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Sample records for dominant negative basic

  1. Transition from avalanche dominated transport to drift-wave dominated transport in a basic laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Compernolle, Bart; Morales, George; Maggs, James; Sydora, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Results of a basic heat transport experiment involving an off-axis heat source are presented. Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. A ring-shaped electron beam source injects low energy electrons (below ionization energy) along a strong magnetic field into a preexisting, large and cold plasma. The injected electrons are thermalized by Coulomb collisions within a short distance and provide an off-axis heat source that results in a long, hollow, cylindrical region of elevated plasma pressure embedded in a colder plasma, and far from the machine walls. The off-axis source is active for a period long compared to the density decay time, i.e. as time progresses the power per particle increases. Two distinct regimes are observed to take place, an initial regime dominated by avalanches, identified as sudden intermittent rearrangements of the pressure profile, and a second regime dominated by sustained drift-Alfvén wave activity. The transition between the two regimes is sudden, affects the full radial profile and is preceded by the growth of drift Alfvén waves. Langmuir probe data will be shown on the evolution of the density, temperature and flow profiles during the transition. The character of the sustained drift wave activity will also be presented. Work supported by NSF/DOE Grant 1619505, and performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility, sponsored jointly by DOE and NSF.

  2. Dominant negative myostatin produces hypertrophy without hyperplasia in muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Hadhazy, M; Wehling, M; Tidball, J G; McNally, E M

    2000-05-26

    Myostatin, a TGF-beta family member, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we generated transgenic mice that expressed myostatin mutated at its cleavage site under the control of a muscle specific promoter creating a dominant negative myostatin. These mice exhibited a significant (20-35%) increase in muscle mass that resulted from myofiber hypertrophy and not from myofiber hyperplasia. We also evaluated the role of myostatin in muscle degenerative states, such as muscular dystrophy, and found significant downregulation of myostatin. Thus, further inhibition of myostatin may permit increased muscle growth in muscle degenerative disorders.

  3. β1-Integrin Cytoplasmic Subdomains Involved in Dominant Negative Function

    PubMed Central

    Retta, S. Francesco; Balzac, Fiorella; Ferraris, Piercarlo; Belkin, Alexey M.; Fässler, Reinhard; Humphries, Martin J.; De Leo, Giacomo; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tarone, Guido

    1998-01-01

    The β1-integrin cytoplasmic domain consists of a membrane proximal subdomain common to the four known isoforms (“common” region) and a distal subdomain specific for each isoform (“variable” region). To investigate in detail the role of these subdomains in integrin-dependent cellular functions, we used β1A and β1B isoforms as well as four mutants lacking the entire cytoplasmic domain (β1TR), the variable region (β1COM), or the common region (β1ΔCOM-B and β1ΔCOM-A). By expressing these constructs in Chinese hamster ovary and β1 integrin-deficient GD25 cells (Wennerberg et al., J Cell Biol 132, 227–238, 1996), we show that β1B, β1COM, β1ΔCOM-B, and β1ΔCOM-A molecules are unable to support efficient cell adhesion to matrix proteins. On exposure to Mn++ ions, however, β1B, but none of the mutants, can mediate cell adhesion, indicating specific functional properties of this isoform. Analysis of adhesive functions of transfected cells shows that β1B interferes in a dominant negative manner with β1A and β3/β5 integrins in cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation, and fibronectin matrix assembly. None of the β1 mutants tested shows this property, indicating that the dominant negative effect depends on the specific combination of common and B subdomains, rather than from the absence of the A subdomain in the β1B isoform. PMID:9529373

  4. beta1-integrin cytoplasmic subdomains involved in dominant negative function.

    PubMed

    Retta, S F; Balzac, F; Ferraris, P; Belkin, A M; Fässler, R; Humphries, M J; De Leo, G; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1998-04-01

    The beta1-integrin cytoplasmic domain consists of a membrane proximal subdomain common to the four known isoforms ("common" region) and a distal subdomain specific for each isoform ("variable" region). To investigate in detail the role of these subdomains in integrin-dependent cellular functions, we used beta1A and beta1B isoforms as well as four mutants lacking the entire cytoplasmic domain (beta1TR), the variable region (beta1COM), or the common region (beta1 deltaCOM-B and beta1 deltaCOM-A). By expressing these constructs in Chinese hamster ovary and beta1 integrin-deficient GD25 cells (Wennerberg et al., J Cell Biol 132, 227-238, 1996), we show that beta1B, beta1COM, beta1 deltaCOM-B, and beta1 deltaCOM-A molecules are unable to support efficient cell adhesion to matrix proteins. On exposure to Mn++ ions, however, beta1B, but none of the mutants, can mediate cell adhesion, indicating specific functional properties of this isoform. Analysis of adhesive functions of transfected cells shows that beta1B interferes in a dominant negative manner with beta1A and beta3/beta5 integrins in cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation, and fibronectin matrix assembly. None of the beta1 mutants tested shows this property, indicating that the dominant negative effect depends on the specific combination of common and B subdomains, rather than from the absence of the A subdomain in the beta1B isoform.

  5. Osmosensation in TRPV2 dominant negative expressing skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Zanou, Nadège; Mondin, Ludivine; Fuster, Clarisse; Seghers, François; Dufour, Inès; de Clippele, Marie; Schakman, Olivier; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Iwata, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Voets, Thomas; Allard, Bruno; Gailly, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased plasma osmolarity induces intracellular water depletion and cell shrinkage followed by activation of a regulatory volume increase (RVI). In skeletal muscle, this is accompanied by transverse tubule (TT) dilatation and by a membrane depolarization responsible for a release of Ca2+ from intracellular pools. We observed that both hyperosmotic shock-induced Ca2+ transients and RVI were inhibited by Gd3+, ruthenium red and GsMTx4 toxin, three inhibitors of mechanosensitive ion channels. The response was also completely absent in muscle fibres overexpressing a non-permeant, dominant negative (DN) mutant of the transient receptor potential, V2 isoform (TRPV2) ion channel, suggesting the involvement of TRPV2 or of a TRP isoform susceptible to heterotetramerization with TRPV2. The release of Ca2+ induced by hyperosmotic shock was increased by cannabidiol, an activator of TRPV2, and decreased by tranilast, an inhibitor of TRPV2, suggesting a role for the TRPV2 channel itself. Hyperosmotic shock-induced membrane depolarization was impaired in TRPV2-DN fibres, suggesting that TRPV2 activation triggers the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by depolarizing TTs. RVI requires the sequential activation of STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and NKCC1, a Na+–K+–Cl− cotransporter, allowing ion entry and driving osmotic water flow. In fibres overexpressing TRPV2-DN as well as in fibres in which Ca2+ transients were abolished by the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, the level of P-SPAKSer373 in response to hyperosmotic shock was reduced, suggesting a modulation of SPAK phosphorylation by intracellular Ca2+. We conclude that TRPV2 is involved in osmosensation in skeletal muscle fibres, acting in concert with P-SPAK-activated NKCC1. Key points Increased plasma osmolarity induces intracellular water depletion and cell shrinkage (CS) followed by activation of a regulatory volume increase (RVI). In skeletal muscle, the hyperosmotic shock

  6. Osmosensation in TRPV2 dominant negative expressing skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Zanou, Nadège; Mondin, Ludivine; Fuster, Clarisse; Seghers, François; Dufour, Inès; de Clippele, Marie; Schakman, Olivier; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Iwata, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Voets, Thomas; Allard, Bruno; Gailly, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Increased plasma osmolarity induces intracellular water depletion and cell shrinkage (CS) followed by activation of a regulatory volume increase (RVI). In skeletal muscle, the hyperosmotic shock-induced CS is accompanied by a small membrane depolarization responsible for a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools. Hyperosmotic shock also induces phosphorylation of STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). TRPV2 dominant negative expressing fibres challenged with hyperosmotic shock present a slower membrane depolarization, a diminished Ca(2+) response, a smaller RVI response, a decrease in SPAK phosphorylation and defective muscle function. We suggest that hyperosmotic shock induces TRPV2 activation, which accelerates muscle cell depolarization and allows the subsequent Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, activation of the Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter by SPAK, and the RVI response. Increased plasma osmolarity induces intracellular water depletion and cell shrinkage followed by activation of a regulatory volume increase (RVI). In skeletal muscle, this is accompanied by transverse tubule (TT) dilatation and by a membrane depolarization responsible for a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools. We observed that both hyperosmotic shock-induced Ca(2+) transients and RVI were inhibited by Gd(3+) , ruthenium red and GsMTx4 toxin, three inhibitors of mechanosensitive ion channels. The response was also completely absent in muscle fibres overexpressing a non-permeant, dominant negative (DN) mutant of the transient receptor potential, V2 isoform (TRPV2) ion channel, suggesting the involvement of TRPV2 or of a TRP isoform susceptible to heterotetramerization with TRPV2. The release of Ca(2+) induced by hyperosmotic shock was increased by cannabidiol, an activator of TRPV2, and decreased by tranilast, an inhibitor of TRPV2, suggesting a role for the TRPV2 channel itself. Hyperosmotic shock-induced membrane depolarization was impaired in TRPV2

  7. A Dominant-Negative fur Mutation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Heather P.; LeVier, Kristin; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2004-01-01

    In many bacteria, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein plays a central role in the regulation of iron uptake genes. Because iron figures prominently in the agriculturally important symbiosis between soybean and its nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, we wanted to assess the role of Fur in the interaction. We identified a fur mutant by selecting for manganese resistance. Manganese interacts with the Fur protein and represses iron uptake genes. In the presence of high levels of manganese, bacteria with a wild-type copy of the fur gene repress iron uptake systems and starve for iron, whereas fur mutants fail to repress iron uptake systems and survive. The B. japonicum fur mutant, as expected, fails to repress iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in the presence of iron. Unexpectedly, a wild-type copy of the fur gene cannot complement the fur mutant. Expression of the fur mutant allele in wild-type cells leads to a fur phenotype. Unlike a B. japonicum fur-null mutant, the strain carrying the dominant-negative fur mutation is unable to form functional, nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean, mung bean, or cowpea, suggesting a role for a Fur-regulated protein or proteins in the symbiosis. PMID:14973020

  8. The dominant negative mutant Artemis enhances tumor cell radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai; Sun, XiaoNan; Zhang, Shuo; Ge, WeiTing; Zhu, YongLiang; Zhang, JiaWei; Zheng, Shu

    2011-10-01

    Tumor radioresistance often leads to treatment failure during radiotherapy. New strategies like developing radiosensitizer are clinically important. Intervention with DNA double-strand break repair is an effective way to modulate tumor cell radiosensitivity. This study focused on the mutant Artemis fragment-enhanced radiosensitivity of human cervical cancer cells. We constructed two pEGFP-C1-based eukaryotic expression vectors encoding full-length and the mutant Artemis fragment (D37N-413aa), respectively. HeLa cells were stably transfected with these plasmids or vector. Cell survival was measured by the clonogenic assay. The γH2AX foci assay was used to monitor DNA repair after irradiation. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed to study protein interaction and phosphorylation of Artemis. Expression of the mutant Artemis fragment (D37N-413aa) delayed DNA DSB rejoining after irradiation, thereby enhanced radiosensitivity of HeLa cell. Further experiments indicate that this mutant Artemis fragment bind to DNA-PKcs and ATM, inhibited phosphorylation of endogenous Artemis, the key molecule for DNA repair and cell radiosensitivity. The dominant negative mutant Artemis fragment (D37N-413aa) enhanced tumor cell radiosensitivity through blocking activity of endogenous Artemis and DNA repair. It is the first time to modulate tumor cell radiosensitivity via targeting Artemis. This novel mechanism of radiosensitivity strongly suggests the potential role of Artemis in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The decline in fitness with inbreeding: evidence for negative dominance-by-dominance epistasis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sharp, N P; Agrawal, A F

    2016-04-01

    Genetic interactions can play an important role in the evolution of reproductive strategies. In particular, negative dominance-by-dominance epistasis for fitness can theoretically favour sex and recombination. This form of epistasis can be detected statistically because it generates nonlinearity in the relationship between fitness and inbreeding coefficient. Measures of fitness in progressively inbred lines tend to show limited evidence for epistasis. However, tests of this kind can be biased against detecting an accelerating decline due to line losses at higher inbreeding levels. We tested for dominance-by-dominance epistasis in Drosophila melanogaster by examining viability at five inbreeding levels that were generated simultaneously, avoiding the bias against detecting nonlinearity that has affected previous studies. We find an accelerating rate of fitness decline with inbreeding, indicating that dominance-by-dominance epistasis is negative on average, which should favour sex and recombination.

  10. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Processing of Unconscious Negative Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…

  11. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Processing of Unconscious Negative Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…

  12. Pharmacological manipulation of gain-of-function and dominant-negative mechanisms in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Hugo F; Cheetham, Michael E

    2008-10-01

    Mutations in the dim light photoreceptor protein rod opsin cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The majority of these mutations (class II) lead to protein misfolding. For example, the common class II rod opsin mutation P23H misfolds and is retained in the ER, prior to retrotranslocation and degradation by the proteasome. If degradation fails then the protein can aggregate to form intracellular inclusions. Furthermore, mutant opsin exerts a dominant negative effect on the wild-type (WT) protein. Here we show that the toxic gain of function and dominant negative properties of misfolded rod opsin in cells can be alleviated by drug treatments targeted against a range of cellular pathways. P23H rod opsin aggregation, inclusion formation with associated caspase activation and cell death were reduced by kosmotropes, molecular chaperone inducers and mToR inhibition. But these treatments did not enhance mutant opsin folding or reduce the dominant negative effect of P23H rod opsin. In contrast, retinoids acted as pharmacological chaperones to enhance P23H folding and reduce the dominant negative effect on WT rod opsin processing, as well as reducing toxic gains of function. Therefore, the suppression of the dominant negative effects of protein misfolding required enhanced folding of the mutant protein, whereas suppression of toxic gain of function effects did not require improved folding per se. These studies suggest that some forms of rhodopsin RP may be treated by targeting protein folding and reducing protein aggregation.

  13. Connexin mutation that causes dominant congenital cataracts inhibits gap junctions, but not hemichannels, in a dominant negative manner.

    PubMed

    Banks, Eric A; Toloue, Masoud M; Shi, Qian; Zhou, Zifei Jade; Liu, Jialu; Nicholson, Bruce J; Jiang, Jean X

    2009-02-01

    The connexin (Cx) 50, E48K, mutation is associated with a human dominant congenital cataract; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been characterized. The glutamate (E) residue at position 48 is highly conserved across animal species and types of connexins. When expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes, human (h) and chicken (ch) Cx50 E48K mutants showed no electrical coupling. In addition, this mutation acts in a dominant negative manner when paired hetero-typically or hetero-merically with wild-type Cx50, but has no such effect on Cx46, the other lens fiber connexin. A similar loss-of-function and dominant negative effect was observed using dye transfer assays in the same system. By using two different dye transfer methods, with two different tracer dyes, we found chCx50 E48K expressed in chicken lens embryonic fibroblast cells by retroviral infection similarly failed to induce dye coupling, and prevented wild-type chCx50 from forming functional gap junctions. In contrast to its effect on gap junctions, the E48K mutation has no effect on hemichannel activity when assayed using electrical conductance in oocytes, and mechanically induced dye uptake in cells. Cx50 is functionally involved in cell differentiation and lens development, and the E48K mutant promotes primary lens cell differentiation indistinguishable from wild-type chCx50, despite its lack of junctional channel function. Together the data show that mutations affecting gap junctions but not hemichannel function of Cx50 can lead to dominant congenital cataracts in humans. This clearly supports the model of intercellular coupling of fiber cells creating a microcirculation of nutrients and metabolites required for lens transparency.

  14. Hand-Eye Dominance and Depth Perception Effects in Performance on a Basic Laparoscopic Skills Set

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. Methods: The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Results: Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Conclusions: Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance. PMID:20529525

  15. Hand-eye dominance and depth perception effects in performance on a basic laparoscopic skills set.

    PubMed

    Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I; Hoxsey, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance.

  16. When Investment in Basic Skills Gives Negative Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Mary Genevieve; Nissinen, Kari; Gabrielsen, Egil

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the Norwegian government has invested heavily in improving basic skills in the adult population. Initiatives have included legislation, the introduction of work-based adult education programs, and reforms in schooling. In light of this investment, we explore trends in adult literacy and numeracy, by comparing data from two…

  17. Modeling of surface-dominated plasmas: from electric thruster to negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Taccogna, F; Schneider, R; Longo, S; Capitelli, M

    2008-02-01

    This contribution shows two important applications of the particle-in-cell/monte Carlo technique on ion sources: modeling of the Hall thruster SPT-100 for space propulsion and of the rf negative ion source for ITER neutral beam injection. In the first case translational degrees of freedom are involved, while in the second case inner degrees of freedom (vibrational levels) are excited. Computational results show how in both cases, plasma-wall and gas-wall interactions play a dominant role. These are secondary electron emission from the lateral ceramic wall of SPT-100 and electron capture from caesiated surfaces by positive ions and atoms in the rf negative ion source.

  18. Structure of the G60A mutant of Ras: Implications for the Dominant Negative Effect.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford,B.; Skowronek, K.; Boykevisch, S.; Bar-Sagi, D.; Nassar, N.

    2005-01-01

    Substituting alanine for glycine at position 60 in v-H-Ras generated a dominant negative mutant that completely abolished the ability of v-H-Ras to transform NIH 3T3 cells and to induce germinal vesicle breakdown in Xenopus oocytes. The crystal structure of the GppNp-bound form of RasG60A unexpectedly shows that the switch regions adopt an open conformation reminiscent of the structure of the nucleotide-free form of Ras in complex with Sos. Critical residues that normally stabilize the guanine nucleotide and the Mg{sup 2+} ion have moved considerably. Sos binds to RasG60A but is unable to catalyze nucleotide exchange. Our data suggest that the dominant negative effect observed for RasG60A{center_dot}GTP could result from the sequestering of Sos in a non-productive Ras-GTP-guanine nucleotide exchange factor ternary complex.

  19. A Novel Method to Screen for Dominant Negative ATM Mutations in Familial Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    carry dominant negative mutation in ATM due to natural variation amongst LCLs. Microarrays have been performed to determine differences in gene expression... genes that are altered in their expression in ATMmutation carriers. The validation of this data in carriers of different ATM mutation indicated that the...heterozygous carriers of T727 1 G mutation display a gene expression phenotype that appears identical to carriers of protein truncating mutations in

  20. Molecular Basis of the Dominant Negative Effect of a Glycine Transporter 2 Mutation Associated with Hyperekplexia*

    PubMed Central

    Arribas-González, Esther; de Juan-Sanz, Jaime; Aragón, Carmen; López-Corcuera, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Hyperekplexia or startle disease is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by an exaggerated startle in response to trivial tactile or acoustic stimuli. This neurological disorder can have serious consequences in neonates, provoking brain damage and/or sudden death due to apnea episodes and cardiorespiratory failure. Hyperekplexia is caused by defective inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission. Mutations in the human SLC6A5 gene encoding the neuronal GlyT2 glycine transporter are responsible for the presynaptic form of the disease. GlyT2 mediates synaptic glycine recycling, which constitutes the main source of releasable transmitter at glycinergic synapses. Although the majority of GlyT2 mutations detected so far are recessive, a dominant negative mutant that affects GlyT2 trafficking does exist. In this study, we explore the properties and structural alterations of the S512R mutation in GlyT2. We analyze its dominant negative effect that retains wild-type GlyT2 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), preventing surface expression. We show that the presence of an arginine rather than serine 512 provoked transporter misfolding, enhanced association to the ER-chaperone calnexin, altered association with the coat-protein complex II component Sec24D, and thereby impeded ER exit. The S512R mutant formed oligomers with wild-type GlyT2 causing its retention in the ER. Overexpression of calnexin rescued wild-type GlyT2 from the dominant negative effect of the mutant, increasing the amount of transporter that reached the plasma membrane and dampening the interaction between the wild-type and mutant GlyT2. The ability of chemical chaperones to overcome the dominant negative effect of the disease mutation on the wild-type transporter was demonstrated in heterologous cells and primary neurons. PMID:25480793

  1. Molecular basis of the dominant negative effect of a glycine transporter 2 mutation associated with hyperekplexia.

    PubMed

    Arribas-González, Esther; de Juan-Sanz, Jaime; Aragón, Carmen; López-Corcuera, Beatriz

    2015-01-23

    Hyperekplexia or startle disease is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by an exaggerated startle in response to trivial tactile or acoustic stimuli. This neurological disorder can have serious consequences in neonates, provoking brain damage and/or sudden death due to apnea episodes and cardiorespiratory failure. Hyperekplexia is caused by defective inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission. Mutations in the human SLC6A5 gene encoding the neuronal GlyT2 glycine transporter are responsible for the presynaptic form of the disease. GlyT2 mediates synaptic glycine recycling, which constitutes the main source of releasable transmitter at glycinergic synapses. Although the majority of GlyT2 mutations detected so far are recessive, a dominant negative mutant that affects GlyT2 trafficking does exist. In this study, we explore the properties and structural alterations of the S512R mutation in GlyT2. We analyze its dominant negative effect that retains wild-type GlyT2 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), preventing surface expression. We show that the presence of an arginine rather than serine 512 provoked transporter misfolding, enhanced association to the ER-chaperone calnexin, altered association with the coat-protein complex II component Sec24D, and thereby impeded ER exit. The S512R mutant formed oligomers with wild-type GlyT2 causing its retention in the ER. Overexpression of calnexin rescued wild-type GlyT2 from the dominant negative effect of the mutant, increasing the amount of transporter that reached the plasma membrane and dampening the interaction between the wild-type and mutant GlyT2. The ability of chemical chaperones to overcome the dominant negative effect of the disease mutation on the wild-type transporter was demonstrated in heterologous cells and primary neurons.

  2. Dominant Negative Pleiotrophin Induces Tetraploidy and Aneuploidy in U87MG Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yunchao; Berenson, James R.; Wang, Zhaoyi; Deuel, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) is an 18 kD secretory cytokine that is expressed in many human cancers, including glioblastoma. In previous experiments, interruption of the constitutive PTN signaling in human U87MG glioblastoma cells that inappropriately express endogenous Ptn reversed their rapid growth in vitro and their malignant phenotype in vivo. To seek a mechanism for the effect of the dominant negative PTN, flow cytometry was used to compare the profiles of U87MG cells and four clones of U87MG cells that express the dominant negative PTN (U87MG/PTN 1–40 cells); here, we report that the dominant negative PTN in U87MG cells induces tetraploidy and aneuploidy and arrests the tetraploid and aneuploid cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The data suggest that PTN signaling may have a critical role in chromosomal segregation and cell cycle progression; the data suggest induction of tetraploidy and aneuploidy in U87MG glioblastoma cells may be an important mechanism that contributes to the loss of the malignant phenotype of U87MG cells. PMID:17067552

  3. Rate and Sequence of Positive and Negative Poles in Basic Concept Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-eight concepts from the Bracken Basic Concept Scale were paired, polarity (positive or negative) was assigned, and concept pairs were contrasted with 1,109 children ages three through seven to determine rate and sequence of polar concept acquisition. For 70 percent of the pairs the positive-pole concept was acquired before the negative-pole…

  4. A dominant negative mutation suppresses the function of normal epidermal growth factor receptors by heterodimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Kashles, O; Yarden, Y; Fischer, R; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that defective receptors can function as a dominant negative mutation suppressing the action of wild-type receptors. This causes various diminished responses in cell culture and developmental disorders in murine embryogenesis. Here, we describe a model system and a potential mechanism underlying the dominant suppressing response caused by defective epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. We used cultured 3T3 cells coexpressing human wild-type receptors and an inactive deletion mutant lacking most of the cytoplasmic domain. When expressed alone, EGF was able to stimulate the dimerization of either wild-type or mutant receptors in living cells as revealed by chemical covalent cross-linking experiments. In response to EGF, heterodimers and homodimers of wild-type and mutant receptors were observed in cells coexpressing both receptor species. However, only homodimers of wild-type EGF receptors underwent EGF-induced tyrosine autophosphorylation in living cells. These results indicate that the integrity of both receptor moieties within receptor dimers is essential for kinase activation and autophosphorylation. Moreover, the presence of mutant receptors in cells expressing wild-type receptors diminished the number of high-affinity binding sites for EGF, reduced the rate of receptor endocytosis and degradation, and diminished biological signalling via EGF receptors. We propose that heterodimerization with defective EGF receptors functions as a dominant negative mutation suppressing the activation and response of normal receptors by formation of unproductive heterodimers. Images PMID:1705006

  5. Negative-dominance phenomenon with genetic variants of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Sottas, Valentin; Abriel, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    During the past two decades, many pathological genetic variants in SCN5A, the gene encoding the pore-forming subunit of the cardiac (monomeric) sodium channel Na(v)1.5, have been described. Negative dominance is a classical genetic concept involving a "poison" mutant peptide that negatively interferes with the co-expressed wild-type protein, thus reducing its cellular function. This phenomenon has been described for genetic variants of multimeric K(+) channels, which mechanisms are well understood. Unexpectedly, several pathologic SCN5A variants that are linked to Brugada syndrome also demonstrate such a dominant-negative (DN) effect. The molecular determinants of these observations, however, are not yet elucidated. This review article summarizes recent findings that describe the mechanisms underlying the DN phenomenon of genetic variants of K(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and Na(+) channels, and in particular Brugada syndrome variants of Na(v)1.5. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  6. Receptor function, dominant negative activity and phenotype correlations for MC1R variant alleles.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Kimberley A; Shekar, Sri N; Shekar, Sri L; Newton, Richard A; James, Michael R; Stow, Jennifer L; Duffy, David L; Sturm, Richard A

    2007-09-15

    The human melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a G-protein coupled receptor involved in the regulation of pigmentation. Several MC1R variant alleles are associated with red hair, fair skin and increased skin cancer risk. We have performed a systematic functional analysis of nine common MC1R variants and correlated these results with the strength of the genetic association of each variant allele with pigmentation phenotypes. In vitro expression studies revealed that variant receptors with reduced cell surface expression, including V60L, D84E, R151C, I155T, R160W and R163Q, showed a corresponding impairment in cAMP coupling. The R142H and D294H variants demonstrated normal cell surface expression, but had reduced functional responses, indicating that altered G-protein coupling may be responsible for this loss of function. The V92M variant cAMP activation was equal to or higher than that for wild-type MC1R. In co-expression studies, the D84E, R151C, I155T and R160W variants showed a dominant negative effect on wild-type receptor cell surface expression, which was reflected in a decreased ability to elevate intracellular cAMP levels. The D294H variant also demonstrated a dominant negative effect on wild-type MC1R cAMP signalling, but had no effect on wild-type surface expression. Importantly, comparison of the in vitro receptor characteristics with skin and hair colour data of individuals both homozygous and heterozygous for MC1R variant alleles revealed parallels between variant MC1R cell surface expression, functional ability, dominant negative activity and their effects on human pigmentation. These findings show the first direct correlations between variant MC1R biochemical properties and pigmentation phenotype.

  7. Cardioselective Dominant-negative Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Δ337T) Modulates Myocardial Metabolism and Contractile Dfficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Olson, Aaron; Ge, Ming; Ning, Xue-Han; Buroker, Norman E.; Chung, Youngran; Jue, Thomas; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-06-03

    Dominant- negative thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) show elevated expression relative to ligand-binding TRs during cardiac hypertrophy. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of a dominant-negative TR alters cardiac metabolism and contractile efficiency (CE). We used mice expressing the cardioselective dominant-negative TRβ1 mutation Δ337T. Isolated working Δ337T hearts and nontransgenic control (Con) hearts were perfused with 13C-labeled free fatty acids (FFA), acetoacetate (ACAC), lactate, and glucose at physiological concentrations for 30 min. 13C NMR spectroscopy and isotopomer analyses were used to determine substrate flux and fractional contributions (Fc) of acetyl-CoA to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Δ337T hearts exhibited rate depression but higher developed pressure and CE, defined as work per oxygen consumption (MV˙ O2). Unlabeled substrate Fc from endogenous sources was higher in Δ337T, but ACAC Fc was lower. Fluxes through CAC, lactate, ACAC, and FFA were reduced in Δ337T. CE and Fc differences were reversed by pacing Δ337T to Con rates, accompanied by an increase in FFA Fc. Δ337T hearts lacked the ability to increase MV˙ O2. Decreases in protein expression for glucose transporter-4 and hexokinase-2 and increases in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-2 and -4 suggest that these hearts are unable to increase carbohydrate oxidation in response to stress. These data show that Δ337T alters the metabolic phenotype in murine heart by reducing substrate flux for multiple pathways. Some of these changes are heart rate dependent, indicating that the substrate shift may represent an accommodation to altered contractile protein kinetics, which can be disrupted by pacing stress.

  8. Inactivation of TNF Signaling by Rationally Designed Dominant-Negative TNF Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, Paul M.; Tansey, Malú G.; Zalevsky, Jonathan; Zhukovsky, Eugene A.; Desjarlais, John R.; Szymkowski, David E.; Abbott, Christina; Carmichael, David; Chan, Cheryl; Cherry, Lisa; Cheung, Peter; Chirino, Arthur J.; Chung, Hyo H.; Doberstein, Stephen K.; Eivazi, Araz; Filikov, Anton V.; Gao, Sarah X.; Hubert, René S.; Hwang, Marian; Hyun, Linus; Kashi, Sandhya; Kim, Alice; Kim, Esther; Kung, James; Martinez, Sabrina P.; Muchhal, Umesh S.; Nguyen, Duc-Hanh T.; O'Brien, Christopher; O'Keefe, Donald; Singer, Karen; Vafa, Omid; Vielmetter, Jost; Yoder, Sean C.; Dahiyat, Bassil I.

    2003-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key regulator of inflammatory responses and has been implicated in many pathological conditions. We used structure-based design to engineer variant TNF proteins that rapidly form heterotrimers with native TNF to give complexes that neither bind to nor stimulate signaling through TNF receptors. Thus, TNF is inactivated by sequestration. Dominant-negative TNFs represent a possible approach to anti-inflammatory biotherapeutics, and experiments in animal models show that the strategy can attenuate TNF-mediated pathology. Similar rational design could be used to engineer inhibitors of additional TNF superfamily cytokines as well as other multimeric ligands.

  9. Dominant-Negative Proteins in Herpesviruses – From Assigning Gene Function to Intracellular Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mühlbach, Hermine; Mohr, Christian A.; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2009-01-01

    Investigating and assigning gene functions of herpesviruses is a process, which profits from consistent technical innovation. Cloning of bacterial artificial chromosomes encoding herpesvirus genomes permits nearly unlimited possibilities in the construction of genetically modified viruses. Targeted or randomized screening approaches allow rapid identification of essential viral proteins. Nevertheless, mapping of essential genes reveals only limited insight into function. The usage of dominant-negative (DN) proteins has been the tool of choice to dissect functions of proteins during the viral life cycle. DN proteins also facilitate the analysis of host-virus interactions. Finally, DNs serve as starting-point for design of new antiviral strategies. PMID:21994555

  10. The positive and negative framing of affirmative action: a group dominance perspective.

    PubMed

    Haley, Hillary; Sidanius, Jim

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of 328 White, Latino, and Black Los Angeles County adults, the authors examined the tendency to employ various affirmative action "frames" (e.g., affirmative action as a "tie-breaking" device or as a quota-based policy). All three groups agreed about which frames cast affirmative action in a positive light and which cast it in a negative light. Although minorities had a tendency to frame affirmative action in terms that most people find morally acceptable, Whites had a tendency to frame affirmative action in terms most people find unacceptable. In addition, compared to minorities, Whites were less supportive of affirmative action regardless of how it was framed. LISREL modeling also was employed to test two competing models regarding predictors of the tendency to use frames that one personally finds to be relatively negative versus positive. Consistent with the expectations of social dominance theory and a motivated cognition perspective, the authors found that social dominance orientation (SDO) had significant net direct and indirect effects on one's framing of affirmative action.

  11. A Dominant Negative Zebrafish Ahr2 Partially Protects Developing Zebrafish from Dioxin Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lanham, Kevin A.; Prasch, Amy L.; Weina, Kasia M.; Peterson, Richard E.; Heideman, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity by 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is thought to be caused by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). However, our understanding of how AHR activation by TCDD leads to toxic effects is poor. Ideally we would like to manipulate AHR activity in specific tissues and at specific times. One route to this is expressing dominant negative AHRs (dnAHRs). This work describes the construction and characterization of dominant negative forms of the zebrafish Ahr2 in which the C-terminal transactivation domain was either removed, or replaced with the inhibitory domain from the Drosophila engrailed repressor protein. One of these dnAhr2s was selected for expression from the ubiquitously active e2fα promoter in transgenic zebrafish. We found that these transgenic zebrafish expressing dnAhr2 had reduced TCDD induction of the Ahr2 target gene cyp1a, as measured by 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. Furthermore, the cardiotoxicity produced by TCDD, pericardial edema, heart malformation, and reduced blood flow, were all mitigated in the zebrafish expressing the dnAhr2. These results provide in vivo proof-of-principle results demonstrating the effectiveness of dnAHRs in manipulating AHR activity in vivo, and demonstrating that this approach can be a means for blocking TCDD toxicity. PMID:22194803

  12. CRISPR-mediated targeting of HER2 inhibits cell proliferation through a dominant negative mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huajing; Sun, William

    2017-01-28

    With the discovery of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, genome editing could be performed in a rapid, precise and effective manner. Its potential applications in functional interrogation of cancer-causing genes and cancer therapy have been extensively explored. In this study, we demonstrated the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to directly target the oncogene HER2. Directing Cas9 to exons of the HER2 gene inhibited cell growth in breast cancer cell lines that harbor amplification of the HER2 locus. The inhibitory effect was potentiated with the addition of PARP inhibitors. Unexpectedly, CRISPR-induced mutations did not significantly affect the level of HER2 protein expression. Instead, CRISPR targeting appeared to exert its effect through a dominant negative mutation. This HER2 mutant interfered with the MAPK/ERK axis of HER2 downstream signaling. Our work provides a novel mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of HER2-targeting by CRISPR/Cas9, which is distinct from the clinical drug Herceptin. In addition, it opens up the possibility that incomplete CRISPR targeting of certain oncogenes could still have therapeutic value by generation of dominant negative mutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeted Disruption of Chlamydia trachomatis Invasion by in Trans Expression of Dominant Negative Tarp Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Parrett, Christopher J.; Lenoci, Robert V.; Nguyen, Brenda; Russell, Lauren; Jewett, Travis J.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis invasion of eukaryotic host cells is facilitated, in part, by the type III secreted effector protein, Tarp. The role of Tarp in chlamydiae entry of host cells is supported by molecular approaches that examined recombinant Tarp or Tarp effectors expressed within heterologous systems. A major limitation in the ability to study the contribution of Tarp to chlamydial invasion of host cells was the prior absence of genetic tools for chlamydiae. Based on our knowledge of Tarp domain structure and function along with the introduction of genetic approaches in C. trachomatis, we hypothesized that Tarp function could be disrupted in vivo by the introduction of dominant negative mutant alleles. We provide evidence that transformed C. trachomatis produced epitope tagged Tarp, which was secreted into the host cell during invasion. We examined the effects of domain specific Tarp mutations on chlamydial invasion and growth and demonstrate that C. trachomatis clones harboring engineered Tarp mutants lacking either the actin binding domain or the phosphorylation domain had reduced levels of invasion into host cells. These data provide the first in vivo evidence for the critical role of Tarp in C. trachomatis pathogenesis and indicate that chlamydial invasion of host cells can be attenuated via the introduction of engineered dominant negative type three effectors. PMID:27602332

  14. Targeted Disruption of Chlamydia trachomatis Invasion by in Trans Expression of Dominant Negative Tarp Effectors.

    PubMed

    Parrett, Christopher J; Lenoci, Robert V; Nguyen, Brenda; Russell, Lauren; Jewett, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis invasion of eukaryotic host cells is facilitated, in part, by the type III secreted effector protein, Tarp. The role of Tarp in chlamydiae entry of host cells is supported by molecular approaches that examined recombinant Tarp or Tarp effectors expressed within heterologous systems. A major limitation in the ability to study the contribution of Tarp to chlamydial invasion of host cells was the prior absence of genetic tools for chlamydiae. Based on our knowledge of Tarp domain structure and function along with the introduction of genetic approaches in C. trachomatis, we hypothesized that Tarp function could be disrupted in vivo by the introduction of dominant negative mutant alleles. We provide evidence that transformed C. trachomatis produced epitope tagged Tarp, which was secreted into the host cell during invasion. We examined the effects of domain specific Tarp mutations on chlamydial invasion and growth and demonstrate that C. trachomatis clones harboring engineered Tarp mutants lacking either the actin binding domain or the phosphorylation domain had reduced levels of invasion into host cells. These data provide the first in vivo evidence for the critical role of Tarp in C. trachomatis pathogenesis and indicate that chlamydial invasion of host cells can be attenuated via the introduction of engineered dominant negative type three effectors.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a dominant-negative vps1 allele of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Finken-Eigen, M; Müller, S; Köhrer, K

    1997-10-01

    The gene product of the yeast VPS1 gene is a member of a family of high-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins that are involved in diverse cellular processes. The Vps1 protein (Vps1p) was shown to perform an essential function in the yeast secretory pathway. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a mutant allele of the VPS1 gene, causing a dominant-negative vacuolar protein sorting (vps) defect, as demonstrated by the mislocalization of the vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). DNA sequence analysis of the mutant vps1 allele (vps1d-293) revealed a single point mutation, resulting in an amino acid exchange at position 293 from Ala to Asp. The mutation is located downstream of the tripartite GTP-binding motif found in the amino-terminal half of the protein. The observation that expression of wild-type Vps1p partially suppressed the dominant-negative CPY sorting phenotype indicates competition of a non-functional mutant Vps1 protein and a functional wild-type VPS1p for a Vps1p-binding site of an as yet unknown vacuolar protein sorting factor.

  16. Basic principles of test-negative design in evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    Based on the unique characteristics of influenza, the concept of "monitoring" influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) across the seasons using the same observational study design has been developed. In recent years, there has been a growing number of influenza VE reports using the test-negative design, which can minimize both misclassification of diseases and confounding by health care-seeking behavior. Although the test-negative designs offer considerable advantages, there are some concerns that widespread use of the test-negative design without knowledge of the basic principles of epidemiology could produce invalid findings. In this article, we briefly review the basic concepts of the test-negative design with respect to classic study design such as cohort studies or case-control studies. We also mention selection bias, which may be of concern in some countries where rapid diagnostic testing is frequently used in routine clinical practices, as in Japan. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Dental Enamel Structure Is Altered by Expression of Dominant Negative RhoA in Ameloblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Pugach, Megan K.; Kuehl, Melissa A.; Peng, Li; Bouchard, Jessica; Hwang, Soon Y.; Gibson, Carolyn W.

    2011-01-01

    Using in vitrotooth germ cultures and analysis by confocal microscopy, ameloblasts treated with sodium fluoride were found to have elevated amounts of filamentous actin. Because this response is reduced by inhibitors of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway, we generated mice that express dominant negative RhoA (RhoADN) in ameloblasts for in vivo analysis. Expression of the EGFP-RhoADN fusion protein was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and teeth were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The 3 strains expressed at either low (TgEGFP-RhoADN-8), intermediate (TgEGFP-RhoADN-2), or high (TgEGFP-RhoADN-13) levels, and the molar teeth from the 3 strains had enamel hypoplasia and surface defects. We conclude that RhoADN expressed in ameloblasts interferes with normal enamel development through the pathway that is induced by sodium fluoride. PMID:21576911

  18. Dental enamel structure is altered by expression of dominant negative RhoA in ameloblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Pugach, Megan K; Kuehl, Melissa A; Peng, Li; Bouchard, Jessica; Hwang, Soon Y; Gibson, Carolyn W

    2011-01-01

    Using in vitrotooth germ cultures and analysis by confocal microscopy, ameloblasts treated with sodium fluoride were found to have elevated amounts of filamentous actin. Because this response is reduced by inhibitors of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway, we generated mice that express dominant negative RhoA (RhoA(DN)) in ameloblasts for in vivo analysis. Expression of the EGFP-RhoA(DN) fusion protein was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and teeth were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The 3 strains expressed at either low (TgEGFP-RhoA(DN)-8), intermediate (TgEGFP-RhoA(DN)-2), or high (TgEGFP-RhoA(DN)-13) levels, and the molar teeth from the 3 strains had enamel hypoplasia and surface defects. We conclude that RhoA(DN) expressed in ameloblasts interferes with normal enamel development through the pathway that is induced by sodium fluoride. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Dominant negative stat3 mutant inhibits interleukin-6-induced Jak-STAT signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Kaptein, A; Paillard, V; Saunders, M

    1996-03-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the latent transcription factor Stat3 in HepG2 cells. Mutation of Stat3 tyrosine 705 to phenylalanine (Y705F) inhibits IL-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of this Stat3 mutant in transfected HepG2 cells. In cotransfections of HepG2 cells, the Stat3 mutant Y705F causes a reduction of the tyrosine phosphorylation of wild type Stat3-FLAG. Moreover, Y705F inhibits the action of endogenous Stat3 in cotransfected cells, reducing IL-6 induction of a Stat3-responsive reporter construct. Y705F therefore acts as a dominant negative mutation of Stat3.

  20. Novel variants in GNAI3 associated with auriculocondylar syndrome strengthen a common dominant negative effect.

    PubMed

    Romanelli Tavares, Vanessa L; Gordon, Christopher T; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli M; Kokitsu-Nakata, Nancy Mizue; Voisin, Norine; Tan, Tiong Y; Heggie, Andrew A; Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Propst, Evan J; Papsin, Blake C; Torres, Tatiana T; Buermans, Henk; Capelo, Luciane Portas; den Dunnen, Johan T; Guion-Almeida, Maria L; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2015-04-01

    Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare craniofacial disorder comprising core features of micrognathia, condyle dysplasia and question mark ear. Causative variants have been identified in PLCB4, GNAI3 and EDN1, which are predicted to function within the EDN1-EDNRA pathway during early pharyngeal arch patterning. To date, two GNAI3 variants in three families have been reported. Here we report three novel GNAI3 variants, one segregating with affected members in a family previously linked to 1p21.1-q23.3 and two de novo variants in simplex cases. Two variants occur in known functional motifs, the G1 and G4 boxes, and the third variant is one amino acid outside of the G1 box. Structural modeling shows that all five altered GNAI3 residues identified to date cluster in a region involved in GDP/GTP binding. We hypothesize that all GNAI3 variants lead to dominant negative effects.

  1. Novel variants in GNAI3 associated with auriculocondylar syndrome strengthen a common dominant negative effect

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli Tavares, Vanessa L; Gordon, Christopher T; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli M; Kokitsu-Nakata, Nancy Mizue; Voisin, Norine; Tan, Tiong Y; Heggie, Andrew A; Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Propst, Evan J; Papsin, Blake C; Torres, Tatiana T; Buermans, Henk; Capelo, Luciane Portas; den Dunnen, Johan T; Guion-Almeida, Maria L; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2015-01-01

    Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare craniofacial disorder comprising core features of micrognathia, condyle dysplasia and question mark ear. Causative variants have been identified in PLCB4, GNAI3 and EDN1, which are predicted to function within the EDN1–EDNRA pathway during early pharyngeal arch patterning. To date, two GNAI3 variants in three families have been reported. Here we report three novel GNAI3 variants, one segregating with affected members in a family previously linked to 1p21.1-q23.3 and two de novo variants in simplex cases. Two variants occur in known functional motifs, the G1 and G4 boxes, and the third variant is one amino acid outside of the G1 box. Structural modeling shows that all five altered GNAI3 residues identified to date cluster in a region involved in GDP/GTP binding. We hypothesize that all GNAI3 variants lead to dominant negative effects. PMID:25026904

  2. Use of Dominant-Negative/Substrate Trapping PTP Mutations to Search for PTP Interactors/Substrates.

    PubMed

    Radha, Vegesna

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues is the consequence of coordinated action of tyrosine kinases (TKs), and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Together, they regulate intermolecular interactions, subcellular localization, and activity of a variety of proteins. The level of total protein-associated tyrosine phosphorylation in eukaryotic cells is only a small fraction of the total phosphorylation. PTPs, which have high specific activity compared to tyrosine kinases, play an important role in maintaining the tyrosine phosphorylation state of proteins and regulate signal transduction pathways and cellular responses. PTPs depend on specific invariant residues that enable binding to substrates phosphorylated at tyrosine and aid catalytic activity. Identification of PTP substrates has helped understand their role in distinct intracellular signaling pathways. Because of their high specific activity, the interaction between tyrosine phosphatases and their substrates is often very transient in the cellular context, and therefore identification of physiological substrates has been difficult. Single-site mutations in the enzymes stabilize interaction between the enzyme and its targets and have been used extensively to identify substrates. The mutations are either of the catalytic cysteine (Cys) residue or other invariant residues and have been classified as substrate-trapping mutants (STMs). These mutants often serve as dominant negatives that can inactivate effector functions of a specific PTP within cells. Considering their association with human disorders, inhibiting specific PTPs is important therapeutically. Since the catalytic domains are largely conserved, developing small-molecule inhibitors to a particular enzyme has proven difficult and therefore alternate strategies to block functions of individual enzymes are seriously being investigated. We provide a description of methods that will be useful to design strategies of using dominant-negative and

  3. Aβ accumulation causes MVB enlargement and is modelled by dominant negative VPS4A.

    PubMed

    Willén, Katarina; Edgar, James R; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Futter, Clare E; Gouras, Gunnar K

    2017-08-23

    Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulates in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the onset of AD pathogenesis. Alterations in endosomes are among the earliest changes associated with AD but the mechanism(s) that cause endosome enlargement and the effects of MVB dysfunction on Aβ accumulation and tau pathology are incompletely understood. MVB size and Aβ fibrils in primary neurons were visualized by electron microscopy and confocal fluorescent microscopy. MVB-dysfunction, modelled by expression of dominant negative VPS4A (dnVPS4A), was analysed by biochemical methods and exosome isolation. Here we show that AD transgenic neurons have enlarged MVBs compared to wild type neurons. Uptake of exogenous Aβ also leads to enlarged MVBs in wild type neurons and generates fibril-like structures in endocytic vesicles. With time fibrillar oligomers/fibrils can extend out of the endocytic vesicles and are eventually detectable extracellularly. Further, endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) components were found associated with amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mice. The phenotypes previously reported in AD transgenic neurons, with net increased intracellular levels and reduced secretion of Aβ, were mimicked by blocking recycling of ESCRT-III by dnVPS4A. DnVPS4A further resembled AD pathology by increasing tau phosphorylation at serine 396 and increasing markers of autophagy. We demonstrate that Aβ leads to MVB enlargement and that amyloid fibres can form within the endocytic pathway of neurons. These results are consistent with the scenario of the endosome-lysosome system representing the site of initiation of Aβ aggregation. In turn, a dominant negative form of the CHMP2B-interacting protein VPS4A, which alters MVBs, leads to accumulation and aggregation of Aβ as well as tau phosphorylation, mimicking the cellular changes in AD.

  4. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Recurring dominant-negative mutations in the AVP-NPII gene cause neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Repaske, D.R.; Phillips, J.A.; Krishnamani, M.R.S.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a familial form of arginine vasopressin (or antidiuretic hormone) deficiency that is usually manifest in early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia and an antidiuretic response to exogenous vasopressin or its analogs. The phenotype is postulated to arise from gliosis and depletion of the magnocellular neurons that produce vasopressin in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. ADNDI is caused by heterozygosity for a variety of mutations in the AVP-NPII gene which encodes vasopressin, its carrier protein (NPII) and a glycoprotein (copeptin) of unknown function. These mutations include: (1) Ala 19{r_arrow}Thr (G279A) in AVP`s signal peptide, (2) Gly 17{r_arrow}Val (G1740T), (3) Pro 24{r_arrow}Leu (C1761T), (4) Gly 57{r_arrow}Ser (G1859A) and (5) del Glu 47({delta}AGG 1824-26), all of which occur in NPII. In characterizing the AVP-NPII mutations in five non-related ADNDI kindreds, we have detected two kindreds having mutation 1 (G279A), two having mutation 3 (C1761T) and one having mutation 4 (G1859A) without any other allelic changes being detected. Two of these recurring mutations (G279A and G1859A) are transitions that occur at CpG dinucleotides while the third (C1761T) does not. Interestingly, families with the same mutations differed in their ethnicity or in their affected AVP-NPII allele`s associated haplotype of closely linked DNA polymorphisms. Our data indicated that at least three of five known AVP-NPII mutations causing ADNDI tend to recur but the mechanisms by which these dominant-negative mutations cause variable or progressive expression of the ADNDI phenotype remain unclear.

  6. Basic Skills Instruction in Community Colleges: The Dominance of Remedial Pedagogy. Working Paper, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton; Boner, Elizabeth; Frankel, Kate; Parker, Lynette; Patterson, David; Gabriner, Robert; Hope, Laura; Schiorring, Eva; Smith, Bruce; Taylor, Richard; Walton, Ian; Wilson, Smokey

    2011-01-01

    A previous working paper argued, that, to understand basic skills education, it is necessary to observe classrooms to see what the "instructional triangle" involving the instructor, students, and content is like. This working paper presents the results of observing classes in 13 community colleges. It starts with a conceptualization of…

  7. Basic Skills Instruction in Community Colleges: The Dominance of Remedial Pedagogy. Working Paper, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton; Boner, Elizabeth; Frankel, Kate; Parker, Lynette; Patterson, David; Gabriner, Robert; Hope, Laura; Schiorring, Eva; Smith, Bruce; Taylor, Richard; Walton, Ian; Wilson, Smokey

    2011-01-01

    A previous working paper argued, that, to understand basic skills education, it is necessary to observe classrooms to see what the "instructional triangle" involving the instructor, students, and content is like. This working paper presents the results of observing classes in 13 community colleges. It starts with a conceptualization of…

  8. Dominant-negative effect on adhesion by myelin Po protein truncated in its cytoplasmic domain

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The myelin Po protein is believed to hold myelin together via interactions of both its extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. We have already shown that the extracellular domains of Po can interact in a homophilic manner (Filbin, M.T., F.S. Walsh, B.D. Trapp, J.A. Pizzey, and G.I. Tennekoon. 1990. Nature (Lond.). 344:871-872). In addition, we have shown that for this homophilic adhesion to take place, the cytoplasmic domain of Po must be intact and most likely interacting with the cytoskeleton; Po proteins truncated in their cytoplasmic domains are not adhesive (Wong, M.H., and M.T. Filbin, 1994. J. Cell Biol. 126:1089-1097). To determine if the presence of these truncated forms of Po could have an effect on the functioning of the full-length Po, we coexpressed both molecules in CHO cells. The adhesiveness of CHO cells expressing both full-length Po and truncated Po was then compared to cells expressing only full-length Po. In these coexpressors, both the full-length and the truncated Po proteins were glycosylated. They reached the surface of the cell in approximately equal amounts as shown by an ELISA and surface labeling, followed by immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the amount of full-length Po at the cell surface was equivalent to other cell lines expressing only full-length Po that we had already shown to be adhesive. Therefore, there should be sufficient levels of full-length Po at the surface of these coexpressors to measure adhesion of Po. However, as assessed by an aggregation assay, the coexpressors were not adhesive. By 60 min they had not formed large aggregates and were indistinguishable from the control transfected cells not expressing Po. In contrast, in the same time, the cells expressing only the full-length Po had formed large aggregates. This indicates that the truncated forms of Po have a dominant-negative effect on the adhesiveness of the full-length Po. Furthermore, from cross-linking studies, full-length Po, when expressed alone but not when

  9. Cooperative binding of dominant-negative prion protein to kringle domains.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Chongsuk; Prusiner, Stanley B; Legname, Giuseppe

    2003-05-30

    Conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to the pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)) is a major biochemical alteration in the progression of prion disease. This conversion process is thought to require interaction between PrP(C) and an as yet unidentified auxiliary factor, provisionally designated protein X. In searching for protein X, we screened a phage display cDNA expression library constructed from prion-infected neuroblastoma (ScN2a) cells and identified a kringle protein domain using full-length recombinant mouse PrP (recMoPrP(23-231), hereafter recMoPrP) expressing a dominant-negative mutation at codon 218 (recMoPrP(Q218K)). In vitro binding analysis using ELISA verified specific interaction of recMoPrP to kringle domains (K(1+2+3)) with higher binding by recMoPrP(Q218K) than by full-length recMoPrP without the mutation. This interaction was confirmed by competitive binding analysis, in which the addition of either a specific anti-kringle antibody or L-lysine abolished the interaction. Biochemical studies of the interactions between K(1+2+3) and various concentrations of both recMoPrP molecules demonstrated binding in a dose-dependent manner. A Hill plot analysis of the data indicates positive cooperative binding of both recMoPrP(Q218K) and recMoPrP to K(1+2+3) with stronger binding by recMoPrP(Q218K). Using full-length and an N-terminally truncated MoPrP(89-231), we demonstrate that N-terminal sequences enable PrP to bind strongly to K(1+2+3). Further characterization with truncated MoPrP(89-231) refolded in different conformations revealed that both alpha-helical and beta-sheet conformations bind to K(1+2+3). Our data demonstrate specific, high-affinity binding of a dominant-negative PrP as well as binding of other PrPs to K(1+2+3). The relevance of such interactions during prion pathogenesis remains to be established.

  10. Alternative Splice Variants Modulates Dominant-Negative Function of Helios in T-Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shaorong; Liu, Wei; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Pengjiang; Li, Shufang; Dou, Daolei; Wang, Yue; Yang, Rongcun; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Feifei

    2016-01-01

    The molecular defects which lead to multistep incidences of human T-cell leukemia have yet to be identified. The DNA-binding protein Helios (known as IKZF2), a member of the Ikaros family of Krüppel-like zinc-finger proteins, functions pivotally in T-cell differentiation and activation. In this study, we identify three novel short Helios splice variants which are T-cell leukemic specific, and demonstrate their dominant-negative function. We then test the cellular localization of distinct Helios isoforms, as well as their capability to form heterodimer with Ikaros, and the association with complexes comprising histone deacetylase (HDAC). In addition, the ectopic expression of T-cell leukemic Helios isoforms interferes with T-cell proliferation and apoptosis. The gene expression profiling and pathway analysis indicated the enrichment of signaling pathways essential for gene expression, translation, cell cycle checkpoint, and response to DNA damage stimulus. These data indicate the molecular function of Helios to be involved in the leukemogenesis and phenotype of T-cell leukemia, and also reveal Helios deregulation as a novel marker for T-cell leukemia. PMID:27681508

  11. A cancer-predisposing "hot spot" mutation of the fumarase gene creates a dominant negative protein.

    PubMed

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Olivero, Martina; Perro, Mario; Brière, Jean Jacques; Rustin, Pierre; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2008-02-15

    The Fumarase (Fumarate Hydratase, FH) is a tumor suppressor gene whose germline heterozygous mutations predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). The FH gene encodes an enzyme of the Krebs cycle, functioning as a homotetramer and catalyzing the hydration of fumarate to malate. Among the numerous FH mutations reported so far, the R190H missense mutation is the most frequent in HLRCC patients. Here we show the functional analyses of the R190H, in comparison to the better characterized E319Q mutation. We first expressed wild-type and mutated proteins in FH deficient human skin fibroblasts, using lentiviral vectors. The wild-type transgene was able to restore the FH enzymatic activity in cells, while the R190H- and E319Q-FH were not. More interestingly, when the same transgenes were expressed in normal, FH-proficient cells, only the R190H-FH reduced the endogenous FH enzymatic activity. By enforcing the expression of equal amount of wild-type and R190H-FH in the same cell, we showed that the mutated FH protein directly inhibited enzymatic activity by nearly abrogating the FH homotetramer formation. These data demonstrate the dominant negative effect of the R190H missense mutation in the FH gene and suggest that the FH tumor-suppressing activity might be impaired in cells carrying a heterozygous mutation.

  12. A novel Fanconi anaemia subtype associated with a dominant-negative mutation in RAD51

    PubMed Central

    Ameziane, Najim; May, Patrick; Haitjema, Anneke; van de Vrugt, Henri J.; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sari E.; Ristic, Dejan; Williams, Gareth J.; Balk, Jesper; Rockx, Davy; Li, Hong; Rooimans, Martin A.; Oostra, Anneke B.; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Bleijerveld, Onno B.; Maarten Altelaar, A. F.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Joenje, Hans; Glusman, Gustavo; Roach, Jared; Hood, Leroy; Galas, David; Wyman, Claire; Balling, Rudi; den Dunnen, Johan; de Winter, Johan P.; Kanaar, Roland; Gelinas, Richard; Dorsman, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a hereditary disease featuring hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linker-induced chromosomal instability in association with developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and a strong predisposition to cancer. A total of 17 FA disease genes have been reported, all of which act in a recessive mode of inheritance. Here we report on a de novo g.41022153G>A; p.Ala293Thr (NM_002875) missense mutation in one allele of the homologous recombination DNA repair gene RAD51 in an FA-like patient. This heterozygous mutation causes a novel FA subtype, ‘FA-R', which appears to be the first subtype of FA caused by a dominant-negative mutation. The patient, who features microcephaly and mental retardation, has reached adulthood without the typical bone marrow failure and paediatric cancers. Together with the recent reports on RAD51-associated congenital mirror movement disorders, our results point to an important role for RAD51-mediated homologous recombination in neurodevelopment, in addition to DNA repair and cancer susceptibility. PMID:26681308

  13. Inhibition of elastase-pulmonary emphysema in dominant-negative MafB transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Aida, Yasuko; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Kimura, Tomomi; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Nunomiya, Keiko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Takako; Sato, Masamichi; Sato-Nishiwaki, Michiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We previously demonstrated upregulation of the transcription factor MafB in AMs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of MafB in the development of pulmonary emphysema. Porcine pancreatic elastase was administered to wild-type (WT) and dominant-negative (DN)-MafB transgenic (Tg) mice in which MafB activity was suppressed only in macrophages. We measured the mean linear intercept and conducted cell differential analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, surface marker analysis using flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining using antibodies to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-12. Airspace enlargement of the lungs was suppressed significantly in elastase-treated DN-MafB Tg mice compared with treated WT mice. AMs with projected pseudopods were decreased in DN-MafB Tg mice. The number of cells intermediately positive for F4/80 and weakly or intermediately positive for CD11b, which are considered cell subsets of matured AMs, decreased in the BAL of DN-MafB Tg mice. Furthermore, MMP-9 and -12 were significantly downregulated in BAL cells of DN-MafB Tg mice. Because MMPs exacerbate emphysema, MafB may be involved in pulmonary emphysema development through altered maturation of macrophages and MMP expression.

  14. Identification of new dominant-negative mutants of anthrax protective antigen using directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaobing; Feng, Chunfang; Cao, Sha; Guo, Aizhen; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-11-01

    The anthrax toxin is composed of three proteins: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema toxin (EF). The PA moiety carries EF and LF into the cytosol of mammalian cells via a mechanism that depends on the oligomerization of PA and transmembrane pore formation by the PA oligomer. Certain mutants of PA, termed dominant-negative (DN) mutants, can co-oligomerize with wild-type PA and disrupt the translocation ability of the pore. Here, we constructed a PA mutant library by introducing random mutations into domain II of PA and screened three new DN mutants of PA: V377E, T380S, and I432C. All the mutants inhibited the anthrax toxin action against sensitive cells. V377E had the strongest inhibitory effect and was further confirmed to be able to protect mice against a challenge with anthrax lethal toxin. Furthermore, we functionally characterized these mutants. The result showed that these mutations did not impair proteolytic activation or oligomer formation of PA, but impeded the prepore-pore conversion of the oligomer. These DN mutants of PA identified in our study may provide valuable information for elucidating the structure-function relationship of PA and for designing therapeutics for anthrax treatment.

  15. Random Screening for Dominant-Negative Mutants of the Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Protein M50▿

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Brigitte; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Buser, Christopher; Adler, Barbara; Walther, Paul; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of gene products by dominant-negative (DN) mutants is a powerful tool to assign functions to proteins. Here, we present a two-step procedure to establish a random screen for DN alleles, using the essential murine cytomegalovirus gene M50 as an example. First, loss-of-function mutants from a linker-scanning library were tested for inhibition of virus reconstitution with the help of FLP-mediated ectopic insertion of the mutants into the viral genome. Second, DN candidates were confirmed by conditional expression of the inhibitory proteins in the virus context. This allowed the quantification of the inhibitory effect, the identification of the morphogenesis block, and the construction of DN mutants with improved activity. Based on these observations a DN mutant of the homologous gene (UL50) in human cytomegalovirus was predicted and constructed. Our data suggest that a proline-rich sequence motif in the variable region of M50/UL50 represents a new functional site which is essential for nuclear egress of cytomegalovirus capsids. PMID:17376929

  16. Random screening for dominant-negative mutants of the cytomegalovirus nuclear egress protein M50.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Brigitte; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Buser, Christopher; Adler, Barbara; Walther, Paul; Koszinowski, Ulrich H

    2007-06-01

    Inactivation of gene products by dominant-negative (DN) mutants is a powerful tool to assign functions to proteins. Here, we present a two-step procedure to establish a random screen for DN alleles, using the essential murine cytomegalovirus gene M50 as an example. First, loss-of-function mutants from a linker-scanning library were tested for inhibition of virus reconstitution with the help of FLP-mediated ectopic insertion of the mutants into the viral genome. Second, DN candidates were confirmed by conditional expression of the inhibitory proteins in the virus context. This allowed the quantification of the inhibitory effect, the identification of the morphogenesis block, and the construction of DN mutants with improved activity. Based on these observations a DN mutant of the homologous gene (UL50) in human cytomegalovirus was predicted and constructed. Our data suggest that a proline-rich sequence motif in the variable region of M50/UL50 represents a new functional site which is essential for nuclear egress of cytomegalovirus capsids.

  17. Sonic Hedgehog Mutations Identified in Holoprosencephaly Patients Can Act in a Dominant Negative Manner

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Samer; Tokhunts, Robert; Baubet, Valerie; Goetz, John A.; Huang, Zhen Jane; Schilling, Neal S.; Black, Kendall E.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Dahmane, Nadia; Robbins, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) plays an important instructional role in vertebrate development, as exemplified by the numerous developmental disorders that occur when the SHH pathway is disrupted. Mutations in the SHH gene are the most common cause of sporadic and inherited Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a developmental disorder that is characterized by defective prosencephalon development. SHH HPE mutations provide a unique opportunity to better understand SHH biogenesis and signaling, and to decipher its role in the development of HPE. Here, we analyzed a panel of SHH HPE missense mutations that encode changes in the amino-terminal active domain of SHH. Our results show that SHH HPE mutations affect SHH biogenesis and signaling at multiple steps, which broadly results in low levels of protein expression, defective processing of SHH into its active form and protein with reduced activity. Additionally, we found that some inactive SHH proteins were able to modulate the activity of wt SHH in a dominant negative manner, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings show for the first time the susceptibility of SHH driven developmental processes to perturbations by low-activity forms of SHH. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SHH mutations found in HPE patients affect distinct steps of SHH biogenesis to attenuate SHH activity to different levels, and suggest that these variable levels of SHH activity might contribute to some of the phenotypic variation found in HPE patients. PMID:19057928

  18. Inhibition of growth of cervical cancer cells using a dominant negative estrogen receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Au, William W.; Abdou-Salama, Salama; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2007-01-01

    Objective Estrogen stimulates human papilloma virus oncogene expression, promotes cervical cancer (CC) cell proliferation and prevents apoptosis. Therefore, blockage of estrogen function may have therapeutic application to CC. Methods CasKi CC cells were transfected with an adenovirus expressing a dominant negative estrogen receptor gene (Ad-ER-DN) and their responses were investigated by RT-PCR, Flow Cytometry and Western blot assays. Result Transfected cells showed disturbance of cell colony morphology, reduced HPV E6 and E7 mRNA, interruption of cell proliferation, reduced cyclin D1 protein and expression of apoptosis. Conclusion We report, for the first time, the use of Ad-ER-DN to block estrogen receptors which led to dramatic changes in CC cells that are consistent with the possible reactivation of cellular p53 and Rb function. Their reactivation most likely allowed the recognition of existing chromosome abnormalities as a serious stress signal and the initiation of a cascade of cellular events in response to the stress, including the activation of the core apoptotic machinery which led to self-destruction of the CC cells. PMID:17137618

  19. A dominant negative mutation in the conserved RNA helicase motif 'SAT' causes splicing factor PRP2 to stall in spliceosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Plumpton, M; McGarvey, M; Beggs, J D

    1994-01-01

    To characterize sequences in the RNA helicase-like PRP2 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are essential for its function in pre-mRNA splicing, a pool of random PRP2 mutants was generated. A dominant negative allele was isolated which, when overexpressed in a wild-type yeast strain, inhibited cell growth by causing a defect in pre-mRNA splicing. This defect was partially alleviated by simultaneous co-overexpression of wild-type PRP2. The dominant negative PRP2 protein inhibited splicing in vitro and caused the accumulation of stalled splicing complexes. Immunoprecipitation with anti-PRP2 antibodies confirmed that dominant negative PRP2 protein competed with its wild-type counterpart for interaction with spliceosomes, with which the mutant protein remained associated. The PRP2-dn1 mutation led to a single amino acid change within the conserved SAT motif that in the prototype helicase eIF-4A is required for RNA unwinding. Purified dominant negative PRP2 protein had approximately 40% of the wild-type level of RNA-stimulated ATPase activity. As ATPase activity was reduced only slightly, but splicing activity was abolished, we propose that the dominant negative phenotype is due primarily to a defect in the putative RNA helicase activity of PRP2 protein. Images PMID:8112301

  20. Dominant region: a basic feature for group motion analysis and its application to teamwork evaluation in soccer games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-12-01

    This paper proposes a basic feature for quantitative measurement and evaluation of group behavior of persons. This feature called 'dominant region' is a kind of sphere of influence for each person in the group. The dominant region is defined as a region in where the person can arrive earlier than any other persons and can be formulated as Voronoi region modified by replacing the distance function with a time function. This time function is calculated based on a computational model of moving ability of the person. As an application of the dominant region, we present a motion analysis system of soccer games. The purpose of this system is to evaluate the teamwork quantitatively based on movement of all the players in the game. From experiments using motion pictures of actual games, it is suggested that the proposed feature is useful for measurement and evaluation of group behavior in team sports. This basic feature may be applied to other team ball games, such as American football, basketball, handball and water polo.

  1. Characterization of a novel, dominant negative KCNJ2 mutation associated with Andersen-Tawil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marrus, Scott B; Cuculich, Phillip S; Wang, Wei; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2011-01-01

    Andersen-Tawil syndrome is characterized by periodic paralysis, ventricular ectopy, and dysmorphic features. Approximately 60% of patients exhibit loss-of-function mutations in KCNJ2, which encodes the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel pore forming subunit Kir2.1. Here, we report the identification of a novel KCNJ2 mutation (G211T), resulting in the amino acid substitution D71Y, in a patient presenting with signs and symptoms of Andersen-Tawil syndrome. The functional properties of the mutant subunit were characterized using voltage-clamp experiments on transiently transfected HEK-293 cells and neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes. Whole-cell current recordings of transfected HEK-293 cells demonstrated that the mutant protein Kir2.1-D71Y fails to form functional ion channels when expressed alone, but co-assembles with wild-type Kir2.1 subunits and suppresses wild-type subunit function. Further analysis revealed that current suppression requires at least two mutant subunits per channel. The D71Y mutation does not measurably affect the membrane trafficking of either the mutant or the wild-type subunit or alter the kinetic properties of the currents. Additional experiments revealed that expression of the mutant subunit suppresses native I(K1) in neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes. Simulations predict that the D71Y mutation in human ventricular myocytes will result in a mild prolongation of the action potential and potentially increase cell excitability. These experiments indicate that the Kir2.1-D71Y mutant protein functions as a dominant negative subunit resulting in reduced inwardly rectifying K(+) current amplitudes and altered cellular excitability in patients with Andersen-Tawil syndrome.

  2. Generation of a Retinoblastoma (Rb)1-inducible dominant-negative (DN) mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tarang, Shikha; Doi, Songila M. S. R.; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B.; Harms, Donald; Quadros, Rolen; Rocha-Sanchez, Sonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) is an essential gene regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and homeostasis. To exert these functions, Rb1 is recruited and physically interacts with a growing variety of signaling pathways. While Rb1 does not appear to be ubiquitously expressed, its expression has been confirmed in a variety of hematopoietic and neuronal-derived cells, including the inner ear hair cells (HCs). Studies in transgenic mice demonstrate that complete germline or conditional Rb1 deletion leads to abnormal cell proliferation, followed by massive apoptosis; making it difficult to fully address Rb1’s biochemical activities. To overcome these limitations, we developed a tetracycline-inducible TetO-CB-myc6-Rb1 (CBRb) mouse model to achieve transient and inducible dominant-negative (DN) inhibition of the endogenous RB1 protein. Our strategy involved fusing the Rb1 gene to the lysosomal protease pre-procathepsin B (CB), thus allowing for further routing of the DN-CBRb fusion protein and its interacting complexes for proteolytic degradation. Moreover, reversibility of the system is achieved upon suppression of doxycycline (Dox) administration. Preliminary characterization of DN-CBRb mice bred to a ubiquitous rtTA mouse line demonstrated a significant inhibition of the endogenous RB1 protein in the inner ear and in a number of other organs where RB1 is expressed. Examination of the postnatal (P) DN-CBRb mice inner ear at P10 and P28 showed the presence of supernumerary inner HCs (IHCs) in the lower turns of the cochleae, which corresponds to the described expression domain of the endogenous Rb1 gene. Selective and reversible suppression of gene expression is both an experimental tool for defining function and a potential means to medical therapy. Given the limitations associated with Rb1-null mice lethality, this model provides a valuable resource for understanding RB1 activity, relative contribution to HC regeneration and its potential therapeutic

  3. Generation of a Retinoblastoma (Rb)1-inducible dominant-negative (DN) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tarang, Shikha; Doi, Songila M S R; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Harms, Donald; Quadros, Rolen; Rocha-Sanchez, Sonia M

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) is an essential gene regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and homeostasis. To exert these functions, Rb1 is recruited and physically interacts with a growing variety of signaling pathways. While Rb1 does not appear to be ubiquitously expressed, its expression has been confirmed in a variety of hematopoietic and neuronal-derived cells, including the inner ear hair cells (HCs). Studies in transgenic mice demonstrate that complete germline or conditional Rb1 deletion leads to abnormal cell proliferation, followed by massive apoptosis; making it difficult to fully address Rb1's biochemical activities. To overcome these limitations, we developed a tetracycline-inducible TetO-CB-myc6-Rb1 (CBRb) mouse model to achieve transient and inducible dominant-negative (DN) inhibition of the endogenous RB1 protein. Our strategy involved fusing the Rb1 gene to the lysosomal protease pre-procathepsin B (CB), thus allowing for further routing of the DN-CBRb fusion protein and its interacting complexes for proteolytic degradation. Moreover, reversibility of the system is achieved upon suppression of doxycycline (Dox) administration. Preliminary characterization of DN-CBRb mice bred to a ubiquitous rtTA mouse line demonstrated a significant inhibition of the endogenous RB1 protein in the inner ear and in a number of other organs where RB1 is expressed. Examination of the postnatal (P) DN-CBRb mice inner ear at P10 and P28 showed the presence of supernumerary inner HCs (IHCs) in the lower turns of the cochleae, which corresponds to the described expression domain of the endogenous Rb1 gene. Selective and reversible suppression of gene expression is both an experimental tool for defining function and a potential means to medical therapy. Given the limitations associated with Rb1-null mice lethality, this model provides a valuable resource for understanding RB1 activity, relative contribution to HC regeneration and its potential therapeutic application.

  4. Dominant negative Ras attenuates pathological ventricular remodeling in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Rapti, Kleopatra; Mehel, Hind; Zhang, Shihong; Dhandapany, Perundurai S; Liang, Lifan; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Bobe, Regis; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Adnot, Serge; Lebeche, Djamel; Hajjar, Roger J; Lipskaia, Larissa; Chemaly, Elie R

    2015-11-01

    The importance of the oncogene Ras in cardiac hypertrophy is well appreciated. The hypertrophic effects of the constitutively active mutant Ras-Val12 are revealed by clinical syndromes due to the Ras mutations and experimental studies. We examined the possible anti-hypertrophic effect of Ras inhibition in vitro using rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (NRCM) and in vivo in the setting of pressure-overload left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (POH) in rats. Ras functions were modulated via adenovirus directed gene transfer of active mutant Ras-Val12 or dominant negative mutant N17-DN-Ras (DN-Ras). Ras-Val12 expression in vitro activates NFAT resulting in pro-hypertrophic and cardio-toxic effects on NRCM beating and Z-line organization. In contrast, the DN-Ras was antihypertrophic on NRCM, inhibited NFAT and exerted cardio-protective effects attested by preserved NRCM beating and Z line structure. Additional experiments with silencing H-Ras gene strategy corroborated the antihypertrophic effects of siRNA-H-Ras on NRCM. In vivo, with the POH model, both Ras mutants were associated with similar hypertrophy two weeks after simultaneous induction of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer. However, LV diameters were higher and LV fractional shortening lower in the Ras-Val12 group compared to control and DN-Ras. Moreover, DN-Ras reduced the cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in vivo, and decreased the expression of markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. In isolated adult cardiomyocytes after 2 weeks of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer, DN-Ras improved sarcomere shortening and calcium transients compared to Ras-Val12. Overall, DN-Ras promotes a more physiological form of hypertrophy, suggesting an interesting therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Autoregulation of Fox protein expression to produce dominant negative splicing factors

    PubMed Central

    Damianov, Andrey; Black, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Fox proteins are a family of regulators that control the alternative splicing of many exons in neurons, muscle, and other tissues. Each of the three mammalian paralogs, Fox-1 (A2BP1), Fox-2 (RBM9), and Fox-3 (HRNBP3), produces proteins with a single RNA-binding domain (RRM) flanked by N- and C-terminal domains that are highly diversified through the use of alternative promoters and alternative splicing patterns. These genes also express protein isoforms lacking the second half of the RRM (FoxΔRRM), due to the skipping of a highly conserved 93-nt exon. Fox binding elements overlap the splice sites of these exons in Fox-1 and Fox-2, and the Fox proteins themselves inhibit exon inclusion. Unlike other cases of splicing autoregulation by RNA-binding proteins, skipping the RRM exon creates an in-frame deletion in the mRNA to produce a stable protein. These FoxΔRRM isoforms expressed from cDNA exhibit highly reduced binding to RNA in vivo. However, we show that they can act as repressors of Fox-dependent splicing, presumably by competing with full-length Fox isoforms for interaction with other splicing factors. Interestingly, the Drosophila Fox homolog contains a nearly identical exon in its RRM domain that also has flanking Fox-binding sites. Thus, rather than autoregulation of splicing controlling the abundance of the regulator, the Fox proteins use a highly conserved mechanism of splicing autoregulation to control production of a dominant negative isoform. PMID:20042473

  6. Expression of a dominant negative PKA mutation in the kidney elicits a diabetes insipidus phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Merle L; Yang, Linghai; Su, Thomas; McKnight, G Stanley

    2015-03-15

    PKA plays a critical role in water excretion through regulation of the production and action of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). The AVP prohormone is produced in the hypothalamus, where its transcription is regulated by cAMP. Once released into the circulation, AVP stimulates antidiuresis through activation of vasopressin 2 receptors in renal principal cells. Vasopressin 2 receptor activation increases cAMP and activates PKA, which, in turn, phosphorylates aquaporin (AQP)2, triggering apical membrane accumulation, increased collecting duct permeability, and water reabsorption. We used single-minded homolog 1 (Sim1)-Cre recombinase-mediated expression of a dominant negative PKA regulatory subunit (RIαB) to disrupt kinase activity in vivo and assess the role of PKA in fluid homeostasis. RIαB expression gave rise to marked polydipsia and polyuria; however, neither hypothalamic Avp mRNA expression nor urinary AVP levels were attenuated, indicating a primary physiological effect on the kidney. RIαB mice displayed a marked deficit in urinary concentrating ability and greatly reduced levels of AQP2 and phospho-AQP2. Dehydration induced Aqp2 mRNA in the kidney of both control and RIαB-expressing mice, but AQP2 protein levels were still reduced in RIαB-expressing mutants, and mice were unable to fully concentrate their urine and conserve water. We conclude that partial PKA inhibition in the kidney leads to posttranslational effects that reduce AQP2 protein levels and interfere with apical membrane localization. These findings demonstrate a distinct physiological role for PKA signaling in both short- and long-term regulation of AQP2 and characterize a novel mouse model of diabetes insipidus.

  7. Dominant negative Ras attenuates pathological ventricular remodeling in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Rapti, Kleopatra; Mehel, Hind; Zhang, Shihong; Dhandapany, Perundurai S.; Liang, Lifan; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Bobe, Regis; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Adnot, Serge; Lebeche, Djamel; Hajjar, Roger J.; Lipskaia, Larissa; Chemaly, Elie R.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the oncogene Ras in cardiac hypertrophy is well appreciated. The hypertrophic effects of the constitutively active mutant Ras-Val12 are revealed by clinical syndromes due to the Ras mutations and experimental studies. We examined the possible anti-hypertrophic effect of Ras inhibition in vitro using rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (NRCM) and in vivo in the setting of pressure-overload left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (POH) in rats. Ras functions were modulated via adenovirus directed gene transfer of active mutant Ras-Val12 or dominant negative mutant N17-DN-Ras (DN-Ras). Ras-Val12 expression in vitro activates NFAT resulting in pro-hypertrophic and cardio-toxic effects on NRCM beating and Z-line organization. In contrast, the DN-Ras was antihypertrophic on NRCM, inhibited NFAT and exerted cardio-protective effects attested by preserved NRCM beating and Z line structure. Additional experiments with silencing H-Ras gene strategy corroborated the antihypertrophic effects of siRNA-H-Ras on NRCM. In vivo, with the POH model, both Ras mutants were associated with similar hypertrophy two weeks after simultaneous induction of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer. However, LV diameters were higher and LV fractional shortening lower in the Ras-Val12 group compared to control and DN-Ras. Moreover, DN-Ras reduced the cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in vivo, and decreased the expression of markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. In isolated adult cardiomyocytes after 2 weeks of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer, DN-Ras improved sarcomere shortening and calcium transients compared to Ras-Val12. Overall, DN-Ras promotes a more physiological form of hypertrophy, suggesting an interesting therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26260012

  8. Rapamycin protects against dominant negative-HNF1A-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Angela M; Kilbride, Seán M; Bonner, Caroline; Prehn, Jochen H M; Byrne, Maria M

    2011-11-01

    HNF1A-maturity onset diabetes of the young (HNF1A-MODY) is caused by mutations in Hnf1a gene encoding the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1A). An increased rate of apoptosis has been associated with the decrease in beta-cell mass that is a hallmark of HNF1A-MODY and other forms of diabetes. In a cellular model of HNF1A-MODY, we have recently shown that signalling through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is decreased by the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of HNF1A (DN-HNF1A). mTOR is a protein kinase which has important roles in cell metabolism and growth, but also in cell survival, where it has been shown to be both protective and detrimental. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibition of mTOR activity with rapamycin protected INS-1 cells against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Rapamycin also prevented DN-HNF1A-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an intracellular energy sensor which we have previously shown to mediate DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Conversely, activation of mTOR with leucine potentiated DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Gene silencing of raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR), a subunit of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), also conferred protection on INS-1 cells against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis, confirming that mTORC1 mediates the protective effect. The potential relevance of this effect with regards to the clinical use of rapamycin as an immunosuppressant in diabetics post-transplantation is discussed.

  9. Two Sides of Emotion: Exploring Positivity and Negativity in Six Basic Emotions across Cultures

    PubMed Central

    An, Sieun; Ji, Li-Jun; Marks, Michael; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    We employ a novel paradigm to test whether six basic emotions (sadness, fear, disgust, anger, surprise, and happiness; Ekman, 1992) contain both negativity and positivity, as opposed to consisting of a single continuum between negative and positive. We examined the perceived negativity and positivity of these emotions in terms of their affective and cognitive components among Korean, Chinese, Canadian, and American students. Assessing each emotion at the cognitive and affective levels cross-culturally provides a fairly comprehensive picture of the positivity and negativity of emotions. Affective components were rated as more divergent than cognitive components. Cross-culturally, Americans and Canadians gave higher valence ratings to the salient valence of each emotion, and lower ratings to the non-salient valence of an emotion, compared to Chinese and Koreans. The results suggest that emotions encompass both positivity and negativity, and there were cross-cultural differences in reported emotions. This paradigm complements existing emotion theories, building on past research and allowing for more parsimonious explanations of cross-cultural research on emotion. PMID:28473791

  10. Two Sides of Emotion: Exploring Positivity and Negativity in Six Basic Emotions across Cultures.

    PubMed

    An, Sieun; Ji, Li-Jun; Marks, Michael; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    We employ a novel paradigm to test whether six basic emotions (sadness, fear, disgust, anger, surprise, and happiness; Ekman, 1992) contain both negativity and positivity, as opposed to consisting of a single continuum between negative and positive. We examined the perceived negativity and positivity of these emotions in terms of their affective and cognitive components among Korean, Chinese, Canadian, and American students. Assessing each emotion at the cognitive and affective levels cross-culturally provides a fairly comprehensive picture of the positivity and negativity of emotions. Affective components were rated as more divergent than cognitive components. Cross-culturally, Americans and Canadians gave higher valence ratings to the salient valence of each emotion, and lower ratings to the non-salient valence of an emotion, compared to Chinese and Koreans. The results suggest that emotions encompass both positivity and negativity, and there were cross-cultural differences in reported emotions. This paradigm complements existing emotion theories, building on past research and allowing for more parsimonious explanations of cross-cultural research on emotion.

  11. A heterozygous dominant-negative mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT1 is the cause of autosomal-dominant Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Masahiro; Yamada, Masafumi; Ito, Kenta; Tozawa, Yusuke; Morino, Saeko; Horikoshi, Yuho; Takada, Hidetoshi; Abdrabou, Shimaa Said Mohamed Ali; Takezaki, Shunichiro; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Ariga, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Heterozygous dominant-negative mutations of STAT1 are responsible for autosomal-dominant Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (AD-MSMD). So far, only 7 mutations have been previously described and are localized to 3 domains: the DNA-binding domain, the SH2 domain, and the tail segment. In this study, we demonstrated the first coiled-coil domain (CCD) mutation of c.749G>C, p.G250A (G250A) in STAT1 as a genetic cause of AD-MSMD in a patient with mycobacterial multiple osteomyelitis. This de novo heterozygous mutation was shown to have a dominant-negative effect on the gamma-activated sequence (GAS) transcriptional activity following IFN-γ stimulation, which could be attributable to the abolished phosphorylation of STAT1 from the wild-type (WT) allele. The three-dimensional structure of STAT1 revealed the G250 residue was located distant from a cluster of residues affected by gain-of-function mutations responsible for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  12. Apparent basicities of the surfaces characterizing the dominant crystal habits of distinct polymorphic forms of 4-aminosulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Cysewski, Piotr

    2014-07-01

    A new approach for estimating local basicities/acidities of groups exposed on crystal surfaces was formulated and validated. The model, constructed within a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) framework, allowed the expression of the protonic properties of amine and sulfonamide groups as functions of simple molecular descriptors of geometric types. This enabled the application of a QM/MM approach for the structural optimization of SNM molecules located on the surfaces of the dominant crystal habits. The obtained pKa values were used for classification of the protonic properties of four p-aminosulfonamide (SNM) polymorphs. The computed distributions of the surface pK a values suggested that, for all polymorphs, the amino group has statistically the same proton-accepting ability on the crystal surface as in bulk water solution. Although sulfonamide groups on the crystal surface-especially those distributed on β- and γ-dominant faces-seem to be more acidic compared to bulk water solution, the pK a values are statistically indistinguishable irrespective of the morphology. This suggests that experimentally observed differences in the perichromic properties of SNM polymorphs do not arise from local pH changes, Thus, apparent local basicities are to be relaed to structural similarity of SNM surfaces and thymol blue conformers anabling direct interactions.

  13. A pilot study examining if satisfaction of basic needs can ameliorate negative effects of shift work

    PubMed Central

    SAKSVIK-LEHOUILLIER, Ingvild; HETLAND, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if satisfaction of the basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is related to shift work tolerance, specifically physical and mental fatigue, insomnia, and digestive troubles in a sample of shift workers. This is a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire study, including 252 shift workers employed in a municipality in Norway. Autonomy was negatively related to physical fatigue and digestive troubles, while competence was negatively related to mental fatigue. Relatedness showed significant correlations with insomnia and mental fatigue, but did not reach significance in the regression model controlling for the two other basic needs as well as work scheduling, night work exposure, and sleep medication. Sleep medication was significant in the final regression model for insomnia, but unrelated to fatigue and digestive troubles. The demographic variables, work hours per week, work schedule, and night work exposure were unrelated to all four measures of shift work tolerance. Autonomy and competence may be more important for fatigue and digestive troubles among shift workers than work arrangement variables, night work exposure, and sleep medication use. PMID:26423327

  14. A pilot study examining if satisfaction of basic needs can ameliorate negative effects of shift work.

    PubMed

    Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Hetland, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if satisfaction of the basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is related to shift work tolerance, specifically physical and mental fatigue, insomnia, and digestive troubles in a sample of shift workers. This is a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire study, including 252 shift workers employed in a municipality in Norway. Autonomy was negatively related to physical fatigue and digestive troubles, while competence was negatively related to mental fatigue. Relatedness showed significant correlations with insomnia and mental fatigue, but did not reach significance in the regression model controlling for the two other basic needs as well as work scheduling, night work exposure, and sleep medication. Sleep medication was significant in the final regression model for insomnia, but unrelated to fatigue and digestive troubles. The demographic variables, work hours per week, work schedule, and night work exposure were unrelated to all four measures of shift work tolerance. Autonomy and competence may be more important for fatigue and digestive troubles among shift workers than work arrangement variables, night work exposure, and sleep medication use.

  15. Effects of eye dominance (left vs. right) and cannabis use on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Based on the previous findings, it has been assumed that in schizophrenia patients, eye dominance and cannabis use will affect negative symptoms and intermanual coordination (IMC), an index of interhemispheric communication. But eye dominance, specifically the clinical findings for it, has been neglected in schizophrenia research. We therefore investigated its effects in 52 right-handed (36 right-eyed and 16 left-eyed) and 51 left-handed (35 left-eyed and 16 right-eyed) schizophrenia in-patients without and with drug use. Eye dominance affected IMC in all schizophrenia patients. When comparing right- and left-handers, we found that this result was only significant in the right-handed patients and in the smaller subgroup without drug use. In the right-handers, left eye dominance-like left-handedness-was associated with higher values in IMC and less pronounced manifestation of negative symptoms, right eye dominance was not. Thus, left-eyed right-handers may be more closely related to left-handers than to right-handers. In accordance with the results from the literature, we suggest that these findings are due to better interhemispheric connections and less impairment of white matter structures, especially in right-hemispheric regions. Moreover, cannabis use was related to higher scores in IMC and less pronounced negative symptoms, but only in the right-eyed and not in the left-eyed right-handers or in the left-handers. Hence, differences in eye dominance and handedness may be partially responsible for different results in interhemispheric connections among cannabis users. In conclusion, both eye dominance and use of cannabis should be taken into account when assessing clinical symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  16. Negative Borrowing in an Indigenous-Language Shift to the Dominant National Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorian, Nancy C.

    2006-01-01

    Receding languages in contact with an expanding language are susceptible to various forms of transfer, including covert transfer or negative borrowing, the elimination of features not shared by the expanding language. Retention of two Scottish Gaelic grammatical features with English parallels and of two grammatical features without English…

  17. Dominant-negative myosin Va impairs retrograde but not anterograde axonal transport of large dense core vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bittins, Claudia Margarethe; Eichler, Tilo Wolf; Hammer, John A; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann

    2010-04-01

    Axonal transport of peptide and hormone-containing large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) is known to be a microtubule-dependent process. Here, we suggest a role for the actin-based motor protein myosin Va specifically in retrograde axonal transport of LDCVs. Using live-cell imaging of transfected hippocampal neurons grown in culture, we measured the speed, transport direction, and the number of LDCVs that were labeled with ectopically expressed neuropeptide Y fused to EGFP. Upon expression of a dominant-negative tail construct of myosin Va, a general reduction of movement in both dendrites and axons was observed. In axons, it was particularly interesting that the retrograde speed of LDCVs was significantly impaired, although anterograde transport remained unchanged. Moreover, particles labeled with the dominant-negative construct often moved in the retrograde direction but rarely in the anterograde direction. We suggest a model where myosin Va acts as an actin-dependent vesicle motor that facilitates retrograde axonal transport.

  18. Differential molecular and behavioural alterations in mouse models of GABRG2 haploinsufficiency versus dominant negative mutations associated with human epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Shen, Wangzhen; Huang, Xuan; Liu, Zhong; Macdonald, Robert L; Kang, Jing-Qiong

    2016-08-01

    Genetic epilepsy is a common disorder with phenotypic variation, but the basis for the variation is unknown. Comparing the molecular pathophysiology of mutations in the same epilepsy gene may provide mechanistic insights into the phenotypic heterogeneity. GABRG2 is an established epilepsy gene, and mutations in it produce epilepsy syndromes with varying severities. The disease phenotype in some cases may be caused by simple loss of subunit function (functional haploinsufficiency), while others may be caused by loss-of-function plus dominant negative suppression and other cellular toxicity. Detailed molecular defects and the corresponding seizures and related comorbidities resulting from haploinsufficiency and dominant negative mutations, however, have not been compared. Here we compared two mouse models of GABRG2 loss-of-function mutations associated with epilepsy with different severities, Gabrg2(+/Q390X) knockin (KI) and Gabrg2(+/-) knockout (KO) mice. Heterozygous Gabrg2(+/Q390X) KI mice are associated with a severe epileptic encephalopathy due to a dominant negative effect of the mutation, while heterozygous Gabrg2(+/-) KO mice are associated with mild absence epilepsy due to simple haploinsufficiency. Unchanged at the transcriptional level, KI mice with severe epilepsy had neuronal accumulation of mutant γ2 subunits, reduced remaining functional wild-type subunits in dendrites and synapses, while KO mice with mild epilepsy had no intracellular accumulation of the mutant subunits and unaffected biogenesis of the remaining wild-type subunits. Consequently, KI mice with dominant negative mutations had much less wild-type receptor expression, more severe seizures and behavioural comorbidities than KO mice. This work provides insights into the pathophysiology of epilepsy syndrome heterogeneity and designing mechanism-based therapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Differential molecular and behavioural alterations in mouse models of GABRG2 haploinsufficiency versus dominant negative mutations associated with human epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Timothy A.; Shen, Wangzhen; Huang, Xuan; Liu, Zhong; Macdonald, Robert L.; Kang, Jing-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Genetic epilepsy is a common disorder with phenotypic variation, but the basis for the variation is unknown. Comparing the molecular pathophysiology of mutations in the same epilepsy gene may provide mechanistic insights into the phenotypic heterogeneity. GABRG2 is an established epilepsy gene, and mutations in it produce epilepsy syndromes with varying severities. The disease phenotype in some cases may be caused by simple loss of subunit function (functional haploinsufficiency), while others may be caused by loss-of-function plus dominant negative suppression and other cellular toxicity. Detailed molecular defects and the corresponding seizures and related comorbidities resulting from haploinsufficiency and dominant negative mutations, however, have not been compared. Here we compared two mouse models of GABRG2 loss-of-function mutations associated with epilepsy with different severities, Gabrg2+/Q390X knockin (KI) and Gabrg2+/- knockout (KO) mice. Heterozygous Gabrg2+/Q390XKI mice are associated with a severe epileptic encephalopathy due to a dominant negative effect of the mutation, while heterozygous Gabrg2+/- KO mice are associated with mild absence epilepsy due to simple haploinsufficiency. Unchanged at the transcriptional level, KI mice with severe epilepsy had neuronal accumulation of mutant γ2 subunits, reduced remaining functional wild-type subunits in dendrites and synapses, while KO mice with mild epilepsy had no intracellular accumulation of the mutant subunits and unaffected biogenesis of the remaining wild-type subunits. Consequently, KI mice with dominant negative mutations had much less wild-type receptor expression, more severe seizures and behavioural comorbidities than KO mice. This work provides insights into the pathophysiology of epilepsy syndrome heterogeneity and designing mechanism-based therapies. PMID:27340224

  20. Rhodopsin Gene Expression Determines Rod Outer Segment Size and Rod Cell Resistance to a Dominant-Negative Neurodegeneration Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Price, Brandee A.; Sandoval, Ivette M.; Chan, Fung; Nichols, Ralph; Roman-Sanchez, Ramon; Wensel, Theodore G.; Wilson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Two outstanding unknowns in the biology of photoreceptors are the molecular determinants of cell size, which is remarkably uniform among mammalian species, and the mechanisms of rod cell death associated with inherited neurodegenerative blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. We have addressed both questions by performing an in vivo titration with rhodopsin gene copies in genetically engineered mice that express only normal rhodopsin or an autosomal dominant allele, encoding rhodopsin with a disease-causing P23H substitution. The results reveal that the volume of the rod outer segment is proportional to rhodopsin gene expression; that P23H-rhodopsin, the most common rhodopsin gene disease allele, causes cell death via a dominant-negative mechanism; and that long term survival of rod cells carrying P23H-rhodopsin can be achieved by increasing the levels of wild type rhodopsin. These results point to promising directions in gene therapy for autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases caused by dominant-negative mutations. PMID:23185477

  1. Disruption of C-Terminal Cytoplasmic Domain of βPS Integrin Subunit Has Dominant Negative Properties in Developing Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jannuzi, Alison L.; Bunch, Thomas A.; Brabant, Marc C.; Miller, Steven W.; Mukai, Leona; Zavortink, Michael; Brower, Danny L.

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of new and existing strong mutations in the myospheroid gene, which encodes the βPS integrin subunit of Drosophila. In addition to missense and other null mutations, three mutants behave as antimorphic alleles, indicative of dominant negative properties. Unlike null alleles, the three antimorphic mutants are synthetically lethal in double heterozygotes with an inflated (αPS2) null allele, and they fail to complement very weak, otherwise viable alleles of myospheroid. Two of the antimorphs result from identical splice site lesions, which create a frameshift in the C-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of βPS. The third antimorphic mutation is caused by a stop codon just before the cytoplasmic splice site. These mutant βPS proteins can support cell spreading in culture, especially under conditions that appear to promote integrin activation. Analyses of developing animals indicate that the dominant negative properties are not a result of inefficient surface expression, or simple competition between functional and nonfunctional proteins. These data indicate that mutations disrupting the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of integrin β subunits can have dominant negative effects in situ, at normal levels of expression, and that this property does not necessarily depend on a specific new protein sequence or structure. The results are discussed with respect to similar vertebrate β subunit cytoplasmic mutations. PMID:11950944

  2. Molecular cloning of ID4, a novel dominant negative helix-loop-helix human gene on chromosome 6p21.3-p22

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliuca, A.; Bartoli, P.C.; Saccone, S.

    1995-05-01

    Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate the expression of tissue-specific genes in a number of mammalian and insect systems. DNA-binding activity of the bHLH proteins is dependent upon formation of homo- and/or heterodimers. Dominant negative HLH proteins (Id-related genes) also contain the HLH-dimerization domain but lack the DNA-binding basic domain. Consequently, Id proteins inhibit binding to DNA and transcriptional transactivation by heterodimerization with bHLH proteins. The authors report here the cDNA sequence of a novel human HLH gene (HGMW-approved symbol ID4) that lacks the basic domain. ID4 is differentially expressed in adult organs in four mRNA molecules, which are presumably a result of differential splicing and/or alternative usage of the polyadenylation sites. Transfection experiments indicated that enforced expression of Id-4H protein inhibits the trans-activation of the muscle creatine kinase E-box enhancer by MyoD. Finally, the authors localized the ID4 gene to the chromosome 6p21-p22 region. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  3. High thermal stability of core-shell structures dominated by negative interface energy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ning; Jin, Bo; Zhao, Ming; Jiang, Qing

    2017-03-29

    Nanoscale core/shell structures are of interest in catalysis due to their superior catalytic properties. Here we investigated the thermal stability of the coherent core-shell structures in a thermodynamic way by considering the impact from the core with the bulk melting point Tm(∞) lower or higher than the shell. When a low-Tm(∞) core is adopted, core-shell melting induced by the melting depression of the core does not occur upon heating because of the superheating, although the melting depression of the core can be triggered ultimately by the preferential melting of the high-Tm(∞) shell for small cores. The superheating of the core is contributed by the negative solid-solid interface energy, while the depression is originated from the positive solid-liquid interface energy. Owing to the presence of the negative interface energy, moreover, the low-Tm(∞)-core structure possesses a low difference in thermal expansion between the core and the shell, high activation energy of outward atomic diffusion from the core to shell, and low heat capacity. This result is beneficial for the core-shell structure design for its application in catalysis.

  4. [Social representation of pregnancy in adolescence: appraisal of dominant attitudes and others of negative impact].

    PubMed

    Dufort, Francine; Boucher, Kathleen; Guilbert, Edith; Saint-Laurent, Louise; Fortin-Pellerin, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gather information on the social representations of teenage pregnancy among adolescents, aged between 15 and 17. Eighteen focus groups were conducted among 150 boys and girls. The data were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Results show that youths did not form homogeneous groups. The points of view expressed gave rise to 4 dimensions (emotive, reflexive, psychobiological, economic-social) and 4 positions (negative, positive, ambivalent and dynamic). From these dimensions and positions, 4 representations of teenage pregnancy were identified: pregnancy as a problem, pregnancy as a project, pregnancy as a source of tension, and pregnancy as a source of power. This study illustrates the importance of educative strategies such as going beyond alarmist preventive messages, opening dialogue with and between youngsters, and promoting social support and mutual aid.

  5. A dominant negative heterozygous G87R mutation in the zinc transporter, ZnT-2 (SLC30A2), results in transient neonatal zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lasry, Inbal; Seo, Young Ah; Ityel, Hadas; Shalva, Nechama; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Glaser, Fabian; Berman, Bluma; Berezovsky, Igor; Goncearenco, Alexander; Klar, Aharon; Levy, Jacob; Anikster, Yair; Kelleher, Shannon L; Assaraf, Yehuda G

    2012-08-24

    Zinc is an essential mineral, and infants are particularly vulnerable to zinc deficiency as they require large amounts of zinc for their normal growth and development. We have recently described the first loss-of-function mutation (H54R) in the zinc transporter ZnT-2 (SLC30A2) in mothers with infants harboring transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD). Here we identified and characterized a novel heterozygous G87R ZnT-2 mutation in two unrelated Ashkenazi Jewish mothers with infants displaying TNZD. Transient transfection of G87R ZnT-2 resulted in endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi retention, whereas the WT transporter properly localized to intracellular secretory vesicles in HC11 and MCF-7 cells. Consequently, G87R ZnT-2 showed decreased stability compared with WT ZnT-2 as revealed by Western blot analysis. Three-dimensional homology modeling based on the crystal structure of YiiP, a close zinc transporter homologue from Escherichia coli, revealed that the basic arginine residue of the mutant G87R points toward the membrane lipid core, suggesting misfolding and possible loss-of-function. Indeed, functional assays including vesicular zinc accumulation, zinc secretion, and cytoplasmic zinc pool assessment revealed markedly impaired zinc transport in G87R ZnT-2 transfectants. Moreover, co-transfection experiments with both mutant and WT transporters revealed a dominant negative effect of G87R ZnT-2 over the WT ZnT-2; this was associated with mislocalization, decreased stability, and loss of zinc transport activity of the WT ZnT-2 due to homodimerization observed upon immunoprecipitation experiments. These findings establish that inactivating ZnT-2 mutations are an underlying basis of TNZD and provide the first evidence for the dominant inheritance of heterozygous ZnT-2 mutations via negative dominance due to homodimer formation.

  6. A Dominant Negative Heterozygous G87R Mutation in the Zinc Transporter, ZnT-2 (SLC30A2), Results in Transient Neonatal Zinc Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lasry, Inbal; Seo, Young Ah; Ityel, Hadas; Shalva, Nechama; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Glaser, Fabian; Berman, Bluma; Berezovsky, Igor; Goncearenco, Alexander; Klar, Aharon; Levy, Jacob; Anikster, Yair; Kelleher, Shannon L.; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is an essential mineral, and infants are particularly vulnerable to zinc deficiency as they require large amounts of zinc for their normal growth and development. We have recently described the first loss-of-function mutation (H54R) in the zinc transporter ZnT-2 (SLC30A2) in mothers with infants harboring transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD). Here we identified and characterized a novel heterozygous G87R ZnT-2 mutation in two unrelated Ashkenazi Jewish mothers with infants displaying TNZD. Transient transfection of G87R ZnT-2 resulted in endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi retention, whereas the WT transporter properly localized to intracellular secretory vesicles in HC11 and MCF-7 cells. Consequently, G87R ZnT-2 showed decreased stability compared with WT ZnT-2 as revealed by Western blot analysis. Three-dimensional homology modeling based on the crystal structure of YiiP, a close zinc transporter homologue from Escherichia coli, revealed that the basic arginine residue of the mutant G87R points toward the membrane lipid core, suggesting misfolding and possible loss-of-function. Indeed, functional assays including vesicular zinc accumulation, zinc secretion, and cytoplasmic zinc pool assessment revealed markedly impaired zinc transport in G87R ZnT-2 transfectants. Moreover, co-transfection experiments with both mutant and WT transporters revealed a dominant negative effect of G87R ZnT-2 over the WT ZnT-2; this was associated with mislocalization, decreased stability, and loss of zinc transport activity of the WT ZnT-2 due to homodimerization observed upon immunoprecipitation experiments. These findings establish that inactivating ZnT-2 mutations are an underlying basis of TNZD and provide the first evidence for the dominant inheritance of heterozygous ZnT-2 mutations via negative dominance due to homodimer formation. PMID:22733820

  7. An ABCA1 truncation shows no dominant negative effect in a familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia pedigree with three ABCA1 mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrenson, Brie; Suetani, Rachel J.; Bickley, Vivienne M.; George, Peter M.; Williams, Michael J.A.; Scott, Russell S.; McCormick, Sally P.A.

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Characterisation of an ABCA1 truncation mutant, C978fsX988, in a pedigree with three ABCA1 mutations. {yields} Functional analysis of C978fsX988 in patient fibroblasts and HEK 293 cells shows no cholesterol efflux function. {yields} Allele-specific quantification shows C978fsX988 not expressed at mRNA level in fibroblasts. {yields} Unlike other ABCA1 truncations, C978fsX988 mutant shows no dominant negative effect at mRNA or protein level. -- Abstract: The ATP binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) A1 is a key determinant of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Mutations in ABCA1 are a major genetic contributor to low HDL-C levels within the general population. Following the finding of three different ABCA1 mutations, p.C978fsX988, p.T1512M and p.N1800H in a subject with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, we aimed to establish whether the p.C978fsX988 truncation exerted a dominant negative effect on the full-length ABCA1 alleles within family members as has been reported for other ABCA1 truncations. Characterisation of the p.C978fsX988 mutant in transfected HEK 293 cells showed it to be expressed as a GFP fusion protein but lacking in cholesterol efflux function. This was in keeping with results from cholesterol efflux assays in the fibroblasts of p.C978fsX988 carriers which also showed impaired efflux. Allele- specific quantification of p.C978fsX988 mRNA and analysis of ABCA1 protein levels in the fibroblasts of p.C978fsX988 heterozygotes showed negligible levels of mRNA and protein expression. There was no evidence of a dominant negative effect on wildtype or p.N1800H protein levels. We conclude that in the case of the p.C978fsX988 truncated mutant a lack of expression precludes it from having a dominant negative effect.

  8. Enhancement of NK Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Long-Term Living in Negatively Charged-Particle Dominant Indoor Air-Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mase, Akinori; Kotani, Muneo; Ami, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Megumi; Shirahama, Takashi; Lee, Suni; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yoshitome, Kei; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of house conditions that promote health revealed that negatively charged-particle dominant indoor air-conditions (NCPDIAC) induced immune stimulation. Negatively charged air-conditions were established using a fine charcoal powder on walls and ceilings and utilizing forced negatively charged particles (approximate diameter: 20 nm) dominant in indoor air-conditions created by applying an electric voltage (72 V) between the backside of the walls and the ground. We reported previously that these conditions induced a slight and significant increase of interleukin-2 during a 2.5-h stay and an increase of NK cell cytotoxicity when examining human subjects after a two-week night stay under these conditions. In the present study, seven healthy volunteers had a device installed to create NCPDIAC in the living or sleeping rooms of their own homes. Every three months the volunteers then turned the NCPDIAC device on or off. A total of 16 ON and 13 OFF trials were conducted and their biological effects were analyzed. NK activity increased during ON trials and decreased during OFF trials, although no other adverse effects were found. In addition, there were slight increases of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during ON trials. Furthermore, a comparison of the cytokine status between ON and OFF trials showed that basic immune status was stimulated slightly during ON trials under NCPIADC. Our overall findings indicate that the NCPDIAC device caused activation of NK activity and stimulated immune status, particularly only on NK activity, and therefore could be set in the home or office buildings. PMID:26173062

  9. Identification of Functional Domains in the Cohesin Loader Subunit Scc4 by a Random Insertion/Dominant Negative Screen

    PubMed Central

    Shwartz, Michal; Matityahu, Avi; Onn, Itay

    2016-01-01

    Cohesin is a multi-subunit complex that plays an essential role in genome stability. Initial association of cohesin with chromosomes requires the loader—a heterodimer composed of Scc4 and Scc2. However, very little is known about the loader’s mechanism of action. In this study, we performed a genetic screen to identify functional domains in the Scc4 subunit of the loader. We isolated scc4 mutant alleles that, when overexpressed, have a dominant negative effect on cell viability. We defined a small region in the N terminus of Scc4 that is dominant negative when overexpressed, and on which Scc2/Scc4 activity depends. When the mutant alleles are expressed as a single copy, they are recessive and do not support cell viability, cohesion, cohesin loading or Scc4 chromatin binding. In addition, we show that the mutants investigated reduce, but do not eliminate, the interaction of Scc4 with either Scc2 or cohesin. However, we show that Scc4 cannot bind cohesin in the absence of Scc2. Our results provide new insight into the roles of Scc4 in cohesin loading, and contribute to deciphering the loading mechanism. PMID:27280786

  10. Expanding the prion concept to cancer biology: dominant-negative effect of aggregates of mutant p53 tumour suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jerson L.; Rangel, Luciana P.; Costa, Danielly C. F.; Cordeiro, Yraima; De Moura Gallo, Claudia V.

    2013-01-01

    p53 is a key protein that participates in cell-cycle control, and its malfunction can lead to cancer. This tumour suppressor protein has three main domains; the N-terminal transactivation domain, the CTD (C-terminal domain) and the core domain (p53C) that constitutes the sequence-specific DBD (DNA-binding region). Most p53 mutations related to cancer development are found in the DBD. Aggregation of p53 into amyloid oligomers and fibrils has been shown. Moreover, amyloid aggregates of both the mutant and WT (wild-type) forms of p53 were detected in tumour tissues. We propose that if p53 aggregation occurred, it would be a crucial aspect of cancer development, as p53 would lose its WT functions in an aggregated state. Mutant p53 can also exert a dominant-negative regulatory effect on WT p53. Herein, we discuss the dominant-negative effect in light of p53 aggregation and the fact that amyloid-like mutant p53 can convert WT p53 into more aggregated species, leading into gain of function in addition to the loss of tumour suppressor function. In summary, the results obtained in the last decade indicate that cancer may have characteristics in common with amyloidogenic and prion diseases. PMID:24003888

  11. Non dominant-negative KCNJ2 gene mutations leading to Andersen-Tawil syndrome with an isolated cardiac phenotype.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Maren M; Zumhagen, Sven; Netter, Michael F; Coffey, Alison J; Grace, Andrew; Rogers, Jane; Böckelmann, Doris; Rinné, Susanne; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Decher, Niels; Schulze-Bahr, Eric

    2013-05-01

    Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by dysmorphic features, periodic paralyses and abnormal ventricular repolarization. After genotyping a large set of patients with congenital long-QT syndrome, we identified two novel, heterozygous KCNJ2 mutations (p.N318S, p.W322C) located in the C-terminus of the Kir2.1 subunit. These mutations have a different localization than classical ATS mutations which are mostly located at a potential interaction face with the slide helix or at the interface between the C-termini. Mutation carriers were without the key features of ATS, causing an isolated cardiac phenotype. While the N318S mutants regularly reached the plasma membrane, W322C mutants primarily resided in late endosomes. Co-expression of N318S or W322C with wild-type Kir2.1 reduced current amplitudes only by 20-25 %. This mild loss-of-function for the heteromeric channels resulted from defective channel trafficking (W322C) or gating (N318S). Strikingly, and in contrast to the majority of ATS mutations, neither mutant caused a dominant-negative suppression of wild-type Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 currents. Thus, a mild reduction of native Kir2.x currents by non dominant-negative mutants may cause ATS with an isolated cardiac phenotype.

  12. Dominant-negative mutants of a yeast G-protein beta subunit identify two functional regions involved in pheromone signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Leberer, E; Dignard, D; Hougan, L; Thomas, D Y; Whiteway, M

    1992-01-01

    The STE4 gene, which encodes the beta subunit of the mating response G-protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was subjected to a saturation mutagenesis using 'doped' oligodeoxynucleotides. We employed a genetic screen to select dominant-negative STE4 mutants, which when overexpressed from the GAL1 promoter, interfered with the signalling function of the wild type protein. The identified inhibitory amino acid alterations define two small regions that are crucially involved in transmitting the mating signal from G beta to downstream components of the signalling pathway. These results underline the positive signalling role of yeast G beta and assign for the first time the positive signalling function of a G-protein beta subunit to specific structural features. Images PMID:1464310

  13. THE GABRG2 MUTATION, Q351X, ASSOCIATED WITH GEFS+ HAS BOTH LOSS OF FUNCTION AND DOMINANT-NEGATIVE SUPPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jing-Qiong; Shen, Wangzhen; Macdonald, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The GABAA receptor γ2 subunit mutation, Q351X, associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), created a loss of function with homozygous expression. However, heterozygous γ2(+/−) gene deletion mice are seizure–free, suggesting that the loss of one GABRG2 allele alone in heterozygous patients may not be sufficient to produce epilepsy. Here we show that the mutant γ2 subunit was immature and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). With heterozygous coexpression of γ2S/γ2S(Q351X) subunits and α1 and β2 subunits, the trafficking deficient mutant γ2 subunit reduced trafficking of wild-type partnering subunits, which was not seen in the hemizygous gene deletion control. Consequently, the function of the heterozygous receptor channel was reduced to less than the hemizygous control and to less than half of the wild-type receptors with a full gene dose. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that in the presence of the mutant γ2S(Q351X) subunit, wild-type α1 subunits degraded more substantially within 1 hr of translation. We showed that the basis for this dominant negative effect on wild-type receptors was due to an interaction between mutant and wild-type subunits. The mutant subunit oligomerized with wild-type subunits and trapped them in the ER, subjecting them to glycosylation arrest and ER associated degradation (ERAD) through the ubiquitin proteosome system. Thus we hypothesize that a likely explanation for the GEFS+ phenotype is a dominant-negative suppression of wild-type receptors by the mutant γ2S subunit in combination with loss of mutant γ2S subunit protein function. PMID:19261880

  14. A Restricted Repertoire of De Novo Mutations in ITPR1 Cause Gillespie Syndrome with Evidence for Dominant-Negative Effect

    PubMed Central

    McEntagart, Meriel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Rainger, Jacqueline K.; Wheeler, Ann; Seawright, Anne; De Baere, Elfride; Verdin, Hannah; Bergendahl, L. Therese; Quigley, Alan; Rainger, Joe; Dixit, Abhijit; Sarkar, Ajoy; López Laso, Eduardo; Sanchez-Carpintero, Rocio; Barrio, Jesus; Bitoun, Pierre; Prescott, Trine; Riise, Ruth; McKee, Shane; Cook, Jackie; McKie, Lisa; Ceulemans, Berten; Meire, Françoise; Temple, I. Karen; Prieur, Fabienne; Williams, Jonathan; Clouston, Penny; Németh, Andrea H.; Banka, Siddharth; Bengani, Hemant; Handley, Mark; Freyer, Elisabeth; Ross, Allyson; van Heyningen, Veronica; Marsh, Joseph A.; Elmslie, Frances; FitzPatrick, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Gillespie syndrome (GS) is characterized by bilateral iris hypoplasia, congenital hypotonia, non-progressive ataxia, and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Trio-based exome sequencing identified de novo mutations in ITPR1 in three unrelated individuals with GS recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. Whole-exome or targeted sequence analysis identified plausible disease-causing ITPR1 mutations in 10/10 additional GS-affected individuals. These ultra-rare protein-altering variants affected only three residues in ITPR1: Glu2094 missense (one de novo, one co-segregating), Gly2539 missense (five de novo, one inheritance uncertain), and Lys2596 in-frame deletion (four de novo). No clinical or radiological differences were evident between individuals with different mutations. ITPR1 encodes an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-responsive calcium channel. The homo-tetrameric structure has been solved by cryoelectron microscopy. Using estimations of the degree of structural change induced by known recessive- and dominant-negative mutations in other disease-associated multimeric channels, we developed a generalizable computational approach to indicate the likely mutational mechanism. This analysis supports a dominant-negative mechanism for GS variants in ITPR1. In GS-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), the proportion of ITPR1-positive cells using immunofluorescence was significantly higher in mutant than control LCLs, consistent with an abnormality of nuclear calcium signaling feedback control. Super-resolution imaging supports the existence of an ITPR1-lined nucleoplasmic reticulum. Mice with Itpr1 heterozygous null mutations showed no major iris defects. Purkinje cells of the cerebellum appear to be the most sensitive to impaired ITPR1 function in humans. Iris hypoplasia is likely to result from either complete loss of ITPR1 activity or structure-specific disruption of multimeric interactions. PMID:27108798

  15. Cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant-negative CREB leads to increased mortality and mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice.

    PubMed

    Watson, Peter A; Birdsey, Nicholas; Huggins, Gordon S; Svensson, Eric; Heppe, Daniel; Knaub, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    Cardiac failure is associated with diminished activation of the transcription factor cyclic nucleotide regulatory element binding-protein (CREB), and heart-specific expression of a phosphorylation-deficient CREB mutant in transgenic mice [dominant negative CREB (dnCREB) mice] recapitulates the contractile phenotypes of cardiac failure (Fentzke RC, Korcarz CE, Lang RM, Lin H, Leiden JM. Dilated cardiomyopathy in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative CREB transcription factor in the heart. J Clin Invest 101: 2415-2426, 1998). In the present study, we demonstrated significantly elevated mortality and contractile dysfunction in female compared with male dnCREB mice. Female dnCREB mice demonstrated a 21-wk survival of only 17% compared with 67% in males (P < 0.05) and exclusively manifest decreased cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and estrogen-related receptor-α content, suggesting sex-related effects on cardiac mitochondrial function. Hearts from 4-wk-old dnCREB mice of both sexes demonstrated diminished mitochondrial respiratory capacity compared with nontransgenic controls. However, by 12 wk of age, there was a significant decrease in mitochondrial density (citrate synthase activity) and deterioration of mitochondrial structure, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, in female dnCREB mice, which were not found in male transgenic littermates. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria isolated from hearts of female, but not male, dnCREB mice demonstrated increased ROS accompanied by decreases in the expression/activity of the mitochondrial antioxidants MnSOD and glutathione peroxidase. These results demonstrate that heart-specific dnCREB expression results in mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in both sexes; however, increased oxidant burden, reduced antioxidant expression, and disrupted mitochondrial structure are exacerbated by the female sex, preceding and contributing to the greater contractile morbidity and

  16. Targeted point mutations of p53 lead to dominant-negative inhibition of wild-type p53 function.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annemieke; Flores, Elsa R; Miranda, Barbara; Hsieh, Harn-Mei; van Oostrom, Conny Th M; Sage, Julien; Jacks, Tyler

    2002-03-05

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers, and germ-line p53 mutations cause a familial predisposition for cancer. Germ-line or sporadic p53 mutations are usually missense and typically affect the central DNA-binding domain of the protein. Because p53 functions as a tetrameric transcription factor, mutant p53 is thought to inhibit the function of wild-type p53 protein. Here, we studied the possible dominant-negative inhibition of wild-type p53 protein by two different, frequently occurring point mutations. The R270H and P275S mutations were targeted into the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells to allow the analysis of the effects of the mutant proteins expressed in normal cells at single-copy levels. In embryonic stem cells, the presence of a heterozygous point-mutated allele resulted in delayed transcriptional activation of several p53 downstream target genes on exposure to gamma irradiation. Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was severely affected in the mutant embryonic stem cells compared with wild-type cells. Heterozygous mutant thymocytes had a severe defect in p53-dependent apoptotic pathways after treatment with gamma irradiation or doxorubicin, whereas p53-independent apoptotic pathways were intact. Together these data demonstrate that physiological expression of point-mutated p53 can strongly limit overall cellular p53 function, supporting the dominant-negative action of such mutants. Also, cells heterozygous for such mutations may be compromised in terms of tumor suppression and response to chemotherapeutic agents.

  17. A Restricted Repertoire of De Novo Mutations in ITPR1 Cause Gillespie Syndrome with Evidence for Dominant-Negative Effect.

    PubMed

    McEntagart, Meriel; Williamson, Kathleen A; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Wheeler, Ann; Seawright, Anne; De Baere, Elfride; Verdin, Hannah; Bergendahl, L Therese; Quigley, Alan; Rainger, Joe; Dixit, Abhijit; Sarkar, Ajoy; López Laso, Eduardo; Sanchez-Carpintero, Rocio; Barrio, Jesus; Bitoun, Pierre; Prescott, Trine; Riise, Ruth; McKee, Shane; Cook, Jackie; McKie, Lisa; Ceulemans, Berten; Meire, Françoise; Temple, I Karen; Prieur, Fabienne; Williams, Jonathan; Clouston, Penny; Németh, Andrea H; Banka, Siddharth; Bengani, Hemant; Handley, Mark; Freyer, Elisabeth; Ross, Allyson; van Heyningen, Veronica; Marsh, Joseph A; Elmslie, Frances; FitzPatrick, David R

    2016-05-05

    Gillespie syndrome (GS) is characterized by bilateral iris hypoplasia, congenital hypotonia, non-progressive ataxia, and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Trio-based exome sequencing identified de novo mutations in ITPR1 in three unrelated individuals with GS recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. Whole-exome or targeted sequence analysis identified plausible disease-causing ITPR1 mutations in 10/10 additional GS-affected individuals. These ultra-rare protein-altering variants affected only three residues in ITPR1: Glu2094 missense (one de novo, one co-segregating), Gly2539 missense (five de novo, one inheritance uncertain), and Lys2596 in-frame deletion (four de novo). No clinical or radiological differences were evident between individuals with different mutations. ITPR1 encodes an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-responsive calcium channel. The homo-tetrameric structure has been solved by cryoelectron microscopy. Using estimations of the degree of structural change induced by known recessive- and dominant-negative mutations in other disease-associated multimeric channels, we developed a generalizable computational approach to indicate the likely mutational mechanism. This analysis supports a dominant-negative mechanism for GS variants in ITPR1. In GS-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), the proportion of ITPR1-positive cells using immunofluorescence was significantly higher in mutant than control LCLs, consistent with an abnormality of nuclear calcium signaling feedback control. Super-resolution imaging supports the existence of an ITPR1-lined nucleoplasmic reticulum. Mice with Itpr1 heterozygous null mutations showed no major iris defects. Purkinje cells of the cerebellum appear to be the most sensitive to impaired ITPR1 function in humans. Iris hypoplasia is likely to result from either complete loss of ITPR1 activity or structure-specific disruption of multimeric interactions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Expression of a Dominant Negative CELF Protein In Vivo Leads to Altered Muscle Organization, Fiber Size, and Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Dara S.; Moyer, Michelle; Kliment, Gregory M.; van Lunteren, Erik; Ladd, Andrea N.

    2011-01-01

    Background CUG-BP and ETR-3-like factor (CELF) proteins regulate tissue- and developmental stage-specific alternative splicing in striated muscle. We previously demonstrated that heart muscle-specific expression of a nuclear dominant negative CELF protein in transgenic mice (MHC-CELFΔ) effectively disrupts endogenous CELF activity in the heart in vivo, resulting in impaired cardiac function. In this study, transgenic mice that express the dominant negative protein under a skeletal muscle-specific promoter (Myo-CELFΔ) were generated to investigate the role of CELF-mediated alternative splicing programs in normal skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Myo-CELFΔ mice exhibit modest changes in CELF-mediated alternative splicing in skeletal muscle, accompanied by a reduction of endomysial and perimysial spaces, an increase in fiber size variability, and an increase in slow twitch muscle fibers. Weight gain and mean body weight, total number of muscle fibers, and overall muscle strength were not affected. Conclusions/Significance Although these findings demonstrate that CELF activity contributes to the normal alternative splicing of a subset of muscle transcripts in vivo, the mildness of the effects in Myo-CELFΔ muscles compared to those in MHC-CELFΔ hearts suggests CELF activity may be less determinative for alternative splicing in skeletal muscle than in heart muscle. Nonetheless, even these small changes in CELF-mediated splicing regulation were sufficient to alter muscle organization and muscle fiber properties affected in myotonic dystrophy. This lends further evidence to the hypothesis that dysregulation of CELF-mediated alternative splicing programs may be responsible for the disruption of these properties during muscle pathogenesis. PMID:21541285

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy mutations in δ-sarcoglycan exert a dominant-negative effect on cardiac myocyte mechanical stability.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew D; Witcher, Marc; Gopal, Anoop; Michele, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    Delta-sarcoglycan is a component of the sarcoglycan subcomplex within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex located at the plasma membrane of muscle cells. While recessive mutations in δ-sarcoglycan cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F, dominant mutations in δ-sarcoglycan have been linked to inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of this study was to investigate functional cellular defects present in adult cardiac myocytes expressing mutant δ-sarcoglycans harboring the dominant inherited DCM mutations R71T or R97Q. This study demonstrates that DCM mutant δ-sarcoglycans can be stably expressed in adult rat cardiac myocytes and traffic similarly to wild-type δ-sarcoglycan to the plasma membrane, without perturbing assembly of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. However, expression of DCM mutant δ-sarcoglycan in adult rat cardiac myocytes is sufficient to alter cardiac myocyte plasma membrane stability in the presence of mechanical strain. Upon cyclical cell stretching, cardiac myocytes expressing mutant δ-sarcoglycan R97Q or R71T have increased cell-impermeant dye uptake and undergo contractures at greater frequencies than myocytes expressing normal δ-sarcoglycan. Additionally, the R71T mutation creates an ectopic N-linked glycosylation site that results in aberrant glycosylation of the extracellular domain of δ-sarcoglycan. Therefore, appropriate glycosylation of δ-sarcoglycan may also be necessary for proper δ-sarcoglycan function and overall dystrophin-glycoprotein complex function. These studies demonstrate that DCM mutations in δ-sarcoglycan can exert a dominant negative effect on dystrophin-glycoprotein complex function leading to myocardial mechanical instability that may underlie the pathogenesis of δ-sarcoglycan-associated DCM.

  20. Expression of a mutant form of cellulose synthase AtCesA7 causes dominant negative effect on cellulose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Morrison, W Herbert; Freshour, Glenn D; Hahn, Michael G; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2003-06-01

    Cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CesAs) have been implicated in catalyzing the biosynthesis of cellulose, the major component of plant cell walls. Interactions between CesA subunits are thought to be required for normal cellulose synthesis, which suggests that incorporation of defective CesA subunits into cellulose synthase complex could potentially cause a dominant effect on cellulose synthesis. However, all CesA mutants so far reported have been shown to be recessive in terms of cellulose synthesis. In the course of studying the molecular mechanisms regulating secondary wall formation in fibers, we have found that a mutant allele of AtCesA7 gene in the fra5 (fragile fiber 5) mutant causes a semidominant phenotype in the reduction of fiber cell wall thickness and cellulose content. The fra5 missense mutation occurred in a conserved amino acid located in the second cytoplasmic domain of AtCesA7. Overexpression of the fra5 mutant cDNA in wild-type plants not only reduced secondary wall thickness and cellulose content but also decreased primary wall thickness and cell elongation. In contrast, overexpression of the fra6 mutant form of AtCesA8 did not cause any reduction in cell wall thickness and cellulose content. These results suggest that the fra5 mutant protein may interfere with the function of endogenous wild-type CesA proteins, thus resulting in a dominant negative effect on cellulose biosynthesis.

  1. Viruses and Gram-negative bacilli dominate the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in Indonesia, a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Farida, Helmia; Gasem, M Hussein; Suryanto, Agus; Keuter, Monique; Zulkarnain, Nasirun; Satoto, Bambang; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Djokomoeljanto, R; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A; Severin, Juliëtte A; van den Broek, Peterhans J

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge about the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is essential for adequate management. Presently, few studies about CAP are available from Southeast Asia. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, severity, and outcome of CAP in the most populous Southeast Asia country, Indonesia. From October 2007 to April 2009, adult patients admitted with CAP to two hospitals in Semarang, Indonesia, were included to detect the etiology of CAP using a full range of diagnostic methods. The severity of disease was classified according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). The outcome was assessed as 30-day mortality. In total, 148 consecutive patients with CAP were included. Influenza virus (18%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (13%) were the most common agents identified. Other Gram-negative bacilli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae each accounted for 5%. The bacteria presented wild type antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Forty-four percent of subjects were high-risk patients (PSI class IV-V). The mortality rate (30%) was significantly associated with disease severity score (P<0.001), and with failure to establish an etiological diagnosis (P=0.027). No associations were found between etiology and underlying diseases, PSI class, nor mortality. Viruses and Gram-negative bacilli are dominant causes of CAP in this region, more so than S. pneumoniae. Most of the bacteria have wild type susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Patients with severe disease and those with unknown etiology have a higher mortality risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of calcium signalling by dominant negative splice variant of ryanodine receptor subtype 3 in native smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dabertrand, Fabrice; Morel, Jean-Luc; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Mironneau, Jean; Mironneau, Chantal; Macrez, Nathalie

    2006-07-01

    The ryanodine receptor subtype 3 (RYR3) is expressed ubiquitously but its physiological function varies from cell to cell. Here, we investigated the role of a dominant negative RYR3 isoform in Ca2+ signalling in native smooth muscle cells. We used intranuclear injection of antisense oligonucleotides to specifically inhibit endogenous RYR3 isoform expression. In mouse duodenum myocytes expressing RYR2 subtype and both spliced and non-spliced RYR3 isoforms, RYR2 and non-spliced RYR3 were activated by caffeine whereas the spliced RYR3 was not. Only RYR2 was responsible for the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism that amplified Ca2+ influx- or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ signals. However, the spliced RYR3 negatively regulated RYR2 leading to the decrease of amplitude and upstroke velocity of Ca2+ signals. Immunostaining in injected cells showed that the spliced RYR3 was principally expressed near the plasma membrane whilst the non-spliced isoform was revealed around the nucleus. This study shows for the first time that the short isoform of RYR3 controls Ca2+ release through RYR2 in native smooth muscle cells.

  3. [Effect of dominant negative HIF-1alpha (dn HIF-1alpha) on biological characteristics of uterine cervix cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin-Zhi; Zhao, Feng-Yan; Wei, Ting; Mu, De-Zhi; Mao, Meng; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Qu, Yia

    2008-05-01

    To explore the effect of dominant negative HIF-1alpha (dn HIF-1alpha) on biological characteristics of uterine cervix cancer cell SiHa and elucidate the related mechanism. pcDNA3. 1-dn HIF-1alpha was transfected into SiHa cells. The expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF protein were detected by immunocytochemical method and Western Blotting. The growth proliferation of cells was surveyed by the MTT assay and cell apoptosis was detected through TUNEL after treated with CoCl2, meanwhile the results were compared with the group transfected with mock plasmid and untransfected group. After successfully transfected with relevant plasmid, there's no obvious difference of expression of HIF-1alpha among dn HIF-1alpha group, pcDNA3. 1 group, and untransfected group, however the expression of VEGF of dn HIF-1alpha group was significantly lower than that of the others (P < 0. 05). The proliferation ability of dn HIF-1alpha group was obviously lower than that of the other two (P < 0.05), whether it was under normoxia or chemical hypoxia induced by CoCl2. The characteristic apoptotic morphology was most significantly apparent in dn HIF-1alpha group among these three (P < 0.05). Domain negative HIF-1alpha can inhibit the proliferation of uterine cervix cancer cell and accelerate its apoptosis under hypoxia induced by CoCl2, as well as decrease the expression of VEGF protein. The implications of all this were that the domain negative HIF-1alpha may play an important role in the therapy of uterine cervix cancer.

  4. Cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant-negative CREB leads to increased mortality and mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Birdsey, Nicholas; Huggins, Gordon S.; Svensson, Eric; Heppe, Daniel; Knaub, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac failure is associated with diminished activation of the transcription factor cyclic nucleotide regulatory element binding-protein (CREB), and heart-specific expression of a phosphorylation-deficient CREB mutant in transgenic mice [dominant negative CREB (dnCREB) mice] recapitulates the contractile phenotypes of cardiac failure (Fentzke RC, Korcarz CE, Lang RM, Lin H, Leiden JM. Dilated cardiomyopathy in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative CREB transcription factor in the heart. J Clin Invest 101: 2415–2426, 1998). In the present study, we demonstrated significantly elevated mortality and contractile dysfunction in female compared with male dnCREB mice. Female dnCREB mice demonstrated a 21-wk survival of only 17% compared with 67% in males (P < 0.05) and exclusively manifest decreased cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and estrogen-related receptor-α content, suggesting sex-related effects on cardiac mitochondrial function. Hearts from 4-wk-old dnCREB mice of both sexes demonstrated diminished mitochondrial respiratory capacity compared with nontransgenic controls. However, by 12 wk of age, there was a significant decrease in mitochondrial density (citrate synthase activity) and deterioration of mitochondrial structure, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, in female dnCREB mice, which were not found in male transgenic littermates. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria isolated from hearts of female, but not male, dnCREB mice demonstrated increased ROS accompanied by decreases in the expression/activity of the mitochondrial antioxidants MnSOD and glutathione peroxidase. These results demonstrate that heart-specific dnCREB expression results in mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in both sexes; however, increased oxidant burden, reduced antioxidant expression, and disrupted mitochondrial structure are exacerbated by the female sex, preceding and contributing to the greater contractile morbidity and

  5. Loss of the malignant phenotype of human neuroblastoma cells by a catalytically inactive dominant-negative hTERT mutant.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mona; Gattolliat, Charles-Henry; Pendino, Frédéric; Hillion, Josette; Nguyen, Eric; Bombard, Sophie; Douc-Rasy, Sétha; Bénard, Jean; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne

    2012-11-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex mainly composed of the reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase, hTERT) and the RNA component (hTR), is a key enzyme of cancer progression. That aggressive stage 4-neuroblastoma expressed high levels of telomerase activity, whereas favorable tumors had no or little telomerase expression and activity, prompted us to investigate the role of this enzyme in this tumor model of altered proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and apoptosis. A human MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell line (IGR-N-91) was engineered to stably express either the normal hTERT protein (WT-hTERT) or a catalytically inactive dominant-negative mutant of this protein (DN-hTERT). We showed that DN-hTERT expression inhibited the endogenous hTERT in the malignant neuroblasts without telomere shortening nor loss of in vitro proliferative capacity. Importantly, DN-hTERT expression induced major changes in cell morphology of neuroblasts that switched them from a neuronal to a substrate adherent phenotype, which was more prone to apoptosis and lost their tumorigenic properties in nude mice. These biologic effects arose from modifications in the expression of genes involved in both apoptosis and neuroblastoma biology. Taken together these results highlighted the functional relevance of noncanonical functions of hTERT in the determination of neuroblast cell fate. Therefore, our results envision new therapeutic strategies for metastatic neuroblastoma therapeutic management. ©2012 AACR.

  6. Dominant-negative kinase domain mutations in FGFR1 can explain the clinical severity of Hartsfield syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungkook; Hu, Ping; Marino, Juliana; Hufnagel, Sophia B; Hopkin, Robert J; Toromanović, Alma; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Ribeiro-Bicudo, Lucilene A; Kruszka, Paul; Roessler, Erich; Muenke, Maximilian

    2016-05-15

    Mutations in FGFR1 have recently been associated with Hartsfield syndrome, a clinically distinct syndromic form of holoprosencephaly (HPE) with ectrodactly, which frequently includes combinations of craniofacial, limb and brain abnormalities not typical for classical HPE. Unrelated clinical conditions generally without craniofacial or multi-system malformations include Kallmann syndrome and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. FGFR1 is a principal cause for these less severe diseases as well. Here we demonstrate that of the nine FGFR1 mutations recently detected in our screen of over 200 HPE probands by next generation sequencing, only five distinct mutations in the kinase domain behave as dominant-negative mutations in zebrafish over-expression assays. Three FGFR1 mutations seen in HPE probands behave identical to wild-type FGFR1 in rescue assays, including one apparent de novo variation. Interestingly, in one HPE family, a deleterious FGFR1 allele was transmitted from one parent and a loss-of-function allele in FGF8 from the other parent to both affected daughters. This family is one of the clearest examples to date of gene:gene synergistic interactions causing HPE in humans. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Dominant-negative Sox18 function inhibits dermal papilla maturation and differentiation in all murine hair types.

    PubMed

    Villani, Rehan; Hodgson, Samantha; Legrand, Julien; Greaney, Jessica; Wong, Ho Yi; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Adolphe, Christelle; Wainwight, Brandon; Francois, Mathias; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2017-05-15

    SOX family proteins SOX2 and SOX18 have been reported as being essential in determining hair follicle type; however, the role they play during development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Sox18 regulates the normal differentiation of the dermal papilla of all hair types. In guard (primary) hair dermal condensate (DC) cells, we identified transient Sox18 in addition to SOX2 expression at E14.5, which allowed fate tracing of primary DC cells until birth. Similarly, expression of Sox18 was detected in the DC cells of secondary hairs at E16.5 and in tertiary hair at E18.5. Dominant-negative Sox18 mutation (opposum) did not prevent DC formation in any hair type. However, it affected dermal papilla differentiation, restricting hair formation especially in secondary and tertiary hairs. This Sox18 mutation also prevented neonatal dermal cells or dermal papilla spheres from inducing hair in regeneration assays. Microarray expression studies identified WNT5A and TNC as potential downstream effectors of SOX18 that are important for epidermal WNT signalling. In conclusion, SOX18 acts as a mesenchymal molecular switch necessary for the formation and function of the dermal papilla in all hair types. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Glassy-state stabilization of a dominant negative inhibitor anthrax vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Vance, David J; Jain, Nishant K; Sahni, Neha; Rabia, Lilia A; Cousins, Megan C; Joshi, Sangeeta; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell; Mantis, Nicholas J; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2015-02-01

    During transport and storage, vaccines may be exposed to temperatures outside of the range recommended for storage, potentially causing efficacy losses. To better understand and prevent such losses, dominant negative inhibitor (DNI), a recombinant protein antigen for a candidate vaccine against anthrax, was formulated as a liquid and as a glassy lyophilized powder with the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A (GLA). Freeze-thawing of the liquid vaccine caused the adjuvants to aggregate and decreased its immunogenicity in mice. Immunogenicity of liquid vaccines also decreased when stored at 40°C for 8 weeks, as measured by decreases in neutralizing antibody titers in vaccinated mice. Concomitant with efficacy losses at elevated temperatures, changes in DNI structure were detected by fluorescence spectroscopy and increased deamidation was observed by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) after only 1 week of storage of the liquid formulation at 40°C. In contrast, upon lyophilization, no additional deamidation after 4 weeks at 40°C and no detectable changes in DNI structure or reduction in immunogenicity after 16 weeks at 40°C were observed. Vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide and GLA elicited higher immune responses than vaccines adjuvanted with only aluminum hydroxide, with more mice responding to a single dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Glassy-State Stabilization of a Dominant Negative Inhibitor Anthrax Vaccine Containing Aluminum Hydroxide and Glycopyranoside Lipid A Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Kimberly J.; Vance, David J.; Jain, Nishant K.; Sahni, Neha; Rabia, Lilia A.; Cousins, Megan C.; Joshi, Sangeeta; Volkin, David B.; Middaugh, Russell; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    During transport and storage, vaccines may be exposed to temperatures outside of the range recommended for storage, potentially causing efficacy losses. To better understand and prevent such losses, Dominant Negative Inhibitor (DNI), a recombinant protein antigen for a candidate vaccine against anthrax, was formulated as a liquid and as a glassy lyophilized powder with the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A (GLA). Freeze-thawing of the liquid vaccine caused the adjuvants to aggregate and decreased its immunogenicity in mice. Immunogenicity of liquid vaccines also decreased when stored at 40 °C for 8 weeks, as measured by decreases in neutralizing antibody titers in vaccinated mice. Concomitant with efficacy losses at elevated temperatures, changes in DNI structure were detected by fluorescence spectroscopy and increased deamidation was observed by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) after only 1 week of storage of the liquid formulation at 40 °C. In contrast, upon lyophilization, no additional deamidation after 4 weeks at 40 °C and no detectable changes in DNI structure or reduction in immunogenicity after 16 weeks at 40 °C was observed. Vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide and GLA elicited higher immune responses than vaccines adjuvanted with only aluminum hydroxide, with more mice responding to a single dose. PMID:25581103

  10. Dominant negative PPARγ promotes atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and hypertension through distinct effects in endothelium and vascular muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pelham, Christopher J.; Keen, Henry L.; Lentz, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Agonists of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) have potent insulin-sensitizing effects and inhibit atherosclerosis progression in patients with Type II diabetes. Conversely, missense mutations in the ligand-binding domain of PPARγ that render the transcription factor dominant negative (DN) cause early-onset hypertension and Type II diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that DN PPARγ-mediated interference of endogenous wild-type PPARγ in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Endothelium-specific expression of DN PPARγ on the ApoE−/− background unmasked significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, increased systolic blood pressure, altered expression of atherogenic markers (e.g., Cd36, Mcp1, Catalase), and enhanced diet-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation in aorta. Smooth muscle-specific expression of DN PPARγ, which induces aortic dysfunction and increased systolic blood pressure at baseline, also resulted in enhanced diet-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation in aorta on the ApoE−/− background that was associated with altered expression of a shared, yet distinct, set of atherogenic markers (e.g., Cd36, Mcp1, Osteopontin, Vcam1). In particular, induction of Osteopontin expression by smooth muscle-specific DN PPARγ correlated with increased plaque calcification. These data demonstrate that inhibition of PPARγ function specifically in the vascular endothelium or smooth muscle may contribute to cardiovascular disease. PMID:23447133

  11. Cord blood natural killer cells expressing a dominant negative TGF-β receptor: Implications for adoptive immunotherapy for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yvon, Eric S; Burga, Rachel; Powell, Allison; Cruz, Conrad R; Fernandes, Rohan; Barese, Cecilia; Nguyen, Tuongvan; Abdel-Baki, Mohamed S; Bollard, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    Cord blood (CB) natural killer (NK) cells are promising effector cells for tumor immunotherapy but are currently limited by immune-suppressive cytokines in the tumor microenvironment, such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β). We observed that TGF-β inhibits expression of activating receptors such as NKG2D and DNAM1 and decreases killing activity against glioblastoma tumor cells through inhibition of perforin secretion. To overcome the detrimental effects of TGF-β, we engrafted a dominant negative TGF-β receptor II (DNRII) on CB-derived NK cells by retroviral transduction and evaluated their ability to kill glioblastoma cells in the presence of TGF-β. After manufacture using Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant methodologies and transduction with DNRII, CB-derived DNRII-transduced NK cells expanded to clinically relevant numbers and retained both their killing ability and their secretion of interferon-γ upon activation. More important, these cells maintained both perforin expression and NKG2D/DNMA1 expression in the presence of TGF-β allowing for recognition and killing of glioblastoma tumor cells. Hence, NK cells expressing a DNRII should have a functional advantage over unmodified NK cells in the presence of TGF-β-secreting tumors and may be an important therapeutic approach for patients with cancer. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of telomerase activity by dominant-negative hTERT retards the growth of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yaojian; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Huijuan; Jia, Chunxia; Zhang, Hongxing; Cui, Zesheng; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Jiawei

    2016-03-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme mainly consisted of a catalytic protein subunit human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and a human telomerase RNA component, is responsible for maintaining telomeres. Telomerase over-expression correlates significantly with tumors and is a prognostic marker. However, telomerase over-expression in breast cancers and the effect of telomerase inhibition as a candidate cancer therapy are unknown. We used the dominant-negative mutant of hTERT (DN-hTERT) to inhibit telomerase activity on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 by transfection. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol assays and real-time quantitative RT-PCR were performed to investigate telomerase activity as well as expression of hTERT. Telomere length was measured by the flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. Cell proliferation was assessed by the WST-8 assay, and apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. The tumor formation ability of MCF-7 cells was investigated by transplanting cells subcutaneously into BALB/c nude mice. Ectopic expression of DN-hTERT caused dramatically inhibition of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length. Telomerase inhibition induced growth arrest and apoptosis of MCF7 cells in vitro and loss of tumorigenic properties in vivo. This study shows that telomerase inhibition by DN-hTERT can effectively inhibit the cell viability and tumorigenicity of MCF7 cells and is an attractive approach for breast cancer therapy.

  13. Dominant Negative Mutants of the Murine Cytomegalovirus M53 Gene Block Nuclear Egress and Inhibit Capsid Maturation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Mirela; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Lötzerich, Mark; Dölken, Lars; Buser, Christopher; Walther, Paul; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2010-01-01

    The alphaherpesvirus proteins UL31 and UL34 and their homologues in other herpesvirus subfamilies cooperate at the nuclear membrane in the export of nascent herpesvirus capsids. We studied the respective betaherpesvirus proteins M53 and M50 in mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Recently, we established a random approach to identify dominant negative (DN) mutants of essential viral genes and isolated DN mutants of M50 (B. Rupp, Z. Ruzsics, C. Buser, B. Adler, P. Walther and U. H. Koszinowski, J. Virol 81:5508-5517). Here, we report the identification and phenotypic characterization of DN alleles of its partner, M53. While mutations in the middle of the M53 open reading frame (ORF) resulted in DN mutants inhibiting MCMV replication by ∼100-fold, mutations at the C terminus resulted in up to 1,000,000-fold inhibition of virus production. C-terminal DN mutants affected nuclear distribution and steady-state levels of the nuclear egress complex and completely blocked export of viral capsids. In addition, they induced a marked maturation defect of viral capsids, resulting in the accumulation of nuclear capsids with aberrant morphology. This was associated with a two-thirds reduction in the total amount of unit length genomes, indicating an accessory role for M53 in DNA packaging. PMID:20610730

  14. Dominant negative mutants of the murine cytomegalovirus M53 gene block nuclear egress and inhibit capsid maturation.

    PubMed

    Popa, Mirela; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Lötzerich, Mark; Dölken, Lars; Buser, Christopher; Walther, Paul; Koszinowski, Ulrich H

    2010-09-01

    The alphaherpesvirus proteins UL31 and UL34 and their homologues in other herpesvirus subfamilies cooperate at the nuclear membrane in the export of nascent herpesvirus capsids. We studied the respective betaherpesvirus proteins M53 and M50 in mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Recently, we established a random approach to identify dominant negative (DN) mutants of essential viral genes and isolated DN mutants of M50 (B. Rupp, Z. Ruzsics, C. Buser, B. Adler, P. Walther and U. H. Koszinowski, J. Virol 81:5508-5517). Here, we report the identification and phenotypic characterization of DN alleles of its partner, M53. While mutations in the middle of the M53 open reading frame (ORF) resulted in DN mutants inhibiting MCMV replication by approximately 100-fold, mutations at the C terminus resulted in up to 1,000,000-fold inhibition of virus production. C-terminal DN mutants affected nuclear distribution and steady-state levels of the nuclear egress complex and completely blocked export of viral capsids. In addition, they induced a marked maturation defect of viral capsids, resulting in the accumulation of nuclear capsids with aberrant morphology. This was associated with a two-thirds reduction in the total amount of unit length genomes, indicating an accessory role for M53 in DNA packaging.

  15. A novel human aquaporin-4 splice variant exhibits a dominant-negative activity: a new mechanism to regulate water permeability.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Manuela; Pisani, Francesco; Mola, Maria Grazia; Basco, Davide; Catalano, Francesco; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Two major isoforms of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been described in human tissue. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of an alternatively spliced transcript of human AQP4, AQP4-Δ4, that lacks exon 4. In transfected cells AQP4-Δ4 is mainly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and shows no water transport properties. When AQP4-Δ4 is transfected into cells stably expressing functional AQP4, the surface expression of the full-length protein is reduced. Furthermore, the water transport activity of the cotransfectants is diminished in comparison to transfectants expressing only AQP4. The observed down-regulation of both the expression and water channel activity of AQP4 is likely to originate from a dominant-negative effect caused by heterodimerization between AQP4 and AQP4-Δ4, which was detected in coimmunoprecipitation studies. In skeletal muscles, AQP4-Δ4 mRNA expression inversely correlates with the level of AQP4 protein and is physiologically associated with different types of skeletal muscles. The expression of AQP4-Δ4 may represent a new regulatory mechanism through which the cell-surface expression and therefore the activity of AQP4 can be physiologically modulated.

  16. Regression/Eradication of gliomas in mice by a systemically-deliverable ATF5 dominant-negative peptide

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Charles C.; Arias, Angelo D.; Wong, Lynn S. Nakayama; Lamé, Michael W.; Sidorov, Maxim; Cayanan, Geraldine; Rowland, Douglas J.; Fung, Jennifer; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Siegelin, Markus D.; Greene, Lloyd A.; Angelastro, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas have poor prognosis and urgently require new therapies. Activating Transcription Factor 5 (ATF5) is highly expressed in gliomas, and interference with its expression/function precipitates targeted glioma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. We designed a novel deliverable truncated-dominant-negative (d/n) form of ATF5 fused to a cell-penetrating domain (Pen-d/n-ATF5-RP) that can be intraperitoneally/subcutaneously administered to mice harboring malignant gliomas generated; (1) by PDGF-B/sh-p53 retroviral transformation of endogenous neural progenitor cells; and (2) by human U87-MG xenografts. In vitro Pen-d/n-ATF5-RP entered into glioma cells and triggered massive apoptosis. In vivo, subcutaneously-administered Pen-d/n-ATF5-RP passed the blood brain barrier, entered normal brain and tumor cells, and then caused rapid selective tumor cell death. MRI verified elimination of retrovirus-induced gliomas within 8-21 days. Histopathology revealed growth-suppression of intracerebral human U87-MG cells xenografts. For endogenous PDGF-B gliomas, there was no recurrence or mortality at 6-12 months versus 66% mortality in controls at 6 months. Necropsy and liver-kidney blood enzyme analysis revealed no adverse effects on brain or other tissues. Our findings thus identify Pen-d/n-ATF5-RP as a potential therapy for malignant gliomas. PMID:26863637

  17. A novel human aquaporin-4 splice variant exhibits a dominant-negative activity: a new mechanism to regulate water permeability

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Manuela; Pisani, Francesco; Mola, Maria Grazia; Basco, Davide; Catalano, Francesco; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two major isoforms of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been described in human tissue. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of an alternatively spliced transcript of human AQP4, AQP4-Δ4, that lacks exon 4. In transfected cells AQP4-Δ4 is mainly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and shows no water transport properties. When AQP4-Δ4 is transfected into cells stably expressing functional AQP4, the surface expression of the full-length protein is reduced. Furthermore, the water transport activity of the cotransfectants is diminished in comparison to transfectants expressing only AQP4. The observed down-regulation of both the expression and water channel activity of AQP4 is likely to originate from a dominant-negative effect caused by heterodimerization between AQP4 and AQP4-Δ4, which was detected in coimmunoprecipitation studies. In skeletal muscles, AQP4-Δ4 mRNA expression inversely correlates with the level of AQP4 protein and is physiologically associated with different types of skeletal muscles. The expression of AQP4-Δ4 may represent a new regulatory mechanism through which the cell-surface expression and therefore the activity of AQP4 can be physiologically modulated. PMID:24356448

  18. Heterozygous PINK1 p.G411S increases risk of Parkinson's disease via a dominant-negative mechanism.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Caulfield, Thomas R; Hudec, Roman; Ando, Maya; Truban, Dominika; Hou, Xu; Ogaki, Kotaro; Heckman, Michael G; James, Elle D; Swanberg, Maria; Jimenez-Ferrer, Itzia; Hansson, Oskar; Opala, Grzegorz; Siuda, Joanna; Boczarska-Jedynak, Magdalena; Friedman, Andrzej; Koziorowski, Dariusz; Aasly, Jan O; Lynch, Timothy; Mellick, George D; Mohan, Megha; Silburn, Peter A; Sanotsky, Yanosh; Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Farrer, Matthew J; Chen, Li; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Ross, Owen A; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2017-01-01

    by a partial dominant-negative function phenotype.

  19. Identification of dominant negative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif mutants that interfere with the functional inactivation of APOBEC3G by virus-encoded Vif.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert C; Khan, Mohammad A; Kao, Sandra; Goila-Gaur, Ritu; Miyagi, Eri; Strebel, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that serves as a potent intrinsic inhibitor of retroviral replication. A3G is packaged into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions and deaminates deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine on nascent minus-strand retroviral cDNA, leading to hyper-deoxyguanine-to-deoxyadenine mutations on positive-strand cDNA and inhibition of viral replication. The antiviral activity of A3G is suppressed by Vif, a lentiviral accessory protein that prevents encapsidation of A3G. In this study, we identified dominant negative mutants of Vif that interfered with the ability of wild-type Vif to inhibit the encapsidation and antiviral activity of A3G. These mutants were nonfunctional due to mutations in the highly conserved HCCH and/or SOCS box motifs, which are required for assembly of a functional Cul5-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Similarly, mutation or deletion of a PPLP motif, which was previously reported to be important for Vif dimerization, induced a dominant negative phenotype. Expression of dominant negative Vif counteracted the Vif-induced reduction of intracellular A3G levels, presumably by preventing Vif-induced A3G degradation. Consequently, dominant negative Vif interfered with wild-type Vif's ability to exclude A3G from viral particles and reduced viral infectivity despite the presence of wild-type Vif. The identification of dominant negative mutants of Vif presents exciting possibilities for the design of novel antiviral strategies.

  20. A dominant-negative needle mutant blocks type III secretion of early but not late substrates in Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alison J; Díaz, Dennise A De Jesús; Mecsas, Joan

    2010-04-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effectors into host cells. A key component of the T3SS is the needle, which is a hollow tube on the bacterial surface through which effectors are secreted, composed of the YscF protein. To study needle assembly, we performed a screen for dominant-negative yscF alleles that prevented effector secretion in the presence of wild-type (WT) YscF. One allele, yscF-L54V, prevents WT YscF secretion and needle assembly, although purified YscF-L54V polymerizes in vitro. YscF-L54V binds to its chaperones YscE and YscG, and the YscF-L54V-EG complex targets to the T3SS ATPase, YscN. We propose that YscF-L54V stalls at a binding site in the needle assembly pathway following its release from the chaperones, which blocks the secretion of WT YscF and other early substrates required for building a needle. Interestingly, YscF-L54V does not affect the activity of pre-assembled actively secreting machines, indicating that a factor and/or binding site required for YscF secretion is absent from T3SS machines already engaged in effector secretion. Thus, substrate switching may involve the removal of an early substrate-specific binding site as a mechanism to exclude early substrates from Yop-secreting machines.

  1. POLG2 disease variants: analyses reveal a dominant negative heterodimer, altered mitochondrial localization and impaired respiratory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Matthew J.; Humble, Margaret M.; DeBalsi, Karen L.; Sun, Kathie Y.; Copeland, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is replicated and repaired by the mtDNA polymerase gamma, polγ. Polγ is composed of three subunits encoded by two nuclear genes: (1) POLG codes for the 140-kilodalton (kDa) catalytic subunit, p140 and (2) POLG2 encodes the ∼110-kDa homodimeric accessory subunit, p55. Specific mutations are associated with POLG- or POLG2-related disorders. During DNA replication the p55 accessory subunit binds to p140 and increases processivity by preventing polγ's dissociation from the template. To date, studies have demonstrated that homodimeric p55 disease variants are deficient in the ability to stimulate p140; however, all patients currently identified with POLG2-related disorders are heterozygotes. In these patients, we expect p55 to occur as 25% wild-type (WT) homodimers, 25% variant homodimers and 50% heterodimers. We report the development of a tandem affinity strategy to isolate p55 heterodimers. The WT/G451E p55 heterodimer impairs polγ function in vitro, demonstrating that the POLG2 c.1352G>A/p.G451E mutation encodes a dominant negative protein. To analyze the subcellular consequence of disease mutations in HEK293 cells, we designed plasmids encoding p55 disease variants tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). P205R and L475DfsX2 p55 variants exhibit irregular diffuse mitochondrial fluorescence and unlike WT p55, they fail to form distinct puncta associated with mtDNA nucleoids. Furthermore, homogenous preparations of P205R and L475DfsX2 p55 form aberrant reducible multimers. We predict that abnormal protein folding or aggregation or both contribute to the pathophysiology of these disorders. Examination of mitochondrial bioenergetics in stable cell lines overexpressing GFP-tagged p55 variants revealed impaired mitochondrial reserve capacity. PMID:26123486

  2. Effect of selective expression of dominant-negative PPARγ in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons on the control of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Stump, Madeliene; Guo, Deng-Fu; Lu, Ko-Ting; Mukohda, Masashi; Liu, Xuebo; Rahmouni, Kamal; Sigmund, Curt D

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis, was recently shown to affect energy homeostasis through its actions in the brain. Deletion of PPARγ in mouse brain, and specifically in the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, results in resistance to diet-induced obesity. To study the mechanisms by which PPARγ in POMC neurons controls energy balance, we constructed a Cre-recombinase-dependent conditionally activatable transgene expressing either wild-type (WT) or dominant-negative (P467L) PPARγ and the tdTomato reporter. Inducible expression of both forms of PPARγ was validated in cells in culture, in liver of mice infected with an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (AdCre), and in the brain of mice expressing Cre-recombinase either in all neurons (NES(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L) or selectively in POMC neurons (POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L). Whereas POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L mice exhibited a normal pattern of weight gain when fed 60% high-fat diet, they exhibited increased weight gain and fat mass accumulation in response to a 10% fat isocaloric-matched control diet. POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L mice were leptin sensitive on control diet but became leptin resistant when fed 60% high-fat diet. There was no difference in body weight between POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-WT mice and controls in response to 60% high-fat diet. However, POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-WT, but not POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L, mice increased body weight in response to rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist. These observations support the concept that alterations in PPARγ-driven mechanisms in POMC neurons can play a role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis under certain dietary conditions.

  3. A dominant-negative needle mutant blocks type III secretion of early but not late substrates in Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alison J.; De Jesús Díaz, Dennise A.; Mecsas, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) to deliver effectors into host cells. A key component of the T3SS is the needle, which is a hollow tube on the bacterial surface through which effectors are secreted, composed of the YscF protein. To study needle assembly, we performed a screen for dominant-negative yscF alleles that prevented effector secretion in the presence of wild-type (WT) YscF. One allele, yscF-L54V, prevents WT YscF secretion and needle assembly, although purified YscF-L54V polymerizes in vitro. YscF-L54V binds to its chaperones YscE and YscG, and the YscF-L54V-EG complex targets to the T3SS ATPase, YscN. We propose that YscF-L54V stalls at a binding site in the needle assembly pathway following its release from the chaperones, which blocks the secretion of WT YscF and other early substrates required for building a needle. Interestingly, YscF-L54V does not affect the activity of pre-assembled actively secreting machines, indicating that a factor and/or binding site required for YscF secretion is absent from T3SS machines already engaged in effector secretion. Thus, substrate switching may involve the removal of an early substrate-specific binding site as a mechanism to exclude early substrates from Yop-secreting machines. PMID:20199604

  4. A novel de novo dominant negative mutation in DNM1L impairs mitochondrial fission and presents as childhood epileptic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fahrner, Jill A; Liu, Raymond; Perry, Michael Scott; Klein, Jessica; Chan, David C

    2016-08-01

    DNM1L encodes dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1/DLP1), a key component of the mitochondrial fission machinery that is essential for proper functioning of the mammalian brain. Previously reported probands with de novo missense mutations in DNM1L presented in the first year of life with severe encephalopathy and refractory epilepsy, with several dying within the first several weeks after birth. In contrast, we report identical novel missense mutations in DNM1L in two unrelated probands who experienced normal development for several years before presenting with refractory focal status epilepticus and subsequent rapid neurological decline. We expand the phenotype of DNM1L-related mitochondrial fission defects, reveal common unique clinical characteristics and imaging findings, and compare the cellular impact of this novel mutation to the previously reported A395D lethal variant. We demonstrate that our R403C mutation, which resides in the assembly region of DRP1, acts by a dominant-negative mechanism and reduces oligomerization, mitochondrial fission activity, and mitochondrial recruitment of DRP1, but to a lesser extent compared to the A395D mutation. In contrast to the initial report of neonatal lethality resulting from DNM1L mutation and DRP1 dysfunction, our results show that milder DRP1 impairment is compatible with normal early development and subsequently results in a distinct set of neurological findings. In addition, we identify a common pathogenic mechanism whereby DNM1L mutations impair mitochondrial fission. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A dominant-negative form of Arabidopsis AP-3 β-adaptin improves intracellular pH homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Niñoles, Regina; Rubio, Lourdes; García-Sánchez, María J; Fernández, José A; Bueso, Eduardo; Alejandro, Santiago; Serrano, Ramón

    2013-05-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi ) is a crucial parameter in cellular physiology but its mechanisms of homeostasis are only partially understood. To uncover novel roles and participants of the pHi regulatory system, we have screened an Arabidopsis mutant collection for resistance of seed germination to intracellular acidification induced by weak organic acids (acetic, propionic, sorbic). The phenotypes of one identified mutant, weak acid-tolerant 1-1D (wat1-1D) are due to the expression of a truncated form of AP-3 β-adaptin (encoded by the PAT2 gene) that behaves as a as dominant-negative. During acetic acid treatment the root epidermal cells of the mutant maintain a higher pHi and a more depolarized plasma membrane electrical potential than wild-type cells. Additional phenotypes of wat1-1D roots include increased rates of acetate efflux, K(+) uptake and H(+) efflux, the latter reflecting the in vivo activity of the plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase. The in vitro activity of the enzyme was not increased but, as the H(+) -ATPase is electrogenic, the increased ion permeability would allow a higher rate of H(+) efflux. The AP-3 adaptor complex is involved in traffic from Golgi to vacuoles but its function in plants is not much known. The phenotypes of the wat1-1D mutant can be explained if loss of function of the AP-3 β-adaptin causes activation of channels or transporters for organic anions (acetate) and for K(+) at the plasma membrane, perhaps through miss-localization of tonoplast proteins. This suggests a role of this adaptin in trafficking of ion channels or transporters to the tonoplast. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An Engineered TGF-β Monomer that Functions as a Dominant Negative to Block TGF-β Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kyung; Barron, Lindsey; Hinck, Cynthia S; Petrunak, Elyse M; Cano, Kristin E; Thangirala, Avinash; Iskra, Brian; Brothers, Molly; Vonberg, Machell; Leal, Belinda; Richter, Blair; Kodali, Ravindra; Taylor, Alex B; Du, Shoucheng; Barnes, Christopher O; Sulea, Traian; Calero, Guillermo; Hart, P John; Hart, Matthew J; Demeler, Borries; Hinck, Andrew P

    2017-02-22

    The transforming growth factor beta isoforms, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3 are small secreted homodimeric signaling proteins with essential roles in regulating the adaptive immune system and maintaining the extracellular matrix. However, dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is responsible for promoting the progression of several human diseases, including cancer and fibrosis. In spite of the known importance of TGF-βs in promoting disease progression, no inhibitors have been approved for use in humans. Herein, we describe an engineered TGF-β monomer, lacking the heel helix, a structural motif essential for binding the TGF-β type I receptor, TβRI, but dispensible for binding the other receptor required for TGF-β signaling, the TGF-β type II receptor, TβRII, as an alternative therapeutic modality for blocking TGF-β signaling in humans. As shown through binding studies and crystallography, the engineered monomer retained the same overall structure of native TGF-β monomers and bound TβRII in an identical manner. Cell-based luciferase assays showed that the engineered monomer functioned as a dominant negative to inhibit TGF-β signaling with a Ki of 20 - 70 nM. Investigation of the mechanism showed that the high affinity of the engineered monomer for TβRII, coupled with its reduced ability to non-covalently dimerize and its inability to bind and recruit TβRI, enabled it to bind endogenous TβRII, but prevented it from binding and recruiting TβRI to form a signaling complex. Such engineered monomers provide a new avenue to probe and manipulate TGF-β signaling, and may inform similar modifications of other TGF-β family members.

  7. Dominant negative mutation in cell surface beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase inhibits cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    In addition to its traditional location within the Golgi complex, beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalTase) is also present on the cell surface, where it is thought to function as a cell adhesion molecule by binding to extracellular oligosaccharide ligands. Recent studies suggest that cells contain two forms of GalTase with distinct cytoplasmic domains. The longer form of GalTase contains a 13-amino acid cytoplasmic extension and is preferentially targeted to the plasma membrane, relative to the shorter GalTase protein that is confined primarily to the Golgi compartment. In this study, we created a dominant negative mutation that interferes with the function of cell surface GalTase by transfecting into cells cDNAs encoding truncated versions of the long form of GalTase containing the complete cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains, but devoid of the catalytic domain. In both F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, overexpressing the truncated long GalTase (TLGT) protein displaced the endogenous cell surface GalTase from its association with the cytoskeleton, resulting in a loss of intercellular adhesion and cell spreading specifically on matrices that use GalTase as a cell surface receptor. In contrast, overexpressing the analogous truncated short GalTase (TSGT) protein did not affect cell morphology or GalTase activity. In control assays, inducing the TLGT protein had no effect on cell interactions with fibronectin (which is independent of GalTase), or on the cytoskeleton attachment of another matrix receptor (beta 1 integrin), or on overall glycoprotein synthesis, thus eliminating nonspecific effects of the TLGT protein on cellular adhesion and metabolism. These results represent the first molecular manipulation of cell surface GalTase expression and confirm its function as a cell adhesion molecule. These studies further suggest that the cytoskeleton contains a defined, saturable number of binding sites for GalTase, which enables it to function as

  8. Genetic suppression of atrial fibrillation using a dominant-negative ether-a-go-go-related gene mutant.

    PubMed

    Soucek, Radim; Thomas, Dierk; Kelemen, Kamilla; Bikou, Olympia; Seyler, Claudia; Voss, Frederik; Becker, Rüdiger; Koenen, Michael; Katus, Hugo A; Bauer, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Gene therapy-dependent modulation of atrial electrophysiology may provide a more specific alternative to pharmacological and ablative treatment strategies. We hypothesized that genetic inactivation of atrial repolarizing ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG) K(+) currents using a dominant-negative mutant would provide rhythm control in AF. Ten domestic swine underwent pacemaker implantation and were subjected to atrial burst pacing to induce persistent AF. Animals were then randomized to receive either AdCERG-G627S to suppress ERG/I(Kr) currents or green fluorescent protein (AdGFP) as control. Adenoviruses were applied using a novel hybrid technique combining atrial virus injection and epicardial electroporation to increase transgene expression. In pigs treated with AdCERG-G627S, the onset of persistent AF was prevented (n = 2) or significantly delayed compared with AdGFP controls (12 ± 2.1 vs. 6.2 ± 1.3 days; P < .001) during 14-day follow-up. Effective refractory periods were prolonged in the AdCERG-G627S group compared with AdGFP animals (221.5 ± 4.7 ms vs. 197.0 ± 4.7 ms; P < .006). Impairment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) during AF was prevented by AdCERG-G627S application (LVEF(CERG-G627S) = 62.1% ± 4.0% vs. LVEF(GFP) = 30.3% ± 9.1%; P < .001). Inhibition of ERG function using atrial AdCERG-G627S gene transfer suppresses or delays the onset of persistent AF by prolongation of atrial refractoriness in a porcine model. Targeted gene therapy represents an alternative to pharmacological or ablative treatment of AF. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of dominant-negative HrpA mutants to dissect Hrp pilus assembly and type III secretion in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Hoon; Kolade, Olatomirin O; Nomura, Kinya; Arvidson, Dennis N; He, Sheng Yang

    2005-06-03

    The Hrp pilus plays an essential role in the long-distance type III translocation of effector proteins from bacteria into plant cells. HrpA is the structural subunit of the Hrp pilus in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Little is known about the molecular features in the HrpA protein for pilus assembly or for transporting effector proteins. From previous collections of nonfunctional HrpA derivatives that carry random pentapeptide insertions or single amino acid mutations, we identified several dominant-negative mutants that blocked the ability of wild-type Pst DC3000 to elicit host responses. The dominant-negative phenotype was correlated with the disappearance of the Hrp pilus in culture and inhibition of wild-type HrpA protein self-assembly in vitro. Dominant-negative HrpA mutants can be grouped into two functional classes: one class exerted a strong dominant-negative effect on the secretion of effector proteins AvrPto and HopPtoM in culture, and the other did not. The two classes of mutant HrpA proteins carry pentapeptide insertions in discrete regions, which are interrupted by insertions without a dominant-negative effect. These results enable prediction of possible subunit-subunit interaction sites in the assembly of the Hrp pilus and suggest the usefulness of dominant-negative mutants in dissection of the role of the wild-type HrpA protein in various stages of type III translocation: protein exit across the bacterial cell wall, the assembly and/or stabilization of the Hrp pilus in the extracellular space, and Hrp pilus-mediated long-distance transport beyond the bacterial cell wall.

  10. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris

    2012-05-01

    Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.

  11. A dominantly negative mutation in cardiac troponin I at the interface with troponin T causes early remodeling in ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongguang; Jin, J-P

    2014-08-15

    We previously reported a point mutation substituting Cys for Arg(111) in the highly conserved troponin T (TnT)-contacting helix of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in wild turkey hearts (Biesiadecki et al. J Biol Chem 279: 13825-13832, 2004). This dominantly negative TnI-TnT interface mutation decreases the binding affinity of cTnI for TnT, impairs diastolic function, and blunts the β-adrenergic response of cardiac muscle (Wei et al. J Biol Chem 285: 27806-27816, 2010). Here we further investigate cellular phenotypes of transgenic mouse cardiomyocytes expressing the equivalent mutation cTnI-K118C. Functional studies were performed on single adult cardiomyocytes after recovery in short-term culture from isolation stress. The amplitude of contraction and the velocities of shortening and relengthening were lower in cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes than wild-type controls. The intracellular Ca(2+) transient was slower in cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes than wild-type cells. cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes also showed a weaker β-adrenergic response. The resting length of cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes was significantly greater than that of age-matched wild-type cells, with no difference in cell width. The resting sarcomere was not longer, but slightly shorter, in cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes than wild-type cells, indicating longitudinal addition of sarcomeres. More tri- and quadrinuclei cardiomyocytes were found in TnI-K118C than wild-type hearts, suggesting increased nuclear divisions. Whole-genome mRNA array and Western blots detected an increased expression of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-β in the hearts of 2-mo-old cTnI-K118C mice, suggesting a signaling pathway responsible for the potent effect of cTnI-K118C mutation on early remodeling in cardiomyocytes.

  12. A dominantly negative mutation in cardiac troponin I at the interface with troponin T causes early remodeling in ventricular cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported a point mutation substituting Cys for Arg111 in the highly conserved troponin T (TnT)-contacting helix of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in wild turkey hearts (Biesiadecki et al. J Biol Chem 279: 13825–13832, 2004). This dominantly negative TnI-TnT interface mutation decreases the binding affinity of cTnI for TnT, impairs diastolic function, and blunts the β-adrenergic response of cardiac muscle (Wei et al. J Biol Chem 285: 27806–27816, 2010). Here we further investigate cellular phenotypes of transgenic mouse cardiomyocytes expressing the equivalent mutation cTnI-K118C. Functional studies were performed on single adult cardiomyocytes after recovery in short-term culture from isolation stress. The amplitude of contraction and the velocities of shortening and relengthening were lower in cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes than wild-type controls. The intracellular Ca2+ transient was slower in cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes than wild-type cells. cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes also showed a weaker β-adrenergic response. The resting length of cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes was significantly greater than that of age-matched wild-type cells, with no difference in cell width. The resting sarcomere was not longer, but slightly shorter, in cTnI-K118C cardiomyocytes than wild-type cells, indicating longitudinal addition of sarcomeres. More tri- and quadrinuclei cardiomyocytes were found in TnI-K118C than wild-type hearts, suggesting increased nuclear divisions. Whole-genome mRNA array and Western blots detected an increased expression of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-β in the hearts of 2-mo-old cTnI-K118C mice, suggesting a signaling pathway responsible for the potent effect of cTnI-K118C mutation on early remodeling in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24898585

  13. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  14. Dominant-negative but not gain-of-function effects of a p53.R270H mutation in mouse epithelium tissue after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Speksnijder, Ewoud N; Liu, Xiaoling; Zwart, Edwin; vanOostrom, Conny Th M; Beems, Rudolf B; Hoogervorst, Esther M; Schaap, Mirjam M; Attardi, Laura D; Jacks, Tyler; van Steeg, Harry; Jonkers, Jos; de Vries, Annemieke

    2007-05-15

    p53 alterations in human tumors often involve missense mutations that may confer dominant-negative or gain-of-function properties. Dominant-negative effects result in inactivation of wild-type p53 protein in heterozygous mutant cells and as such in a p53 null phenotype. Gain-of-function effects can directly promote tumor development or metastasis through antiapoptotic mechanisms or transcriptional activation of (onco)genes. Here, we show, using conditional mouse technology, that epithelium-specific heterozygous expression of mutant p53 (i.e., the p53.R270H mutation that is equivalent to the human hotspot R273H) results in an increased incidence of spontaneous and UVB-induced skin tumors. Expression of p53.R270H exerted dominant-negative effects on latency, multiplicity, and progression status of UVB-induced but not spontaneous tumors. Surprisingly, gain-of-function properties of p53.R270H were not detected in skin epithelium. Apparently, dominant-negative and gain-of-function effects of mutant p53 are highly tissue specific and become most manifest upon stabilization of p53 after DNA damage.

  15. In pursuit of negative Fukui functions: examples where the highest occupied molecular orbital fails to dominate the chemical reactivity.

    PubMed

    Echegaray, Eleonora; Cárdenas, Carlos; Rabi, Sandra; Rabi, Nataly; Lee, Sungmin; Zadeh, Farnaz Heidar; Toro-Labbe, Alejandro; Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W

    2013-07-01

    In our quest to explore molecules with chemically significant regions where the Fukui function is negative, we explored reactions where the frontier orbital that indicates the sites for electrophilic attack is not the highest occupied molecular orbital. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) controls the location of the regions where the Fukui function is negative, supporting the postulate that negative values of the Fukui function are associated with orbital relaxation effects and nodal surfaces of the frontier orbitals. Significant negative values for the condensed Fukui function, however, were not observed.

  16. Dominant-Negative Mutants Identify a Role for Girk Channels in D3 Dopamine Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Spontaneous Secretory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.; Oxford, Gerry S.

    2000-01-01

    The human D3 dopamine receptor can activate G-protein–coupled inward rectifier potassium channels (GIRKs), inhibit P/Q-type calcium channels, and inhibit spontaneous secretory activity in AtT-20 neuroendocrine cells (Kuzhikandathil, E.V., W. Yu, and G.S. Oxford. 1998. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 12:390–402; Kuzhikandathil, E.V., and G.S. Oxford. 1999. J. Neurosci. 19:1698–1707). In this study, we evaluate the role of GIRKs in the D3 receptor-mediated inhibition of secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. The absence of selective blockers for GIRKs has precluded a direct test of the hypothesis that they play an important role in inhibiting secretory activity. However, the tetrameric structure of these channels provides a means of disrupting endogenous GIRK function using a dominant negative approach. To develop a dominant-negative GIRK mutant, the K+ selectivity amino acid sequence -GYG- in the putative pore domain of the human GIRK2 channels was mutated to -AAA-, -GLG-, or -GFG-. While the mutation of -GYG- to -GFG- did not affect channel function, both the -AAA- and -GLG- GIRK2 mutants were nonfunctional. This suggests that the aromatic ring of the tyrosine residue rather than its hydroxyl group is involved in maintaining the pore architecture of human GIRK2 channels. When expressed in AtT-20 cells, the nonfunctional AAA-GIRK2 and GLG-GIRK2 acted as effective dominant-negative mutants and significantly attenuated endogenous GIRK currents. Furthermore, these dominant-negative mutants interfered with the D3 receptor-mediated inhibition of secretion in AtT-20 cells, suggesting they are centrally involved in the signaling pathway of this secretory response. These results indicate that dominant-negative GIRK mutants are effective molecular tools to examine the role of GIRK channels in vivo. PMID:10828244

  17. The structural basis of the dominant negative phenotype of the Gαi1β1γ2 G203A/A326S heterotrimer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Jia, Ming-zhu; Zhou, X Edward; De Waal, Parker W; Dickson, Bradley M; Liu, Bo; Hou, Li; Yin, Yan-ting; Kang, Yan-yong; Shi, Yi; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Dominant negative mutant G proteins have provided critical insight into the mechanisms of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, but the mechanisms underlying the dominant negative characteristics are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the dominant negative Gαi1β1γ2 G203A/A326S complex (Gi-DN) and to reveal the structural basis of the mutation-induced phenotype of Gαi1β1γ2. Methods: The three subunits of the Gi-DN complex were co-expressed with a baculovirus expression system. The Gi-DN heterotrimer was purified, and the structure of its complex with GDP was determined through X-ray crystallography. Results: The Gi-DN heterotrimer structure revealed a dual mechanism underlying the dominant negative characteristics. The mutations weakened the hydrogen bonding network between GDP/GTP and the binding pocket residues, and increased the interactions in the Gα-Gβγ interface. Concomitantly, the Gi-DN heterotrimer adopted a conformation, in which the C-terminus of Gαi and the N-termini of both the Gβ and Gγ subunits were more similar to the GPCR-bound state compared with the wild type complex. From these structural observations, two additional mutations (T48F and D272F) were designed that completely abolish the GDP binding of the Gi-DN heterotrimer. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that the mutations impede guanine nucleotide binding and Gα-Gβγ protein dissociation and favor the formation of the G protein/GPCR complex, thus blocking signal propagation. In addition, the structure provides a rationale for the design of other mutations that cause dominant negative effects in the G protein, as exemplified by the T48F and D272F mutations. PMID:27498775

  18. Probing the structure, function, and interactions of the Escherichia coli H-NS and StpA proteins by using dominant negative derivatives.

    PubMed

    Williams, R M; Rimsky, S; Buc, H

    1996-08-01

    Twelve different dominant negative mutants of the Escherichia coli nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS, have been selected and characterized in vivo. The mutants are all severely defective in promoter repression activity in a strain lacking H-NS, and they all disrupt the repression normally exerted by H-NS at two of its target promoters. From the locations of the alterations in these mutants, which result in both large truncations and amino acid substitutions, we propose that H-NAS contains at least two distinct domains. The in vitro protein-protein cross-linking data presented in this report indicate that the proposed N-terminal domain of H-NS has a role in H-NS multimerization. StpA is a protein with known structural and functional homologies to H-NS. We have analyzed the extent of these homologies by constructing and studying StpA mutants predicted to be dominant negative. Our data indicate that the substitutions and deletions found in dominant negative H-NS have similar effects in the context of StpA. We conclude that the domain organizations and functions in StpA and H-NS are closely related. Furthermore, dominant negative H-NS can disrupt the activity of native StpA, and reciprocally, dominant negative StpA can disrupt the activity of native H-NS. We demonstrate that the N-terminal domain of H-NS can be chemically cross-linked to both full-length H-NS and StpA. We account for these observations by proposing that H-NS and StpA have the ability to form hybrid species.

  19. Dominant-negative mutation in the beta2 and beta6 proteasome subunit genes affect alternative cell fate decisions in the Drosophila sense organ lineage.

    PubMed

    Schweisguth, F

    1999-09-28

    In Drosophila, dominant-negative mutations in the beta2 and beta6 proteasome catalytic subunit genes have been identified as dominant temperature-sensitive (DTS) mutations. At restrictive temperature, beta2 and beta6 DTS mutations confer lethality at the pupal stage. I investigate here the role of proteasome activity in regulating cell fate decisions in the sense organ lineage at the early pupal stage. Temperature-shift experiments in beta2 and beta6 DTS mutant pupae occasionally resulted in external sense organs with two sockets and no shaft. This double-socket phenotype was strongly enhanced in conditions in which Notch signaling was up-regulated. Furthermore, conditional overexpression of the beta6 dominant-negative mutant subunit led to shaft-to-socket and to neuron-to-sheath cell fate transformations, which are both usually associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Finally, expression of the beta6 dominant-negative mutant subunit led to the stabilization of an ectopically expressed nuclear form of Notch in imaginal wing discs. This study demonstrates that mutations affecting two distinct proteasome catalytic subunits affect two alternative cell fate decisions and enhance Notch signaling activity in the sense organ lineage. These findings raise the possibility that the proteasome targets an active form of the Notch receptor for degradation in Drosophila.

  20. Hair penalties: the negative influence of Afrocentric hair on ratings of Black women’s dominance and professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Opie, Tina R.; Phillips, Katherine W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Women are penalized if they do not behave in a stereotype-congruent manner (Heilman, 1983, 2001; Eagly and Carli, 2007). For example, because women are not expected to be agentic they incur an “agency penalty” for expressing anger, dominance or assertiveness (Rudman, 1998; Rudman and Glick, 1999, 2001; Eagly and Karau, 2002; Rudman and Fairchild, 2004; Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008; Livingston et al., 2012). Yet, all women are not equally penalized (Livingston et al., 2012). We make a novel contribution by examining how both White and Black evaluators respond to displays of Black women’s dominance, in this case, whether Black women choose to wear Afrocentric or Eurocentric hairstyles. Design/methodology/approach: We conducted three experimental studies to examine the influence of target hairstyle and participant race on ratings of the target’s professionalism (Studies 1, 2, and 3) and dominance (Study 2). Study 1 was an online experimental study with 200 participants (112 females, 87 males, 1 missing gender; 160 Whites, 19 Blacks, 11 Latinos, 7 Asian Americans and 3 who identify as “other”; Mage = 35.5, SD = 11.4). Study 2 was an online experimental study with 510 participants (276 women, 234 males; 256 Blacks, 254 Whites; Mage = 41.25 years, SD = 12.21). Study 3 was an online experimental study with 291 participants (141 Blacks, 150 Whites, Mage = 47.5 years, SD = 11.66). Findings: Black, as compared to White, evaluators gave higher agency penalties to Black employment candidates when they donned Afrocentric versus Eurocentric hair, rating them as more dominant and less professional. Implications: The present research illustrates the significance of considering both target and evaluator race when examining the influence of agency, and specifically dominance, on ratings of professionalism. PMID:26379612

  1. Comparison of chiral separation of basic drugs in capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography using neutral and negatively charged cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Kwaterczak, Arkadiusz; Duszczyk, Kazimiera; Bielejewska, Anna

    2009-07-10

    Liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) are very widely used as chiral separation methods. In this publication we try to find if the results obtained in CE and LC with the chiral selector added to the electrolyte and the mobile phase, respectively, can be used as tools for studying weak stereoselective interactions, and how this information can be useful for optimizing chiral separation processes. The manuscript presents a systematic comparison of chiral discrimination of model compounds in HPLC and CE using neutral and negatively charged cyclodextrins. The enantiomeric separation of basic chiral pharmaceuticals such as pheniramine, brompheniramine, metoxyphenamine, cyclopentolate, doxylamine and ketamine was investigated in capillary electrophoresis (CE) and liquid chromatography (HPLC) using negatively charged sulfated-beta-cyclodextrin (S-beta-CD) and neutral cyclodextrins (CDs). The apparent stability constants between the model compounds and cyclodextrins were estimated in both techniques. We discuss the influence of the stability constant and K1/K2 ratio of the investigated complexes on chiral separation obtained in both techniques.

  2. Dominant-negative effect of the heterozygous C104R TACI mutation in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

    PubMed

    Garibyan, Lilit; Lobito, Adrian A; Siegel, Richard M; Call, Matthew E; Wucherpfennig, Kai W; Geha, Raif S

    2007-06-01

    B cells from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) who are heterozygous for transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) mutation C104R, which abolishes ligand binding, fail to produce Igs in response to TACI ligand. It is not known whether this is due to haploinsufficiency or dominant interference. Using in vitro transfection assays, here we demonstrate that C104R and the corresponding murine TACI mutant, C76R, which also does not bind ligand, dominantly interfere with TACI signaling. This effect was dependent on preassociation of the mutants with WT TACI in the absence of ligand. The mutants did not interfere with ligand binding by WT TACI, suggesting that they may act by disrupting ligand-induced receptor rearrangement and signaling. This work demonstrates that TACI preassembles as an oligomeric complex prior to ligand binding and provides a mechanistic insight into how the heterozygous C104R TACI mutation can potentially lead to CVID.

  3. A poor start in life negatively affects dominance status in adulthood independent of body size in green swordtails Xiphophorus helleri.

    PubMed

    Royle, Nick J; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2005-09-22

    Whilst there is an abundance of studies revealing how dominance interactions affect access to resources critical for survival and reproductive success, very little is known about how dominance status is influenced by early life experiences. However, there is increasing evidence that early developmental trajectories can shape the physiology and behaviour of the adult. In particular, compensatory growth following a period of poor nutrition can have long-term effects on the phenotype. Since catch-up growth increases daily energy requirements and hence the motivation to acquire sufficient resources, it might either increase or decrease competitive ability and aggression. Here we test whether growth compensation early in life subsequently affects the dominance status of adult male swordtail fishes Xiphophorus helleri, a species with strong sexual dimorphism and male-male competition. Males that experienced a period of restricted food early in life subsequently caught up and achieved the same adult body and ornament size as control males that had been raised on ad libitum food throughout development, but were subordinate to size-matched controls, suggesting a trade-off between sexual attractiveness and competitive ability. This indicates that early life history and/or growth trajectory can be an important determinant of competitive ability independent of current body size.

  4. Fearless Dominance and reduced feedback-related negativity amplitudes in a time-estimation task – Further neuroscientific evidence for dual-process models of psychopathy☆

    PubMed Central

    Schulreich, Stefan; Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Derntl, Birgit; Sailer, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Dual-process models of psychopathy postulate two etiologically relevant processes. Their involvement in feedback processing and its neural correlates has not been investigated so far. Multi-channel EEG was collected while healthy female volunteers performed a time-estimation task and received negative or positive feedback in form of signs or emotional faces. The affective-interpersonal factor Fearless Dominance, but not Self-Centered Impulsivity, was associated with reduced feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes. This neural dissociation extends previous findings on the impact of psychopathy on feedback processing and further highlights the importance of distinguishing psychopathic traits and extending previous (neuroscientific) models of psychopathy. PMID:23607997

  5. Dominant negative and loss of function mutations of the c-kit (mast/stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene in human piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Giebel, L.B.; Holmes, S.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development and is characterized by congenital white parches of skin and hair from which melanocytes are completely absent. A similar disorder of the mouse, 'dominant white spotting' (W), results from mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular tyrosine kinases receptor for the mast/stem cell growth factor. The authors have identified c-kit gene mutations in three patients with piebaldism. A missense substitution (Phe[r arrow]Leu) at codon 584, within the tyrosine kinases domain, is associated with a severe piebald phenotype, whereas two different frameshifts, within codons 561 and 642, are both associated with a variable and relatively mild piebald phenotype. This is consistent with a possible 'dominant negative' effect of missense c-kit polypeptides on the function of the dimeric receptor.

  6. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0–1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500–24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule. PMID:27538361

  7. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-08-19

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0-1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500-24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule.

  8. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0-1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500-24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule.

  9. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T.

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  10. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  11. Negative emotions and quality of life six months after cardiac surgery: the dominant role of depression not anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tully, Phillip J; Baker, Robert A; Turnbull, Deborah A; Winefield, Helen R; Knight, John L

    2009-12-01

    The specific syndromal aspects of depression and anxiety have not been explored in relation to changes in health related quality of life (HRQOL) after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of general stress, depression and anxiety on HRQOL after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Utilizing a tripartite conceptual model of depression and anxiety, it was hypothesized that general stress symptoms, rather than unique depressive or anxiogenic symptoms, would be associated with lower HRQOL 6 months after CABG surgery. Elective CABG patients (n=226) completed baseline and postoperative self-report measures of negative emotions and HRQOL, and 193 patients completed these measures at 6-month follow-up. Multiple linear regression analyses and logit link analyses were performed to test the hypothesis. Elevated depression symptoms before and after surgery showed an association with lower and worse HRQOL for vitality and social role functioning and physical and general health. This study adds to previous research by outlining discrete associations between specific HRQOL domains, and is perhaps the first to test a theoretical model of depression and anxiety in relation to cardiac CABG patients' perceptions of HRQOL. These findings encourage further research on negative emotions and HRQOL in cardiac surgery patients and the practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Dominant negative selection of vaccinia virus using a thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase fusion gene and the prodrug azidothymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, Georg W. . E-mail: falknef@baxter.com

    2005-07-05

    The Escherichia coli thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase (tk/tmk) fusion gene encodes an enzyme that efficiently converts the prodrug 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) into its toxic triphosphate derivative, a substance which stops DNA chain elongation. Integration of this marker gene into vaccinia virus that normally is not inhibited by AZT allowed the establishment of a powerful selection procedure for recombinant viruses. In contrast to the conventional vaccinia thymidine kinase (tk) selection that is performed in tk-negative cell lines, AZT selection can be performed in normal (tk-positive) cell lines. The technique is especially useful for the generation of replication-deficient vaccinia viruses and may also be used for gene knock-out studies of essential vaccinia genes.

  13. A wave-dominated heat transport mechanism for negative differential thermal resistance in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Jun; Peng, Zhi-Hua; Du, Dan; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinear thermal transport in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure is investigated by the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method. It is found that negative differential thermal resistance (NDTR) will appear as the applied temperature difference increases. Detailed phonon spectra analysis reveals that the excited out-of-plane acoustic wave plays an important role in the heat transport across such interface. That is, the mechanical wave results in a significant mismatch between the lattice vibrations of graphene and h-BN domains and hinders interfacial thermal transport. In addition, NDTR can be tuned through the temperature parameter. Interestingly, the regime of NDTR becomes smaller and eventually vanishes with increasing the heterostructure length. However, NDTR is insensitive to the variation of system width. The work may be useful for nanoscale thermal managements utilizing the graphene/h-BN heterostructure.

  14. Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity thresholds and changes in exploratory and learning behavior in dominant negative NPR-B mutant rats

    PubMed Central

    Barmashenko, Gleb; Buttgereit, Jens; Herring, Neil; Bader, Michael; Özcelik, Cemil; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Braunewell, Karl H.

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic GMP affects synaptic transmission and modulates synaptic plasticity and certain types of learning and memory processes. The impact of the natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its ligand C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), one of several cGMP producing signaling systems, on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning is, however, less well understood. We have previously shown that the NPR-B ligand CNP increases the magnitude of long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal area CA1, while reducing the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). We have extended this line of research to show that bidirectional plasticity is affected in the opposite way in rats expressing a dominant-negative mutant of NPR-B (NSE-NPR-BΔKC) lacking the intracellular guanylyl cyclase domain under control of a promoter for neuron-specific enolase. The brain cells of these transgenic rats express functional dimers of the NPR-B receptor containing the dominant-negative NPR-BΔKC mutant, and therefore show decreased CNP-stimulated cGMP-production in brain membranes. The NPR-B transgenic rats display enhanced LTP but reduced LTD in hippocampal slices. When the frequency-dependence of synaptic modification to afferent stimulation in the range of 1–100 Hz was assessed in transgenic rats, the threshold for both, LTP and LTD induction, was shifted to lower frequencies. In parallel, NPR-BΔKC rats exhibited an enhancement in exploratory and learning behavior. These results indicate that bidirectional plasticity and learning and memory mechanism are affected in transgenic rats expressing a dominant-negative mutant of NPR-B. Our data substantiate the hypothesis that NPR-B-dependent cGMP signaling has a modulatory role for synaptic information storage and learning. PMID:25520616

  15. Response to Multiple Radiation Doses of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells Infected With Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Dominant-Negative Ku70 Fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Urano, Muneyasu; He Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Ling, C. Clifton; Li, Gloria C.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing dominant-negative Ku70 fragment on the response of tumor cells to multiple small radiation doses. Our ultimate goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using this virus in gene-radiotherapy to enhance the radiation response of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Human colorectal HCT8 and HT29 carcinoma cells were plated in glass tubes, infected with virus (25 multiplicity of infection), and irradiated with a single dose or zero to five doses of 3 Gy each at 6-h intervals. Hypoxia was induced by flushing with 100% nitrogen gas. The cells were trypsinized 0 or 6 h after the final irradiation, and cell survival was determined by colony formation. The survival data were fitted to linear-quadratic model or exponential line. Results: Virus infection enhanced the radiation response of the HCT8 and HT29 cells. The virus enhancement ratio for single-dose irradiation at a surviving fraction of 0.1 was {approx}1.3 for oxic and hypoxic HCT8 and 1.4 and 1.1 for oxic and hypoxic HT29, respectively. A similar virus enhancement ratio of 1.2-1.3 was observed for both oxic and hypoxic cells irradiated with multiple doses; however, these values were smaller than the values found for dominant-negative Ku70-transfected Rat-1 cells. This difference has been discussed. The oxygen enhancement ratio for HCT8 and HT29 receiving fractionated doses was 1.2 and 2.0, respectively, and virus infection altered them slightly. Conclusion: Infection of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing dominant-negative Ku70 fragment enhanced the response of human colorectal cancer cells to single and multiple radiation doses.

  16. Light-dependent gravitropism and negative phototropism of inflorescence stems in a dominant Aux/IAA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2014-09-01

    Gravitropism and phototropism of the primary inflorescence stems were examined in a dominant Aux/IAA mutant of Arabidopsis, axr2/iaa7, which did not display either tropism in hypocotyls. axr2-1 stems completely lacked gravitropism in the dark but slowly regained it in light condition. Though wild-type stems showed positive phototropism, axr2 stems displayed negative phototropism with essentially the same light fluence-response curve as the wild type (WT). Application of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-containing lanolin to the stem tips enhanced the positive phototropism of WT, and reduced the negative phototropism of axr2. Decapitation of stems caused a small negative phototropism in WT, but did not affect the negative phototropism of axr2. p-glycoprotein 1 (pgp1) pgp19 double mutants showed no phototropism, while decapitated double mutants exhibited negative phototropism. Expression of auxin-responsive IAA14/SLR, IAA19/MSG2 and SAUR50 genes was reduced in axr2 and pgp1 pgp19 stems relative to that of WT. These suggest that the phototropic response of stem is proportional to the auxin supply from the shoot apex, and that negative phototropism may be a basal response to unilateral blue-light irradiation when the levels of auxin or auxin signaling are reduced to the minimal level in the primary stems. In contrast, all of these treatments reduced or did not affect gravitropism in wild-type or axr2 stems. Tropic responses of the transgenic lines that expressed axr2-1 protein by the endodermis-specific promoter suggest that AXR2-dependent auxin response in the endodermis plays a more crucial role in gravitropism than in phototropism in stems but no significant roles in either tropism in hypocotyls.

  17. The dominant-negative inhibition of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR increases the efficacy of Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lihoradova, Olga; Kalveram, Birte; Indran, Sabarish V; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Juelich, Terry L; Hill, Terence E; Tseng, Chien-Te K; Gong, Bin; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Morikawa, Shigeru; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2012-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), belonging to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes a high rate of abortion in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. MP-12 is the only RVFV strain excluded from the select-agent rule and handled at a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) laboratory. MP-12 encodes a functional major virulence factor, the NSs protein, which contributes to its residual virulence in pregnant ewes. We found that 100% of mice subcutaneously vaccinated with recombinant MP-12 (rMP12)-murine PKRN167 (mPKRN167), which encodes a dominant-negative form of mouse double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in place of NSs, were protected from wild-type (wt) RVFV challenge, while 72% of mice vaccinated with MP-12 were protected after challenge. rMP12-mPKRN167 induced alpha interferon (IFN-α) in sera, accumulated RVFV antigens in dendritic cells at the local draining lymph nodes, and developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies, while parental MP-12 induced neither IFN-α nor viral-antigen accumulation at the draining lymph node yet induced a high level of neutralizing antibodies. The present study suggests that the expression of a dominant-negative PKR increases the immunogenicity and efficacy of live-attenuated RVFV vaccine, which will lead to rational design of safe and highly immunogenic RVFV vaccines for livestock and humans.

  18. The Dominant-Negative Inhibition of Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR Increases the Efficacy of Rift Valley Fever Virus MP-12 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lihoradova, Olga; Kalveram, Birte; Indran, Sabarish V.; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Juelich, Terry L.; Hill, Terence E.; Tseng, Chien-Te K.; Gong, Bin; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Morikawa, Shigeru; Freiberg, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), belonging to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes a high rate of abortion in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. MP-12 is the only RVFV strain excluded from the select-agent rule and handled at a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) laboratory. MP-12 encodes a functional major virulence factor, the NSs protein, which contributes to its residual virulence in pregnant ewes. We found that 100% of mice subcutaneously vaccinated with recombinant MP-12 (rMP12)-murine PKRN167 (mPKRN167), which encodes a dominant-negative form of mouse double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in place of NSs, were protected from wild-type (wt) RVFV challenge, while 72% of mice vaccinated with MP-12 were protected after challenge. rMP12-mPKRN167 induced alpha interferon (IFN-α) in sera, accumulated RVFV antigens in dendritic cells at the local draining lymph nodes, and developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies, while parental MP-12 induced neither IFN-α nor viral-antigen accumulation at the draining lymph node yet induced a high level of neutralizing antibodies. The present study suggests that the expression of a dominant-negative PKR increases the immunogenicity and efficacy of live-attenuated RVFV vaccine, which will lead to rational design of safe and highly immunogenic RVFV vaccines for livestock and humans. PMID:22573861

  19. Selective expression of a dominant-negative type Iα PKA regulatory subunit in striatal medium spiny neurons impairs gene expression and leads to reduced feeding and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linghai; Gilbert, Merle L; Zheng, Ruimao; McKnight, G Stanley

    2014-04-02

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) mediate many of the physiological effects of dopamine, including the regulation of feeding and motor behaviors. Dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain modulate MSN excitability through pathways that involve cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), but the physiological role of specific PKA isoforms in MSN neurons remains poorly understood. One of the major PKA regulatory (R) subunit isoforms expressed in MSNs is RIIβ, which localizes the PKA holoenzyme primarily to dendrites by interaction with AKAP5 and other scaffolding proteins. However, RI (RIα and RIβ) subunits are also expressed in MSNs and the RI holoenzyme has a weaker affinity for most scaffolding proteins and tends to localize in the cell body. We generated mice with selective expression of a dominant-negative RI subunit (RIαB) in striatal MSNs and show that this dominant-negative RIαB localizes to the cytoplasm and specifically inhibits type I PKA activity in the striatum. These mice are normal at birth; however, soon after weaning they exhibit growth retardation and the adult mice are hypophagic, lean, and resistant to high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. The RIαB-expressing mice also exhibit decreased locomotor activity and decreased dopamine-regulated CREB phosphorylation and c-fos gene expression in the striatum. Our results demonstrate a critical role for cytoplasmic RI-PKA holoenzyme in gene regulation and the overall physiological function of MSNs.

  20. The correlation between subordinate fish eye colour and received attacks: a negative social feedback mechanism for the reduction of aggression during the formation of dominance hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Caio A; Carretero Sanches, Fábio H; Costa, Tânia M; Colpo, Karine Delevati; Volpato, Gilson L; Barreto, Rodrigo E

    2011-12-01

    Eye darkening has been linked to social status in fish. The subordinate's eyes darken, while the eyes of the dominant fish become pale. Although this phenomenon has been described in salmonid fishes and in the African cichlid Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, it is unclear whether eye darkening correlates with a reduction in aggressive behaviour. Thus, we evaluated the link between social status and eye darkening. We evaluated whether the eye colours of subordinate fish correlate with the frequency of received attacks in a neotropical fish, the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis. We paired pearl cichlids and quantified both the aggressive behaviour and the eye darkening of each fish. As has been described for Nile tilapia and Atlantic salmon, a clear-cut hierarchical relationship formed, where dominance and subordination were associated with pale and dark eye colours, respectively. Initially, eye colour darkening was positively correlated with the frequency of received attacks; however, a negative association occurred following eye darkening, in which the intensity of aggressive interactions decreased. Thus, fish that initially received a high number of attacks signalled subordination more rapidly and intensely (rapid and dramatic eye darkening), thereby inducing a negative social feedback mechanism that led to reduced aggression.

  1. Missense Mutations in Pyruvate Kinase M2 Promote Cancer Metabolism, Oxidative Endurance, Anchorage Independence, and Tumor Growth in a Dominant Negative Manner

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Mohd Askandar; Siddiqui, Farid Ahmad; Chaman, Noor; Gupta, Vibhor; Kumar, Bhupender; Gopinath, Prakasam; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the functional relevance of two heterozygous mutations (H391Y and K422R), observed earlier by us in the Bloom syndrome condition. Cells stably expressing exogenous wild-type or mutant PKM2 (K422R or H391Y) or co-expressing both wild type and mutant (PKM2-K422R or PKM2-H391Y) were assessed for cancer metabolism and tumorigenic potential. Interestingly, cells co-expressing PKM2 and mutant (K422R or H391Y) showed significantly aggressive cancer metabolism as compared with cells expressing either wild-type or mutant PKM2 independently. A similar trend was observed for oxidative endurance, tumorigenic potential, cellular proliferation, and tumor growth. These observations signify the dominant negative nature of mutations. Remarkably, PKM2-H391Y co-expressed cells showed a maximal effect on all the studied parameters. Such a dominant negative impaired function of PKM2 in tumor development is not known; this study demonstrates for the first time the possible predisposition of Bloom syndrome patients with impaired PKM2 activity to cancer and the importance of studying genetic variations in PKM2 in the future to understand their relevance in cancer in general. PMID:24492614

  2. Missense mutations in pyruvate kinase M2 promote cancer metabolism, oxidative endurance, anchorage independence, and tumor growth in a dominant negative manner.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohd Askandar; Siddiqui, Farid Ahmad; Chaman, Noor; Gupta, Vibhor; Kumar, Bhupender; Gopinath, Prakasam; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2014-03-21

    The present study was designed to examine the functional relevance of two heterozygous mutations (H391Y and K422R), observed earlier by us in the Bloom syndrome condition. Cells stably expressing exogenous wild-type or mutant PKM2 (K422R or H391Y) or co-expressing both wild type and mutant (PKM2-K422R or PKM2-H391Y) were assessed for cancer metabolism and tumorigenic potential. Interestingly, cells co-expressing PKM2 and mutant (K422R or H391Y) showed significantly aggressive cancer metabolism as compared with cells expressing either wild-type or mutant PKM2 independently. A similar trend was observed for oxidative endurance, tumorigenic potential, cellular proliferation, and tumor growth. These observations signify the dominant negative nature of mutations. Remarkably, PKM2-H391Y co-expressed cells showed a maximal effect on all the studied parameters. Such a dominant negative impaired function of PKM2 in tumor development is not known; this study demonstrates for the first time the possible predisposition of Bloom syndrome patients with impaired PKM2 activity to cancer and the importance of studying genetic variations in PKM2 in the future to understand their relevance in cancer in general.

  3. A transgenic mouse model demonstrates a dominant negative effect of a point mutation in the RPS19 gene associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Emily E; Dacosta, Lydie; Mohandas, Narla; Elliott, Gene; Bodine, David M

    2010-10-14

    Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited erythroblastopenia associated with mutations in at least 8 different ribosomal protein genes. Mutations in the gene encoding ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19) have been identified in approximately 25% of DBA families. Most of these mutations disrupt either the translation or stability of the RPS19 protein and are predicted to cause DBA by haploinsufficiency. However, approximately 30% of RPS19 mutations are missense mutations that do not alter the stability of the RPS19 protein and are hypothesized to act by a dominant negative mechanism. To formally test this hypothesis, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing an RPS19 mutation in which an arginine residue is replaced with a tryptophan residue at codon 62 (RPS19R62W). Constitutive expression of RPS19R62W in developing mice was lethal. Conditional expression of RPS19R62W resulted in growth retardation, a mild anemia with reduced numbers of erythroid progenitors, and significant inhibition of terminal erythroid maturation, similar to DBA. RNA profiling demonstrated more than 700 dysregulated genes belonging to the same pathways that are disrupted in RNA profiles of DBA patient cells. We conclude that RPS19R62W is a dominant negative DBA mutation.

  4. Dominant negative mutants of human T-cell leukemia virus type I Rex and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev fail to multimerize in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, H; Greene, W C

    1993-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Rex and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev are essential gene products required for the replication of these two pathogenic human retroviruses. Both Rex and Rev act at a posttranscriptional level by binding to highly structured RNA-response elements, the Rex-response element in HTLV-I and the Rev-response element in HIV-1. Using a sensitive in vivo assay of protein-protein interaction, we now demonstrate that the HTLV-I Rex and HIV-1 Rev proteins readily form homomultimeric complexes in the absence of their cognate RNA-response elements yet fail to form heteromultimeric complexes with each other. Dominant negative mutations have been identified in both the rex and rev genes which presumably specify a critical activation or effector domain in each of these viral transactivators. Surprisingly, these dominant negative mutants of Rex and Rev fail to interact in vivo. These findings raise the possibility that the binding of nonfunctional monomers rather than functional multimers underlies the transdominant phenotype of these Rex and Rev mutants. Further, it seems likely that the assembly of functional and stable multimers of Rex and Rev in vivo may depend not only on the intrinsic multimerization domains of these proteins but also on the binding of a bridging cellular cofactor to the related activation domains present in each viral transactivator. Images PMID:8474155

  5. Effectiveness and clinical predictors of response to combined ECT and antipsychotic therapy in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and dominant negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Kołodziej-Kowalska, Emilia; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2014-12-15

    The effectiveness and predictors of response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with antipsychotics (AP) in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients with the dominance of negative symptoms (TRS-NS) have not been studied systematically so far. 29 patients aged 21-55 years diagnosed with TRS-NS underwent ECT combined with antipsychotics (ECT+AP). Prior to the ECT, the symptom profile and severity were evaluated using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Demographic and medical data was collected; ECT parameters and pharmacotherapy results were evaluated. After the combined ECT+AP therapy a significant decrease in symptom severity was found. A response to treatment was achieved by 60% of patients. The greatest reductions were obtained in general and positive PANSS subscale (median change: 11 and 7 pts.) and the smallest, but still significant, ones in negative symptoms subscale (median: 3.5 pts.). Patients who responded to ECT+AP demonstrated a significantly shorter duration of the current episode in comparison with patients who did not experience at least a 25% reduction in symptom severity (median: 4 vs. 8 months). A combination of ECT and antipsychotic therapy can provide a useful treatment option for patients with TRS-NS. The only significant predictor of response to treatment was a shorter duration of the current episode.

  6. The new and recurrent FLT3 juxtamembrane deletion mutation shows a dominant negative effect on the wild-type FLT3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sandhöfer, Nadine; Bauer, Julia; Reiter, Katrin; Dufour, Annika; Rothenberg, Maja; Konstandin, Nikola P.; Zellmeier, Evelyn; Tizazu, Belay; Greif, Philipp A.; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Polzer, Harald; Spiekermann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is one of the most frequently mutated genes. Recently, a new and recurrent juxtamembrane deletion mutation (p.Q569Vfs*2) resulting in a truncated receptor was identified. The mutated receptor is expressed on the cell surface and still binds its ligand but loses the ability to activate ERK signaling. FLT3 p.Q569fs-expressing Ba/F3 cells show no proliferation after ligand stimulation. Furthermore, coexpressed with the FLT3 wild-type (WT) receptor, the truncated receptor suppresses stimulation and activation of the WT receptor. Thus, FLT3 p.Q569Vfs*2, to our knowledge, is the first FLT3 mutation with a dominant negative effect on the WT receptor. PMID:27346558

  7. Caveolin-1 mutants P132L and Y14F are dominant negative regulators of invasion, migration and aggregation in H1299 lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shatz, Maria; Lustig, Gila; Reich, Reuven; Liscovitch, Mordechai

    2010-06-10

    Caveolin-1 is an essential protein constituent of caveolae. Accumulating evidence indicates that caveolin-1 may act as a positive regulator of cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the function of caveolin-1 in human lung cancer cells. Caveolin-1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and reduced focal adhesion kinase (Fak) phosphorylation. Matrix invasion and cell migration as well as expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases were attenuated following caveolin-1 RNAi-mediated knockdown or overexpression of Y14F and P132L mutants, demonstrating dominant-negative activity of these mutants. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy revealed that caveolin-1 and its mutants P132L and Y14F are localized to the trailing edge of migrating cells during both random and directed cell movement, implying an active role of caveolin-1 in the migration process. Suppression of caveolin-1 function greatly elevated the percentage of H1299 cells exhibiting focal adhesions. In addition, cell aggregation was increased by wild type caveolin-1 and attenuated by both P132L and Y14F mutants. Overexpression of wild type caveolin-1 increased caveolae density, however, P132L and Y14F mutants did not affect caveolae formation, suggesting that in this respect that the mutants do not act in a dominant negative manner, and that effects of caveolin-1 on caveolae and cell invasion, migration, focal adhesion and aggregation, are separable. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of caveolin-1 in cell motility, invasiveness and aggregation, therefore, expanding our understanding of the tumor-promoting activities of caveolin-1 in advanced-stage cancer.

  8. Cochlear outer hair cells in a dominant-negative connexin26 mutant mouse preserve non-linear capacitance in spite of impaired distortion product otoacoustic emission.

    PubMed

    Minekawa, A; Abe, T; Inoshita, A; Iizuka, T; Kakehata, S; Narui, Y; Koike, T; Kamiya, K; Okamura, H-O; Shinkawa, H; Ikeda, K

    2009-12-15

    Mutations in the connexin26 gene (GJB2) are the most common genetic cause of congenital bilateral non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Transgenic mice were established carrying human Cx26 with the R75W mutation that was identified in a deaf family with autosomal dominant negative inheritance [Kudo T et al. (2003) Hum Mol Genet 12:995-1004]. A dominant-negative Gjb2 R75W transgenic mouse model shows incomplete development of the cochlear supporting cells, resulting in profound deafness from birth [Inoshita A et al. (2008) Neuroscience 156:1039-1047]. The Cx26 defect in the Gjb2 R75W transgenic mouse is restricted to the supporting cells; it is unclear why the auditory response is severely disturbed in spite of the presence of outer hair cells (OHCs). The present study was designed to evaluate developmental changes in the in vivo and in vitro function of the OHC, and the fine structure of the OHC and adjacent supporting cells in the R75W transgenic mouse. No detectable distortion product otoacoustic emissions were observed at any frequencies in R75W transgenic mice throughout development. A characteristic phenotype observed in these mice was the absence of the tunnel of Corti, Nuel's space, and spaces surrounding the OHC; the OHC were compressed and squeezed by the surrounding supporting cells. On the other hand, the OHC developed normally. Structural features of the lateral wall, such as the membrane-bound subsurface cisterna beneath the plasma membrane, were intact. Prestin, the voltage-dependent motor protein, was observed by immunohistochemistry in the OHC basolateral membranes of both transgenic and non-transgenic mice. No significant differences in electromotility of isolated OHCs during development was observed between transgenic and control mice. The present study indicates that normal development of the supporting cells is indispensable for proper cellular function of the OHC.

  9. Demonstration of differential quantitative requirements for NSF among multiple vesicle fusion pathways of GLUT4 using a dominant-negative ATPase-deficient NSF

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaoli; Matsumoto, Hideko; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Al-Hasani, Hadi; St-Denis, Jean-Francois; Whiteheart, Sidney W.; Cushman, Samuel W. . E-mail: sam_cushman@nih.gov

    2005-07-22

    In this study, we investigated the relative participation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) in vivo in a complex multistep vesicle trafficking system, the translocation response of GLUT4 to insulin in rat adipose cells. Transfections of rat adipose cells demonstrate that over-expression of wild-type NSF has no effect on total, or basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface expression of HA-tagged GLUT4. In contrast, a dominant-negative NSF (NSF-D1EQ) can be expressed at a low enough level that it has little effect on total HA-GLUT4, but does reduce both basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface HA-GLUT4 by {approx}50% without affecting the GLUT4 fold-translocation response to insulin. However, high expression levels of NSF-D1EQ decrease total HA-GLUT4. The inhibitory effect of NSF-D1EQ on cell-surface HA-GLUT4 is reversed when endocytosis is inhibited by co-expression of a dominant-negative dynamin (dynamin-K44A). Moreover, NSF-D1EQ does not affect cell-surface levels of constitutively recycling GLUT1 and TfR, suggesting a predominant effect of low-level NSF-D1EQ on the trafficking of GLUT4 from the endocytic recycling compared to the intracellular GLUT4-specific compartment. Thus, our data demonstrate that the multiple fusion steps in GLUT4 trafficking have differential quantitative requirements for NSF activity. This indicates that the rates of plasma and intracellular membrane fusion reactions vary, leading to differential needs for the turnover of the SNARE proteins.

  10. LQT5 masquerading as LQT2: a dominant negative effect of KCNE1-D85N rare polymorphism on KCNH2 current

    PubMed Central

    Nof, Eyal; Barajas-Martinez, Hector; Eldar, Michael; Urrutia, Janire; Caceres, Gabriel; Rosenfeld, Gail; Bar-Lev, David; Feinberg, Micha; Burashnikov, Elena; Casis, Oscar; Hu, Dan; Glikson, Michael; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aims KCNE1 encodes an auxiliary subunit of cardiac potassium channels. Loss-of-function variations in this gene have been associated with the LQT5 form of the long QT syndrome (LQTS), secondary to reduction of IKs current. We present a case in which a D85N rare polymorphism in KCNE1 is associated with an LQT2 phenotype. Methods and results An 11-year old competitive athlete presented with mild bradycardia and a QTc interval of 470 ms. An LQT2 phenotype, consisting of low-voltage bifid T waves, was evident in the right precordial electrocardiogram leads. During the tachycardia phase following adenosine, QTc increased to 620 ms. Genetic analysis revealed a rare heterozygous polymorphism in KCNE1 predicting the substitution of asparagine for aspartic acid at position 85 of minK (D85N). Patch clamp experiments showed that KCNE1-D85N, when co-expressed with KCNH2 in TSA201 cells, significantly reduced IKr. Homozygous co-expression of the mutant with KCNH2 reduced IKr tail current by 85%, whereas heterozygous co-expression reduced the current by 52%, demonstrating for the first time a dominant-negative effect of D85N to reduce IKr. Co-expression of the mutant with KCNQ1, either homozygously or heterozygously, produced no change in IKs. Conclusions Our results suggest that a rare polymorphism KCNE1-D85N underlies the development of an LQT2 phenotype in this young athlete by interacting with KCNH2 to cause a dominant-negative effect to reduce IKr. Our data provide further evidence in support of the promiscuity of potassium channel β subunits in modulating the function of multiple potassium channels leading to a diversity of clinical phenotypes. PMID:21712262

  11. The roles of the FGF signal in zebrafish embryos analyzed using constitutive activation and dominant-negative suppression of different FGF receptors.

    PubMed

    Ota, Satoshi; Tonou-Fujimori, Noriko; Yamasu, Kyo

    2009-01-01

    The roles of the FGF family growth factors and their receptors (FGFRs) in zebrafish embryos were examined using variously modified versions of the four FGFR genes (fgfr1-4). Constitutively active forms of all of the examined FGFRs (ca-FGFRs) caused dorsalization, brain caudalization, and secondary axis formation, indicating that the main FGF signal transduction downstream of the receptor is highly similar among FGFRs. All of the membrane-bound type of dominant-negative FGFRs (mdn-FGFRs) derived from the four fgfr genes, which interfere with endogenous FGFRs, produced posterior truncation, as previously reported in both Xenopus and zebrafish. mdn-FGFR3c had the strongest effects on embryos, progressively disrupting the posterior structure as the dose increased. At the highest dose, only the forebrain was formed. At lower doses, mdn-FGFR3c mainly suppressed the paraxial mesoderm. The co-injection of mRNA for different mdn-FGFRs and FGFs resulted in diverse suppression spectra of the respective FGFRs against FGFs. Only mdn-FGFR3c severely suppressed all of the FGFs examined. We also examined the effects of the secretory type of dominant-negative FGFRs (sdn-FGFRs), which are released from cells and trap FGF ligands. Only sdn-FGFR3c resulted in the characteristic effect of selectively disrupting the isthmic development, as well as the tailbud. The co-injection of the mRNA for sdn-FGFRs and FGFs suggested that sdn-FGFR3c inhibits FGFs of the FGF8 subfamily, which is consistent with its specific effects on development. We discuss the implications of our findings obtained in the present study.

  12. Caveolin-1 mutants P132L and Y14F are dominant negative regulators of invasion, migration and aggregation in H1299 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shatz, Maria; Lustig, Gila; Reich, Reuven; Liscovitch, Mordechai

    2010-06-10

    Caveolin-1 is an essential protein constituent of caveolae. Accumulating evidence indicates that caveolin-1 may act as a positive regulator of cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the function of caveolin-1 in human lung cancer cells. Caveolin-1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and reduced focal adhesion kinase (Fak) phosphorylation. Matrix invasion and cell migration as well as expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases were attenuated following caveolin-1 RNAi-mediated knockdown or overexpression of Y14F and P132L mutants, demonstrating dominant-negative activity of these mutants. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy revealed that caveolin-1 and its mutants P132L and Y14F are localized to the trailing edge of migrating cells during both random and directed cell movement, implying an active role of caveolin-1 in the migration process. Suppression of caveolin-1 function greatly elevated the percentage of H1299 cells exhibiting focal adhesions. In addition, cell aggregation was increased by wild type caveolin-1 and attenuated by both P132L and Y14F mutants. Overexpression of wild type caveolin-1 increased caveolae density, however, P132L and Y14F mutants did not affect caveolae formation, suggesting that in this respect that the mutants do not act in a dominant negative manner, and that effects of caveolin-1 on caveolae and cell invasion, migration, focal adhesion and aggregation, are separable. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of caveolin-1 in cell motility, invasiveness and aggregation, therefore, expanding our understanding of the tumor-promoting activities of caveolin-1 in advanced-stage cancer.

  13. Dominant-negative mutation p.Arg324Thr in KCNA1 impairs Kv1.1 channel function in episodic ataxia.

    PubMed

    Tristán-Clavijo, Enriqueta; Scholl, Francisco G; Macaya, Alfons; Iglesias, Gemma; Rojas, Ana M; Lucas, Miguel; Castellano, Antonio; Martinez-Mir, Amalia

    2016-11-01

    Episodic ataxia type 1 is a rare autosomal dominant neurological disorder caused by mutations in the KCNA1 gene that encodes the α subunit of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1. The functional consequences of identified mutations on channel function do not fully correlate with the clinical phenotype of patients. A clinical and genetic study was performed in a family with 5 patients with episodic ataxia type 1, with concurrent epilepsy in 1 of them. Protein expression, modeling, and electrophysiological analyses were performed to study Kv1.1 function. Whole-genome linkage and candidate gene analyses revealed the novel heterozygous mutation p.Arg324Thr in the KCNA1 gene. The encoded mutant Kv1.1 channel displays reduced currents and altered activation and inactivation. Taken together, we provide genetic and functional evidence that mutation p.Arg324Thr in the KCNA1 gene is pathogenic and results in episodic ataxia type 1 through a dominant-negative effect. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. The effect of DN (dominant-negative) Ku70 and reoxygenation on hypoxia cell-kill: evidence of hypoxia-induced potentially lethal damage.

    PubMed

    Urano, Muneyasu; Li, Gloria C; He, Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Burgman, Paul; Ling, C Clifton

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of DN (dominant-negative) Ku70 and reoxygenation on the hypoxia-induced cell-kill. Cell lines were human colorectal carcinoma HCT8 and HT29 cells and their respective derivatives, v-HCT8 and v-HT29 infected with DNKu70-containing adenovirus. Cells were plated in glass tubes and made hypoxic by flushing N(2) gas containing 0, 0.1 or 0.5% O(2). Cell survival was determined by colony formation assay immediately after 0-96 h hypoxia. To reoxygenate medium were replaced fresh following 48 or 72 h in hypoxia and cells were incubated in aerobic environment for 2-24 h before survival assay. When incubated in hypoxia, cells lost reproductive capability ∼ exponentially as a function of time in hypoxia, and depending on the O(2) concentration. DNKu70 rendered cells more prone to hypoxia-induced cell-kill. Following reoxygenation cell survival increased rapidly but without detectable cell proliferation during first 24 hours. This evinced hypoxia-induced potentially lethal damage (PLD) that was repairable upon reoxygenation. DNKu70 did not significantly inhibit this repair. Hypoxia-induced cell lethality was facilitated by DNKu70, but substantially repaired upon reoxygenation. This may have negative impact on the effect of reoxygenation in cancer therapy.

  15. Tumour selection advantage of non‐dominant negative P53 mutations in homozygotic MDM2‐SNP309 colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Alazzouzi, Hafid; Suriano, Gianpaolo; Guerra, Angel; Plaja, Alberto; Espín, Eloi; Armengol, Manel; Alhopuro, Pia; Velho, Sergia; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; González‐Aguilera, Juan José; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Moreno, Víctor; Capellà, Gabriel; Peinado, Miguel Angel; Seruca, Raquel; Arango, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Background Mdm2 is a natural inhibitor of p53 function and its overexpression impairs p53 transcriptional activity. T→G single‐nucleotide polymorphism at position 309 (SNP309) of mdm2 induces overexpression of mdm2, but inhibits p53. Objectives To determine whether SNP309 is a risk‐modifier polymorphism in colorectal cancer (CRC) and whether tumour selection of P53 mutations are influenced by SNP309. Methods Single‐stranded conformation polymorphism and automatic sequencing were performed. Results SNP309 is not associated with the risk of CRC or recurrence of tumours. These data do not over‐ride the tumour‐selection capabilities of P53 mutations in CRC. However, a significant association with non‐dominant‐negative P53 mutations (p = 0.02) was found. Conclusions MDM2‐SNP309 favours tumour selection of non‐dominant negative P53 mutations in CRC, which also show an earlier age of tumour onset. PMID:16825434

  16. Human Colon Tumors Express a Dominant-negative Form of SIGIRR That Promotes Inflammation and Colitis-associated Colon Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junjie; Bulek, Katarzyna; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Zepp, Jarod A.; Karagkounis, Georgio; Martin, Bradley N; Zhou, Hao; Yu, Minjia; Liu, Xiuli; Huang, Emina; Fox, Paul L.; Kalady, Matthew F.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Li, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Single immunoglobulin and toll-interleukin 1 receptor (SIGIRR), a negative regulator of the Toll-like and interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) signaling pathways, controls intestinal inflammation and suppresses colon tumorigenesis in mice. However, the importance of SIGIRR in human colorectal cancer development has not been determined. We investigated the role of SIGIRR in development of human colorectal cancer. Methods We performed RNA sequence analyses of pairs of colon tumor and non-tumor tissues, each collected from 68 patients. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses were used to determine levels of SIGIRR protein in primary human colonic epithelial cells, tumor tissues, and colon cancer cell lines. We expressed SIGIRR and mutant forms of the protein in Vaco cell lines. We created and analyzed mice that expressed full-length (control) or a mutant form of Sigirr (encoding SIGIRRN86/102S, which is not glycosylated) specifically in the intestinal epithelium. Some mice were given azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis-associated cancer. Intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemical and gene expression profile analyses. Results RNA sequence analyses revealed increased expression of a SIGIRR mRNA isoform, SIGIRRΔE8, in colorectal cancer tissues compared to paired non-tumor tissues. SIGIRRΔE8 is not modified by complex glycans and is therefore retained in the cytoplasm—it cannot localize to the cell membrane or reduce IL1R signaling. SIGIRRΔE8 interacts with and has a dominant-negative effect on SIGIRR, reducing its glycosylation, localization to the cell surface, and function. Most SIGIRR detected in human colon cancer tissues was cytoplasmic, whereas in non-tumor tissues it was found at the cell membrane. Mice that expressed SIGIRRN86/102S developed more inflammation and formed larger tumors after administration of azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium than control mice; colon tissues from these mutant

  17. Unique dominant negative mutation in the N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence of StAR, causing a variant form of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Baquedano, María Sonia; Guercio, Gabriela; Marino, Roxana; Berensztein, Esperanza; Costanzo, Mariana; Bailez, Marcela; Vaiani, Elisa; Maceiras, Mercedes; Ramirez, Pablo; Chaler, Eduardo; Rivarola, Marco A; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Steroid acute regulatory (StAR) protein is a mitochondria-targeted protein that is part of the transduceosome complex crucial for transport of cholesterol to mitochondria. Recessive mutations cause classic and nonclassic congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to report the clinical, hormonal, genetic, and functional data of a novel heterozygous mutation in the StAR gene found in a 46,XY patient with ambiguous genitalia and neonatal severe steroidogenic deficiency. Undetectable serum steroids with high ACTH and plasma renin activity but normal acute GnRH response were found in infancy. After gonadectomy (at 3 yr of age), serum LH and testosterone were undetectable, whereas FSH was normal but increased slowly afterward. Estrogen replacement therapy, started at 10.2 yr of age, suppressed gonadotropins (for 2 yr). However, after 1 month off estrogens, the patient showed castrated levels. At 11.9 yr old, after fludrocortisone withdrawal because of hypertension, plasma renin activity and aldosterone remained normal, suggesting mineralocorticoid recovery by a StAR-independent mechanism. We found a de novo heterozygous IVS-2A>G StAR mutation and the reported heterozygous p.G146A SF1 polymorphism with normal CYP11A1, FDXR, FDX1, VDAC1, and TSPO genes. The mutant StAR transcript lacked exon 2, resulting in the in-frame loss of amino acids 22 to 59 in the N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal. In vitro, the mutant protein exhibited reduced StAR activity in a dominant-negative manner and almost no mitochondria localization. A misfolded p.G22_L59del StAR might interfere with wild-type StAR activity by blocking the transduceosome complex, causing an autosomal dominant form of StAR deficiency, explaining the clinical phenotype. We speculated that estrogen might have modulated mineralocorticoid function and pubertal maturation in a human natural model lacking endogenous steroid production.

  18. Endogenous interleukin-22 protects against inflammatory bowel disease but not autoimmune cholangitis in dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, G-X; Sun, Y; Tsuneyama, K; Zhang, W; Leung, P S C; He, X-S; Ansari, A A; Bowlus, C; Ridgway, W M; Gershwin, M E

    2016-08-01

    During chronic inflammation, interleukin (IL)-22 expression is up-regulated in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, exerting a protective role in infections. However, in autoimmunity, IL-22 appears to have either a protective or a pathogenic role in a variety of murine models of autoimmunity and, by extrapolation, in humans. It is not clear whether IL-22 itself mediates inflammation or is a by-product of inflammation. We have taken advantage of the dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II (dnTGF-βRII) mice that develop both inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune cholangitis and studied the role and the biological function of IL-22 by generating IL-22(-/-) dnTGF-βRII mice. Our data suggest that the influence of IL-22 on autoimmunity is determined in part by the local microenvironment. In particular, IL-22 deficiency exacerbates tissue injury in inflammatory bowel disease, but has no influence on either the hepatocytes or cholangiocytes in the same model. These data take on particular significance in the previously defined effects of IL-17A, IL-12p40 and IL-23p19 deficiency and emphasize that, in colitis, there is a dominant role of IL-23/T helper type 17 (Th17) signalling. Furthermore, the levels of IL-22 are IL-23-dependent. The use of cytokine therapy in patients with autoimmune disease has significant potential, but must take into account the overlapping and often promiscuous effects that can theoretically exacerbate inflammation. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit mutations causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3) demonstrate genotype–phenotype correlations, codon bias and dominant-negative effects

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Fadil M.; Howles, Sarah A.; Rogers, Angela; Cranston, Treena; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Babinsky, Valerie N.; Reed, Anita A.; Thakker, Clare E.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Brown, Rosalind S.; Connell, John M.; Cook, Jacqueline; Darzy, Ken; Ehtisham, Sarah; Graham, Una; Hulse, Tony; Hunter, Steven J.; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Dhavendra; McKenna, Malachi J.; McKnight, John A.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Mughal, M. Zulf; O'Halloran, Domhnall; Pearce, Simon H.; Porteous, Mary E.; Rahman, Mushtaqur; Richardson, Tristan; Robinson, Robert; Scheers, Isabelle; Siddique, Haroon; van't Hoff, William G.; Wang, Timothy; Whyte, Michael P.; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ2) is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane constituents such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Mutations of the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3), a disorder of extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) homeostasis. To elucidate the role of AP2σ2 in Ca2+o regulation, we investigated 65 FHH probands, without other FHH-associated mutations, for AP2σ2 mutations, characterized their functional consequences and investigated the genetic mechanisms leading to FHH3. AP2σ2 mutations were identified in 17 probands, comprising 5 Arg15Cys, 4 Arg15His and 8 Arg15Leu mutations. A genotype–phenotype correlation was observed with the Arg15Leu mutation leading to marked hypercalcaemia. FHH3 probands harboured additional phenotypes such as cognitive dysfunction. All three FHH3-causing AP2σ2 mutations impaired CaSR signal transduction in a dominant-negative manner. Mutational bias was observed at the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue as other predicted missense substitutions (Arg15Gly, Arg15Pro and Arg15Ser), which also caused CaSR loss-of-function, were not detected in FHH probands, and these mutations were found to reduce the numbers of CaSR-expressing cells. FHH3 probands had significantly greater serum calcium (sCa) and magnesium (sMg) concentrations with reduced urinary calcium to creatinine clearance ratios (CCCR) in comparison with FHH1 probands with CaSR mutations, and a calculated index of sCa × sMg/100 × CCCR, which was ≥ 5.0, had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 83 and 86%, respectively, for FHH3. Thus, our studies demonstrate AP2σ2 mutations to result in a more severe FHH phenotype with genotype–phenotype correlations, and a dominant-negative mechanism of action with mutational bias at the Arg15 residue. PMID:26082470

  20. Adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit mutations causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3) demonstrate genotype-phenotype correlations, codon bias and dominant-negative effects.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Fadil M; Howles, Sarah A; Rogers, Angela; Cranston, Treena; Gorvin, Caroline M; Babinsky, Valerie N; Reed, Anita A; Thakker, Clare E; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Brown, Rosalind S; Connell, John M; Cook, Jacqueline; Darzy, Ken; Ehtisham, Sarah; Graham, Una; Hulse, Tony; Hunter, Steven J; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Dhavendra; McKenna, Malachi J; McKnight, John A; Morrison, Patrick J; Mughal, M Zulf; O'Halloran, Domhnall; Pearce, Simon H; Porteous, Mary E; Rahman, Mushtaqur; Richardson, Tristan; Robinson, Robert; Scheers, Isabelle; Siddique, Haroon; Van't Hoff, William G; Wang, Timothy; Whyte, Michael P; Nesbit, M Andrew; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2015-09-15

    The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ2) is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane constituents such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Mutations of the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3), a disorder of extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o) homeostasis. To elucidate the role of AP2σ2 in Ca(2+) o regulation, we investigated 65 FHH probands, without other FHH-associated mutations, for AP2σ2 mutations, characterized their functional consequences and investigated the genetic mechanisms leading to FHH3. AP2σ2 mutations were identified in 17 probands, comprising 5 Arg15Cys, 4 Arg15His and 8 Arg15Leu mutations. A genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with the Arg15Leu mutation leading to marked hypercalcaemia. FHH3 probands harboured additional phenotypes such as cognitive dysfunction. All three FHH3-causing AP2σ2 mutations impaired CaSR signal transduction in a dominant-negative manner. Mutational bias was observed at the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue as other predicted missense substitutions (Arg15Gly, Arg15Pro and Arg15Ser), which also caused CaSR loss-of-function, were not detected in FHH probands, and these mutations were found to reduce the numbers of CaSR-expressing cells. FHH3 probands had significantly greater serum calcium (sCa) and magnesium (sMg) concentrations with reduced urinary calcium to creatinine clearance ratios (CCCR) in comparison with FHH1 probands with CaSR mutations, and a calculated index of sCa × sMg/100 × CCCR, which was ≥ 5.0, had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 83 and 86%, respectively, for FHH3. Thus, our studies demonstrate AP2σ2 mutations to result in a more severe FHH phenotype with genotype-phenotype correlations, and a dominant-negative mechanism of action with mutational bias at the Arg15 residue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. A dominant negative form of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor induces metacyclogenesis and increases mitochondrial density in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Muneaki; Nara, Takeshi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Sakurai, Takashi; Mita, Toshihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-23

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP{sub 3}R) is a key regulator of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration that release Ca{sup 2+} from Ca{sup 2+} stores in response to various external stimuli. IP{sub 3}R also works as a signal hub which form a platform for interacting with various proteins involved in diverse cell signaling. Previously, we have identified an IP{sub 3}R homolog in the parasitic protist, Trypanosoma cruzi (TcIP{sub 3}R). Parasites expressing reduced or increased levels of TcIP{sub 3}R displayed defects in growth, transformation, and infectivity. In the present study, we established parasitic strains expressing a dominant negative form of TcIP{sub 3}R, named DN-TcIP{sub 3}R, to further investigate the physiological role(s) of TcIP{sub 3}R. We found that the growth of epimastigotes expressing DN-TcIP{sub 3}R was significantly slower than that of parasites with TcIP{sub 3}R expression levels that were approximately 65% of wild-type levels. The expression of DN-TcIP{sub 3}R in epimastigotes induced metacyclogenesis even in the normal growth medium. Furthermore, these epimastigotes showed the presence of dense mitochondria under a transmission electron microscope. Our findings confirm that TcIP{sub 3}R is crucial for epimastigote growth, as previously reported. They also suggest that a strong inhibition of the IP{sub 3}R-mediated signaling induces metacyclogenesis and that mitochondrial integrity is closely associated with this signaling. - Highlights: • We established T. cruzi strains expressing a dominant negative form of the TcIP{sub 3}R. • DN-TcIP{sub 3}R expression inhibits epimastigote growth and induces metacyclogenesis. • Microscopic analysis indicated TcIP{sub 3}R role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. • Growth, but not microbial density, was altered by mammalian IP{sub 3}R inhibitor (2-APB).

  2. Functional dominant-negative mutation of sodium channel subunit gene SCN3B associated with atrial fibrillation in a Chinese GeneID population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengyun; Yang, Qinbo; Wu, Xiaofen; Yang, Yanzong; Shi, Lisong; Wang, Chuchu; Wu, Gang; Xia, Yunlong; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Rongfeng; Xu, Chengqi; Cheng, Xiang; Li, Sisi; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fu, Fenfen; Liao, Yuhua; Fang, Fang; Chen, Qiuyun; Tu, Xin; Wang, Qing K.

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the clinic, and accounts for more than 15% of strokes. Mutations in cardiac sodium channel α, β1 and β2 subunit genes (SCN5A, SCN1B, and SCN2B) have been identified in AF patients. We hypothesize that mutations in the sodium channel β3 subunit gene SCN3B are also associated with AF. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a large scale sequencing analysis of all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of SCN3B in 477 AF patients (28.5% lone AF) from the GeneID Chinese Han population. A novel A130V mutation was identified in a 46 year-old patient with lone AF, and the mutation was absent in 500 controls. Mutation A130V dramatically decreased the cardiac sodium current density when expressed in HEK293/Nav1.5 stable cell line, but did not have significant effect on kinetics of activation, inactivation, and channel recovery from inactivation. When co-expressed with wild type SCN3B, the A130V mutant SCN3B negated the function of wild type SCN3B, suggesting that A130V acts by a dominant negative mechanism. Western blot analysis with biotinylated plasma membrane protein extracts revealed that A130V did not affect cell surface expression of Nav1.5 or SCN3B, suggesting that mutant A130V SCN3B may not inhibit sodium channel trafficking, instead may affect conduction of sodium ions due to its malfunction as an integral component of the channel complex. This study identifies the first AF-associated mutation in SCN3B, and suggests that mutations in SCN3B may be a new pathogenic cause of AF. PMID:20558140

  3. [Inhibition Function of Dominant-negative Mutant Gene Survivin-D53A to SPC-A1 Lung Adenocarcinoma Xenograft in Nude Mice Models].

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Peng, Xingchen; Lu, You; Huang, Meijuan

    2015-06-01

    Survivin-D53A (SVV-D53A) is a dominant-negative mutant survivin, which represents a potential promising target for cancer gene therapy. The present study was designed to determine whether SVV-D53A plasmid encapsuled by DOTAP: Chol liposome would have the anti-tumor activity against SPC-A1 lung adenocarcinoma, and to detect the possible mechanisms. In our experiment, SPC-A1 cells were transfected in vitro with SVV-D53A plasmid and examined for protein expression by Western blot, then flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis. SPC-A1 lung adenocarcinoma xenografts were established in vivo in the nude mice, which received the i. v. administrations of SVV-D53A plasmid/liposome complexes. After mice were sacrificed, the paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections were used for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Compared with the control group, the mice treated with SVV-D53A plasmid had an obviously reduced tumor volume, with high level of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in tumor tissue. The research results proved that the administration of SVV-D53A plasmid resulted in significant inhibition of SPC-A1 cells both in vitro and in vivo. The functional mechanism is that the anti-tumor response causes and induces tumor cell apoptosis.

  4. Delayed dominant-negative TNF gene therapy halts progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Harms, Ashley S; Barnum, Christopher J; Ruhn, Kelly A; Varghese, Steve; Treviño, Isaac; Blesch, Armin; Tansey, Malú G

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder typified by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Recent evidence indicates that neuroinflammation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We have previously shown that soluble TNF (solTNF) is required to mediate robust degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or lipopolysaccharide. What remains unknown is whether TNF inhibition can attenuate the delayed and progressive phase of neurodegeneration. To test this, rats were injected in the SNpc with lentivirus encoding dominant-negative TNF (lenti-DN-TNF) 2 weeks after receiving a 6-OHDA lesion. Remarkably, when examined 5 weeks after the initial 6-OHDA lesion, no further loss of nigral DA neurons was observed. Lenti-DN-TNF also attenuated microglial activation. Together, these data suggest that TNF is likely a critical mediator of nigral DA neuron death during the delayed and progressive phase of neurodegeneration, and that microglia may be the principal cell type involved. These promising findings provide compelling reasons to perform DN-TNF gene transfer studies in nonhuman primates with the long-term goal of using it in the clinic to prevent the delayed and progressive degeneration of DA neurons that gives rise to motor symptoms in PD.

  5. Delayed Dominant-Negative TNF Gene Therapy Halts Progressive Loss of Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Ashley S; Barnum, Christopher J; Ruhn, Kelly A; Varghese, Steve; Treviño, Isaac; Blesch, Armin; Tansey, Malú G

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder typified by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Recent evidence indicates that neuroinflammation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We have previously shown that soluble TNF (solTNF) is required to mediate robust degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or lipopolysaccharide. What remains unknown is whether TNF inhibition can attenuate the delayed and progressive phase of neurodegeneration. To test this, rats were injected in the SNpc with lentivirus encoding dominant-negative TNF (lenti-DN-TNF) 2 weeks after receiving a 6-OHDA lesion. Remarkably, when examined 5 weeks after the initial 6-OHDA lesion, no further loss of nigral DA neurons was observed. Lenti-DN-TNF also attenuated microglial activation. Together, these data suggest that TNF is likely a critical mediator of nigral DA neuron death during the delayed and progressive phase of neurodegeneration, and that microglia may be the principal cell type involved. These promising findings provide compelling reasons to perform DN-TNF gene transfer studies in nonhuman primates with the long-term goal of using it in the clinic to prevent the delayed and progressive degeneration of DA neurons that gives rise to motor symptoms in PD. PMID:20959812

  6. Growth inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cells by AP-1 blockade using a cJun dominant-negative mutant

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Y; Kinoshita, I; Kikuchi, J; Yamazaki, K; Nishimura, M; Birrer, M J; Dosaka-Akita, H

    2008-01-01

    cJun, a major constituent of AP-1 transcription factor transducing multiple mitogen growth signals, is frequently overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of AP-1 blockade on the growth of NSCLC cells using a cJun dominant-negative mutant, TAM67. Transiently transfected TAM67 inhibited AP-1 transcriptional activity in NSCLC cell lines, NCI-H1299 (H1299), A549 and NCI-H520 (H520). The colony-forming efficiency of H1299 and A549 was reduced by TAM67, while that of H520 was not. To elucidate the effects of TAM67 on the growth of H1299, we established H1299 clone cells that expressed TAM67 under the control of a doxycycline-inducible promoter. In the H1299 clone cells, the induced TAM67 inhibited anchorage-dependent growth by promoting G1 cell-cycle block, but not by apoptosis. The induced TAM67 decreased the expression of a cell-cycle regulatory protein, cyclin A. TAM67 also inhibited anchorage-independent growth of these cells. Furthermore, TAM67 reduced growth of established xenograft tumours from these cells in nude mice. These results suggest that AP-1 plays an essential role in the growth of at least some of NSCLC cells. PMID:18283312

  7. A Dominant Negative Mutant of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase A Reduces Endoreduplication but Not Cell Size or Gene Expression in Maize Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Leiva-Neto, João T.; Grafi, Gideon; Sabelli, Paolo A.; Dante, Ricardo A.; Woo, Young-min; Maddock, Sheila; Gordon-Kamm, William J.; Larkins, Brian A.

    2004-01-01

    Cells in maize (Zea mays) endosperm undergo multiple cycles of endoreduplication, with some attaining DNA contents as high as 96C and 192C. Genome amplification begins around 10 d after pollination, coincident with cell enlargement and the onset of starch and storage protein accumulation. Although the role of endoreduplication is unclear, it is thought to provide a mechanism that increases cell size and enhances gene expression. To investigate this process, we reduced endoreduplication in transgenic maize endosperm by ectopically expressing a gene encoding a dominant negative mutant form of cyclin-dependent kinase A. This gene was regulated by the 27-kD γ-zein promoter, which restricted synthesis of the defective enzyme to the endoreduplication rather than the mitotic phase of endosperm development. Overexpression of a wild-type cyclin-dependent kinase A increased enzyme activity but had no effect on endoreduplication. By contrast, ectopic expression of the defective enzyme lowered kinase activity and reduced by half the mean C-value and total DNA content of endosperm nuclei. The lower level of endoreduplication did not affect cell size and only slightly reduced starch and storage protein accumulation. There was little difference in the level of endosperm gene expression with high and low levels of endoreduplication, suggesting that this process may not enhance transcription of genes associated with starch and storage protein synthesis. PMID:15208390

  8. Rapid screening for dominant negative mutations in the beet necrotic yellow vein virus triple gene block proteins P13 and P15 using a viral replicon.

    PubMed

    Lauber, E; Janssens, L; Weyens, G; Jonard, G; Richards, K E; Lefèbvre, M; Guilley, H

    2001-08-01

    Point mutations were introduced into the genes encoding the triple gene bock movement proteins P13 and P15 of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). Mutations which disabled viral cell-to-cell movement in Chenopodium quinoa were then tested for their ability to act as dominant negative inhibiters of movement of wild-type BNYVV when expressed from a co-inoculated BNYVV RNA 3-based replicon. For P13, three types of mutation inhibited the movement function: non-synomynous mutations in the N- and C-terminal hydrophobic domains, a mutation at the boundary between the N-terminal hydrophobic domain and the central hydrophilic domain (mutant P13-A12), and mutations in the conserved sequence motif in the central hydrophilic domain. However, only the 'boundary' mutant P13-A12 strongly inhibited movement of wild-type virus when expressed from the co-inoculated replicon. Similar experiments with P15 detected four movement-defective mutants which strongly inhibited cell-to-cell movement of wild-type BNYVV when the mutants were expressed from a co-inoculated replicon. Beta vulgaris transformed with two of these P15 mutants were highly resistant to fungus-mediated infection with BNYVV.

  9. Dominant-negative cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein E2-C/UbcH10 blocks cells in metaphase

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Fiona M.; Aristarkhov, Alexander; Beck, Sharon; Hershko, Avram; Ruderman, Joan V.

    1997-01-01

    Destruction of mitotic cyclins by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is required for cells to complete mitosis and enter interphase of the next cell cycle. In clam eggs, this process is catalyzed by a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein, E2-C, and the cyclosome/anaphase promoting complex (APC), a 20S particle containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity. Here we report cloning a human homolog of E2-C, UbcH10, which shares 61% amino acid identity with clam E2-C and can substitute for clam E2-C in vitro. Dominant-negative clam E2-C and human UbcH10 proteins, created by altering the catalytic cysteine to serine, inhibit the in vitro ubiquitination and destruction of cyclin B in clam oocyte extracts. When transfected into mammalian cells, mutant UbcH10 inhibits the destruction of both cyclin A and B, arrests cells in M phase, and inhibits the onset of anaphase, presumably by blocking the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of proteins responsible for sister chromatid separation. Thus, E2-C/UbcH10-mediated ubiquitination is involved in both cdc2 inactivation and sister chromatid separation, processes that are normally coordinated during exit from mitosis. PMID:9122200

  10. Dominant negative RPW8.2 fusion proteins reveal the importance of haustorium-oriented protein trafficking for resistance against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Berkey, Robert; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Wenming; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xianfeng; King, Harlan; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew fungi form feeding structures called haustoria inside epidermal cells of host plants to extract photosynthates for their epiphytic growth and reproduction. The haustorium is encased by an interfacial membrane termed the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). The atypical resistance protein RPW8.2 from Arabidopsis is specifically targeted to the EHM where RPW8.2 activates haustorium-targeted (thus broad-spectrum) resistance against powdery mildew fungi. EHM-specific localization of RPW8.2 suggests the existence of an EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway during EHM biogenesis. However, the importance of this specific trafficking pathway for host defense has not been evaluated via a genetic approach without affecting other trafficking pathways. Here, we report that expression of EHM-oriented, nonfunctional RPW8.2 chimeric proteins exerts dominant negative effect over functional RPW8.2 and potentially over other EHM-localized defense proteins, thereby compromising both RPW8.2-mediated and basal resistance to powdery mildew. Thus, our results highlight the importance of the EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway for host resistance against haustorium-forming pathogens such as powdery mildew fungi.

  11. Activating (P253R, C278F) and dominant negative mutations of FGFR2: differential effects on calvarial bone cell proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Ratisoontorn, Chootima; Fan, Gao-Feng; McEntee, Kerry; Nah, Hyun-Duck

    2003-01-01

    Various activating mutations of FgfR2 have been linked to a number of craniosynostosis syndromes, suggesting that FGFR2-mediated signaling plays significant roles in intramembranous bone formation. To define (i) the roles of FGFR2-mediated signaling in osteogenesis and (ii) bone cell functions affected by abnormal signaling induced by craniosynostosis mutations, chicken calvarial osteoblasts were infected with replication competent avian sarcoma viruses expressing FgfR2 with dominant negative (DN), P253R (Apert), or C278F (Pfeiffer and Crouzon) mutation. Analyses of the infected osteoblasts revealed that attenuated FGF/FGFR signaling by DN-FgfR2 resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation and accelerated mineralization. In contrast, the C278F mutation, which causes ligand-independent activation of the receptor, significantly stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited mineralization. Interestingly, the P253R mutation, which does not cause ligand-independent activation of the receptor, showed a weaker mitogenic effect than the C278F mutation and did not inhibit mineralization. Gene expression analysis also revealed diverse effects of C278F and P253R mutations on expression of several osteogenic genes. Based on these results, we conclude that one of the major functions of FGFR2 is to mediate mitogenic signals in osteoblasts and that distinctively different cellular mechanisms underlie the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis phenotypes resulting from P253R and C278F mutations of the FGFR2 gene.

  12. A divalent ion is crucial in the structure and dominant-negative function of ID proteins, a class of helix-loop-helix transcription regulators.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marie Vivian; Jiang, Sizun; Palasingam, Paaventhan; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitors of DNA binding and differentiation (ID) proteins, a dominant-negative group of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription regulators, are well-characterized key players in cellular fate determination during development in mammals as well as Drosophila. Although not oncogenes themselves, their upregulation by various oncogenic proteins (such as Ras, Myc) and their inhibitory effects on cell cycle proteins (such as pRb) hint at their possible roles in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, their potency as inhibitors of cellular differentiation, through their heterodimerization with subsequent inactivation of the ubiquitous E proteins, suggest possible novel roles in engineering induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We present the high-resolution 2.1Å crystal structure of ID2 (HLH domain), coupled with novel biochemical insights in the presence of a divalent ion, possibly calcium (Ca2+), in the loop of ID proteins, which appear to be crucial for the structure and activity of ID proteins. These new insights will pave the way for new rational drug designs, in addition to current synthetic peptide options, against this potent player in tumorigenesis as well as more efficient ways for stem cells reprogramming.

  13. Dominant negative RPW8.2 fusion proteins reveal the importance of haustorium-oriented protein trafficking for resistance against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Berkey, Robert; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Wenming; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xianfeng; King, Harlan; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew fungi form feeding structures called haustoria inside epidermal cells of host plants to extract photosynthates for their epiphytic growth and reproduction. The haustorium is encased by an interfacial membrane termed the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). The atypical resistance protein RPW8.2 from Arabidopsis is specifically targeted to the EHM where RPW8.2 activates haustorium-targeted (thus broad-spectrum) resistance against powdery mildew fungi. EHM-specific localization of RPW8.2 suggests the existence of an EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway during EHM biogenesis. However, the importance of this specific trafficking pathway for host defense has not been evaluated via a genetic approach without affecting other trafficking pathways. Here, we report that expression of EHM-oriented, nonfunctional RPW8.2 chimeric proteins exerts dominant negative effect over functional RPW8.2 and potentially over other EHM-localized defense proteins, thereby compromising both RPW8.2-mediated and basal resistance to powdery mildew. Thus, our results highlight the importance of the EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway for host resistance against haustorium-forming pathogens such as powdery mildew fungi. PMID:25830634

  14. A dominant-negative mutant of C/EBPalpha, associated with acute myeloid leukemias, inhibits differentiation of myeloid and erythroid progenitors of man but not mouse.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, Maike; Löhler, Jürgen; Fischer, Meike; Herwig, Uwe; Tenen, Daniel G; Stocking, Carol

    2004-04-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) is an essential transcription factor for granulocytic differentiation. C/EBPalpha mutations are found in approximately 8% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Most of these mutations occur in the N-terminal coding region, resulting in a frame shift and the enhanced translation of a dominant-negative 30-kDa protein, which may be responsible for the differentiation block observed in AML. To test this hypothesis, we introduced a cDNA encoding an N-terminal mutated C/EBPalpha (mut10) into primary hematopoietic progenitors using a retroviral vector. Expression of mut10 in human CD34+ cord blood cells dramatically inhibited differentiation of both myeloid and erythroid lineages. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated coexpression of both myeloid and erythroid markers in the immature transformed cells. Surprisingly, mut10 did not block myelocytic differentiation in murine progenitors but did alter their differentiation kinetics and clonogenicity. Experiments were performed to confirm that the differential effect of mut10 on murine and human progenitors was not due to species-specific differences in C/EBPalpha protein sequences, expression levels, or inefficient targeting of relevant cells. Taken together, our results underline the intrinsic differences between hematopoietic controls in mouse and human and support the hypothesis that mutations in CEBPA are critical events in the disruption of myeloid differentiation in AMLs.

  15. Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Balzac, F; Retta, S F; Albini, A; Melchiorri, A; Koteliansky, V E; Geuna, M; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1994-10-01

    The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given integrin alpha subunit. These data, together with our previous results, indicate that beta 1B interferes with beta 1A function when expressed in CHO cells resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration.

  16. An N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced dominant negative mutation in the JAK3 kinase protects against cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Bongfen, Silayuv E; Rodrigue-Gervais, Ian-Gael; Berghout, Joanne; Torre, Sabrina; Cingolani, Pablo; Wiltshire, Sean A; Leiva-Torres, Gabriel A; Letourneau, Louis; Sladek, Robert; Blanchette, Mathieu; Lathrop, Mark; Behr, Marcel A; Gruenheid, Samantha; Vidal, Silvia M; Saleh, Maya; Gros, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a lethal neurological complication of malaria. We implemented a genome-wide screen in mutagenized mice to identify host proteins involved in CM pathogenesis and whose inhibition may be of therapeutic value. One pedigree (P48) segregated a resistance trait whose CM-protective effect was fully penetrant, mapped to chromosome 8, and identified by genome sequencing as homozygosity for a mis-sense mutation (W81R) in the FERM domain of Janus-associated kinase 3 (Jak3). The causative effect of Jak3(W81R) was verified by complementation testing in Jak3(W81R/-) double heterozygotes that were fully protected against CM. Jak3(W81R) homozygotes showed defects in thymic development with depletion of CD8(+) T cell, B cell, and NK cell compartments, and defective T cell-dependent production of IFN-γ. Adoptive transfer of normal splenocytes abrogates CM resistance in Jak3(W81R) homozygotes, an effect attributed to the CD8(+) T cells. Jak3(W81R) behaves as a dominant negative variant, with significant CM resistance of Jak3(W81R/+) heterozygotes, compared to CM-susceptible Jak3(+/+) and Jak3(+/-) controls. CM resistance in Jak3(W81R/+) heterozygotes occurs in presence of normal T, B and NK cell numbers. These findings highlight the pathological role of CD8(+) T cells and Jak3-dependent IFN-γ-mediated Th1 responses in CM pathogenesis.

  17. A dominant negative mutant of cyclin-dependent kinase A reduces endoreduplication but not cell size or gene expression in maize endosperm.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Neto, João T; Grafi, Gideon; Sabelli, Paolo A; Dante, Ricardo A; Woo, Young-min; Maddock, Sheila; Gordon-Kamm, William J; Larkins, Brian A

    2004-07-01

    Cells in maize (Zea mays) endosperm undergo multiple cycles of endoreduplication, with some attaining DNA contents as high as 96C and 192C. Genome amplification begins around 10 d after pollination, coincident with cell enlargement and the onset of starch and storage protein accumulation. Although the role of endoreduplication is unclear, it is thought to provide a mechanism that increases cell size and enhances gene expression. To investigate this process, we reduced endoreduplication in transgenic maize endosperm by ectopically expressing a gene encoding a dominant negative mutant form of cyclin-dependent kinase A. This gene was regulated by the 27-kD gamma-zein promoter, which restricted synthesis of the defective enzyme to the endoreduplication rather than the mitotic phase of endosperm development. Overexpression of a wild-type cyclin-dependent kinase A increased enzyme activity but had no effect on endoreduplication. By contrast, ectopic expression of the defective enzyme lowered kinase activity and reduced by half the mean C-value and total DNA content of endosperm nuclei. The lower level of endoreduplication did not affect cell size and only slightly reduced starch and storage protein accumulation. There was little difference in the level of endosperm gene expression with high and low levels of endoreduplication, suggesting that this process may not enhance transcription of genes associated with starch and storage protein synthesis.

  18. Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125- kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given integrin alpha subunit. These data, together with our previous results, indicate that beta 1B interferes with beta 1A function when expressed in CHO cells resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration. PMID:7523423

  19. Altering the GTP binding site of the DNA/RNA-binding protein, Translin/TB-RBP, decreases RNA binding and may create a dominant negative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chennathukuzhi, V M; Kurihara, Y; Bray, J D; Yang, J; Hecht, N B

    2001-11-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding protein, Translin/Testis Brain RNA-binding protein (Translin/TB-RBP), contains a putative GTP binding site in its C-terminus which is highly conserved. To determine if guanine nucleotide binding to this site functionally alters nucleic acid binding, electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed with RNA and DNA binding probes. GTP, but not GDP, reduces RNA binding by approximately 50% and the poorly hydrolyzed GTP analog, GTPgammaS, reduces binding by >90% in gel shift and immunoprecipitation assays. No similar reduction of DNA binding is seen. When the putative GTP binding site of TB-RBP, amino acid sequence VTAGD, is altered to VTNSD by site directed mutagenesis, GTP will no longer bind to TB-RBP(GTP) and TB-RBP(GTP) no longer binds to RNA, although DNA binding is not affected. Yeast two-hybrid assays reveal that like wild-type TB-RBP, TB-RBP(GTP) will interact with itself, with wild-type TB-RBP and with Translin associated factor X (Trax). Transfection of TB-RBP(GTP) into NIH 3T3 cells leads to a marked increase in cell death suggesting a dominant negative function for TB-RBP(GTP) in cells. These data suggest TB-RBP is an RNA-binding protein whose activity is allosterically controlled by nucleotide binding.

  20. Targeted expression of a dominant-negative EGF-R in the kidney reduces tubulo-interstitial lesions after renal injury.

    PubMed

    Terzi, F; Burtin, M; Hekmati, M; Federici, P; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Friedlander, G

    2000-07-01

    The role of EGF in the evolution of renal lesions after injury is still controversial. To determine whether the EGF expression is beneficial or detrimental, we generated transgenic mice expressing a COOH-terminal-truncated EGF-R under the control of the kidney-specific type 1 gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase promoter. As expected, the transgene was expressed exclusively at the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells. Under basal conditions, transgenic mice showed normal renal morphology and function. Infusion of EGF to transgenic animals revealed that the mutant receptor behaved in a dominant-negative manner and prevented EGF-signaled EGF-R autophosphorylation. We next evaluated the impact of transgene expression on the development of renal lesions in two models of renal injury. After 75% reduction of renal mass, tubular dilations were less severe in transgenic mice than in wild-type animals. After prolonged renal ischemia, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in transgenic mice as compared with wild-type mice. The beneficial effect of the transgene included a reduction of tubular cell proliferation, interstitial collagen accumulation, and mononuclear cell infiltration. In conclusion, functional inactivation of the EGF-R in renal proximal tubular cells reduced tubulo-interstitial lesions after renal injury. These data suggest that blocking the EGF pathway may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce the progression of chronic renal failure.

  1. Human Colon Tumors Express a Dominant-Negative Form of SIGIRR That Promotes Inflammation and Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junjie; Bulek, Katarzyna; Gulen, Muhammet F; Zepp, Jarod A; Karagkounis, Georgio; Martin, Bradley N; Zhou, Hao; Yu, Minjia; Liu, Xiuli; Huang, Emina; Fox, Paul L; Kalady, Matthew F; Markowitz, Sanford D; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Single immunoglobulin and toll-interleukin 1 receptor (SIGIRR), a negative regulator of the Toll-like and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathways, controls intestinal inflammation and suppresses colon tumorigenesis in mice. However, the importance of SIGIRR in human colorectal cancer development has not been determined. We investigated the role of SIGIRR in development of human colorectal cancer. We performed RNA sequence analyses of pairs of colon tumor and nontumor tissues, each collected from 68 patients. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses were used to determine levels of SIGIRR protein in primary human colonic epithelial cells, tumor tissues, and colon cancer cell lines. We expressed SIGIRR and mutant forms of the protein in Vaco cell lines. We created and analyzed mice that expressed full-length (control) or a mutant form of Sigirr (encoding SIGIRR(N86/102S), which is not glycosylated) specifically in the intestinal epithelium. Some mice were given azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis-associated cancer. Intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemical and gene expression profile analyses. RNA sequence analyses revealed increased expression of a SIGIRR mRNA isoform, SIGIRR(ΔE8), in colorectal cancer tissues compared to paired nontumor tissues. SIGIRR(ΔE8) is not modified by complex glycans and is therefore retained in the cytoplasm-it cannot localize to the cell membrane or reduce IL1R signaling. SIGIRR(ΔE8) interacts with and has a dominant-negative effect on SIGIRR, reducing its glycosylation, localization to the cell surface, and function. Most SIGIRR detected in human colon cancer tissues was cytoplasmic, whereas in nontumor tissues it was found at the cell membrane. Mice that expressed SIGIRR(N86/102S) developed more inflammation and formed larger tumors after administration of azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium than control mice; colon tissues from these mutant mice expressed

  2. Sense-making Frameworks: Dominant, Discursive Constructions of Learners and Communities by Teachers in the Context of Intersecting Barriers to Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthukrishna, Nithi; Ramsuran, Anitha; Pennefather, Jane; Naidoo, Jacqueline; Jugmohan, Pete

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the complex ways in which teacher constructions of their experiences of teaching in a rural, disadvantaged context shape their taken-for-granted understandings of barriers to basic education. This article attempts to deconstruct these value-laden understandings of barriers to education. We draw on Foucault's notion of…

  3. Heterozygous PINK1 p.G411S increases risk of Parkinson’s disease via a dominant-negative mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Hudec, Roman; Ando, Maya; Truban, Dominika; Hou, Xu; Ogaki, Kotaro; Heckman, Michael G.; James, Elle D.; Swanberg, Maria; Jimenez-Ferrer, Itzia; Hansson, Oskar; Opala, Grzegorz; Siuda, Joanna; Boczarska-Jedynak, Magdalena; Friedman, Andrzej; Koziorowski, Dariusz; Rudzińska-Bar, Monika; Aasly, Jan O.; Lynch, Timothy; Mellick, George D.; Mohan, Megha; Silburn, Peter A.; Sanotsky, Yanosh; Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Farrer, Matthew J.; Chen, Li; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Ross, Owen A.

    2017-01-01

    size conferred by a partial dominant-negative function phenotype. PMID:27807026

  4. Cellular metabolic responses of PET radiotracers to (188)Re radiation in an MCF7 cell line containing dominant-negative mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Jung-A; Lee, Su-Jae; Ahn, Soon-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Sup; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the relations between the cell uptakes of metabolic radiotracers and beta-radiation pretreatment using a dominant mutant p53 (p53mt) cell line to evaluate the effects of p53 genes on (18)F labeled positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer uptakes. pCMV-Neo-Bam (control), which contains a neo-resistance marker, and p53 dominant-negative mutant expression constructs were stably transfected into MCF7 cell line. Cells were plated in 24-well plates at 1.0x10(5) cells for 18 h. Rhenium-188 ((188)Re) (a beta emitter) was added to the medium (3.7, 18.5, 37 MBq) and incubated for 24 h. We performed gamma-counting to determine the cellular uptakes of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), o-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) and 2'-[(18)F]fluoro-2'-deoxythymidine (FLT) (370 kBq, 60 min). Cell viabilities were determined by trypan blue staining and flow cytometry. p53mt cells showed 1.5-2-fold higher FDG uptake than wild-type p53 cells in basal condition, and the difference of FDG uptake was greater after (188)Re treatment (P<.01). FET uptake increased with (188)Re dose without a significant difference between p53 statuses. p53mt cells showed lower FLT uptake than wild-type p53 cells in basal condition, and the difference of FLT uptake was greater after (188)Re treatment. By cell viability testing and FACS analysis, p53mt cells showed lower viability and a larger apoptotic fraction (sub-G1) than wild-type p53 cells after (188)Re treatment. We speculate that p53 dysfunction increases glucose and decreases thymidine metabolism in cancer cells and that this may be exaggerated by (188)Re beta-radiation. Our findings suggest that FDG could reflect tumor viability and malignant potential after (188)Re beta-radiation treatment, whereas FLT could be a more useful PET radiotracer for assessing therapeutic response to beta-radiation, especially in cancer cells with an altered function of p53.

  5. Validation of IKKβ as therapeutic target in airway inflammatory disease by adenoviral-mediated delivery of dominant-negative IKKβ to pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Catley, Matthew C; Chivers, Joanna E; Holden, Neil S; Barnes, Peter J; Newton, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs and the transcription factor NF-κB regulates the production of numerous inflammatory mediators that may have a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Hence, the signalling pathways leading to NF-κB activation are considered prime targets for novel anti-inflammatory therapies. The prevention of NF-κB activity in mice, through the knockout of IKKβ or p65, causes fatal liver degeneration in utero making it difficult to determine the full implications of inhibiting NF-κB activity in tissues physiologically relevant to human diseases. This study used adenovirus delivery of a dominant inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBαΔN) and dominant-negative IKKα (IKKα(KM)) and IKKβ (IKKβ(KA)) to investigate the role of the individual IKKs in NF-κB activation and inflammatory gene transcription by human pulmonary A549 cells. Overexpression of IKKβ(KA) or IκBαΔN prevented NF-κB-dependent transcription and DNA binding. IKKβ(KA) also prevented IκBα kinase activity. Similarly, IKKβ(KA) and IκBαΔN overexpression also inhibited IL-1β- and TNFα-dependent increases in ICAM-1, IL-8 and GM-CSF in addition to IL-1β-mediated increases in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, whereas IKKα(KM) overexpression had little effect on these outputs. IKKβ(KA) also reduced cell viability and induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage regardless of the stimuli, indicating the induction of apoptosis. This effect seemed to be directly related to IKKβ kinase activity since IκBαΔN only induced PARP cleavage in TNFα-treated cells. These results demonstrate that inhibition of IKKβ and NF-κB suppresses inflammatory mediator production and reduces A549 cell viability. Thus, novel therapies that target IKKβ could have potent anti-inflammatory effects and may be beneficial in the treatment of certain cancers. PMID:15723090

  6. Expression of Dominant-Negative Thyroid Hormone Receptor Alpha1 in Leydig and Sertoli Cells Demonstrates No Additional Defect Compared with Expression in Sertoli Cells Only

    PubMed Central

    Fumel, Betty; Froment, Pascal; Holzenberger, Martin; Livera, Gabriel; Monget, Philippe; Fouchécourt, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background In the testis, thyroid hormone (T3) regulates the number of gametes produced through its action on Sertoli cell proliferation. However, the role of T3 in the regulation of steroidogenesis is still controversial. Methods The TRαAMI knock-in allele allows the generation of transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative TRα1 (thyroid receptor α1) isoform restricted to specific target cells after Cre-loxP recombination. Here, we introduced this mutant allele in both Sertoli and Leydig cells using a novel aromatase-iCre (ARO-iCre) line that expresses Cre recombinase under control of the human Cyp19(IIa)/aromatase promoter. Findings We showed that loxP recombination induced by this ARO-iCre is restricted to male and female gonads, and is effective in Sertoli and Leydig cells, but not in germ cells. We compared this model with the previous introduction of TRαAMI specifically in Sertoli cells in order to investigate T3 regulation of steroidogenesis. We demonstrated that TRαAMI-ARO males exhibited increased testis weight, increased sperm reserve in adulthood correlated to an increased proliferative index at P3 in vivo, and a loss of T3-response in vitro. Nevertheless, TRαAMI-ARO males showed normal fertility. This phenotype is similar to TRαAMI-SC males. Importantly, plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels, as well as mRNA levels of steroidogenesis enzymes StAR, Cyp11a1 and Cyp17a1 were not affected in TRαAMI-ARO. Conclusions/Significance We concluded that the presence of a mutant TRαAMI allele in both Leydig and Sertoli cells does not accentuate the phenotype in comparison with its presence in Sertoli cells only. This suggests that direct T3 regulation of steroidogenesis through TRα1 is moderate in Leydig cells, and that Sertoli cells are the main target of T3 action in the testis. PMID:25793522

  7. Progression of Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis Is Associated with Increased Erα Levels and Is Repressed by a Dominant Negative Form of Erα

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Sideridou, Maria; Tsimaratou, Katerina; Christodoulou, Ioannis; Pyrillou, Katerina; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Vlahopoulos, Spiros; Zoumpourlis, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER), namely ERα and ERβ, are hormone-activated transcription factors with an important role in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the implication of ERα in skin cancer, using chemically-induced mouse skin tumours, as well as cell lines representing distinct stages of mouse skin oncogenesis. First, using immunohistochemical staining we showed that ERα is markedly increased in aggressive mouse skin tumours in vivo as compared to the papilloma tumours, whereas ERβ levels are low and become even lower in the aggressive spindle tumours of carcinogen-treated mice. Then, using the multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model, we showed that ERα gradually increases during promotion and progression stages of mouse skin carcinogenesis, peaking at the most aggressive stage, whereas ERβ levels only slightly change throughout skin carcinogenesis. Stable transfection of the aggressive, spindle CarB cells with a dominant negative form of ERα (dnERα) resulted in reduced ERα levels and reduced binding to estrogen responsive elements (ERE)-containing sequences. We characterized two highly conserved EREs on the mouse ERα promoter through which dnERα decreased endogenous ERα levels. The dnERα-transfected CarB cells presented altered protein levels of cytoskeletal and cell adhesion molecules, slower growth rate and impaired anchorage-independent growth in vitro, whereas they gave smaller tumours with extended latency period of tumour onset in vivo. Our findings suggest an implication of ERα in the aggressiveness of spindle mouse skin cancer cells, possibly through regulation of genes affecting cell shape and adhesion, and they also provide hints for the effective targeting of spindle cancer cells by dnERα. PMID:22870269

  8. Attenuation of pathogenic Rift Valley fever virus strain through the chimeric S-segment encoding sandfly fever phlebovirus NSs or a dominant-negative PKR.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Shoko; Slack, Olga A L; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Hill, Terence E; Juelich, Terry L; Zhang, Lihong; Smith, Jennifer K; Perez, David; Gong, Bin; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-11-16

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease affecting ruminants and humans. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) causes abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or retinitis in humans. The live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine is conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the US. However, this vaccine lacks a marker for the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). NSs gene is dispensable for RVFV replication, and thus, rMP-12 strains lacking NSs gene is applicable to monitor vaccinated animals. However, the immunogenicity of MP-12 lacking NSs was not as high as parental MP-12. Thus, chimeric MP-12 strains encoding NSs from either Toscana virus (TOSV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) or Punta Toro virus Adames strain (PTA) were characterized previously. Although chimeric MP-12 strains are highly immunogenic, the attenuation through the S-segment remains unknown. Using pathogenic ZH501 strain, we aimed to demonstrate the attenuation of ZH501 strain through chimeric S-segment encoding either the NSs of TOSV, SFSV, PTA, or Punta Toro virus Balliet strain (PTB). In addition, we characterized rZH501 encoding a human dominant-negative PKR (PKRΔE7), which also enhances the immunogenicity of MP-12. Study done on mice revealed that attenuation of rZH501 occurred through the S-segment encoding either PKRΔE7 or SFSV NSs. However, rZH501 encoding either TOSV, PTA, or PTB NSs in the S-segment uniformly caused lethal encephalitis. Our results indicated that the S-segments encoding PKRΔE7 or SFSV NSs are attenuated and thus applicable toward next generation MP-12 vaccine candidates that encode a DIVA marker.

  9. A spontaneous dominant-negative mutation within a 35S::AtMYB90 transgene inhibits flower pigment production in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Velten, Jeff; Cakir, Cahid; Cazzonelli, Christopher I

    2010-03-29

    In part due to the ease of visual detection of phenotypic changes, anthocyanin pigment production has long been the target of genetic and molecular research in plants. Specific members of the large family of plant myb transcription factors have been found to play critical roles in regulating expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and these genes continue to serve as important tools in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of plant gene regulation. A spontaneous mutation within the coding region of an Arabidopsis 35S::AtMYB90 transgene converted the activator of plant-wide anthocyanin production to a dominant-negative allele (PG-1) that inhibits normal pigment production within tobacco petals. Sequence analysis identified a single base change that created a premature nonsense codon, truncating the encoded myb protein. The resulting mutant protein lacks 78 amino acids from the wild type C-terminus and was confirmed as the source of the white-flower phenotype. A putative tobacco homolog of AtMYB90 (NtAN2) was isolated and found to be expressed in flower petals but not leaves of all tobacco plants tested. Using transgenic tobacco constitutively expressing the NtAN2 gene confirmed the NtAN2 protein as the likely target of PG-1-based inhibition of tobacco pigment production. Messenger RNA and anthocyanin analysis of PG-1Sh transgenic lines (and PG-1Sh x purple 35S::NtAN2 seedlings) support a model in which the mutant myb transgene product acts as a competitive inhibitor of the native tobacco NtAN2 protein. This finding is important to researchers in the field of plant transcription factor analysis, representing a potential outcome for experiments analyzing in vivo protein function in test transgenic systems that over-express or mutate plant transcription factors.

  10. A Spontaneous Dominant-Negative Mutation within a 35S::AtMYB90 Transgene Inhibits Flower Pigment Production in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Velten, Jeff; Cakir, Cahid; Cazzonelli, Christopher I.

    2010-01-01

    Background In part due to the ease of visual detection of phenotypic changes, anthocyanin pigment production has long been the target of genetic and molecular research in plants. Specific members of the large family of plant myb transcription factors have been found to play critical roles in regulating expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and these genes continue to serve as important tools in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of plant gene regulation. Findings A spontaneous mutation within the coding region of an Arabidopsis 35S::AtMYB90 transgene converted the activator of plant-wide anthocyanin production to a dominant-negative allele (PG-1) that inhibits normal pigment production within tobacco petals. Sequence analysis identified a single base change that created a premature nonsense codon, truncating the encoded myb protein. The resulting mutant protein lacks 78 amino acids from the wild type C-terminus and was confirmed as the source of the white-flower phenotype. A putative tobacco homolog of AtMYB90 (NtAN2) was isolated and found to be expressed in flower petals but not leaves of all tobacco plants tested. Using transgenic tobacco constitutively expressing the NtAN2 gene confirmed the NtAN2 protein as the likely target of PG-1-based inhibition of tobacco pigment production. Conclusions Messenger RNA and anthocyanin analysis of PG-1Sh transgenic lines (and PG-1Sh x purple 35S::NtAN2 seedlings) support a model in which the mutant myb transgene product acts as a competitive inhibitor of the native tobacco NtAN2 protein. This finding is important to researchers in the field of plant transcription factor analysis, representing a potential outcome for experiments analyzing in vivo protein function in test transgenic systems that over-express or mutate plant transcription factors. PMID:20360951

  11. Response to Multiple Radiation Doses of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells Infected with Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Dominant-Negative Ku70 Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Muneyasu; He, Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Ling, C. Clifton; Li, Gloria C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing DN(dominant-negative)Ku70 fragment on the response of tumor cells to multiple small radiation doses. Ultimate goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using this virus in gene-radiotherapy to enhance the radiation response of tumor cells. Materials and Methods Human colorectal HCT8 and HT29 carcinoma cells were plated in glass tubes, infected with virus (25 MOI) and irradiated with single doses or 0-5 doses of 3 Gy with 6 h intervals. Hypoxia was induced by flushing 100% N2. Cells were trypsinized 0 or 6 h after (final) irradiation, and cell survival determined by colony formation. Survival data were fitted to L-Q model or exponential line. Results Virus infection enhanced the radiation response of HCT8 and HT29 cells. Virus enhancement ratio (VER) for single dose irradiation at surviving fraction of 0.1 was ~1.3 for both oxic and hypoxic HCT8, and 1.4 and 1.1 for oxic and hypoxic HT29, respectively. Similar VER of 1.2–1.3 was observed for both oxic and hypoxic cells irradiated with multiple doses but these values were smaller than values found for DNKu70-transfected Rat-1 cells. This difference is discussed. The OERs for HCT8 and HT29 receiving fractionated doses were 1.2 and 2.0, respectively, and virus-infection slightly altered them. Conclusion Infection of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing DNKu70 fragment enhanced the response of human colorectal cancer cells to single and multiple doses. PMID:20510198

  12. A dominant-negative clathrin mutant differentially affects trafficking of molecules with distinct sorting motifs in the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, S H; Marks, M S; Brodsky, F M

    1998-03-09

    The role of clathrin in intracellular sorting was investigated by expression of a dominant-negative mutant form of clathrin, termed the hub fragment. Hub inhibition of clathrin-mediated membrane transport was established by demonstrating a block of transferrin internalization and an alteration in the intracellular distribution of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor. Hubs had no effect on uptake of FITC-dextran, adaptor distribution, organelle integrity in the secretory pathway, or cell surface expression of constitutively secreted molecules. Hub expression blocked lysosomal delivery of chimeric molecules containing either the tyrosine-based sorting signal of H2M or the dileucine-based sorting signal of CD3gamma, confirming a role for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) in recognizing these signals and sorting them to the endocytic pathway. Hub expression was then used to probe the role of CCVs in targeting native molecules bearing these sorting signals in the context of HLA-DM and the invariant chain (I chain) complexed to HLA-DR. The distribution of these molecules was differentially affected. Accumulation of hubs before expression of the DM dimer blocked DM export from the TGN, whereas hubs had no effect on direct targeting of the DR-I chain complex from the TGN to the endocytic pathway. However, concurrent expression of hubs, such that hubs were building to inhibitory concentrations during DM or DR-I chain expression, caused cell surface accumulation of both complexes. These observations suggest that both DM and DR-I chain are directly transported to the endocytic pathway from the TGN, DM in CCVs, and DR-I chain independent of CCVs. Subsequently, both complexes can appear at the cell surface from where they are both internalized by CCVs. Differential packaging in CCVs in the TGN, mediated by tyrosine- and dileucine-based sorting signals, could be a mechanism for functional segregation of DM from DR-I chain until their intended rendezvous in late

  13. Isolated 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency: Evidence for an Allele-Specific Dominant Negative Effect and Responsiveness to Biotin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Dantas, M. Fernanda; Suormala, Terttu; Almashanu, Shlomo; Giunta, Cecilia; Friebel, Dolores; Gebhardt, Boris; Fowler, Brian; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Baumgartner, E. Regula; Valle, David

    2004-01-01

    Deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) results in elevated excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3-MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA). MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme comprising biotin-containing α subunits and smaller β subunits, encoded by MCCA and MCCB, respectively. Mutations in these genes cause isolated MCC deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder with a variable phenotype that ranges from severe neonatal to asymptomatic adult forms. No reported patients have responded to biotin therapy. Here, we describe two patients with a biochemical and, in one case, clinical phenotype of MCC deficiency, both of whom were responsive to biotin. The first patient presented at 3 months with seizures and progressive psychomotor retardation. Metabolic investigation at 2 years revealed elevated excretion of 3-MCG and 3-HIVA, suggesting MCC deficiency. High-dose biotin therapy was associated with a dramatic reduction in seizures, normalization of the electroencephalogram, and correction of the organic aciduria, within 4 weeks. MCC activity in fibroblasts was 25% of normal levels. The second patient, a newborn detected by tandem-mass-spectrometry newborn screening, displayed the same biochemical phenotype and remained asymptomatic with biotin up to the age of 18 months. In both patients, sequence analysis of the complete open reading frames of MCCA and MCCB revealed heterozygosity for MCCA-R385S and for the known polymorphic variant MCCA-P464H but revealed no other coding alterations. MCCA-R385S is unusual, in that it has a normal amount of MCCα protein but confers no MCC activity. We show that MCCA-R385S, but not other MCCA missense alleles, reduces the MCC activity of cotransfected MCCA–wild-type allele. Our results suggest that MCCA-R385S is a dominant negative allele and is biotin responsive in vivo. PMID:15359379

  14. Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: evidence for an allele-specific dominant negative effect and responsiveness to biotin therapy.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Matthias R; Dantas, M Fernanda; Suormala, Terttu; Almashanu, Shlomo; Giunta, Cecilia; Friebel, Dolores; Gebhardt, Boris; Fowler, Brian; Hoffmann, Georg F; Baumgartner, E Regula; Valle, David

    2004-11-01

    Deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) results in elevated excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3-MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA). MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme comprising biotin-containing alpha subunits and smaller beta subunits, encoded by MCCA and MCCB, respectively. Mutations in these genes cause isolated MCC deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder with a variable phenotype that ranges from severe neonatal to asymptomatic adult forms. No reported patients have responded to biotin therapy. Here, we describe two patients with a biochemical and, in one case, clinical phenotype of MCC deficiency, both of whom were responsive to biotin. The first patient presented at 3 months with seizures and progressive psychomotor retardation. Metabolic investigation at 2 years revealed elevated excretion of 3-MCG and 3-HIVA, suggesting MCC deficiency. High-dose biotin therapy was associated with a dramatic reduction in seizures, normalization of the electroencephalogram, and correction of the organic aciduria, within 4 weeks. MCC activity in fibroblasts was 25% of normal levels. The second patient, a newborn detected by tandem-mass-spectrometry newborn screening, displayed the same biochemical phenotype and remained asymptomatic with biotin up to the age of 18 months. In both patients, sequence analysis of the complete open reading frames of MCCA and MCCB revealed heterozygosity for MCCA-R385S and for the known polymorphic variant MCCA-P464H but revealed no other coding alterations. MCCA-R385S is unusual, in that it has a normal amount of MCC alpha protein but confers no MCC activity. We show that MCCA-R385S, but not other MCCA missense alleles, reduces the MCC activity of cotransfected MCCA-wild-type allele. Our results suggest that MCCA-R385S is a dominant negative allele and is biotin responsive in vivo.

  15. Generation of the dominant-negative mutant of hArpNbeta: a component of human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Choi, E Y; Park, J A; Sung, Y H; Kwon, H

    2001-11-15

    hArpNbeta, an actin-related protein located within the nucleus, is a subunit of the human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. hArpNbeta has been proposed to regulate the assembly and activity of the hSWI/SNF complex. Sequence comparisons of the potential ArpN homologs with beta-actin showed that the ArpNs have the divergent subdomains Ib and IIb in addition to the unique N-terminal short insert, MS(G/A)-(V/L)YGG. Since the proposed function of hArpNbeta requires more than two distinct but concurrently operating surfaces, we examined whether the disruption of one operating surface of hArpNbeta results in dominant-negative phenotype. When overexpressed in HeLa or 293T cells, the subdomain Ib or IIb hybrids, in which the subdomain Ib or IIb of hArpNbeta was replaced with that of beta-actin, respectively, showed no effect on cell survival. On the other hand, the overexpression of the N-terminal deletion mutant of hArpNbeta resulted in cell death probably through apoptotic process. These results indicate that the proper function of hArpNbeta is essential for cell survival in human cells. Furthermore, they suggests the possibility that the N-terminal short sequence is indispensable for the chromatin remodeling activity or the assembly of the hSWI/SNF complex after the binding of hArpNbeta with functionally essential partner proteins. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Dominant-Negative Effects of Adult-Onset Huntingtin Mutations Alter the Division of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Carla; Aubert, Sophie; Bourgois-Rocha, Fany; Barnat, Monia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Déglon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the huntingtin protein (HTT) gene underlie both adult-onset and juvenile forms of Huntington’s disease (HD). HTT modulates mitotic spindle orientation and cell fate in mouse cortical progenitors from the ventricular zone. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) characterized as carrying mutations associated with adult-onset disease during pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, we investigated the influence of human HTT and of an adult-onset HD mutation on mitotic spindle orientation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESCs. The RNAi-mediated silencing of both HTT alleles in neural stem cells derived from hESCs disrupted spindle orientation and led to the mislocalization of dynein, the p150Glued subunit of dynactin and the large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. We also investigated the effect of the adult-onset HD mutation on the role of HTT during spindle orientation in NSCs derived from HD-hESCs. By combining SNP-targeting allele-specific silencing and gain-of-function approaches, we showed that a 46-glutamine expansion in human HTT was sufficient for a dominant-negative effect on spindle orientation and changes in the distribution within the spindle pole and the cell cortex of dynein, p150Glued and NuMA in neural cells. Thus, neural derivatives of disease-specific human pluripotent stem cells constitute a relevant biological resource for exploring the impact of adult-onset HD mutations of the HTT gene on the division of neural progenitors, with potential applications in HD drug discovery targeting HTT-dynein-p150Glued complex interactions. PMID:26863614

  17. Dominant negative effect of mutated thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (P556L) causes hypothyroidism in C.RF-Tshr(hyt/wild) mice.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    C.RF-Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice have a mutated thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (P556L-TSHR) and these mice develop severe hypothyroidism. We found that C.RF-Tshr(hyt/wild) heterozygous mice are also in a hypothyroid state. Thyroid glands from C.RF-Tshr(hyt/wild) mice are smaller than those from wild-type mice, and (125)I uptake activities of the former are significantly lower than those in the latter. When TSHR (TSHR(W)) and P556L-TSHR (TSHR(M)) cDNAs were cloned and co-transfected into HEK 293 cells, the cells retained (125)I-TSH binding activity, but cAMP response to TSH was decreased to about 20% of HEK 293 cells transfected with TSHR(W) cDNA. When TSHR(W) and TSHR(M) were tagged with eCFP or eYFP, we observed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in HEK 293 cells expressing TSHR(W)-eCFP and TSHR(W)-eYFP in the absence of TSH, but not in the presence of TSH. In contrast, we obtained FRET in HEK 293 cells expressing TSHR(W)-eCFP and TSHR (M)-eYFP, regardless of the presence or absence of TSH. These results suggest that P556L TSHR has a dominant negative effect on TSHR(W) by impairing polymer to monomer dissociation, which decreases TSH responsiveness and induces hypothyroidism in C.RF-Tshr(hyt/wild) mice.

  18. PIL5, a Phytochrome-Interacting Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein, Is a Key Negative Regulator of Seed Germination in Arabidopsis thalianaW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eunkyoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Park, Eunae; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kang, Changwon; Choi, Giltsu

    2004-01-01

    The first decision made by an angiosperm seed, whether to germinate or not, is based on integration of various environmental signals such as water and light. The phytochromes (Phys) act as red and far-red light (Pfr) photoreceptors to mediate light signaling through yet uncharacterized pathways. We report here that the PIF3-like 5 (PIL5) protein, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a key negative regulator of phytochrome-mediated seed germination. PIL5 preferentially interacts with the Pfr forms of Phytochrome A (PhyA) and Phytochrome B (PhyB). Analyses of a pil5 mutant in conjunction with phyA and phyB mutants, a pif3 pil5 double mutant, and PIL5 overexpression lines indicate that PIL5 is a negative factor in Phy-mediated promotion of seed germination, inhibition of hypocotyl negative gravitropism, and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Our data identify PIL5 as the first Phy-interacting protein that regulates seed germination. PMID:15486102

  19. Involvement of dominant-negative spliced variants of the intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel, K(Ca)3.1, in immune function of lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Susumu; Niwa, Satomi; Yanagi, Ayano; Fukuyo, Yuka; Yamamura, Hisao; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2011-05-13

    The intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (IK(Ca) channel) encoded by K(Ca)3.1 is responsible for the control of proliferation and differentiation in various types of cells. We identified novel spliced variants of K(Ca)3.1 (human (h) K(Ca)3.1b) from the human thymus, which were lacking the N-terminal domains of the original hK(Ca)3.1a as a result of alternative splicing events. hK(Ca)3.1b was significantly expressed in human lymphoid tissues. Western blot analysis showed that hK(Ca)3.1a proteins were mainly expressed in the plasma membrane fraction, whereas hK(Ca)3.1b was in the cytoplasmic fraction. We also identified a similar N terminus lacking K(Ca)3.1 variants from mice and rat lymphoid tissues (mK(Ca)3.1b and rK(Ca)3.1b). In the HEK293 heterologous expression system, the cellular distribution of cyan fluorescent protein-tagged hK(Ca)3.1a and/or YFP-tagged hK(Ca)3.1b isoforms showed that hK(Ca)3.1b suppressed the localization of hK(Ca)3.1a to the plasma membrane. In the Xenopus oocyte translation system, co-expression of hK(Ca)3.1b with hK(Ca)3.1a suppressed IK(Ca) channel activity of hK(Ca)3.1a in a dominant-negative manner. In addition, this study indicated that up-regulation of mK(Ca)3.1b in mouse thymocytes differentiated CD4(+)CD8(+) phenotype thymocytes into CD4(-)CD8(-) ones and suppressed concanavalin-A-stimulated thymocyte growth by down-regulation of mIL-2 transcripts. Anti-proliferative effects and down-regulation of mIL-2 transcripts were also observed in mK(Ca)3.1b-overexpressing mouse thymocytes. These suggest that the N-terminal domain of K(Ca)3.1 is critical for channel trafficking to the plasma membrane and that the fine-tuning of IK(Ca) channel activity modulated through alternative splicing events may be related to the control in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in T-lymphocytes.

  20. Aged dominant negative p38α MAPK mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in adult-neurogenesis and context discrimination fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Cortez, IbDanelo; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Wu, Ping; McGrath, Erica L; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Wakamiya, Maki; Papaconstantinou, John; Dineley, Kelly T

    2017-03-30

    A major aspect of mammalian aging is the decline in functional competence of many self-renewing cell types, including adult-born neuronal precursors. Since age-related senescence of self-renewal occurs simultaneously with chronic up-regulation of the p38MAPKalpha (p38α) signaling pathway, we used the dominant negative mouse model for attenuated p38α activity (DN-p38α(AF/+)) in which Thr180 and Tyr182 are mutated (T→A/Y→F) to prevent phosphorylation activation (DN-p38α(AF/+)) and kinase activity. As a result, aged DN-p38α(AF/+) mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in proliferation and regeneration of several peripheral tissue progenitors when compared to wild-type littermates. Aging is the major risk factor for non-inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD); environmental and genetic risk factors that accelerate the senescence phenotype are thought to contribute to an individual's relative risk. In the present study, we evaluated aged DN-p38α(AF/+) and wildtype littermates in a series of behavioral paradigms to test if p38α mutant mice exhibit altered baseline abnormalities in neurological reflexes, locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent cognitive decline. While aged DN-p38α(AF/+) and wildtype littermates appear equal in all tested baseline neurological and behavioral parameters, DN-p38α(AF/+) exhibit superior context discrimination fear conditioning. Context discrimination is a cognitive task that is supported by proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Consistent with enhanced context discrimination in aged DN-p38α(AF/+), we discovered enhanced production of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of DN-p38α(AF/+) mice compared to wildtype littermates. Our findings support the notion that p38α inhibition has therapeutic utility in aging diseases that affect cognition, such as AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Attenuation of the slow component of delayed rectification, action potential prolongation, and triggered activity in mice expressing a dominant-negative Kv2 alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Barry, D M; Li, H; Brunet, S; Guo, W; Nerbonne, J M

    1999-10-01

    An in vivo experimental strategy, involving cardiac-specific expression of a mutant Kv 2.1 subunit that functions as a dominant negative, was exploited in studies focused on exploring the role of members of the Kv2 subfamily of pore-forming (alpha) subunits in the generation of functional voltage-gated K(+) channels in the mammalian heart. A mutant Kv2.1 alpha subunit (Kv2.1N216) was designed to produce a truncated protein containing the intracellular N terminus, the S1 membrane-spanning domain, and a portion of the S1/S2 loop. The truncated Kv2.1N216 was epitope tagged at the C terminus with the 8-amino acid FLAG peptide to generate Kv2. 1N216FLAG. No ionic currents are detected on expression of Kv2. 1N216FLAG in HEK-293 cells, although coexpression of this construct with wild-type Kv2.1 markedly reduced the amplitudes of Kv2. 1-induced currents. Using the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter to direct cardiac specific expression of the transgene, 2 lines of Kv2. 1N216FLAG-expressing transgenic mice were generated. Electrophysiological recordings from ventricular myocytes isolated from these animals revealed that I(K, slow) is selectively reduced. The attenuation of I(K, slow) is accompanied by marked action potential prolongation, and, occasionally, spontaneous triggered activity (apparently induced by early afterdepolarizations) is observed. The time constant of inactivation of I(K, slow) in Kv2. 1N216FLAG-expressing cells (mean+/-SEM=830+/-103 ms; n=17) is accelerated compared with the time constant of I(K, slow) inactivation (mean+/-SEM=1147+/-57 ms; n=25) in nontransgenic cells. In addition, unlike I(K, slow) in wild-type cells, the component of I(K, slow) remaining in the Kv2.1N216FLAG-expressing cells is insensitive to 25 mmol/L tetraethylammonium. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are 2 distinct components of I(K, slow) in mouse ventricular myocytes and that Kv2 alpha subunits underlie the more slowly inactivating, tetraethylammonium

  2. Establishment of the acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-6 from a patient with a dominant-negative mutation in the DNA-binding region of the C/EBPalpha gene.

    PubMed

    Asou, Hiroya; Gombart, Adrian F; Takeuchi, Seisho; Tanaka, Hideo; Tanioka, Maki; Matsui, Hirotaka; Kimura, Akiro; Inaba, Toshiya; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2003-02-01

    A myeloid leukemia cell line designated Kasumi-6 was established from the bone marrow cells of an individual with acute myeloid leukemia, subtype M2. Both the original leukemic cells and the Kasumi-6 cell line harbor a hemizygous point mutation in the gene encoding the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), a critical myeloid transcriptional factor. The C to G transition at nucleotide 1063 of the C/EBPalpha gene results in amino acid transition R305P in the fork or hinge region between the DNA-binding basic region and the leucine zipper dimerization domain of the C/EBPalpha protein. The Kasumi-6 cells expressed both the p42 and p30 isoforms of the C/EBPalpha protein endogenously, but electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated an absence of C/EBPalpha binding to its respective site. Exogenous expression of the mutant form of C/EBPalpha demonstrated that it was unable to bind DNA and activate transcription from a G-CSF receptor-luciferase reporter construct. Furthermore, coexpression of the wild-type and mutant forms revealed that the mutant form repressed reporter gene activation by the wild type in a dose-responsive manner. This was concomitant with a dose-responsive decrease in wild-type protein binding to the G-CSF receptor C/EBP site. The data suggest that the R305P alteration confers a dominant-negative property on the mutant C/EBPalpha protein whereby the mutant polypeptide heterodimerizes with the wild-type polypeptide and prevents it from binding to DNA, thus blocking transcriptional activation. The Kasumi-6 cell line can serve as a model to study the cellular and molecular biology of the non-t(8;21) M2 type of myeloid leukemia and can elucidate the role of mutated C/EBPalpha in leukemogenesis. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. RepA negatively autoregulates the transcription of the repABC operon of the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid basic replicon.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Romero, M A; Téllez-Sosa, J; Barrios, H; Pérez-Oseguera, A; Rosas, V; Cevallos, M A

    2001-10-01

    The basic replicon of Rhizobium etli CE3, like other members of the repABC plasmid family, is constituted by the repABC operon. RepC is essential for replication, and RepA and RepB play a role in plasmid segregation. It has been shown that deletion derivatives lacking the repAB genes have an increased copy number, indicating that these genes participate in the control of plasmid copy number. RepA is also a trans-incompatibility factor. To understand the regulation of the repABC operon, in this paper: (i) the transcription start site of the repABC operon was determined; (ii) the promoter region was identified by site-directed mutagenesis of the putative -35 and -10 hexameric elements; and (iii) RepA was recognized as a negative regulator of the transcription of the repABC operon.

  4. Myelin basic protein-specific T lymphocyte repertoire in multiple sclerosis. Complexity of the response and dominance of nested epitopes due to recruitment of multiple T cell clones.

    PubMed Central

    Meinl, E; Weber, F; Drexler, K; Morelle, C; Ott, M; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G; Goebels, N; Ertl, B; Jechart, G; Giegerich, G

    1993-01-01

    The human T cell response to the myelin basic protein (MBP) has been studied with respect to T cell receptor (TCR) usage, HLA class II restriction elements, and epitope specificity using a total of 215 long-term MBP-specific T cell lines (TCL) isolated from the peripheral blood of 13 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 healthy donors. In most donors, the anti-MBP response was exceedingly heterogeneous. Using a panel of overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the entire length of human MBP, at least 26 epitopes recognized by human TCL could be distinguished. The MBP domain most commonly recognized was sequence 80-105 (31% of MS TCL, and 24% of control TCL). Sequence 29-48 was recognized more frequently by control-derived TCL (24%) than by TCL from MS patients (5%). The MBP epitopes were recognized in the context of DRB1 *0101, DRB5*0101, DRB1*1501, DRB1*0301, DRB1*0401, DRB1*1402, and DRB3*0102, as demonstrated using a panel of DR gene-transfected L cells. The TCR gene usage was also heterogeneous. V beta 5.2, a peptide of which is currently being used in a clinical trial for treatment of MS patients, was expressed by only one of our TCL. However, within this complex pattern of MBP-specific T cell responses, a minority of MS patients were found to exhibit a more restricted response with respect to their TCL epitope specificity. In these patients 75-87% of the TCL responded to a single, patient-specific cluster of immunodominant T cell epitopes located within a small (20-amino acid) domain of MBP. These nested clusters of immunodominant epitopes were noted within the amino acids 80-105, 108-131, and 131-153. The T cell response to the immunodominant epitopes was not monoclonal, but heterogeneous, with respect to fine specificity, TCR usage, and even HLA restriction. In one patient (H.K.), this restricted epitope profile remained stable for > 2 yr. The TCR beta chain sequences of TCL specific for the immunodominant region of HK are consistent with an

  5. Autosomal dominant

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether the trait is dominant or recessive. A single abnormal gene on one of the first 22 nonsex ( autosomal ) chromosomes from either parent can cause an autosomal disorder. Dominant inheritance means ...

  6. Interleukin-19 is cardioprotective in dominant negative cyclic adenosine monophosphate response-element binding protein-mediated heart failure in a sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Danielle R; Ghincea, Alexander R; Ghincea, Christian V; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Watson, Peter A; Autieri, Michael V; Walker, Lori A

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of interleukin-19 (IL-19) in a murine model of female-dominant heart failure (HF). METHODS Expression of one copy of a phosphorylation-deficient cyclic adenosine monophosphate response-element binding protein (dnCREB) causes HF, with accelerated morbidity and mortality in female mice compared to males. We assessed expression of IL-19, its receptor isoforms IL-20R α/β, and downstream IL-19 signaling in this model of female-dominant HF. To test the hypothesis that IL-19 is cardioprotective in dnCREB-mediated HF, we generated a novel double transgenic (DTG) mouse of dnCREB and IL-19 knockout and assessed cardiac morbidity by echocardiography and survival of male and female mice. RESULTS IL-19 is expressed in the murine heart with decreased expression in dnCREB female compared to male mice. Further, the relative expression of the two IL-19 receptor isoforms manifests differently in the heart by sex and by disease. Male DTG mice had accelerated mortality and cardiac morbidity compared to dnCREB males, while female DTG mice showed no additional detriment, supporting the hypothesis that IL-19 is cardioprotective in this model. CONCLUSION Together, these data suggest IL-19 is an important cytokine mediating sex-specific cardiac (dys) function. Ongoing investigations will elucidate the mechanism(s) of sex-specific IL-19 mediated cardiac remodeling. PMID:28932356

  7. Relocating Basic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    I frame the continuing value of basic writing as part of a long tradition in composition studies challenging dominant beliefs about literacy and language abilities, and I link basic writing to emerging--e.g."translingual"--approaches to language. I identify basic writing as vital to the field of composition in its rejection of simplistic notions…

  8. The C-terminal domain of Nrf1 negatively regulates the full-length CNC-bZIP factor and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β; both are also inhibited by the small dominant-negative Nrf1γ/δ isoforms that down-regulate ARE-battery gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiguo; Qiu, Lu; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Chen, Jiayu; Ren, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD, aa 686-741) of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 1 (Nrf1) shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the equivalent Neh3 domain of Nrf2, a homologous transcription factor. The Neh3 positively regulates Nrf2, but whether the Neh3-like (Neh3L) CTD of Nrf1 has a similar role in regulating Nrf1-target gene expression is unknown. Herein, we report that CTD negatively regulates the full-length Nrf1 (i.e. 120-kDa glycoprotein and 95-kDa deglycoprotein) and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β (55-kDa). Attachment of its CTD-adjoining 112-aa to the C-terminus of Nrf2 yields the chimaeric Nrf2-C112Nrf1 factor with a markedly decreased activity. Live-cell imaging of GFP-CTD reveals that the extra-nuclear portion of the fusion protein is allowed to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through the amphipathic Neh3L region of Nrf1 and its basic c-tail. Thus removal of either the entire CTD or the essential Neh3L portion within CTD from Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2-C112Nrf1, results in an increase in their transcriptional ability to regulate antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven reporter genes. Further examinations unravel that two smaller isoforms, 36-kDa Nrf1γ and 25-kDa Nrf1δ, act as dominant-negative inhibitors to compete against Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2. Relative to Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β is a weak activator, that is positively regulated by its Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and acidic domain 2 (AD2). Like AD1 of Nrf1, both AD2 and NST domain of LCR-F1/Nrf1β fused within two different chimaeric contexts to yield Gal4D:Nrf1β607 and Nrf1β:C270Nrf2, positively regulate their transactivation activity of cognate Gal4- and Nrf2-target reporter genes. More importantly, differential expression of endogenous ARE-battery genes is attributable to up-regulation by Nrf1 and LCR-F1/Nrf1β and down-regulation by Nrf1γ and Nrf1δ.

  9. The C-Terminal Domain of Nrf1 Negatively Regulates the Full-Length CNC-bZIP Factor and Its Shorter Isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β; Both Are Also Inhibited by the Small Dominant-Negative Nrf1γ/δ Isoforms that Down-Regulate ARE-Battery Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiguo; Qiu, Lu; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Chen, Jiayu; Ren, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD, aa 686–741) of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 1 (Nrf1) shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the equivalent Neh3 domain of Nrf2, a homologous transcription factor. The Neh3 positively regulates Nrf2, but whether the Neh3-like (Neh3L) CTD of Nrf1 has a similar role in regulating Nrf1-target gene expression is unknown. Herein, we report that CTD negatively regulates the full-length Nrf1 (i.e. 120-kDa glycoprotein and 95-kDa deglycoprotein) and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β (55-kDa). Attachment of its CTD-adjoining 112-aa to the C-terminus of Nrf2 yields the chimaeric Nrf2-C112Nrf1 factor with a markedly decreased activity. Live-cell imaging of GFP-CTD reveals that the extra-nuclear portion of the fusion protein is allowed to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through the amphipathic Neh3L region of Nrf1 and its basic c-tail. Thus removal of either the entire CTD or the essential Neh3L portion within CTD from Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2-C112Nrf1, results in an increase in their transcriptional ability to regulate antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven reporter genes. Further examinations unravel that two smaller isoforms, 36-kDa Nrf1γ and 25-kDa Nrf1δ, act as dominant-negative inhibitors to compete against Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2. Relative to Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β is a weak activator, that is positively regulated by its Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and acidic domain 2 (AD2). Like AD1 of Nrf1, both AD2 and NST domain of LCR-F1/Nrf1β fused within two different chimaeric contexts to yield Gal4D:Nrf1β607 and Nrf1β:C270Nrf2, positively regulate their transactivation activity of cognate Gal4- and Nrf2-target reporter genes. More importantly, differential expression of endogenous ARE-battery genes is attributable to up-regulation by Nrf1 and LCR-F1/Nrf1β and down-regulation by Nrf1γ and Nrf1δ. PMID:25290918

  10. Cut and Paste: Efficient Homology-Directed Repair of a Dominant Negative KRT14 Mutation via CRISPR/Cas9 Nickases.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Thomas; Peking, Patricia; Klausegger, Alfred; Murauer, Eva Maria; Hofbauer, Josefina Piñón; Wally, Verena; Lettner, Thomas; Hainzl, Stefan; Ablinger, Michael; Bauer, Johann Wolfgang; Reichelt, Julia; Koller, Ulrich

    2017-08-24

    With the ability to induce rapid and efficient repair of disease-causing mutations, CRISPR/Cas9 technology is ideally suited for gene therapy approaches for recessively and dominantly inherited monogenic disorders. In this study, we have corrected a causal hotspot mutation in exon 6 of the keratin 14 gene (KRT14) that results in generalized severe epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS-gen sev), using a double-nicking strategy targeting intron 7, followed by homology-directed repair (HDR). Co-delivery into EBS keratinocytes of a Cas9 D10A nickase (Cas9n), a predicted single guide RNA pair specific for intron 7, and a minicircle donor vector harboring the homology donor template resulted in a recombination efficiency of >30% and correction of the mutant KRT14 allele. Phenotypic correction of EBS-gen sev keratinocytes was demonstrated by immunofluorescence analysis, revealing the absence of disease-associated K14 aggregates within the cytoplasm. We achieved a promising safety profile for the CRISPR/Cas9 double-nicking approach, with no detectable off-target activity for a set of predicted off-target genes as confirmed by next generation sequencing. In conclusion, we demonstrate a highly efficient and specific gene-editing approach for KRT14, offering a causal treatment option for EBS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    Information dominance may be defined as superiority in the generation, manipulation, and use of information sufficient to afford its possessors... information dominance at the strategic level: knowing oneself and one’s enemy; and, at best, inducing them to see things as one does.

  12. Heteromeric p97/p97R155C complexes induce dominant negative changes in wild-type and autophagy 9-deficient Dictyostelium strains.

    PubMed

    Arhzaouy, Khalid; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Tung, Sze Man; Tangavelou, Karthikeyan; Stumpf, Maria; Faix, Jan; Schröder, Rolf; Clemen, Christoph S; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the human VCP (p97) gene cause autosomal-dominant IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy with early onset Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia), ALS14 (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with or without frontotemporal dementia) and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia). Most prevalent is the R155C point mutation. We studied the function of p97 in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and have generated strains that ectopically express wild-type (p97) or mutant p97 (p97(R155C)) fused to RFP in AX2 wild-type and autophagy 9 knock-out (ATG9(KO)) cells. Native gel electrophoresis showed that both p97 and p97(R155C) assemble into hexamers. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that endogenous p97 and p97(R155C)-RFP form heteromers. The mutant strains displayed changes in cell growth, phototaxis, development, proteasomal activity, ubiquitinylated proteins, and ATG8(LC3) indicating mis-regulation of multiple essential cellular processes. Additionally, immunofluorescence analysis revealed an increase of protein aggregates in ATG9(KO)/p97(R155C)-RFP and ATG9(KO) cells. They were positive for ubiquitin in both strains, however, solely immunoreactive for p97 in the ATG9(KO) mutant. A major finding is that the expression of p97(R155C)-RFP in the ATG9(KO) strain partially or fully rescued the pleiotropic phenotype. We also observed dose-dependent effects of p97 on several cellular processes. Based on findings in the single versus the double mutants we propose a novel mode of p97 interaction with the core autophagy protein ATG9 which is based on mutual inhibition.

  13. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant TGF-beta type II receptor in transgenic mice reveals essential roles for TGF-beta in regulation of growth and differentiation in the exocrine pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Böttinger, E P; Jakubczak, J L; Roberts, I S; Mumy, M; Hemmati, P; Bagnall, K; Merlino, G; Wakefield, L M

    1997-01-01

    Using a dominant-negative mutant receptor (DNR) approach in transgenic mice, we have functionally inactivated transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling in select epithelial cells. The dominant-negative mutant type II TGF-beta receptor blocked signaling by all three TGF-beta isoforms in primary hepatocyte and pancreatic acinar cell cultures generated from transgenic mice, as demonstrated by the loss of growth inhibitory and gene induction responses. However, it had no effect on signaling by activin, the closest TGF-beta family member. DNR transgenic mice showed increased proliferation of pancreatic acinar cells and severely perturbed acinar differentiation. These results indicate that TGF-beta negatively controls growth of acinar cells and is essential for the maintenance of a differentiated acinar phenotype in the exocrine pancreas in vivo. In contrast, such abnormalities were not observed in the liver. Additional abnormalities in the pancreas included fibrosis, neoangiogenesis and mild macrophage infiltration, and these were associated with a marked up-regulation of TGF-beta expression in transgenic acinar cells. This transgenic model of targeted functional inactivation of TGF-beta signaling provides insights into mechanisms whereby loss of TGF-beta responsiveness might promote the carcinogenic process, both through direct effects on cell proliferation, and indirectly through up-regulation of TGF-betas with associated paracrine effects on stromal compartments. PMID:9184209

  14. Convection dominated problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper surveys the last ten years of activity of the INME Swansea, dealing with problems of convection dominated flow. The basic explicit/implicit characteristic Galerkin process and its application to adaptive mesh refinement used in the solution of realistic problems is focused on.

  15. Too Many Is Too Bad: Long-Term Net Negative Effects of High Density Ungulate Populations on a Dominant Mediterranean Shrub.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Xavier; Fedriani, José M; Caldeira, Maria C; Clemente, Adelaide S; Olmi, Alessandro; Bugalho, Miguel N

    2016-01-01

    Plant-animal interactions imply costs and benefits with net balance depending on interacting species and ecological context. Ungulates, in particular, confer costs (e.g., plant leaf consumption, flower bud predation) and benefits (e.g., plant overcompensation, seed dispersal) to plants. Magnitude of costs and benefits may be altered by habitat management or ecological conditions favoring high density ungulate populations. Little is known however on whether plant costs or benefits predominate over the years, or the long-term outcomes of plant-animal interactions in habitat types sustaining high density ungulate populations. We investigated how high density ungulate populations alter plant costs and benefits by quantifying ungulate long-term effects on the shrub Cistus ladanifer (Cistaceae) individual size, seed weight and number, seed bank, and population density, through a 12-year ungulate exclusion experiment in a Mediterranean scrubland. We monitored plant size and flower buds in plants exposed or protected from ungulates and number of developed capsules and seeds consumed (potential seed dispersal) by ungulates during three reproductive seasons. We found that ungulates negatively affected shrub size and led to a dramatically decline of shrub reproductive structures and seed production, affecting the plant reproductive cycle. Number of buds was 27 times higher and number of developed seed 5 times higher in ungulate-excluded as compared to ungulate-exposed plots. After 9 years of ungulate exclusion, the C. ladanifer seed bank was 2.6 times higher in ungulate-excluded plots. The population density of C. ladanifer was 4 times higher in ungulate-excluded plots. Our long-term experiment showed that high density ungulate populations can alter plant-animal interactions by reducing plant benefits and increasing plant costs.

  16. MALT1 cleaves the E3 ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1 in activated T cells, generating a dominant negative inhibitor of LUBAC-induced NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Elton, Lynn; Carpentier, Isabelle; Staal, Jens; Driege, Yasmine; Haegman, Mira; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Human paracaspase 1 (PCASP1), better known as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1), plays a key role in immunity and inflammation by regulating gene expression in lymphocytes and other immune cell types. Deregulated MALT1 activity has been implicated in autoimmunity, immunodeficiency and certain types of lymphoma. As a scaffold MALT1 assembles downstream signaling proteins for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, while its proteolytic activity further enhances NF-κB activation by cleaving NF-κB inhibitory proteins. MALT1 also processes and inactivates a number of mRNA destabilizing proteins, which further fine-tunes gene expression. MALT1 protease inhibitors are currently developed for therapeutic targeting. Here we show that T cell activation, as well as overexpression of the oncogenic fusion protein API2-MALT1, induces the MALT1-mediated cleavage of haem-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1 (HOIL-1). In addition, to acting as a K48-polyubiquitin specific E3 ubiquitin ligase for different substrates, HOIL-1 co-operates in a catalytic-independent manner with the E3 ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1L interacting protein (HOIP) as part of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). Intriguingly, cleavage of HOIL-1 does not directly abolish its ability to support HOIP-induced NF-κB signaling, which is still mediated by the N-terminal cleavage fragment, but generates a C-terminal fragment with LUBAC inhibitory properties. We propose that MALT1-mediated HOIL-1 cleavage provides a gain-of-function mechanism that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of NF-κB signaling.

  17. Too Many Is Too Bad: Long-Term Net Negative Effects of High Density Ungulate Populations on a Dominant Mediterranean Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, Xavier; Fedriani, José M.; Caldeira, Maria C.; Clemente, Adelaide S.; Olmi, Alessandro; Bugalho, Miguel N.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–animal interactions imply costs and benefits with net balance depending on interacting species and ecological context. Ungulates, in particular, confer costs (e.g., plant leaf consumption, flower bud predation) and benefits (e.g., plant overcompensation, seed dispersal) to plants. Magnitude of costs and benefits may be altered by habitat management or ecological conditions favoring high density ungulate populations. Little is known however on whether plant costs or benefits predominate over the years, or the long-term outcomes of plant-animal interactions in habitat types sustaining high density ungulate populations. We investigated how high density ungulate populations alter plant costs and benefits by quantifying ungulate long-term effects on the shrub Cistus ladanifer (Cistaceae) individual size, seed weight and number, seed bank, and population density, through a 12-year ungulate exclusion experiment in a Mediterranean scrubland. We monitored plant size and flower buds in plants exposed or protected from ungulates and number of developed capsules and seeds consumed (potential seed dispersal) by ungulates during three reproductive seasons. We found that ungulates negatively affected shrub size and led to a dramatically decline of shrub reproductive structures and seed production, affecting the plant reproductive cycle. Number of buds was 27 times higher and number of developed seed 5 times higher in ungulate-excluded as compared to ungulate-exposed plots. After 9 years of ungulate exclusion, the C. ladanifer seed bank was 2.6 times higher in ungulate-excluded plots. The population density of C. ladanifer was 4 times higher in ungulate-excluded plots. Our long-term experiment showed that high density ungulate populations can alter plant-animal interactions by reducing plant benefits and increasing plant costs. PMID:27387134

  18. AAV-dominant negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) gene transfer to the striatum does not rescue medium spiny neurons in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Alto, Laura Taylor; Chen, Xi; Ruhn, Kelly A; Treviño, Isaac; Tansey, Malú G

    2014-01-01

    CNS inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may contribute to neuronal demise. In particular, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is implicated in the pathology of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that localized gene delivery of dominant negative TNF to the degenerating brain region can limit pathology in animal models of PD and AD. TNF is upregulated in Huntington's disease (HD), like in PD and AD, but it is unknown whether TNF signaling contributes to neuronal degeneration in HD. We used in vivo gene delivery to test whether selective reduction of soluble TNF signaling could attenuate medium spiny neuron (MSN) degeneration in the YAC128 transgenic (TG) mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). AAV vectors encoding cDNA for dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) or GFP (control) were injected into the striatum of young adult wild type WT and YAC128 TG mice and achieved 30-50% target coverage. Expression of dominant negative TNF protein was confirmed immunohistologically and biochemically and was maintained as mice aged to one year, but declined significantly over time. However, the extent of striatal DN-TNF gene transfer achieved in our studies was not sufficient to achieve robust effects on neuroinflammation, rescue degenerating MSNs or improve motor function in treated mice. Our findings suggest that alternative drug delivery strategies should be explored to determine whether greater target coverage by DN-TNF protein might afford some level of neuroprotection against HD-like pathology and/or that soluble TNF signaling may not be the primary driver of striatal neuroinflammation and MSN loss in YAC128 TG mice.

  19. Reducing Negative Behaviors of Elementary School Students through a Program Which Honors Values Discussions, the Arts, and Satisfies Children's Basic Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Kathleen A.

    This practicum project implemented and evaluated an 8-month program designed to reduce negative behaviors among first- through fifth-grade students. Counseling referrals, student interviews, and faculty surveys indicated that the negative behaviors of gossip, name calling, and exclusion of fellow students from class and play activities were…

  20. Binding of viral antigens to major histocompatibility complex class I H-2Db molecules is controlled by dominant negative elements at peptide non-anchor residues. Implications for peptide selection and presentation.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, D; Mazarguil, H; Laval, F; Oldstone, M B; Gairin, J E

    1996-07-26

    Binding of viral antigens to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is a critical step in the activation process of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the impact of structural factors at non-anchor residues in peptide-MHC interaction using the model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of its natural host, the mouse. Altering viral genes by making reassortants, recombinants, and using synthetic peptides, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes were shown to recognize only three H-2Db-restricted epitopes, GP amino acids 33-41/43, GP 276-286, and NP 396-404. However, LCMV NP and GP proteins contain 31 other peptides bearing the H-2Db motif. These 34 LCMV peptides and 11 other known H2-Db-restricted peptides were synthesized and examined for MHC binding properties. Despite the presence of the H-2Db binding motif, the majority of LCMV peptides showed weak or no affinity for H-2Db. We observed that dominant negative structural elements located at non-anchor positions played a crucial role in peptide-MHC interaction. By comparative sequence analysis of strong versus non-binders and using molecular modeling, we delineated these negative elements and evaluated their impact on peptide-MHC interaction. Our findings were validated by showing that a single mutation of a favorable non-anchor residue in the sequence of known viral epitopes for a negative element resulted in dramatic reduction of antigen presentation properties, while conversely, substitution of one negative for a positive element in the sequence of a non-binder conferred to the peptide an ability to now bind to MHC molecules.

  1. p53-Dependent Activation of microRNA-34a in Response to Etoposide-Induced DNA Damage in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines Not Impaired by Dominant Negative p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Novello, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Laura; Conti, Amalia; Quattrini, Irene; Pollino, Serena; Perego, Paola; Picci, Piero; Benassi, Maria Serena

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and prevalently occurs in the second decade of life. Etoposide, a chemotherapeutic agent used in combined treatments of recurrent human OS, belongs to the topoisomerase inhibitor family and causes DNA breakage. In this study we evaluated the cascade of events determined by etoposide-induced DNA damage in OS cell lines with different p53 status focusing on methylation status and expression of miR-34a that modulate tumor cell growth and cell cycle progression. Wild-type p53 U2-OS cells and U2-OS cells expressing dominant-negative form of p53 (U2- OS175) were more sensitive to etoposide than p53-deficient MG63 and Saos-2 cells, showing increased levels of unmethylated miR-34a, reduced expression of CDK4 and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In contrast, MG63 and Saos-2 cell lines presented aberrant methylation of miR-34a promoter gene with no miR-34a induction after etoposide treatment, underlining the close connection between p53 expression and miR-34a methylation status. Consistently, in p53siRNA transfected U2-OS cells we observed loss of miR-34a induction after etoposide exposure associated with a partial gain of gene methylation and cell cycle progress towards G2/M phase. Our results suggest that the open and unmethylated conformation of the miR-34a gene may be regulated by p53 able to bind the gene promoter. In conclusion, cell response to etoposide-induced DNA damage was not compromised in cells with dominant-negative p53 expression. PMID:25490093

  2. Inhibition of intrinsic gap-junction intercellular communication and enhancement of tumorigenicity of the rat bladder carcinoma cell line BC31 by a dominant-negative connexin 43 mutant.

    PubMed

    Krutovskikh, V A; Yamasaki, H; Tsuda, H; Asamoto, M

    1998-12-01

    The tumor-suppressive property of the connexin gap-junction proteins was postulated from the fact that their function of cell coupling is impaired in most cancer cells. However, in conflict with this notion, certain cancer cells are able to communicate through gap junctions despite their malignancy. To explain this phenomenon, we studied by using a dominant-negative strategy the effect on tumorigenicity of loss of intrinsic gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in the rat bladder carcinoma cell line BC31, which shows both expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and intercellular communication. In cells transfected with a mutant Cx43 with seven residues deleted from the internal loop at positions 130-136 (Cx43delta), transport of the resulting connexin protein to the plasma membrane occurred normally, but the GJIC of the cells was effectively abolished at the level of permeability of established gap junctions. Dominant-negative inhibition of GJIC by Cx43delta accelerated growth of BC31 cells in nude mice. In contrast, when GJIC in BC31 cells was artificially enforced by transfection of wild-type Cx43, the cells lost the capacity to grow in vivo. Decreased phosphorylation of Cx43delta suggested close interaction of the internal loop of connexin with its commonly phosphorylated domains in the C-terminal tail and involvement of this interaction in gap-junction permeability. Therefore, we conclude that the intrinsic GJIC observed in cancer cells should be considered a tumor-suppressor factor and that its level may influence malignant growth capacity.

  3. Manipulation of cellular GSH biosynthetic capacity via TAT-mediated protein transduction of wild-type or a dominant-negative mutant of glutamate cysteine ligase alters cell sensitivity to oxidant-induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Backos, Donald S.; Brocker, Chad N.; Franklin, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system plays a central role in protecting mammalian cells against oxidative injury. Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis and is a heterodimeric holoenzyme composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. As a means of assessing the cytoprotective effects of enhanced GSH biosynthetic capacity, we have developed a protein transduction approach whereby recombinant GCL protein can be rapidly and directly transferred into cells when coupled to the HIV TAT protein transduction domain. Bacterial expression vectors encoding TAT fusion proteins of both GCL subunits were generated and recombinant fusion proteins were synthesized and purified to near homogeneity. The TAT-GCL fusion proteins were capable of heterodimerization and formation of functional GCL holoenzyme in vitro. Exposure of Hepa-1c1c7 cells to the TAT-GCL fusion proteins resulted in the time- and dose-dependent transduction of both GCL subunits and increased cellular GCL activity and GSH levels. A heterodimerization-competent, enzymatically deficient GCLC-TAT mutant was also generated in an attempt to create a dominant-negative suppressor of GCL. Transduction of cells with a catalytically inactive GCLC(E103A)-TAT mutant decreased cellular GCL activity in a dose-dependent manner. TAT-mediated manipulation of cellular GCL activity was also functionally relevant as transduction with wild-type GCLC(WT)-TAT or mutant GCLC(E103A)-TAT conferred protection or enhanced sensitivity to H2O2-induced cell death, respectively. These findings demonstrate that TAT-mediated transduction of wild-type or dominant-inhibitory mutants of the GCL subunits is a viable means of manipulating cellular GCL activity to assess the effects of altered GSH biosynthetic capacity. PMID:19914271

  4. A herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D-expressing nonreplicating dominant-negative HSV-2 virus vaccine is superior to a gD2 subunit vaccine against HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengwei; Xie, Lining; Balliet, John W; Casimiro, Danilo R; Yao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We recently constructed a novel non-replicating dominant-negative HSV-2 recombinant viral vaccine (CJ2-gD2) capable of expressing various HSV-2 antigens that are dominant targets of HSV-2-specific CD8 T-cell response. Importantly, CJ2-gD2 expresses gD2, the HSV-2 major antigen glycoprotein D, as efficiently as wild-type HSV-2 infection and can lead to a nearly 500-fold reduction in wild-type HSV-2 viral replication in cells co-infected with CJ2-gD2 and wild-type HSV-2. In this report, we show that CJ2-gD2 elicits a strong antibody response to various HSV-2 antigens and is highly effective in the prevention of primary and recurrent HSV-2 genital infection and disease in the immunized guinea pigs. The direct comparison study between CJ2-gD2 and a gD2 subunit vaccine (gD2-alum/MPL) with a formulation akin to a vaccine tested in phase III clinical trials shows that CJ2-gD2 is 8 times more effective than the gD2-alum/MPL subunit vaccine in eliciting an anti-HSV-2 specific neutralizing antibody response and offers significantly superior protection against primary and recurrent HSV-2 genital infections. Importantly, no challenge wild-type HSV-2 viral DNA was detectable in dorsal root ganglia DNA isolated from CJ2-gD2-immunized guinea pigs on day 60 post-challenge. CJ2-gD2 should be an excellent HSV-2 vaccine candidate for protection against HSV-2 genital infection and disease in humans.

  5. Manipulation of cellular GSH biosynthetic capacity via TAT-mediated protein transduction of wild-type or a dominant-negative mutant of glutamate cysteine ligase alters cell sensitivity to oxidant-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Backos, Donald S.; Brocker, Chad N.; Franklin, Christopher C.

    2010-02-15

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system plays a central role in protecting mammalian cells against oxidative injury. Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis and is a heterodimeric holoenzyme composed of catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunits. As a means of assessing the cytoprotective effects of enhanced GSH biosynthetic capacity, we have developed a protein transduction approach whereby recombinant GCL protein can be rapidly and directly transferred into cells when coupled to the HIV TAT protein transduction domain. Bacterial expression vectors encoding TAT fusion proteins of both GCL subunits were generated and recombinant fusion proteins were synthesized and purified to near homogeneity. The TAT-GCL fusion proteins were capable of heterodimerization and formation of functional GCL holoenzyme in vitro. Exposure of Hepa-1c1c7 cells to the TAT-GCL fusion proteins resulted in the time- and dose-dependent transduction of both GCL subunits and increased cellular GCL activity and GSH levels. A heterodimerization-competent, enzymatically deficient GCLC-TAT mutant was also generated in an attempt to create a dominant-negative suppressor of GCL. Transduction of cells with a catalytically inactive GCLC(E103A)-TAT mutant decreased cellular GCL activity in a dose-dependent manner. TAT-mediated manipulation of cellular GCL activity was also functionally relevant as transduction with wild-type GCLC(WT)-TAT or mutant GCLC(E103A)-TAT conferred protection or enhanced sensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death, respectively. These findings demonstrate that TAT-mediated transduction of wild-type or dominant-inhibitory mutants of the GCL subunits is a viable means of manipulating cellular GCL activity to assess the effects of altered GSH biosynthetic capacity.

  6. AAV1/2-mediated CNS gene delivery of dominant-negative CCL2 mutant suppresses gliosis, beta-amyloidosis, and learning impairment of APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Masaru; Schroder, Bryce; Jacobsen, Michael T; Swan, Russell J; Lambert, Mary P; Klein, William L; Gendelman, Howard E; Ransohoff, Richard M; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2009-05-01

    Accumulation of aggregated amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide was studied as an initial step for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Following amyloid plaque formation, reactive microglia and astrocytes accumulate around plaques and cause neuroinflammation. Here brain chemokines play a major role for the glial accumulation. We have previously shown that transgenic overexpression of chemokine CCL2 in the brain results in increased microglial accumulation and diffuse amyloid plaque deposition in a transgenic mouse model of AD expressing Swedish amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutant. Here, we report that adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 and 2 hybrid efficiently deliver 7ND gene, a dominant-negative CCL2 mutant, in a dose-response manner and express >1,000-fold higher recombinant CCL2 than basal levels after a single administration. AAV1/2 hybrid virus principally infected neurons without neuroinflammation with sustained expression for 6-months. 7ND expressed in APP/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) bigenic mice reduced astro/microgliosis, beta-amyloidosis, including suppression of both fibrillar and oligomer Abeta accumulation, and improved spatial learning. Our data support the idea that the AAV1/2 system is a useful tool for CNS gene delivery, and suppression of CCL2 may be a therapeutic target for the amelioration of AD-related neuroinflammation.

  7. AAV1/2-mediated CNS Gene Delivery of Dominant-negative CCL2 Mutant Suppresses Gliosis, β-amyloidosis, and Learning Impairment of APP/PS1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Masaru; Schroder, Bryce; Jacobsen, Michael T; Swan, Russell J; Lambert, Mary P; Klein, William L; Gendelman, Howard E; Ransohoff, Richard M; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2009-05-01

    Accumulation of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide was studied as an initial step for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Following amyloid plaque formation, reactive microglia and astrocytes accumulate around plaques and cause neuroinflammation. Here brain chemokines play a major role for the glial accumulation. We have previously shown that transgenic overexpression of chemokine CCL2 in the brain results in increased microglial accumulation and diffuse amyloid plaque deposition in a transgenic mouse model of AD expressing Swedish amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutant. Here, we report that adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 and 2 hybrid efficiently deliver 7ND gene, a dominant-negative CCL2 mutant, in a dose-response manner and express >1,000-fold higher recombinant CCL2 than basal levels after a single administration. AAV1/2 hybrid virus principally infected neurons without neuroinflammation with sustained expression for 6-months. 7ND expressed in APP/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) bigenic mice reduced astro/microgliosis, β-amyloidosis, including suppression of both fibrillar and oligomer Aβ accumulation, and improved spatial learning. Our data support the idea that the AAV1/2 system is a useful tool for CNS gene delivery, and suppression of CCL2 may be a therapeutic target for the amelioration of AD-related neuroinflammation.

  8. Genetic and Functional Characterization of the Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY Two-Component System: Point Mutations in the HAMP Linker of the BarA Sensor Give a Dominant-Negative Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tomenius, Henrik; Pernestig, Anna-Karin; Méndez-Catalá, Claudia F.; Georgellis, Dimitris; Normark, Staffan; Melefors, Öjar

    2005-01-01

    The BarA-UvrY two-component system family is strongly associated with virulence but is poorly understood at the molecular level. During our attempts to complement a barA deletion mutant, we consistently generated various mutated BarA proteins. We reasoned that characterization of the mutants would help us to better understand the signal transduction mechanism in tripartite sensors. This was aided by the demonstrated ability to activate the UvrY regulator with acetyl phosphate independently of the BarA sensor. Many of the mutated BarA proteins had poor complementation activity but could counteract the activity of the wild-type sensor in a dominant-negative fashion. These proteins carried point mutations in or near the recently identified HAMP linker, previously implicated in signal transduction between the periplasm and cytoplasm. This created sensor proteins with an impaired kinase activity and a net dephosphorylating activity. Using further site-directed mutagenesis of a HAMP linker-mutated protein, we could demonstrate that the phosphoaccepting aspartate 718 and histidine 861 are crucial for the dephosphorylating activity. Additional analysis of the HAMP linker-mutated BarA sensors demonstrated that a dephosphorylating activity can operate via phosphotransfer within a tripartite sensor dimer in vivo. This also means that a tripartite sensor can be arranged as a dimer even in the dephosphorylating mode. PMID:16237014

  9. Ikaros dominant negative isoform (Ik6) induces IL-3-independent survival of murine pro-B lymphocytes by activating JAK-STAT and up-regulating Bcl-xl levels.

    PubMed

    Kano, Gen; Morimoto, Akira; Takanashi, Mami; Hibi, Shigeyoshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Inaba, Tohru; Yagi, Tomohito; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2008-05-01

    Ikaros is an essential regulator of lymphocyte differentiation. Mice transgenic for the Ikaros dominant negative (DN) mutation rapidly develop lymphoid malignancies. Various human leukemias have also been reported to express Ikaros DN isoforms, but its role in leukemogenesis is yet to be defined. We demonstrate that overexpressed Ikaros DN (Ik6) prolonged the survival of two different murine pro-B cell lines in cytokine deprived condition, and this was associated with increased expression of Bcl-xl. A survey of the upstream controller(s) of Bcl-xl expression revealed Ik6 overexpression enhanced the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT5. Interestingly, the Ik6 expressing cell lines showed reduced expression of B-cell differentiation surface marker CD45R (B220), which is also known as a JAK2 inhibitor. Although further evaluation with human clinical materials are required, these results propose a putative role of Ik6 in the development of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia, by activating the JAK2-STAT5 pathway and thus stimulating the production of Bcl-xl.

  10. GPKOW is essential for pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and suppresses splicing defect caused by dominant-negative DHX16 mutation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Shengbing; Lin, Ting-Yu; Chen, Xinji; Gencheva, Marieta; Newo, Alain N. S.; Yang, Lixin; Rossi, Daniel; Hu, Jianda; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Huang, Aimin; Lin, Ren-Jang

    2014-01-01

    Human GPKOW [G-patch (glycine-rich) domain and KOW (Kyrpides, Ouzounis and Woese) domain] protein contains a G-patch domain and two KOW domains, and is a homologue of Arabidopsis MOS2 and Saccharomyces Spp2 protein. GPKOW is found in the human spliceosome, but its role in pre-mRNA splicing remains to be elucidated. In this report, we showed that GPKOW interacted directly with the DHX16/hPRP2 and with RNA. Immuno-depletion of GPKOW from HeLa nuclear extracts resulted in an inactive spliceosome that still bound DHX16. Adding back recombinant GPKOW restored splicing to the depleted extract. In vivo, overexpression of GPKOW partially suppressed the splicing defect observed in dominant-negative DHX16 mutant expressing cells. Mutations at the G-patch domain greatly diminished the GPKOW–DHX16 interaction; however, the mutant was active in splicing and was able to suppress splicing defect. Mutations at the KOW1 domain slightly altered the GPKOW–RNA interaction, but the mutant was less functional in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that GPKOW can functionally impact DHX16 but that interaction between the proteins is not required for this activity. PMID:25296192

  11. Interaction of MutS and Vsr: Some Dominant-Negative mutS Mutations That Disable Methyladenine-Directed Mismatch Repair Are Active in Very-Short-Patch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Margaret; Rehmat, Shehnaz; Bhagwat, Ashok S.

    2001-01-01

    In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the very-short-patch (VSP) repair pathway uses an endonuclease, Vsr, to correct T · G mismatches that result from the deamination of 5-methylcytosines in DNA to C · G. The products of mutS and mutL, which are required for adenine methylation-directed mismatch repair (MMR), enhance VSP repair. Multicopy plasmids carrying mutS alleles that are dominant negative for MMR were tested for their effects on VSP repair. Some mutS mutations (class I) did not lower VSP repair in a mutS+ background, and most class I mutations increased VSP repair in mutS cells more than plasmids containing mutS+. Other plasmid-borne mutS mutations (class II) and mutS+ decreased VSP repair in the mutS+ background. Thus, MutS protein lacking functions required for MMR can still participate in VSP repair, and our results are consistent with a model in which MutS binds transiently to the mispair and then translocates away from the mispair to create a specialized structure that enhances the binding of Vsr. PMID:11591694

  12. Interaction of MutS and Vsr: some dominant-negative mutS mutations that disable methyladenine-directed mismatch repair are active in very-short-patch repair.

    PubMed

    Lieb, M; Rehmat, S; Bhagwat, A S

    2001-11-01

    In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the very-short-patch (VSP) repair pathway uses an endonuclease, Vsr, to correct T-G mismatches that result from the deamination of 5-methylcytosines in DNA to C-G. The products of mutS and mutL, which are required for adenine methylation-directed mismatch repair (MMR), enhance VSP repair. Multicopy plasmids carrying mutS alleles that are dominant negative for MMR were tested for their effects on VSP repair. Some mutS mutations (class I) did not lower VSP repair in a mutS(+) background, and most class I mutations increased VSP repair in mutS cells more than plasmids containing mutS(+). Other plasmid-borne mutS mutations (class II) and mutS(+) decreased VSP repair in the mutS(+) background. Thus, MutS protein lacking functions required for MMR can still participate in VSP repair, and our results are consistent with a model in which MutS binds transiently to the mispair and then translocates away from the mispair to create a specialized structure that enhances the binding of Vsr.

  13. A systematic review of the mismatch negativity as an index for auditory sensory memory: From basic research to clinical and developmental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bartha-Doering, Lisa; Deuster, Dirk; Giordano, Vito; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Dobel, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Auditory sensory memory is an important ability for successful language acquisition and processing. The mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to auditory stimuli has been proposed as an objective tool to measure the existence of auditory sensory memory traces. By increasing interstimulus intervals, attenuation of MMN peak amplitude and increased MMN peak latency have been suggested to reflect duration and decay of sensory memory traces. The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review of studies investigating sensory memory duration with MMN. Searches of electronic databases yielded 743 articles. Of these, 37 studies met final eligibility criteria. Results point to maturational changes in the time span of auditory sensory memory from birth on with a peak in young adulthood, as well as to a decrease of sensory memory duration in healthy aging. Furthermore, this review suggests that sensory memory decline is related to diverse neurological, psychiatric, and pediatric diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, alcohol abuse, schizophrenia, and language disorders. This review underlines that the MMN provides a unique window to the cognitive processes of auditory sensory memory. However, further studies combining electrophysiological and behavioral data, and further studies in clinical populations are needed, also on individual levels, to validate the MMN as a clinical tool for the assessment of sensory memory duration.

  14. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 Are Negative Regulators of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2. PMID:23852442

  15. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 are negative regulators of jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2.

  16. The C-terminal Domain (CTD) of Human DNA Glycosylase NEIL1 Is Required for Forming BERosome Repair Complex with DNA Replication Proteins at the Replicating Genome: DOMINANT NEGATIVE FUNCTION OF THE CTD.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Pavana M; Dutta, Arijit; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Joy; Adhikari, Sanjay; Tomkinson, Alan E; Li, Guo-Min; Boldogh, Istvan; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2015-08-21

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 was recently demonstrated to initiate prereplicative base excision repair (BER) of oxidized bases in the replicating genome, thus preventing mutagenic replication. A significant fraction of NEIL1 in cells is present in large cellular complexes containing DNA replication and other repair proteins, as shown by gel filtration. However, how the interaction of NEIL1 affects its recruitment to the replication site for prereplicative repair was not investigated. Here, we show that NEIL1 binarily interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamp loader replication factor C, DNA polymerase δ, and DNA ligase I in the absence of DNA via its non-conserved C-terminal domain (CTD); replication factor C interaction results in ∼8-fold stimulation of NEIL1 activity. Disruption of NEIL1 interactions within the BERosome complex, as observed for a NEIL1 deletion mutant (N311) lacking the CTD, not only inhibits complete BER in vitro but also prevents its chromatin association and reduced recruitment at replication foci in S phase cells. This suggests that the interaction of NEIL1 with replication and other BER proteins is required for efficient repair of the replicating genome. Consistently, the CTD polypeptide acts as a dominant negative inhibitor during in vitro repair, and its ectopic expression sensitizes human cells to reactive oxygen species. We conclude that multiple interactions among BER proteins lead to large complexes, which are critical for efficient BER in mammalian cells, and the CTD interaction could be targeted for enhancing drug/radiation sensitivity of tumor cells.

  17. Sequestration of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes. Facilitation by G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK2) and attenuation by a dominant-negative mutant of GRK2.

    PubMed

    Tsuga, H; Kameyama, K; Haga, T; Kurose, H; Nagao, T

    1994-12-23

    Sequestration of m2 receptors (muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes), which was assessed as loss of N-[3H]methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) binding activity from the cell surface, was examined in COS 7 and BHK-21 cells that had been transfected with expression vectors encoding the m2 receptor and, independently, vectors encoding a G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK2) (beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1) or a GRK2 dominant-negative mutant (DN-GRK2). The sequestration of m2 receptors became apparent when the cells were treated with 10(-5) M or higher concentrations of carbamylcholine. In this case, approximately 40% or 20-25% of the [3H]NMS binding sites on COS 7 or BHK-21 cells, respectively, were sequestered with a half-life of 15-25 min. In cells in which GRK2 was also expressed, the sequestration became apparent in the presence of 10(-7) M carbamylcholine. Approximately 40% of the [3H]NMS binding sites on both COS 7 and BHK-21 cells were sequestered in the presence of 10(-6) M or higher concentrations of carbamylcholine. When DN-GRK2 was expressed in COS 7 cells, the proportion of [3H]NMS binding sites sequestered in the presence of 10(-5) M or higher concentrations of carbamylcholine was reduced to 20-30%. These results indicate that the phosphorylation of m2 receptors by GRK2 facilitates their sequestration. These results are in contrast with the absence of a correlation between sequestration and the phosphorylation of beta-adrenergic receptors by the GRK2 and suggests that the consequences of phosphorylation by GRK2 are different for different receptors.

  18. Germline missense pathogenic variants in the BRCA1 BRCT domain, p.Gly1706Glu and p.Ala1708Glu, increase cellular sensitivity to PARP inhibitor olaparib by a dominant negative effect.

    PubMed

    Vaclová, Tereza; Woods, Nicholas T; Megías, Diego; Gomez-Lopez, Sergio; Setién, Fernando; García Bueno, José María; Macías, José Antonio; Barroso, Alicia; Urioste, Miguel; Esteller, Manel; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Benítez, Javier; Osorio, Ana

    2016-12-15

    BRCA1-deficient cells show defects in DNA repair and rely on other members of the DNA repair machinery, which makes them sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPi). Although carrying a germline pathogenic variant in BRCA1/2 is the best determinant of response to PARPi, a significant percentage of the patients do not show sensitivity and/or display increased toxicity to the agent. Considering previously suggested mutation-specific BRCA1 haploinsufficiency, we aimed to investigate whether there are any differences in cellular response to PARPi olaparib depending on the BRCA1 mutation type. Lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from carriers of missense pathogenic variants in the BRCA1 BRCT domain (c.5117G > A, p.Gly1706Glu and c.5123C > A, p.Ala1708Glu) showed higher sensitivity to olaparib than cells with truncating variants or wild types (WT). Response to olaparib depended on a basal PARP enzymatic activity, but did not correlate with PARP1 expression. Interestingly, cellular sensitivity to the agent was associated with the level of BRCA1 recruitment into γH2AX foci, being the lowest in cells with missense variants. Since these variants lead to partially stable protein mutants, we propose a model in which the mutant protein acts in a dominant negative manner on the WT BRCA1, impairing the recruitment of BRCA1 into DNA damage sites and, consequently, increasing cellular sensitivity to PARPi. Taken together, our results indicate that carriers of different BRCA1 mutations could benefit from olaparib in a distinct way and show different toxicities to the agent, which could be especially relevant for a potential future use of PARPi as prophylactic agents in BRCA1 mutation carriers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A dominant-negative F-box deleted mutant of E3 ubiquitin ligase, β-TrCP1/FWD1, markedly reduces myeloma cell growth and survival in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anjana; McCluskey, Brandon; Bhaskaran, Shylesh; Muñoz, Steve; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib can result in severe adverse effects, necessitating the development of targeted inhibitors of the proteasome. We show that stable expression of a dominant-negative F-box deleted (ΔF) mutant of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, SCFβ-TrCP/FWD1, in murine 5TGM1 myeloma cells dramatically attenuated their skeletal engraftment and survival when inoculated into immunocompetent C57BL/KaLwRij mice. Similar results were obtained in immunodeficient bg-nu-xid mice, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of host recipient immune status. Bone marrow stroma offered no protection for 5TGM1-ΔF cells in cocultures treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), indicating a cell-autonomous anti-myeloma effect. Levels of p100, IκBα, Mcl-1, ATF4, total and cleaved caspase-3, and phospho-β-catenin were elevated in 5TGM1-ΔF cells whereas cIAP was down-regulated. TNF also activated caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2, correlating with the enhanced susceptibility of 5TGM1-ΔF cells to apoptosis. Treatment of 5TGM1 tumor-bearing mice with a β-TrCP1/FWD1 inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), significantly reduced tumor burden in bone. PDTC also increased levels of cleaved Mcl-1 and caspase-3 in U266 human myeloma cells, correlating with our murine data and validating the development of specific β-TrCP inhibitors as an alternative therapy to nonspecific proteasome inhibitors for myeloma patients. PMID:26009993

  20. Dominant-negative derivative of EBNA1 represses EBNA1-mediated transforming gene expression during the acute phase of Epstein-Barr virus infection independent of rapid loss of viral genome.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yumi; Hamatake, Makiko; Urano, Emiko; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Shimizu, Norio; Komano, Jun

    2010-04-01

    The oncogenic human herpes virus, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), expresses EBNA1 in almost all forms of viral latency. EBNA1 plays a major role in the maintenance of the viral genome and in the transactivation of viral transforming genes, including EBNA2 and latent membrane protein (LMP-1). However, it is unknown whether inhibition of EBNA1 from the onset of EBV infection disrupts the establishment of EBV's latency and transactivation of the viral oncogenes. To address this, we measured EBV infection kinetics in the B cell lines BALL-1 and BJAB, which stably express a dominant-negative EBNA1 (dnE1) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). The EBV genome was surprisingly unstable 1 week post-infection: the average loss rate of EBV DNA from GFP- and GFP-dnE1-expressing cells was 53.4% and 41.0% per cell generation, respectively, which was substantially higher than that of an 'established'oriP replicon (2-4%). GFP-dnE1 did not accelerate loss of the EBV genome, suggesting that EBNA1-dependent licensing of the EBV genome occurs infrequently during the acute phase of EBV infection. In the subacute phase, establishment of EBV latency was completely blocked in GFP-dnE1-expressing cells. In contrast, C/W promoter-driven transcription was strongly restricted in GFP-dnE1-expressing cells at 2 days post-infection. These data suggest that inhibition of EBNA1 from the onset of EBV infection is effective in blocking the positive feedback loop in the transactivation of viral transforming genes, and in eradicating the EBV genome during the subacute phase. Our results suggest that gene transduction of GFP-dnE1 could be a promising therapeutic and prophylactic approach toward EBV-associated malignancies.

  1. Primary Brain Calcification Causal PiT2 Transport-Knockout Variants can Exert Dominant Negative Effects on Wild-Type PiT2 Transport Function in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Frederik Tibert; Jensen, Nina; Autzen, Jacob Kwasi; Kongsfelt, Iben Boutrup; Pedersen, Lene

    2017-02-01

    Primary brain calcification (PBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium-phosphate deposits in the basal ganglia and often also other areas of the brain. The prevalent clinical manifestations are cognitive impairment, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and movement disorders. In recent years, monoallelic variants in SLC20A2, which encodes the type III sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporter 2 (PiT2), have been linked to the familial form of PBC in 40-50% of the families reported worldwide as well as to sporadic cases of PBC. Further insight into the disease mechanism is, however, needed. Based on co-expression studies of wild-type and variant PiT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the molecular disease mechanism associated with SLC20A2 missense variants has formerly been suggested to be haploinsufficiency. We have here used mammalian cells isolated from a Slc20a2 (-/-) mouse and co-expression of human wild-type and variant PiT2. Two of the variants studied have both been reported twice in unrelated PBC cases: PiT2D28N in two sporadic cases and PiT2E575K in a familial and a sporadic case. We find that in mammalian cells, the analyzed SLC20A2 missense variants can exert their effect in a dominant negative manner resulting in decreased wild-type PiT2 Pi transport. Thus, compared to monoallelic lack of functional PiT2 protein expression, which reasonably points towards haploinsufficiency, certain SLC20A2 missense variants may be more detrimental for cellular Pi uptake and potentially contribute to an earlier disease onset and/or a more severe phenotype as observed for Slc20a2 (-/-) mice compared to Slc20a2 (+/-) mice.

  2. Irf6 directly regulates Klf17 in zebrafish periderm and Klf4 in murine oral epithelium, and dominant-negative KLF4 variants are present in patients with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Jia, Zhonglin; Smith, Tiffany; Eshete, Mekonen; Butali, Azeez; Dunnwald, Martine; Murray, Jeffrey; Cornell, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-syndromic (NS) cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common disorder with a strong genetic underpinning. Genome-wide association studies have detected common variants associated with this disorder, but a large portion of the genetic risk for NSCL/P is conferred by unidentified rare sequence variants. Mutations in IRF6 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 6) and GRHL3 (Grainyhead-like 3) cause Van der Woude syndrome, which includes CL/P. Both genes encode members of a regulatory network governing periderm differentiation in model organisms. Here, we report that Krüppel-like factor 17 (Klf17), like Grhl3, acts downstream of Irf6 in this network in zebrafish periderm. Although Klf17 expression is absent from mammalian oral epithelium, a close homologue, Klf4, is expressed in this tissue and is required for the differentiation of epidermis. Chromosome configuration capture and reporter assays indicated that IRF6 directly regulates an oral-epithelium enhancer of KLF4. To test whether rare missense variants of KLF4 contribute risk for NSCL/P, we sequenced KLF4 in approximately 1000 NSCL/P cases and 300 controls. By one statistical test, missense variants of KLF4 as a group were enriched in cases versus controls. Moreover, two patient-derived KLF4 variants disrupted periderm differentiation upon forced expression in zebrafish embryos, suggesting that they have dominant-negative effect. These results indicate that rare NSCL/P risk variants can be found in members of the gene regulatory network governing periderm differentiation. PMID:26692521

  3. Asthma Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  4. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER) Trafficking Errors by Different Classes of Mutant DSPP Cause the Dominant Negative Effects in both Dentinogenesis Imperfecta and Dentin Dysplasia by Entrapping Normal DSPP

    PubMed Central

    von Marschall, Zofia; Mok, Seeun; Phillips, Matthew D.; McKnight, Dianalee A.; Fisher, Larry W.

    2012-01-01

    Families with nonsyndromic dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and the milder, dentin dysplasia (DD), have mutations in one allele of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene. Because loss of a single Dspp allele in mice (and likely, humans) causes no dental phenotype, the mechanism(s) underling the dominant-negative effects were investigated. DSPP mutations occur in three classes. (The first class, the mid-leader missense mutation, Y6D, was not investigated in this report.) All other 5' mutations of DSPP result in changes/loss in the first three amino acids (IPV) of mature DSPP or, for A15V, some retention of the hydrophobic leader sequence. All of this second class of mutations caused mutant DSPP to be retained in the rER of transfected HEK293 cells. Trafficking out of the rER by co-expressed normal DSPP was reduced in a dose-responsive manner, probably due to formation of Ca2+-dependent complexes with the retained mutant DSPP. IPV-like sequences begin many secreted Ca2+-binding proteins, and changing the third amino acid to the charged aspartate (D) in three other acidic proteins also caused increased rER accumulation. Both the leader-retaining A15V and the long string of hydrophobic amino acids resulting from all known frameshift mutations within the 3'-encoded Ca2+-binding repeat domain (third class of mutations) caused retention by association of the mutant proteins with rER membranes. More 5' frameshift mutations result in longer mutant hydrophobic domains but the milder phenotype, DD, probably due to lower effectiveness of the remaining, shorter Ca2+-binding domain in capturing normal DSPP protein within the rER. This study presents evidence of a shared underlying mechanism of capturing of normal DSPP by two different classes of DSPP mutations and offers an explanation for the mild (DD-II) versus severe (DGI-II & III) nonsyndromic dentin phenotypes. Evidence is also presented that many acidic, Ca2+-binding proteins may use the same IPV-like receptor

  5. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  6. Basic research championed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  7. Insulin Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Insulin Basics There are different types of insulin depending ... you may be experiencing a reaction. Types of Insulin Rapid-acting insulin , begins to work about 15 ...

  8. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  9. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  10. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  11. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  12. Simultaneous determination of banned acid orange dyes and basic orange dyes in foodstuffs by liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry via negative/positive ion switching mode.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guozhen; Wu, Yu; Dong, Xiaomeng; Liu, Cuicui; He, Shaoyuan; Wang, Shuo

    2013-04-24

    Simultaneous detection of two classes of dyes possessing different chemical properties is difficult. In this study, through negative/positive ion switching mode, simultaneous determination of four typical acid orange dyes and three typical basic orange dyes was achieved by a single high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, and the analytical efficiency of multiresidues identification was greatly improved. To enhance detection sensitivity, the sample pretreatment conditions and HPLC-MS/MS determining conditions were carefully optimized. Under optimal conditions, good linearity was obtained over the range of 5-500 μg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) >0.9998. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the seven dyes were 0.5-3.0 and 2.0-6.0 μg kg(-1), respectively. The recoveries of the seven dyes in soybean products and marinated eggs were 74-126% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.22-25.4%, suggesting the developed method is promising for the accurate quantification of the seven dyes at trace levels in foods.

  13. Gluon dominance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokoulina, Elena; Kutov, Andrey

    2017-03-01

    Study of multi-particle production has longer than the semi-centennial history. As it is known, with the growth of energy of accelerators, the new channels of reaction are being opened, the average number of secondary particles is increasing. Physicists are able to accelerate stable particles, such as electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons, ions (both light and heavy). Rarely, they accelerate kaons and pions. The obtained experimental material stimulates the development of the different theoretical approaches. Since appearance of the modern theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), our understanding of multi-particle production is advanced significantly. The language of quarks and gluons is basic one at the explanation of observable phenomena. This review is devoted to the history of appearance and the following development of the gluon dominance model. This model is based on the pQCD and the phenomenological description of the hadronization stage. It permits to describe multiplicity distributions both for lepton and hadron interactions, especially in the high multiplicity region.

  14. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  15. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  17. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  18. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson),…

  19. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  20. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  1. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  2. The Sound of Dominance: Vocal Precursors of Perceived Dominance during Interpersonal Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusing, Kyle James; Dillard, James Price

    2000-01-01

    Determines the effects of vocal cues on judgments of dominance in an interpersonal influence context. Indicates that mean amplitude and amplitude standard deviation were positively associated with dominance judgments, whereas speech rate was negatively associated with dominance judgments. Finds that mean fundamental frequency was positively…

  3. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  4. Compound heterozygosity for COL7A1 mutations in twins with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: A recessive paternal deletion/insertion mutation and a dominant negative maternal glycine substitution result in a severe phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Christiano, A.M.; Uitto, J.; Anton-Lamprecht, I.; Ebschner, U.; Amano, S.; Burgeson, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated genetic linkage between the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) and the dominant (DDEB) and recessive (RDEB) forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) and have subsequently identified pathogenetic mutations in several families. Mutations in DDEB identified thus far are glycine substitutions in the collagenous domain of COL7A1, while the most severe forms of RDEB result from premature termination codon (PTC) mutations on both alleles. In this study, we performed mutation analysis in the COL7A1 gene in twins who displayed a severe DEB phenotype. Mutational analysis revealed a paternal 2-bp deletion/1-bp insertion in exon 56, designated 5103CC{yields}G, which results in a frameshift and downstream PTC. Analysis of the maternal COL7A1 allele revealed a glycine-to-arginine substitution in exon 91 (G2351R). Careful questioning of the mother revealed that she and her father had a history of shedding of toenails and occasional poorly heating erosions, consistent with a mild form of DDEB. Immunoprecipitation of type VII collagen from fibroblasts of the twins revealed a marked reduction in intracellular protein production, consistent with the drastic reduction in mRNA transcript from the paternal mutant allele, while the majority of polypeptides bearing the glycine substitution appeared to be degraded intracellularly. Thus, the severe RDEB phenotype in the probands results from compound heterozygosity for one glycine substitution and one PTC mutation in COL7A1. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Compound heterozygosity for COL7A1 mutations in twins with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: a recessive paternal deletion/insertion mutation and a dominant negative maternal glycine substitution result in a severe phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Christiano, A. M.; Anton-Lamprecht, I.; Amano, S.; Ebschner, U.; Burgeson, R. E.; Uitto, J.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated genetic linkage between the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) and the dominant (DDEB) and recessive (RDEB) forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) and have subsequently identified pathogenetic mutations in several families. Mutations in DDEB identified thus far are glycine substitutions in the collagenous domain of COL7A1, while the most severe forms of RDEB result from premature termination codon (PTC) mutations on both alleles. In this study, we performed mutation analysis in the COL7A1 gene in twins who displayed a severe DEB phenotype. Mutational analysis revealed a paternal 2-bp deletion/1-bp insertion in exon 56, designated 5103CC-->G, which results in a frameshift and downstream PTC. Analysis of the maternal COL7A1 allele revealed a glycine-to-arginine substitution in exon 91 (G2351R). Careful questioning of the mother revealed that she and her father had a history of shedding of toenails and occasional poorly healing erosions, consistent with a mild form of DDEB. Immunoprecipitation of type VII collagen from fibroblasts of the twins revealed a marked reduction in intracellular protein production, consistent with the drastic reduction in mRNA transcript from the paternal mutant allele, while the majority of polypeptides bearing the glycine substitution appeared to be degraded intracellularly. Thus, the severe RDEB phenotype in the probands results from compound heterozygosity for one glycine substitution and one PTC mutation in COL7A1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8644730

  6. Development of a Blocking ELISA Using a Monoclonal Antibody to a Dominant Epitope in Non-Structural Protein 3A of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus, as a Matching Test for a Negative-Marker Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yuanfang; Li, Pinghua; Cao, Yimei; Wang, Na; Sun, Pu; Shi, Qian; Ji, Xincheng; Bao, Huifang; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Bai, Xingwen; Ma, Xueqing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a devastating animal disease. Strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) remain very important for controlling disease. Development of an epitope-deleted marker vaccine and accompanying diagnostic method will improve the efficiency of DIVA. Here, a monoclonal antibody (Mab) was found to recognize a conserved “AEKNPLE” epitope spanning amino acids 109–115 of non-structural protein (NSP) 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV; O/Tibet/CHA/99 strain), which could be deleted by a reverse-genetic procedure. In addition, a blocking ELISA was developed based on this Mab against NSP 3A, which could serve as a matching test for a negative-marker vaccine. The criterion of this blocking ELISA was determined by detecting panels of sera from different origins. The serum samples with a percentage inhibition (PI) equal or greater than 50% were considered to be from infected animals, and those with <50% PI were considered to be from non-infected animals. This test showed similar performance when compared with other 2 blocking ELISAs based on an anti-NSP 3B Mab. This is the first report of the DIVA test for an NSP antibody based on an Mab against the conserved and predominant “AEKNPLE” epitope in NSP 3A of FMDV. PMID:28107470

  7. Social Dominance Orientation, Dispositional Empathy, and Need for Cognitive Closure Moderate the Impact of Empathy-Skills Training, but Not Patient Contact, on Medical Students' Negative Attitudes toward Higher-Weight Patients.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Angela; Higgs, Suzanne; Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; van Ryn, Michelle; Phelan, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated. The present study explored the effect on general and patient-specific anti-fat attitudes of (1) contact with higher-weight individuals prior to and during medical school; and (2) training designed to increase medical students' empathy toward patients by encouraging them to take the patient's perspective during clinical encounters. The moderating role of individual difference factors on effectiveness of contact and student-reported hours of empathy training on patient-specific attitudes was assessed. A total of 3,576 students enrolled across 49 US medical schools completed an online survey at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their fourth year. Favorable contact experience with higher-weight patients predicted improved attitudes toward heavier patients after 4 years of medical school, and appeared sufficient to partially offset the effects of dislike of higher-weight individuals at baseline. The impact of favorable contact on general anti-fat attitudes was less strong, highlighting the importance of using target-specific outcome measures. The positive effects of favorable contact on attitudes toward higher-weight patients did not differ based on students' baseline levels of social dominance orientation, dispositional empathy, or need for cognitive closure. In contrast, the effectiveness of

  8. Social Dominance Orientation, Dispositional Empathy, and Need for Cognitive Closure Moderate the Impact of Empathy-Skills Training, but Not Patient Contact, on Medical Students' Negative Attitudes toward Higher-Weight Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Angela; Higgs, Suzanne; Burke, Sara E.; Dovidio, John F.; van Ryn, Michelle; Phelan, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated. The present study explored the effect on general and patient-specific anti-fat attitudes of (1) contact with higher-weight individuals prior to and during medical school; and (2) training designed to increase medical students' empathy toward patients by encouraging them to take the patient's perspective during clinical encounters. The moderating role of individual difference factors on effectiveness of contact and student-reported hours of empathy training on patient-specific attitudes was assessed. A total of 3,576 students enrolled across 49 US medical schools completed an online survey at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their fourth year. Favorable contact experience with higher-weight patients predicted improved attitudes toward heavier patients after 4 years of medical school, and appeared sufficient to partially offset the effects of dislike of higher-weight individuals at baseline. The impact of favorable contact on general anti-fat attitudes was less strong, highlighting the importance of using target-specific outcome measures. The positive effects of favorable contact on attitudes toward higher-weight patients did not differ based on students' baseline levels of social dominance orientation, dispositional empathy, or need for cognitive closure. In contrast, the effectiveness of

  9. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  10. Operation DOMINIC. Project Stemwinder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Sampling was accomplished by the RB - 57 aircraft. The detonations Investigated were all air bursts over water during Operation Dominic I at Christmas...limits. III. Stem Cloud Penetration» An RB - 57 aircraft was available for stem penetration missions Irae- dlately following seven of the Dominic ...OPERATION DOMINIC Project Stemwinder (WT-2060)(EX) EXTRACTED VERSION I in 0) o < i D < G. J. Ferber Atmospheric Radioactivity Research

  11. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  12. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  13. PAL Measures Language Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Sylvia

    The Primary Acquisition of Languages Oral Language Dominance Measure (PAL) developed by the El Paso Independent School District determines a child's structural proficiency in English and Spanish and measures language dominance to aid in placing pupils in bilingual programs. PAL consists of four components, including an examiner's manual containing…

  14. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-06-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies.

  15. Thai Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Samsul

    A study analyzed the structure of negative sentences in the Thai language, based on data gathered from two native speakers. It is shown that the Thai negative marker generally occurs between the noun phrase (subject) and the verb phrase in simple active sentences and in passive sentences. Negation of noun phrases is also allowed in Thai, with a…

  16. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  17. Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

    1984-01-01

    We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images PMID:6689931

  18. Right v. Left Brain Dominance and Language Skills Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clark; White, H. Allen

    1992-01-01

    Indicates that identifying a student's brain-side dominance and primary news source exposure can be a good predictor of the level of basic language skills (or skill deficiencies) of journalism students. (SR)

  19. Apical Dominance in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a tentative hypothesis for the control of plant branching (apical dominance). Explores the mechanism by which apical buds inhibit the growth of axillary buds on the same shoot. Presents an up-to-date picture of the problem and gives economic implications of the study. (BR)

  20. Communication and Cultural Domination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Herbert I.

    Communications and the flow of messages and imagery within and between nations--especially between developed and dominated states--have assumed a special significance in the years since the second World War. During this period, although more than 90 countries have achieved political independence, at least two-thirds of the world's nations have…

  1. Autosomal dominant genes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. One of the parents will have the disease (since it is dominant) in this mode of inheritance and that person is called the CARRIER. Only one parent must be a carrier in order for the child to inherit the disease.

  2. Iron dominated magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  3. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions.

  4. The molecular basis of genetic dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A O

    1994-01-01

    Studies of mutagenesis in many organisms indicate that the majority (over 90%) of mutations are recessive to wild type. If recessiveness represents the 'default' state, what are the distinguishing features that make a minority of mutations give rise to dominant or semidominant characters? This review draws on the rapid expansion in knowledge of molecular and cellular biology to classify the molecular mechanisms of dominant mutation. The categories discussed include (1) reduced gene dosage, expression, or protein activity (haploinsufficiency); (2) increased gene dosage; (3) ectopic or temporally altered mRNA expression; (4) increased or constitutive protein activity; (5) dominant negative effects; (6) altered structural proteins; (7) toxic protein alterations; and (8) new protein functions. This provides a framework for understanding the basis of dominant genetic phenomena in humans and other organisms. Images PMID:8182727

  5. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    PubMed

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  6. A MITF Mutation Associated with a Dominant White Phenotype and Bilateral Deafness in German Fleckvieh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Ute; Lupp, Bettina; Mömke, Stefanie; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Eule, Johanna Corinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Distl, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    A dominantly inherited syndrome associated with hypopigmentation, heterochromia irides, colobomatous eyes and bilateral hearing loss has been ascertained in Fleckvieh cattle (German White Fleckvieh syndrome). This syndrome has been mapped to bovine chromosome (BTA) 22 using a genome-wide association study with the bovine high density single nucleotide polymorphism array. An R210I missense mutation has been identified within microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) as responsible for this syndrome. The mutation is located in the highly conserved basic region of the protein and causes a negative-dominant effect. SOX10 and PAX3 promoter binding site mutations in MITF could be ruled out as causative for the German White Fleckvieh syndrome. Molecular characterization of this newly detected bovine syndrome means a large animal model is now available for the Tietz syndrome in humans. PMID:22174915

  7. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nash N; Mucci, Armida; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Tandon, Rajiv

    2014-04-01

    Clinical heterogeneity is a confound common to all of schizophrenia research. Deficit schizophrenia has been proposed as a homogeneous disease entity within the schizophrenia syndrome. Utilizing the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) has allowed the definition of a subgroup dominated by persistent clusters of negative symptoms. While a number of studies have appeared over the years examining the electrophysiological correlates of the cluster of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, only a few studies have actually focused on the deficit syndrome (DS). PubMed as well as MEDLINE were searched for all reports indexed for "negative symptoms" or "deficit syndrome" and one of the following electrophysiology assessment tools: electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials (EPs), or polysomnography (PSG). While this line of research is evidently in its infancy, two significant trends emerge. First, spectral EEG studies link increased slow wave activity during wakefulness to the prevalence of negative symptoms. Secondly, sleep studies point to an association between decrease in slow wave sleep and prevalence of negative symptoms. Several studies also indicate a relationship of negative symptoms with reduced alpha activity. A host of other abnormalities--including sensory gating and P300 attenuation--are less consistently reported. Two studies specifically addressed electrophysiology of the DS. Both studies provided evidence suggesting that the DS may be a separate disease entity and not simply a severe form of schizophrenia.

  8. Basic care, bodily knowledge and feminist ethics.

    PubMed

    Malmsten, K

    2000-01-01

    Within medical schools and within research concerning the ethical questions of health care, basic care and its allied participants have not been stressed enough. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the practice of basic care and some moral problems in connection to this practice. Basic care is the care-provider's providing assistance for patients with bodily dysfunction. The relationships between patient and care-provider in basic care have many substantial similarities with other close social relationships. Thus, the interactive relationships in basic care are an important matter of public concern. Seen from an ethical perspective, its significance due to the welfare-aspects of society is obvious. Patients and professionals in basic care have together a unique knowledge about the meaning of being. Ethics is much more than following theories, rules, and principles and this article presents an alternative to the dominant approaches of health care ethics.

  9. Counterspace Operations for Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    INTERNET DOCUMENT INFORMATION FORM A. Report Title: Counterspace perations for Information Dominance B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet 3/10...Representative for resolution. Counterspace perations for Information Dominance by James G. Lee INTRODUCTION The Problem The launch of the Soviet...information gap between friendly and enemy forces. This positive information gap has been referred to as information dominance . Information Dominance The

  10. Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

    This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

  11. Negative Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  12. Negative Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  13. Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  14. Dominant modal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  15. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  16. On the Dominance of Attitude Emotionality.

    PubMed

    Rocklage, Matthew D; Fazio, Russell H

    2016-02-01

    Many situations in our lives require us to make relatively quick decisions as whether to approach or avoid a person or object, buy or pass on a product, or accept or reject an offer. These decisions are particularly difficult when there are both positive and negative aspects to the object. How do people go about navigating this conflict to come to a summary judgment? Using the Evaluative Lexicon (EL), we demonstrate across three studies, 7,700 attitude expressions, and nearly 50 different attitude objects that when positivity and negativity conflict, the valence that is based more on emotion is more likely to dominate. Furthermore, individuals are also more consistent in the expression of their univalent summary judgments when they involve greater emotionality. In sum, valence that is based on emotion tends to dominate when resolving ambivalence and also helps individuals to remain consistent when offering quick judgments.

  17. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  18. Floating plant dominance as a stable state

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Marten; Szabó, Sándor; Gragnani, Alessandra; van Nes, Egbert H.; Rinaldi, Sergio; Kautsky, Nils; Norberg, Jon; Roijackers, Rudi M. M.; Franken, Rob J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Invasion by mats of free-floating plants is among the most important threats to the functioning and biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems ranging from temperate ponds and ditches to tropical lakes. Dark, anoxic conditions under thick floating-plant cover leave little opportunity for animal or plant life, and they can have large negative impacts on fisheries and navigation in tropical lakes. Here, we demonstrate that floating-plant dominance can be a self-stabilizing ecosystem state, which may explain its notorious persistence in many situations. Our results, based on experiments, field data, and models, represent evidence for alternative domains of attraction in ecosystems. An implication of our findings is that nutrient enrichment reduces the resilience of freshwater systems against a shift to floating-plant dominance. On the other hand, our results also suggest that a single drastic harvest of floating plants can induce a permanent shift to an alternative state dominated by rooted, submerged growth forms. PMID:12634429

  19. BASIC Tools: Structured Programming Techniques in BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    Structured programing is an attempt to formalize the logic and structure of computer programs. Examples of structured programing techniques in BASIC are provided. Two major disadvantages of this style of programing for the personal user are noted. (JN)

  20. Adjective Metaphors Evoke Negative Meanings

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities. PMID:24586480

  1. Basics of cytology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.

    2011-01-01

    This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material. PMID:23210005

  2. PASCAL vs BASIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundie, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

  3. Health Insurance Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics A ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  4. PASCAL vs BASIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundie, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

  5. Health Insurance Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  6. The Relationships Between Cerebral Dominance and Different Mental Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Carl; Bartek, Elmer

    Using a sample of 77 10th grade boys, the researchers studied the relationships between the mental abilities measured by the Differential Aptitude Tests and cerebral dominance (CD: the extent to which one hemisphere of the brain dominates the other for control of behavior). The surprise finding was that CD was negatively related to spatial…

  7. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  8. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  9. Bilingual Adult Basic Education Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Janet Roth

    The Bilingual Adult Basic Education Project provided bilingual life skills instruction, counseling, and informational services to approximately 150 non-English-dominant adults across Pennsylvania by means of contracts to local education agencies. Students were pre- and post-tested in English and/or their native language to measure their growth in…

  10. Dominant optic atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3) encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8) are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7) are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of bilateral, mild

  11. The Tsc/Rheb signaling pathway controls basic amino acid uptake via the Cat1 permease in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

    2008-05-01

    The Tsc/Rheb signaling pathway plays critical roles in the control of growth and cell cycle. Studies in fission yeast have also implicated its importance in the regulation of amino acid uptake. Disruption of tsc2+, one of the tsc+ genes, has been shown to result in decreased arginine uptake and resistance to canavanine. A similar effect is also seen with other basic amino acids. We have identified a permease responsible for the uptake of basic amino acids by genetic complementation and disruption. SPAC869.11 (termed Cat1 for cationic amino acid transporter) contains 12 predicted transmembrane domains and its overexpression in wild type fission yeast leads to the increased uptake of basic amino acids and sensitivity to canavanine. Disruption of cat1+ in the deltatsc2 background interfered with the suppression of the canavanine-resistant phenotype of Atsc2 mutants by a dominant negative Rheb. In deltatsc2 mutant strains, the amount of Cat1 was not altered, but instead was mislocalized. This mislocalization was suppressed by the expression of dominant negative Rheb. In addition, we found that the loss of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Pub1, also restores proper localization. These results provide a crucial link between Tsc/Rheb signaling and the regulation of the basic amino acid permease in fission yeast.

  12. [Validity of assessment of schizophrenic basic symptoms].

    PubMed

    Mass, R; Hitschfeld, K; Wall, E; Wagner, H B

    1997-03-01

    A study on the concept and measurement of the basic disorders of schizophrenia is presented. A total of 151 male adult psychiatric inpatients (51 with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and alcoholism, 50 schizophrenics and 50 alcoholics) were included. The aims of this study were: (1) the replication of the previous finding that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FBF) contains items that discriminate between schizophrenia and alcoholism; (2) an empirical comparison between FBF and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS); (3) testing the relationship between basic and negative versus positive symptoms, as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Regarding (1), the former result was replicated. Regarding (2), FBF subscales and BSABS categories were shown to be significantly but weakly related, even if identical symptoms were included in the inquiry. Regarding (3), FBF and BSABS were found to be more closely related to negative than to positive PANSS items. Theoretical implications and consequences for further research are discussed.

  13. Finger Enslaving in the Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Luke A.; Martin, Joel R.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands. PMID:24360253

  14. Finger enslaving in the dominant and non-dominant hand.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Luke A; Martin, Joel R; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2014-02-01

    During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  16. "Back to Basics" or "Forward to Basics"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perso, Thelma

    2007-01-01

    Politicians have used the promise of "back to basics in our schools" as an educational platform for some time now, possibly in recognition that this is something the general population perceives as an issue they might just vote for. In the various positions the author has held, both professional and in community service, she has been…

  17. The Basic and Semi-Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitler, Gail

    1978-01-01

    Presented is a paradigm for teaching basic and semibasic arithmetic facts to children with arithmetic difficulties, in which the student progresses from the use of concrete materials such as blocks, to the use of diagrams such as tally marks, to a reasoning process, to responding in an automatic manner. (DLS)

  18. In resting COS1 cells a dominant negative approach shows that specific, anchored PDE4 cAMP phosphodiesterase isoforms gate the activation, by basal cyclic AMP production, of AKAP-tethered protein kinase A type II located in the centrosomal region.

    PubMed

    McCahill, Angela; McSorley, Theresa; Huston, Elaine; Hill, Elaine V; Lynch, Martin J; Gall, Irene; Keryer, Guy; Lygren, Birgitte; Tasken, Kjetil; van Heeke, Gino; Houslay, Miles D

    2005-09-01

    We employ a novel, dominant negative approach to identify a key role for certain tethered cyclic AMP specific phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) isoforms in regulating cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) sub-populations in resting COS1 cells. A fraction of PKA is clearly active in resting COS1 cells and this activity increases when cells are treated with the selective PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram. Point mutation of a critical, conserved aspartate residue in the catalytic site of long PDE4A4, PDE4B1, PDE4C2 and PDE4D3 isoforms renders them catalytically inactive. Overexpressed in resting COS1 cells, catalytically inactive forms of PDE4C2 and PDE4D3, but not PDE4A4 and PDE4B1, are constitutively PKA phosphorylated while overexpressed active versions of all these isoforms are not. Inactive and active versions of all these isoforms are PKA phosphorylated in cells where protein kinase A is maximally activated with forskolin and IBMX. By contrast, rolipram challenge of COS1 cells selectively triggers the PKA phosphorylation of recombinant, active PDE4D3 and PDE4C2 but not recombinant, active PDE4A4 and PDE4B1. Purified, recombinant PDE4D3 and PDE4A4 show a similar dose-dependency for in vitro phosphorylation by PKA. Disruption of the tethering of PKA type-II to PKA anchor proteins (AKAPs), achieved using the peptide Ht31, prevents inactive forms of PDE4C2 and PDE4D3 being constitutively PKA phosphorylated in resting cells as does siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKA-RII, but not PKA-RI. PDE4C2 and PDE4D3 co-immunoprecipitate from COS1 cell lysates with 250 kDa and 450 kDa AKAPs that tether PKA type-II and not PKA type-I. PKA type-II co-localises with AKAP450 in the centrosomal region of COS1 cells. The perinuclear distribution of recombinant, inactive PDE4D3, but not inactive PDE4A4, overlaps with AKAP450 and PKA type-II. The distribution of PKA phosphorylated inactive PDE4D3 also overlaps with that of AKAP450 in the centrosomal region of COS1 cells. We propose that a novel role

  19. An Integrin Binding-defective Mutant of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (R36E/R37E IGF1) Acts as a Dominant-negative Antagonist of the IGF1 Receptor (IGF1R) and Suppresses Tumorigenesis but Still Binds to IGF1R*

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Masaaki; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Cedano-Prieto, Dora M.; Fong, Andrew; Wilkerson, Charles; Chen, Jane Q.; Wu, Mac; Lo, Su-Hao; Cheung, Anthony T. W.; Wilson, Machelle D.; Cardiff, Robert D.; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Takada, Yoko K.; Takada, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a major therapeutic target for cancer. We recently reported that IGF1 directly binds to integrins (αvβ3 and α6β4) and induces ternary complex formation (integrin-IGF1-IGF1 receptor (IGF1R)) and that the integrin binding-defective mutant of IGF1 (R36E/R37E) is defective in signaling and ternary complex formation. These findings predict that R36E/R37E competes with WT IGF1 for binding to IGF1R and inhibits IGF signaling. Here, we described that excess R36E/R37E suppressed cell viability increased by WT IGF1 in vitro in non-transformed cells. We studied the effect of R36E/R37E on viability and tumorigenesis in cancer cell lines. We did not detect an effect of WT IGF1 or R36E/R37E in cancer cells under anchorage-dependent conditions. However, under anchorage-independent conditions, WT IGF1 enhanced cell viability and induced signals, whereas R36E/R37E did not. Notably, excess R36E/R37E suppressed cell viability and signaling induced by WT IGF1 under anchorage-independent conditions. Using cancer cells stably expressing WT IGF1 or R36E/R37E, we determined that R36E/R37E suppressed tumorigenesis in vivo, whereas WT IGF1 markedly enhanced it. R36E/R37E suppressed the binding of WT IGF1 to the cell surface and the subsequent ternary complex formation induced by WT IGF1. R36E/R37E suppressed activation of IGF1R by insulin. WT IGF1, but not R36E/R37E, induced ternary complex formation with the IGF1R/insulin receptor hybrid. These findings suggest that 1) IGF1 induces signals under anchorage-independent conditions and that 2) R36E/R37E acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of IGF1R (IGF1 decoy). Our results are consistent with a model in which ternary complex formation is critical for IGF signaling. PMID:23696648

  20. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  1. Developing and Fielding Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Developing and Fielding Information Dominance Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command’s IT-21 Blocks 1 and 2 2002 Command and Control Research and...00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing and Fielding Information Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...force levels were uncertain, the necessary role of information dominance to maintaining strategic superiority was not. Platform Centric Warfare, with its

  2. Dominantly-inherited lop ears.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander K C; Kong, Albert Y F; Robson, W Lane M; McLeod, D Ross

    2007-10-01

    We describe a four-generation Chinese family that included five members who had an isolated bilateral lop ear anomaly. The presentation suggested a dominant mode of inheritance. The absence of male-to-male transmission does not exclude an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance. Since the phenotypic anomaly of the male proband was no more severe than the affected female members, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is most likely. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  3. Climate Change: Basic Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Climate Change Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change is ...

  4. Romanian Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The "Romanian Basic Course," consisting of 89 lesson units in eight volumes, is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing Romanian (based on a 1-5 scale in which Level 5 is native speaker proficiency). Volume 1, which introduces basic sentences in dialog form with…

  5. BASIC Beats PASCAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ever, Jacob

    1981-01-01

    Features of two versions of the BASIC programing language are compared with the features of the PASCAL programing language. The application chosen for comparison was a word processor. The conclusion was that PASCAL had the best language features, but BASIC had better systems capabilities. (MP)

  6. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  7. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  8. TOOLS AND BASIC MACHINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.

    THIS BASIC READER IS A PART OF AN EXPERIMENTAL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT DESCRIBED IN VT 004 454, TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE SPECIAL NEW TRAINING MATERIALS TO TEACH BASIC VOCATIONAL TALENT SKILLS TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WHICH WERE TESTED ON APPROXIMATELY 2,500 EIGHTH AND NINTH GRADERS IN EIGHT SCHOOL SYSTEMS ACROSS THE NATION. THIS READER WAS…

  9. Basic Electronics I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  10. Construction & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Basic skills education has become a pressing need in the construction industry as jobs become more complex and fewer workers have needed skills. However, the construction industry lags in spending on training for entry-level workers. The Home Builders Institute (HBI) is testing a pilot basic skills program that it hopes will prove useful to the…

  11. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  12. Exponentiation: A New Basic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the basic operations of school mathematics have been identified as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Notably, these operations are "basic," not because they are foundational to mathematics knowledge, but because they were vital to a newly industrialized and market-driven economy several hundred years…

  13. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  14. Exponentiation: A New Basic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the basic operations of school mathematics have been identified as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Notably, these operations are "basic," not because they are foundational to mathematics knowledge, but because they were vital to a newly industrialized and market-driven economy several hundred years…

  15. Dominance Hierarchies in Leptothorax Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Blaine J.

    1981-04-01

    The social organization of Leptothorax allardycei is unique among ant species thus far studied. The workers form linear dominance hierarchies characterized by routine displays of dominance, avoidance behavior, and even fighting. The high-ranking ants are favored in liquid food exchange, have greater ovarian development, and produce 20 percent of the eggs.

  16. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  17. Brain Dominance & Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhoft, Franklin O.

    Numerous areas associated with brain dominance have been researched since Bogen and Sperry's work with split-brain patients in the 1960s, but only slight attention has been given to the connection between brain dominance and personality. No study appears in the literature seeking to understand optimal mental health as defined by Maslow's…

  18. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  19. Exotic plants as ecosystem dominants

    Treesearch

    Julie S. Denslow; R. Flint Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Dominant species have long been appreciated for their role in determining ecosystem attributes such as vegetation structure, successional patterns, soil characteristics, hydrology, and productivity. Exotic species may reach such high densities that they become community dominants, and it is in this role that exotics pose the greatest threat to native ecosystems. Four...

  20. Brain Dominance & Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhoft, Franklin O.

    Numerous areas associated with brain dominance have been researched since Bogen and Sperry's work with split-brain patients in the 1960s, but only slight attention has been given to the connection between brain dominance and personality. No study appears in the literature seeking to understand optimal mental health as defined by Maslow's…

  1. Non-syndromic autosomal-dominant deafness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M B

    2002-07-01

    Non-syndromic deafness is a paradigm of genetic heterogeneity. More than 70 loci have been mapped, and 25 of the nuclear genes responsible for non-syndromic deafness have been identified. Autosomal-dominant genes are responsible for about 20% of the cases of hereditary non-syndromic deafness, with 16 different genes identified to date. In the present article we review these 16 genes, their function and their contribution to deafness in different populations. The complexity is underlined by the fact that several of the genes are involved in both dominant and recessive non-syndromic deafness or in both non-syndromic and syndromic deafness. Mutations in eight of the genes have so far been detected in only single dominant deafness families, and their contribution to deafness on a population base might therefore be limited, or is currently unknown. Identification of all genes involved in hereditary hearing loss will help in the understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying normal hearing, will facilitate early diagnosis and intervention and might offer opportunities for rational therapy.

  2. BASIC: Updating a Familiar Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyman, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses reasons for learning to program in BASIC, various versions of BASIC, BASIC compilers, and adherence to proposed standards. Brief reviews of six BASIC software packages are included. (12 references) (MES)

  3. Measuring Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency Development of Tarahumara Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper examines the language dominance and oral bilingual proficiency of Tarahumara-Spanish speaking students from Chihuahua, Mexico, within the framework of Cummins' model of bilingual proficiency development. Cummins' model distinguishes between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency…

  4. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  5. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  6. Plasma neutralizers for H negative or D negative beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkner, K. H.; Pyle, R. V.; Savas, S. E.; Stalder, K. R.

    1980-10-01

    Plasma neutralizers can produce higher conversion efficiencies than are obtainable with gas neutralizers for the production of high-energy neutral beams from negative hydrogen ions. Little attention has been paid to experimental neutralizer studies because of the more critical problems connected with the development of negative-ion sources. With the prospect of accelerating ampere dc beams from extrapolatable ion sources some time next year, plasma neutralizers are being re-examined. Some basic considerations, two introductory experiments, and a next-step experiment are described.

  7. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  8. Opioid Basics: Fentanyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Understanding the Epidemic Overdose Prevention Prescription Opioids Heroin Fentanyl Data Opioid Data Analysis Drug Overdose Death Data Prescribing Data Prescription Opioid Overdose Data Heroin Overdose Data Synthetic Opioid Data Fentanyl Encounters Data ...

  9. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  10. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  11. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smallpox Website NIH Smallpox Research CDC Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Poxvirus Diseases Vaccine Basics Recommend on Facebook ... Smallpox Website NIH Smallpox Research CDC Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Poxvirus Diseases File Formats Help: How do ...

  12. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Do you ever feel sleepy or "zone out" ... The Future Tips for a Good Night's Sleep Sleep: A Dynamic Activity Until the 1950s, most people ...

  13. The Basics of Braces

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide to Getting Involved Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media The Basics of Braces KidsHealth > ... child's teeth by pressing a tray of gooey material into the top and bottom teeth. When the ...

  14. Health Literacy Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. 1 Health literacy is dependent on individual and ...

  15. Basics of Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy and nutrients. The basic required nutrients are water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide energy in the form of calories. Alcohol (beer, wine, ...

  16. Basics of Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy and nutrients. The basic required nutrients are water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide energy in the form of calories. Alcohol (beer, wine, ...

  17. Getting back to basics.

    PubMed

    Maricich, Stephen M; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2006-07-14

    Advances in understanding basic developmental and physiological processes often have direct relevance to human disease. They provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms and reveal new pathways that can be exploited in diagnosis and the development of therapeutics.

  18. Scope and Basic Principles of Insect Pathology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects are the dominant animals in the world with more than one million described species. The vast majority of insects are innocuous or beneficial to humans, but a small percentage are pests that require a significant amount of our time, effort and funds to reduce their negative effects on food pr...

  19. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  20. Are there basic emotions?

    PubMed

    Ekman, P

    1992-07-01

    Ortony and Turner's (1990) arguments against those who adopt the view that there are basic emotions are challenged. The evidence on universals in expression and in physiology strongly suggests that there is a biological basis to the emotions that have been studied. Ortony and Turner's reviews of this literature are faulted, and their alternative theoretical explanations do not fit the evidence. The utility of the basic emotions approach is also shown in terms of the research it has generated.

  1. Neural mechanisms of social dominance

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Noriya; Yamamoto, Miyuki

    2015-01-01

    In a group setting, individuals' perceptions of their own level of dominance or of the dominance level of others, and the ability to adequately control their behavior based on these perceptions are crucial for living within a social environment. Recent advances in neural imaging and molecular technology have enabled researchers to investigate the neural substrates that support the perception of social dominance and the formation of a social hierarchy in humans. At the systems' level, recent studies showed that dominance perception is represented in broad brain regions which include the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and various cortical networks such as the prefrontal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, neurotransmitter systems such as the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, modulate and are modulated by the formation of the social hierarchy in a group. While these monoamine systems have a wide distribution and multiple functions, it was recently found that the Neuropeptide B/W contributes to the perception of dominance and is present in neurons that have a limited projection primarily to the amygdala. The present review discusses the specific roles of these neural regions and neurotransmitter systems in the perception of dominance and in hierarchy formation. PMID:26136644

  2. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  3. Techniques for the detection of photodesorbed negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.E.; Schweitzer, E.L.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Hurych, Z.; Soukiassian, P.; Bakshi, M.H.; Bommannavar, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the direct observation of H/sup -/ ions released from a Cs-dosed W(100) crystal by photon-stimulated desorption (PSD). This study utilized the 3m toroidal grating monochromator beamline at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Synchrotron Radiation Center. The main technical problem to be overcome in such experiments is the large background from photoemitted electrons which dominate the weak anion signal by many orders of magnitude. The solution ultimately employed utilized both magnetic suppression of photoelectrons and time-of-flight (TOF) mass separation. No internal modifications to the basic cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA) were required. We are not aware of any previous reports of the detection of negative ions released from surfaces via photon bombardment, with the exception of high flux laser experiments, in which plasma formation is involved in the ionization process. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Heterogeneous basic catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Hideshi

    1995-05-01

    Heterogeneous acid catalysis attracted much attention primarily because heterogeneous acidic catalysts act as catalysts in petroleum refinery and are known as a main catalyst in the cracking process which is the largest process among the industrial chemical processes. In contrast to these extensive studies of heterogeneous acidic catalysts, fewer efforts have been given to the study of heterogeneous basic catalysts. The types of heterogeneous basic catalysts are listed in Table 1. Except for non-oxide catalysts, the basic sites are believed to be surface O atoms. The studies of heterogeneous catalysis have been continuous and progressed steadily. They have never been reviewed in the chemical Reviews before. It is more useful and informative to describe the studies of heterogeneous basic catalysis performed for a long period. In the present article, therefore, the cited papers are not restricted to those published recently, but include those published for the last 25 years. The paper first describes the generation of basic sites before describing methods used in the characterization of basic surfaces. These are indicator methods, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}, UV absorption and luminescence spectroscopies, TPD of H{sub 2}, XPS, IR of CO{sub 2}, IR of pyrrole, and oxygen exchange between CO{sub 2} and the surface. The paper then discusses studies on the catalysis by heterogeneous basic catalysts. Some of these reactions are dehydration, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, amination, alkylation, ring transformation, and reactions of organosilanes. Catalysts discussed are single component metal oxides, zeolites, non-oxide types, and superbasic catalysts. 141 refs.

  5. Sighting versus sensory ocular dominance

    PubMed Central

    Pointer, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose An indication of the laterality of ocular dominance (OD) informs the clinical decision making process when considering certain ophthalmic refractive and surgical interventions. Can predictive reliance be assured regardless of OD technique or is the indication of a dominant eye method-dependent? Methods Two alternative OD test formats were administered to a group of 72 emmetropic healthy young adult subjects: the ‘hole-in-card’ test for sighting dominance and the ‘+1.50D blur’ test for sensory dominance. Both techniques were chosen as being likely familiar to the majority of ophthalmic clinicians; to promote and expedite application during the examination routine neither test required specialist training nor equipment. Results Right eye dominance was indicated in 71% of cases by the sighting test but in only 54% of subjects using the sensory test. The laterality of OD indicated for the individual subject by each technique was in agreement on only 50% of occasions. Conclusions Reasons are considered for the poor intra-individual agreement between OD tests, along with an item of procedural advice for the clinician.

  6. Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  7. Gravity-induced vacuum dominance.

    PubMed

    Lima, William C C; Vanzella, Daniel A T

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  8. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  9. Patterns of growth dominance in thinned yellow-poplar stands in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Tara L. Keyser

    2012-01-01

    Growth dominance provides a quantitative description of the relative contribution of individual trees to stand growth. Positive dominance occurs when the largest individuals account for a greater proportion of growth period increment than total biomass. Conversely, negative dominance occurs when the smallest trees account for a greater proportion of the growth period...

  10. Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance.

    PubMed

    Neave, Nick; Laing, Sarah; Fink, Bernhard; Manning, John T

    2003-10-22

    Previous studies have shown that male faces with extreme features associated with testosterone are perceived as dominant and masculine. Women have been reported to prefer more masculinized male faces as they may consider testosterone markers to be an 'honest' indication of good health, and such considerations may underlie their aesthetic preferences. However, pronounced testosterone facial markers are also associated with dominance, and several negative personality traits. This suggests that female aesthetic preferences may be an adaptive compromise between positive attributes associated with higher than average testosterone, and negative attributes associated with more extreme masculinization. This current study attempts to clarify the role of hormone markers in female perceptions of dominance, masculinity and attractiveness, in male facial images. Recent evidence suggests that the relative length of the 2nd to 4th finger (2D : 4D ratio) is a pointer to prenatal testosterone levels and may thus serve as a window to the prenatal hormonal environment. We measured 2D : 4D in a sample of male college students and took salivary samples to analyse circulating levels of testosterone. Women rated facial images of these males for dominance, masculinity and attractiveness. Our results show that male 2D : 4D was significantly negatively related to perceived dominance and masculinity but not attractiveness. Circulating testosterone levels were not related to dominance, masculinity or attractiveness. These findings suggest that: (i) high prenatal levels of testosterone serve to 'organize' male facial features to subsequently reflect dominance and masculine characteristics presumably activated during puberty; and (ii) attractiveness is not directly related to testosterone levels. We conclude that facial dominance and masculinity reflect a male's perceived status rather than his physical attraction to women.

  11. Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Neave, Nick; Laing, Sarah; Fink, Bernhard; Manning, John T

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that male faces with extreme features associated with testosterone are perceived as dominant and masculine. Women have been reported to prefer more masculinized male faces as they may consider testosterone markers to be an 'honest' indication of good health, and such considerations may underlie their aesthetic preferences. However, pronounced testosterone facial markers are also associated with dominance, and several negative personality traits. This suggests that female aesthetic preferences may be an adaptive compromise between positive attributes associated with higher than average testosterone, and negative attributes associated with more extreme masculinization. This current study attempts to clarify the role of hormone markers in female perceptions of dominance, masculinity and attractiveness, in male facial images. Recent evidence suggests that the relative length of the 2nd to 4th finger (2D : 4D ratio) is a pointer to prenatal testosterone levels and may thus serve as a window to the prenatal hormonal environment. We measured 2D : 4D in a sample of male college students and took salivary samples to analyse circulating levels of testosterone. Women rated facial images of these males for dominance, masculinity and attractiveness. Our results show that male 2D : 4D was significantly negatively related to perceived dominance and masculinity but not attractiveness. Circulating testosterone levels were not related to dominance, masculinity or attractiveness. These findings suggest that: (i) high prenatal levels of testosterone serve to 'organize' male facial features to subsequently reflect dominance and masculine characteristics presumably activated during puberty; and (ii) attractiveness is not directly related to testosterone levels. We conclude that facial dominance and masculinity reflect a male's perceived status rather than his physical attraction to women. PMID:14561281

  12. Basic Writing: Progressive Proofreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette C.

    Writing problems in the basic college freshman writing course result from the students' misconception that once they get the required number of words down on paper their compositions are unalterable, and teachers' misconception that serving as an editor, correcting errors and rewriting sentences, is an effective teaching tool. Students'…

  13. Basic Internet Software Toolkit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Once schools are connected to the Internet, the next step is getting network workstations configured for Internet access. This article describes a basic toolkit comprising software currently available on the Internet for free or modest cost. Lists URLs for Web browser, Telnet, FTP, file decompression, portable document format (PDF) reader,…

  14. Focus on Basics, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the four 1998 quarterly issues of this newsletter that present best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and information on how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policy makers. The following are among the major articles included: "Power,…

  15. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  16. Swahili Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic audiolingual course in standard Swahili appears in six volumes, Lesson Units 1-56. Units consist of a "blueprint" prefatory page outlining the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structures and new vocabulary to be presented; perception drills; Swahili dialog with cartoon guides and English translation; pattern and recombination…

  17. Basic Electronics II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willison, Neal A.; Shelton, James K.

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of 15 units of instruction. Unit titles are Review of the Nature of Matter and the P-N Junction, Rectifiers, Filters, Special Semiconductor Diodes, Bipolar-Junction Diodes, Bipolar Transistor Circuits, Transistor Amplifiers, Operational Amplifiers, Logic Devices,…

  18. Reading for Basic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document offers materials for a year-long course on general basic reading skills that was part of a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey), and its partners. The document contains the following: (1) outlines (each of which contains objectives, a topical outline, and list of textbooks) for two…

  19. Hindi Basic Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, J. Martin; And Others

    This reader is intended to accompany the Basic Course in Spoken Hindi. Following an outline of the Devanagari script, 20 lessons are presented. Each consists of a reading selection, several illustrative sentences in English and Hindi, and a series of questions. Most of the reading selections were adapted from the magazine "Bal-Bharati."…

  20. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  1. Basics of Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.; Cochrane, Pauline (Atherton)

    Intended to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching to those with little or no prior experience, this textbook explains the basic elements of online information retrieval and compares the major database search systems. Its chapters address (1) relevant definitions and vocabulary; (2) the conceptual facets of database searching,…

  2. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  3. Basic Blueprint Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deieso, Angie; Meier, Jean

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a basic course in blueprint reading. The course provides a review of mathematics, information about using measuring tools to read blueprints, an explanation of the principles of blueprint drawing, and instructions on interpreting blueprint specifications. Introductory…

  4. Basic Math I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document offers instructional materials for a 60-hour course on basic math operations involving decimals, fractions, and proportions as applied in the workplace. The course, part of a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, contains the following: course outline; 17 lesson…

  5. Basic Structure Content Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; Helmes, Edward

    1979-01-01

    A basic structure approach is proposed for obtaining multidimensional scale values for attitude, achievement, or personality items from response data. The technique permits the unconfounding of scale values due to response bias and content and partitions item indices of popularity or difficulty among a number of relevant dimensions. (Author/BH)

  6. Internet Training: The Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This paper outlines the basic information teachers need to know to use the World Wide Web for research and communication, using Netscape 3.04. Topics covered include the following: what is the World Wide Web?; what is a browser?; accessing the Web; moving around a web document; the Uniform Resource Locator (URL); Bookmarks; saving and printing a…

  7. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  8. Basic Publication Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savedge, Charles E., Ed.

    Designed for students who produce newspapers and newsmagazines in junior high, middle, and elementary schools, this booklet is both a scorebook and a fundamentals text. The scorebook provides realistic criteria for judging publication excellence at these educational levels. All the basics for good publications are included in the text of the…

  9. Basic Structure of Swahili.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, James L.

    This text in basic Swahili structure was originally written in East Africa as a teacher's guide and student's reference and was used as a basis for a course taught largely orally (with the teacher using drills he had prepared himself). The author suggests that although it is not a "linguist's book," it should prove useful to those who are teaching…

  10. Computer Programming: BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Patience; And Others

    This guide was prepared to help teachers of the Lincoln Public School's introductory computer programming course in BASIC to make the necessary adjustments for changes made in the course since the purchase of microcomputers and such peripheral devices as television monitors and disk drives, and the addition of graphics. Intended to teach a…

  11. Back to Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, James M.

    1979-01-01

    The back-to-basics movement alone cannot solve many of our pressing educational difficulties. Absenteeism and discipline problems point out the need for schooling that fosters human relationships and individual interests. This speech was presented at the American Association of School Administrators Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 16,…

  12. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  13. Basic Soils. Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  14. Developing Basic Electronics Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeshore Technical Coll., Cleveland, WI.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for basic training in electrical and electronic theory to enable participants to analyze circuits and use test equipment to verify electrical operations and to succeed in the beginning electrical and electronic courses in the Lakeshore Technical College (Wisconsin) electronics programs. The course includes…

  15. Basic Experiments in Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, S. G.

    Presented is a set of laboratory experiments developed to provide students with demonstrations and hands-on experiences with a variety of basic communications methods. These experiments may be used with students who have training in engineering, as well as those with social sciences who have no engineering background. Detailed exercises dealing…

  16. Reflections on basic science.

    PubMed

    Piatigorsky, Joram

    2010-01-01

    After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research-free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts-and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I never would have considered if I were conducting translational research. My investigations ranged from jellyfish to mice and resulted in the gene-sharing concept, which showed that the same protein can have distinct molecular functions depending upon its expression pattern and, conversely, that different proteins can serve similar functional roles. This essay portrays basic science as a creative narrative, comparable to literary and artistic endeavors. Preserving the autonomy of open-ended basic research and recognizing its artistic, narrative qualities will accelerate the development of innovative concepts, create a rich resource of information feeding translational research, and have a positive impact by attracting creative individuals to science.

  17. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  18. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  19. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  20. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  1. Networks: The Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomarcan, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the information superhighway (the Internet), and presents a guide to navigating it. Offers basic instruction on obtaining and learning to use network accounts; locating addresses using Archie and Wide Area Information Server; retrieving information using file transfer protocol; utilizing Gopher to find and retrieve; browsing the World…

  2. Baby Bath Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel more comfortable at bath time. Start by learning baby bath basics. There's no need to give your newborn a bath every day. Three times a week might be enough until your baby becomes more mobile. Bathing your baby too much can dry out ...

  3. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  4. Projectable Basic Electronics Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H'ng, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages derived from constructing and using a Projectable Basic Electronics Kit and provides: (1) list of components; (2) diagrams of 10 finished components (resistor; capacitor; diode; switch; bulb; transistor; meter; variable capacitor; coil; connecting terminal); and (3) diode and transistor activities. (JN)

  5. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  6. Basic confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn L

    2011-07-01

    This unit introduces the reader to the basic principles of confocal microscopy and the design and capabilities of current confocal microscopes. The advantages and disadvantages of confocal microscopy compared to other techniques for fluorescence imaging are described. There are also practical guidelines for sample preparation and optimization of imaging parameters, as well as examples of some of the applications of confocal microscopy.

  7. Czech Basic Course: Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed for use in the advanced phase of the Defense Language Institute's "Basic Course" in Czech. It is used in the advanced phase as a part of cultural background information. Reading selections, with vocabulary lists, include: (1) ethnography; (2) incantations and spells; (3) proverbs, sayings, and weather lore; (4) fairy tales…

  8. Adult Basic Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

  9. Turkish Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 14 volumes of the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Turkish consist of 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing Turkish. (Native-speaker fluency is Level 5.) An introduction to the sound system, vowel harmony, and syllable division…

  10. Swahili Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic audiolingual course in standard Swahili appears in six volumes, Lesson Units 1-56. Units consist of a "blueprint" prefatory page outlining the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structures and new vocabulary to be presented; perception drills; Swahili dialog with cartoon guides and English translation; pattern and recombination…

  11. Basic Media in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, John

    Intended as a guide to the use of different media for use in the classroom, this document demonstrates alternative approaches that may be taken to depicting and communicating images and concepts to others. Some basic tools and materials--including a ruler, matte knife, rubber cement, stapler, felt-tip pens, paint brushes, and lettering pens--are…

  12. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  13. Basic Skills Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Alexander C.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    After surveying 1,827 students in their final year at eighty randomly selected two-year and four-year public and private institutions, American Institutes for Research (2006) reported that approximately 30 percent of students in two-year institutions and nearly 20 percent of students in four-year institutions have only basic quantitative…

  14. Basic Writing: Progressive Proofreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette C.

    Writing problems in the basic college freshman writing course result from the students' misconception that once they get the required number of words down on paper their compositions are unalterable, and teachers' misconception that serving as an editor, correcting errors and rewriting sentences, is an effective teaching tool. Students'…

  15. Sara Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, James E.; Maraby, Julien

    The basic plan of this course in Sara is modeled after "An Experimental Course in Hausa" (FSI 1965). The course uses short cycles consisting of mimicry followed by conversations built on the same vocabulary and syntactic pattern. The format has been condensed and altered. The course contains 95 cycles and would require approximately 50 hours to…

  16. Projectable Basic Electronics Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H'ng, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages derived from constructing and using a Projectable Basic Electronics Kit and provides: (1) list of components; (2) diagrams of 10 finished components (resistor; capacitor; diode; switch; bulb; transistor; meter; variable capacitor; coil; connecting terminal); and (3) diode and transistor activities. (JN)

  17. Basic Drafting: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The first of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 13 topics in the following units: introduction to drafting, general safety, basic tools and lines, major equipment, applying for a job, media, lettering, reproduction, drawing sheet layout, architect's scale usage, civil engineer's scale usage, mechanical engineer's scale usage,…

  18. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  19. Turkish Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 14 volumes of the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Turkish consist of 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing Turkish. (Native-speaker fluency is Level 5.) An introduction to the sound system, vowel harmony, and syllable division…

  20. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  1. Basic Internet Software Toolkit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Once schools are connected to the Internet, the next step is getting network workstations configured for Internet access. This article describes a basic toolkit comprising software currently available on the Internet for free or modest cost. Lists URLs for Web browser, Telnet, FTP, file decompression, portable document format (PDF) reader,…

  2. Navajo Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ.

    The objectives of this Special Experimental Demonstration Project in Adult Basic Education for the Navajo were: (1) to raise the educational and social level of Navajo adult students who are unable to read, write, and speak English; (2) to assist the Navajo adult students to take advantage of occupational and vocational training programs; (3) to…

  3. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-04-17

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described.

  4. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  5. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  6. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  7. Small membranes under negative surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avital, Yotam Y.; Farago, Oded

    2015-03-01

    We use computer simulations and a simple free energy model to study the response of a bilayer membrane to the application of a negative (compressive) mechanical tension. Such a tension destabilizes the long wavelength undulation modes of giant vesicles, but it can be sustained when small membranes and vesicles are considered. Our negative tension simulation results reveal two regimes—(i) a weak negative tension regime characterized by stretching-dominated elasticity and (ii) a strong negative tension regime featuring bending-dominated elastic behavior. This resembles the findings of the classic Evans and Rawicz micropipette aspiration experiment in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) [E. Evans and W. Rawicz, Phys, Rev. Lett. 64, 2094 (1990)]. However, in GUVs the crossover between the two elasticity regimes occurs at a small positive surface tension, while in smaller membranes it takes place at a moderate negative tension. Another interesting observation concerning the response of a small membrane to negative surface tension is related to the relationship between the mechanical and fluctuation tensions, which are equal to each other for non-negative values. When the tension decreases to negative values, the fluctuation tension γ drops somewhat faster than the mechanical tension τ in the small negative tension regime, before it saturates (and becomes larger than τ) for large negative tensions. The bending modulus exhibits an "opposite" trend. It remains almost unchanged in the stretching-dominated elastic regime, and decreases in the bending-dominated regime. Both the amplitudes of the thermal height undulations and the projected area variations diverge at the onset of mechanical instability.

  8. From Design for Dominance to Design for Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keitges, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the network society is the result of a particular approach to design: that of mastery, control, ease of use and interconnectedness. The author analyzes this design approach for its negative and positive aspects, which he labels as "designing for dominance" and "designing for dialogue", respectively. Both of these…

  9. Black Studies and the Symbolic Structure of Domination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmes, Clovis E.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that cultural hegemony (the tendency of a dominant culture to negate another and to emphasize its own image and interest) significantly affects Black cultural development, and should comprise a central focus of Black studies as an alternative to the race/class dichotomy found in current race relations literature. (Author/MJL)

  10. From Design for Dominance to Design for Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keitges, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the network society is the result of a particular approach to design: that of mastery, control, ease of use and interconnectedness. The author analyzes this design approach for its negative and positive aspects, which he labels as "designing for dominance" and "designing for dialogue", respectively. Both of these…

  11. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO3) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO3-nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO3) was produced in the flame. The HNO3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (Mhistidine-H+HNO3)(-) complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO3 at all. Reactions between HNO3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [MAI-H+(HNO3)](-) and [MAII-H+(HNO3)](-) ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO3)n](3-) complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO3) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO3-nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO3) was produced in the flame. The HNO3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (Mhistidine-H+HNO3)- complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO3 at all. Reactions between HNO3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [MAI-H+(HNO3)]- and [MAII-H+(HNO3)]- ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO3)n]3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins.

  13. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  14. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  15. Association between eye dominance and training for rifle marksmanship: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jones, L F; Classe, J G; Hester, M; Harris, K

    1996-02-01

    This pilot study was performed to determine the effect, if any, exerted by crossed dominance (contralateral hand and eye dominance) on the ability of novice riflemen to learn how to accurately shoot a rifle. Sighting dominance was used to determine the dominant eye. Hand dominance was determined by the arm used to shoulder the rifle in the shooting position. Subjects were 308 military recruits at the Fort Benning Army Base in Columbus, Georgia, who had undergone basic training in rifle marksmanship. Qualification scores obtained at the base rifle range were used to measure the subjects' ability to learn marksmanship skills. The subjects with right-hand/right-eye and left-hand/left-eye (uncrossed) dominance had qualification scores that were significantly higher (p = .009) than the subjects with right hand/left-eye and left-hand/right-eye (crossed) dominance. A significantly higher percentage of subjects with uncrossed dominance achieved rifle qualification (86.1 percent) than subjects with crossed dominance (56.5 percent) (p = .000). The learning of rifle marksmanship is influenced by eye dominance. Individuals who shoot right handed and are left-eye dominant or who shoot left handed and are right-eye dominant do not learn marksmanship skills as readily as individuals who have matched eye and hand dominance. Since crossed hand and eye dominance can be easily determined, it should be possible to identify cross dominant individuals and provide them with special training so that they can perform at a higher level of skill.

  16. Basics of Biosafety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Willy

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the basics of biosafety and the importance of assuring proper biosafety practices. The objectives of the presentation are to review regulations about biosafety, and the different biosafety levels; the biosafety facilities at Johnson Space Center; the usage and maintenance of the biosafety cabinet, the proper methods to handle biologically hazardous materials upon exposure, and the methods of cleanup in the event of a spill, and the training requirements that are mandated for personnel handling biologically hazardous materials.

  17. Risk communication basics

    SciTech Connect

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  18. Basic Research Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) more than twenty years ago led to the evolution of the Internet. Likewise, molecular...for detection/classification Acoustic imaging in shallow water Ray chaos models Acoustic holography 4 -6 4.2 Chemistry Chemistry research directly...strength, high-ductility structural materials. 4 -38 Table 4.8.1. Basic Research Funding for Terrestrial Sciences ($ Mllions ) Program Element Service

  19. Basic confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn L

    2008-01-01

    This unit introduces the reader to the basic principles of confocal microscopy and the design and capabilities of current confocal microscopes. The advantages and disadvantages of confocal microscopy compared to other techniques for fluorescence imaging are described. There are also practical guidelines for sample preparation and optimization of imaging parameters, as well as examples of some of the applications of confocal microscopy. (c) 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Criteria for Matrix Dominated Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    8217 L . .... ... .... . !A,! A ,- -I 1. INTRODUCTION When designing adhesively bonded fibre composite repairs for metallic or comn- pwsite structutes, two...behaviour of fibre composite lauiinates [20.21,22]. * 4 2i 4| It haas aso been used to design 6dhMavely bonded repairs for cracked metallic com- ponents...several methodsearvently used for analysis of the ltnt rix dominated failure In composite nmaterial an adhesivty hankdedl joints . Particular attention has

  1. New Solutions for Synchronized Domineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Sahil; Kruskal, Clyde P.

    Cincotti and Iida invented the game of Synchronized Domineering, and analyzed a few special cases. We develop a more general technique of analysis, and obtain results for many more special cases. We obtain complete results for board sizes 3 ×n, 5 ×n, 7 ×n, and 9 ×n (for n large enough) and partial results for board sizes 2×n, 4 ×n, and 6 ×n.

  2. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  3. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  4. Dominant modes via model error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yousuff, A.; Breida, M.

    1992-01-01

    Obtaining a reduced model of a stable mechanical system with proportional damping is considered. Such systems can be conveniently represented in modal coordinates. Two popular schemes, the modal cost analysis and the balancing method, offer simple means of identifying dominant modes for retention in the reduced model. The dominance is measured via the modal costs in the case of modal cost analysis and via the singular values of the Gramian-product in the case of balancing. Though these measures do not exactly reflect the more appropriate model error, which is the H2 norm of the output-error between the full and the reduced models, they do lead to simple computations. Normally, the model error is computed after the reduced model is obtained, since it is believed that, in general, the model error cannot be easily computed a priori. The authors point out that the model error can also be calculated a priori, just as easily as the above measures. Hence, the model error itself can be used to determine the dominant modes. Moreover, the simplicity of the computations does not presume any special properties of the system, such as small damping, orthogonal symmetry, etc.

  5. Dominant modes via model error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yousuff, A.; Breida, M.

    1992-01-01

    Obtaining a reduced model of a stable mechanical system with proportional damping is considered. Such systems can be conveniently represented in modal coordinates. Two popular schemes, the modal cost analysis and the balancing method, offer simple means of identifying dominant modes for retention in the reduced model. The dominance is measured via the modal costs in the case of modal cost analysis and via the singular values of the Gramian-product in the case of balancing. Though these measures do not exactly reflect the more appropriate model error, which is the H2 norm of the output-error between the full and the reduced models, they do lead to simple computations. Normally, the model error is computed after the reduced model is obtained, since it is believed that, in general, the model error cannot be easily computed a priori. The authors point out that the model error can also be calculated a priori, just as easily as the above measures. Hence, the model error itself can be used to determine the dominant modes. Moreover, the simplicity of the computations does not presume any special properties of the system, such as small damping, orthogonal symmetry, etc.

  6. Depersonalization and basic symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea; Salvatore, Paola

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the classic psychopathologic notion of depersonalization in the light of the Basic Symptom paradigm. A sample of 57 chronic schizophrenics was cross-sectionally assessed with the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) and contextually with specific scales testing positive, negative, depressive and alexithymic dimensions. In order to categorize depersonalized vs. nondepersonalized patients three specific BSABS items explicitly identifying the allo-/auto-/somatopsychic domains of depersonalization were used, according to the wernickian threefold definition. Depersonalized schizophrenics showed a semiological profile that was distinct from that of nondepersonalized schizophrenics (as regards basic, positive, depressive symptoms and alexithymia); patients with multiple co-occurring forms of depersonalization revealed higher levels of cognitive disturbance, lowering of stress threshold and greater alexithymia. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  7. Deeply virtual Compton scattering: How to test handbag dominance?

    SciTech Connect

    Gousset, T.; Diehl, M.; Ralston, J. P.

    1998-05-29

    We propose detailed tests of the handbag approximation in exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering. Those tests make no use of any prejudice about parton correlations in the proton which are basically unknown objects and beyond the scope of perturbative QCD. Since important information on the proton substructure can be gained in the regime of light cone dominance we consider that such a class of tests is of special relevance.

  8. Deeply virtual Compton scattering: How to test handbag dominance?

    SciTech Connect

    Gousset, T.; Gousset, T.; Diehl, M.; Pire, B.; Diehl, M.

    1998-05-01

    We propose detailed tests of the handbag approximation in exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering. Those tests make no use of any prejudice about parton correlations in the proton which are basically unknown objects and beyond the scope of perturbative QCD. Since important information on the proton substructure can be gained in the regime of light cone dominance we consider that such a class of tests is of special relevance. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Hierarchical spatial modeling of additive and dominance genetic variance for large spatial trial datasets.

    PubMed

    Finley, Andrew O; Banerjee, Sudipto; Waldmann, Patrik; Ericsson, Tore

    2009-06-01

    This article expands upon recent interest in Bayesian hierarchical models in quantitative genetics by developing spatial process models for inference on additive and dominance genetic variance within the context of large spatially referenced trial datasets. Direct application of such models to large spatial datasets are, however, computationally infeasible because of cubic-order matrix algorithms involved in estimation. The situation is even worse in Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) contexts where such computations are performed for several iterations. Here, we discuss approaches that help obviate these hurdles without sacrificing the richness in modeling. For genetic effects, we demonstrate how an initial spectral decomposition of the relationship matrices negate the expensive matrix inversions required in previously proposed MCMC methods. For spatial effects, we outline two approaches for circumventing the prohibitively expensive matrix decompositions: the first leverages analytical results from Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes that yield computationally efficient tridiagonal structures, whereas the second derives a modified predictive process model from the original model by projecting its realizations to a lower-dimensional subspace, thereby reducing the computational burden. We illustrate the proposed methods using a synthetic dataset with additive, dominance, genetic effects and anisotropic spatial residuals, and a large dataset from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny study conducted in northern Sweden. Our approaches enable us to provide a comprehensive analysis of this large trial, which amply demonstrates that, in addition to violating basic assumptions of the linear model, ignoring spatial effects can result in downwardly biased measures of heritability.

  10. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  11. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  12. On the regularity of preparatory activity preceding movements with the dominant and non-dominant hand: a readiness potential study.

    PubMed

    Dirnberger, Georg; Duregger, Cornelia; Lindinger, Gerald; Lang, Wilfried

    2011-08-01

    The readiness potential (RP), a slow negative electroencephalographic pre-movement potential, was reported to commence earlier for movements with the non-dominant left hand than with the dominant right hand. Latencies in these reports were always calculated from averaged RPs, whereas onset times of individual trials remained inaccessible. The aim was to use a new statistical approach to examine whether a few left hand trials with very early pre-movement activity disproportionally affect the onset of the average. We recorded RPs in 28 right-handed subjects while they made self-paced repetitive unilateral movements with their dominant and non-dominant hand. Skewness, a measure of distribution asymmetry, was analysed in sets of single-trial RPs to discriminate between a symmetric distribution and an asymmetric distribution containing outlier trials with early onset. Results show that for right hand movements skewness has values around zero across electrodes and pre-movement intervals, whereas for left hand movements skewness has initially negative values which increase to neutral values closer to movement onset. This indicates a symmetric (e.g., Gaussian) distribution of onset times across trials for simple right hand movements, whereas cortical activation preceding movements with the non-dominant hand is characterised by outlier trials with early onset of negativity. These findings may explain differences in the averaged brain activation preceding dominant versus non-dominant hand movements described in previous electrophysiological/neuroimaging studies. The findings also constrain mental chronometry, a technique that makes conclusions upon the time and temporal order of brain processes by measuring and comparing onset times of averaged electroencephalographic potentials evoked by these processes.

  13. Right parietal dominance in spatial egocentric discrimination.

    PubMed

    Loayza, F R; Fernández-Seara, M A; Aznárez-Sanado, M; Pastor, M A

    2011-03-15

    Egocentric tactile perception is crucial for skilled hand motor control. In order to better understand the brain functional underpinnings related to this basic sensorial perception, we performed a tactile perception functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with two aims. The first aim consisted of characterizing the neural substrate of two types of egocentric tactile discrimination: the spatial localization (SLD) and simultaneity succession discrimination (SSD) in both hands to define hemispheric dominance for these tasks. The second goal consisted of characterizing the brain activation related to the spatial attentional load, the functional changes and their connectivity patterns induced by the psychometric performance (PP) during SLD. We used fMRI in 25 right-handed volunteers, applying pairs of sinusoidal vibratory stimuli on eight different positions in the palmar surface of both hands. Subjects were required either to identify the stimulus location with respect to an imaginary midline (SLD), to discriminate the simultaneity or succession of a stimuli pair (SSD) or to simply respond to stimulus detection. We found a fronto-parietal network for SLD and frontal network for SSD. During SLD we identified right hemispheric dominance with increased BOLD activation and functional interaction of the right supramarginal gyrus with contralateral intra-parietal sulcus for right and left hand independently. Brain activity correlated to spatial attentional load was found in bilateral structures of intra-parietal sulcus, precuneus extended to superior parietal lobule, pre-supplementary motor area, frontal eye fields and anterior insulae for both hands. We suggest that the right supramarginal gyrus and its interaction with intra-parietal lobule may play a pivotal role in the phenomenon of tactile neglect in right fronto-parietal lesions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Basic Hitchhiker Payload Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    This document lists the requirements for the NMSU Hitchhiker experiment payload that were developed as part of the EE 498/499 Capstone Design class during the 1999-2000 academic year. This document is used to describe the system needs as described in the mission document. The requirements listed here are those primarily used to generate the basic electronic and data processing requirements developed in the class design document. The needs of the experiment components are more fully described in the draft NASA hitchhiker customer requirements document. Many of the details for the overall payload are given in full detail in the NASA hitchhiker documentation.

  15. Study design: the basics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Ja; Hoffmann, Raymond G

    2007-01-01

    In biomedical research, meaningful conclusions can only be drawn based on data collected from a valid scientific design using appropriate statistical methods. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate study design is important in order to provide an unbiased and scientific evaluation of the research questions. In this chapter, the different kinds of experimental studies commonly used in biology and medicine are introduced. A brief survey of basic experimental study designs, randomization, blinding, possible biases, issues in data analysis, and interpretation of the study results are mainly provided.

  16. Autosomal dominant juvenile recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, E; Douglas, F; Crow, Y; Hollman, A; Gibson, J

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis is a common cause of inflammatory salivary gland swelling in children. A variety of aetiological factors has been proposed for the condition. Here we present a family where four members had juvenile recurrent parotitis and where two other family members may have had an atypical form of the condition. The segregation pattern in the family is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance and this suggests that, at least in some cases, genetic factors may be implicated in juvenile recurrent parotitis. PMID:9610807

  17. Perceptions of social dominance through facial emotion expressions in euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwa; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2016-04-01

    The ability to accurately perceive dominance in the social hierarchy is important for successful social interactions. However, little is known about dominance perception of emotional stimuli in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of social dominance in patients with bipolar I disorder in response to six facial emotional expressions. Participants included 35 euthymic patients and 45 healthy controls. Bipolar patients showed a lower perception of social dominance based on anger, disgust, fear, and neutral facial emotional expressions compared to healthy controls. A negative correlation was observed between motivation to pursue goals or residual manic symptoms and perceived dominance of negative facial emotions such as anger, disgust, and fear in bipolar patients. These results suggest that bipolar patients have an altered perception of social dominance that might result in poor interpersonal functioning. Training of appropriate dominance perception using various emotional stimuli may be helpful in improving social relationships for individuals with bipolar disorder.

  18. Donor dominance cures CHILD nevus.

    PubMed

    König, Arne; Skrzypek, Jan; Löffler, Harald; Oeffner, Frank; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz; Happle, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects (MIM 308050, CHILD) syndrome is an X-linked dominant, male-lethal, multisystem birth defect. Patients suffer from an inflammatory nevus that covers large areas, predominantly of one side of the body, with a sharp midline demarcation. Treatment of CHILD nevus is notoriously difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a novel surgical approach for this disorder. In 2 patients, the CHILD nevus was dermabraded, and the area was covered with split skin grafts obtained from a contralateral unaffected donor region. In a third patient, papillomatous, strawberry-like lesions on fingers and toes were excised, and the defects were covered with full-thickness grafts obtained from the unaffected left, gluteal area. Highly satisfying functional and cosmetic results were documented during a follow-up period ranging from 3 to 8 years. The favorable outcome, superior to that obtained by simple dermabrasion or extensive plastic surgery, can best be explained by the donor dominance of the grafted skin samples that carried, in all or most cells, the mutant X chromosome in an inactivated form. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Basic and clinical immunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  20. Basic and clinical immunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  1. Basic space payload fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, J. M.; Gorevan, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    A new basic space fastener has been developed and tested by the GSFC. The purposes of this fastener are to permit assembly and servicing in space by astronauts and/or robots and to facilitate qualification of payloads on Earth prior to launch by saving time and money during the systems integration and component testing and qualification processes. The space fastener is a rework of the basic machine screw such that crossthreading is impossible; it is self-locking and will not work its way out during launch (vibration proof); it will not wear out despite repeated use; it occupies a small foot print which is comparable to its machine screw equivalent, and it provides force and exhibits strength comparable to its machine screw equivalent. Construction is ultra-simple and cost effective and the principle is applicable across the full range of screw sizes ranging from a #10 screw to 2.5 cm (1 in) or more. In this paper, the fastener principles of operation will be discussed along with test results and construction details. The new fastener also has considerable potential in the commercial sector. A few promising applications will be presented.

  2. Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Joseph C

    2008-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become the dominant clinical imaging modality with widespread, primarily noninvasive, applicability throughout the body and across many disease processes. The flexibility of MR imaging enables the development of purpose-built optimized applications. Concurrent developments in digital image processing, microprocessor power, storage, and computer-aided design have spurred and enabled further growth in capability. Although MR imaging may be viewed as "mature" in some respects, the field is rich with new proposals and applications that hold great promise for future research health care uses. This article delineates the basic principles of MR imaging and illuminates specific applications.

  3. A Quick, Gradient Bilingual Dominance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Alexandra L.; Fox Tree, Jean E.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of consistency in how bilingual language dominance is assessed currently impedes cross-experiment comparisons (Grosjean, 1998). We present a paper-and-pencil dominance scale that can be used to quantify the language dominancy of bilingual participants. The scale targets three main criteria important in gauging dominance (Grosjean, 1998;…

  4. Information Dominance in Military Decision Making.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-04

    This study considers how ABCS (Army Battle Command System) capabilities achieve information dominance and how they influence the military decision...making process. The work examines how ABCS enables commanders and staffs to achieve information dominance at the brigade and battalion levels. Further...future digitized systems that will gain information dominance for the future commander. It promotes the continued development information dominance technologies

  5. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  6. Negative Ions in Space.

    PubMed

    Millar, Thomas J; Walsh, Catherine; Field, Thomas A

    2017-02-08

    Until a decade ago, the only anion observed to play a prominent role in astrophysics was H(-). The bound-free transitions in H(-) dominate the visible opacity in stars with photospheric temperatures less than 7000 K, including the Sun. The H(-) anion is also believed to have been critical to the formation of molecular hydrogen in the very early evolution of the Universe. Once H2 formed, about 500 000 years after the Big Bang, the expanding gas was able to lose internal gravitational energy and collapse to form stellar objects and "protogalaxies", allowing the creation of heavier elements such as C, N, and O through nucleosynthesis. Although astronomers had considered some processes through which anions might form in interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes, including the important role that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons might play in this, it was the detection in 2006 of rotational line emission from C6H(-) that galvanized a systematic study of the abundance, distribution, and chemistry of anions in the interstellar medium. In 2007, the Cassini mission reported the unexpected detection of anions with mass-to-charge ratios of up to ∼10 000 in the upper atmosphere of Titan; this observation likewise instigated the study of fundamental chemical processes involving negative ions among planetary scientists. In this article, we review the observations of anions in interstellar clouds, circumstellar envelopes, Titan, and cometary comae. We then discuss a number of processes by which anions can be created and destroyed in these environments. The derivation of accurate rate coefficients for these processes is an essential input for the chemical kinetic modeling that is necessary to fully extract physics from the observational data. We discuss such models, along with their successes and failings, and finish with an outlook on the future.

  7. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  8. Basic memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietze, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

  9. Basic properties and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Francois R.

    1987-01-01

    Giant and supergiant M, S, and C stars are discussed in this survey of research. Basic properties as determined by spectra, chemical composition, photometry, or variability type are discussed. Space motions and space distributions of cool giants are described. Distribution of these stars in our galaxy and those nearby is discussed. Mira variables in particular are surveyed with emphasis on the following topics: (1) phase lag phenomenon; (2) Mira light curves; (3) variations in color indices; (4) determination of multiple periods; (5) correlations between quantities such as period length, light-curve shape, infrared (IR) excess, and visible and IR color diagram; (6) semiregular (SR) variables and different time scales in SR light variations; (7) irregular variable Lb and Lc stars; (8) different time-scale light variations; (9) hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, in particular RCB stars; and (10) irreversible changes and rapid evolution in red variable stars.

  10. Basic control systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.H.; Yang, C.

    1997-12-31

    This book is one of the latest at the basic or introductory level, which is addressed to undergraduate juniors and seniors across several engineering disciplines such as mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and electrical. In fact, the background of the authors include electrical and aerospace engineering, respectively. The book contains the standard material presented at the undergraduate level. However, there appears to have been a serious attempt by the authors to address several practical implementation issues such as actuator saturation and other nonlinearities, bandwidth limitations, etc. In addition, there is an elementary consideration of the control of discrete event dynamical systems, a subject that has not traditionally been considered in elementary texts, but which nevertheless is increasingly important in industrial applications.

  11. Photonic crystal negative refractive optics.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshihiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Asatsuma, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) are multi-dimensional periodic gratings, in which the light propagation is dominated by Bragg diffraction that appears to be refraction at the flat surfaces of the PC. The refraction angle from positive to negative, perfectly or only partially obeying Snell's law, can be tailored using photonic band theory. The negative refraction enables novel prism, collimation, and lens effects. Because PCs usually consist of two transparent media, these effects occur at absorption-free frequencies, affording significant design flexibility for free-space optics. The PC slab, a high-index membrane with a two-dimensional airhole array, must be carefully designed to avoid reflection and diffraction losses. Light focusing based on negative refraction forms a parallel image of a light source, facilitating optical couplers and condenser lenses for wavelength demultiplexing. A compact wavelength demultiplexer can be designed by combining the prism and lens effects. The collimation effect is obtainable not only inside but also outside of the PC by optimizing negative refractive condition.

  12. Basic Blood Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Basic Blood Chemistry Tests KidsHealth > For Parents > Basic Blood Chemistry Tests ...

  13. An immunodominant epitope of myelin basic protein is an amphipathic alpha-helix.

    PubMed

    Bates, Ian R; Feix, Jimmy B; Boggs, Joan M; Harauz, George

    2004-02-13

    Myelin basic protein is a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis. One of its dominant antigenic epitopes is segment Pro85 to Pro96 (human sequence numbering, corresponding to Pro82 to Pro93 in the mouse). There have been several, contradictory predictions of secondary structure in this region; either beta-sheet, alpha-helix, random coil, or combinations thereof have all been proposed. In this paper, molecular dynamics and site-directed spin labeling in aqueous solution indicate that this segment forms a transient alpha-helix, which is stabilized in 30% trifluoroethanol. When bound to a myelin-like membrane surface, this antigenic segment exhibits a depth profile that is characteristic of an amphipathic alpha-helix, penetrating up to 12 A into the bilayer. The alpha-helix is tilted approximately 9 degrees, and the central lysine is in an ideal snorkeling position for side-chain interaction with the negatively charged phospholipid head groups.

  14. Korean Basic Course. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume Two of the Korean Basic Course contains Units 29 through 47. Most units consist of (1) a basic dialog, (2) notes on the basic dialog, (3) additional vocabulary and phrases, (4) grammar notes, (5) drills, (6) a supplementary dialog for comprehension, (7) a narrative for comprehension and reading, and (8) exercises. Two of the last units…

  15. "New Voices": Enduring Basic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of basic writing, demonstrating how one university's basic writing program acts as a steward of writing. The assumption that basic writers only consume resources rather than contribute to academic excellence is rejected. What links the author responses to this issue is a publication of student writing entitled…

  16. Effects of an Occupational Therapy Hand Dominance Transfer Intervention for Soldiers With Crossed Hand-Eye Dominance.

    PubMed

    Luken, Michelle; Yancosek, Kathleen E

    2017-01-01

    Crossed dominance (CD) is defined as an individual's dominant hand and dominant eye being on opposite sides of the body. CD negatively impacts an individual's ability to accurately aim and fire long-barreled guns. The authors developed and evaluated a hand dominance transfer (HDT) intervention to improve the M16 rifle shooting accuracy, efficiency, and skill transfer. Twenty-four U.S. Army soldiers with CD were taught how to handle and fire an M16 rifle using the nondominant hand. Training was conducted at a military, indoor laser-equipped weapons simulator. Accuracy for shooting 40 rounds at baseline with the nondominant eye and dominant hand (NDE/DH) was 22.12 compared to shooting 30.46 with the dominant eye and nondominant hand (DE/NDH). This difference was statistically significant with p = .000. The transfer of shooting accuracy skill (retention) following the HDT intervention was 33.42 with a comparative p value of .100. Efficiency of shooting 10 rounds at baseline with the NDE/DH was 6.3 compared to shooting 7.3 with the DE/NDH. This difference was not statistically significant (p = .107). The transfer of shooting efficiency skill (retention) was 7.96 with a comparative p value of .349. This study supports shooting with the DE/NDH. HDT could be further developed to address the soldiering skill of shooting an M16.

  17. A Concept of Negative Dependence Using Stochastic Ordering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    A concept of negative dependence called negative dependence by stochastic ordering is introduced. This concept satisfies various closure properties...It is shown that three models for negative dependence satisfy it and that it implies the basic negative orthant inequalities. This concept is also...distribution of ranks of a sample and the multivariate normal with nonpositive pairwise correlations also satisfy this condition. The positive dependence analog of this condition is also studied. (Author)

  18. Back to basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to educate the public about the long road from obscure experiment to life-changing discovery, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has been enlisting prominent researchers, science writers, and scientific organizations such as the AGU. More than two years in development, the NAS basic science initiative “Beyond Discovery: The Path From Research to Human Benefits” is an attempt to translate peer-review-quality science papers into general-interest science articles and booklets.As conceived by NAS vice-president Jack Halpern and a host of representatives from the scientific community, the Beyond Discovery initiative will “develop case studies that identify and trace the origins of important technological and medical advances.” These case studies will be written by scientists in a style publishable in a journal such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. The articles are intended to be understandable to educators, college students, and the scientifically literate public. The case studies then will be further distilled by science writers into articles for a wider audience of policy makers and the general public.

  19. Biosimilar Insulins: Basic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Until now most of the insulin used in developed countries has been manufactured and distributed by a small number of multinational companies. Beyond the established insulin manufacturers, a number of new players have developed insulin manufacturing capacities based on modern biotechnological methods. Because the patents for many of the approved insulin formulations have expired or are going to expire soon, these not yet established companies are increasingly interested in seeking market approval for their insulin products as biosimilar insulins (BI) in highly regulated markets like the EU and the United States. Differences in the manufacturing process (none of the insulin manufacturing procedures are 100% identical) can lead to insulins that to some extent may differ from the originator insulin. The key questions are if subtle differences in the structure of the insulins, purity, and so on are clinically relevant and may result in different biological effects. The aim of this article is to introduce and discuss basic aspects that may be of relevance with regard to BI. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.