5 than the sand (98, 97% and 75%, respectively). The highest PRR in the 0-2 cm layer of the columns on day 84 was found in the bark filters, followed by the charcoal and sand filters (632 ± 66, 222 ± 34 and 56 ± 2 mg O2 L(-1), respectively; n = 2). Bacterial community in the bark filters showed the highest richness. The charcoal and sand filters both developed more diverse and dynamic (changing over time and depth) bacterial communities than the bark. In addition to the greywater, the lignocelluosic composition of the bark and its lower pH probably selected for the bacterial community structure and the organic content provided additional substrate, as shown by its higher PRR and its different nitrifying bacterial genera. In the oligotrophic charcoal and sand, the composition of the greywater itself defined the bacterial community. Thus, the initially low bacterial biomass in the latter filters was enriched over time, allowing a diversified bacterial community to develop. The top layers of the bark and charcoal filters displayed a high dominance of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were less evident in the 60 cm layer, whereas in the sand filters these genera were

  15. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Angel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF approximately 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

  16. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Angel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF approximately 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time.

  17. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: Lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Ángel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF ≈ 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

  18. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors.

  19. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. PMID:26551262

  20. A novel anoxic-aerobic biofilter process using new composite packing material for the treatment of rural domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pan, L T; Han, Y

    2016-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of contaminants removal in a continuously two-stage biological process composed of an anoxic biofilter (AF) and an biological aerated filter (BAF). This novel process was developed by introducing new composite packing material (MZF) into bioreactors to treat rural domestic wastewater. A comparative study conducted by the same process with ceramsite as packing material under the same conditions showed that a MZF system with a Fe proportion in the packing material performed better in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (average 91.5%), ammonia (NH4(+)-N) removal (average 98.3%), total nitrogen (TN) removal (average 64.8%) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (average 90%). After treatment of the MZF system, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP in effluent were 20.3 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 11.5 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The simultaneously high efficiencies of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal were achieved by the coupling effects of biological and chemical processes in the MZF system. The results of this study showed that the application of MZF might be a favorable choice as packing material in biofilters for treatment of rural domestic wastewater. PMID:27191571

  1. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  2. The cost benefit and efficiency of waste water treatment using domestic ponds—the ultimate solution in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    Wastewater treatment has become a challenge to most countries in Southern Africa because of the fluctuating economies that have been hit by high levels of debts. The treatment of domestic wastewater using ponds, if carefully utilized, as has been observed in most countries in the world, is the most cost effective means of handling wastewaters. When compared to the conventional use of treatment plants, the ponds have been observed to be the ultimate solution for the countries in Southern Africa especially those that are classified as Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) because of little or no operating costs associated with the treatment. The study conducted on Kitwe Waste Water Treatment Ponds to evaluate the cost benefit and efficiencies has revealed low levels of operating cost and high removal efficiencies of oxygen demanding wastes (BOD removal of 86% and TSS removal of 75%), pH values ranged from 7 to 8 indicating an increasing alkalinity from facultative to maturation ponds while other parameters such as nitrates, phosphates and temperature were found to be within acceptable levels thereby releasing effluent that makes the environment sustainable. The overall social benefit was found to be much higher than the operating costs.

  3. Molecular detection and treatment of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs in Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Potchimplee, Prapasara; Khianman, Parin; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 303 EDTA blood samples were collected from domestic dogs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, in May 2013. Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears and molecular diagnosis using conventional PCR were performed. Infected dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, a combination of imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline, or doxycycline alone. Seventy-one (23.4%) out of 303 dogs were positive for DNA of tick-borne pathogens. Of the 303 animals, 13.2% and 1.3% were positive for a single infection with Babesia spp or Ehrlichia canis, respec- tively using microscopy; whereas 19.5% and 3.0% were positive using the PCR technique. Co-infection with Babesia spp and E. canis was observed in 0.7%, and coinfection with Hepatozoon canis and E. canis in 0.3%. Infected dogs were treated with the assigned drugs, and elimination of the pathogens was demonstrated by microscopy and PCR. The results indicated that while both microscopic and PCR diagnostic techniques were useful for tick-borne pathogen detection, PCR was more effective. Imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline were found to be effective for treatment of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, respectively. The present study suggests that the PCR technique has high sensitivity and specificity for Babesia and Ehrlichia diagnosis as well as for detection of Babesia spp, E. canis and H. canis DNA in EDTA blood specimens. PMID:25417519

  4. Treatment performance and microorganism community structure of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland plots for domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-qing; Chang, Jun-jun; Dai, Yanran; Wu, Zhen-bin; Liang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the treatment performance and microorganism mechanism of IVCW for domestic wastewater in central of China, two parallel pilot-scale IVCW systems were built to evaluate purification efficiencies, microbial community structure and enzyme activities. The results showed that mean removal efficiencies were 81.03 % for COD, 51.66 % for total nitrogen (TN), 42.50 % for NH4 (+)-N, and 68.01 % for TP. Significant positive correlations between nitrate reductase activities and TN and NH4 (+)-N removal efficiencies, along with a significant correlation between substrate enzyme activity and operation time, were observed. Redundancy analysis demonstrated gram-negative bacteria were mainly responsible for urease and phosphatase activities, and also played a major role in dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase activities. Meanwhile, anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and saturated FA groups, gram-positive bacteria exhibited good correlations with the removal of COD (p=0.388), N (p=0.236), and TP (p=0.074), respectively. The IVCW system can be used to treat domestic wastewater effectively. PMID:23179215

  5. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids. PMID:27620110

  6. Domestic wastewater treatment using tidal-flow cinder bed with Cyperus alternifolius

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.Y.; Tsang, Y.F.; Chua, H.

    2008-07-01

    A lab-scale vertical flow cinder bed was set up to treat domestic wastewater. Cinder, which is a common coal waste from electricity generation, was used as the filter medium in the six vertical flow column beds in this study. Three of the six columns were planted with umbrella grass (Cyperus alternifolius) to mimic a wetland system and to investigate the effects of plant on the pollutant removal efficiencies of the column bed systems. The six column beds were divided into three groups, operating with different durations of wet and dry periods. Group 2 column beds, with 4 hours wet periods and 4 hours dry periods, showed the highest carbonaceous removal. Similar ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were demonstrated in column beds of group 2 and in column beds of group 3 (6 hours wet periods and 2 hours dry periods). Phosphorus removal efficiencies were not significantly different in all groups of column bed. No significant differences in pollutant removal were observed between planted and unplanted column beds in this study (p > 0.05).

  7. Aerobic co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater - are slowly biodegradable organics removed or simply diluted?

    PubMed

    Campos, R; Ferraz, F M; Vieira, E M; Povinelli, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate/domestic wastewater in bench-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors to determine whether the slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM) was removed rather than diluted. The AS reactors were loaded with mixtures of raw leachate and leachate that was pretreated by air stripping. The tested volumetric ratios were 0%, 0.2%, 2% and 5%. For all of the tested conditions, the reactors performed better when pretreated leachate was used rather than raw leachate, and the best volumetric ratio was 2%. The following removals were obtained: 97% for the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,20), 79% for total suspended solids, 77% for dissolved organic carbon and 84% for soluble chemical oxygen demand. Most of the pretreated leachate SBOM (65%) was removed rather than diluted or adsorbed into the sludge, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses.

  8. Aerobic co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater - are slowly biodegradable organics removed or simply diluted?

    PubMed

    Campos, R; Ferraz, F M; Vieira, E M; Povinelli, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate/domestic wastewater in bench-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors to determine whether the slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM) was removed rather than diluted. The AS reactors were loaded with mixtures of raw leachate and leachate that was pretreated by air stripping. The tested volumetric ratios were 0%, 0.2%, 2% and 5%. For all of the tested conditions, the reactors performed better when pretreated leachate was used rather than raw leachate, and the best volumetric ratio was 2%. The following removals were obtained: 97% for the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,20), 79% for total suspended solids, 77% for dissolved organic carbon and 84% for soluble chemical oxygen demand. Most of the pretreated leachate SBOM (65%) was removed rather than diluted or adsorbed into the sludge, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. PMID:25521128

  9. Probabilistic analysis of risks to US drinking water intakes from 1,4-dioxane in domestic wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Simonich, Staci Massey; Sun, Ping; Casteel, Ken; Dyer, Scott; Wernery, Dave; Garber, Kevin; Carr, Gregory; Federle, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The risks of 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) concentrations in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, receiving primarily domestic wastewater, to downstream drinking water intakes was estimated using distributions of measured dioxane concentrations in effluents from 40 WWTPs and surface water dilution factors of 1323 drinking water intakes across the United States. Effluent samples were spiked with a d8 -1,4-dioxane internal standard in the field immediately after sample collection. Dioxane was extracted with ENVI-CARB-Plus solid phase columns and analyzed by GC/MS/MS, with a limit of quantification of 0.30 μg/L. Measured dioxane concentrations in domestic wastewater effluents ranged from <0.30 to 3.30 μg/L, with a mean concentration of 1.11 ± 0.60 μg/L. Dilution of upstream inputs of effluent were estimated for US drinking water intakes using the iSTREEM model at mean flow conditions, assuming no in-stream loss of dioxane. Dilution factors ranged from 2.6 to 48 113, with a mean of 875. The distributions of dilution factors and dioxane concentration in effluent were then combined using Monte Carlo analysis to estimate dioxane concentrations at drinking water intakes. This analysis showed the probability was negligible (p = 0.0031) that dioxane inputs from upstream WWTPs could result in intake concentrations exceeding the USEPA drinking water advisory concentration of 0.35 μg/L, before any treatment of the water for drinking use.

  10. The effect of aeration and effluent recycling on domestic wastewater treatment in a pilot-plant system of duckweed ponds.

    PubMed

    Ben-shalom, Miriam; Shandalov, Semion; Brenner, Asher; Oron, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Three pilot-scale duckweed pond (DP) wastewater treatment systems were designed and operated to examine the effect of aeration and effluent recycling on treatment efficiency. Each system consisted of two DPs in series fed by pre-settled domestic sewage. The first system (duckweed+ conventional treatment) was 'natural' and included only duckweed plants. The second system (duckweed aeration) included aeration in the second pond. The third system (duckweed+ aeration+ circulation) included aeration in the second pond and effluent recycling from the second to the first pond. All three systems demonstrated similarly efficient removal of organic matter and nutrients. Supplemental aeration had no effect on either dissolved oxygen levels or on pollutant removal efficiencies. Although recycling had almost no influence on nutrient removal efficiencies, it had a positive impact on chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removals due to equalization of load and pH, which suppressed algae growth. Recycling also improved the appearance and growth rate of the duckweed plants, especially during heavy wastewater loads.

  11. Mathematical modeling of COD removal via the combined treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate based on the PACT process.

    PubMed

    Fernández Bou, Ángel S; Nascentes, Alexandre Lioi; Costa Pereira, Barbara; Da Silva, Leonardo Duarte Batista; Alberto Ferreira, João; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2015-01-01

    The experiments performed in this study consisted of 16 batch reactors fed different mixtures of landfill leachate combined with synthetic wastewater treated using the Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT) process. The objective was to measure the COD mass removal per liter each day for each reactor using two models: the first model combined the variables PAC concentration (0 g·L(-1), 2 g·L(-1), 4 g·L(-1), and 6 g·L(-1)) and leachate rate in the wastewater (0%, 2%, 5%, and 10%), and the second model combined the PAC concentration and the influent COD. The Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design was used to describe the response surface of both models considered in this study. Domestic wastewater was produced under controlled conditions in the laboratory where the experiments were performed. The results indicated that the PAC effect was null when the influent did not contain leachate; however, as the concentration of leachate applied to the mixture was increased, the addition of a higher PAC concentration resulted in a better COD mass removal in the reactors. The adjusted R(2) values of the two models were greater than 0.95, and the predicted R(2) values were greater than 0.93. The models may be useful for wastewater treatment companies to calculate PAC requirements in order to meet COD mass removal objectives in combined treatment. PMID:25723064

  12. Mathematical modeling of COD removal via the combined treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate based on the PACT process.

    PubMed

    Fernández Bou, Ángel S; Nascentes, Alexandre Lioi; Costa Pereira, Barbara; Da Silva, Leonardo Duarte Batista; Alberto Ferreira, João; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2015-01-01

    The experiments performed in this study consisted of 16 batch reactors fed different mixtures of landfill leachate combined with synthetic wastewater treated using the Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT) process. The objective was to measure the COD mass removal per liter each day for each reactor using two models: the first model combined the variables PAC concentration (0 g·L(-1), 2 g·L(-1), 4 g·L(-1), and 6 g·L(-1)) and leachate rate in the wastewater (0%, 2%, 5%, and 10%), and the second model combined the PAC concentration and the influent COD. The Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design was used to describe the response surface of both models considered in this study. Domestic wastewater was produced under controlled conditions in the laboratory where the experiments were performed. The results indicated that the PAC effect was null when the influent did not contain leachate; however, as the concentration of leachate applied to the mixture was increased, the addition of a higher PAC concentration resulted in a better COD mass removal in the reactors. The adjusted R(2) values of the two models were greater than 0.95, and the predicted R(2) values were greater than 0.93. The models may be useful for wastewater treatment companies to calculate PAC requirements in order to meet COD mass removal objectives in combined treatment.

  13. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  14. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... Domestic violence can include any of these behaviors: Physical abuse, including hitting, kicking, biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with ...

  15. Reuse of laundry greywater as affected by its interaction with saturated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Rabindra K.; Sivongxay, Amphone

    2009-03-01

    SummaryWe conducted laboratory experiments on a well aggregated, non-swelling clay soil to measure water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Ks) and salts present in the irrigation and drainage water to study the impacts of reusing untreated laundry greywater (GW) to irrigate soils in the residential garden beds. We used undisturbed (field) and disturbed (loose and compacted) soil cores to represent situations typical in old and recently established garden beds. Using tap water (TW), soil water retention within 0-10 kPa matric suction was found to be significantly lower and hysteresis significantly higher for the loose soil than the field or compacted soil. Measured values of Ks with TW were in the order loose >field>compacted soil, but these values were reduced to 5-16% when GW was used. Further measurements of Ks with application of TW to soil cores which had been previously saturated with GW, greater reduction in Ks occurred with Ks → 0 for the compacted soil. A comparison of the quality of GW with TW as irrigation water indicated an approx. increase in pH of GW by 3 pH units over TW, twofold increase in EC, fivefold increase in Na concentration and a 10-fold increase in Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). Measurements of drainage water during the water flux measurements for Ks showed that the soil was able to reduce pH and EC of infiltrating water, store some salts (Na and K) and released Ca and Mg from soil so that the quality of drainage water improved substantially to become similar in quality to TW. Thus, long-term use of untreated laundry greywater may reduce salt contamination of groundwater, but predispose soils to future environmental hazards from excess sodium accumulation.

  16. Comparative evaluation on the performance of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Valipour, A; Raman, V K; Badaliansgholikandi, G

    2012-10-01

    Constructed wetlands have been used successfully for treatment of wastewater during the last decades. The bio-rack and shallow pond systems are well engineered wetland process in wastewater treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the potential use of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment either in presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) or heavy metal salts. The sewage treatment performance indicates 75.15% & 80.93% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 86.59% & 90.90% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 27.54% & 15.98% total dissolved solids (TDS), 73.13% & 70.31% total suspended solids (TSS), 8.86% & 3.61% Chlorides, 70.22% & 74.18% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 31.71% & 41.24% phosphate (PO4-P), 92.11% & 96.45% most probable number (MPN) and 93.05% & 98.24% total viable count (TVC) reduction at 10 & 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. Likewise, the Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth can tolerate TDS up to 9000 and 2000 mg/L. The reduction in TDS is minor (14 & 19%) at the highest tolerable limit whereas the heavy metal reduction is 68 & 65%, 69 & 67%, 67 & 63%, 71 & 69% for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency in bio-rack system at low foot print area (91 m2) compared to shallow pond system. PMID:25151708

  17. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  18. Performance and cost evaluation of constructed wetland for domestic waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Deeptha, V T; Sudarsan, J S; Baskar, G

    2015-09-01

    Root zone treatment through constructed wetlands is an engineered method of purifying wastewater. The aim of the present research was to study the potential of wetland plants Phragmites and Typha in treatment of wastewater and to compare the cost of constructed wetlands with that of conventional treatment systems. A pilot wetland unit of size 2x1x0.9 m was constructed in the campus. 3x3 rows of plants were transplanted into the pilot unit and subjected to wastewater from the hostels and other campus buildings. The raw wastewater and treated wastewater were collected periodically and tested for Total nitrogen (TN),Total Phosphorous (TP), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). It was observed that this pilot unit reduced the concentrations of TN, TP, BOD and COD by 76, 73, 83 and 86%, respectively, on an average. Root zone system achieved standards for tertiary treatment with low operating costs, low maintenance costs, enhance the landscape, provide a natural habitat for birds, and did not emit any odour.

  19. Performance and cost evaluation of constructed wetland for domestic waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Deeptha, V T; Sudarsan, J S; Baskar, G

    2015-09-01

    Root zone treatment through constructed wetlands is an engineered method of purifying wastewater. The aim of the present research was to study the potential of wetland plants Phragmites and Typha in treatment of wastewater and to compare the cost of constructed wetlands with that of conventional treatment systems. A pilot wetland unit of size 2x1x0.9 m was constructed in the campus. 3x3 rows of plants were transplanted into the pilot unit and subjected to wastewater from the hostels and other campus buildings. The raw wastewater and treated wastewater were collected periodically and tested for Total nitrogen (TN),Total Phosphorous (TP), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). It was observed that this pilot unit reduced the concentrations of TN, TP, BOD and COD by 76, 73, 83 and 86%, respectively, on an average. Root zone system achieved standards for tertiary treatment with low operating costs, low maintenance costs, enhance the landscape, provide a natural habitat for birds, and did not emit any odour. PMID:26521546

  20. Domestic partner abuse treatment programs and cultural competence: the results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Williams, O J; Becker, R L

    1994-01-01

    Partner abuse literature reveals that treatment is less effective with minorities than with their white counterparts. Our survey of partner abuse programs (N = 142) indicates that, for the most part, little or no special effort is being made to understand or accommodate the needs of minority populations. This colorblind approach lacks the effectiveness of a culturally competent approach, which fosters an environment that helps minority groups succeed in treatment. Do partner abuse programs make efforts to be culturally competent? The major characteristics of an organizational transformation towards cultural competence occur when these programs do the following: (a) network with the minority community, (b) locate outside consultants with expertise in working with minority clients, (c) obtain information concerning service delivery and programming for minority clients, and (d) have at least one bilingual counselor. These four characteristics accounted for .58 of the variance in the minority-focused activities. PMID:7647049

  1. Danish guidelines for small-scale constructed wetland systems for onsite treatment of domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Brix, H; Arias, C A

    2005-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy has passed new legislation that requires the wastewater from single houses and dwellings in rural areas to be treated adequately before discharge into the aquatic environment. Therefore official guidelines for a number of onsite treatment solutions have been produced. These include guidelines for soakaways, biological sand filters, technical systems as well as different types of constructed wetland systems. This paper summarises briefly the guidelines for horizontal flow constructed wetlands, vertical flow constructed wetlands, and willow systems with no outflow and with soil infiltration. There is still a lack of a compact onsite solution that will fulfil the treatment classes demanding 90% removal of phosphorus. Therefore work is presently being carried out to identify simpler and robust P-removal solutions. PMID:16042237

  2. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today. PMID:21749111

  3. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  4. Integrated coagulation-trickling filter-ultrafiltration processes for domestic wastewater treatment and reclamation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Liang; Zhong, Hui-Yuan; Liu, Jin-Li; Liu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    More and more research effort has been put into the development of affordable and high-efficiency wastewater reclamation technology for small communities. In this study, an integrated chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT), trickling filter (TF) and ultrafiltration (UF) process was developed with success. Coagulant produced from fly ash was used to enhance primary treatment, while trickling filter packed with coal cinder through four-layer structure without aeration was employed for further removal of COD and ammonium-nitrogen from the CEPT effluent. 95 and 88% removal of COD and ammonium were achieved, while total phosphorus (TP) and suspended solid (SS) were found to be removed completely at a coagulant dosage of 2.5 mL/L in the CEPT-TF-UF system. The product water can meet the standard of Reuse of Recycling Water for Urban Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption (GB/T 18920-2002, China).

  5. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    PubMed

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  6. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Jun; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-06-15

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1+/-43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6+/-15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 mug/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application.

  7. Powdered ZELIAC augmented sequencing batch reactors (SBR) process for co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mojiri, Amin; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Zaman, Nastaein Q; Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Zahed, Mohammad Ali

    2014-06-15

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is one of the various methods of biological treatments used for treating wastewater and landfill leachate. This study investigated the treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater by adding a new adsorbent (powdered ZELIAC; PZ) to the SBR technique. ZELIAC consists of zeolite, activated carbon, lime stone, rice husk ash, and Portland cement. The response surface methodology and central composite design were used to elucidate the nature of the response surface in the experimental design and describe the optimum conditions of the independent variables, including aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v), as well as their responses (dependent variables). Appropriate conditions of operating variables were also optimized to predict the best value of responses. To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, four dependent parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and phenols, were measured as responses. The results indicated that the PZ-SBR showed higher performance in removing certain pollutants compared with SBR. Given the optimal conditions of aeration rate (1.74 L/min), leachate to wastewater ratio (20%), and contact time (10.31 h) for the PZ-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, COD, and phenols were 84.11%, 99.01%, 72.84%, and 61.32%, respectively. PMID:24662109

  8. The role of sand, marble chips and Typha latifolia in domestic wastewater treatment - a column study on constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadaverugu, Rakesh; Shingare, Rita P; Raghunathan, Karthik; Juwarkar, Asha A; Thawale, Prashant R; Singh, Sanjeev K

    2016-10-01

    The relative importance of sand, marble chips and wetland plant Typha latifolia is evaluated in constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of domestic wastewater intended for reuse in agriculture. The prototype CWs for the experiments are realized in polyvinyl chloride columns, which are grouped into four treatments, viz. sand (<2 mm) + Typha latifolia (cattail), sand, marble chips (5-20 mm) + cattail and marble chips. The removal percentage of organic and nutritional pollutants from the wastewater is measured at varying hydraulic retention time in the columns. The statistical analysis suggests that the main effects of sand and cattail are found to be significant (p < .05) for the removal of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand from the wastewater. The presence of cattail significantly (p < .01) contributes to the conversion of total nitrogen in wastewater into [Formula: see text] by fostering the growth of favorable microbes for the nitrification. The removal of [Formula: see text] and turbidity from the wastewater is significantly (p < .01) influenced by sand than the presence of cattail. The maximum [Formula: see text] adsorption capacity of the sand is estimated to be 2.5 mg/g. Marble chips have significantly (p < .01) influenced the removal of [Formula: see text]and its maximum removal capacity is estimated to be 9.3 mg/g. The negative correlation between the filter media biofilm and column hydraulic conductivity is also reported for all the treatments. Thus, the findings of this study elucidate the role of low-cost and easily available filter media and it will guide the environmental practitioners in designing cost-effective CWs for wastewater treatment.

  9. Reducing N2O Emission from a Domestic-Strength Nitrifying Culture by Free Nitrous Acid-Based Sludge Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin; Laloo, Andrew Elohim; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-07-19

    An increase of nitrite in the domestic-strength range is generally recognized to stimulate nitrous oxide (N2O) production by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). It was found in this study, however, that N2O emission from a mainstream nitritation system (cyclic nitrite = 25-45 mg of N/L) that was established by free nitrous acid (FNA)-based sludge treatment was not higher but much lower than that from the initial nitrifying system with full conversion of NH4(+)-N to NO3(-)-N. Under dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 2.5-3.0 mg/L, N2O emission from the nitritation stage was 76% lower than that from the initial stage. Even when the DO level was reduced to 0.3-0.8 mg/L, N2O emission from the nitritation stage was still 40% lower. An investigation of the mechanism showed that FNA treatment caused a shift of the stimulation threshold of nitrite on N2O emission. At the nitritation stage, the maximal N2O emission factor occurred at ∼16 mg of N/(L of nitrite). However, it increased with increasing nitrite in the range of 0-56 mg of N/L at the initial stage. FNA treatment decreased the biomass-specific N2O production rate, suggesting that the enzymes relevant to nitrifier denitrification were inhibited. Microbial analysis revealed that FNA treatment decreased the microbial community diversity but increased the abundances of AOB and denitrifiers. PMID:27294698

  10. The role of sand, marble chips and Typha latifolia in domestic wastewater treatment - a column study on constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadaverugu, Rakesh; Shingare, Rita P; Raghunathan, Karthik; Juwarkar, Asha A; Thawale, Prashant R; Singh, Sanjeev K

    2016-10-01

    The relative importance of sand, marble chips and wetland plant Typha latifolia is evaluated in constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of domestic wastewater intended for reuse in agriculture. The prototype CWs for the experiments are realized in polyvinyl chloride columns, which are grouped into four treatments, viz. sand (<2 mm) + Typha latifolia (cattail), sand, marble chips (5-20 mm) + cattail and marble chips. The removal percentage of organic and nutritional pollutants from the wastewater is measured at varying hydraulic retention time in the columns. The statistical analysis suggests that the main effects of sand and cattail are found to be significant (p < .05) for the removal of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand from the wastewater. The presence of cattail significantly (p < .01) contributes to the conversion of total nitrogen in wastewater into [Formula: see text] by fostering the growth of favorable microbes for the nitrification. The removal of [Formula: see text] and turbidity from the wastewater is significantly (p < .01) influenced by sand than the presence of cattail. The maximum [Formula: see text] adsorption capacity of the sand is estimated to be 2.5 mg/g. Marble chips have significantly (p < .01) influenced the removal of [Formula: see text]and its maximum removal capacity is estimated to be 9.3 mg/g. The negative correlation between the filter media biofilm and column hydraulic conductivity is also reported for all the treatments. Thus, the findings of this study elucidate the role of low-cost and easily available filter media and it will guide the environmental practitioners in designing cost-effective CWs for wastewater treatment. PMID:26878342

  11. Volatile organic compound emissions during the composting of biosolids from a domestic wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C X; Estévez, S L; Giraldo, E

    2002-01-01

    VOCs emitted by two composting static piles of biosolids coming from the "El Salitre" wastewater treatment plant (Bogotá, Colombia) were analysed during the composting process. Each pile in its sampling time was maintained with a different aeration system. The sampling was made using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME); separation and identifications were made using Gas Chromatography (GC) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS). Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated compounds, ketones, mercaptans, alcohols and amines were identified in concentrations greater than the norms stipulated by the EPA for inhalation in humans beings. The emission behavior varied according to the aeration system used.

  12. High strength domestic wastewater treatment with submerged forward osmosis membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Bilal; Khan, Sher Jamal; Maqbool, Tahir; Hankins, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Forward osmosis membranes are less prone to fouling with high rejection of salts, and the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) can be considered as an innovative membrane technology for wastewater treatment. In this study, a submerged OMBR having a cellulose triacetate membrane, with the active layer facing the feed solution configuration, was operated at different organic loading rates (OLRs), i.e., 0.4, 1.2 and 2.0 kg-COD/(m(3)·d) with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 200 mg/L, 600 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L, respectively, to evaluate the performance on varying wastewater strengths. High organic content with sufficient amount of nutrients enhanced the biomass growth. High OLR caused more extrapolymeric substances production and less dewaterability. However, no significant differences in fouling trends and flux rates were observed among different OLR operational conditions.

  13. [Development of technologies for the prevention and treatment of domestic emergencies in the blind].

    PubMed

    Pagliuca, L M; Costa, E M; Costa, N M; Sousa, K M

    1996-01-01

    The improvement of the development in the sensitive organs is given by the process of perceiving what his taken the man to the acquaintance apprehension. The blind man runs a risk of household incident, that is common to all the normal people, but he has no access to educational process about prevention and attendance of these incidents. In a prevention and attendance course for blind people we have developed a pedagogic know-how about anatomy and physiology of the skeleton, circulation of the blood respiratory system, xonder prevention and treatment, for clearance, heart attack and respiratory stop, burned people, electrical shock, traumatism, hemorrhage, intoxication, collapse, spasm and oral medication. We have employed the human skeleton, mannequin, mould, paper, plastic tubes and mainay verbal communication and touching. The instructed contents has been applied in simulation. The know-how has shown efficiency about to be able and it has indicated by the blind people into verbalization and repetition of the proceeding and exercise.

  14. Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Oyama, N; Nair, J; Ho, G E

    2005-01-01

    An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination. This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1) nutrient reduction 2) microbial reduction and 3) growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

  15. Sequential UASB and dual media packed-bed reactors for domestic wastewater treatment - experiment and simulation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Raúl; Renman, Gunno

    2016-01-01

    A wastewater treatment system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a packed-bed reactor (PBR) filled with Sorbulite(®) and Polonite(®) filter material was tested in a laboratory bench-scale experiment. The system was operated for 50 weeks and achieved very efficient total phosphorus (P) removal (99%), 7-day biochemical oxygen demand removal (99%) and pathogenic bacteria reduction (99%). However, total nitrogen was only moderately reduced in the system (40%). A model focusing on simulation of organic material, solids and size of granules was then implemented and validated for the UASB reactor. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results demonstrated the capacity of the model to predict the behaviour of solids and chemical oxygen demand, which is critical for successful P removal and recovery in the PBR. PMID:27332842

  16. Pumice soil: a potential wetland substrate for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Njau, K N; Minja, R J A; Katima, J H Y

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory and fieldwork studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of pumice soil for use as a wetland substrate in wastewater treatment. The composition of pumice soil was analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Adsorption kinetic studies were carried out in a semi-batch recycle system. Fieldwork tests were carried out on Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (SSFCW) cells planted with Phragmites mauritianus and Vetiveria zizanioides. The results have shown that pumice soil composition contains among other elements Al, Ca, Fe and Mg, which are positive indicators for phosphorus adsorption. The main minerals observed by XRD were augite, hematite, and sodium titanium silicate. Phosphorus adsorption kinetics have shown that phosphorus is adsorbed on pumice soil following first order kinetics and the adsorption was highly influenced by mass transfer. Approximately 3% of the phosphorus was removed by plant uptake.

  17. Spore-forming Serratia marcescens subsp. sakuensis subsp. nov., isolated from a domestic wastewater treatment tank.

    PubMed

    Ajithkumar, Bindu; Ajithkumar, Vasudevan P; Iriye, Ryozo; Doi, Yukio; Sakai, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    A strain (KREDT) that formed endospores and produced the pigment prodigiosin was isolated from activated sludge. The presence of spores in cells of strain KREDT was evident upon electron microscopy examination, heat treatment and the detection of dipicolinic acid in the cells. Biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence and DNA-DNA homology data identified strain KREDT as Serratia marcescens. The major respiratory quinone of strain KREDT was found to be ubiquinone Q-8. The formation of endospores by Gram-negative bacteria has not been observed previously, and has never been reported in any species of Serratia. Here, it is shown that strain KREDT (JCM 11315T = CIP 107489T) represents a novel subspecies of S. marcescens, for which the name Serratia marcescens subsp. sakuensis is proposed.

  18. Performance of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland Using Typhalatifolia and Canna Lilies for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, Avinash N; Nema, P; Mhaisalkar, Vasant A

    2014-01-01

    Discharge of untreated wastewater or partially treated wastewater into surface water bodies or on to land is a major cause of surface and ground water pollution thereby posing health hazards. Conventional wastewater treatment is generally not preferred for small communities due to higher capital and maintenance costs and lack of skilled supervision required for operation and maintenance. A constructed wetland treatment appears to be an appropriate alternative that can be employed both in developed and developing countries. A constructed wetland system is simple to construct and operate with low cost, and hence worth considering for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, especially from small communities. In this context, the site for carrying out the studies related to wastewater treatment was chosen at Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science (KITS), Ramtek, Dist. Nagpur. A Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland (FWSCW) of size 22.00m x 6.50 m x 0.60m was constructed at KITS, Ramtek. The performance of FWS CW system was studied for domestic wastewater treatment with theoretical hydraulic retention times of 10 days, 7 days and 5 days. Important parameters, such as BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4-N, PO4-P, DO, pH and faecal coliforms in both raw and treated wastewaters were monitored during a macrophytes life cycle. Based on the studies, it is concluded that minimum 5 days HRT is necessary for the treatment of wastewater in FWSCW using Typhalatifolia or Canna Lilies. Typhalatifolia is better in removal of pollutants from the wastewater in comparison to Canna Lilies and hence, is recommended for use in constructed wetland. The nutrient uptake capacity of Typhalatifolia is also quite encouraging and hence has great potential for application in treating wastewater from fertilizer industry. During the application of kinetic model, the observed and predicted values in respect of BOD, TSS and NH4-N in case of Typhalatifolia and BOD, COD and TSS in case of Canna Lilies were

  19. COD capture: a feasible option towards energy self-sufficient domestic wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Junfeng; Gu, Jun; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Although the activated sludge process, one of the most remarkable engineering inventions in the 20th century, has made significant contribution to wastewater reclamation in the past 100 years, its high energy consumption is posing a serious impact and challenge on the current wastewater industry worldwide and is also inevitably linked to the issue of global climate change. In this study, we argued that substantial improvement in the energy efficiency might be no longer achievable through further optimization of the activated sludge process. Instead, we should devote more effort to the development or the adoption of novel treatment configurations and emerging technologies. Of which an example is A-B process which can significantly improve the energy recovery potential at A-stage, while markedly reduces energy consumption at B-stage. Various configurations of A-B process with energy analysis are thus discussed. It appears highly possible to achieve an overall energy gain in WWTPs with A-B process as a core. PMID:27121339

  20. Occurrence and transport of pharmaceuticals in a karst groundwater system affected by domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2010-09-20

    The occurrence of two pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and diclofenac, in a vulnerable karst groundwater system was investigated. The hydrogeology of the karst system was identified by collecting (3)H samples in groundwater over 27years and by performing tracer tests. The isotopes and tracer data were interpreted by mathematical modeling to estimate the mean transit time of water and to characterize the hydrogeological flow paths in the groundwater system. By this approach, a mean (3)H transit time of 4.6 years for the fissured-porous karst aquifer was determined, whereas the fast flowing water in the conduit system showed a mean transit time of days. Both pharmaceuticals which infiltrated along sinkholes and small streams into the karst system were detected in concentrations of up to approximately 1 microg/L in effluent water of the wastewater treatment plants. Diclofenac was present in most samples collected from four springs discharging the karst groundwater to the rivers Altmühl and Anlauter in concentrations between 3.6 and 15.4 ng/L. In contrast, ibuprofen was rarely detected in groundwater. The results of this study suggest that both pharmaceuticals move into the fractured system of the karst system and go into storage. Thus dilution processes are the dominant control on the concentrations of both pharmaceuticals in the fractured system, whereas biodegradation is likely less important.

  1. Occurrence and transport of pharmaceuticals in a karst groundwater system affected by domestic wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of two pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and diclofenac, in a vulnerable karst groundwater system was investigated. The hydrogeology of the karst system was identified by collecting 3H samples in groundwater over 27 years and by performing tracer tests. The isotopes and tracer data were interpreted by mathematical modeling to estimate the mean transit time of water and to characterize the hydrogeological flow paths in the groundwater system. By this approach, a mean 3H transit time of 4.6 years for the fissured-porous karst aquifer was determined, whereas the fast flowing water in the conduit system showed a mean transit time of days. Both pharmaceuticals which infiltrated along sinkholes and small streams into the karst system were detected in concentrations of up to approximately 1 μg/L in effluent water of the wastewater treatment plants. Diclofenac was present in most samples collected from four springs discharging the karst groundwater to the rivers Altmühl and Anlauter in concentrations between 3.6 and 15.4 ng/L. In contrast, ibuprofen was rarely detected in groundwater. The results of this study suggest that both pharmaceuticals move into the fractured system of the karst system and go into storage. Thus dilution processes are the dominant control on the concentrations of both pharmaceuticals in the fractured system, whereas biodegradation is likely less important.

  2. Bacteria in non-woven textile filters for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spychała, Marcin; Starzyk, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary identification of heterotrophic and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) cell concentration in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for wastewater treatment. Filters of thicknesses 3.6 and 7.2 mm, made of non-woven textile TS20, were supplied with septic tank effluent and intermittently dosed and filtered under hydrostatic pressure. The cumulative loads of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids were about 1.36 and 1.06 kg/cm2, respectively. The filters under analysis reached a relatively high removal efficiency for organic pollution 70-90% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and 60-85% for COD. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency level proved to be unstable (15-55%). Biomass samples for dry mass identification were taken from two regions: continuously flooded with wastewater and intermittently flooded with wastewater. The culturable heterotrophic bacteria were determined as colony-forming units (CFUs) on microbiological-selective media by means of the plate method. AOB and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were examined using the FISH technique. A relatively wide range of heterotrophic bacteria was observed from 7.4×10(5)/cm2 to 3.8×10(6)/cm2 in geotextile layers. The highest concentration of heterotrophic bacteria (3.8×10(6)/cm2) was observed in the first layer of the textile filter. AOB were identified occasionally--about 8-15% of all bacteria colonizing the last filter layer, but occasionally much higher concentrations and ammonia nitrogen efficiency were achieved. Bacteria oxidizing nitrite to nitrate were not observed. The relation of total and organic fraction of biomass to culturable heterotrophic bacteria was also found.

  3. Modeling phosphate transport and removal in a compact bed filled with a mineral-based sorbent for domestic wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Inga; Jourak, Amir; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hedström, Annelie; Lundström, T. Staffan; Viklander, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Phosphorus filter units containing mineral-based sorbents with a high phosphate (PO4) binding capacity have been shown to be appropriate for removing PO4 in the treatment of domestic wastewater in on-site facilities. However, a better understanding of their PO4 removal mechanisms, and reactions that could lead to the formation of PO4 compounds, is required to evaluate the potential utility of candidate sorbents. Models based on data obtained from laboratory-scale experiments with columns of selected materials can be valuable for acquiring such understanding. Thus, in this study the transport and removal of PO4 in experiments with a laboratory-scale column filled with a commercial silicate-based sorbent were modeled, using the hydro-geochemical transport code PHREEQC. The resulting models, that incorporated the dissolution of calcite, kinetic constrains for the dissolution of calcium oxide (CaO) and wollastonite (CaSiO3), and the precipitation of amorphous tricalcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, successfully simulated the removal of PO4 observed in the experiments.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Electrochemical Processes as Next-Generation Technologies for the Treatment of Contaminated Water.

    PubMed

    Radjenovic, Jelena; Sedlak, David L

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical processes have been extensively investigated for the removal of a range of organic and inorganic contaminants. The great majority of these studies were conducted using nitrate-, perchlorate-, sulfate-, and chloride-based electrolyte solutions. In actual treatment applications, organic and inorganic constituents may have substantial effects on the performance of electrochemical treatment. In particular, the outcome of electrochemical oxidation will depend on the concentration of chloride and bromide. Formation of chlorate, perchlorate, chlorinated, and brominated organics may compromise the quality of the treated effluent. A critical review of recent research identifies future opportunities and research needed to overcome major challenges that currently limit the application of electrochemical water treatment systems for industrial and municipal water and wastewater treatment. Given the increasing interest in decentralized wastewater treatment, applications of electrolytic systems for treatment of domestic wastewater, greywater, and source-separated urine are also included. To support future adoption of electrochemical treatment, new approaches are needed to minimize the formation of toxic byproducts and the loss of efficiency caused by mass transfer limitations and undesired side reactions. Prior to realizing these improvements, recognition of the situations where these limitations pose potential health risks is a necessary step in the design and operation of electrochemical treatment systems.

  5. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S.; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Cetron, Martin S.; Stauffer, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. Methods An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) “No Program,” 2) U.S. “Domestic Screening and Treatment,” 3) “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” presumptive treatment, and 4) “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides”. Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The “No Program” option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” option ($418,824) is less expensive than “Domestic Screening and Treatment” ($3,832,572) or “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides” ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin,” which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to “No Program”. Discussion Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost

  6. Precipitation of Phosphate Minerals by Microorganisms Isolated from a Fixed-Biofilm Reactor Used for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Martin-Ramos, Daniel; Martinez-Toledo, Maria Victoria; Rivadeneyra, Maria Angustias

    2014-01-01

    The ability of bacteria isolated from a fixed-film bioreactor to precipitate phosphate crystals for the treatment of domestic wastewater in both artificial and natural media was studied. When this was demonstrated in artificial solid media for crystal formation, precipitation took place rapidly, and crystal formation began 3 days after inoculation. The percentage of phosphate-forming bacteria was slightly higher than 75%. Twelve major colonies with phosphate precipitation capacity were the dominant heterotrophic platable bacteria growing aerobically in artificial media. According to their taxonomic affiliations (based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA), the 12 strains belonged to the following genera of Gram-negative bacteria: Rhodobacter, Pseudoxanthobacter, Escherichia, Alcaligenes, Roseobacter, Ochrobactrum, Agromyce, Sphingomonas and Paracoccus. The phylogenetic tree shows that most of the identified populations were evolutionarily related to the Alphaproteobacteria (91.66% of sequences). The minerals formed were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). All of these strains formed phosphate crystals and precipitated struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O), bobierrite [Mg3(PO4)2·8H2O] and baricite [(MgFe)3(PO4)2·8H2O]. The results obtained in this study show that struvite and spherulite crystals did not show any cell marks. Moreover, phosphate precipitation was observed in the bacterial mass but also near the colonies. Our results suggest that the microbial population contributed to phosphate precipitation by changing the media as a consequence of their metabolic activity. Moreover, the results of this research suggest that bacteria play an active role in the mineral precipitation of soluble phosphate from urban wastewater in submerged fixed-film bioreactors. PMID:24699031

  7. New process for alleviation of membrane fouling of modified hybrid MBR system for advanced domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuo, Liu; Baozhen, Wang; Hongjun, Han; Yanping, Liu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale hybrid membrane bioreactor using a submerged flat panel membrane was designed and applied for advanced treatment of domestic wastewater. The new process adapted to the hybrid membrane bioreactor exhibits substantial decrease in membrane fouling and much easier cleaning. In this study, the new process configurations including the addition of anoxic/anaerobic zones, the package of synthetic fibrous fabric carrier for biofilm attached growth, activated sludge recycling and modified dosage of polished diatomite with high activity and multi-functions were investigated to select the optimal operational parameters for the hybrid membrane bioreactor system. The carrier package in the aerobic zone contributed 3.65 g/L (maximum) of fixed biomass to the system, thus reducing the suspended biomass, and has decreased the membrane cleaning cycle remarkably. The operation performance at the sludge recycle rate 0, 100%, 200% and 300% showed that, the trans-membrane pressure of flat panel membrane declined sharply with the increase of sludge recycling rate within a certain range, and 200% was decided to be optimal for in the membrane bioreactor system. EPS concentration in each sludge recycling rate was 135 mg/L, 92 mg/L, 68 mg/L and 55 mg/L respectively. The addition of anoxic and anaerobic zones degraded some large molecular organic compounds, which facilitated the biodegradation and removal of organic substances in aerobic zone. The modified dosage of polished diatomite has played a major important role for both preventing of membrane from fouling and its much easier cleaning when it formed.

  8. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  9. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all ... ABOUT The Attorney General Budget & Performance Strategic Plans History AGENCIES BUSINESS Business Opportunities Small & Disadvantaged Business Grants ...

  10. Accumulation of oil and grease in soils irrigated with greywater and their potential role in soil water repellency.

    PubMed

    Travis, Micheal J; Weisbrod, Noam; Gross, Amit

    2008-05-01

    The potential impact of oil and grease (O and G) to soils irrigated with greywater (GW) was investigated. Greywater streams were sampled and analyzed for O and G content, along with corresponding GW-irrigated soils. Untreated kitchen GW averaged 200 mg L(-1) O and G, over an order of magnitude more than other GW streams. GW-irrigated soils showed O and G accumulation of up to 200 mg kg(-l) within the first 20-cm of depth. To determine the potential effects of such O and G accumulation on water movement in soil, capillary rise and water drop penetration time (WDPT) experiments were conducted. The results showed up to 60% decrease in capillary rise when sand containing 250 mg kg(-1) O and G was used. Interestingly, no additional reduction in capillary rise was observed at concentrations above 250 mg kg(-1). WDPT was observed to increase linearly with increased O and G content, up to 1000 mg kg(-1). This work demonstrated that O and G in GW used for irrigation can accumulate in soil and may lead to a significant reduction in the soils ability to transmit water.

  11. Inorganic greywater matrix impact on photocatalytic oxidation: does flocculation of TiO2 nanoparticles impair process efficiency?

    PubMed

    Armanious, A; Ozkan, A; Sohmen, U; Gulyas, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to clarify whether photocatalyst flocculation--as observed in biologically pretreated greywater--contributes to photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) efficiency impairment. Aqueous solutions of tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether spiked with different inorganic salts in concentrations as found in biologically treated greywater were investigated with respect to TiO2 flocculation and PCO mineralisation kinetics. Flocculation of the photocatalyst primarily depended on pH (which was affected by the salts) and how close pH was to the point of zero charge (PZC). Photocatalyst agglomeration was maximum at pH 5.5. With salt concentrations >7 mmol L(-1), flocculation was strong even at pH far above PZC due to electric double layer compression. PCO rate constants were not unequivocally related to flocculation. Increasing pH was observed as the clearest factor deteriorating PCO efficiency. This was interpreted to result from impaired adsorbability of negatively charged oxidation intermediates as well as from enhanced CO2 absorption with increasing pH and subsequent formation of HCO3(-) anions which are OH radical scavengers.

  12. Optimizing COD removal from greywater by photoelectro-persulfate process using Box-Behnken design: assessment of effluent quality and electrical energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ghanbari, Farshid

    2016-10-01

    Greywater (GW) is a potential source for water reuse in various applications. However, GW treatment is still a vital issue in water reuse in cases of environmental standards and risk to public health. This study investigates optimization and modeling of a hybrid process for COD removal from GW. Persulfate (PS) was simultaneously activated by electrogenerated ferrous ion (EC) and UV to generate sulfate radical. Photoelectro-persulfate (PEPS) was optimized by Box-Behnken design and the effects of four variables (pH, PS dosage, current density, and electrolysis time) were evaluated on COD removal. The results and several coefficients showed that the obtained model was acceptable for predicting the COD removal. Moreover, under optimum conditions (pH = 6.9, PS = 8.8 mM, current density = 2.0 mA/cm(2), and 49.3 min electrolysis time), BOD5, turbidity, TSS, phosphate, and UV254 were effectively removed and COD and BOD5 values reached to discharge standards. Different configurations of the processes were assessed for COD removal. The order of COD removal efficiency followed: PS < Fe(II) < UV/PS ≤ Fe(II)/PS < Fe(II)/PS/UV < electrocoagulation ≤ electrocoagulation/UV < electro-PS < PEPS. The monitoring PS concentration during 60 min reaction time in the aforesaid processes indicated that PEPS could remarkably activate PS. The solution pH was also monitored and related results revealed that the presence of PS during the 10 min first time decreased pH value while production of hydroxide ion at cathode increased pH significantly. Finally, the contribution of electrochemical process in the electrical energy consumption was far less than that of photolysis process in hybrid PEPS process.

  13. Electricity generation and microbial community in a submerged-exchangeable microbial fuel cell system for low-strength domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaecheul; Seon, Jiyun; Park, Younghyun; Cho, Sunja; Lee, Taeho

    2012-08-01

    A submerged type microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, which consisted of six readily exchangeable air-cathode MFCs, was evaluated for continuous treatment of low-strength domestic wastewater. When supplied with synthetic wastewater (COD 100 mg/L), the system showed increasing maximum power densities from 191 to 754 mW/m2 as COD loading rates increased (0.20-0.40 kg/m3/day). COD removal efficiencies decreased with increased COD loading rates but the effluent COD concentrations met the relevant effluent quality standard (CODMn 20 mg/L) at all conditions. The system was then operated with domestic wastewater (c.a. 100 mg COD/L) at 0.32 and 0.43 kg/m3/day. The system showed much lower power densities (116-149 mW/m2) at both loading rates, compared to synthetic wastewater. Anodic microbial communities were completely different when the wastewater type was changed. These results suggest that the newly developed MFC system could be applied to treat low-strength domestic wastewater without requiring any additional organic removal stage.

  14. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m2/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m3, which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m3). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m3). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements. PMID:24568605

  15. Domestic violence in America.

    PubMed

    Bash, K L; Jones, F

    1994-09-01

    Domestic violence is an underrecognized problem of immense cost. It is a crime; its victims must be identified and protected. The medical and judicial communities share responsibility in addressing this issue and providing support for victims. The role of health care workers in recognizing and preventing domestic violence cannot be overestimated. Direct questioning of patients, especially about the source of any injuries and about safety at home, is the first step in uncovering abuse. Educational programs for health care providers and the general public can change society's view and tolerance of this problem. Physicians must take an active role in changing community attitudes about domestic violence and in instituting programs to reduce its incidence. Medical treatment of the injuries resulting from domestic violence is not sufficient. Abused women need the care of a team of professionals who can address psychological, emotional, and physical injuries. They must also be provided with safe housing and financial and legal assistance in order to escape the abusive relationship. Physicians and legislators must work together to effect change. Domestic violence is a public health menace. We need to break the cycle of abuse that has become an integral part of our society.

  16. Optimization of operating parameters of hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland systems for domestic sewerage treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhujian; Zhang, Xianning; Cui, Lihua; Yu, Guangwei

    2016-09-15

    In this work, three hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland (HVDF-CW) systems with different compound substrates were fed with domestic sewage and their pollutants removal performance under different hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio was investigated. The results showed that the hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio were two crucial factors determining the removal efficiency of most pollutants, while substrate types only significantly affected the removal of COD and NH4(+)-N. Generally, the lower the hydraulic loading, the better removal efficiency of all contaminants, except for TN. By contrast, the increase of step-feeding ratio would slightly reduce the removal rate of ammonium and TP but obviously promoted the TN removal. Therefore, the optimal operation of this CWs could be achieved with low hydraulic loading combined with 50% of step-feeding ratio when TN removal is the priority, whereas medium or low hydraulic loading without step-feeding would be suitable when TN removal is not taken into consideration. The obtained results in this study can provide us with a guideline for design and optimization of hybrid vertical flow constructed wetland systems to improve the pollutants removal from domestic sewage.

  17. Optimization of operating parameters of hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland systems for domestic sewerage treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhujian; Zhang, Xianning; Cui, Lihua; Yu, Guangwei

    2016-09-15

    In this work, three hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland (HVDF-CW) systems with different compound substrates were fed with domestic sewage and their pollutants removal performance under different hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio was investigated. The results showed that the hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio were two crucial factors determining the removal efficiency of most pollutants, while substrate types only significantly affected the removal of COD and NH4(+)-N. Generally, the lower the hydraulic loading, the better removal efficiency of all contaminants, except for TN. By contrast, the increase of step-feeding ratio would slightly reduce the removal rate of ammonium and TP but obviously promoted the TN removal. Therefore, the optimal operation of this CWs could be achieved with low hydraulic loading combined with 50% of step-feeding ratio when TN removal is the priority, whereas medium or low hydraulic loading without step-feeding would be suitable when TN removal is not taken into consideration. The obtained results in this study can provide us with a guideline for design and optimization of hybrid vertical flow constructed wetland systems to improve the pollutants removal from domestic sewage. PMID:27262033

  18. Comparative study of microbial community structure in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic and nitrified wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun-Jun; Wu, Su-Qing; Liang, Kang; Wu, Zhenbin; Liang, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial processes play a vital important role in the removal of contaminants in constructed wetland (CW). However, the microbial physiology and community structure can be influenced by environmental conditions. In this study, four pilot-scale integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs) were employed to treat domestic and nitrified wastewaters. The microbial properties, along with their response to wastewater quality characteristics and seasonal variation, were determined. The results showed higher Shannon-Weiner diversity (H) and evenness (E) index of fatty acids (FAs), and relative abundances of signature FAs in down-flow cells and in the systems fed with domestic wastewater (DW). The relative abundances of fungi and gram-negative and aerobic bacteria were greater in up-flow cells. The dominant anaerobic bacteria found in most cells might be accounted for the prevailing anaerobic environment within the wetland beds, which could mean that the system fed with nitrified wastewater (NW) should perform better in nitrogen removal. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that pollutant concentrations, especially organic matter, influence the FA compositions greatly, and the most significant difference of microbial community structures was detected in down-flow cells fed with DW and up-flow ones with NW. The branched FAs, which could be used to represent anaerobic bacteria, were observed in down-flow cells treating DW and had a significant positive correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, probably suggesting the important role of anaerobic bacteria in organic matter degradation in the IVCWs. Seasonal variation, however, did not greatly influence the microbial community structure in the IVCWs.

  19. Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others. PMID:25901854

  20. A decision model for selecting sustainable drinking water supply and greywater reuse systems for developing communities with a case study in Cimahi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Justin J; Louis, Garrick E

    2011-01-01

    Capacity Factor Analysis is a decision support system for selection of appropriate technologies for municipal sanitation services in developing communities. Developing communities are those that lack the capability to provide adequate access to one or more essential services, such as water and sanitation, to their residents. This research developed two elements of Capacity Factor Analysis: a capacity factor based classification for technologies using requirements analysis, and a matching policy for choosing technology options. First, requirements analysis is used to develop a ranking for drinking water supply and greywater reuse technologies. Second, using the Capacity Factor Analysis approach, a matching policy is developed to guide decision makers in selecting the appropriate drinking water supply or greywater reuse technology option for their community. Finally, a scenario-based informal hypothesis test is developed to assist in qualitative model validation through case study. Capacity Factor Analysis is then applied in Cimahi Indonesia as a form of validation. The completed Capacity Factor Analysis model will allow developing communities to select drinking water supply and greywater reuse systems that are safe, affordable, able to be built and managed by the community using local resources, and are amenable to expansion as the community's management capacity increases.

  1. Microbial community in a pilot-scale bioreactor promoting anaerobic digestion and sulfur-driven denitrification for domestic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Saia, Flávia Talarico; Souza, Theo S O; Duarte, Rubens Tadeu Delgado; Pozzi, Eloisa; Fonseca, Débora; Foresti, Eugenio

    2016-02-01

    A pilot-scale reactor treating domestic sewage was operated to promote anaerobic digestion and denitrification using endogenous electron donors. While 55 % of organic matter was removed, nitrogen and sulfur showed a different dynamics during the operation. Pyrosequencing analysis clarified this behavior revealing that specific microbial communities inhabited the anaerobic (47.05 % of OTUs) and anoxic (31.39 % of OTUs) chambers. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene partial sequences obtained through pyrosequencing revealed a total of 1727 OTUs clustered at a 3 % distance cutoff. In the anaerobic chamber, microbial community was comprised of fermentative, syntrophic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The majority of sequences were related to Aminobacterium and Syntrophorhabdus. In the anoxic chamber, the majority of sequences were related to mixotrophic and strictly autotrophic denitrifiers Arcobacter and Sulfuricurvum, respectively, both involved in sulfur-driven denitrification. These results show that pyrosequencing was a powerful tool to investigate the microbial panorama of a complex system, providing new insights to the improvement of the system.

  2. Conception and optimization of a membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (MEA-MFC) for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, O; Uzabiaga, A; Shen, Y J; Tan, Z; Cheng, Y P; Liu, W; Ng, H Y

    2011-01-01

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for microbial fuel cells (MEA-MFC) was developed for continuous electricity production while treating domestic wastewater concurrently. It was optimized via three upgraded versions (noted α, β and γ) in terms of design (current collectors, hydrophilic separator nature) and operating conditions (hydraulic retention time, external resistance, aeration rate, recirculation). An overall rise of power by over 100% from version α to γ shows the importance of factors such as the choice of proper construction materials and prevention of short-circuits. A power of 2.5 mW was generated with a hydraulic retention time of 2.3 h when a Selemion proton exchange membrane was used as a hydrophilic separator in the MEA and 2.8 mW were attained with a reverse osmosis membrane. The MFC also showed a competitive value of internal resistance (≈40-50 Ω) as compared to the literature, especially considering its large volume (3 L). However, the operation of our system in a complete loop where the anolyte was allowed to trickle over the cathode (version γ) resulted in system failure. PMID:22179652

  3. Differences in treatment outcome between male alcohol dependent offenders of domestic violence with and without positive drug screens.

    PubMed

    Easton, Caroline J; Mandel, Dolores; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2007-10-01

    Men who are violent toward their partners tend to have a dual problem with alcohol and drug use, yet little is known about differences between men with single rather than dual problems. This study was one of the first to evaluate differences between alcohol dependent men who were arrested for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) with and without concurrent illicit drug use. Seventy-eight participants were randomly assigned to manual-guided group behavioral therapies (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Twelve Step Facilitation) and assessed across 12 weeks of treatment. Despite denying drug use at baseline, thirty-two clients (43%) tested positive for illicit drug use (cocaine and marijuana) during the 12 weeks of treatment. The study specifically addressed whether there were differences between clients using alcohol only versus individuals using both alcohol + drugs in terms of 1) baseline characteristics; 2) treatment compliance (e.g., attendance and substance use during treatment; and 3) treatment outcomes (alcohol, drug use, anger management, and aggression at the completion of treatment). The results showed that there were comparatively few differences between the alcohol versus the alcohol + drug using groups at baseline. Regarding treatment compliance and retention, alcohol + drug using participants attended significantly fewer sessions, had significantly fewer percent days abstinence from alcohol use, significantly more total days of positive breathalyzer results. Regarding treatment outcomes across anger management and aggression scores, the alcohol + drug using participants had significantly more impairments in anger management styles from pre- to post-treatment. However, there were no differences between the groups across verbal or physical aggression. Both groups improved in their verbal aggression from pre- to post-treatment. The findings suggest that alcohol dependent men who continue to use illicit drugs may require additional interventions to effectively

  4. 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine-like activity in effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants detected by in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents from municipal domestic sewage treatment plants was detected using three in vitro assays and one in vivo assay. Contaminants in the effluents were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and eluted stepwise with different organic solvents. The majority of the thyroid system-disrupting activity was detected in the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction after SPE in all three in vitro assays: competitive assays of 3,3',5-[{sup 125}I]triiodo-L-thyronine ([{sup 125}I]T{sub 3}) binding to the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR assay) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR assay) and T{sub 3}-dependent luciferase assay (Luc assay). Subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction separated contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays from those potent in the TTR assay. The contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays were also potent in an in vivo short-term gene expression assay in Xenopus laevis (Tadpole assay). The present study demonstrated that the effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants contain contaminants with T{sub 3}-like activity of {approx} 10{sup -10} M T{sub 3}-equivalent concentration (T{sub 3}EQ) and that the TR and Luc assays are powerful in vitro bioassays for detecting thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents. The availability and applicability of these bioassays for screening contaminants with thyroid system-disrupting activity in the water environment are discussed.

  5. Effectiveness of a hybrid process combining electro-coagulation and electro-oxidation for the treatment of domestic wastewaters using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Daghrir, Rimeh; Drogui, Patrick; Zaviska, François

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a two-stage process combining electro-coagulation (EC) and electro-oxidation (EO) was studied for the treatment of domestic wastewater (DWW) loaded with organic matter. The process was firstly evaluated in terms of its capability of simultaneously producing an oxidant and a coagulant agents using aluminum (Al) (or iron (Fe)) as bipolar and sacrificial electrodes, whereas graphite (Gr) electrodes were used as monopolar electrodes. Relatively high concentrations of chlorine (9.6 mg/min A) and Al (20-40 mg Al/L) or Fe (40-60 mg Fe/L) were produced. Subsequently, the factorial and central composite design methodologies were successively employed to define the optimal operating conditions for total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from DWW. Current intensity and treatment time were found to be very meaningful for chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of these two main factors was around 90% on the investigated response, whereas the type of sacrificial electrode and the other interaction effects represent only 10%. The treatment using aluminum electrode and a current intensity imposed of 0.7 A during 39 min was found to be the optimal conditions in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these conditions, 78% of COD removal can be obtained for a total cost of 0.78 US $/m(3). PMID:23245306

  6. Effectiveness of a hybrid process combining electro-coagulation and electro-oxidation for the treatment of domestic wastewaters using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Daghrir, Rimeh; Drogui, Patrick; Zaviska, François

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a two-stage process combining electro-coagulation (EC) and electro-oxidation (EO) was studied for the treatment of domestic wastewater (DWW) loaded with organic matter. The process was firstly evaluated in terms of its capability of simultaneously producing an oxidant and a coagulant agents using aluminum (Al) (or iron (Fe)) as bipolar and sacrificial electrodes, whereas graphite (Gr) electrodes were used as monopolar electrodes. Relatively high concentrations of chlorine (9.6 mg/min A) and Al (20-40 mg Al/L) or Fe (40-60 mg Fe/L) were produced. Subsequently, the factorial and central composite design methodologies were successively employed to define the optimal operating conditions for total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from DWW. Current intensity and treatment time were found to be very meaningful for chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of these two main factors was around 90% on the investigated response, whereas the type of sacrificial electrode and the other interaction effects represent only 10%. The treatment using aluminum electrode and a current intensity imposed of 0.7 A during 39 min was found to be the optimal conditions in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these conditions, 78% of COD removal can be obtained for a total cost of 0.78 US $/m(3).

  7. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    El-Serehy, Hamed A.; Bahgat, Magdy M.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2013-01-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water. PMID:24955010

  8. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bahgat, Magdy M; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2014-07-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water.

  9. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced.

  10. Effect of by-pass and effluent recirculation on nitrogen removal in hybrid constructed wetlands for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Torrijos, V; Gonzalo, O G; Trueba-Santiso, A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2016-10-15

    Hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs) including subsurface horizontal flow (HF) and vertical flow (VF) steps look for effective nitrification and denitrification through the combination of anaerobic/anoxic and aerobic conditions. Several CW configurations including several configurations of single pass systems (HF + HF, VF + VF, VF + HF), the Bp(VF + HF) arrangement (with feeding by-pass) and the R(HF + VF) system (with effluent recirculation) were tested treating synthetic domestic wastewater. Two HF/VF area ratios (AR) were tested for the VF + HF and Bp(VF + HF) systems. In addition, a R(VF + VF) system was tested for the treatment of a high strength industrial wastewater. The percentage removal of TSS, COD and BOD5 was usually higher than 95% in all systems. The single pass systems showed TN removal below the threshold of 50% and low removal rates (0.6-1.2 g TN/m(2) d), except the VF + VF system which reached 63% and 3.5 g TN/m(2) d removal but only at high loading rates. Bp(VF + HF) systems required by-pass ratios of 40-50% and increased TN removal rates to approximately 50-60% in a sustainable manner. Removal rates depended on the AR value, increasing from 1.6 (AR 2.0) to 5.2 g TN/m(2) d (AR 0.5), both working with synthetic domestic wastewater. On real domestic wastewater the Bp (VF + HF) (AR 0.5 and 30% by-pass) reached 2.5 g TN/m(2) d removal rate. Effluent recirculation significantly improved the TN removal efficiency and rate. The R(HF + VF) system showed stable TN removals of approximately 80% at loading rates ranging from 2 to 8 g TN/m(2) d. High TN removal rates (up to 73% TN and 8.4 g TN/m(2) d) were also obtained for the R(VF + VF) system treating industrial wastewater. PMID:27441816

  11. Effect of by-pass and effluent recirculation on nitrogen removal in hybrid constructed wetlands for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Torrijos, V; Gonzalo, O G; Trueba-Santiso, A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2016-10-15

    Hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs) including subsurface horizontal flow (HF) and vertical flow (VF) steps look for effective nitrification and denitrification through the combination of anaerobic/anoxic and aerobic conditions. Several CW configurations including several configurations of single pass systems (HF + HF, VF + VF, VF + HF), the Bp(VF + HF) arrangement (with feeding by-pass) and the R(HF + VF) system (with effluent recirculation) were tested treating synthetic domestic wastewater. Two HF/VF area ratios (AR) were tested for the VF + HF and Bp(VF + HF) systems. In addition, a R(VF + VF) system was tested for the treatment of a high strength industrial wastewater. The percentage removal of TSS, COD and BOD5 was usually higher than 95% in all systems. The single pass systems showed TN removal below the threshold of 50% and low removal rates (0.6-1.2 g TN/m(2) d), except the VF + VF system which reached 63% and 3.5 g TN/m(2) d removal but only at high loading rates. Bp(VF + HF) systems required by-pass ratios of 40-50% and increased TN removal rates to approximately 50-60% in a sustainable manner. Removal rates depended on the AR value, increasing from 1.6 (AR 2.0) to 5.2 g TN/m(2) d (AR 0.5), both working with synthetic domestic wastewater. On real domestic wastewater the Bp (VF + HF) (AR 0.5 and 30% by-pass) reached 2.5 g TN/m(2) d removal rate. Effluent recirculation significantly improved the TN removal efficiency and rate. The R(HF + VF) system showed stable TN removals of approximately 80% at loading rates ranging from 2 to 8 g TN/m(2) d. High TN removal rates (up to 73% TN and 8.4 g TN/m(2) d) were also obtained for the R(VF + VF) system treating industrial wastewater.

  12. A Clinical Model in Action in Intensive Residential Treatment: Meeting the Needs of Adolescent Boys Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Janet; Todd, Nick; Kopeck, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    The Habitat Program at Wood's Homes, Calgary, Alberta, is an eight bed residential treatment program for conduct-disordered youth who have been exposed or subjected to high levels of violence in their family home. The program was based on the assumption that working effectively with such youth requires consideration of the background experiences…

  13. Removal of trace organic contaminants from domestic wastewater: A meta-analysis comparison of sewage treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), represent global threats to aquatic animals and ecosystems. A major source of TrOCs in the aquatic environment is via the discharge of treated sewage, so there is an urgent need to evaluate the comparative efficiencies of the most widely used sewage treatment technologies as regards elimination of these compounds from wastewater. To address this need, 976 published articles were compiled focusing on estimates of removal (%) for 20 common environmental TrOCs, from five major sewage treatment technologies: conventional activated sludge (CAS), oxidation ditch (OD), membrane bioreactor (MBR), ponds and constructed wetlands (PCW), and trickling biological filters (TBF). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare standardized relative removal efficiencies (SREs) of the compounds amongst these technologies, and where possible potential sources of heterogeneity were considered (e.g., flow rates and chemical sorption potential). The results indicate that the most widely used CAS treatment and the less common TBF provide comparatively poor overall removal of common organic micropollutants. Membrane bioreactors appear to be capable of achieving the greatest overall removal efficiencies, but the sustainability and economic viability of this option has been questioned. Treatment with OD systems may be more economical while still achieving comparatively high removal efficiencies, and the analysis revealed OD to be the best option for targeting highly potent estrogenic EDCs. This study offers a unique global assessment of TrOC removal via leading sewage treatment technologies, and is an important step in the identification of effective options for treating municipal sewage. PMID:27107223

  14. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland for stormwater runoff and domestic sewage treatment on the banks of a polluted urban river.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weijie; Li, Zhu; Cheng, Shuiping; Liang, Wei; He, Feng; Wu, Zhenbin

    2014-01-01

    To examine the performance of a constructed wetland system on stormwater runoff and domestic sewage (SRS) treatment in central east China, two parallel pilot-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems were operated for one year. Each ICW consisted of a down-flow bed, an up-flow bed and a horizontal subsurface flow bed. The average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 63.6, 91.9, 38.7, 43.0 and 70.0%, respectively, and the corresponding amounts of pollutant retention were approximately 368.3, 284.9, 23.2, 44.6 and 5.9 g m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. High hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 200 mm/d and low water temperatures (<15 °C) resulted in significant decrease in removals for TP and NH4(+)-N, but had no significant effects on removals of COD and TSS. These results indicated that the operation of this ICW at higher HLR (200 mm/d) might be effective and feasible for TSS and COD removal, but for acceptable removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus it should be operated at lower HLR (100 mm/d). This kind of ICW could be employed as an effective technique for SRS treatment.

  15. Organic matter humification in vermifiltration process for domestic sewage sludge treatment by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Limin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2013-10-15

    Performance of a conventional biofilter (BF) and two vermifilters (VFs, different heights) containing earthworms was investigated for domestic sewage sludge (DWS) treatment. Humic-acid like (HAL) fraction isolated from the influent sludge (IS) and effluent sludge of BF (ESBF) and VFs (ESVFs) were determined the elemental and functional composition, and structural characteristics using various analytical approaches. Results showed that performance of DWS treatment in the VFs was preferable to that in the BF. With respect to IS-HAL and ESBF-HAL, ESVFs-HAL had low C, H and N contents and C/O ratio, and high O, carboxyl and phenolic OH group contents, and C/N, C/H and E4/E6 ratios, and large molecular weight. The excitation-emission (Ex/Em) matrix spectra revealed that an additional peak was found at Ex/Em wavelength pairs of 345/435 nm in ESVFs-HAL. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that vermifiltration led to the loss of aliphatic materials and carbohydrates, and the enrichment of carbonyl and phenolic OH groups in HAL fractions. Additionally, the increase in VF height seemed to accelerate humification degree of organic matter in the effluent sludge. In summary, vermifiltration is alternate technology for transformation of organic matter into humic substances, and thus improves quality of DWS as soil organic fertilizer.

  16. Organic matter humification in vermifiltration process for domestic sewage sludge treatment by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Limin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2013-10-15

    Performance of a conventional biofilter (BF) and two vermifilters (VFs, different heights) containing earthworms was investigated for domestic sewage sludge (DWS) treatment. Humic-acid like (HAL) fraction isolated from the influent sludge (IS) and effluent sludge of BF (ESBF) and VFs (ESVFs) were determined the elemental and functional composition, and structural characteristics using various analytical approaches. Results showed that performance of DWS treatment in the VFs was preferable to that in the BF. With respect to IS-HAL and ESBF-HAL, ESVFs-HAL had low C, H and N contents and C/O ratio, and high O, carboxyl and phenolic OH group contents, and C/N, C/H and E4/E6 ratios, and large molecular weight. The excitation-emission (Ex/Em) matrix spectra revealed that an additional peak was found at Ex/Em wavelength pairs of 345/435 nm in ESVFs-HAL. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that vermifiltration led to the loss of aliphatic materials and carbohydrates, and the enrichment of carbonyl and phenolic OH groups in HAL fractions. Additionally, the increase in VF height seemed to accelerate humification degree of organic matter in the effluent sludge. In summary, vermifiltration is alternate technology for transformation of organic matter into humic substances, and thus improves quality of DWS as soil organic fertilizer. PMID:23981770

  17. 13C-NMR Assessment of the Pattern of Organic Matter Transformation during Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Autothermal Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Barlett, John; Pembroke, J. Tony

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of biodegradation and the chemical changes occurring in the macromolecular fraction of domestic sludge during autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) was monitored and characterised via solid-state 13C-NMR CP-MAS. Major indexes such as aromaticity, hydrophobicity and alkyl/O-alkyl ratios calculated for the ATAD processed biosolids were compared by means of these values to corresponding indexes reported for sludges of different origin such as manures, soil organic matter and certain types of compost. Given that this is the first time that these techniques have been applied to ATAD sludge, the data indicates that long-chain aliphatics are easily utilized by the microbial populations as substrates for metabolic activities at all stages of aerobic digestion and serve as a key substrate for the temperature increase, which in turn results in sludge sterilization. The ATAD biosolids following treatment had a prevalence of O-alkyl domains, a low aromaticity index (10.4%) and an alkyl/O-alkyl ratio of 0.48 while the hydrophobicity index of the sludge decreased from 1.12 to 0.62 during the treatment. These results have important implications for the evolution of new ATAD modalities particularly in relation to dewatering and the future use of ATAD processed biosolids as a fertilizer, particularly with respect to hydrological impacts on the soil behaviour. PMID:19742161

  18. A pilot-scale study of domestic wastewater treatment by different type constructed wetland systems and its potential green house gases emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Gui, P.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Constructed wetland (CV) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. There for CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countriens. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, three typical constructed wetlands: Vertical Flow (VF), Free Water Surface (FWS) and Subsurface Flow (SF), and combined VF-SF-FWS constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gas emissions characteristics. The results indicated that the four types of CWs had high removal efficiencies for organic matter and SS. Moreover, the combined wetland also showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, which was 93.6%, 92.8%, 81.3% and 84.5% for BOD5, SS, TN and TP, respectively. It was found that the combined CW and VF CW has a comparative lower global warming potential. The FWS CW had the highest tendency to emit CH4 and led to a higher global warming potential among four types of CWs, which was about the same as 425mgCO2/m2/h.

  19. A comparative study of vertical flow and free-water surface constructed wetlands for low C/N ratio domestic wastewater treatment and its greenhouse gases emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. Therefore, CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countries. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, two typical constructed wetlands: Vertical flow (VF) and Free-water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gases emission characteristics. The results indicated that the VF CW showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal than FWS constructed wetland, which was 98.5, 95.9, 93.2 and 90.7 percent for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6 days HRT, respectively. It was found that the FWS CW had the higher tendency to emit CH4 than the VF CW during four seasons of one year.

  20. Treatment and desalination of domestic wastewater for water reuse in a four-chamber microbial desalination cell.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) have been studied for contaminant removal from wastewater and salinity reduction in saline water. However, in an MDC wastewater treatment and desalination occurs in different streams, and high salinity of the treated wastewater creates challenges for wastewater reuse. Herein, a single-stream MDC (SMDC) with four chambers was developed for simultaneous organic removal and desalination in the same synthetic wastewater. This SMDC could achieve a desalination rate of 12.2-31.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) and remove more than 90 % of the organics and 75 % of NH4 (+)-N; the pH imbalance between the anode and cathode chambers was also reduced. Several strategies such as controlling catholyte pH, increasing influent COD concentration, adopting the batch mode, applying external voltage, and increasing the alkalinity of wastewater were investigated for improving the SMDC performance. Under a condition of 0.4 V external voltage, anolyte pH adjustment, and a batch mode, the SMDC decreased the wastewater salinity from 1.45 to below 0.75 mS cm(-1), which met the salinity standard of wastewater for irrigation. Those results encourage further development of the SMDC technology for sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  1. Treatment and desalination of domestic wastewater for water reuse in a four-chamber microbial desalination cell.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) have been studied for contaminant removal from wastewater and salinity reduction in saline water. However, in an MDC wastewater treatment and desalination occurs in different streams, and high salinity of the treated wastewater creates challenges for wastewater reuse. Herein, a single-stream MDC (SMDC) with four chambers was developed for simultaneous organic removal and desalination in the same synthetic wastewater. This SMDC could achieve a desalination rate of 12.2-31.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) and remove more than 90 % of the organics and 75 % of NH4 (+)-N; the pH imbalance between the anode and cathode chambers was also reduced. Several strategies such as controlling catholyte pH, increasing influent COD concentration, adopting the batch mode, applying external voltage, and increasing the alkalinity of wastewater were investigated for improving the SMDC performance. Under a condition of 0.4 V external voltage, anolyte pH adjustment, and a batch mode, the SMDC decreased the wastewater salinity from 1.45 to below 0.75 mS cm(-1), which met the salinity standard of wastewater for irrigation. Those results encourage further development of the SMDC technology for sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse. PMID:27221464

  2. Federal register, Volume 60, No. 234, Wednesday, December 6, 1995 proposed rules. Part 2. 40 CFR part 122, et al. National pollutant discharge elimination system permit application requirements for publicly owned treatment works and other treatment works treating domestic sewage; proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-06

    The Environmental Protection Agency proposes to amend permit application requirements and application forms for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other treatment works treating domestic sewage (TWTDS). TWTDS include facilities that generate sewage sludge, provide commercial treatment of sewage sludge, manufacture a product derived from sewage sludge, or provide disposal of sewage sludge.

  3. Modelling the effects of on-site greywater reuse and low flush toilets on municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-15

    On-site greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WET) reduce urban freshwater demand. Research on GWR and WET has generally overlooked the effects that GWR may have on municipal sewer systems. This paper discusses and quantifies these effects. The effects of GWR and WET, positive and negative, were studied by modelling a representative urban sewer system. GWR scenarios were modelled and analysed using the SIMBA simulation system. The results show that, as expected, the flow, velocity and proportional depth decrease as GWR increases. Nevertheless, the reduction is not evenly distributed throughout the day but mainly occurs during the morning and evening peaks. Examination of the effects of reduced toilet flush volumes revealed that in some of the GWR scenarios flows, velocities and proportional depths in the sewer were reduced, while in other GWR scenarios discharge volumes, velocities and proportional depths did not change. Further, it is indicated that as a result of GWR and installation of WET, sewer blockage rates are not expected to increase significantly. The results support the option to construct new sewer systems with smaller pipe diameters. The analysis shows that as the penetration of GWR systems increase, and with the installation of WET, concentrations of pollutants also increase. In GWR scenarios (when toilet flush volume is not reduced) the increase in pollutant concentrations is lower than the proportional reduction of sewage flow. Moreover, the results show that the spatial distribution of houses reusing GW does not significantly affect the parameters examined.

  4. Nitrogen Removal in a Full-Scale Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant with Activated Sludge and Trickling Filter

    PubMed Central

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple. PMID:23710197

  5. Nitrogen removal in a full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant with activated sludge and trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple.

  6. Nitrogen removal in a full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant with activated sludge and trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple. PMID:23710197

  7. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  8. UASB reactor for domestic wastewater treatment at low temperatures: a comparison between a classical UASB and hybrid UASB-filter reactor.

    PubMed

    Lew, B; Tarre, S; Belavski, M; Green, M

    2004-01-01

    The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a hybrid UASB-filter reactor was investigated and compared for the treatment of domestic wastewater at different operational temperatures (28, 20, 14 and 10 degrees C) and loading rates. For each temperature studied a constant CODt removal was observed as long as the upflow velocity was lower than 0.35 m/h. At these upflow velocities similar removals were observed for both reactor types at 28 and 20 degrees C, 82 and 72% respectively. However, at 14 and 10 degrees C the UASB reactor showed a better COD removal (70% and 48%, respectively) than the hybrid reactor (60% and 38%). COD removal resulted from biological degradation and solids accumulation in the reactors. At 28 degrees C, a constant 200 g sludge mass was observed in both reactors and COD removal was attributed to biological degradation only. At lower temperatures, solids accumulation was observed in addition to biological degradation with an increase in reactor sludge as the temperature decreased. The decrease in biological degradation at lower temperatures was offset by solids accumulation and explains the similar overall COD removal efficiency observed at 28 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 14 degrees C. The decrease in temperature was also followed by an increase in the effluent TSS concentration in both reactors. At 14 and 10 degrees C a lower effluent TSS concentration and better performance was observed in the UASB reactor. PMID:15303754

  9. Effects of earthworms and substrate on diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS and nirK) and denitrifying rate during rural domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longmian; Zhang, Yimin; Luo, Xingzhang; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the performance of an ecological filter (EF) and vermifiltration (VF) system, the effects of substrate and earthworms on the diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes coding for nitrite (nirS and nirK) reductases and on denitrifying rate, and the factors influencing denitrification. The majority of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen from sewage was removed by the soil layer in both reactors, and their total removal efficiencies increased in VF compared with those in EF. Additionally, substrate in the reactors significantly influenced the Shannon diversity index and abundance of nirS and nirK, as well as the denitrifying rate. However, the earthworms only significantly influenced nirS diversity. Furthermore, evaluation of the factors controlling denitrification implied that increasing NH3-N availability, diversity and abundance of nirS and nirK or decreasing available NO3-N might be responsible for the enhanced denitrification activity obtained using VF for rural domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:27099942

  10. Effects of earthworms and substrate on diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS and nirK) and denitrifying rate during rural domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longmian; Zhang, Yimin; Luo, Xingzhang; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the performance of an ecological filter (EF) and vermifiltration (VF) system, the effects of substrate and earthworms on the diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes coding for nitrite (nirS and nirK) reductases and on denitrifying rate, and the factors influencing denitrification. The majority of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen from sewage was removed by the soil layer in both reactors, and their total removal efficiencies increased in VF compared with those in EF. Additionally, substrate in the reactors significantly influenced the Shannon diversity index and abundance of nirS and nirK, as well as the denitrifying rate. However, the earthworms only significantly influenced nirS diversity. Furthermore, evaluation of the factors controlling denitrification implied that increasing NH3-N availability, diversity and abundance of nirS and nirK or decreasing available NO3-N might be responsible for the enhanced denitrification activity obtained using VF for rural domestic wastewater treatment.

  11. A study on the effects of different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) on pollutant removal efficiency of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands used for treatment of domestic wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Çakir, Recep; Gidirislioglu, Ali; Çebi, Ulviye

    2015-12-01

    The research into the treatment of domestic wastewaters originating from Büyükdöllük village in Edirne Province was carried out over a 3 year experimental period. The wastewaters of the settlement were treated using a constructed wetland with subsurface horizontal flow, and the effects of different hydraulic loading levels on removal efficiency were studied. In order to achieve this goal, three equal chambers (ponds) of 300 m(2) each were constructed and planted with Phragmites australis. Each of the chambers was loaded with domestic wastewater with average flow discharge creating hydraulic loading rates of 0. m(3) day(-1) m(-2); 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2) and 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2), respectively. According to the results of the study, the inlet levels of the pollutant parameters with carbon origin in the water samples taken from the system entrance are high and the average values for three years are respectively: Biological Oxygen Demand, BOD5 -324.5 mg L(-1); Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD -484,0 mg L(-1); suspended solids (TSS) -147.3 mg L(-1) and Oil and Grease -0.123 mg L(-1). It was also determined that the removal rates of the system were closely dependent on the applied hydraulic loading levels and the highest removal rates of 64.9%, 62.5%, 86.3% and 80.34% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease, respectively, were determined in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.050 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). Lower removal of 57.9%, 55.5%, 81.4% and 74.5% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease were recorded in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2); and these values were 49.1%, 47.8%, 70.9% and 62.1% for the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). High removal rates were also recorded for the other investigated pollution parameters.

  12. A study on the effects of different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) on pollutant removal efficiency of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands used for treatment of domestic wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Çakir, Recep; Gidirislioglu, Ali; Çebi, Ulviye

    2015-12-01

    The research into the treatment of domestic wastewaters originating from Büyükdöllük village in Edirne Province was carried out over a 3 year experimental period. The wastewaters of the settlement were treated using a constructed wetland with subsurface horizontal flow, and the effects of different hydraulic loading levels on removal efficiency were studied. In order to achieve this goal, three equal chambers (ponds) of 300 m(2) each were constructed and planted with Phragmites australis. Each of the chambers was loaded with domestic wastewater with average flow discharge creating hydraulic loading rates of 0. m(3) day(-1) m(-2); 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2) and 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2), respectively. According to the results of the study, the inlet levels of the pollutant parameters with carbon origin in the water samples taken from the system entrance are high and the average values for three years are respectively: Biological Oxygen Demand, BOD5 -324.5 mg L(-1); Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD -484,0 mg L(-1); suspended solids (TSS) -147.3 mg L(-1) and Oil and Grease -0.123 mg L(-1). It was also determined that the removal rates of the system were closely dependent on the applied hydraulic loading levels and the highest removal rates of 64.9%, 62.5%, 86.3% and 80.34% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease, respectively, were determined in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.050 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). Lower removal of 57.9%, 55.5%, 81.4% and 74.5% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease were recorded in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2); and these values were 49.1%, 47.8%, 70.9% and 62.1% for the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). High removal rates were also recorded for the other investigated pollution parameters. PMID:26363259

  13. Use of a GnRH vaccine, GonaCon, for prevention and treatment of adrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Wagner, Robert A; Finkler, Mark

    2013-09-23

    Adrenocortical disease (ACD) is a common problem in surgically sterilized, middle-aged to old ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). The adrenal tissues of these ferrets develop hyperplasia, adenomas, or adenocarcinomas, which produce steroid hormones including estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione. Major clinical signs attributable to overproduction of these hormones are alopecia (hair loss) in both sexes and a swollen vulva in females. Pruritus, muscle atrophy, hind limb weakness, and sexual activity or aggression are also observed in both sexes. Males can develop prostatic cysts, prostatitis, and urethral obstruction. ACD is thought to be linked to continuous and increased LH secretion, due to lack of gonadal hormone feedback in neutered ferrets. This continuous elevated LH acts on adrenal cortex LH receptors, resulting in adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal tumor. This study investigated whether the immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon, a GnRH vaccine developed to reduce the fertility of wildlife species and the spread of disease, could prevent or delay onset of ACD and treat alopecia in ferrets with existing ACD. Results showed that GonaCon provided relief from ACD by causing production of antibodies to GnRH, probably suppressing production and/or release of LH. Treatment caused many ACD symptoms to disappear, allowing the ferrets to return to a normal life. The study also found that the probability of developing ACD was significantly reduced in ferrets treated with GonaCon when young (1-3 years old) compared to untreated control animals. GonaCon caused injection site reaction in some animals when administered as an intramuscular injection but caused few side effects when administered subcutaneously. Both intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccination resulted in similar levels of GnRH antibody titers. Subcutaneous vaccination with GonaCon is thus recommended to prevent the onset of ACD and as a possible treatment for ACD-signs in domestic ferrets. PMID

  14. Drivers and barriers among householders to managing domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland; implications for risk prevention behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, Catherine; O'Neill, Eoin; Waldron, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Septic systems that are malfunctioning, improperly sited or designed, present a contamination risk to drinking water sources, and subsequently, to human health. However, the international literature identifies gaps in householder knowledge regarding the function and maintenance requirements of septic systems, and also the potential health and environmental risk implications. Allied with householder fears related to the financial cost of risk management, these factors tend to reduce concern to recognise a malfunctioning system. In the Republic of Ireland, three-quarters of households in rural areas utilise an individual domestic wastewater treatment system (or septic system). Consequently, a significant portion of rural households that rely on groundwater sources via private-well use are at risk. Ireland reports one of the highest crude incidence rates of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in the European Union, and waterborne transmission related to contact with untreated or poorly treated water from private water sources is a factor in its transmission. Following recent Irish legislative change that places a duty of care on individual householders to ensure a proper system functioning, this exploratory study examines perceptions towards the risk management of septic systems among Irish householders. Using qualitative research methods, four focus groups selected on the basis of geographical variation, and two semi-structured interviews were conducted. While most householders agreed that poorly maintained septic systems represented a threat to the environment and to public health, none reported to having a regular maintenance routine in place. Thematic analysis revealed the drivers and barriers to septic system maintenance, and preferences of householders pertaining to communication on septic systems. The Health Belief Model is employed to help understand results. Results suggest that householder capacity to engage in regular risk management is reduced

  15. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care. PMID:24217092

  16. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  17. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  18. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  19. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data

  20. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data

  1. EU demonstration project for separate discharge and treatment of urine, faeces and greywater--part I: results.

    PubMed

    Peter-Fröhlich, A; Pawlowski, L; Bonhomme, A; Oldenburg, M

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this EU demonstration project was to test two new sanitation concepts to determine if these concepts are more sustainable, compared with the conventional sanitation system, particularly with regard to nutrient recycling. Two different sanitation concepts were tested. One concept comprised the use of gravity separation toilets, the other used vacuum separation toilets. Results from a life-cycle-assessment investigation show that the new sanitation concepts are more sustainable. A cost analysis for an existing residential area did not prove lower costs for the new sanitation concepts in this special case. The experience from this demonstration project shows that prior to a widespread use of the new sanitation concepts, several improvements have to be made. One important issue is the improvement of separation toilets. Since nutrient recycling, water saving and reuse as well energy reduction become more and more important, further research should be undertaken in this field. PMID:17881858

  2. EU demonstration project for separate discharge and treatment of urine, faeces and greywater--part I: results.

    PubMed

    Peter-Fröhlich, A; Pawlowski, L; Bonhomme, A; Oldenburg, M

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this EU demonstration project was to test two new sanitation concepts to determine if these concepts are more sustainable, compared with the conventional sanitation system, particularly with regard to nutrient recycling. Two different sanitation concepts were tested. One concept comprised the use of gravity separation toilets, the other used vacuum separation toilets. Results from a life-cycle-assessment investigation show that the new sanitation concepts are more sustainable. A cost analysis for an existing residential area did not prove lower costs for the new sanitation concepts in this special case. The experience from this demonstration project shows that prior to a widespread use of the new sanitation concepts, several improvements have to be made. One important issue is the improvement of separation toilets. Since nutrient recycling, water saving and reuse as well energy reduction become more and more important, further research should be undertaken in this field.

  3. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    modified their behavior, as have the victims, although for a lesser extent. Perpetrators are increasingly subject to restraining orders, with an obligation to undergo treatment and to attend awareness sessions. Victims are also more likely to go to the police. Social workers, self-help groups and, since 2006, psychologists are now available for victim support in police stations. Management of perpetrators has improved. Finally, despite the continuing reluctance of many physicians, an encouraging trend is emerging among younger members of the profession. A recent survey of 1472 French medical students showed that, while 90 % of them said they had received no training in this area, 93 % considered that doctors should play a role and 95 % said they felt highly concerned. Specific university diplomas have been created and domestic violence is now included in the midwifery curriculum. The delicate question of prevention remains to be resolved; a program is currently being tested.

  4. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    modified their behavior, as have the victims, although for a lesser extent. Perpetrators are increasingly subject to restraining orders, with an obligation to undergo treatment and to attend awareness sessions. Victims are also more likely to go to the police. Social workers, self-help groups and, since 2006, psychologists are now available for victim support in police stations. Management of perpetrators has improved. Finally, despite the continuing reluctance of many physicians, an encouraging trend is emerging among younger members of the profession. A recent survey of 1472 French medical students showed that, while 90 % of them said they had received no training in this area, 93 % considered that doctors should play a role and 95 % said they felt highly concerned. Specific university diplomas have been created and domestic violence is now included in the midwifery curriculum. The delicate question of prevention remains to be resolved; a program is currently being tested. PMID:26753414

  5. Aerobic biotransformation of 14C-labeled 8-2 telomer B alcohol by activated sludge from a domestic sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Szostek, Bogdan; Folsom, Patrick W; Sulecki, Lisa M; Capka, Vladimir; Buck, Robert C; Berti, William R; Gannon, John T

    2005-01-15

    This study investigated the biodegradation potential of 3-(14)C,1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanol [CF3(CF2)6(14)CF2CH2CH2OH, 14C-labeled 8-2 telomer B alcohol or 14C-labeled 8-2 TBA] by diluted activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant under aerobic conditions. After sample extraction with acetonitrile, biotransformation products were separated and quantified by LC/ARC (on-line liquid chromatography/accurate radioisotope counting) with a limit of quantification about 0.5% of the 14C counts applied to the test systems. Identification of biotransformation products was performed by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Three transformation products have been identified: CF3(CF2)6(14)CF2CH2COOH (8-2 saturated acid); CF3(CF2)6(14)CF=CHCOOH (8-2 unsaturated acid); and CF3(CF2)6(14)COOH (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA), representing 27, 6.0, and 2.1% of the initial 14C mass (14C counts applied) after 28 days, respectively. A transformation product, not yet reported in the literature, has also been observed and tentatively identified as CF3(CF2)6(14)CH2CH2COOH (2H,2H,3H,3H-perfluorodecanoic acid); it accounted for 2.3% of the mass balance after 28 days. The 2H,2H,3H,3H-perfluorodecanoic acid is likely a substrate for beta-oxidation, which represents one of the possible pathways for 8-2 telomer B alcohol degradation. The 8-2 saturated acid and 8-2 unsaturated acid cannot be directly used as substrates for beta-oxidation due to the proton deficiency in their beta-carbon (C3 carbon) and their further catabolism may be catalyzed by some other still unknown mechanisms. The 2H,2H,3H,3H-perfluorodecanoic acid may originate either from the major transformation product CF3(CF2)6(14)CF2CH2COOH or from other unidentified transformation products via multiple steps. Approximately 57% of the starting material remained unchanged after 28 days, likely due to its strong adsorption to the PTFE (poly(tetrafluoroethylene)) septa of the test vessels. No CF3(CF2)6(14)CF2COOH

  6. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  7. Greywater heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, D.

    1983-11-21

    A kilowatt meter and water meter were installed to monitor pregreywater usage. The design considerations, the heat exchanger construction and installation, and the monitoring of usage levels are described.

  8. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  9. The synergistic effects of dissolved oxygen and pH on N2O production in biological domestic wastewater treatment under nitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengzhang; Wang, Shuying; Peng, Yongzhen; Liu, Yue; He, Janzhong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas, which is produced during nitrifying and denitrifying processes. Some factors and mechanisms affecting N2O emission have been reported in previous literature, but wastewater biological nitrification is accompanied by a dynamic process of dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption and pH reduction, it is more meaningful to study the synergistic effects between DO and pH on N2O production. In this study, the synergistic effects between DO and pH on N2O production were investigated with real domestic wastewater. The results showed that high DO levels and a high pH could improve the oxidation ratio of NH4+-N and the production ratio of NO2--N, while effectively reducing the accumulation ratio of N2O. The NH4+-N was a prerequisite for nitrifier denitrification; when NH4+-N was oxidized completely, there would be no N2O production and an even higher concentration of NO2- The pH factor is shown to directly affect N2O emission, although free ammonia and free nitrous acid which changed with pH had no correlation with N2O emission. There were two reasons: (1) pH can influence the flow direction of electrons afforded by NH2OH oxidation; at high pH, electrons were mainly used for combining H+ and O2 (O2+4H++4e-=2H2O), the accumulation of NO2- cannot be a result of denitrification, and a higher DO can get more electrons to prefer NO2- and (2) NH4+ was the prerequisite for NH2OH oxidation, since NH2OH oxidation process was the way to provide electrons for nitrifier denitrification.

  10. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  11. Domestic Violence Reforms: Empty Promises or Fulfilled Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert C.; Smith, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Considers major reforms in the criminal justice system in response to domestic violence incidents: more frequent arrest, reduced control of victims in domestic court cases, more widespread use of restraining orders, and court-mandated treatment for batterers. Concludes that these do not work well across a variety of situations to reduce future…

  12. Domestic Research at Rand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    This third descriptive inventory of the Rand Corporation's domestic non-military research covers all projects since 1972, as well as its special 1969-1975 program for New York City. For each of over 300 research projects in nine program areas, brief summaries identify the project title and sponsor, beginning and ending dates, person-years of work…

  13. Domestic Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Network Project Notebook, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The June, 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) decision allowed an "open skies" policy in regard to domestic communication satellites and raised Liberal opposition to a situation where exclusive and unchecked communications power is now in the hands of private entrepreneurs, primarily the big Defense Department oriented aerospace…

  14. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  15. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women. PMID:25695010

  16. Lousicidal effect of deltamethrin in domestic pigeons.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara

    2016-09-01

    Present study reports the effect of deltamethrin against louse infestation in domestic pigeons. In this study, twelve pigeons infested with Columbicola columbae louse were sprayed with deltamethrin (12.5 %) and another twelve pigeons were kept as control group. The lice intensity was reduced 89 %, 98 % and 100 % on 1st, 7th and 14th day of post treatment in treatment group. Out of twelve pigeons, four pigeons showed sneezing and temporary ocular inflammations after spraying.

  17. The performance enhancements of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for domestic sludge treatment--a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chong, Siewhui; Sen, Tushar Kanti; Kayaalp, Ahmet; Ang, Ha Ming

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, carbon emission and therefore carbon footprint of water utilities is an important issue. In this respect, we should consider the opportunities to reduce carbon footprint for small and large wastewater treatment plants. The use of anaerobic rather than aerobic treatment processes would achieve this aim because no aeration is required and the generation of methane can be used within the plant. High-rate anaerobic digesters receive great interests due to their high loading capacity and low sludge production. Among them, the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors have been most widely used. However, there are still unresolved issues inhibiting the widespread of this technology in developing countries or countries with climate temperature fluctuations (such as subtropical regions). A large number of studies have been carried out in order to enhance the performance of UASB reactors but there is a lack of updated documentation. In face of the existing limitations and the increasing importance of this technology, the authors present an up-to-date review on the performance enhancements of UASB reactors over the last decade. The important aspects of this article are: (i) enhancing the start-up and granulation in UASB reactors, (ii) coupling with post-treatment unit to overcome the temperature constraint, and (iii) improving the removal efficiencies of the organic matter, nutrients and pathogens in the final effluent. Finally the authors have highlighted future research direction based on their critical analysis.

  18. Domestication and plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haibao; Sezen, Uzay; Paterson, Andrew H

    2010-04-01

    The techniques of plant improvement have been evolving with the advancement of technology, progressing from crop domestication by Neolithic humans to scientific plant breeding, and now including DNA-based genotyping and genetic engineering. Archeological findings have shown that early human ancestors often unintentionally selected for and finally fixed a few major domestication traits over time. Recent advancement of molecular and genomic tools has enabled scientists to pinpoint changes to specific chromosomal regions and genetic loci that are responsible for dramatic morphological and other transitions that distinguish crops from their wild progenitors. Extensive studies in a multitude of additional crop species, facilitated by rapid progress in sequencing and resequencing(s) of crop genomes, will further our understanding of the genomic impact from both the unusual population history of cultivated plants and millennia of human selection.

  19. Degradation of emergent contaminants by UV, UV/H2O2 and neutral photo-Fenton at pilot scale in a domestic wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, N; Esquius, L; Grandjean, D; Magnet, A; Tungler, A; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the removal of 22 selected micropollutants in an effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) at pilot scale. A reactor of 37 L with five low pressure mercury lamps emitting at 254 nm (UV254) was used. The 22 micropollutants include 15 pharmaceuticals, 2 X-Ray contrast medias, 1 corrosion inhibitor and 4 biocides/pesticides. Five of these 22 compounds were used as indicative substances as proposed by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) (carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole and mecoprop). Treatments included UV254 light alone, UV254 + H2O2 and UV254 + H2O2+Fe(3+). Wastewater coming from the MWTP already contained iron with an average total iron of 1.6 mg L(-1). Original pH was not modified and remained between 6 and 7. The parameters changed during the experiments to find the optimal conditions were: wastewater flow rate (2-14 m(3) h(-1)), H2O2 concentration (20-50 mg L(-1)) and Fe (III) concentration (0-4 mg L(-1)). Chemicals removal rates were greater than 80% for the majority of the flow rates tested. Operating costs for the different conditions evaluated were also estimated and compared. PMID:23910229

  20. Endorsement of Couples Counseling in a Domestic Violence Case as a Function of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bapat, Mona; Tracey, Terence

    2009-01-01

    Reactions of students in helping professions to domestic violence were examined with respect to whether or not the students had any training in domestic violence. One hundred, four students read one of two vignettes describing a domestic violence case and responded to statements related to treatment options. The vignettes differed only in…

  1. Domestically and Generally Violent Forensic Psychiatric Outpatients: Personality Traits and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsveld, Ruud H. J.; Bezuijen, Siemon; Leenaars, Ellie E. M.; Kraaimaat, Floris W.

    2008-01-01

    A group of 63 domestically violent patients and a group of 103 generally violent patients at a Dutch forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic are examined with regard to personality traits and problem behaviors to develop treatment programs for domestically violent patients. The domestically violent patients are more unstable from a psychological…

  2. Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is abuse by a ...

  3. Global Positioning System Derived Performance Measures Are Responsive Indicators of Physical Activity, Disease and the Success of Clinical Treatments in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761

  4. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2010-09-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that these genetic inferences are fundamentally compatible with recent archaeological data that support a view of domestication as a geographically diffuse, gradual process. In this review, we summarize methodologies ranging from quantitative trait locus mapping to resequencing used in genetic analyses of crop evolution. We also highlight recent major insights regarding the timing and spatial patterning of crop domestication and the distinct genetic underpinnings of domestication, diversification and improvement traits.

  5. Comparative investigation on integrated vertical-flow biofilters applying sulfur-based and pyrite-based autotrophic denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Dong, Shanshan; Chen, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Two parallel biofilters applying sulfur/pyrite-based autotrophic denitrification were investigated for removing COD, TP and TN by a coordinated process. Results demonstrated good performance by removing 86.32% vs 87.14% COD and 92.56% vs 89.65% NH4(+)-N. Biofilter with sulfur (BS) was superior on nitrate (89.74% vs 80.72%) and TN removal (83.18% vs 70.42%) while biofilter with pyrite (BP) was better on TP removal (82.58% vs 77.40%) and maintaining sulfate (27.56mgL(-1) vs 41.55mgL(-1)) and pH (7.13 vs 6.31). Water-permeable adsorbents lowered clogging risk and buffered loading. Clone library revealed reasons of diversities, pH variation and sulfate accumulation of both biofilters. Sulfur was efficient on denitrification but whose byproducts were troublesome, pyrite produced less byproduct but which was sensitive to organics. This research was the first attempt to systematically compare two promising alternatives and their merits/demerits for rural wastewater on-site treatment.

  6. Occurrence and removal of butyltin compounds in a waste stabilisation pond of a domestic waste water treatment plant of a rural French town.

    PubMed

    Sabah, A; Bancon-Montigny, C; Rodier, C; Marchand, P; Delpoux, S; Ijjaali, M; Tournoud, M-G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate and behaviour of butyltin pollutants, including monobutyltin (MBT), dibutylin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT), in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The study was conducted as part of a baseline survey and included five sampling campaigns comprising bottom sludge and the water column from each pond from a typical WSP in France. Butyltins were detected in all raw wastewater and effluents, reflecting their widespread use. Our results revealed high affinity between butyltins and particulate matter and high accumulation of butyltins in the sludge taken from anaerobic ponds. The dissolved butyltins in the influent ranged from 21.5 to 28.1 ng(Sn).L(-1) and in the effluent, from 8.8 to 29.3 ng(Sn).L(-1). The butyltin concentrations in the sludge ranged from 45.1 to 164 and 3.6-8.1 ng(Sn).g(-1) respectively in the first and last ponds. Our results showed an average treatment efficiency of 71% for MBT, 47% for DBT, 55% for TBT. Laboratory sorption experiments enabled the calculation of a distribution coefficient (Kd = 75,000 L.kg-1) between TBT and particulate matter from the WSPs. The Kd explained the accumulation and persistence of the TBT in the sludge after settling of particulate matter. The continuous supply of contaminated raw wastewater and the sorption-desorption processes in the ponds led to incomplete bio- and photolytic degradation and to the persistence of butyltins in dissolved and particulate matrices throughout the survey period. It is thus recommended to use shallow ponds and to pay particular attention when sludge is used for soil amendment.

  7. Occurrence and removal of butyltin compounds in a waste stabilisation pond of a domestic waste water treatment plant of a rural French town.

    PubMed

    Sabah, A; Bancon-Montigny, C; Rodier, C; Marchand, P; Delpoux, S; Ijjaali, M; Tournoud, M-G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate and behaviour of butyltin pollutants, including monobutyltin (MBT), dibutylin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT), in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The study was conducted as part of a baseline survey and included five sampling campaigns comprising bottom sludge and the water column from each pond from a typical WSP in France. Butyltins were detected in all raw wastewater and effluents, reflecting their widespread use. Our results revealed high affinity between butyltins and particulate matter and high accumulation of butyltins in the sludge taken from anaerobic ponds. The dissolved butyltins in the influent ranged from 21.5 to 28.1 ng(Sn).L(-1) and in the effluent, from 8.8 to 29.3 ng(Sn).L(-1). The butyltin concentrations in the sludge ranged from 45.1 to 164 and 3.6-8.1 ng(Sn).g(-1) respectively in the first and last ponds. Our results showed an average treatment efficiency of 71% for MBT, 47% for DBT, 55% for TBT. Laboratory sorption experiments enabled the calculation of a distribution coefficient (Kd = 75,000 L.kg-1) between TBT and particulate matter from the WSPs. The Kd explained the accumulation and persistence of the TBT in the sludge after settling of particulate matter. The continuous supply of contaminated raw wastewater and the sorption-desorption processes in the ponds led to incomplete bio- and photolytic degradation and to the persistence of butyltins in dissolved and particulate matrices throughout the survey period. It is thus recommended to use shallow ponds and to pay particular attention when sludge is used for soil amendment. PMID:26624956

  8. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model

    PubMed Central

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-01-01

    Summary We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris) as an illustration, we describe the evolutionary specificities of the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of the long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability, or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability and that were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the experimental fox data and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular-genetic mechanisms of these changes. We assign the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects. PMID:19260016

  9. Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2011-10-01

    Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement.

  10. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

    PubMed

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  11. Core questions in domestication research.

    PubMed

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2015-03-17

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared.

  12. Domestic violence. Risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, D. C.; Grady, D.

    1991-01-01

    Domestic violence is a pervasive and frequently unrecognized cause of injury among women. We reviewed data from standardized interviews with 218 women who presented to an emergency department with injuries due to domestic violence. Victims ranged in age from 16 to 66 years and constituted a wide range of socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Domestic violence often resulted in severe injury; 28% of the women interviewed required admission to hospital for injuries, and 13% required major surgical treatment. The typical presentation was injuries to the face, skull, eyes, extremities, and upper torso. A third of the cases involved a weapon, such as a knife, club, or gun. In all, 10% of the victims were pregnant at the time of abuse, and 10% reported that their children had also been abused by the batterer. Most victims (86%) had suffered at least one previous incident of abuse, and about 40% had previously required medical care for abuse. Victim recognition and referral to appropriate agencies could be improved if primary care physicians were more aware of the prevalence, severity, frequency of occurrence, and typical presentation of domestic violence. PMID:1926841

  13. Domestic and Domesticating Education in the Late Victorian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the various types of domestic education, particularly cookery, available in Manchester between 1870 and 1902. The work of the two local School Boards and the Manchester School of Domestic Economy are shown as part of a complicated network of provision--a mixed economy of welfare, including enthusiastic philanthropists and…

  14. Spouse abuse and other domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, L J

    1988-12-01

    Concern about the different forms of domestic violence continues to escalate. Beginning with identification of child abuse in the 1960s; spouse abuse, primarily of women, in the 1970s; and, most recently, identification of the rising incidence of elder abuse and neglect, the medical community, state, local, and federal governmental agencies and the public continue to promote joint programs to identify, guide to treatment, and simultaneously develop prevention and early intervention programs. Emphasis initially on the use of legal systems to stop, the abuse must almost be mandatory, because numerous studies show that treatment is most successful when abusers are forced to admit to themselves and others that they have, in fact, committed crimes. For women victims, safe refuge, self-help, and advocacy-support groups were found to be effective, whereas children first need the same protection and a great deal of empathy and explanation. Psychiatrists' roles lie in the important area of early diagnosis and treatment, as most domestic abuse victims do not readily admit to this violence, primarily out of shame, guilt, and fear. Numerous studies demonstrate that following a protocol with every patient, in every setting and under every circumstance, psychiatrists must ask about domestic violence when they least suspect it and when other diagnoses are obvious. The multiple etiologies include general sociocultural pressures, such as poverty and crowding, stereotypic sex role socialization, alcohol and drug abuse, history of head injury, and personal childhood abuse. Psychiatric treatment modalities must occur within a framework of acknowledging that domestic violence victims suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatrists can serve as leaders in coordinating multi-pronged treatment options for the victims: advocacy groups; alcohol and drug detoxification; and individual, couple, and family therapy. Psychiatrists can also serve as consultants, leaders, and educators

  15. Lousicidal effect of deltamethrin in domestic pigeons.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara

    2016-09-01

    Present study reports the effect of deltamethrin against louse infestation in domestic pigeons. In this study, twelve pigeons infested with Columbicola columbae louse were sprayed with deltamethrin (12.5 %) and another twelve pigeons were kept as control group. The lice intensity was reduced 89 %, 98 % and 100 % on 1st, 7th and 14th day of post treatment in treatment group. Out of twelve pigeons, four pigeons showed sneezing and temporary ocular inflammations after spraying. PMID:27605793

  16. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  17. The Complexities of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by Robert Bornstein, "The complex relationship between dependency and domestic violence: Converging psychological factors and social forces." Although a more focused examination of the psychological factors involved in domestic violence is welcome, there are some factual errors in Bornstein's article that need attention and…

  18. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics.

  19. The perpetrators of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Romans, S E; Poore, M R; Martin, J L

    2000-11-01

    There has been little useful research in recent years into those who perpetrate domestic violence. Domestic violence is always anchored in a social context in which the aspirations of men and women are dealt with unequally. The majority of perpetrators of domestic violence are men. Perpetrators are often young, troubled, unemployed, and of low self-esteem; they have often experienced abuse (of various types) themselves. However, these factors do not justify their abusive behaviour. General practitioners and other health workers have a responsibility to broach the subject of domestic violence with both perpetrators and victims. They are in a key position to break the silence that allows it to continue. Programs for stopping domestic violence can be effective for those who are motivated to change their behaviour and see the programs through to completion.

  20. Reproduction in domestic buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2008-07-01

    The domestic buffalo is an indispensable livestock resource to millions of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly in Asia. Although its reproductive biology is basically similar to that of cattle, there are important differences and unique characteristics that need to be considered in order to apply modern reproductive technologies to improve its productivity. Under most smallholder production systems, the reproductive efficiency of buffalo is compromised by factors related to climate, management, nutrition and diseases. However, when managed and fed properly, buffalo can have good fertility and provide milk, calves and draught power over a long productive life. The basic technical problems associated with artificial insemination in buffalo were largely overcome two decades ago, but the technology has not had the expected impact in some developing countries, because largely of infrastructural and logistic problems. Approaches involving the use of hormones for treating anoestrus and for synchronizing oestrus have had varying rates of success, depending on the protocols used and the incidence of underlying problems that cause infertility. Embryo technologies such as multiple ovulation embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production, cryopreservation and cloning are being intensively studied but have had far lower success rates than in cattle. Improving the productivity of buffalo requires an understanding of their potential and limitations under each farming system, development of simple intervention strategies to ameliorate deficiencies in management, nutrition and healthcare, followed by judicious application of reproductive technologies that are sustainable with the resources available to buffalo farmers.

  1. Reproduction in domestic buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2008-07-01

    The domestic buffalo is an indispensable livestock resource to millions of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly in Asia. Although its reproductive biology is basically similar to that of cattle, there are important differences and unique characteristics that need to be considered in order to apply modern reproductive technologies to improve its productivity. Under most smallholder production systems, the reproductive efficiency of buffalo is compromised by factors related to climate, management, nutrition and diseases. However, when managed and fed properly, buffalo can have good fertility and provide milk, calves and draught power over a long productive life. The basic technical problems associated with artificial insemination in buffalo were largely overcome two decades ago, but the technology has not had the expected impact in some developing countries, because largely of infrastructural and logistic problems. Approaches involving the use of hormones for treating anoestrus and for synchronizing oestrus have had varying rates of success, depending on the protocols used and the incidence of underlying problems that cause infertility. Embryo technologies such as multiple ovulation embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production, cryopreservation and cloning are being intensively studied but have had far lower success rates than in cattle. Improving the productivity of buffalo requires an understanding of their potential and limitations under each farming system, development of simple intervention strategies to ameliorate deficiencies in management, nutrition and healthcare, followed by judicious application of reproductive technologies that are sustainable with the resources available to buffalo farmers. PMID:18638124

  2. Domestic violence: efficacy of health provider training in Utah.

    PubMed

    Allert, C S; Chalkley, C; Whitney, J R; Librett, A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to improve the identification, treatment, and referral of domestic violence victims by prehospital care providers (Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics) and emergency department personnel. The training focused on the definition of domestic violence, procedures to use when questioning patients about abuse, Utah's mandatory reporting law, and the referral of victims to community resources. While the training did improve the participant's knowledge concerning referral options and the law, health care providers still did not believe that domestic violence was a problem in their community. Although providers felt confident asking questions about abuse, the providers did not question patients unless they suspected domestic violence was the cause of the injury. Further training needs to be offered to staff to encourage regular screening for all adult patients.

  3. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M

    2012-03-22

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security.

  4. Female domestic violence offenders: their attachment security, trauma symptoms, and personality organization.

    PubMed

    Goldenson, Julie; Geffner, Robert; Foster, Sharon L; Clipson, Clark R

    2007-01-01

    Unlike male domestic violence offenders, female domestic violence offenders have traditionally been overlooked in research and theory, despite the fact that females also have high rates of domestic violence perpetration. Towards the aim of extending extant research on male and female pepetrators of domestic violence, we examined attachment style, trauma symptoms, and personality organization in 33 female offenders receiving mandated treatment for domestic violence. These offenders were compared to 32 nonoffending women receiving psychological treatment. The Experiences in Close Relationships Revised (ECR-Revised) was used to examine adult attachment, the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) was used to examine trauma symptomology, and finally, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) was used to examine cluster B personality traits. Analyses indicated that female domestic violence offenders reported less attachment security, more trauma-related symptoms, and more personality psychopathology (Antisocial, Borderline, and Dependent Subscales) than did nonoffender clinical comparison women.

  5. The Therapeutic Efficacy of Domestic Violence Victim Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan

    2016-04-01

    A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. PMID:25612799

  6. Child Domestic Work. Innocenti Digest 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Comp.; Blagbrough, Jonathan, Comp.

    Child "domestics" or "domestic workers" are defined here as children under the age of 18 who work in other people's households, doing domestic chores, caring for children and running errands, among other tasks. This digest focuses mainly on the situation of live-in child domestics, that is, children who work full time in exchange for room, board,…

  7. Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.

    PubMed

    Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-01-01

    This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed.

  8. State Support of Domestic Production

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  9. Ovarian disorders in domestic animals.

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, N J

    1987-01-01

    The histologic appearance of the ovaries and persistence of corpora lutea vary considerably among domestic animals, particularly between spontaneous and induced ovulators. The seasonally polyestrous mare has a variety of unique characteristics in ovarian structure and general reproductive function. Among the anomalies of ovarian development is the bovine freemartin with gonads containing a mixture of male and female elements. A variety of ovarian cysts occur in domestic animals, and persistent corpora lutea with associated reproductive perturbations occur in several species. Ovarian tumors are relatively uncommon in domestic animals, with most examples described in dogs, cats, and horses. These ovarian neoplasms are generally classified as epithelial, germ cell, or sex cord-stromal tumors. PMID:3665869

  10. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  11. Assessment of Domestic Appliance Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeanette Rosamond

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify the factors involved in eliciting a subjective reaction to domestic appliance noise, (ii) to identify the noise index (or indices) that correlate highly with a subjective reaction to the noise, and (iii) to investigate the contribution of domestic appliance noise to an individual's daily noise dose. Two series of experimental studies were carried out using several examples of each of five types of domestic appliances. One determined the index values of domestic appliance noise--namely L_{WA} (using ISO 3741), L_{pA} , L_{pD}, L _{p}, PNL, L_{Aeq, 30 sec}, L_{Amax} and L_{AX}; the other determined subjective reactions to domestic appliance noise (judgements of noisiness, annoyance, the acceptability of the appliance noise and appraisals of usefulness). The success or failure of the research hypotheses was assessed statistically by analysis of variance, regression analysis, log linear analysis, Hotelling test, bootstrapping, t-test and post-hoc comparisons. Ratings of annoyance, noisiness and the acceptability of the noise of the appliance were found to be interrelated and interdependent, and not influenced by appraisals of usefulness of the appliances. Noisiness ratings were the most consistent of the subjective ratings investigated, and were influenced by the duration of the exposure, and the actual appliance type under investigation. Significant correlations were obtained between noisiness ratings and all the noise indices under investigation. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that L_ {WA} correlated less successfully with noisiness ratings than all other indices. L_ {Amax},L_{Aeq,30 sec }, and L_{AX} indices were the most successful. It is therefore suggested that the labelling of domestic appliance noise consist of L_{WA} and L _{Aeq} as measured in a standardised test environment. The percentage contribution of domestic appliance noise to the total

  12. Quality of ground water from private domestic wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights major findings from two USGS reports: DeSimone (2009) and DeSimone and others (2009). These reports can be accessed at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa. This article is followed by a summary of treatment considerations and options for owners of private domestic wells, written by Cliff Treyens of the National Ground Water Association.

  13. Superheroes and masterminds of plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ainsworth, Natalia E; Tenaillon, Maud I

    2016-01-01

    Domestication is one of the most fundamental changes in the evolution of human societies. The geographical origins of domesticated plants are inferred from archaeology, ecology and genetic data. Scenarios vary among species and include single, diffuse or multiple independent domestications. Cultivated plants present a panel of traits, the "domestication syndrome" that distinguish them from their wild relatives. It encompasses yield-, food usage-, and cultivation-related traits. Most genes underlying those traits are "masterminds" affecting the regulation of gene networks. Phenotypic convergence of domestication traits across species or within species between independently domesticated forms rarely coincides with convergence at the gene level. We review here current data/models that propose a protracted transition model for domestication and investigate the impact of mating system, life cycle and gene flow on the pace of domestication. Finally, we discuss the cost of domestication, pointing to the importance of characterizing adaptive functional variation in wild resources. PMID:27317057

  14. Superheroes and masterminds of plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ainsworth, Natalia E; Tenaillon, Maud I

    2016-01-01

    Domestication is one of the most fundamental changes in the evolution of human societies. The geographical origins of domesticated plants are inferred from archaeology, ecology and genetic data. Scenarios vary among species and include single, diffuse or multiple independent domestications. Cultivated plants present a panel of traits, the "domestication syndrome" that distinguish them from their wild relatives. It encompasses yield-, food usage-, and cultivation-related traits. Most genes underlying those traits are "masterminds" affecting the regulation of gene networks. Phenotypic convergence of domestication traits across species or within species between independently domesticated forms rarely coincides with convergence at the gene level. We review here current data/models that propose a protracted transition model for domestication and investigate the impact of mating system, life cycle and gene flow on the pace of domestication. Finally, we discuss the cost of domestication, pointing to the importance of characterizing adaptive functional variation in wild resources.

  15. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special treatment... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  16. Domestic Violence. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse has long been recognized as a precipitating factor in many domestic violence incidents. The main type of substance abuse is alcohol usage. Forty-six percent of the offenders reported being dependent on or abusing alcohol, while another 28% were found to be dependent on opiates, cocaine, marijuana, or inhalants. Nearly two-fifths of…

  17. Girl domestic workers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mzungu, M

    1999-03-01

    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  18. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  19. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  20. Genetic analysis of safflower domestication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an oilseed crop in the Compositae (a.k.a. Asteraceae) that is valued for its oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present an analysis of the genetic architecture of safflower domestication and compare our findings to those from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an independently domesticated oilseed crop within the same family. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying 24 domestication-related traits in progeny from a cross between safflower and its wild progenitor, Carthamus palaestinus Eig. Also, we compared QTL positions in safflower against those that have been previously identified in cultivated x wild sunflower crosses to identify instances of colocalization. Results We mapped 61 QTL, the vast majority of which (59) exhibited minor or moderate phenotypic effects. The two large-effect QTL corresponded to one each for flower color and leaf spininess. A total of 14 safflower QTL colocalized with previously reported sunflower QTL for the same traits. Of these, QTL for three traits (days to flower, achene length, and number of selfed seed) had cultivar alleles that conferred effects in the same direction in both species. Conclusions As has been observed in sunflower, and unlike many other crops, our results suggest that the genetics of safflower domestication is quite complex. Moreover, our comparative mapping results indicate that safflower and sunflower exhibit numerous instances of QTL colocalization, suggesting that parallel trait transitions during domestication may have been driven, at least in part, by parallel genotypic evolution at some of the same underlying genes. PMID:24502326

  1. A pipeline strategy for grain crop domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...

  2. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  3. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by...

  4. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  5. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  6. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  7. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515... § 515.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or...

  8. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535... § 535.320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  9. 31 CFR 500.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 500.320 Section 500... § 500.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of any designated foreign country: Any bank or...

  10. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  11. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  12. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  13. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  14. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  15. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  16. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  17. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  18. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  19. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3,000 and 10,000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced ...

  20. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  1. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  2. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  3. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  4. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  5. Ferrochromium from Domestic Lateritic Chromites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafziger, R. H.

    1988-09-01

    As part of its effort to devise suitable technology for processing low-grade domestic materials and recycling wastes, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has evaluated the feasibility of smelting a chromite concentrate derived from residues generated by the processing of nickel and cobalt from domestic later-ites. The product sought was a high-carbon ferrochromium suitable for stainless- and alloy-steel production. The concentrate was blended with re-ductants and fluxing constituents and was smelted under submerged arc conditions in a laboratory-scale, single-phase ac electric arc furnace. The results revealed that metallurgical-grade coke provides the best quality product. High-carbon ferrochromium, which met ASTM specifications except for phosphorus and sulfur, was obtained. Agglomeration of the charge materials was not required.

  6. A review of on-site wastewater treatment systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted. PMID:25960745

  7. A Review of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted. PMID:25960745

  8. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system

  9. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  10. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. PMID:26195770

  11. Artificial cloning of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. PMID:26195770

  12. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  13. Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2012-02-01

    We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative. PMID:22270221

  14. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    PubMed

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  15. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  16. Renal biomarkers in domestic species.

    PubMed

    Hokamp, Jessica A; Nabity, Mary B

    2016-03-01

    Current conventional tests of kidney damage and function in blood (serum creatinine and urea nitrogen) and urine (urine protein creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity) are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of kidney disease. However, they all have important limitations, and additional markers of glomerular filtration rate and glomerular and tubular damage are desirable, particularly for earlier detection of renal disease when therapy is most effective. Additionally, urinary markers of kidney damage and function may help localize damage to the affected portion of the kidney. In general, the presence of high- and intermediate-molecular weight proteins in the urine are indicative of glomerular damage, while low-molecular weight proteins and enzymes in the urine suggest tubular damage due to decreased reabsorption of proteins, direct tubular damage, or both. This review aims to discuss many of these new blood and urinary biomarkers in domestic veterinary species, focusing primarily on dogs and cats, how they may be used for diagnosis of renal disease, and their limitations. Additionally, a brief discussion of serum creatinine is presented, highlighting its limitations and important considerations for its improved interpretation in domestic species based on past literature and recent studies. PMID:26918420

  17. Domestic Abuse in Behshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatian, Ali Akbar; Hosseini, Seyyed Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The United Nations in a resolution defined abuse as any violent act that is primarily or exclusively committed against females and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the contributing factors of husband’s violence against females residing in the city of Behshahr, Iran. Materials and Methods: We distributed a specifically designed questionnaire among 380 married females aged between 15 and 65 years. According to the Morgan table, the subjects were randomly selected from a list of 301000 females. Demographic data and data on spouse abuse were then analyzed using the SPSS software, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. According to Cronbach’s alpha, the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. Results: All of the females reported at least one form of violence within the past year, with R square 0.20, indicating that the independent variable can explain 20% of the violence against females. years of marriage, female’s education, male’s addiction and the number of children each had their share in the explanation of violence against females. Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of domestic violence in the sample population. Violence existed among all ages, social categories and male occupational groups, and also involved both employed and unemployed females. The situation regarding domestic abuse is similar worldwide. PMID:26834799

  18. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  19. Wheat domestication: lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Charmet, Gilles

    2011-03-01

    Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated more than 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed the reconstruction of plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars. For diploid einkorn and tetraploid durum wheat, a single domestication event has likely occurred in the Karacadag Mountains, Turkey. Following a cross between tetraploid durum and diploid T. tauschii, the resultant hexaploid bread wheat was domesticated and disseminated around the Caucasian region. These polyploidisation events facilitated wheat domestication and created genetic bottlenecks, which excluded potentially adaptive alleles. With the urgent need to accelerate genetic progress to confront the challenges of climate change and sustainable agriculture, wild ancestors and old landraces represent a reservoir of underexploited genetic diversity that may be utilized through modern breeding methods. Understanding domestication processes may thus help identifying new strategies.

  20. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication.

    PubMed

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2013-09-01

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3000 and 10000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced genetic diversity relative to the wild ancestor across the genome, and severely reduced diversity for genes targeted by domestication. The question that remains is whether reduction in genetic diversity has affected crop production today. A case study in maize ( Zea mays ) demonstrates the application of understanding relationships between genetic diversity and phenotypic diversity in the wild ancestor and the domesticate. As an outcrossing species, maize has tremendous genetic variation. The complementary combination of genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) approaches, large HapMap data sets, and germplasm resources is leading to important discoveries of the relationship between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation and the impact of domestication on trait variation.

  1. Toward understanding dog evolutionary and domestication history.

    PubMed

    Galibert, Francis; Quignon, Pascale; Hitte, Christophe; André, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    Dog domestication was probably started very early during the Upper paleolithic period (~35,000 BP), thus well before any other animal or plant domestication. This early process, probably unconscious, is called proto-domestication to distinguish it from the real domestication process that has been dated around 14,000 BC. Genomic DNA analyses have shown recently that domestication started in the Middle East and rapidly expanded into all human populations. Nowadays, the dog population is fragmented in several hundreds of breeds well characterized by their phenotypes that offer a unique spectrum of polymorphism. More recent studies detect genetic signatures that will be useful to highlight breed history as well as the impact of domestication at the DNA level.

  2. Chicken domestication: from archeology to genomics.

    PubMed

    Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Rognon, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Current knowledge on chicken domestication is reviewed on the basis of archaeological, historical and molecular data. Several domestication centres have been identified in South and South-East Asia. Gallus gallus is the major ancestor species, but Gallus sonneratii has also contributed to the genetic make-up of the domestic chicken. Genetic diversity is now distributed among traditional populations, standardized breeds and highly selected lines. Knowing the genome sequence has accelerated the identification of causal mutations determining major morphological differences between wild Gallus and domestic breeds. Comparative genome resequencing between Gallus and domestic chickens has identified 21 selective sweeps, one involving a non-synonymous mutation in the TSHR gene, which functional consequences remain to be explored. The resequencing approach could also identify candidate genes responsible of quantitative traits loci (QTL) effects in selected lines. Genomics is opening new ways to understand major switches that took place during domestication and subsequent selection.

  3. Germline modification of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tang, L.; González, R.; Dobrinski, I.

    2016-01-01

    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  4. The nature of selection during plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Purugganan, Michael D; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2009-02-12

    Plant domestication is an outstanding example of plant-animal co-evolution and is a far richer model for studying evolution than is generally appreciated. There have been numerous studies to identify genes associated with domestication, and archaeological work has provided a clear understanding of the dynamics of human cultivation practices during the Neolithic period. Together, these have provided a better understanding of the selective pressures that accompany crop domestication, and they demonstrate that a synthesis from the twin vantage points of genetics and archaeology can expand our understanding of the nature of evolutionary selection that accompanies domestication.

  5. Promoting domestic violence education for nurses.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M; Weber, J R

    1998-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the major health problems facing families today. Women in rural areas often are an overlooked population at high risk for this problem. Domestic violence is a concern for women, who may be patients or healthcare workers. Teaching about domestic violence is a very sensitive issue because it is often difficult for the abused to admit or confront that she is being abused. The authors developed an effective interactive workshop to teach nurses how to assess and intervene with women who have experienced domestic violence.

  6. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence.

  7. Microbial prevalence in domestic humidifiers.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Solomon, W R; Boise, J R

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of viable thermophilic bacteria and actinomycetes and mesophilic fungi was examined in 145 samples from 110 domestic humidifiers. A total of 72 and 43% of furnace and console humidifier samples, respectively, contained viable thermophilic bacteria, whereas 60 and 72% of these samples produced mesophilic fungal growth. Thermophilic actinomycetes were recovered from seven humidifier samples. Efforts to detect thermophilic actinomycete antigens in 15 humidifier fluid samples were not successful. Antifoulants added to humidifier fluid reservoirs had no apparent effect on microbial frequency. Airborne microbial recoveries did not reflect patterns of humidifier contamination with respect to either kinds or numbers of microorganisms in 20 homes in which volumetric air samples were obtained during humidifier operation. PMID:7377779

  8. Reduced domestic satellite orbit spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, G. L.

    The demand for services provided by communications satellites in geostationary orbit is growing, and problems arise with respect to the required increase in capacity. One approach for providing such an increase involves the employment of more satellites operating at smaller orbital spacings. The present investigation is concerned with the results of technical studies conducted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to determine the feasibility of reducing orbital spacings between U.S. 'domestic fixed satellites' (domsats). Attention is given to details regarding the usable orbital arc, an adjacent satellite interference model, antenna sidelobe patterns, a single entry analysis, a 4/6 GHz aggregate analysis, results for the 4/6 GHz bands, results for the 12/14 GHz bands, data services, voice services, video reception, and high power spot beams.

  9. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  10. Genetic divergence in domesticated and non-domesticated gene regions of barley chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Songxian; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic divergence in the chromosomal regions with domesticated and non-domesticated genes. The objective of our study is to examine the effect of natural selection on shaping genetic diversity of chromosome region with domesticated and non-domesticated genes in barley using 110 SSR markers. Comparison of the genetic diversity loss between wild and cultivated barley for each chromosome showed that chromosome 5H had the highest divergence of 35.29%, followed by 3H, 7H, 4H, 2H, 6H. Diversity ratio was calculated as (diversity of wild type - diversity of cultivated type)/diversity of wild type×100%. It was found that diversity ratios of the domesticated regions on 5H, 1H and 7H were higher than those of non-domesticated regions. Diversity ratio of the domesticated region on 2H and 4H is similar to that of non-domesticated region. However, diversity ratio of the domesticated region on 3H is lower than that of non-domesticated region. Averaged diversity among six chromosomes in domesticated region was 33.73% difference between wild and cultivated barley, and was 27.56% difference in the non-domesticated region. The outcome of this study advances our understanding of the evolution of crop chromosomes. PMID:25812037

  11. Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the first of two volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Background; (2) Summary of Wastewater Management Regulations; (3) Current and Historic Conditions; (4) Projections and Development of Design Criteria; (5) Wastewater Treatment Plant Site Selection; (6) Applicable Technologies; (7) Development, Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives; (8) Environmental Impact; (9) Conceptual Design of Selected Alternative; (10) Project Financing; (11) Project Implementation.

  12. Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R R; Haberl, R; Laber, J; Manandhar, R; Mader, J

    2001-01-01

    Surface water pollution is one of the serious environmental problems in urban centers in Nepal due to the discharge of untreated wastewater into the river-system, turning them into open sewers. Wastewater treatment plants are almost non-existent in the country except for a few in the Kathmandu Valley and even these are not functioning well. Successful implementation of a few constructed wetland systems within the past three years has attracted attention to this promising technology. A two-staged subsurface flow constructed wetland for hospital wastewater treatment and constructed wetlands for treatment of greywater and septage is now becoming a demonstration site of constructed wetland systems in Nepal. Beside these systems, five constructed wetlands have already been designed and some are under construction for the treatment of leachate and septage in Pokhara municipality, wastewater in Kathmandu University, two hospitals and a school. This paper discusses the present condition and treatment performance of constructed wetlands that are now in operation. Furthermore, the concept of the treatment wetlands under construction is also described here. With the present experience, several recommendations are pointed out for the promotion of this technology in the developing countries.

  13. International and Domestic Evaluation: Comparisons and Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Ross F.

    1985-01-01

    The author compares his experiences evaluating Peace Corps volunteers in Kenya and evaluating a health promotion program for adolescents in Orange County, California. Doing international evaluations can improve domestic evaluations by heightening awareness of often unrecognized cultural variations in the domestic setting. (BS)

  14. 48 CFR 1529.401 - Domestic contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Domestic contracts. 1529.401 Section 1529.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 1529.401 Domestic contracts....

  15. 7 CFR 1260.310 - Domestic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic assessments. 1260.310 Section 1260.310... Rules and Regulations § 1260.310 Domestic assessments. (a) A $1.00 per head assessment on cattle sold... portion of the assessments which are equivalent to the producer's proportionate share of the proceeds....

  16. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  17. Child protective services and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Findlater, J E; Kelly, S

    1999-01-01

    Studies estimate that domestic violence is present in at least one-third of the families involved in child protective services (CPS). Yet, until recently, CPS has not directly addressed domestic violence in its handling of child abuse and neglect cases. By the same token, domestic violence programs have historically emphasized services for battered women, with limited understanding of the child safety goals of CPS. Despite these historical differences, collaborative efforts between CPS and domestic violence service programs are emerging based on a common goal of safety from violence for all family members. Innovative strategies include the use of domestic violence specialists in a variety of child protection settings for case consultation and for support to the battered women, direct referrals of battered women from domestic violence programs to family preservation services, and cross-training of CPS workers and domestic violence service providers. A survey of state CPS administrators and domestic violence coalition directors conducted for this article revealed that although there is mutual interest in greater collaboration, such efforts remain limited. New forums, such as CPS citizen review panels and community-based CPS partnerships, hold promise for further collaboration. Critical to successful strategies are supportive agency leadership, greater trust and understanding across systems, a recognition of common goals, and a willingness to change policies and practice.

  18. Empowering Women with Domestic Violence Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw

    2012-01-01

    It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…

  19. Culture and Domestic Violence: Transforming Knowledge Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2005-01-01

    Cultural competence continues to receive limited attention in domestic violence service provision from research to the evaluation of programs. Yet with changing demographics reflecting larger numbers of people of color and increasing needs for more effective responses, it is critical that we change the way we think about domestic violence. Using a…

  20. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  1. Service Learning in Domestic and International Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines pre-service teacher outcomes associated with service learning in domestic and international settings. One group of upper-division undergraduate level pre service teachers participated in supervised experiences in domestic settings. A second group of upper-division undergraduate level pre-service teachers participated in…

  2. Domestic Violence during Pregnancy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R. N.; Gupta, Vinay; Kundu, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence can result in many negative health consequences for women's health and well-being. Studies on domestic violence illustrate that abused women in various settings had increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and…

  3. Responding to Domestic Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalans, Loretta J.; Lurigio, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    Gives an overview of issues related to domestic violence against women as a social problem: changing responses from the legal system and the community over the course of history, possible causes of domestic violence against women, current perspectives and trends, prevalence, seriousness, and our response as a society. (LKS)

  4. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  5. The Effect of Divorce on Domestic Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    Social scientists remain unsure as to whether divorce acts to alleviate domestic violence or whether ex-spouses become the targets of the displaced violence. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and the Census, this study investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the domestic crime rate. The study…

  6. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  7. Domestic wells have high probability of pumping septic tank leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2012-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems are common in rural and semi-rural areas around the world; in the US, about 25-30% of households are served by a septic (onsite) wastewater treatment system, and many property owners also operate their own domestic well nearby. Site-specific conditions and local groundwater flow are often ignored when installing septic systems and wells. In areas with small lots (thus high spatial septic system densities), shallow domestic wells are prone to contamination by septic system leachate. Mass balance approaches have been used to determine a maximum septic system density that would prevent contamination of groundwater resources. In this study, a source area model based on detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling is applied for a stochastic analysis of domestic well contamination by septic leachate. Specifically, we determine the probability that a source area overlaps with a septic system drainfield as a function of aquifer properties, septic system density and drainfield size. We show that high spatial septic system density poses a high probability of pumping septic system leachate. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer has a strong influence on the intersection probability. We find that mass balance calculations applied on a regional scale underestimate the contamination risk of individual drinking water wells by septic systems. This is particularly relevant for contaminants released at high concentrations, for substances that experience limited attenuation, and those that are harmful even at low concentrations (e.g., pathogens).

  8. Behavior genetics and the domestication of animals.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Per

    2014-02-01

    Across species, a similar suite of traits tends to develop in response to domestication, including modifications in behavior. Reduced fear and increased stress tolerance were central in early domestication, and many domestication-related behaviors may have developed as traits correlated to reduced fear. Genetic mechanisms involved in domestication of behavior can be investigated by using top-down or bottom-up approaches, either starting from the behavior variation and searching for underlying genes or finding selected loci and then attempting to identify the associated phenotypes. Combinations of these approaches have proven powerful, and examples of results from such studies are presented and discussed. This includes loci associated with tameness in foxes and dogs, as well as loci correlated with reduced aggression and increased sociality in chickens. Finally, some examples are provided on epigenetic mechanisms in behavior, and it is suggested that selection of favorable epigenetic variants may have been an important mechanism in domestication.

  9. A population genetics view of animal domestication.

    PubMed

    Larson, Greger; Burger, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The fundamental shift associated with the domestication of plants and animals allowed for a dramatic increase in human population sizes and the emergence of modern society. Despite its importance and the decades of research devoted to studying it, questions regarding the origins and processes of domestication remain. Here, we review recent theoretical advances and present a perspective that underscores the crucial role that population admixture has played in influencing the genomes of domestic animals over the past 10000 years. We then discuss novel approaches to generating and analysing genetic data, emphasising the importance of an explicit hypothesis-testing approach for the inference of the origins and subsequent evolution and demography of domestic animals. By applying next-generation sequencing technology alongside appropriate biostatistical methodologies, a substantially deeper understanding of domestication is on the horizon.

  10. Getting domestication straight: ramosa1 in maize.

    PubMed

    Dempewolf, Hannes

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the identities and characteristics of genes that govern the dramatic phenotypic differences between cultivated plants and their wild ancestors has greatly enhanced our understanding of the domestication process. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Sigmon & Vollbrecht report the discovery of a new maize domestication gene, ramosa1, which encodes a putative transcription factor in the ramosa developmental pathway. Ramosa1 appears to be instrumental in determining the straightness of kernel rows on the maize cob. The key domestication alleles at ramosa1 are prevalent in landraces of maize. These results reinforce findings from previous studies of crop evolution by highlighting the importance of standing genetic variation and changes in transcriptional regulators in domestication. The evolutionary genetics of domestication also provides a framework for predicting the evolutionary response of organisms to strong human-induced selection pressures over limited time intervals.

  11. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  12. Behavior genetics and the domestication of animals.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Per

    2014-02-01

    Across species, a similar suite of traits tends to develop in response to domestication, including modifications in behavior. Reduced fear and increased stress tolerance were central in early domestication, and many domestication-related behaviors may have developed as traits correlated to reduced fear. Genetic mechanisms involved in domestication of behavior can be investigated by using top-down or bottom-up approaches, either starting from the behavior variation and searching for underlying genes or finding selected loci and then attempting to identify the associated phenotypes. Combinations of these approaches have proven powerful, and examples of results from such studies are presented and discussed. This includes loci associated with tameness in foxes and dogs, as well as loci correlated with reduced aggression and increased sociality in chickens. Finally, some examples are provided on epigenetic mechanisms in behavior, and it is suggested that selection of favorable epigenetic variants may have been an important mechanism in domestication. PMID:25384136

  13. Dialogic reverberations: police, domestic abuse, and the discontinuance of cases.

    PubMed

    Lea, Susan J; Lynn, Nick

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging Decision." Access to such sensitive material is usually denied to researchers; therefore, this study offers unusual insights into the treatment of victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence by the police. Discourse analysis revealed three dominant speech genres: impartiality, credibility, and the "real" victim. These genres separately and in interaction served to construct domestic abuse cases in ways that did not support the victim's account. The "dialogic reverberations" of these findings are discussed and the implications of the work for research and practice are considered.

  14. Telepsychiatry program for rural victims of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher R; Miller, Greg; Hartshorn, Jeanette C; Speck, Nancy C; Walker, Glenda

    2005-10-01

    Domestic violence is a significant public health problem and is correlated with serious mental and physical disorders. Victims' fear and isolation seriously limit access to psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Telemedicine provides a means to overcome these obstacles. This article describes a telemedicine program that provides psychiatric screening, evaluation, treatment, and referral for ongoing care to clients of a rural women's crisis center. Psychiatric evaluation and treatment were provided to a rural women's shelter program using telepsychiatry. The shelter program had difficulty accessing traditional mental health service. All new clients entering the program were screened for mental health problems. Those requiring further evaluation received a physical examination with medical history and initial psychological interview on site, followed by psychiatric evaluation by videoconference. Appropriate treatment was initiated, and referral for ongoing psychiatric care through the local community mental health clinic was arranged. Of the 38 women referred for mental health services by clinic staff, 35 completed a psychiatric evaluation using telepsychiatry and 31 entered treatment. The most commonly identified disorders were anxiety and major affective disorders, followed by substance use disorders. Telepsychiatry can provide rapid crisis intervention and effective mental health services to victims of domestic violence in a rural setting.

  15. Sexing sperm of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cervantes, Román; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The ability to preselect or predetermine the sex of offspring prior to conception is a highly desired technological tool for assisted female breeding programs specifically for milk production, and in males, for meat production and increasing livestock numbers. The current technology is based on the well-known differences in X- and Y-sperm in the amount of DNA. The technology uses modified flow cytometric instrumentation for sorting X- and Y-bearing sperm. The method can be validated on the basis of live births, laboratory reanalysis of sorted sperm for DNA content, and embryo biopsy for sex determination. Currently, the sex of animals has been predetermined with 90 % accuracy by sexing spermatozoa. In the bovine breeding industry, flow cytometric sperm sexing has not fulfilled its original promise. Sexed sperm doses are too expensive for widespread application while the fertility of sexed sperm doses is lower than unsexed ones. Essentially all bovine sexed semen is frozen and then applied through artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization. There is still a need in the animal breeding industry to develop a technique for sperm sexing that provides sufficient spermatozoa for AI doses, does not compromise sperm fertility, and is widely applicable to a range of species. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art in sex preselection in domestic animals and some wildlife species using flow cytometric sperm-sorting of X from Y sperm based on DNA differences.

  16. Sexing sperm of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cervantes, Román; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The ability to preselect or predetermine the sex of offspring prior to conception is a highly desired technological tool for assisted female breeding programs specifically for milk production, and in males, for meat production and increasing livestock numbers. The current technology is based on the well-known differences in X- and Y-sperm in the amount of DNA. The technology uses modified flow cytometric instrumentation for sorting X- and Y-bearing sperm. The method can be validated on the basis of live births, laboratory reanalysis of sorted sperm for DNA content, and embryo biopsy for sex determination. Currently, the sex of animals has been predetermined with 90 % accuracy by sexing spermatozoa. In the bovine breeding industry, flow cytometric sperm sexing has not fulfilled its original promise. Sexed sperm doses are too expensive for widespread application while the fertility of sexed sperm doses is lower than unsexed ones. Essentially all bovine sexed semen is frozen and then applied through artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization. There is still a need in the animal breeding industry to develop a technique for sperm sexing that provides sufficient spermatozoa for AI doses, does not compromise sperm fertility, and is widely applicable to a range of species. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art in sex preselection in domestic animals and some wildlife species using flow cytometric sperm-sorting of X from Y sperm based on DNA differences. PMID:22829354

  17. Phylogeography and domestication of Chinese swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Li, Ran; Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication.

  18. The Genetic Architecture of Domestication in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has been essential to the progress of human civilization, and the process itself has fascinated biologists for hundreds of years. Domestication has led to a series of remarkable changes in a variety of plants and animals, in what is termed the “domestication phenotype.” In domesticated animals, this general phenotype typically consists of similar changes in tameness, behavior, size/morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size. This domestication phenotype is seen in a range of different animals. However, the genetic basis of these associated changes is still puzzling. The genes for these different traits tend to be grouped together in clusters in the genome, though it is still not clear whether these clusters represent pleiotropic effects, or are in fact linked clusters. This review focuses on what is currently known about the genetic architecture of domesticated animal species, if genes of large effect (often referred to as major genes) are prevalent in driving the domestication phenotype, and whether pleiotropy can explain the loci underpinning these diverse traits being colocated. PMID:26512200

  19. The Genetic Architecture of Domestication in Animals.

    PubMed

    Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has been essential to the progress of human civilization, and the process itself has fascinated biologists for hundreds of years. Domestication has led to a series of remarkable changes in a variety of plants and animals, in what is termed the "domestication phenotype." In domesticated animals, this general phenotype typically consists of similar changes in tameness, behavior, size/morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size. This domestication phenotype is seen in a range of different animals. However, the genetic basis of these associated changes is still puzzling. The genes for these different traits tend to be grouped together in clusters in the genome, though it is still not clear whether these clusters represent pleiotropic effects, or are in fact linked clusters. This review focuses on what is currently known about the genetic architecture of domesticated animal species, if genes of large effect (often referred to as major genes) are prevalent in driving the domestication phenotype, and whether pleiotropy can explain the loci underpinning these diverse traits being colocated.

  20. Counting Child Domestic Servants in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Levison, Deborah; Langer, Anna

    2010-03-01

    This paper summarizes trends in the use of child domestic servants in six Latin American countries using IPUMS-International census samples for 1960 to 2000. Child domestics are among the most vulnerable of child workers, and the most invisible. They may be treated kindly and allowed to attend school, or they may be secluded in their employers' home, overworked, verbally abused, beaten, and unable to leave or report their difficulties to kin. Estimates and imputations are based on labor force and relationship-to-head variables. We find that domestic service makes up a substantial fraction of girls' employment in some countries. We also analyze trends in live-in versus live-out status and school enrollment of child domestic servants. While all child workers are disadvantaged in enrollment relative to non-workers, domestics are sometimes better off than non-domestic workers. In some samples, live-ins are more likely to go to school than live-out child domestics. In others, they are substantially worse off.

  1. Counting Child Domestic Servants in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Levison, Deborah; Langer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes trends in the use of child domestic servants in six Latin American countries using IPUMS-International census samples for 1960 to 2000. Child domestics are among the most vulnerable of child workers, and the most invisible. They may be treated kindly and allowed to attend school, or they may be secluded in their employers’ home, overworked, verbally abused, beaten, and unable to leave or report their difficulties to kin. Estimates and imputations are based on labor force and relationship-to-head variables. We find that domestic service makes up a substantial fraction of girls’ employment in some countries. We also analyze trends in live-in versus live-out status and school enrollment of child domestic servants. While all child workers are disadvantaged in enrollment relative to non-workers, domestics are sometimes better off than non-domestic workers. In some samples, live-ins are more likely to go to school than live-out child domestics. In others, they are substantially worse off. PMID:22844164

  2. Phylogeography and Domestication of Chinese Swamp Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication. PMID:23437167

  3. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  4. Nitrogen metabolism of four raw meat diets in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Katherine R; Beloshapka, Alison N; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S

    2011-10-01

    Little nutritional information has been collected from domestic cats fed raw meat diets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate differences in N metabolism of domestic cats fed raw beef-based diet (66 % crude protein (CP) and 20 % fat), bison-based diet (49 % CP and 39 % fat), elk-based diet (79 % CP and 6 % fat) and horse-based diet (60 % CP and 26 % fat). A total of eight intact adult female cats were fed to maintain body weight in a cross-over design. Daily food intake, faecal and urinary outputs, and N metabolism were measured. Dietary N was highly digestible (96.8 (SEM 0.7)) for all treatments. Urinary N accounted for a majority of total N excretion, and differences in total N excretion reflect differences in urinary N. Differences in N intake and N absorption were due to differences in CP levels among diets. N retention was similar to values reported in the literature for domestic cats fed purified and traditional extruded diets. Despite differences in protein concentrations and N intake, all raw meats tested maintained N metabolism.

  5. Molecular mechanisms involved in convergent crop domestication.

    PubMed

    Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  6. Plant domestication through an ecological lens.

    PubMed

    Milla, Rubén; Osborne, Colin P; Turcotte, Martin M; Violle, Cyrille

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of domestication comes largely from archeology and genetics. Here, we advocate using current ecological theory and methodologies to provide novel insights into the causes and limitations of evolution under cultivation, as well as into the wider ecological impacts of domestication. We discuss the importance of natural selection under cultivation, that is, the forces promoting differences in Darwinian fitness between plants in crop populations and of constraints, that is, limitations of diverse nature that, given values for trait X, shorten the range of variation of trait Y, during the domestication process. Throughout this opinion paper, we highlight how ecology can yield insight into the effects of domestication on plant traits, on crop feedback over ecological processes, and on how species interactions develop in croplands.

  7. Congenital and Genetic Disease in Domestic Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, John J.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)

  8. Women in Domestic Work: Yesterday and Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1980-01-01

    Provides a historical overview of private household workers and builds a demographic profile of today's domestic workers. Discusses changes in women's employment which may upgrade the status of household workers. (SK)

  9. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... withdrawal Depression or anxiety Loss of interest in school, friends or other things they enjoyed in the past Children and adolescents exposed to domestic violence should be evaluated by a trained mental health ...

  10. Community-based domestic violence services.

    PubMed

    Saathoff, A J; Stoffel, E A

    1999-01-01

    Community-based domestic violence services have grown significantly since their emergence in the 1970s. Now more than 2,000 in number, domestic violence organizations have expanded their range of programs. In addition to crisis-oriented services, such as telephone hot lines and temporary shelter, many of these agencies provide legal, health, mental health, or vocational services or referrals, and assistance in finding housing, relocating, and planning for safety. Most recently, in response to increasing knowledge about the deleterious effects of exposure to domestic violence on children, community-based service providers have developed programs addressing children's mental health, health, educational, and safety needs. This article describes and analyzes trends in service delivery by these community-based organizations to children affected by domestic violence. It concludes that, although there has been significant growth in services, substantial segments of the target population still are not reached, and most organizations do not yet have a sufficient range of services to meet children's diverse needs. Challenges posed by inadequate funding, needs for specialized staffing, and a dearth of data on the efficacy of current intervention programs hamper domestic violence service providers' ability to meet children's needs. However, this article highlights promising new directions in service delivery. Community-based domestic violence organizations increasingly are using innovative strategies to address children's service needs. These agencies are expanding community outreach efforts and attempts to educate the public and professionals about domestic violence and children. In addition, these organizations are building important collaborative relationships with other agencies concerned with children's welfare, such as child protective services, law enforcement, schools, and health care facilities. These and related developments suggest cautious optimism that future

  11. Social preferences of domestic hens for domestic vs. red junglefowl males and females.

    PubMed

    Borowicz, V A; Graves, H B

    1986-02-01

    The striking dimorphism of male and female junglefowl may have evolved in large part due to female choice of mates. However, domestic fowl hens consistently chose domestic, not junglefowl, males as well as females in preference tests. Either genetic predisposition to favor junglefowl morphological features over those of the domestic types utilized in these tests was overridden by experience or such genetic predisposition does not exist in the breed we tested. PMID:24897347

  12. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the

  13. Measuring domestic violence in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women

    PubMed Central

    Patrikar, Seema; Verma, AK; Bhatti, VK; Shatabdi, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in all socioeconomic classes. Violence and the fear of violence are emerging as important risk factor contributing to the vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for women. The objective of the present cross sectional study is to compare the experiences of domestic violence between HIV-positive and HIV-negative married women seeking treatment in a tertiary care hospital. Methods The study is conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Pune on a randomly selected 150 married women (75 HIV-positive and 75 HIV-negative). Informed consent was obtained from all the women and also a trained counsellor was present during the process of data collection. The data was collected by interview method by taking precautions as laid down in the World Health Organization's ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence and using modified conflict tactics scale (CTS). The definition of violence followed is as per the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1993. Results The percentage of women reporting domestic violence is 44.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.84–52.68). The proportion of physical, emotional and sexual violence reported is 38% (95% CI = 30.49–45.96), 24% (95% CI = 17.67–31.31), and 14.7% (95% CI = 9.66–21.02), respectively. The odds of reporting violence of all forms is significantly higher among HIV-positive women than among HIV-negative women (P<0.05). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression is carried out to examine the possible predictors of domestic violence. Conclusion The findings suggest high proportion of HIV-positive women report violence then HIV-negative women which must be addressed through multilevel prevention approaches. PMID:24669053

  14. Quantifying Urban Water Subsidies with Hydrological Tracers of Domestic Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, D. J.; Sikora, M. T.; Wozniak, E.; Fisher, K. R.; Carr, J.; Elliott, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    Connections between urban hydrological systems and human water infrastructure are well established. Interactions between these systems occur at a wide range of scales, from large inter-basin transfers to individual leaking pipes. However, much of the interest in these connections arises from practical considerations, for example, substantially altered in-stream flow or the presence/absence of sewage in surface water systems. Less recognized is that in smaller urban catchments, daily water flux through human water distribution systems is often much larger than low flow surface water flux from the catchment. As infrastructure ages and cross-connections grow, transfers from the substantial human fluxes to the catchment will increasingly subsidize urban water budgets. Tools for quantifying the contribution of this subsidy to urban hydrological systems can clarify both practical questions for urban managers and our understanding of flow generation in catchments. Stream water chemistry from a multi-year sampling campaign in Nine Mile Run (Pittsburgh, PA) is used to examine potential hydrological tracers of human domestic water. In particular, we examine the use of fluoride added in precise quantities as a dental health supplement as a tracer of human domestic water (e.g., drinking and waste water). While fluoride is not necessarily a conservative tracer, equilibrium reactions governing fluoride solubility generally require substantially higher cationic concentrations than those observed in surface water chemistry. Further, during periods where human subsidies dominate (e.g., water line breaks or hydrant flushes discharging to the stream) fluoride concentrations generally approach the concentration added to domestic water. We use multiple modeling approaches to demonstrate the appropriateness of fluoride as a tracer, infer contributions of human domestic water to the hydrologic budget, and explore fluoride dynamics in the Nine Mile Run basin. A fluoride tracer is

  15. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Charles R.; Denevan, William M.; Heckenberger, Michael J.; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G.; Teixeira, Wenceslau G.; Woods, William I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. PMID:26202998

  16. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    PubMed

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest.

  17. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    PubMed

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. PMID:26202998

  18. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  19. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration.

  20. 19 CFR 175.3 - Domestic interested party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic interested party. 175.3 Section 175.3... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PETITIONS BY DOMESTIC INTERESTED PARTIES Request for Classification, Appraised Value and Rate of Duty § 175.3 Domestic interested party. “Domestic interested party”, when used in...

  1. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife.

  2. The abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge under autotrophic domestication.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao; Sun, Shifang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jun; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a key role in nitrogen-removal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as they can transform ammonia into nitrite. AOB can be enriched in activated sludge through autotrophic domestication although they are difficult to be isolated. In this study, autotrophic domestication was carried out in a lab-scale sequencing-batch-reactor (SBR) system with two activated sludge samples. The ammonia removal capacity of the sludge samples increased during the domestication, and pH exhibited a negative correlation with the ammonia removal amount, which indicated that it was one important factor of microbial ammonia oxidation. The count of AOB, measured by the most probable number (MPN) method, increased significantly during autotrophic domestication as ammonia oxidation efficiency was enhanced. We investigated the changes in the community structure of AOB before and after domestication by amoA clone library and T-RFLP profile. It showed that AOB had been successfully enriched and the community structure significantly shifted during the domestication. Two groups of AOB were found in sludge samples: Nitrosomonas-like group remained predominant all the time and Nitrosospira-like group changed obviously. Simultaneously, the total heterotrophic bacteria were investigated by MPN and Biolog assay. The metabolic diversity of heterotrophs had changed minutely, although the count of them decreased significantly and lost superiority of microbial communities in the sludge.

  3. Pseudopheochromocytoma Associated with Domestic Assault

    PubMed Central

    Le, H. M.; Carbutti, G.; Ilisei, D.; Bouccin, E.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudopheochromocytoma has a clinical presentation that is similar to pheochromocytoma. It manifests itself with paroxysmal hypertension crises, associated with various symptoms such as headaches, chest pain, nausea, palpitations, and dizziness. Patients are usually asymptomatic in between the crises. Unlike pheochromocytoma, there is no catecholamines overproduction in this pathology: hypertensive peaks are caused by a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often triggered by a psychological trauma in the past. Treatment of pseudopheochromocytoma can be challenging due to normal blood pressure values in between the hypertensive peaks; it includes alpha- and beta-blockers for moderate crises and prevention and must be combined with psychopharmacologic agents such as anxiolytics or antidepressant drugs. Psychotherapy and dietetic treatment are also crucial in pseudopheochromocytoma management. PMID:27738531

  4. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  5. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; Van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-01-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation. PMID:25797885

  6. From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Carlos A.; Macdonald, David W.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial selection is the selection of advantageous natural variation for human ends and is the mechanism by which most domestic species evolved. Most domesticates have their origin in one of a few historic centers of domestication as farm animals. Two notable exceptions are cats and dogs. Wolf domestication was initiated late in the Mesolithic when humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Those wolves less afraid of humans scavenged nomadic hunting camps and over time developed utility, initially as guards warning of approaching animals or other nomadic bands and soon thereafter as hunters, an attribute tuned by artificial selection. The first domestic cats had limited utility and initiated their domestication among the earliest agricultural Neolithic settlements in the Near East. Wildcat domestication occurred through a self-selective process in which behavioral reproductive isolation evolved as a correlated character of assortative mating coupled to habitat choice for urban environments. Eurasian wildcats initiated domestication and their evolution to companion animals was initially a process of natural, rather than artificial, selection over time driven during their sympatry with forbear wildcats. PMID:19528637

  7. From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-06-16

    Artificial selection is the selection of advantageous natural variation for human ends and is the mechanism by which most domestic species evolved. Most domesticates have their origin in one of a few historic centers of domestication as farm animals. Two notable exceptions are cats and dogs. Wolf domestication was initiated late in the Mesolithic when humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Those wolves less afraid of humans scavenged nomadic hunting camps and over time developed utility, initially as guards warning of approaching animals or other nomadic bands and soon thereafter as hunters, an attribute tuned by artificial selection. The first domestic cats had limited utility and initiated their domestication among the earliest agricultural Neolithic settlements in the Near East. Wildcat domestication occurred through a self-selective process in which behavioral reproductive isolation evolved as a correlated character of assortative mating coupled to habitat choice for urban environments. Eurasian wildcats initiated domestication and their evolution to companion animals was initially a process of natural, rather than artificial, selection over time driven during their sympatry with forbear wildcats.

  8. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  9. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  10. Storytelling and story testing in domestication

    PubMed Central

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G.; Boivin, Nicole; Rudzinski, Anna; Grimaldi, Ilaria M.; Pires, J. Chris; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Dobney, Keith; Gremillion, Kristen J.; Barton, Loukas; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Purugganan, Michael D.; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Bollongino, Ruth; Burger, Joachim; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Balding, David J.; Richerson, Peter J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Larson, Greger; Thomas, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary enterprise that has come to involve the skills of evolutionary biologists and geneticists. Although the application of new information sources and methodologies has dramatically transformed our ability to study and understand domestication, it has also generated increasingly large and complex datasets, the interpretation of which is not straightforward. In particular, challenges of equifinality, evolutionary variance, and emergence of unexpected or counter-intuitive patterns all face researchers attempting to infer past processes directly from patterns in data. We argue that explicit modeling approaches, drawing upon emerging methodologies in statistics and population genetics, provide a powerful means of addressing these limitations. Modeling also offers an approach to analyzing datasets that avoids conclusions steered by implicit biases, and makes possible the formal integration of different data types. Here we outline some of the modeling approaches most relevant to current problems in domestication research, and demonstrate the ways in which simulation modeling is beginning to reshape our understanding of the domestication process. PMID:24753572

  11. Storytelling and story testing in domestication.

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole; Rudzinski, Anna; Grimaldi, Ilaria M; Pires, J Chris; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Dobney, Keith; Gremillion, Kristen J; Barton, Loukas; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Purugganan, Michael D; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Bollongino, Ruth; Burger, Joachim; Fuller, Dorian Q; Bradley, Daniel G; Balding, David J; Richerson, Peter J; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Larson, Greger; Thomas, Mark G

    2014-04-29

    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary enterprise that has come to involve the skills of evolutionary biologists and geneticists. Although the application of new information sources and methodologies has dramatically transformed our ability to study and understand domestication, it has also generated increasingly large and complex datasets, the interpretation of which is not straightforward. In particular, challenges of equifinality, evolutionary variance, and emergence of unexpected or counter-intuitive patterns all face researchers attempting to infer past processes directly from patterns in data. We argue that explicit modeling approaches, drawing upon emerging methodologies in statistics and population genetics, provide a powerful means of addressing these limitations. Modeling also offers an approach to analyzing datasets that avoids conclusions steered by implicit biases, and makes possible the formal integration of different data types. Here we outline some of the modeling approaches most relevant to current problems in domestication research, and demonstrate the ways in which simulation modeling is beginning to reshape our understanding of the domestication process.

  12. Reshaping of the maize transcriptome by domestication.

    PubMed

    Swanson-Wagner, Ruth; Briskine, Roman; Schaefer, Robert; Hufford, Matthew B; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Myers, Chad L; Tiffin, Peter; Springer, Nathan M

    2012-07-17

    Through domestication, humans have substantially altered the morphology of Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (teosinte) into the currently recognizable maize. This system serves as a model for studying adaptation, genome evolution, and the genetics and evolution of complex traits. To examine how domestication has reshaped the transcriptome of maize seedlings, we used expression profiling of 18,242 genes for 38 diverse maize genotypes and 24 teosinte genotypes. We detected evidence for more than 600 genes having significantly different expression levels in maize compared with teosinte. Moreover, more than 1,100 genes showed significantly altered coexpression profiles, reflective of substantial rewiring of the transcriptome since domestication. The genes with altered expression show a significant enrichment for genes previously identified through population genetic analyses as likely targets of selection during maize domestication and improvement; 46 genes previously identified as putative targets of selection also exhibit altered expression levels and coexpression relationships. We also identified 45 genes with altered, primarily higher, expression in inbred relative to outcrossed teosinte. These genes are enriched for functions related to biotic stress and may reflect responses to the effects of inbreeding. This study not only documents alterations in the maize transcriptome following domestication, identifying several genes that may have contributed to the evolution of maize, but highlights the complementary information that can be gained by combining gene expression with population genetic analyses.

  13. Reproductive Isolation during Domestication[W

    PubMed Central

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Hodgins, Kathryn A.; Rummell, Sonja E.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that reproductive isolation should facilitate evolution under domestication. However, a systematic comparison of reproductive barrier strength between crops and their progenitors has not been conducted to test this hypothesis. Here, we present a systematic survey of reproductive barriers between 32 economically important crop species and their progenitors to better understand the role of reproductive isolation during the domestication process. We took a conservative approach, avoiding those types of reproductive isolation that are poorly known for these taxa (e.g., differences in flowering time). We show that the majority of crops surveyed are isolated from their progenitors by one or more reproductive barriers, despite the fact that the most important reproductive barrier in natural systems, geographical isolation, was absent, at least in the initial stages of domestication for most species. Thus, barriers to reproduction between crops and wild relatives are closely associated with domestication and may facilitate it, thereby raising the question whether reproductive isolation could be viewed as a long-overlooked “domestication trait.” Some of the reproductive barriers observed (e.g., polyploidy and uniparental reproduction), however, may have been favored for reasons other than, or in addition to, their effects on gene flow. PMID:22773750

  14. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    PubMed

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages.

  15. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  16. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    PubMed

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. PMID:25819157

  17. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  18. Domestic violence against married women in Edirne.

    PubMed

    Tokuç, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in the last 12 months. 93% of women reported that they have been experiencing different forms of verbal and psychological domestic violence. The important risk factors for physical domestic violence were being Roma woman (OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.44-6.12), living with more than four people in the household (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.21-4.36), being unemployed (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.06-4.37), and got married only with her families' decision (OR = 4.60, 95% CI: 1.42-14.80). Our findings conclude that patriarchal and traditional values, women's lack of financial autonomy, and low socioeconomic status are the risk factors for physical domestic violence.

  19. The dead end of domestic violence: spotlight on children's narratives during forensic investigations following domestic homicide.

    PubMed

    Katz, Carmit

    2014-12-01

    The current study provides an in-depth exploration of the narratives of children who witnessed their father killing their mother. This exploration was conducted using a thematic analysis of the children's forensic interviews based on seven investigative interviews that were conducted with children following the domestic homicide. Investigative interviews were selected for study only for substantiated cases and only if the children disclosed the domestic homicide. All of the investigative interviews were conducted within 24h of the domestic homicide. Thematic analysis revealed the following four key categories: the domestic homicide as the dead end of domestic violence, what I did when daddy killed mommy, that one time that daddy killed mommy, and mommy will feel better and will go back home. The discussion examines the multiple layers of this phenomenon as revealed in the children's narratives and its consequences for professionals within the legal and clinical contexts.

  20. Domestic violence: impact on psychiatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Owens, P L

    1995-10-01

    The 1984 Attorney General's Task Force Report on Domestic Violence attested: Anyone who lives in a violent home experiences an essential loss. The one place on earth where they should feel safe and secure has become a place of danger...the shadow of domestic violence has fallen across their lives and they are forever changed. One report states that the victims of the crime of domestic violence include "not only the people who die from injuries, but the family members who daily endure the psychological, emotional and spiritual abuse and pass on the emotional scars and violent behavior to one generation after another." If we are to stop this cycle of violence, we as physicians must step forward and assume our personal and professional responsibilities. PMID:7474954

  1. Domestication of Mahseer (Tor soro) in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gustiano, R; Kontara, E K; Wahyuningsih, H; Subagja, J; Asih, S; Saputr, A

    2013-01-01

    Mahseer is an economically important fish in the world with a distribution from the Himalayan Mountains up to Southeast Asia. One species of Masheer is Tor soro in the Indonesian Archipelago. For a long time, T. soro has been collected from the wild and now is becoming rare. In addition, the degradation of its habitat is another problem. Hence, it is urgent that this species is saved from extinction. Domestication of T. soro from North Sumatra has been conducted since 1996. This paper reports the results of domestication of T. soro starting from collecting live specimens, genetic and morphometric characterizations, evaluation to breeding, and growing out. In 2010, domestication was successful to produce a second generation of young broodstocks and now the breeding technology is being shared with several provinces where T. soro exist.

  2. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples.

  3. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  4. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field. PMID:24175415

  5. [Nursing discourse on domestic violence in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Joh-Jong

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to perform a critical appraisal of nursing discourses on domestic violence published in journals between 1999 and 2007 in Taiwan. All searched materials were retrieved from official websites using key words "domestic violence" or "marital violence". Ten related articles were obtained in all. The most significant finding was related to autonomic nursing intervention, which can effectively meet the needs of abused women. Such an approach differs from traditional order-based nursing activities in the patriarchal practicum of medical teams and offers a promising way to reform medical team hierarchies.

  6. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  7. Domestic violence among Iraqi refugees in Syria.

    PubMed

    Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children <18 years in the household, no financial challenges upon arrival, and borrowing money in Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented.

  8. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future.

  9. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  10. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  11. Characteristics and biological treatment of leachates from a domestic landfill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waste material from urban areas is a major environmental concern and landfill application is a frequent method for waste disposal. The leachate from landfills can, however, negatively affect the surrounding environment. A bioreactor cascade containing submerged biofilms was used to treat newly forme...

  12. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  13. Personality Profiles of Women and Men Arrested for Domestic Violence: An Analysis of Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Cobb, Norman; Fowler, Carol R.

    2005-01-01

    Women arrested for intimate partner violence raise challenges for those working in domestic violence programs. Theoretically, there is no agreement about whether women are aggressive for the same reasons as men or merely victims fighting back in an abusive relationship. Practically, there is very little research to guide treatment of this…

  14. 3 CFR 8727 - Proclamation 8727 of October 3, 2011. National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, giving communities life-saving tools to help identify and treat child abuse or neglect. It also supports shelters, service programs, and the National..., psychological, and emotional harm. Children who experience domestic violence are at a higher risk for failure...

  15. A comparative view of the evolution of grasses under domestication.

    PubMed

    Glémin, Sylvain; Bataillon, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Crop grasses were among the first plants to be domesticated c. 12,000 yr ago, and they still represent the main staple crops for humans. During domestication, as did many other crops, grasses went through dramatic genetic and phenotypic changes. The recent massive increase in genomic data has provided new tools to investigate the genetic basis and consequences of domestication. Beyond the genetics of domestication, many aspects of grass biology, including their phylogeny and developmental biology, are also increasingly well studied, offering a unique opportunity to analyse the domestication process in a comparative way. Taking such a comparative point of view, we review the history of domesticated grasses and how domestication affected their phenotypic and genomic diversity. Considering recent theoretical developments and the accumulation of genetic data, we revisit more specifically the role of mating systems in the domestication process. We close by suggesting future directions for the study of domestication in grasses.

  16. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences.

  17. Sunflower domestication alleles support single domestication center in eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Benjamin K.; Scascitelli, Moira; Kane, Nolan C.; Luton, Harry H.; Rasmussen, David A.; Bye, Robert A.; Lentz, David L.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of genes with demonstrated involvement in evolutionary transitions can be an important means of resolving conflicting hypotheses about evolutionary history or process. In sunflower, two genes have previously been shown to have experienced selective sweeps during its early domestication. In the present study, we identified a third candidate early domestication gene and conducted haplotype analyses of all three genes to address a recent, controversial hypothesis about the origin of cultivated sunflower. Although the scientific consensus had long been that sunflower was domesticated once in eastern North America, the discovery of pre-Columbian sunflower remains at archaeological sites in Mexico led to the proposal of a second domestication center in southern Mexico. Previous molecular studies with neutral markers were consistent with the former hypothesis. However, only two indigenous Mexican cultivars were included in these studies, and their provenance and genetic purity have been questioned. Therefore, we sequenced regions of the three candidate domestication genes containing SNPs diagnostic for domestication from large, newly collected samples of Mexican sunflower landraces and Mexican wild populations from a broad geographic range. The new germplasm also was genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Our evidence from multiple evolutionarily important loci and from neutral markers supports a single domestication event for extant cultivated sunflower in eastern North America. PMID:21844335

  18. Sunflower domestication alleles support single domestication center in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Benjamin K; Scascitelli, Moira; Kane, Nolan C; Luton, Harry H; Rasmussen, David A; Bye, Robert A; Lentz, David L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-08-23

    Phylogenetic analyses of genes with demonstrated involvement in evolutionary transitions can be an important means of resolving conflicting hypotheses about evolutionary history or process. In sunflower, two genes have previously been shown to have experienced selective sweeps during its early domestication. In the present study, we identified a third candidate early domestication gene and conducted haplotype analyses of all three genes to address a recent, controversial hypothesis about the origin of cultivated sunflower. Although the scientific consensus had long been that sunflower was domesticated once in eastern North America, the discovery of pre-Columbian sunflower remains at archaeological sites in Mexico led to the proposal of a second domestication center in southern Mexico. Previous molecular studies with neutral markers were consistent with the former hypothesis. However, only two indigenous Mexican cultivars were included in these studies, and their provenance and genetic purity have been questioned. Therefore, we sequenced regions of the three candidate domestication genes containing SNPs diagnostic for domestication from large, newly collected samples of Mexican sunflower landraces and Mexican wild populations from a broad geographic range. The new germplasm also was genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Our evidence from multiple evolutionarily important loci and from neutral markers supports a single domestication event for extant cultivated sunflower in eastern North America.

  19. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences. PMID:25844513

  20. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Schraiber, Joshua G; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Cagan, Alex; Bosse, Mirte; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Larson, Greger; Groenen, Martien A M

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional linear model or a more complex, reticulate model. We found that the assumptions of traditional models, such as reproductive isolation and strong domestication bottlenecks, are incompatible with the genetic data. In addition, our results show that, despite gene flow, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at loci that affect behavior and morphology. We argue that recurrent selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created 'islands of domestication' in the genome. Our results have major ramifications for the understanding of animal domestication and suggest that future studies should employ models that do not assume reproductive isolation.