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Sample records for dominicanus aves laridae

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Saunders's gull Chroicocephalus saundersi (Charadriiformes, Laridae).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2012-04-01

    Saunders's gull Chroicocephalus saundersi (Aves, Charadriiformes, Laridae) is a small-sized gull having black-colored head. In this study, the entire mitochondrial genome of C. saundersi is sequenced, which is 16,725 bp in length. The detailed characteristics of the mitochondrial genome are described here.

  2. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae) from the Brazilian coast

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça Dantas, Gisele Pires; Meyer, Diogo; Godinho, Raquel; Ferrand, Nuno; Morgante, João Stenghel

    2012-01-01

    Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull populations on the Brazilian coast and compared this variability with that of sub-Antarctic island populations of this species. Kelp Gulls showed extremely low genetic variability for mitochondrial markers (cytb and ATPase) and high diversity for a nuclear locus (intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen). The intraspecific evolutionary history of Kelp Gulls showed that the variability found in intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene was compatible with the variability expected under neutral evolution but suggested an increase in population size during the last 10,000 years. However, none of the markers revealed evidence of a bottleneck population. These findings indicate that the recent origin of Kelp Gulls is the main explanation for their nuclear diversity, although selective pressure on the mtDNA of this species cannot be discarded. PMID:23271950

  3. Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.

  4. [Paramonostomum antarcticum (Trematoda, Notocotylidae) in Larus dominicanus from South Shetlands (Antarctica)].

    PubMed

    Odening, K

    1982-08-01

    Paramonostomum antarcticum Graefe, 1968 from the rectum of blackbacked gull from King George as Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica) is described. As a result of that Larus dominicanus is presented the new host of this trematode. The morphology is compared with the original description of P. signiense Jones & Williams, 1969. The relations between the two possibly identical Antarctic species are discussed. It is proposed to invalidate the subgenus Paramonostomoides Yamaguti, 1971.

  5. 32. 1700 BLOCK OF JEFFERSON AVE. 172125 JEFFERSON AVE., DOUGAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 1700 BLOCK OF JEFFERSON AVE. 1721-25 JEFFERSON AVE., DOUGAN BUILDING (1891), PICKLES & SUTTON, ARCHITECTS. 1735 JEFFERSON AVE., MOFFITT & TOWNE COMPANY BUILDING (1910). - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  6. Waterbirds (other than Laridae) nesting in the middle section of Laguna Cuyutlán, Colima, México.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E

    2008-03-01

    Laguna de Cuyutlán, in the state of Colima, Mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. Despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of Laguna Cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. We documented the nesting of 15 species of non-Laridae waterbirds: Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), Tricolored Egret (Egretta tricolor), Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), Great Egret (Ardea alba), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Black-crowned Night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea), Green Heron (Butorides virescens), Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis), Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris), Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), and Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). These add to six species of Laridae known to nest in that area: Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla), Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus), Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica), Forster's Terns (S. forsteri), Least Terns (Sternula antillarum), and Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and to at least 57 species using it during the non-breeding season. With such bird assemblages, Laguna Cuyutlán is an important site for waterbirds, which should be given conservation status.

  7. [Effect of gene disruption of aveD on avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Song, Y; Wen, Y; Li, J

    2001-08-01

    Recombinant plasmid pCZ2(pKC1139::475 bp aveD) was used for aveD gene disruption in Streptomyces avermitilis 76-9. The plasmid was inserted into the chromosome by homogenous recombination between partial aveD gene in the plasmid and aveD in the chromosome. Disruptants were confirmed by Southern blotting. Shaking flask experiments and HPLC analysis showed that the disruptant produced only four components, which were C5-oxo-avermectin B1a, B1b, B2a, B2b as identified by UV, IR, NMR, and MS. This revealed that both aveD and aveF were not expressed in the disruptant. This is consistent with that aveD and aveF are in a transcription unit. This paper also provided a new genetic method to obtain C5-oxo-avermectin B-producing strain.

  8. Multilocus perspectives on the monophyly and phylogeny of the order Charadriiformes (Aves)

    PubMed Central

    Fain, Matthew G; Houde, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) and their putative sister groups was reconstructed using approximately 5 kilobases of data from three nuclear loci and two mitochondrial genes, and compared to that based on two other nuclear loci. Results Charadriiformes represent a monophyletic group that consists of three monophyletic suborders Lari (i.e., Laridae [including Sternidae and Rynchopidae], Stercorariidae, Alcidae, Glareolidae, Dromadidae, and Turnicidae), Scolopaci (i.e., Scolopacidae [including Phalaropidae], Jacanidae, Rostratulidae, Thinocoridae, Pedionomidae), and Charadrii (i.e., Burhinidae, Chionididae, Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae, and presumably Ibidorhynchidae). The position of purported "gruiform" buttonquails within Charadriiformes is confirmed. Skimmers are most likely sister to terns alone, and plovers may be paraphyletic with respect to oystercatchers and stilts. The Egyptian Plover is not a member of the Glareolidae, but is instead relatively basal among Charadrii. None of the putative sisters of Charadriiformes were recovered as such. Conclusion Hypotheses of non-monophyly and sister relationships of shorebirds are tested by multilocus analysis. The monophyly of and interfamilial relationships among shorebirds are confirmed and refined. Lineage-specific differences in evolutionary rates are more consistent across loci in shorebirds than other birds and may contribute to the congruence of locus-specific phylogenetic estimates in shorebirds. PMID:17346347

  9. Programa de conservacion para aves migratorias neotropicales

    Treesearch

    Deborah Finch; Marcia Wilson; Roberto Roca

    1992-01-01

    Mas de 250 especies de aves terrestres migran a Norte America durante la epoca reproductiva para aprovechar los sistemas templados. No obstante, las aves migratorias neotropicales pasan la mayor parte de su ciclo de vida en los habitat tropicales y subtropicales de paises latinoamericanos y caribefios donde viven en una asociacion cercana con las aves residentes. Para...

  10. NASA's atmospheric variability experiments /AVE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of seven mesoscale experiments were conducted under the NASA program, Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE). Rawinsonde, satellite, aircraft, and ground observations were recorded during specially selected meteorological periods lasting from 1 to 3 days. Details are presented for each AVE relative to observation times, experiment size and location, and significant weather. Some research results based on the use of these AVE data are referenced. These include contributions to regional numerical prediction; relations between wind shears, instability, and thunderstorm motion and development; relations between moisture and temperature and the probability of convection; retrieval of tropospheric temperature profiles from cloud-contaminated satellite data; variation of convection intensity as a result of atmospheric variability; and effects of cloud rotation on their trajectories.

  11. Community structure of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from two sympatric gull species: kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) and Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan) in Talcahuano, Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, D; Corvalan, F; Barrientos, C; Doussang, D; Mathieu, C; Nilsson, L; Casanueva, M E; Palma, R L

    2011-01-01

    A total of 1,177 lice of four species were collected from 124 kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and 137 lice of the same four species from 60 Franklin's gulls (Larus pipixcan). The louse Saemundssonia lari (O Fabricius) (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) was the most numerous on both gull species, with infestation rates of 4.9 on kelp gulls and 1.8 on Franklin's gulls. The second most abundant louse was Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister), with a high infestation rate but low prevalence on kelp gulls; those parameters were much lower among lice from Franklin's gulls. The composition and community structure of the lice were similar on both host species, but not their infestation rates. In addition, the feather mite Zachvatkinia larica Mironov (Acari: Avenzoariidae) is recorded from kelp gulls and Franklin's gulls for the first time, while the gamasid mite Larinyssus sp. is recorded from kelp gulls, also for the first time. The population parameters of all species of ectoparasites are discussed.

  12. NASA's AVE/VAS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented concerning the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE) which was conducted during the spring of 1982 as part of NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) demonstration. The AVE/VAS Ground Truth Field Experiment is examined in detail, which comprised the obtaining of rawinsonde observations during various meteorological conditions on four different days when VAS data were obtained. These experiments were performed over 24 hr periods in a mesoscale network of 24 National Weather Service rawinsonde sites and 13 NASA and NOAA special sites. The VAS, operating as a part of the GOES satellite system, was employed to provide two-dimensional cloud mapping capability during each of the AVE/VAS experiment periods. Among the goals of this AVE/VAS program, in addition to management of the acquisition and processing of the data, were to perform the research and development needed to produce data products from VAS radiances, to validate the data, and to assess the impact of the data on mesoscale meteorological forecasting and research requirements.

  13. Redescription of Cletocamptus albuquerquensis and C. dominicanus (Harpacticoida: Canthocamptidae incertae sedis), and description of two new species from the US Virgin Islands and Bonaire.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Samuel; Gerber, Ray; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan Manuel

    2017-05-30

    The history surrounding the identity of Cletocamptus albuquerquensis (Herrick, 1894) and C. dominicanus Kiefer, 1934 is very complex. This complexity has been exacerbated by incomplete, and in some cases erroneous, original descriptions of these two species. Also, new records from other locations did not describe the significant characters needed to clearly delineate them. This led several authors to consider C. dominicanus as a synonym of C. albuquerquensis, among other taxonomical considerations regarding, for example, the status of Marshia brevicaudata Herrick, 1894. Inspection of biological material from Saskatchewan (southern Canada), Wyoming (central US), Trinidad and Tobago, and the British Virgin Islands, identified by other researchers as C. albuquerquensis, as well as of newly collected material from Great Salt Lake (Utah, central US), Puerto Rico, Culebra Island, Vieques Island, St. John Island (US Virgin Islands), San Salvador (Bahamas), and Santa Marta (Colombia), revealed that C. albuquerquensis and C. dominicanus are distinct and identifiable species, distributed in a more restricted area than previously thought. Additionally, we describe a new species, C. tainoi sp. nov., from St. John Island (US Virgin Islands), and we propose another new species, C. chappuisi sp. nov., for two males from Bonaire previously identified as C. albuquerquensis. Finally, we give some observations on tube-pore-like structures, previously overlooked, on the endopod of the male leg three.

  14. 15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 1920-22 PACIFIC AVE., WIEGAL COMPANY CANDY FACTORY (1904); 1924-26 PACIFIC AVE., CAMPBELL BUILDING (DAVIS BUILDING) (1890); 1928-30 PACIFIC AVE., REESE-CRANDALL & REDMAN BUILDING, (1890); 1932-36 PACIFIC AVE., MC DONALD & SMITH BUILDING (1890); 1938-48 PACIFIC AVE., F.S. HARMON COMPANY WAREHOUSE (1908), DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  15. 17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 2102-2106 PACIFIC AVE., MORRIS MILLER BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2110 PACIFIC AVE., TACOMA DRY GOODS BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2114-16 PACIFIC AVE., HUNT & MOTTET COMPANY HEADQUARTERS (1907), BULLARD & HILL, ARCHITECTS. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  16. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marón, Carina F; Beltramino, Lucas; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Seger, Jon; Uhart, Marcela; Sironi, Mariano; Rowntree, Victoria J

    2015-01-01

    At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680) and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192) in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five), but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more) covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000.

  17. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Marón, Carina F.; Beltramino, Lucas; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Seger, Jon; Uhart, Marcela; Sironi, Mariano; Rowntree, Victoria J.

    2015-01-01

    At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales’ backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974–2011 (n = 2680) and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192) in 2003–2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five), but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more) covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000. PMID:26488493

  18. Description of Sarcocystis lari sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (Charadriiformes: Laridae), on the basis of cyst morphology and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Prakas, Petras; Kutkiené, Liuda; Butkauskas, Dalius; Sruoga, Aniolas; Zalakevicius, Mecislovas

    2014-02-01

    A morphological type of Sarcocystis cysts found in one of two examined great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (Linnaeus) (Laridae), is considered to represent a new species for which the name Sarcocystis lari sp. n. is proposed and its description is provided. The cysts are ribbon-shaped, very long (the largest fragment found was 6 mm long) and relatively narrow (up to 75 microm). Under a light microscope the cyst wall reaches up to 1 microm and seems to be smooth. Using a computerized image analysis system, knolls, which resemble protrusions on the wall surface, are visible. Lancet-shaped cystozoites measure in average 6.9 x 1.4 microm (range 6.3-7.9 microm x 1.2-1.5 microm) in length. Observed using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the cyst wall is wavy and measures up to 1.2 microm in thickness. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane has regularly arranged small invaginations. Cyst content is divided into large chambers by septa. Sarcocystis lari sp. n. has type-1 tissue cyst wall and is morphologically indistinguishable from other bird Sarcocystis species characterized by the same type of the wall. On the basis of 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene and ITS-1 region sequences, S. lari is a genetically distinct species, being most closely related to avian Sarcocystis species whose definitive hosts are predatory birds.

  19. Aves municipales oficiales de Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Carlos M. Domínguez Cristóbal

    2009-01-01

    Las aves constituyen uno de los recursos de muy poco uso como símbolo oficial representativo de los municipios en Puerto Rico. Es muy probable que la decisión que màs pueda influenciar en esa selección esté relacionada con la movilidad de las aves ya que éstas no se limitan a una municipalidad en específico...

  20. Ave Maria: A 'Seriously Catholic' Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the founding of Ave Maria School of Law (Michigan), opening in 2000, which plans to integrate Catholic teachings into every course. Focus is on the school's founder, Thomas S. Monaghan, and the school's first dean, Bernard Dobranski, who suggest that the new school can avoid difficulties with tenured liberal professors and attract top…

  1. Ave Maria: A 'Seriously Catholic' Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the founding of Ave Maria School of Law (Michigan), opening in 2000, which plans to integrate Catholic teachings into every course. Focus is on the school's founder, Thomas S. Monaghan, and the school's first dean, Bernard Dobranski, who suggest that the new school can avoid difficulties with tenured liberal professors and attract top…

  2. GRANT AVE., FROM SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING #191 (NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRANT AVE., FROM SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING #191 (NORTHWEST CORNER OF POPE & GRANT AVENUES), LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  3. AVE-SESAME program for the REEDA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDA system software was modified and improved to process the AVE-SESAME severe storm data. A random access file system for the AVE storm data was designed, tested, and implemented. The AVE/SESAME software was modified to incorporate the random access file input and to interface with new graphics hardware/software now available on the REEDA system. Software was developed to graphically display the AVE/SESAME data in the convention normally used by severe storm researchers. Software was converted to AVE/SESAME software systems and interfaced with existing graphics hardware/software available on the REEDA System. Software documentation was provided for existing AVE/SESAME programs underlining functional flow charts and interacting questions. All AVE/SESAME data sets in random access format was processed to allow developed software to access the entire AVE/SESAME data base. The existing software was modified to allow for processing of different AVE/SESAME data set types including satellite surface and radar data.

  4. 8. Wabash Ave. North. View of Loop and Dan Ryan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Wabash Ave. North. View of Loop and Dan Ryan Line. Curve at Van Buren St. and Wabash Ave. at center. Dan Ryan line starts at center and runs south (toward bottom of picture). Photo by Jet Lowe. - Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop, Wells, Van Buren, Lake Streets & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuedong; Huang, Huiling; Jiang, Jingzhou; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Chunxi; Tang, Anli; Dai, Gang; He, Jiangui; Chen, Yili

    2016-06-10

    AVE 0991, the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) analog, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved. Mice were underwent aortic banding to induce cardiac hypertrophy followed by the administration of AVE 0991 (20 mg kg·day (-1)) for 4 weeks. It was shown that AVE 0991 reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved heart function, characterized by decreases in left ventricular weight and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and increases in ejection fraction. Moreover, AVE 0991 significantly down-regulated mean myocyte diameter and attenuate the gene expression of the hypertrophic markers. Furthermore, AVE 0991 inhibited the expression of NOX 2 and NOX 4, meaning that AVE 0991 reduced oxidative stress of cardiac hypertrophy mice. Our data showed that AVE 0991 treatment could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve heart function, which may be due to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  7. VIEW OF THE INTERSECTION OF JULIAN AVE AND MONTHAN STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERSECTION OF JULIAN AVE AND MONTHAN STREET. THE WATERS OF THE PEARL HARBOR CHANNEL ARE IN THE BACKGROUND AT LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Hickam Historic Housing, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 4. 150105 PACIFIC AVE. SPRAGUE BUILDING (1889). THIS BUILDING SERVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 1501-05 PACIFIC AVE. SPRAGUE BUILDING (1889). THIS BUILDING SERVED AS A MODEL FOR MOST OF THE 'JOBBERS' (FOODSTUFF WHOLESALERS) BUILDING IN TACOMA. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  9. View of twofamily house at 520522 Rison Ave., NE, originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of two-family house at 520-522 Rison Ave., NE, originally occupied by workers in nearby mills. Note original asbestos shingle roof - 520-522 Rison Avenue, Northeast (House), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  12. Phylogenetic Placement of a Schistosome from an Unusual Marine Snail Host, the False Limpet (Siphonaria lessoni) and Gulls (Larus dominicanus) from Argentina with a Brief Review of Marine Schistosomes from Snails.

    PubMed

    Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S; Casalins, Laura; Flores, Veronica

    2017-02-01

    In the blood fluke family Schistosomatidae, marine snails are well known as intermediate hosts. Eight families of marine snails have thus far been reported to host schistosomes across the world, most of which have been implicated in human cercarial dermatitis (HCD) outbreaks. As part of our larger effort to define the species diversity and biology of schistosomes in Argentina, in particular their role in causing HCD, we searched in the marine pulmonate snail (Siphonaria lessoni) for a schistosome species described previously from S. lessoni from southern Argentina. Additionally, gulls (Larus dominicanus) collected from a different project locality (inland) were examined, because they are known to spend time in the intertidal regions. Schistosome sporocysts were found in S. lessoni, and a small worm fragment was retrieved from a gull. Molecular phylogenies for 28S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, and cox1 genes revealed that the specimens from the gull and S. lessoni grouped closely together, suggesting they are conspecifics. Also, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences suggested one of the schistosomes from S. lessoni and a schistosome from a South African penguin were also conspecifics. Further study is needed to verify if these specimens comprise a distinct marine clade within the larger avian schistosome clade that is comprised mostly of species using freshwater snail hosts. Thus far, it appears this group of marine schistosomes may be more likely found in the southern hemisphere. It is unclear if the observed distribution pattern of schistosomes in Siphonaria is a result of sampling bias and/or indicative of a specific bird-snail-schistosome association. It is clear they are sharply differentiated from the basal marine clade of avian schistosomes that includes Austrobilharzia.

  13. 167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 5TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 504, 436, 11, AND 155. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  14. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 2 conducted on 19-20 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary information on data collected, synoptic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the AVE-SESAME 2 period is presented. The information provides researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 2 period.

  15. AVE-SESAME 1: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhard, M. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Williams, S. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seven atmospheric variability experiments (AVE), two atmospheric variability and severe storms experiments (AVSSE), and six atmospheric variability experiment-severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiments (AVE-SESAME) conducted by NASA are discussed. The dates, observation times, and data reports for each of the experiments for which data was processed are listed. The AVE experiments were conducted primarily to study atmospheric variability with emphasis on spatial and temporal in atmospheric structure that can be detected from soundings taken at 3 hr intervals but not seen in soundings taken at 12 hr intervals. The AVSSE experiments were conducted to study atmospheric structure and variability associated with severe storms combining both rawinsonde and aircraft data to provide information on near storm environments. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, an example of contact data is given, and soundings are listed which exhibited abnormal characteristics.

  16. NASA's AVE 7 experiment: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The AVE 7 Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25 mb internals from the surface to 25 mb for the 24 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000GMT May 2 and 1200 GMT May 3, 1978. The methods of data processing and the accuracy are briefly discussed. Selected synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented as well as an example of contact data. A tabulation of adverse weather events that occured during the AVE 7 period, including freezing temperature, snow, tornadoes, damaging winds, and flooding, is presented.

  17. From the corner of E. Harlow Ave. and S. Cooper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of E. Harlow Ave. and S. Cooper St. looking west with building 633 at the left, part of building 226 at the right and then buildings #225-221 farther along E. Harlow Ave. on the right side. Beyond them is the smokestack of the steam plant (building 215). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  19. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  20. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  1. 1. 133842 PACIFIC AVE. ITALIANATE BUILDING ON LEFT IS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 1338-42 PACIFIC AVE. ITALIANATE BUILDING ON LEFT IS THE CITIZENS BANK AND THE IRVING BUILDING (1888-89). A HOMOGENEOUS DESIGN FOR THREE SEPERATE PROPERTY OWNERS, DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  2. Looking west along W. Mcafee Ave., building 509 is to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west along W. Mcafee Ave., building 509 is to the right, building 507 is to the left and at the end of the block is building 506. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Looking northeast along E. Mcafee Ave. From the corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast along E. Mcafee Ave. From the corner of S. Page St. towards building 618, with the water tower (building 239) in the background. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. AVES: A Computer Cluster System approach for INTEGRAL Scientific Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, M.; Martino, B. L.; Natalucci, L.; Umbertini, P.

    The AVES computing system, based on an "Cluster" architecture is a fully integrated, low cost computing facility dedicated to the archiving and analysis of the INTEGRAL data. AVES is a modular system that uses the software resource manager (SLURM) and allows almost unlimited expandibility (65,536 nodes and hundreds of thousands of processors); actually is composed by 30 Personal Computers with Quad-Cores CPU able to reach the computing power of 300 Giga Flops (300x10{9} Floating point Operations Per Second), with 120 GB of RAM and 7.5 Tera Bytes (TB) of storage memory in UFS configuration plus 6 TB for users area. AVES was designed and built to solve growing problems raised from the analysis of the large data amount accumulated by the INTEGRAL mission (actually about 9 TB) and due to increase every year. The used analysis software is the OSA package, distributed by the ISDC in Geneva. This is a very complex package consisting of dozens of programs that can not be converted to parallel computing. To overcome this limitation we developed a series of programs to distribute the workload analysis on the various nodes making AVES automatically divide the analysis in N jobs sent to N cores. This solution thus produces a result similar to that obtained by the parallel computing configuration. In support of this we have developed tools that allow a flexible use of the scientific software and quality control of on-line data storing. The AVES software package is constituted by about 50 specific programs. Thus the whole computing time, compared to that provided by a Personal Computer with single processor, has been enhanced up to a factor 70.

  5. AVE/VAS experiment: Synoptic summary and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The AVE/VAS ground truth field experiment was conducted during the Spring of 1982 severe storms and weather research program. The experiment consisted of acquiring correlative ground truth measurements of rawinsonde data, corresponding to the time and space resolutions of VAS sounding data. The objectives of the AVE/VAS experiment are: (1) to acquire four dimensional data sets of the actual atmospheric structure down to the mesoscale; (2) to provide measurements for quantitative comparisons between ground based and VAS-derived atmospheric parameters; (3) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on diagnostic analysis of structural features and dynamical processes important to the development of mesoscale phenomena; (4) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on numerical model simulations, nowcasting, and other mesoscale forecasting systems.

  6. 169. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 6TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 6TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 6TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 8 (HOSPITAL) WITH PART OF ONE OF ITS 1-STORY WARD WINGS, AND THE 3 ORIGINAL DORMITORY WINGS OF BUILDING 9 (BOQ). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  7. 1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. HOUSE IS 1 1/2 STORY, 3 BAY SIDE GABLE WITH REAR KITCHEN ELL AND PORCH EXTENDING FROM FRONT. LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS BUILT THIS AND 128 OTHER NEW HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-1924. THE PREEXISTING MILL VILLAGE NEEDED TO BE EXPANDED TO ACCOMODATE WORKERS FOR THEIR NEW STARK MILL IN HOGANSVILLE. THIS HOUSE WAS BUILT WITH INDOOR PLUMBING, AND ELECTRICITY AT A COST OF APPROXIMATELY $430 PER ROOM. - 502 Askew Avenue (House), 502 Askew Avenue, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  8. The AVE/VAS 2: The 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS II experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals, was an 18 hour period. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. The processing soundings method is discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  9. AVE/VAS 1: 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS I (shakedown) experiment is described. Tabulated data at 25-mb intervals for the 13 special rawinsonde stations and 1 National Weather Service station participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 1200 and 1800 GMT on February 6, 1982, and at 0000 GMT on February 7, 1982. The method of processing soundings is discussed briefly, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  10. AVE-SESAME IV: 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 4 experiment is descirbed and tabulated data at 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 20 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 9, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 10, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  11. AVE-SESAME 6: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 6 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 15 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 h intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on June 7, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on June 8, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  12. AVE-SESAME 2: The 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Gerhard, M. L.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME II experiment is described. Data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 19, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 20, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  13. AVE-Sesame 3: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. T.; Gerhard, M. L.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 3 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 25, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 26, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  14. NASA's participation in the AVE-SESAME '79 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.; Wilson, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center participated with its AVE (Atmospheric Variability Experiment) in a large interagency mesoscale and severe storms experiment identified herein as AVE-SESAME '79 (Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment 1979). A primary objective of NASA was to support an effort to acquire carefully edited sets of rawinsonde data during selected severe weather events for use in correlative and diagnostic studies with satellite and radar data obtained at approximately the same times. Data were acquired during six individual 24-h experiments on both the regional and storm scales over a network in the central United States that utilized approximately 20 supplemental rawinsonde sites meshed among 23 standard National Weather Service sites. Included among the six experiments are data obtained between 1200 GMT on April 10 and 1200 GMT on April 11, encompassing the formation and development period for the tornado-producing systems that devastated Wichita Falls, Texas, and other sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The other dates for which data sets are available are April 19-20 and 25-26, May 9-10 and 20-21, and June 7-8, 1979.

  15. AVE/VAS 3: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS 3 experiment is described. Tabulated data are presented at 25-mb intervals for the 24 National Weather Service stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals, beginning at 1200 GMT on March 27, 1982, and ending at 0600 GMT on March 28, 1982 (7 sounding times). An additional sounding was taken at the National Weather Service stations at 1200 GMT on March 28, 1982, at the normal synoptic observation time. The method of processing soundings is briefly discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the mesos-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  16. Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation.

  17. AVE-SEASAME 5: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rewinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 5 experiment is described and tubulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented for the 23 National Weather Service stations and 20 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 20, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on may 21, 1979 (nine sounding times). A tenth sounding was teken at many special stations between 2100 and 0000 GMT on May 20. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings with abnormal characteristics are listed.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus olor (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Park, Yeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Park, Hee Cheon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus olor (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae) was revealed in this study. Total 16 739 base pairs (bp) of this mitogenome encoded genes for 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a D-loop (control region). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes are located between tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Leu (UUR) and segmentalized by the tRNA-Val. D-loop is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of C. olor is G + C: 47.8%, A + T: 52.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Following the phylogenetic analysis, the C. olor was closed to Anser cygnoides.

  19. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello

    2003-03-01

    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  20. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  1. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 3 conducted on 25-26 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    General weather conditions, including synoptic maps, radar reports, satellite photographs, precipitation areas and amounts, and a summary of severe weather reports are presented. These data provide researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 3 period.

  2. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    PubMed

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  3. Skeletogenesis of Myiopsitta monachus (Psittaciformes) and sequence heterochronies in Aves.

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2017-01-01

    The ossification sequence of Myiopsitta monachus was determined. Myiopsitta has a similar sequence to other altricial birds, with delayed skeletons compared to precocial species. The hindlimbs ossify before the forelimbs, a condition that could be linked to altriciality. To determine the stability of the sequences of ossification across birds, we selected species of different groups of Aves and used event-pairing method and character mapping on a phylogeny. Our results show that the homogeneity in the development of birds was supported by 56.77% of the character states. Event-pair cracking phylogenetic method was applied to identify sequence heterochronies. Results reveal a high number of heterochronies and show that the long bones in limbs may behave as modules. In Myiopsitta, the ossa ectethmoidale and mesethmoidale ossify early. These bones provide the origin site of the Psittaciformes' novel adductor m. ethmomandibularis, associated with strong bite forces, and its acceleration in the sequence may correspond to the functional hypothesis. Also, the early appearance of some hyoid apparatus elements occurs, and could be related to the development of tongue in Psittaciformes and its role in handling food, and is in concordance with the functional and size hypothesis.

  4. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico

    1998-07-01

    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  5. AveBoost2: Boosting for Noisy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the pre- vious base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. In previous work, we developed an algorithm, AveBoost, that constructed distributions orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous models, and then averaged them to create the next base model s distribution. Our experiments demonstrated the superior accuracy of our approach. In this paper, we slightly revise our algorithm to allow us to obtain non-trivial theoretical results: bounds on the training error and generalization error (difference between training and test error). Our averaging process has a regularizing effect which, as expected, leads us to a worse training error bound for our algorithm than for AdaBoost but a superior generalization error bound. For this paper, we experimented with the data that we used in both as originally supplied and with added label noise-a small fraction of the data has its original label changed. Noisy data are notoriously difficult for AdaBoost to learn. Our algorithm's performance improvement over AdaBoost is even greater on the noisy data than the original data.

  6. Safety and efficacy of AVE gfx stent implantation via 6 Fr guiding catheters.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; Odekerken, D; Slagboom, T; van der Wieken, R

    1999-08-01

    This prospective study was designed to determine the feasibility of AVE gfx premounted stent systems in combination with 6 Fr guides. Between 1 April and 12 August 1997, 230 patients underwent AVE gfx coronary stent implantation via 6 Fr guides. The radial approach was used in 146 patients (63.5%). In 230 procedures (293 lesions), 237 guiding catheters were used. A total of 331 AVE gfx stents were implanted, 1.4 per patient. Backup, opacification, and friction were considered good in 85.8%, 96.4%, and 76.7%, respectively. Slight and severe friction was felt during combined use of long (> or = 18 mm), large-sized (3.5 mm) stents and small-sized guiding catheters (inner diameter, 0.061-0.062"). The presence of a second protecting guidewire impaired passage of the AVE gfx stent, also in large 6 Fr guides (ID 0.064"). Of 331, 320 (96.7%) stents were successfully deployed at the initial attempt. Ten stents (3%) had to be retrieved. Six of these were successfully placed at a second attempt and three slipped off the balloon, all successfully retrieved from the patient's circulation. At 1 month, 217 patients (94.4%) were free of events. The AVE gfx stent is compatible with 6 Fr guiding catheters. Use of new-generation, large-bore 6 Fr gc (> or = 0.064") is recommended.

  7. Pressure Contact Sounding Data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.; Long, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 41 stations participating in the AVE III measurement program that began at 0000 GMT on February 6 and ended at 1200 GMT on February 7, 1975. Soundings were taken at 3-hour intervals during a large period of the experiment from most stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data processing, change in reduction scheme since the AVE II pilot experiment, and data accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is presented, and microfiche cards of all the contact data are included in the appendix. The AVE III project was conducted to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales of-motion interrelationships.

  8. Reduction and error analysis of the AVE 2 pilot experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction techniques used to process data from the pilot experiment of the second NASA atmospheric variability experiment (AVE IIP), which was conducted during a 24 hour period beginning at 1200 GMT on May 11, 1974, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 12, 1974 are described. Each step of the data handling process is described through the presentation of computer flow charts, programs, equations, and narrative. An error analysis of the final output is presented, and results of the AVE IIP reduction process are compared with results from the National Weather Service. The AVE IIP sounding data contain more detail than National Weather Service data, but the two data sets may be used together without difficulty.

  9. Health assessment of captive tinamids (Aves, Tinamiformes) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ferreira Júnior, Francisco Carlos; Andery, Danielle de Assis; Fernandes, André Almeida; de Araújo, Alessandra Vitelli; de Resende, José Sérgio; Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Ninety-five (95) captive tinamids (Aves, Tinamiformes) of species Crypturellus obsoletus (brown tinamou), Crypturellus parvirostris (small-billed tinamou), Crypturellus tataupa (Tataupa tinamou), Crypturellus undulatus (undulated tinamou), Rhynchotus rufescens (red-winged tinamou), and Tinamus solitarius (solitary tinamou) were evaluated for diseases of mandatory control in the Brazilian Poultry Health Program (PNSA). Antibodies were detected by serum agglutination test (SAT) in 4 birds for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and in 27 birds for Salmonella Pullorum (SP) and Salmonella Gallinarum (SG). However, by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), sera were negative to MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). Bacteriology was negative for SP and SG. No antibody was detected by HI to avian paramyxovirus type 1. However, antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were detected in 9.4% (9/95) by ELISA. Fecal parasitology and necropsy revealed Capillaria spp. in 44.2% (42/95), Eimeria rhynchoti in 42.1% (40/95), Strongyloides spp. in 100% (20/20), Ascaridia spp., and unknown sporozoa in small-billed tinamou. Ectoparasites were detected in 42.1% (40/95) by inspection, and collected for identification. The louse Strongylocotes lipogonus (Insecta: Phthiraptera) was found on all Rhynchotus rufescens. An additional four lice species were found on 14 individuals. Traumatic lesions included four individual R. rufescens (4/40, 10%) with rhinotheca fracture, one with mandible fracture and three with posttraumatic ocular lesions (3/40, 7.5%). One C. parvirostris had phalangeal loss, another had tibiotarsal joint ankylosis and another had an open wound on the foot. Results suggest that major poultry infections/ diseases may not be relevant in tinamids, and that this group of birds, as maintained within distances for biosecurity purposes, may not represent a risk to commercial poultry. Ecto- and endoparasites were common, disseminated, and varied; regular monitoring of flocks is recommended

  10. A multilocus phylogeny of the Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes).

    PubMed

    Patterson, S A; Morris-Pocock, J A; Friesen, V L

    2011-02-01

    Gene trees will often differ from the true species history, the species tree, as a result of processes such as incomplete lineage sorting. New methods such as Bayesian Estimation of the Species Tree (BEST) use the multispecies coalescent to model lineage sorting, and directly infer the species tree from multilocus DNA sequence data. The Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) is a family of ten booby and gannet species with a global distribution. We sequenced five nuclear intron loci and one mitochondrial locus to estimate a species tree for the Sulidae using both BEST and by concatenating nuclear loci. We also used fossil calibrated strict and relaxed molecular clocks in BEAST to estimate divergence times for major nodes in the sulid phylogeny. Individual gene trees showed little phylogenetic conflict but varied in resolution. With the exception of the mitochondrial gene tree, no gene tree was completely resolved. On the other hand, both the BEST and concatenated species trees were highly resolved, strongly supported, and topologically consistent with each other. The three sulid genera (Morus, Sula, Papasula) were monophyletic and the relationships within genera were mostly consistent with both a previously estimated mtDNA gene tree and the mtDNA gene tree estimated here. However, our species trees conflicted with the mtDNA gene trees in the relationships among the three genera. Most notably, we find that the endemic and endangered Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) is likely basal to all other members of the Sulidae and diverged from them approximately 22 million years ago. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  12. Data for NASA's AVE 5 experiment: 25 mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humbert, M. E.; Hill, K.

    1977-01-01

    The AVE V Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, June 11, and 1200 GMT, June 12, 1976. The methods of data processing and accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is also included.

  13. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  14. Genetic evidence for the origin and relationships of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Aves: Fringillidae)

    Treesearch

    Ned K. Johnson; Jill A. Marten; C. John Ralph

    1989-01-01

    Using starch gel electrophoresis of proteins, we examined variation at 36 genetic loci in nine species (eight genera) of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Class Aves; Family Fringillidae; Subfamily Drepanidinae). Two species of cardueline finches and two emberizids served as outgroup taxa. Twenty-three loci (64%) were either polymorphic within taxa and/or were fixed at...

  15. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 4 conducted on 9-10 May 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    July, M.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains information on data collected, symptotic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the Atmospheric Variability Experiment Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) 4 period. The information provides researchers a look at conditions during the period.

  16. 14. 19th ST. AND PACIFIC AVE., SHAUB AND ELLISON BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. 19th ST. AND PACIFIC AVE., SHAUB AND ELLISON BUILDING (1931) AT CENTER; WALSH AND GARDNER BUILDING (AMERICAN SUPPLY BUILDING) (1911), DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER ON LEFT. SNOQUALMIE FALLS POWER COMPANY TRANSFORMER BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  17. Studies of vorticity imbalance and stability, moisture budget, atmospheric energetics, and gradients of meteorological parameters during AVE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Four diagnostic studies of AVE 3. are presented. AVE 3 represents a high wind speed wintertime situation, while most AVE's analyzed previously represented springtime conditions with rather low wind speeds. The general areas of analysis include the examination of budgets of vorticity, moisture, kinetic energy, and potential energy and a synoptic and statistical study of the horizontal gradients of meteorological parameters. Conclusions are integrated with and compared to those obtained in previously analyzed experiments (mostly springtime weather situations) so as to establish a more definitive understanding of the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere under a wide range of synoptic conditions.

  18. Hemodynamic Effects of the Non-Peptidic Angiotensin-(1-7) Agonist AVE0991 in Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Schierwagen, Robert; Grace, Josephine; Haltenhof, Tom; Uschner, Frank E.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Walther, Thomas; Angus, Peter W.; Trebicka, Jonel

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Although in cirrhosis with portal hypertension levels of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II are increased, this is accompanied by increased production of angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7), the endogenous ligand of the Mas receptor (MasR), which blunts hepatic fibrosis and decreases hepatic vascular resistance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the non-peptidic Ang-(1–7) agonist, AVE0991, in experimental cirrhosis. Methods Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication. The coloured microsphere technique assessed portal and systemic hemodynamic effects of AVE0991 in vivo. Hepatic expression of eNOS, p-eNOS, iNOS, JAK2, ROCK and p-Moesin were analyzed by western blots. Activities of ACE and ACE2 were investigated fluorometrically. Moreover, fibrosis was assessed in BDL rats receiving AVE0991. Results In vivo, AVE0991 decreased portal pressure (PP) in both rat models of cirrhosis. Importantly, systemic effects were not observed. The hepatic effects of AVE0991 were based on upregulation of vasodilating pathways involving p-eNOS and iNOS, as well as by downregulation of the vasoconstrictive pathways (ROCK, p-Moesin). Short-term treatment with AVE0991 decreased the activity of ACE2, long-term treatment did not affect hepatic fibrosis in BDL rats. Conclusions The non-peptidic agonist of Ang-(1–7), AVE0991, decreases portal pressure without influencing systemic pressure. Thus, although it does not inhibit fibrosis, AVE0991 may represent a promising new therapeutic strategy for lowering portal pressure. PMID:26406236

  19. Rescue AVE Stent Placement for Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Occlusion During Diagnostic Angiography.

    PubMed

    van Dijk D; Ernst; Six; Plokker

    1996-06-01

    In a 65-year-old male with coronary artery disease a proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery occurred during diagnostic coronary angiography. The most likely cause was an occlusive dissection. This resulted in acute myocardial ischemia and immediate cardiogenic shock. The decision was made to proceed to emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). After balloon dilatation, a 3.5 mm AVE stent was deployed successfully at the site of the lesion. This resulted in a satisfactory angiographic result and an immediate improvement of the clinical picture. We conclude that placement of an AVE stent can provide a means for restoring flow in case of acute occlusive dissection during coronary angiography.

  20. Large-scale vertical motion calculations in the AVE IV Experiment. [of atmospheric wind velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    Using 3- and 6-h consecutive rawinsonde and surface data from NASA's AVE IV Experiment, synoptic-scale vertical motion calculations are made using an adiabatic technique and three variations of the kinematic technique. Both subjective and objective comparisons in space and time between the sign and magnitude of the computed vertical velocities and precipitation intensities are made. These comparisons are conducted to determine which method would consistently produce realistic magnitudes, patterns, and vertical profiles of vertical velocity essential to the diagnostic study of the relationship between severe convective storms and their environment in AVE IV. The kinematic method, adjusted to the adiabatic value at 100 mb, proved to produce the best overall vertical velocities.

  1. Pressure contact sounding data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 2). [rawinsondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 54 stations participating in the AVE 2 pilot experiment. Soundings were taken at three-hour intervals from stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data reduction and estimates of data accuracy are discussed. Examples of the data records produced are shown. The AVE 2 pilot experiment was conducted as part of NASA's program to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales-of-motion interrelationships.

  2. Data for NASA's AVE 4 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucik, N. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The AVE 4 Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 42 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, April 24 and 1200 GMT, April 25, 1975. The methods of data processing and accuracy are discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented, as well as an example of contact data.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Omeire, Destiny; Abdin, Shaunte; Brooks, Daniel M; Miranda, Hector C

    2015-04-01

    The Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae) is classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. germaini is 16,699 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. All of the 13 protein-coding genes have ATG as start codon. Eight of the 13 protein-coding genes have TAA as stop codon.

  4. Data for NASA's AVE 4 experiment: 25 mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucik, N. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The AVE IV Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 42 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, April 24, and 1,200 GMT, April 25, 1975. The methods of data processing and accuracy are briefly discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented, as well as an example of contact data.

  5. Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheibler, D R

    2007-02-01

    I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets.

  6. Novel transient outward and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current antagonist, AVE0118, protects against ventricular fibrillation induced by myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Billman, George E; Kukielka, Monica

    2008-04-01

    AVE0118 is a novel drug that blocks the transient outward current (Ito), the ultra rapid component of the delayed rectifier current (IKur), and the acetylcholine dependent potassium channel (IKach). The latter 2 channels are more abundant in atrial tissue. It is possible that AVE0118 could reduce regional differences in repolarization and thereby prevent malignant arrhythmias provoked by ischemia. To test this hypothesis, ventricular fibrillation was induced by a 2-minute occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery during the last min of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions (n = 9). On a subsequent day, this exercise plus ischemia test was repeated after pretreatment with AVE0118 (1.0 mg/kg, IV). AVE0118 did not change QTc (Van de Water's correction) interval [245 +/- 6.0 ms (control) versus 242 +/- 2.3 ms (AVE)] and attenuated the dispersion of repolarization as measured by the duration of the descending portion of the T wave (Tpeak - Tend) induced by ischemia [ischemic changes: +11.1 +/- 2.4 ms (no drug) versus +2.2 +/- 3.7 ms (AVE)]. AVE0118 also significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation, protecting 7 of 9 animals. Thus, AVE0118 abolished ischemically induced repolarization abnormalities and prevented malignant arrhythmias induced by ischemia without altering QTc interval.

  7. Data for first NASA Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 1). Part 1: Data tabulation. [rawindsonde data for eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Smith, O. E.

    1973-01-01

    A tablulation is given of rawinsonde data for NASA's first Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 1) conducted during the period February 19-22, 1964. Methods of data handling and processing, and estimates of error magnitudes are also given. Data taken on the AVE 1 project in 1964 enabled an analysis of a large sector of the eastern United States on a fine resolution time scale. This experiment was run in February 1964, and data were collected as a wave developed in the East Gulf on a frontal system which extended through the eastern part of the United States. The primary objective of AVE 1 was to investigate the variability of parameters in space and over time intervals of three hours, and to integrate the results into NASA programs which require this type of information. The results presented are those from one approach, and represent only a portion of the total research effort that can be accomplished.

  8. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  9. Synonymous codon usage pattern in mitochondrial CYB gene in pisces, aves, and mammals.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-03-01

    Cytochrome b (CYB) protein plays an important role in complex III of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Codon usage is the phenomenon of non-uniform usage of synonymous codons. In the present study, we report the pattern of codon usage in MT-CYB gene using various codon usage parameters. Nucleotide composition such as % of C and T was higher than A and G in pisces. In aves, % of A and C was higher than T and G but in mammals, A and T was higher than C and G. Heat map shows that AT-ending codons were mostly negative and GC-ending codons were mostly positive. From the heat map based on RSCU values, it is evident that codon usage prefers A/C at the third codon position and it was less towards T/G in its third codon position. The codons absent in pisces were AGT (except Toxotes chatareus), TGT, and CAG (except Elasma zonatum). The codons such as AGT (except Falco peregrinus), CGT (except Vidua chalybeata), and ACG (except Aythya americana) were absent in aves whereas, in mammals, the absent codons were namely CAG (except Canis familiaris) and ACG (except Rattus norvegicus). Codon usage bias was low in pisces, aves, and mammals. The frequency of leucine was the highest in the amino acid and cysteine was the lowest. Correlation analysis further suggests that mutation pressure is mainly responsible for codon usage pattern. Natural selection might also play a vital role in codon usage pattern but it was weaker than mutation pressure.

  10. A revised classification of the Icteridae (Aves) based on DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Remsen, J V Jr; Powell, Alexis F L A; Schodde, Richard; Barker, F Keith; Lanyon, Scott M

    2016-03-21

    The higher-level classification of the New World blackbirds (Icteridae; Aves) has remained relatively stable for nearly a half-century, with most currently used classifications (e.g. Sibley & Monroe 1990; Jaramillo & Burke 1999; Fraga 2011; Remsen et al. 2015) following Blake's (1968) delimitation and sequence of genera in the Peters Check-list of Birds of the World series. Early molecular studies (e.g., Lanyon 1992, 1994; Johnson & Lanyon 1999; Price & Lanyon 2002; Cadena et al. 2004) produced only minor modifications.

  11. Improved COI barcoding primers for Southeast Asian perching birds (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Lohman, David J; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Meier, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The All Birds Barcoding Initiative aims to assemble a DNA barcode database for all bird species, but the 648-bp 'barcoding' region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can be difficult to amplify in Southeast Asian perching birds (Aves: Passeriformes). Using COI sequences from complete mitochondrial genomes, we designed a primer pair that more reliably amplifies and sequences the COI barcoding region of Southeast Asian passerine birds. The 655-bp region amplified with these primers overlaps the COI region amplified with other barcoding primer pairs, enabling direct comparison of sequences with previously published DNA barcodes. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. AVES-IMCO: an adaptive optics visible spectrograph and imager/coronograph for NAOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mouillet, D.; Chauvin, G.; Stadler, E.; Charton, J.; Lacombe, F.; AVES-IMCO Team

    2001-05-01

    The NAOS adaptive optics system will very soon provide diffraction-limited images on the VLT, down to the visible wavelengths (0.020 arcseconds at 0.83 micron for instance). At the moment, the only instrument dedicated to NAOS is the CONICA spectro-imager, operating in the near-infrared from 1 to 5 microns. We are now proposing to ESO, in collaboration with an Italian group, the development of a visible spectrograph/imager/coronograph, AVES-IMCO (Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and IMager/COronograph). We present here the general concept of the new instrument as well as its expected performances in the different modes.

  13. Manual de métodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves terrestres

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Peter Pyle; Thomas E. Martin; David F DeSante; Borja Milá

    1996-01-01

    El presente manual es una recopilación de métodos de campo para la determinación de índices de abundancia y datos demográficos de poblaciones de aves terrestres en una amplia variedad de hábitats. Está dirigido a biólogos, técnicos de campo, e investigadores de cualquier parte del Continente Americano. Los métodos descritos incluyen cuatro tipos de censos...

  14. The Chewing Lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) Fauna of the Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (Aves, Parulidae).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M

    2015-09-01

    We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).

  15. From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th St., looking west with building 135 (gas station) on the left. Beyond it is building 119 and to the right of 119 is the gable end of the north side of 120. Beyond and perpendicular to building 120 are 118 and 117. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) agonist, AVE8134, attenuates the progression of heart failure and increases survival in rats.

    PubMed

    Linz, Wolfgang; Wohlfart, Paulus; Baader, Manuel; Breitschopf, Kristin; Falk, Eugen; Schäfer, Hans-Ludwig; Gerl, Martin; Kramer, Werner; Rütten, Hartmut

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, AVE8134, in cellular and experimental models of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. In Sprague Dawley rats with permanent ligation of the left coronary artery (post-MI), AVE8134 was compared to the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone and in a second study to the ACE inhibitor ramipril. In DOCA-salt sensitive rats, efficacy of AVE8134 on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis was investigated. Finally, AVE8134 was administered to old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at a non-blood pressure lowering dose with survival as endpoint. In cellular models, we studied AVE8134 on hypertrophy in rat cardiomyocytes, nitric oxide signaling in human endothelial cells (HUVEC) and LDL-uptake in human MonoMac-6 cells. In post-MI rats, AVE8134 dose-dependently improved cardiac output, myocardial contractility and relaxation and reduced lung and left ventricular weight and fibrosis. In contrast, rosiglitazone exacerbated cardiac dysfunction. Treatment at AVE8134 decreased plasma proBNP and arginine and increased plasma citrulline and urinary NOx/creatinine ratio. In DOCA rats, AVE8134 prevented development of high blood pressure, myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis, and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction. Compound treatment increased cardiac protein expression and phosphorylation of eNOS. In old SHR, treatment with a low dose of AVE8134 improved cardiac and vascular function and increased life expectancy without lowering blood pressure. AVE8134 reduced phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes. In HUVEC, Ser-1177-eNOS phosphorylation but not eNOS expression was increased. In monocytes, AVE8134 increased the expression of CD36 and the macrophage scavenger receptor 1, resulting in enhanced uptake of oxidized LDL. The PPARalpha agonist AVE8134 prevents post-MI myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction. AVE8134 has beneficial effects against

  17. Comparative morphometric study of the vestibular system of the vertebrata: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces.

    PubMed

    Ramprashad, F; Landolt, J P; Money, K E; Laufer, J

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric measurements were made from serial sections of the vestibular system in four classes of vertebrates: Reptilia, Aves, Amphibia, and Pisces. Representative species of reptile studied were the lizard (Gekko gecko), the common garter snake (Thamnophis sp.), and the common turtle (Chelonia sp.). The budgie (Melopsittacus undulatas), the common pigeon (Columba domestica), the yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius), and the horned owl (Bubo virginianus) were chosen as representative of the bird. For the amphibian, the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), and the mud puppy (Necturus maculatus) were chosen for study. As representative of the fish, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), the tilapia (Tilapia mossambica), the guppy (Lebistes sp.), and the sea horse (Hippocampus sp.) were used in these measurements. The morphometric data obtained were then used in estimates of the time constants in the Steinhausen equation which describes the biophysics of fluid flow in the semicircular canals. In general, the time constants (theta/II in the Steinhausen equation) of these representatives of Reptilia, Aves, and Amphibia were of magnitude similar to those reported in mammals, despite the dissimilarities in the diameters of the ducts, the duct radii of curvature, the dimensions of the cristae ampullares and the utricle, and volumes of endolymph within the vestibular system. However, the short-time constants in Pisces were larger (therefore providing a slower response) than those in other vertebrates, and were similar to that of the turtle and the mud puppy.

  18. Radiological verification survey results at 15 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ005V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 15 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 15 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  19. Radiological verification survey results at 14 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ001V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W. R. Grace facility. The property at 14 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 14 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  20. Radiological verification survey results at 3 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ002V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 3 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 3 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  1. Radiological verification survey results at 7 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ003V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 7 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 7 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  2. Radiological verification survey results at 17 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ006V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 17 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 17 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  3. Radiological verification survey results as 13 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ004V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 13 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 13 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  4. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  5. Pelecitus tercostatus (Molin, 1960) (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) in Amazona vinacea (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Argentina: morphological details and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia I; Di Nucci, Dante L; Falzone, Martín P; Demergassi, Natalia M; Fernanda Lois, M; Zalazar, Raúl O; Navone, Graciela T; Gachen, Gustavo G

    2012-06-01

    Pelecitus tercostatus (Molin, 1860) (Onchocercidae, Dirofilariinae) was found in the leg of a Vinaceous-breasted Parrot Amazona vinacea (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Misiones, Argentina. The present report enlarges the host distribution of the species and represents the first record of any nematode in A. vinacea. The macroscopic lesions produced in the bird are also described.

  6. Comunidades de aves y lepidopteros diurnos y las relaciones entre ellas en bosque nuboso y cafetal de Finca Santa Maura, Jinotega

    Treesearch

    M. Torrez; W. Arendt; J. M. Maes

    2013-01-01

    Para evaluar la diversidad de aves y mariposas ninfálidas visitamos la Estación Biológica Juan Roberto Zarruk en Jinotega, donde colectamos datos en todos los hábitats presentes en la finca. Obtuvimos 123 especies de aves y 29 especies de ninfálidos. El hábitat con mayor riqueza para aves fue el cafetal y para ninfálidos el tacotal. Entre las especies más comunes...

  7. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  8. A Megafauna’s Microfauna: Gastrointestinal Parasites of New Zealand’s Extinct Moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Bonner, Karen I.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Kinsella, John M.; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We perform the first multidisciplinary study of parasites from an extinct megafaunal clade using coprolites from the New Zealand moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus) reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina), nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae) and a trematode (Echinostomida). Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction. PMID:23451203

  9. Characteristics of ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of a severe weather outbreak - AVE-SESAME I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    GOES satellite data was used to examine the ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of severe weather outbreaks along the Red River between Texas and Oklahoma in April 1979. The observations were part of the NASA AVE-SESAME I data on atmospheric states close to severe weather conditions. The Barnes Objective Analysis Technique was employed to analyze the data on a 100 km grid. The ageostrophic wind was defined on a regional scale from satellite data on different levels of cloud wind vectors, with a height change signalling a short-wave system in a long-wave trough. The percentage of deviation of the subgeostrophic winds from the geostrophic wind was calculated, and maximum departure corresponded with the region of greatest storm development. Time cross sections of additions to the ageostrophic flow were made as a function of pressure at 100 mb intervals from 900-100 mb. The ageostrophic acceleration was consistently twice the geostrophic acceleration.

  10. Impact evaluation of lighting retrofit projects at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group under The Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Oens, M.A.; Spanner, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    This impact evaluation of two lighting retrofit projects that were recently installed at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (Boeing) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The first project was a light-fixture and lighting control retrofit, consisting of five individual measures installed in Building 40-05. The second project was a retrofit of all parking lot lighting on the site. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Boeing as a result of the E$P projects and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Boeing`s proposals and completion reports).

  11. A megafauna's microfauna: gastrointestinal parasites of New Zealand's extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Bonner, Karen I; Worthy, Trevor H; Kinsella, John M; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    WE PERFORM THE FIRST MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF PARASITES FROM AN EXTINCT MEGAFAUNAL CLADE USING COPROLITES FROM THE NEW ZEALAND MOA (AVES: Dinornithiformes). Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus) reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina), nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae) and a trematode (Echinostomida). Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction.

  12. Motion Rehab AVE 3D: A VR-based exergame for post-stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Mateus; Bazzanello Henrique, Patrícia Paula; Brum, Manoela Rogofski; Colussi, Eliane Lucia; De Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti; Rieder, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    Recent researches about games for post-stroke rehabilitation have been increasing, focusing in upper limb, lower limb and balance situations, and showing good experiences and results. With this in mind, this paper presents Motion Rehab AVE 3D, a serious game for post-stroke rehabilitation of patients with mild stroke. The aim is offer a new technology in order to assist the traditional therapy and motivate the patient to execute his/her rehabilitation program, under health professional supervision. The game was developed with Unity game engine, supporting Kinect motion sensing input device and display devices like Smart TV 3D and Oculus Rift. It contemplates six activities considering exercises in a tridimensional space: flexion, abduction, shoulder adduction, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, elbow extension, wrist extension, knee flexion, and hip flexion and abduction. Motion Rehab AVE 3D also report about hits and errors to the physiotherapist evaluate the patient's progress. A pilot study with 10 healthy participants (61-75 years old) tested one of the game levels. They experienced the 3D user interface in third-person. Our initial goal was to map a basic and comfortable setup of equipment in order to adopt later. All the participants (100%) classified the interaction process as interesting and amazing for the age, presenting a good acceptance. Our evaluation showed that the game could be used as a useful tool to motivate the patients during rehabilitation sessions. Next step is to evaluate its effectiveness for stroke patients, in order to verify if the interface and game exercises contribute into the motor rehabilitation treatment progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TES Carbon Monoxide Validation during the Two AVE Campaigns using the Argus and ALIAS Instruments on NASA's WB-57F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jinena P.; Luo, Ming; Christensen, Lance E.; Loewenstein, Max; Jost, Hansjurg; Webster, Christopher R.; Osterman, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) focuses on validating Aura satellite measurements of important atmospheric trace gases using ground-based, aircraft, and balloon-borne instruments. Global satellite observations of CO from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite have been ongoing since September 2004. This paper discusses CO validation experiments during the Oct-AVE (2004 Houston, Texas) and CR-AVE (2006 San Jose, Costa Rica) campaigns. The coincidences in location and time between the satellite observations and the available in situ profiles for some cases are not ideal. However, the CO distribution patterns in the two validation flight areas are shown to have very little variability in the aircraft and satellite . observations, thereby making them suitable for validation comparisons. TES CO profiles, which typically have a retrieval uncertainty of 10-20%, are compared with in situ CO measurements from NASA Ames Research Center's Argus instrument taken on board the WB-57F aircraft during Oct-AVE. TES CO retrievals during CR-AVE are compared with in situ measurements from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) instrument as well as with the Argus instrument, both taken on board the WB-57F aircraft. During CR-AVE, the average overall difference between ALIAS and Argus CO was 4%, with the ALIAS measurement higher. During individual flights, 2-min time-averaged differences between the two in situ instruments had standard deviation of 14%. The TES averaging kernels and a priori constraint profiles for CO are applied to the in situ data for proper comparisons to account for the reduced vertical resolution and the influence of the a priori in the satellite-derived profile. In the TES sensitive pressure range, approx.700-200 hPa, the in situ profiles and TES profiles agree within 5-10%, less than the variability in CO distributions obtained by both TES and the aircraft instruments in the two

  14. TES Carbon Monoxide Validation during the Two AVE Campaigns using the Argus and ALIAS Instruments on NASA's WB-57F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jinena P.; Luo, Ming; Christensen, Lance E.; Loewenstein, Max; Jost, Hansjurg; Webster, Christopher R.; Osterman, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) focuses on validating Aura satellite measurements of important atmospheric trace gases using ground-based, aircraft, and balloon-borne instruments. Global satellite observations of CO from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite have been ongoing since September 2004. This paper discusses CO validation experiments during the Oct-AVE (2004 Houston, Texas) and CR-AVE (2006 San Jose, Costa Rica) campaigns. The coincidences in location and time between the satellite observations and the available in situ profiles for some cases are not ideal. However, the CO distribution patterns in the two validation flight areas are shown to have very little variability in the aircraft and satellite . observations, thereby making them suitable for validation comparisons. TES CO profiles, which typically have a retrieval uncertainty of 10-20%, are compared with in situ CO measurements from NASA Ames Research Center's Argus instrument taken on board the WB-57F aircraft during Oct-AVE. TES CO retrievals during CR-AVE are compared with in situ measurements from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) instrument as well as with the Argus instrument, both taken on board the WB-57F aircraft. During CR-AVE, the average overall difference between ALIAS and Argus CO was 4%, with the ALIAS measurement higher. During individual flights, 2-min time-averaged differences between the two in situ instruments had standard deviation of 14%. The TES averaging kernels and a priori constraint profiles for CO are applied to the in situ data for proper comparisons to account for the reduced vertical resolution and the influence of the a priori in the satellite-derived profile. In the TES sensitive pressure range, approx.700-200 hPa, the in situ profiles and TES profiles agree within 5-10%, less than the variability in CO distributions obtained by both TES and the aircraft instruments in the two

  15. Data for NASA's AVE 3 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts. [investigation of atmospheric parameters detected from satellite data under conditions of heavy snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The atmospheric variability experiment (AVE 3) is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 41 stations is presented. The experiment was conducted between February 6 and February 7, 1975. Brief discussions are given on methods of data processing, changes in the reduction scheme since the AVE 2 pilot experiment, and data accuracy. An example of contact data is presented as well as synoptic charts prepared from the data.

  16. AVE 0991, a non-peptide mimic of angiotensin-(1–7) effects, attenuates pulmonary remodelling in a model of chronic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Machado, M G; Magalhães, G S; Cardoso, J A; Kangussu, L M; Murari, A; Caliari, M V; Oliveira, M L; Cara, D C; Noviello, M L M; Marques, F D; Pereira, J M; Lautner, R Q; Santos, R A S; Campagnole-Santos, M J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE AVE 0991 (AVE) is a non-peptide compound, mimic of the angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7) actions in many tissues and pathophysiological states. Here, we have investigated the effect of AVE on pulmonary remodelling in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic allergic lung inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used BALB/c mice (6–8 weeks old) and induced chronic allergic lung inflammation by OVA sensitization (20 μg·mouse−1, i.p., four times, 14 days apart) and OVA challenge (1%, nebulised during 30 min, three times per·week, for 4 weeks). Control and AVE groups were given saline i.p and challenged with saline. AVE treatment (1 mg·kg−1·per day, s.c.) or saline (100 μL·kg−1·per day, s.c.) was given during the challenge period. Mice were anaesthetized 72 h after the last challenge and blood and lungs collected. In some animals, primary bronchi were isolated to test contractile responses. Cytokines were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung homogenates. KEY RESULTS Treatment with AVE of OVA sensitised and challenged mice attenuated the altered contractile response to carbachol in bronchial rings and reversed the increased airway wall and pulmonary vasculature thickness and right ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, AVE reduced IL-5 and increased IL-10 levels in the BAL, accompanied by decreased Ang II levels in lungs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AVE treatment prevented pulmonary remodelling, inflammation and right ventricular hypertrophy in OVA mice, suggesting that Ang-(1–7) receptor agonists are a new possibility for the treatment of pulmonary remodelling induced by chronic asthma. PMID:23889691

  17. Pathology-specific effects of the IKur/Ito/IK,ACh blocker AVE0118 on ion channels in human chronic atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Christ, T; Wettwer, E; Voigt, N; Hála, O; Radicke, S; Matschke, K; Várro, A; Dobrev, D; Ravens, U

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose This study was designed to establish the pathology-specific inhibitory effects of the IKur/Ito/IK,ACh blocker AVE0118 on atrium-selective channels and its corresponding effects on action potential shape and effective refractory period in patients with chronic AF (cAF). Experimental approach Outward K+-currents of right atrial myocytes and action potentials of atrial trabeculae were measured with whole-cell voltage clamp and microelectrode techniques, respectively. Outward currents were dissected by curve fitting. Key results Four components of outward K+-currents and AF-specific alterations in their properties were identified. Ito was smaller in cAF than in SR, and AVE0118 (10 μM) apparently accelerated its inactivation in both groups without reducing its amplitude. Amplitudes of rapidly and slowly inactivating components of IKur were lower in cAF than in SR. The former was abolished by AVE0118 in both groups, the latter was partially blocked in SR, but not in cAF, even though its inactivation was apparently accelerated in cAF. The large non-inactivating current component was similar in magnitude in both groups, but decreased by AVE0118 only in SR. AVE0118 strongly suppressed AF-related constitutively active IK,ACh and prolonged atrial action potential and effective refractory period exclusively in cAF. Conclusions and implications In atrial myocytes of cAF patients, we detected reduced function of distinct IKur components that possessed decreased component-specific sensitivity to AVE0118 most likely as a consequence of AF-induced electrical remodelling. Inhibition of profibrillatory constitutively active IK,ACh may lead to pathology-specific efficacy of AVE0118 that is likely to contribute to its ability to convert AF into SR. PMID:18536759

  18. Resolving lost herbivore community structure using coprolites of four sympatric moa species (Aves: Dinornithiformes).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Richardson, Sarah J; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Wagstaff, Steven J; Worthy, Trevor H; Cooper, Alan

    2013-10-15

    Knowledge of extinct herbivore community structuring is essential for assessing the wider ecological impacts of Quaternary extinctions and determining appropriate taxon substitutes for rewilding. Here, we demonstrate the potential for coprolite studies to progress beyond single-species diet reconstructions to resolving community-level detail. The moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) of New Zealand are an intensively studied group of nine extinct herbivore species, yet many details of their diets and community structuring remain unresolved. We provide unique insights into these aspects of moa biology through analyses of a multispecies coprolite assemblage from a rock overhang in a montane river valley in southern New Zealand. Using ancient DNA (aDNA), we identified 51 coprolites, which included specimens from four sympatric moa species. Pollen, plant macrofossils, and plant aDNA from the coprolites chronicle the diets and habitat preferences of these large avian herbivores during the 400 y before their extinction (∼1450 AD). We use the coprolite data to develop a paleoecological niche model in which moa species were partitioned based on both habitat (forest and valley-floor herbfield) and dietary preferences, the latter reflecting allometric relationships between body size, digestive efficiency, and nutritional requirements. Broad ecological niches occupied by South Island giant moa (Dinornis robustus) and upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus) may reflect sexual segregation and seasonal variation in habitat use, respectively. Our results show that moa lack extant ecological analogs, and their extinction represents an irreplaceable loss of function from New Zealand's terrestrial ecosystems.

  19. Coprolite deposits reveal the diet and ecology of the extinct New Zealand megaherbivore moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Rogers, Geoffery M.; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Cooper, Alan

    2008-12-01

    The discovery in New Zealand of Late Holocene deposits of coprolites from extinct avian megaherbivores has provided a unique opportunity to gain a detailed insight into the ecology of these birds across ecologically diverse habitats. Macrofossil analysis of 116 coprolites of the giant ratite moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes) reveals a diverse diet of herbs and low shrubs in both semi-arid and high rainfall ecological zones, overturning previous models of moa as dominantly browsers of trees and shrubs. Ancient DNA analysis identified coprolites from four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus and stout-legged moa, Euryapteryx gravis), revealing a larger dietary variation between habitat types than between species. The new data confirm that moa fed on a variety of endemic plant taxa with unusual growth forms previously suggested to have co-evolved with moa. Lastly, the feeding ecologies of moa are shown to be widely different to introduced mammalian herbivores.

  20. Embodying animals: Body-part compatibility in mammalian, reptile and aves classes.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Sandra M; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how humans code homologous body parts of nonhuman mammal, reptilian, and aves animals with respect to the representation of the human body. To this end, participants completed body-part compatibility tasks in which responses were executed to colored targets that were superimposed over the upper limbs, lower limbs or head of different animals in different postures. In Experiment 1, the images were of meekats and lizards in bipedal and quadrupedal postures. In Experiment 2, the images were of a human, a penguin, and an owl in a bipedal posture with upper limbs stretched out. Overall, the results revealed that the limbs of nonhuman mammals (meerkat and human) were consistently mapped onto the homologous human body parts only when the mammals were in a bipedal posture. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects emerged for the human and the meerkat in a bipedal posture, but not the meerkat in the quadrupedal posture. Further, consistent body-part compatibility effects were not observed for the lizard in the quadrupedal posture or for the lizard, penguin, or owl in a bipedal posture. The pattern of results suggests that the human bipedal body representation may distinguish taxonomical classes and is most highly engaged when viewing homologous body parts of mammalian animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, George L. W.; Wheeler, Andrew B.; Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-12-01

    Megafaunal extinction followed the prehistoric human settlement of islands across the globe, but the exact duration and dynamics of the extinction processes are difficult to determine. The New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes) are a prime example, where, despite an extensive fossil and archaeological record, debate continues about their extinction chronology and how extinction timings varied among regions and species. We apply probabilistic sightings methods to 111 high-quality radiocarbon dates (from a pool of 653 dates) on moa remains from natural and archaeological sites to provide a high-resolution spatio-temporal chronology of moa extinction. We interpret this alongside an estimated time for the onset of hunting pressure, obtained by applying the same methods to the most reliable proxies for initial human settlement of New Zealand: coprolites of and seeds gnawed by the commensal Pacific rat (Rattus exulans). By comparing local and national extinction times, we discriminate between the point at which hunting stopped (economic extinction) and the total extinction of moa (ca 150 and 200 years after settlement, respectively). Extinction occurred contemporaneously at sites separated by hundreds of kilometres. There was little difference between the extinction times of the smallest (20-50 kg) and largest (200+ kg) moa species. Our results demonstrate how rapidly megafauna were exterminated from even large, topographically- and ecologically-diverse islands such as New Zealand, and highlight the fragility of such ecosystems in the face of human impacts.

  2. Beyond a morphological paradox: complicated phylogenetic relationships of the parrotbills (Paradoxornithidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Yeung, Carol K L; Lin, Rong-Chien; Lei, Fumin; Robson, Craig; Hung, Le Manh; Liang, Wei; Zhou, Fasheng; Han, Lingxian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Yang, Xiaojun

    2011-10-01

    The parrotbills (Paradoxornithidae, meaning "birds of paradox," Aves) are a group of Old World passerines with perplexing taxonomic histories due to substantial morphological and ecological variation at various levels. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of the parrotbills were reconstructed based on sequences of two mitochondrial segments and three nuclear coding regions. Three major clades with characteristic body size and plumage coloration were found in both mtDNA and nuclear gene trees. However, mtDNA phylogeny suggested that the Paradoxornithidae is paraphyletic and relationships among three major parrotbill clades were poorly resolved. On the contrary, apparent and well-supported monophyletic relationships among the three major clades of Paradoxornithidae were revealed by concatenated nuclear dataset. Since paraphyly based on mtDNA data has commonly been found within avian taxa, the conflicting phylogenetic signal between mtDNA and nuclear loci revealed in this study indicates that results obtained from mtDNA dataset alone need to be evaluated with caution. Taxonomic implications of our phylogenetic findings are discussed. These phylogenies also point out areas for future investigation regarding the rapid diversification, morphological evolution and environmental adaptation of various parrotbill species or species complexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radar analyses of mesoscale meteorological phenomena during the AVE/VAS correlation field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Radar data were collected during the selected critical times of the field experiment and subsequently analyzed for specific items. The analyses of the radar data for the AVE/VAS experiment provided statistically significant values for each of the 10 Km by 10 Km grids within radar range. The resulting information for correlation with satellite data included the following derived items that were averaged for each grid area: (1) rainfall rate in mm/hr; (2) dBZ (reflectivity) values; (3) accumulated rainfall values per hour; (4) accumulated rainfall values for a 6-hour period; (5) vertically integrated liquid water content per square meter; and (6) vertical height of the radar axis at the midpoint of each grid. Additional products derived from radar data are being investigated. An example of one such product is the derivation of the errors in integrated rainfall with different sampling periods. This is of significance for correlation with satellite data in that normally a step-function type of rainfall rate is used to derive the total rainfall over a period.

  4. A novel Haemosporida clade at the rank of genus in North American cranes (Aves: Gruiformes).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Miranda R; Hamer, Sarah A; Hartup, Barry K; Snowden, Karen F; Medeiros, Matthew C; Outlaw, Diana C; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2017-04-01

    The unicellular blood parasites in the order Haemosporida are highly diverse, infect many vertebrates, are responsible for a large disease burden among humans and animals, and have reemerged as an important model system to understand the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of host-parasite interactions. The phylogenetics and systematics of Haemosporida are limited by poor sampling of different vertebrate host taxa. We surveyed the Haemosporida of wild whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) (Aves: Gruiformes) using a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. We identified Haemoproteus antigonis in blood smears based on published morphological descriptions. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome oxidase (coI) sequences placed H. antigonis parasites in a novel clade, distinct from all avian Haemosporida genera for which cytb and/or coI sequences are available. Molecular clock and divergence estimates suggest this crane clade may represent a new genus. This is the first molecular description of H. antigonis and the first report of H. antigonis in wild whooping cranes, an endangered bird in North America. Further sampling of Haemosporida, especially from hosts of the Gruiformes and other poorly sampled orders, will help to resolve the relationship of the H. antigonis clade to other avian Haemosporida genera. Our study highlights the potential of sampling neglected host species to discover novel lineages of diverse parasite groups. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A synoptic analysis of the first AVE-SESAME '79 period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. T.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Key features of a severe convection observed during April 10-11, 1979 as part of the Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) are examined. Three-hourly rawinsonde readings from 23 stations were taken, and vertical motion and divergence parameters are considered. The data were converted into a 127 km grid at the surface, and at 50 mb intervals from 900 mb to 100 mb by an objective analysis scheme, while a kinematic method was used to compute vertical motion. A weak upper tropospheric short wave trough was found to propagate from New Mexico into the Texas panhandle, while a jet maximum propagated eastward. The development of a strong wind maximum over Oklahoma and Kansas was associated with a rapid increase in upper-level divergence and the development of a small-scale pressure perturbation in the Texas panhandle, as well as a low-level jet and convergence, which led to rapid changes over the Red River Valley, where stability was decreased.

  6. Patterns of genetic variation in the adaptive radiation of New World crossbills (Aves: Loxia).

    PubMed

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Britch, Seth C

    2006-06-01

    Incipient species groups or young adaptive radiations such as crossbills (Aves: Loxia) present the opportunity to investigate directly the processes occurring during speciation. New World crossbills include white-winged crossbills (Loxia leucoptera), Hispaniolan crossbills (Loxia megaplaga), and red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex), the last of which is comprised of at least nine morphologically and vocally differentiated forms ('call types') where divergent natural selection for specialization on different conifer resources has been strongly implicated as driving diversification. Here we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to investigate patterns of genetic variation across populations, call types, and species of New World crossbills. Tree-based analyses using 440 AFLP loci reveal strongly supported clustering of the formally recognized species, but did not separate individuals from the eight call types in the red crossbill complex, consistent with recent divergence and ongoing gene flow. Analyses of genetic differentiation based on inferred allele frequency variation however, reveal subtle but significant levels of genetic differentiation among the different call types of the complex and indicate that between call-type differentiation is greater than that found among different geographic locations within call types. Interpreted in light of evidence of divergent natural selection and strong premating reproductive isolation, the observed genetic differentiation suggests restricted gene flow among sympatric call types consistent with the early stages of ecological speciation.

  7. Niche evolution and diversification in a Neotropical radiation of birds (Aves: Furnariidae).

    PubMed

    Seeholzer, Glenn F; Claramunt, Santiago; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-03-01

    Rapid diversification may be caused by ecological adaptive radiation via niche divergence. In this model, speciation is coupled with niche divergence and lineage diversification is predicted to be correlated with rates of niche evolution. Studies of the role of niche evolution in diversification have generally focused on ecomorphological diversification but climatic-niche evolution may also be important. We tested these alternatives using a phylogeny of 298 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae). We found that within Furnariidae, variation in species richness and diversification rates of subclades were best predicted by rate of climatic-niche evolution than ecomorphological evolution. Although both are clearly important, univariate regression and multivariate model averaging more consistently supported the climatic-niche as the best predictor of lineage diversification. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence, suggesting that climatic-niche divergence may be an important driver of rapid diversification in addition to ecomorphological evolution. However, this pattern may depend on the phylogenetic scale at which rate heterogeneity is examined. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the spoonbills (Aves: Threskiornithidae) based on mitochondrial DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R. Terry; Yeung, Carol K.L.; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Spoonbills (genus Platalea) are a small group of wading birds, generally considered to constitute the subfamily Plataleinae (Aves: Threskiornithidae). We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the six species of spoonbills using variation in sequences of the mitochondrial genes ND2 and cytochrome b (total 1796 bp). Topologies of phylogenetic trees reconstructed using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses were virtually identical and supported monophyly of the spoonbills. Most relationships within Platalea received strong support: P. minor and P. regia were closely related sister species, P. leucorodia was sister to the minor-regia clade, and P. alba was sister to the minor-regia-leucorodia clade. Relationships of P. flavipes and P. ajaja were less well resolved: these species either formed a clade that was sister to the four-species clade, or were successive sisters to this clade. This phylogeny is consistent with ideas of relatedness derived from spoonbill morphology. Our limited sampling of the Threskiornithinae (ibises), the putative sister group to the spoonbills, indicated that this group is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular data; this suggests that separation of the Threskiornithidae into subfamilies Plataleinae and Threskiornithinae may not be warranted.

  9. A molecular phylogeny of Pacific honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) reveals extensive paraphyly and an isolated Polynesian radiation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Michael J; Naikatini, Alivereti; Moyle, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the molecular phylogenetic placement of 14 species of Pacific island honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) in the broader context of an existing family-level phylogeny. We examined the evolutionary history of Pacific honeyeater lineages to assess the accuracy of current taxonomies and to evaluate their biogeographic history. We compare these biogeographic patterns to other Pacific birds to identify emergent patterns across lineages. We found strong support for a previously unknown endemic radiation in central Polynesia, which comprises five genera: Meliarchus, Guadalcanaria, Gymnomyza, Xanthotis, and Foulehaio. Conversely, other Pacific lineages were found to be strongly allied with continental radiations (e.g., Philemon eichhorni, P. cockerelli, and Lichmera incana). Our results necessitated taxonomic changes, both at the generic level (e.g., Xanthotis, Melidectes/Vosea, and Glycifohia/Gliciphila) and regarding species limits within polytypic species. Here, we discuss species limits in Foulehaio and Gymnomyza and recommend elevating three nominal subspecies of Foulehaio to species status, each of which forms well-differentiated clades.

  10. Relationships between convective storms and their environment in AVE IV determined from a three-dimensional subsynoptic-scale, trajectory model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes interrelationships between synoptic-scale and convective-scale systems obtained by following individual air parcels as they traveled within the convective storm environment of AVE IV. (NASA's fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment, AVE IV, was a 36-hour study in April 1975 of the atmospheric variability and structure in regions of convective storms.) A three-dimensional trajectory model was used to calculate parcel paths, and manually digitized radar was employed to locate convective activity of various intensities and to determine those trajectories that traversed the storm environment. Spatial and temporal interrelationships are demonstrated by reference to selected time periods of AVE IV which contain the development and movement of the squall line in which the Neosho tornado was created.

  11. TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David

    1987-01-01

    Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

  12. Identification of Specialists and Abundance-Occupancy Relationships among Intestinal Bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii.

    PubMed

    Green, Hyatt C; Fisher, Jenny C; McLellan, Sandra L; Sogin, Mitchell L; Shanks, Orin C

    2015-12-28

    The coalescence of next-generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineation of host-microbe associations has applied benefits ranging from clinical treatments to protecting our natural waters. Microbial communities follow some broad-scale patterns observed for macroorganisms, but it remains unclear how the specialization of intestinal vertebrate-associated communities to a particular host environment influences broad-scale patterns in microbial abundance and distribution. We analyzed the V6 region of 16S rRNA genes amplified from 106 fecal samples spanning Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish). We investigated the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship, where widespread taxa tend to be more abundant than narrowly distributed taxa, among operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within and among host species. In a separate analysis, we identified specialist OTUs that were highly abundant in a single host and rare in all other hosts by using a multinomial model without excluding undersampled OTUs a priori. We show that intestinal microbes in humans and other vertebrates display abundance-occupancy relationships, but because intestinal host-associated communities have undergone intense specialization, this trend is violated by a disproportionately large number of specialist taxa. Although it is difficult to distinguish the effects of dispersal limitations, host selection, historical contingency, and stochastic processes on community assembly, results suggest that intestinal bacteria can be shared among diverse hosts in ways that resemble the distribution of "free-living" bacteria in the extraintestinal environment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. A phylogenetic test of sympatric speciation in the Hydrobatinae (Aves: Procellariiformes).

    PubMed

    Wallace, S J; Morris-Pocock, J A; González-Solís, J; Quillfeldt, P; Friesen, V L

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among species can provide insight into how new species arise. For example, careful consideration of both the phylogenetic and geographic distributions of species in a group can reveal the geographic models of speciation within the group. One such model, sympatric speciation, may be more common than previously thought. The Hydrobatinae (Aves: Procellariformes) is a diverse subfamily of Northern Hemisphere storm-petrels for which the taxonomy is unclear. Previous studies showed that Hydrobates (formally Oceanodroma) castro breeding in the Azores during the cool season is sister species to H. monteiroi, a hot season breeder at the same locations, which suggests sympatric speciation by allochrony. To test whether other species within the subfamily arose via sympatric speciation by allochrony, we sequenced the cytochrome b gene and five nuclear introns to estimate a phylogenetic tree using multispecies coalescent methods, and to test whether species breeding in the same geographic area are monophyletic. We found that speciation within the Hydrobatinae appears to have followed several geographic modes of divergence. Sympatric seasonal species in Japan likely did not arise through sympatric speciation, but allochrony may have played a role in the divergence of H. matsudairae, a cool season breeder, and H. monorhis, a hot season breeder. No other potential cases of sympatric speciation were discovered within the subfamily. Despite breeding in the same geographic area, hydrobatine storm-petrels breeding in Baja California (H. microsoma and H. melania) are each sister to a species breeding off the coast of Peru (H. tethys and H. markhami, respectively). In fact, antitropical sister species appear to have diverged at multiple times, suggesting allochronic divergence might be common. In addition, allopatry has likely played a role in divergence of H. furcata, a north Pacific breeder, and H. pelagius, a north Atlantic breeder. This study demonstrates

  14. [Reproductive activity of Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Isla de Aves, Venezuela (2001-2008)].

    PubMed

    Vera, Vicente; Buitrago, Joaquín

    2012-06-01

    The second major nesting-site for green turtles in the Caribbean is Isla de Aves, an island protected as a wildlife refuge since 1972, located at 650km Northeast from La Guaira, Venezuela. In this island, the nesting population monitoring started in 1972 and in a more continuous way after 1978, when a Scientific-Naval Station was established and scientific observations started. Since historical data show that female captures had severely affected population levels in this island before 1978, this study aim to describe recent reproductive activities. For this, during the nesting seasons of 2001-2002 and 2005-2008, nesting females were measured and tagged using metal flipper tags. A total of 458 nights were sampled observing 5 154 female emergences, with a maximum of 53 in a single night. Non-observed emergences were calculated fitting the temporal distribution of observed emergences to a normal curve. Total emergences estimated varied from X=637.1+/-106.6 in 2001 to X =2 853+/-42.5 in 2008 (ANOVA F(6.5df)=60.37, p<0.0001). Internesting interval in the same season was estimated in X=10.71+/-1.32 days. Clutch frequency in a nesting season was calculated as X=1.71+/-1.6 times per female and season. Estimated number of nesting females per year varied from X=373+/-12.5 females in 2001 to X=l 669+/-56.1 females in 2008 (ANOVA F 55.6df)=89.42, p<0.0001); with a positive and significant trend (r=0.842, p=0.036). Results show that nesting females numbers are increasing. We suggest that the protection of the nesting area for more than 30 years, has contributed with this population increase.

  15. Comparative cophylogenetics of Australian phabine pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their feather lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, Andrew D.; Chesser, R. Terry; Johnson, Kevin P.

    2017-01-01

    Host–parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host–parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.

  16. High-speed video analysis of wing-snapping in two manakin clades (Pipridae: Aves).

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Kimberly S; Prum, Richard O

    2003-10-01

    Basic kinematic and detailed physical mechanisms of avian, non-vocal sound production are both unknown. Here, for the first time, field-generated high-speed video recordings and acoustic analyses are used to test numerous competing hypotheses of the kinematics underlying sonations, or non-vocal communicative sounds, produced by two genera of Pipridae, Manacus and Pipra (Aves). Eleven behaviorally and acoustically distinct sonations are characterized, five of which fall into a specific acoustic class of relatively loud, brief, broad-frequency sound pulses, or snaps. The hypothesis that one kinematic mechanism of snap production is used within and between birds in general, and manakins specifically, is rejected. Instead, it is verified that three of four competing hypotheses of the kinematic mechanisms used for producing snaps, namely: (1). above-the-back wing-against-wing claps, (2). wing-against-body claps and (3). wing-into-air flicks, are employed between these two clades, and a fourth mechanism, (4). wing-against-tail feather interactions, is discovered. The kinematic mechanisms used to produce snaps are invariable within each identified sonation, despite the fact that a diversity of kinematic mechanisms are used among sonations. The other six sonations described are produced by kinematic mechanisms distinct from those used to create snaps, but are difficult to distinguish from each other and from the kinematics of flight. These results provide the first detailed kinematic information on mechanisms of sonation in birds in general, and the Pipridae specifically. Further, these results provide the first evidence that acoustically similar avian sonations, such as brief, broad frequency snaps, can be produced by diverse kinematic means, both among and within species. The use of high-speed video recordings in the field in a comparative manner documents the diversity of kinematic mechanisms used to sonate, and uncovers a hidden, sexually selected radiation of

  17. Comparative cophylogenetics of Australian phabine pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their feather lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Chesser, R Terry; Johnson, Kevin P

    2017-02-10

    Host-parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host-parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.

  18. The effect of AVE 0991, nebivolol and doxycycline on inflammatory mediators in an apoE-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawien, Jacek; Toton-Zuranska, Justyna; Kus, Katarzyna; Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 3 different substances that can decrease the development of atherosclerosis – nebivolol, AVE 0991 and doxycycline – could at the same time diminish the level of inflammatory indicators interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), serum amyloid A (SAA), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Material/Methods Forty 8-week-old female apoE–knockout mice on the C57BL/6J background were divided into 4 groups and put on chow diet for 4 months. Three experimental groups received the same diet as a control group, mixed with AVE 0991 at a dose 0.58 μmol per kg of body weight per day, nebivolol at a dose 2.0 μmol per kg of body weight per day, and doxycycline at a dose 1.5 mg per kg of body weight per day. At the age of 6 months, the mice were sacrificed. Results All inflammatory indicators (MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12 and SAA) were diminished by AVE 0991. There was also a tendency to lower MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12 and SAA levels by nebivolol and doxycycline; however, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Of the 3 presented substances, only AVE 0991 was able to diminish the rise of inflammatory markers. Therefore, drug manipulations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis seem to be the most promising in the future treatment of atherogenesis. PMID:23018345

  19. Using the Spanish Online Resource "Aula Virtual de Espanol" (AVE) to Promote a Blended Teaching Approach in High School Spanish Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellerin, Martine; Montes, Carlos Soler

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the implementation of blended teaching (BT) by combining the Spanish online resource "Aula Virtual de Espanol" (AVE) with the face-to-face (F2F) delivery approach in second language Spanish programs in two high schools in Alberta, Canada. Findings demonstrate the effectiveness of combining the…

  20. Effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist treatment on elemental and biomolecular content and distribution in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, J.; Gajda, M.; Jawień, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Appel, K.; Dumas, P.

    2013-12-01

    Gene-targeted apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice display early and highly progressive vascular lesions containing lipid deposits and they became a reliable animal model to study atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist on the distribution of selected pro- and anti- inflammatory elements as well as biomolecules in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared (micro-FTIR) microspectroscopies were applied. Two-month-old apoE-KO mice were fed for following four months diet supplemented with AVE 0991 (0.58 μmol/kg b.w. per day). Histological sections of ascending aortas were analyzed spectroscopically. The distribution of P, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to correspond with histological structure of the lesion. Significantly lower contents of P, Ca, Zn and significantly higher content of Fe were observed in animals treated with AVE 0991. Biomolecular analysis showed lower lipids saturation level and lower lipid to protein ratio in AVE 0991 treated group. Protein secondary structure was studied according to the composition of amide I band (1660 cm-1) and it demonstrated higher proportion of β-sheet structure as compared to α-helix in both studied groups.

  1. A new species of Acroleptus Bourgeois (Coleoptera: Lycidae) from the Brazilian Amazonian rainforest, with a note on its homonymy with Acroleptus Cabanis (Aves).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vinicius S

    2015-04-24

    Acroleptus costae sp. nov. is described from the Brazilian Amazonian rainforest, raising the diversity of the formerly monotypic genus to two known species. The validity of Acroleptus Bourgeois, 1886 (Insecta) is maintained while Acroleptus Cabanis, 1861 (Aves) is considered to be an incorrect subsequent spelling.

  2. Coccidia of New World passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): a review of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Berto, Bruno P; Flausino, Walter; McIntosh, Douglas; Teixeira-Filho, Walter L; Lopes, Carlos W G

    2011-11-01

    In the New World, the avian order Passeriformes comprises 47 families and 2,453 species, yet to date only 21 (45%) of the families and 58 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only two species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and 81 species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 have been described. This review contributes to our understanding of the morphology and systematics of coccidian parasites of passeriforms, providing a scientific basis for the identification of sporulated oöcysts recovered from the faeces of passerine birds from North, Central and South America. To this end, the coccidia were organised and grouped according to the family of the host, following the widely recognised concept of family-specificity and the updated systematics of the class Aves. Details of 83 eimeriid species are presented along with an illustration and tabulated data.

  3. Numerical simulations of the subsynoptic features associated with the AVE-SESAME I case. I - The preconvective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zack, John W.; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The extensive diagnostic calculations made possible by the AVE-SESAME I database are used in combination with numerical simulations from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model to examine the dynamics of the meso-alpha-scale features during the preconvective period from 1130 to 2030 UTC on April 10, 1979. The version of the MASS model used in this investigation is presented, and an overview of the general synoptic conditions present at the time of model initialization is presented along with the data used to initialize the model. The dynamical processes present in the numerical simulations are presented and compared with analyses of the observational data from this and other investigations of this case. The relative importance of the adiabatic and diabatic processes in creating and then initiating the release of the convective instability is discussed.

  4. Meso beta-scale thunderstorm/environment interactions during AVE-SESAME V (20-21 May 1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Printy, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric variability in a convective area was examined with data from the AVE-SESAME V experiment. Temperature increases were observed in the upper troposphere during storm development, coupled with cooling near the surface and in the lower stratosphere. A mesohigh was detected at 200 mb over the convected area, and upper level winds increased speed north of the area. Wind velocity decreases occurred at the 200 mb level, reaching a 50 percent decrease, during the 3 hr period coinciding with most storms, and a simultaneous increase (doubling) was found in the wind speeds at the 400 mb level. Other phenomena present after the storms began included low-level convergence, upper level divergence, and ascending motion.

  5. Numerical simulations of the subsynoptic features associated with the AVE-SESAME I case. I - The preconvective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zack, John W.; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The extensive diagnostic calculations made possible by the AVE-SESAME I database are used in combination with numerical simulations from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model to examine the dynamics of the meso-alpha-scale features during the preconvective period from 1130 to 2030 UTC on April 10, 1979. The version of the MASS model used in this investigation is presented, and an overview of the general synoptic conditions present at the time of model initialization is presented along with the data used to initialize the model. The dynamical processes present in the numerical simulations are presented and compared with analyses of the observational data from this and other investigations of this case. The relative importance of the adiabatic and diabatic processes in creating and then initiating the release of the convective instability is discussed.

  6. Microsatellite usefulness is independent of phylogenetic distance in Tyrant flycatchers (Aves: Tyrannidae): a test using two globally threatened species.

    PubMed

    Mahler, B; Schneider, A R R; Di Giacomo, A S; Di Giacomo, A G; Reboreda, J C; Tiedemann, R

    2013-08-12

    Tyrant flycatchers (Aves: Tyrannidae) are endemic to the New World, and many species of this group are threatened or near-threatened at the global level. The aim of this study was to test the 18 microsatellite markers that have been published for other Tyrant flycatchers in the Strange-tailed Tyrant (Alectrurus risora) and the Sharp-tailed Tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta), two endemic species of southern South American grasslands that are classified as vulnerable. We also analyzed the usefulness of loci in relation to phylogenetic distance to the source species. Amplification success was high in both species (77 to 83%) and did not differ between the more closely and more distantly related species to the source species. Polymorphism success was also similar for both species, with 9 and 8 loci being polymorphic, respectively. An increased phylogenetic distance thus does not gradually lead to allelic or locus dropouts, implying that in Tyrant flycatchers, the published loci are useful independent of species relatedness.

  7. A comparison between Nimbus 5 THIR and ITPR temperatures and derived winds with rawinsonde data obtained in the AVE II experiment. [Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer and Infrared Temperature Profile Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.; Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    During the second Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II), atmospheric temperature profiles were computed from Nimbus 5 data, which comprised ITPR, NEMS, and SCR measurements. Rawinsonde data were obtained from NWS stations in the AVE II network and processed for each pressure contact; the soundings closest in space and time were interpolated to the Nimbus 5 sounding points for comparison purposes. Cross sections of thermal and geostrophic winds were computed from satellite-derived cross sections of temperature along the Nimbus orbital track.

  8. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  9. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  10. The development of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in relation to convection activity and synoptic systems in AVE 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied.

  11. Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), parasites of the passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes) in Australia and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) are described from passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): Harpirhynchoides artamus n. sp. from Artamus fuscus Vieillot (Artamidae) from an unknown locality in South Asia and Neharpyrhynchus domrowi n. sp. from three host species of the family Meliphagidae, Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Latham) (type-host) from Australia (New South Walles), Ptiloprora perstriata (De Vis) and Myzomela rosenbergii Schlegel from Papua New Guinea.

  12. A comparison between Nimbus 5 THIR and ITPR temperatures and derived winds with rawinsonde data obtained in the AVE 2 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.; Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    During the period of May 11 and 12, 1974, NASA conducted its second Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) over the eastern United States. In this time interval, two Nimbus 5 orbits crossed the AVE II area, providing a series of ITPR soundings as well as THIR data. Horizontal temperature mapping of the AVE II cloud field is examined using two grid print map scales. Implied cloud top heights are compared with maximum radar-echo top reports. In addition, shelter temperatures in areas of clear sky are compared with the surface temperatures as determined from 11.5 micrometer radiometer data of the THIR experiment. The ITPR sounding accuracy is evaluated using interpolated radiosonde temperatures at times nearly coincident with the ITPR soundings. It was found that mean differences between the two data sets were as small as 1.3 C near 500 mb and as large as 2.9 C near the tropopause. The differences between ITPR and radiosonde temperatures at constant pressure levels were sufficient to induce significant differences in the horizontal temperature gradient. Cross sections of geostrophic wind along the orbital tracks were developed using a thermal wind buildup based on the ITPR temperature data and the radiosonde temperature data. Differences between the radiosonde and ITPR geostrophic winds could be explained on the basis of differences in the ITPR and radiosonde temperature gradients.

  13. AVE protein expression and visceral endoderm cell behavior during anterior-posterior axis formation in mouse embryos: Asymmetry in OTX2 and DKK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Hideharu; Shioi, Go; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2015-06-15

    The initial landmark of anterior-posterior (A-P) axis formation in mouse embryos is the distal visceral endoderm, DVE, which expresses a series of anterior genes at embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5). Subsequently, DVE cells move to the future anterior region, generating anterior visceral endoderm (AVE). Questions remain regarding how the DVE is formed and how the direction of the movement is determined. This study compares the detailed expression patterns of OTX2, HHEX, CER1, LEFTY1 and DKK1 by immunohistology and live imaging at E4.5-E6.5. At E6.5, the AVE is subdivided into four domains: most anterior (OTX2, HHEX, CER1-low/DKK1-high), anterior (OTX2, HHEX, CER1-high/DKK1-low), main (OTX2, HHEX, CER1, LEFTY1-high) and antero-lateral and posterior (OTX2, HHEX-low). The study demonstrates how this pattern is established. AVE protein expression in the DVE occurs de novo at E5.25-E5.5. Neither HHEX, LEFTY1 nor CER1 expression is asymmetric. In contrast, OTX2 expression is tilted on the future posterior side with the DKK1 expression at its proximal domain; the DVE cells move in the opposite direction of the tilt.

  14. AVE1625, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, as a co-treatment with antipsychotics for schizophrenia: improvement in cognitive function and reduction of antipsychotic-side effects in rodents.

    PubMed

    Black, Mark D; Stevens, Rachel J; Rogacki, Nancy; Featherstone, Robert E; Senyah, Yaw; Giardino, Odessa; Borowsky, Beth; Stemmelin, Jeanne; Cohen, Caroline; Pichat, Philippe; Arad, Michal; Barak, Segev; De Levie, Amaya; Weiner, Ina; Griebel, Guy; Varty, Geoffrey B

    2011-05-01

    The psychotomimetic effects of cannabis are believed to be mediated via cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Furthermore, studies have implicated CB1 receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These studies investigated the effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist, AVE1625, in acute pharmacological and neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia. AVE1625 was administered to rodents alone or as a co-treatment with clinically used antipsychotic drugs (APDs). The antipsychotic potential of AVE1625 was tested using psychotomimetic-induced hyperactivity and latent inhibition (LI) deficit models. The procognitive profile was assessed using hole board, novel object recognition, auditory evoked potential, and LI techniques. In addition, the side-effect profile was established by measuring catalepsy, antipsychotic-induced weight gain, plasma levels of prolactin, and anxiogenic potential. AVE1625 (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg ip), reversed abnormally persistent LI induced by MK-801 or neonatal nitric oxide synthase inhibition in rodents, and improved both working and episodic memory. AVE1625 was not active in positive symptom models but importantly, it did not diminish the efficacy of APDs. It also decreased catalepsy and weight gain induced by APDs, suggesting that it may decrease APD-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and compliance. Unlike other CB1 antagonists, AVE1625 did not produce anxiogenic-like effects. These preclinical data suggest that AVE1625 may be useful to treat the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and as a co-treatment with currently available antipsychotics. In addition, an improved side-effect profile was seen, with potential to ameliorate the EPS and weight gain issues with currently available treatments.

  15. The influence of sampling design on species tree inference: a new relationship for the New World chickadees (Aves: Poecile).

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca B; Carling, Matthew D; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we explore the long-standing issue of how many loci are needed to infer accurate phylogenetic relationships, and whether loci with particular attributes (e.g., parsimony informativeness, variability, gene tree resolution) outperform others. To do so, we use an empirical data set consisting of the seven species of chickadees (Aves: Paridae), an analytically tractable, recently diverged group, and well-studied ecologically but lacking a nuclear phylogeny. We estimate relationships using 40 nuclear loci and mitochondrial DNA using four coalescent-based species tree inference methods (BEST, *BEAST, STEM, STELLS). Collectively, our analyses contrast with previous studies and support a sister relationship between the Black-capped and Carolina Chickadee, two superficially similar species that hybridize along a long zone of contact. Gene flow is a potential source of conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial gene trees, yet we find a significant, albeit low, signal of gene flow. Our results suggest that relatively few loci with high information content may be sufficient for estimating an accurate species tree, but that substantially more loci are necessary for accurate parameter estimation. We provide an empirical reference point for researchers designing sampling protocols with the purpose of inferring phylogenies and population parameters of closely related taxa. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Evolutionary differentiation in the Neotropical montane region: molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches (Aves, Emberizidae).

    PubMed

    Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Klicka, John; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-09-01

    Studies on Neotropical phylogeography have largely focused on lowland organisms. Because lowland and highland biotas have different histories and are likely affected by different processes influencing population differentiation, understanding Neotropical diversification requires detailed studies on montane taxa. We present the most comprehensive analysis of population differentiation conducted so far on a widespread group of Neotropical montane organisms, focusing on the evolutionary relationships and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches (Aves: Emberizidae) in montane areas from Mexico through Argentina. Sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes demonstrate that Buarremon is not monophyletic with respect to Arremon and Lysurus. Genetic structure revealed by mtDNA is strong in both B. brunneinucha and B. torquatus. Gene genealogies and nucleotide diversity indicate that B. brunneinucha originated in Mexico and later expanded to South America, where it followed one colonization route through the east, and one through the west of the continent. Differentiation among populations of B. torquatus was substantial, reaching 8% uncorrected sequence divergence within South America. Relationships among major lineages of B. torquatus were not fully resolved owing to rapid differentiation, but the occurrence of closely related taxa in distant locations suggests a complex history of diversification. Some Colombian populations of B. brunneinucha have affinities with populations from Venezuela and the East Andean slope of Ecuador and Peru, and others with those from the Pacific slope of Ecuador. Moreover, five divergent lineages of B. torquatus occur within Colombia, highlighting the importance of dense sampling in northwest South America for studies on diversification of widespread Neotropical lineages.

  17. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the Atlantic forest endemic Xiphorhynchus fuscus (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae): biogeography and systematics implications.

    PubMed

    Cabanne, Gustavo S; d'Horta, Fernando M; Sari, Eloisa H R; Santos, Fabrício R; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2008-12-01

    We studied the intraspecific evolutionary history of the South American Atlantic forest endemic Xiphorhynchusfuscus (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae) to address questions such as: Was the diversification of this bird's populations associated to areas of avian endemism? Which models of speciation (i.e., refuges, river as barriers or geotectonism) explain the diversification within X. fuscus? Does the genetic data support subspecies as independent evolutionary units (species)? We used mitochondrial (n=34) and nuclear (n=68) DNA sequences of X. fuscus to study temporal and spatial relationships within and between populations. We described four main monophyletic lineages that diverged during the Pleistocene. The subspecies taxonomy did not match all the evolutionary lineages; subspecies atlanticus was the only one that represented a monophyletic and isolated lineage. The distribution of these lineages coincided with some areas of endemism for passerines, suggesting that those areas could be regions of biotic differentiation. The ancestor of X. fuscus diverged approximately 3 million years ago from Amazonian taxa and the phylogeographic pattern suggested that X. fuscus radiated from northeastern Brazil. Neither the riverine nor the geotectonic vicariance models are supported as the primary cause for diversification of geographic lineages, but rainforest contractions and expansions (ecological vicariance) can explain most of the spatial divergence observed in this species. Finally, analyses of gene flow and divergence time estimates suggest that the endangered subspecies atlanticus (from northeastern Brazil) can be considered a full species under the general lineage species concept.

  18. Osteological histology of the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): correlates of wing-propelled diving and flightlessness.

    PubMed

    Smith, N Adam; Clarke, Julia A

    2014-02-01

    Although studies of osteological morphology, gross myology, myological histology, neuroanatomy, and wing-scaling have all documented anatomical modifications associated with wing-propelled diving, the osteohistological study of this highly derived method of locomotion has been limited to penguins. Herein we present the first osteohistological study of the derived forelimbs and hind limbs of wing-propelled diving Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes). In addition to detailing differences between wing-propelled diving charadriiforms and nondiving charadriiforms, microstructural modifications to the humeri, ulnae and femora of extinct flightless pan-alcids are contrasted with those of volant alcids. Histological thin-sections of four species of pan-alcids (Alca torda, †Alca grandis, †Pinguinus impennis, †Mancalla cedrosensis) and one outgroup charadriiform (Stercorarius longicaudus) were compared. The forelimb bones of wing-propelled diving charadriiforms were found to have significantly thicker (∼22%) cortical bone walls. Additionally, as in penguins, the forelimbs of flightless pan-alcids are found to be osteosclerotic. However, unlike the pattern documented in penguins that display thickened cortices in both forelimbs and hind limbs, the forelimb and hind limb elements of pan-alcids display contrasting microstructural morphologies with thickened forelimb cortices and relatively thinner femoral cortices. Additionally, the identification of medullary bone in the sampled †Pinguinus impennis specimen suggests that further osteohistological investigation could provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding sexual dimorphism of Great Auks. Finally, these results suggest that it is possible to discern volant from flightless wing-propelled divers from fragmentary fossil remains. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA in Woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes): Implications for Karyotype and ZW Sex Chromosome Differentiation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thays Duarte; Kretschmer, Rafael; Bertocchi, Natasha Avila; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2017-01-01

    Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA-including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA-in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)-Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)-by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clusters of 18S rDNA were found in one microchromosome pair in each of the three species, coinciding to a region of (CGG)10 sequence accumulation. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in some macrochromosomes pairs, indicating possible regions of fusions, which can be related to variation of diploid number in the family. Only one, from the 11 different microsatellite sequences used, did not produce any signals. Both species of genus Colaptes showed a similar distribution of microsatellite sequences, with some difference when compared to M. candidus. Microsatellites were found preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of micro and macrochromosomes. However, some sequences produced patterns of interstitial bands in the Z chromosome, which corresponds to the largest element of the karyotype in all three species. This was not observed in the W chromosome of Colaptes melanochloros, which is heterochromatic in most of its length, but was not hybridized by any of the sequences used. These results highlight the importance of microsatellite sequences in differentiation of sex chromosomes, and the accumulation of these sequences is probably responsible for the enlargement of the Z chromosome.

  20. Factors affecting germline mutations in a hypervariable microsatellite: a comparative analysis of six species of swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae).

    PubMed

    Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Kleven, Oddmund; Augustin, Jakob; Bentz, Kristofer H; Blomqvist, Donald; Fernie, Kim J; Magrath, Michael J L; Pärn, Henrik; Quinn, James S; Robertson, Raleigh J; Szép, Tibor; Tarof, Scott; Wagner, Richard H; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2011-03-15

    Microsatellites mutate frequently by replication slippage. Empirical evidence shows that the probability of such slippage mutations may increase with the length of the repeat region as well as exposure to environmental mutagens, but the mutation rate can also differ between the male and female germline. It has been hypothesized that more intense sexual selection or sperm competition can also lead to elevated mutation rates, but the empirical evidence is inconclusive. Here, we analyzed the occurrence of germline slippage mutations in the hypervariable pentanucleotide microsatellite locus HrU10 across six species of swallow (Aves: Hirundinidae). These species exhibit marked differences in the length range of the microsatellite, as well as differences in the intensity of sperm competition. We found a strong effect of microsatellite length on the probability of mutation, but no residual effect of species or their level of sperm competition when the length effect was accounted for. Neither could we detect any difference in mutation rate between tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, an industrial site with previous documentation of elevated mutation rates for minisatellite DNA, and a rural reference population. However, our cross-species analysis revealed two significant patterns of sex differences in HrU10 germline mutations: (1) mutations in longer alleles occurred typically in the male germline, those in shorter alleles in the female germline, and (2) male germline mutations were more often expansions than contractions, whereas no directional bias was evident in the female germline. These results indicate some fundamental differences in male and female gametogenesis affecting the probability of slippage mutations. Our study also reflects the value of a comparative, multi-species approach for locus-specific mutation analyses, through which a wider range of influential factors can be assessed than in single-species studies.

  1. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n=38), Aves (n=8) and Reptilia (n=8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large ‘unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  2. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  3. Impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Incorporated under the Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Dixon, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system (RCS) recently installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Inc. (Vitamilk) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The RCS installation at Vitamilk uses microcomputer- based controls to automate refrigeration equipment previously controlled manually. This impact evaluation assessed how much electricity is being saved at Vitamilk as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. On a unit savings basis, this project will save 9.7 kWh/tonne (8-8 kWh/ton) of milk and ice cream produced, based on the product mix for June 1992 through May 1993, representing a 28% reduction in energy consumption. The project was installed in 1992 for a total cost of $129,330, and Vitamilk received payment of $62,974 from Bonneville in 1993 for the acquisition of energy savings. The real levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville is 8.5 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars) over the project`s assumed 15-year life, and the real levelized cost to the region is 17.9 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars), not including transmission and distribution effects. Based on the expected project installation costs and energy savings benefits, the RCS would not have been implemented by Vitamilk without the E$P acquisition payment. The expected acquisition payment reduced the estimated payback period from 7.0 to 2.8 years. Although Vitamilk would generally require an energy conservation project to have a payback period of two years or less, the slightly longer payback period was accepted in this case.

  4. Impact evaluation of a slush stock chest bypass installed at Scott Paper Company under the energy $avings plan

    SciTech Connect

    Oens, M.A.; Spanner, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This impact evaluation of the bypass of a slush stock chest that was recently installed at Scott Paper Company (Scott Paper) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The project consists of installing an adjustable speed drive, a 74.6 kW (100 hp) pump, a re-sized impeller, and piping modifications to bypass the slush stock chest and related equipment. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Scott Paper as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Scott Paper`s proposal and completion report). Based on this impact evaluation, energy savings from this project are expected to be 763,600 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr) or 0.087 average megawatts (aMW). On a per-ton basis, this project will save 4.64 kWh/ton or 39.2%. The project cost $120,098 to install, and Scott Paper received payment of $82,232 (in 1993 dollars) from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. Pacific Northwest Laboratory calculated the real levelized cost of the energy savings to Bonneville as 14.2 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars) over the project`s assumed 15-year life, and the real levelized cost to the region as 21.9 mills/kWh, not including transmission and distribution effects. The project would not have been implemented without the acquisition payment from Bonneville and therefore is not a free rider.

  5. Dynamics and phylogenetic implications of MtDNA control region sequences in New World Jays (Aves: Corvidae).

    PubMed

    Saunders, M A; Edwards, S V

    2000-08-01

    To study the evolution of mtDNA and the intergeneric relationships of New World Jays (Aves: Corvidae), we sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) from 21 species representing all genera of New World jays, an Old World jay, crows, and a magpie. Using maximum likelihood methods, we found that both the transition/transversion ratio (kappa) and among site rate variation (alpha) were higher in flanking domains I and II than in the conserved central domain and that the frequency of indels was highest in domain II. Estimates of kappa and alpha were much more influenced by the density of taxon sampling than by alternative optimal tree topologies. We implemented a successive approximation method incorporating these parameters into phylogenetic analysis. In addition we compared our study in detail to a previous study using cytochrome b and morphology to examine the effect of taxon sampling, evolutionary rates of genes, and combined data on tree resolution. We found that the particular weighting scheme used had no effect on tree topology and little effect on tree robustness. Taxon sampling had a significant effect on tree robustness but little effect on the topology of the best tree. The CR data set differed nonsignificantly from the tree derived from the cytochrome b/morphological data set primarily in the placement of the genus Gymnorhinus, which is near the base of the CR tree. However, contrary to conventional taxonomy, the CR data set suggested that blue and black jays (Cyanocorax sensu lato) might be paraphyletic and that the brown jay Psilorhinus (=Cyanocorax) morio is the sister group to magpie jays (Calocitta), a phylogenetic hypothesis that is likely as parsimonious with regard to nonmolecular characters as monophyly of Cyanocorax. The CR tree also suggests that the common ancestor of NWJs was likely a cooperative breeder. Consistent with recent systematic theory, our data suggest that DNA sequences with high substitution rates such as the CR may

  6. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA in Woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes): Implications for Karyotype and ZW Sex Chromosome Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Rafael; Bertocchi, Natasha Avila; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garnero, Analía del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2017-01-01

    Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA—including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA—in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)—Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)–by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clusters of 18S rDNA were found in one microchromosome pair in each of the three species, coinciding to a region of (CGG)10 sequence accumulation. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in some macrochromosomes pairs, indicating possible regions of fusions, which can be related to variation of diploid number in the family. Only one, from the 11 different microsatellite sequences used, did not produce any signals. Both species of genus Colaptes showed a similar distribution of microsatellite sequences, with some difference when compared to M. candidus. Microsatellites were found preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of micro and macrochromosomes. However, some sequences produced patterns of interstitial bands in the Z chromosome, which corresponds to the largest element of the karyotype in all three species. This was not observed in the W chromosome of Colaptes melanochloros, which is heterochromatic in most of its length, but was not hybridized by any of the sequences used. These results highlight the importance of microsatellite sequences in differentiation of sex chromosomes, and the accumulation of these sequences is probably responsible for the enlargement of the Z chromosome. PMID:28081238

  7. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-03-17

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild.

  8. New material of Longipteryx (Aves: Enantiornithes) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China with the first recognized avian tooth crenulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuri; Shen, Caizhi; Liu, Sizhao; Gao, Chunling; Cheng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fengjiao

    2015-04-02

    We report on a new specimen of Longipteryx chaoyangensis from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. The new material preserves previously unknown tooth crenulations. This is the first recognized tooth crenulations within Aves. It not only provides new information regarding the anatomy of the Longipteryx, but also sheds new light on the trophic specialization of this genus and even this family. It was discovered from the Yixian Formation, which is older than the Longipteryx chaoyangensis bearing-Jiufotang Formation. This new discovery also expands the known stratigraphic range of Longipteryx.

  9. Interspecific differences in the antioxidant capacity of two Laridae species exposed to metals.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2016-05-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the concentration of metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn) in blood, and elucidate their potential effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in red blood cells of Audouin's gull (Ichthyaetus audouinii) and Slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei) chicks in Southeastern Spain. For this purpose, total glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes activities (glutathione peroxidase, GPx; superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione-S-transferase, GST), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were analyzed. In general, metal exposure in both species can be considered low, except for Hg in Audouin's gull. Our findings show higher antioxidant levels in Audouin's gull than in Slender-billed gull; probably due to a combination of different basal antioxidant capacity between species, and to an up-regulation of the antioxidant system in Audouin's gull as a response to the higher Hg, Cu and Zn concentrations. This could reduce the production of TBARS keeping them at lower levels than those found in Slender-billed gull. In spite of this, the significantly higher Hg levels found in Audouin's gull (13.6µg/dl wet weight) in comparison to Slender-billed gull (2.7µg/dl), likely related to their different diet and the former consuming discarded fish, were able to produce lipid peroxidation in this species. The positive effect of Hg on SOD activity in Slender-billed gull, and of Pb on GSH levels in Audouin's gull, could reflect the necessity of the organism to upregulate these antioxidants to balance the increased oxidative stress caused by metals. The degree of metal exposure seems to be essential in the response of the antioxidant system, which may suffer up or down-regulations depending on metal concentrations. This study supports the interactive effects of metals on oxidative stress biomarkers, the complexity of the antioxidant system and the close cooperation between antioxidants, which requires the study of several metals and biomarkers to evaluate oxidative stress and damage in wild birds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The complete mitogenome of the Black-tailed gull Larus crassirostris (Charadriiformes: Laridae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome (KM507782) of the Black-tailed gull L. crassirostris was 16,746 bp long, with A 30.6% (5128 bp), T 24.3% (4076 bp), C 30.9% (5176 bp), and G 14.1% (2366 bp). Total length of 13 protein-coding genes was 11,396 bp and 12 of them except for ND6 were encoded in heavy strand. The three initiation codons ATG, GTG and ATT were used in the protein-coding genes. The ATG was a common initiation codon which was found in most of the protein-coding genes, whereas GTG was used in COX1 and ND5 and ATT in only ND3, respectively. The total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1550 bp, ranging from 66 bp (tRNA(Ser(AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Ser(UCN))).

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Charadriiformes: Laridae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanqiu; Zhou, Lizhi; Li, Bo; Zhao, Guanghong

    2016-05-01

    The Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus is a waterbird, which breeds from north-east North America and across much of Europe and Asia. In this study, we determined its complete mitochondrial DNA sequence by PCR-based approach. The complete mtDNA sequence is 16,807 bp in size. The overall-based composition was 30.8% A, 31.1% T, 14.2% C, 24.0% G, with an A + T content (54.8%) rich feature. The mitochondrial genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. All protein coding genes use the typical intiation codon ATN, except for COI. TAN is the most frequent stop codon, and AGG and T- - are also occurred very common. The tRNA(Ser(AGN)) and tRNA(Lys(CUN)) lacked the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and formed a simple loop.

  12. Frequency of micronuclei and of other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of the grey mullet from the Mondego, Douro and Ave estuaries--Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carrola, João; Santos, Nádia; Rocha, Maria J; Fontainhas-Fernandes, António; Pardal, Miguel A; Monteiro, Rogério A F; Rocha, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Fish are bioindicators of water pollution, and an increased rate of their erythrocyte nuclear morphological abnormalities (ENMAs)-and particularly of erythrocyte micronuclei (EMN)-is used as a genotoxicity biomarker. Despite the potential value of ENMAs and MN, there is scarce information about fish captured in Iberian estuaries. This is the case of the Portuguese estuaries of the Mondego, Douro and Ave, suffering from different levels of environmental stress and where chemical surveys have been disclosing significant amounts of certain pollutants. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicants impacts and infer about the exposure at those ecosystems, using the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) as bioindicator and considering the type and frequency of nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes as proxies of genotoxicity. Sampling of mullets was done throughout the year in the important Mondego, Douro and Ave River estuaries (centre and north-western Portugal). The fish (total n = 242) were caught in campaigns made in spring-summer and autumn-winter, using nets or fishing rods. The sampled mullets were comparable between locations in terms of the basic biometric parameters. Blood smears were stained with Diff-Quik to assess the frequencies of six types of ENMAs and MN (given per 1,000 erythrocytes). Some basic water physicochemical parameters were recorded to search for fluctuations matching the ENMAs. Overall, the most frequent nucleus abnormality was the polymorphic type, sequentially followed by the blebbed/lobed/notched, segmented, kidney shaped, vacuolated, MN and binucleated. The total average frequency of the ENMAs ranged from 73 ‰ in the Mondego to 108 ‰ in the Ave. The polymorphic type was typically ≥50 % of the total ENMAs, averaging about 51 ‰, when considering all three estuaries. The most serious lesion-the MN-in fish from Mondego and Douro had a similar frequency (≈0.38 ‰), which was significantly lower than that in the Ave (0

  13. The Yellow-green Bush-tanager is neither a bush-tanager nor a sparrow:
    Molecular phylogenetics reveals that Chlorospingus flavovirens is a tanager (Aves: Passeriformes; Thraupidae).

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Barker, F Keith; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2016-07-06

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the genus Chlorospingus (Aves: Emberizidae) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic because Chlorospingus flavovirens is actually a member of the tanager family (Thraupidae), in which its closest relatives are members of the genus Bangsia. We thus propose that C. flavovirens be transferred to Thraupidae and to the genus Bangsia.

  14. Reading: Ave Atque Vale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Although basic literacy will continue to be necessary for survival, mass communications and information technology are bringing about an inevitable and lamentable decline in reading for pleasure and in the love of literature for its own sake. (TE)

  15. Reading: Ave Atque Vale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Although basic literacy will continue to be necessary for survival, mass communications and information technology are bringing about an inevitable and lamentable decline in reading for pleasure and in the love of literature for its own sake. (TE)

  16. A review of the mite subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--parasites of New World birds (Aves: Neognathae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; OConnor, Barry M; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-30

    Mites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (Aves: Neognathae) in the New World are revised. In all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. Among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: Harpyrhynchoides gallowayi Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from Canada (Manitoba), H. zenaida Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Zenaida macroura (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from USA (Michigan), H. calidris Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from USA (Kansas), H. actitis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Canada (British Columbia), H. charadrius Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Charadrius vociferus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Texas), H. pluvialis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Pluvialis dominica (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Ohio), H. bubulcus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Bubulcus ibis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Florida), H. ixobrychus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Ixobrychus exilis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Michigan), H. puffinus Mertins sp. nov. from Puffinus gravis (Procellariformes: Procellariidae) from USA (Florida), H. megascops Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Megascops asio (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Michigan), H. athene Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Athene canicularia (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Texas), H. coccyzus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Coccyzus americanus (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from USA (Michigan), H. crotophaga Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from Suriname; Crassacarus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen, gen. nov.: Crassacarus alexfaini Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. (type of genus

  17. Scientific Objectives and Design Study of an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) for the NAOS Visitor Focus at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Franchini, Mariagrazia; di Marcantonio, Paolo; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca; Santin, Paolo

    We present the scientific case for an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) that we propose as a visitor instrument for the secondary port of NAOS at the VLT. We show that such an instrument would be ideal for intermediate resolution (R=16,000) spectroscopy of faint sky-limited objects down to a magnitude of V=24.0 and will complement very effectively the near-IR imaging capabilities of CONICA. We present examples of science programmes that could be carried out with such an instrument and which cannot be addressed with existing VLT instruments. We also report on the result of a two-year design study of the instrument, with specific reference to its use as parallel instrument of NAOS.

  18. Cucolepis cincta gen.n. et sp.n. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from the squirrel cuckoo Piaya cayana lesson (Aves: Cuculiformes) from Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna J; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2012-12-01

    Cucolepis gen. n. is erected as monotypic for Cucolepis cincta sp. n., a new species of cyclophyllidean cestode of the family Paruterinidae. The new species is described from the squirrel cuckoo, Piaya cayana Lesson (Aves: Cuculiformes), taken from two localities in Paraguay in 1984 and 1985. This new genus is most similar to the genus Triaenorhina Spasskii et Shumilo, 1965 in terms of the hook morphology and large epiphyseal structures extending from both the handle and guard, but differs in several aspects of the strobilar morphology, such as the shape of the cirrus sac, genital atrium, uterus and paruterine organ. The strobilar morphology of the new genus strongly resembles that of the genus Francobona Georgiev et Kornyushin, 1994, especially the shape of the cirrus sac and genital atrium, yet Francobona spp. lack, the developed epiphyseal structures observed in species of Cucolepis and Triaenorhina. Previous records and the nature of parasite-host associations between cuculiform birds and their cestode parasites are discussed.

  19. A new species of Procyrnea (Nematoda: Habronematidae) parasitic in Rhea pennata (Aves: Rheidae) from Patagonia, Argentina, with a key to species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, E; Frixione, M; Digiani, M C; Cremonte, F

    2017-07-31

    Procyrnea choique n. sp. is described from the lesser rhea, Rhea pennata d´Orbigny (Aves: Rheidae), from the Protected Natural Area Península Valdés, Chubut province, Argentina. The new species resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. excisiformis, P. dollfusi, P. haliasturi, P. anterovulvata, P. graculae, P. brevicaudata, P. uncinipenis, P. javaensis, P. ameerae, P. ornata, P. aegotheles, P. spiralis, P. ruschii and P. aptera, mainly in the absence of lateral alae; but differs from its congeners by having a left spicule without barbs, the position of the vulva which is post-equatorial, the absence of lateral ridges, absent median precloacal papilla, asymmetrical caudal alae, males more than 6 mm long, left spicule 1 mm long and spicule ratio 1:3. Our results extend the taxonomy of Procyrnea Chabaud, 1958 and comprise the first report of a habronematid from R. pennata. A key to species of Procyrnea is presented.

  20. A kinetic energy study of the meso beta-scale storm environment during AVE-SESAME 5 (20-21 May 1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Printy, M. F.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Kinetic energy of the near storm environment was analyzed by meso beta scale data. It was found that horizontal winds in the 400 to 150 mb layer strengthen rapidly north of the developing convection. Peak values then decrease such that the maximum disappears 6 h later. Southeast of the storms, wind speeds above 300 mb decrease nearly 50% during the 3 h period of most intense thunderstorm activity. When the convection dissipates, wind patterns return to prestorm conditions. The mesoscale storm environment of AVE-SESAME 5 is characterized by large values of cross contour generation of kinetic energy, transfers of energy to nonresolvable scales of motion, and horizontal flux divergence. These processes are maximized within the upper troposphere and are greatest during times of strongest convection. It is shown that patterns agree with observed weather features. The southeast area of the network is examined to determine causes for vertical wind variations.

  1. An analysis of the AVE-SESAME I period using statistical structure and correlation functions. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Meyer, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Structure and correlation functions are used to describe atmospheric variability during the 10-11 April day of AVE-SESAME 1979 that coincided with the Red River Valley tornado outbreak. The special mesoscale rawinsonde data are employed in calculations involving temperature, geopotential height, horizontal wind speed and mixing ratio. Functional analyses are performed in both the lower and upper troposphere for the composite 24 h experiment period and at individual 3 h observation times. Results show that mesoscale features are prominent during the composite period. Fields of mixing ratio and horizontal wind speed exhibit the greatest amounts of small-scale variance, whereas temperature and geopotential height contain the least. Results for the nine individual times show that small-scale variance is greatest during the convective outbreak. The functions also are used to estimate random errors in the rawinsonde data. Finally, sensitivity analyses are presented to quantify confidence limits of the structure functions.

  2. An analysis of the AVE-SESAME I period using statistical structure and correlation functions. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Meyer, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Structure and correlation functions are used to describe atmospheric variability during the 10-11 April day of AVE-SESAME 1979 that coincided with the Red River Valley tornado outbreak. The special mesoscale rawinsonde data are employed in calculations involving temperature, geopotential height, horizontal wind speed and mixing ratio. Functional analyses are performed in both the lower and upper troposphere for the composite 24 h experiment period and at individual 3 h observation times. Results show that mesoscale features are prominent during the composite period. Fields of mixing ratio and horizontal wind speed exhibit the greatest amounts of small-scale variance, whereas temperature and geopotential height contain the least. Results for the nine individual times show that small-scale variance is greatest during the convective outbreak. The functions also are used to estimate random errors in the rawinsonde data. Finally, sensitivity analyses are presented to quantify confidence limits of the structure functions.

  3. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  4. Impact evaluation of a mill tailings thickener installed at J.R. Simplot Company`s Smoky Canyon Mine under the Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the impact of an energy conservation project completed in the fall of 1992. The project (a mill tailings thickener) was installed at J.R. Simplot Company`s (Simplot`s) Smoky Canyon Mine in Caribou County, Idaho near Afton, Wyoming. The project at Simplot is one in a continuing series of industrial energy conservation projects to have its impact evaluated by PNL. All of the projects have received or will receive acquisition payments from the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) under the Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The E$P is being offered to reduce electricity consumption in the industrial sector of Bonneville`s service territory. For the Simplot project, the acquisition payment offered under the program was equal to the lesser of 10{cents}/kilowatt-hour (kWh) saved in the first year or 80% of eligible project costs, up to a limit of $250,000. The general objective of the impact evaluation was to determine how much electricity is saved by the project and at what cost to Bonneville and to the region.

  5. On the absence of sternal elements in Anchiornis (Paraves) and Sapeornis (Aves) and the complex early evolution of the avian sternum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoting; O’Connor, Jingmai; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Min; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2014-01-01

    Anchiornis (Deinonychosauria: Troodontidae), the earliest known feathered dinosaur, and Sapeornis (Aves: Pygostylia), one of the basalmost Cretaceous birds, are both known from hundreds of specimens, although remarkably not one specimen preserves any sternal ossifications. We use histological analysis to confirm the absence of this element in adult specimens. Furthermore, the excellent preservation of soft-tissue structures in some specimens suggests that no chondrified sternum was present. Archaeopteryx, the oldest and most basal known bird, is known from only 10 specimens and the presence of a sternum is controversial; a chondrified sternum is widely considered to have been present. However, data from Anchiornis and Sapeornis suggest that a sternum may also have been completely absent in this important taxon, suggesting that the absence of a sternum could represent the plesiomorphic avian condition. Our discovery reveals an unexpected level of complexity in the early evolution of the avian sternum; the large amount of observable homoplasy is probably a direct result of the high degree of inherent developmental plasticity of the sternum compared with observations in other skeletal elements. PMID:25201982

  6. Biogeography and taxonomy of racket-tail hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Ocreatus): evidence for species delimitation from morphology and display behavior.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, Karl-L; Weller, André-A; Jürgens, Dietmar

    2016-11-27

    We analyzed geographic variation, biogeography, and intrageneric relationships of racket-tail hummingbirds Ocreatus (Aves, Trochilidae). Presently, the genus is usually considered monospecific, with O. underwoodii including eight subspecies (polystictus, discifer, underwoodii, incommodus, melanantherus, peruanus, annae, addae), although up to three species have been recognized by some authors. In order to evaluate the current taxonomy we studied geographic variation in coloration, mensural characters, and behavioral data of all Ocreatus taxa. We briefly review the taxonomic history of the genus. Applying the Biological Species Concept, species delimitation was based on a qualitative-quantitative criteria analysis including an evaluation of character states. Our results indicate that the genus should be considered a superspecies with four species, the monotypic Ocreatus addae, O. annae, and O. peruanus, and the polytypic O. underwoodii (including the subspecies underwoodii, discifer, incommodus, melanantherus, polystictus). In this taxonomic treatment, O. annae becomes an endemic species to Peru and O. addae is endemic to Bolivia. We recommend additional sampling of distributional, ethological, and molecular data for an improved resolution of the evolutionary history of Ocreatus.

  7. On the absence of sternal elements in Anchiornis (Paraves) and Sapeornis (Aves) and the complex early evolution of the avian sternum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoting; O'Connor, Jingmai; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Min; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2014-09-23

    Anchiornis (Deinonychosauria: Troodontidae), the earliest known feathered dinosaur, and Sapeornis (Aves: Pygostylia), one of the basalmost Cretaceous birds, are both known from hundreds of specimens, although remarkably not one specimen preserves any sternal ossifications. We use histological analysis to confirm the absence of this element in adult specimens. Furthermore, the excellent preservation of soft-tissue structures in some specimens suggests that no chondrified sternum was present. Archaeopteryx, the oldest and most basal known bird, is known from only 10 specimens and the presence of a sternum is controversial; a chondrified sternum is widely considered to have been present. However, data from Anchiornis and Sapeornis suggest that a sternum may also have been completely absent in this important taxon, suggesting that the absence of a sternum could represent the plesiomorphic avian condition. Our discovery reveals an unexpected level of complexity in the early evolution of the avian sternum; the large amount of observable homoplasy is probably a direct result of the high degree of inherent developmental plasticity of the sternum compared with observations in other skeletal elements.

  8. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  9. Digenean parasites of the great antshrike, Taraba major (Aves: Thamnophilidae), from Argentina, with a description of a new species of the genus Strigea (Strigeidae).

    PubMed

    Lunaschi, Lía I; Drago, Fabiana B

    2013-09-01

    During a survey of birds from Argentina, two species of Digenea, one of them new, were found parasitizing the great antshrike, Taraba major (Vieillot) (Aves: Thamnophilidae). The strigeid, Strigea orbiculata sp. n. is characterized by having a body plump, a copulatory bursa without a membraneous fold ('Ringnapf'), entire testes, eggs with miracidia with eye-spots, by the arrangement of vitelline follicles in the forebody, which are densely distributed from its anterior edge, and by the absence of a neck region in the hindbody. Among the known Neotropical species of Strigea Abildgaard, 1790, only five share with Strigea orbiculata sp. n. the body shape and the distribution ofvitelline follicles in the forebody: Strigea caluri Dubois, 1962, S. elliptica (Brandes, 1888), S. inflecta Lunaschi et Drago, 2012, S. nugax Szidat, 1928 and S. sphaerocephala (Westrumb, 1823 nec Brandes 1888). However, S. caluri can be easily distinguished by having a membraneous fold in the copulatory bursa originated from 'Ringnapf', and multilobed testes. Strigea elliptica differs mainly by having a well developed 'Ringnapf' and the remaining species differ principally by metrical characters. The dicrocoeliid, Lyperosomum oswaldoi (Travassos, 1919) is reported for the first time from Argentina and T. major represents its new definitive host. The host specificity ofNeotropical Strigea spp. is discussed and an updated list of records of their hosts is provided.

  10. Karyotype morphology suggests that the Nyctibius griseus (Gmelin, 1789) carries an ancestral ZW-chromosome pair to the order Caprimulgiformes (Aves)

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Leonardo Martin; Kretschmer, Rafael; Ledesma, Mario Angel; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Studies of karyotypes have been revealing important information on the taxonomic relationships and evolutionary patterns in various groups of birds. However, the order Caprimulgiformes is one of the least known in terms of its cytotaxonomy. So far, there are no cytogenetic data in the literature on birds belonging to 3 of 5 families of this order -Nyctibiidae, Steatornithidae and Aegothelidae. For this reason, the aim of our study was to describe the karyotype of Nyctibius griseus (Gmelin, 1789) (Aves, Nyctibiidae, Caprimulgiformes) and contribute with new data that could help to clarify the evolutionary relationships in this group. Bone marrow was cultured directly to obtain material for the chromosome study. C-banding was used to visualize the constitutive heterochromatin and Ag-NOR-banding to reveal nucleolus organizer regions. The diploid number observed was 2n=86±. Using sequential Giemsa/C-banding staining, we determined that the W chromosome was entirely C-band positive with the two most prominent markers in the interstitial and distal regions of the long arm. The nucleolus organizer regions showed a typical location in a pair of microchromosomes that exhibited Ag-NOR.The results obtained for Nyctibius griseus suggest that, of all the species studied in the references cited, it has the most ancestral sex chromosome composition of the order Caprimulgiformes. PMID:24260678

  11. Historical relationships among Neotropical lowland forest areas of endemism as determined by mitochondrial DNA sequence variation within the Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae: Glyphorynchus spirurus).

    PubMed

    Marks, Ben D; Hackett, Shannon J; Capparella, Angelo P

    2002-07-01

    Studies of the distribution of South American taxa have identified several areas of endemism that may have contributed to the historical diversification of the region. We constructed a phylogeny of Glyphorynchus spirurus (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae) populations using mtDNA sequence data from portions of cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit II (ND2), and complete NADH dehydrogenase subunit III (ND3). Using this phylogeny we evaluate five previous hypotheses of area-relationships, two based on phylogenetic studies of morphological characters in birds and three based on parsimony analysis of endemism in birds and primates. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses recovered two phylogenetic hypotheses that differed in the placement of one of the areas. Within each of the areas of endemism, the two analyses support the same clades. Neither of the phylogenetic hypotheses for Glyphorynchus exactly matches any of the five previous hypotheses of area-relationships, although ambiguous support exists for one of them. Five areas-Central America, Inambari, Napo, Pará, and Rondônia-are supported as composites with component taxa having phylogenetic affinities with more than one area. Data reported here also indicate high levels of sequence divergence within Glyphorynchus. Genetic breaks within Glyphorynchus are only partially congruent with subspecific taxonomy. The regional sampling design used makes this study the largest scale genetic assay of a widespread Neotropical avian taxon published to date.

  12. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae, Aves) with a comparative evolutionary analysis of breeding system and plumage dimorphism and a revised phylogenetic classification.

    PubMed

    Berv, Jacob S; Prum, Richard O

    2014-12-01

    The Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae: Aves) are a group of passerine birds that are characterized by extreme diversity in morphology, ecology, breeding system, and behavior. Here, we present a comprehensive phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas based on six nuclear and mitochondrial loci (∼7500 bp) for a sample of 61 cotinga species in all 25 genera, and 22 species of suboscine outgroups. Our taxon sample more than doubles the number of cotinga species studied in previous analyses, and allows us to test the monophyly of the cotingas as well as their intrageneric relationships with high resolution. We analyze our genetic data using a Bayesian species tree method, and concatenated Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, and present a highly supported phylogenetic hypothesis. We confirm the monophyly of the cotingas, and present the first phylogenetic evidence for the relationships of Phibalura flavirostris as the sister group to Ampelion and Doliornis, and the paraphyly of Lipaugus with respect to Tijuca. In addition, we resolve the diverse radiations within the Cotinga, Lipaugus, Pipreola, and Procnias genera. We find no support for Darwin's (1871) hypothesis that the increase in sexual selection associated with polygynous breeding systems drives the evolution of color dimorphism in the cotingas, at least when analyzed at a broad categorical scale. Finally, we present a new comprehensive phylogenetic classification of all cotinga species.

  13. Stratigraphic context and paleoenvironmental significance of minor taxa (Pisces, Reptilia, Aves, Rodentia) from the late Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological site of Buia (Eritrea).

    PubMed

    Rook, L; Ghinassi, M; Carnevale, G; Delfino, M; Pavia, M; Bondioli, L; Candilio, F; Coppa, A; Martínez-Navarro, B; Medin, T; Papini, M; Zanolli, C; Libsekal, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Buia Homo site, also known as Wadi Aalad, is an East African paleoanthropological site near the village of Buia that, due to its very rich yield from the late Early Pleistocene, has been intensively investigated since 1994. In this paper, which reports on the finds of the 2010-2011 excavations, we include new fossil evidence on previously identified taxa (i.e., reptiles), as well as the very first description of the small mammal, fish and bird remains discovered. In particular, this study documents the discovery of the first African fossil of the genus Burhinus (Aves, Charadriiformes) and of the first rodent from the site. This latter is identified as a thryonomyid rodent (cane rat), a relatively common taxon in African paleoanthropological faunal assemblages. On the whole, the new occurrences documented within the Buia vertebrate assemblage confirm the occurrence of taxa characterized by strong water dependence. The paleoenvironmental characteristics of the fauna are confirmed as fully compatible with the evidence obtained through sedimentology and facies analysis, documenting the sedimentary evolution of fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Moa's Ark or volant ghosts of Gondwana? Insights from nineteen years of ancient DNA research on the extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Allentoft, Morten E; Rawlence, Nicolas J

    2012-01-20

    The moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) of New Zealand represent one of the extinct iconic taxa that define the field of ancient DNA (aDNA), and after almost two decades of genetic scrutiny of bones, feathers, coprolites, mummified tissue, eggshell, and sediments, our knowledge of these prehistoric giants has increased significantly. Thanks to molecular and morphological-based research, the insights that have been obtained into moa phylogenetics, phylogeography, and palaeobiology exceeds that of any other extinct taxon. This review documents the strengths of applying a multidisciplinary approach when studying extinct taxa but also shows that cross-disciplinary controversies still remain at the most fundamental levels, with highly conflicting interpretations derived from aDNA and morphology. Moa species diversity, for example, is still heavily debated, as well as their relationship with other ratites and the mode of radiation. In addition to increasing our knowledge on a lineage of extinct birds, further insights into these aspects can clarify some of the basal splits in avian evolution, and the evolutionary implications of the breakup of the prehistoric supercontinent Gondwana. Did a flightless moa ancestor drift away on proto New Zealand (Moa's Ark) or did a volant ancestor arrive by flight? Here we provide an overview of 19 years of aDNA research on moa, critically assess the attempts and controversies in placing the moa lineage among palaeognath birds, and discuss the factors that facilitated the extensive radiation of moa. Finally, we identify the most obvious gaps in the current knowledge to address the future potential research areas in moa genetics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Ancient DNA analyses of early archaeological sites in New Zealand reveal extreme exploitation of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) at all life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Allentoft, Morten E.; Walter, Richard; Scofield, R. Paul; Haile, James; Holdaway, Richard N.; Bunce, Michael; Jacomb, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The human colonisation of New Zealand in the late thirteenth century AD led to catastrophic impacts on the local biota and is among the most compelling examples of human over-exploitation of native fauna, including megafauna. Nearly half of the species in New Zealand' s pre-human avifauna are now extinct, including all nine species of large, flightless moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). The abundance of moa in early archaeological sites demonstrates the significance of these megaherbivores in the diet of the first New Zealanders. Combining moa assemblage data, based on DNA identification of eggshell and bone, with morphological identification of bone (literature and museum catalogued specimens), we present the most comprehensive audit of moa to date from several significant 13th-15th century AD archaeological deposits across the east coast of the South Island. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified from 251 of 323 (78%) eggshell fragments and 22 of 27 (88%) bone samples, and the analyses revealed the presence of four moa species: Anomalopteryx didiformis; Dinornis robustus; Emeus crassus and Euryapteryx curtus. The mtDNA, along with polymorphic microsatellite markers, enabled an estimate of the minimum number of individual eggs consumed at each site. Remarkably, in one deposit over 50 individual eggs were identified - a number that likely represents a considerable proportion of the total reproductive output of moa in the area and emphasises that human predation of all life stages of moa was intense. Molecular sexing was conducted on bones (n = 11). Contrary to previous ancient DNA studies from natural sites that consistently report an excess of female moa, we observed an excess of males (2.7:1), suggestive that males were preferential targets. This could be related to different behaviour between the two highly size-dimorphic sexes in moa. Lastly, we investigated the moa species from recovered skeletal and eggshell remains from seven Wairau Bar burials, and identified

  16. Prevalence and diversity of avian malaria parasites in migratory Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger, Laridae, Charadriiformes) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Roos, F L; Belo, N O; Silveira, P; Braga, E M

    2015-10-01

    The Medium Solimões River region in the Brazilian Amazon Basin is an area utilized for reproduction and nesting by a variety of species of migratory aquatic birds such as Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger). These migratory birds form mixed-species reproductive colonies with high population densities and exhibit a large range of migration routes. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and diversity of the avian malaria parasites Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in Black Skimmers, on the basis of the association between microscopic observation of blood smears and amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (mtDNA cyt-b). The overall prevalence rates of the parasites for juvenile and adult bird specimens were 16% (5/31) and 22% (15/68), respectively. Sequencing the mtDNA cyt-b marker revealed two Plasmodium lineages, which had been previously described in different regions of the American continent, including a Neotropical region in Southeast Brazil, and one Haemoproteus lineage. The fact that avian malarial parasites have been found infecting the Black Skimmers in the Brazilian Amazon ecosystem, which exhibits considerable diversity, highlights the importance of these migratory birds as a potential source of infection and dispersion of pathogens to other susceptible birds of the Nearctic and Neotropical regions.

  17. Seabirds and chronic oil pollution: self-cleaning properties of gulls, Laridae, as revealed from colour-ring sightings.

    PubMed

    Camphuysen, Kees C J

    2011-03-01

    Mystery oil spills off the Dutch coast affected colonial, adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls prior to and within the breeding season. From colour-ringed individuals, it was demonstrated that most oiled birds survived and were clean within a few weeks and often bred successfully. Further evidence of self-cleaning properties of Larus-gulls is provided from a long-term colour-ringing project (1984-2009). In total 46 birds were reported 'oiled', two died, but the majority cleaned itself and survived for up to 20 years after being oiled. From colour-ring data and 30 years of beached bird surveys (1980-2010) it is demonstrated that the effects of chronic oil pollution is larger in winter than in summer; a reflection of seasonal differences in exposure and environmental conditions. The self-cleaning properties of gulls are such that long-term survival is not necessarily jeopardized and even in a breeding season, not all is lost in case of a spill. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Habitat selection and metapopulation structure: a multi-year study of distribution of the Hodgson's pipit, Anthus Hodgsoni Richm. (Aves, Passeriformes)].

    PubMed

    Burskiĭ, O V

    2008-01-01

    Numbers and distribution of the Hodgson's pipit (Anthus hodgson Richm.: Aves, Passeriformes) were studied in the Yenissei middle taiga region over an area of about 450 sq km. Distribution of breeding pairs was mapped on fixed study plots (up to 450 ha in total) annually during 15 years. Habitat properties were described and measured in detail on 53 4-ha homogeneous plots within the area. It is shown by means of multiple regression, an average bird abundance over these plots depends on five habitat features (R2 = 0.74) including development and accessibility of moss cover and absence of a potential competitor, the tree pipit (A. trivialis L.). Correlation with these factors ruterated every year, therefore the average bird abundance was used as an index of habitat favourability. Density deviations from the mean in years of high and low numbers appeared to be closely related to habitat favourability; in particular, the relationship can alter the sign depending on the spatial scale of population structures. Changes in abundance reversely related to favourability in adjacent habitats, according to the prediction of despotic distribution hypothesis (Fretwell, Lucas, 1970), strictly indicating dominance behaviour during selection of a breeding territory. The numbers in larger population groups occupying a patchy habitat complex changed synchronously and proportionally to their average habitat quality. This assumes another mechanism governing the distribution of individuals, requiring no local knowledge and no dominance relationships. Dynamics and distribution of individuals among population groups of different hierarchic ranks agree with investigations on establishing of individual site fixation in birds and allow splitting the process into four consecutive steps. 1. During the juvenile dispersal, birds spread around quite evenly, disregarding of habitat quality. This maintains entirety of the metapopulation and occupation of isolated habitat spots. 2. The juvenile

  19. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  20. The regulation of the corticomelanotropic cell activity in aves. III--Effect of various peptides on the release of MSH from dispersed, perfused duck pituitary cells. Cosecretion of ACTH with MSH.

    PubMed

    Castro, M G; Estivariz, F E; Iturriza, F C

    1988-01-01

    1. The melanotropin-releasing activity of arginine-vasopressin (AVP), arginine-vasotocin (AVT), oxitocin (OT), mesotocin (MT) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was studied in the duck using dispersed, perfused pituitary cells and a specific alpha-MSH RIA. 2. Log dose-response curves were obtained for all the peptides ranging from 5 to 100 ng/ml. All peptides behaved as partial agonists compared to duck median eminence extracts (DME). 3. AVT and MT displayed an alpha-MSH releasing capacity of 60% relative to DME whereas all other peptides behaved as weak agonists with less than 15% capacity relative to DME. 4. AVT and CRF when perfused together acted synergistically on alpha-MSH release yielding a dose response line whose slope approximated that of DME. 5. ACTH was cosecreted together with alpha-MSH in all situations studied with an ACTH to alpha-MSH molar ratio of about 10. 6. It is concluded that CRF and neurohypophyseal peptides may be physiological stimulators of both alpha-MSH and ACTH release in aves.

  1. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    PubMed

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear

  2. Evolution of leaf warbler songs (Aves: Phylloscopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Martens, Jochen; Fischer, Balduin S; Sun, Yue-Hua; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Päckert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Songs in passerine birds are important for territory defense and mating. Speciation rates in oscine passerines are so high, due to cultural evolution, that this bird lineage makes up half of the extant bird species. Leaf warblers are a speciose Old-World passerine family of limited morphological differentiation, so that songs are even more important for species delimitation. We took 16 sonographic traits from song recordings of 80 leaf warbler taxa and correlated them with 15 potentially explanatory variables, pairwise, and in linear models. Based on a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the same taxa, all pairwise correlations were corrected for relatedness with phylogenetically independent contrasts and phylogenetic generalized linear models were used. We found a phylogenetic signal for most song traits, but a strong one only for the duration of the longest and of the shortest element, which are presumably inherited instead of learned. Body size of a leaf warbler species is a constraint on song frequencies independent of phylogeny. At least in this study, habitat density had only marginal impact on song features, which even disappeared through phylogenetic correction. Maybe most leaf warblers avoid the deterioration through sound propagation in dense vegetation by singing from exposed perches. Latitudinal (and longitudinal) extension of the breeding ranges was correlated with most song features, especially verse duration (longer polewards and westwards) and complexity (lower polewards). Climate niche or expansion history might explain these correlations. The number of different element types per verse decreases with elevation, possibly due to fewer resources and congeneric species at higher elevations. PMID:25691998

  3. Cranial osteology of meiglyptini (aves: piciformes: picidae).

    PubMed

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José

    2012-01-01

    THE MEIGLYPTINI COMPRISE EIGHT SPECIES GROUPED INTO THREE GENERA: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1) a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2) the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3) the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4) the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds' diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  4. AVE/VAS experiment: Ground truth network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The visible/infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) atmospheric sounder (VAS) rawinsonde field program is discussed. Specific items covered include: planning, personnel requirements and training, operational requirement and procedures, sounding times and dates, methods of data processing, data inventory, and status of data processing.

  5. AVE/VAS experiment: Ground truth network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The visible/infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) atmospheric sounder (VAS) rawinsonde field program is discussed. Specific items covered include: planning, personnel requirements and training, operational requirement and procedures, sounding times and dates, methods of data processing, data inventory, and status of data processing.

  6. Cranial Osteology of Meiglyptini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae)

    PubMed Central

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José

    2012-01-01

    The Meiglyptini comprise eight species grouped into three genera: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1) a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2) the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3) the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4) the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds' diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species. PMID:22567317

  7. Vision in the peafowl (Aves: Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan S

    2002-12-01

    The visual sense of the Indian blue-shouldered peafowl Pavo cristatus was investigated with respect to the spectral absorption characteristics of the retinal photoreceptors, the spectral transmittance of the ocular media and the topographic distribution of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer. Microspectrophotometry revealed a single class of rod, four spectrally distinct types of single cone and a single class of double cone. In the case of the single cone types, which contained visual pigments with wavelengths of maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) at 424, 458, 505 and 567 nm, spectral filtering by the ocular media and the different cone oil droplets with which each visual pigment is associated gives predicted peak spectral sensitivities of 432, 477, 537 and 605 nm, respectively. Topographic analysis of retinal ganglion cell distribution revealed a large central area of increased cell density (at peak, 35,609 cells mm(-2)) with a poorly defined visual streak extending nasally. The peafowl has a calculated maximum spatial resolution (visual acuity) in the lateral visual field of 20.6 cycles degrees(-1). These properties of the peafowl eye are discussed with respect to its visual ecology and are compared with those of other closely related species.

  8. Acuaria paraguayensis n. sp. from Sirystes sibilator (Aves: Tyrannidae) in Paraguay and a redescription of A. mamillaris (Molin, 1860) from Cyanocorax cayanus (Corvidae) in Brazil, with a key to the species of Acuaria Bremser, 1811 (Nematoda: Acuariidae) in the New World.

    PubMed

    Mutafchiev, Yasen; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2012-01-01

    Acuaria paraguayensis n. sp. is described on the basis of specimens from Sirystes sibilator (Vieillot) (Aves: Passeriformes, Tyrannidae) in Paraguay. In addition, A. mamillaris (Molin, 1860) from Cyanocorax cayanus (L.) (Corvidae) in Brazil is redescribed on the basis of its type-series from the collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. A review of the species of Acuaria Bremser, 1811 in the New World is presented. Currently, 16 species belong to this genus, which are mostly parasitic in passeriform birds (one record in piciform birds). An identification key to the species of Acuaria occurring in the New World is presented. Acuaria multispinosa (Vigueras, 1938) originally described from Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett) (Ardeidae) in Cuba, also known from various herons (Ciconiiformes, Ardeidae) in southern states of the USA, does not correspond to the generic diagnosis of Acuaria and is considered a species incertae sedis. Acuaria gracilis var. sturni Boyd, 1951 is elevated to full species rank as Acuaria sturni Boyd, 1951.

  9. Long-term clinical and economic analysis of the Endeavor drug-eluting stent versus the Driver bare-metal stent: 4-year results from the ENDEAVOR II trial (Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions).

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Wijns, William; Fajadet, Jean; Mauri, Laura; Edwards, Rex; Cowper, Patricia A; Kong, David F; Anstrom, Kevin J

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate long-term clinical and economic outcomes for subjects receiving Endeavor drug-eluting versus Driver bare-metal stents (both Medtronic CardioVascular, Santa Rosa, California). Early studies found that the drug-eluting stent (DES) was a clinically and economically attractive alternative to the bare-metal stent; however, associations between DES and very late stent thrombosis suggest that longer follow-up is required. We used clinical, resource use and follow-up data from 1,197 subjects randomized to receive Endeavor (n = 598) versus Driver (n = 599) stents in ENDEAVOR II (Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) study with Medicare cost weights and quality of life adjustments applied from secondary sources. We compared differences through 4-year follow-up (1,440 days). Patients in both treatment groups had similar baseline characteristics. The use of Endeavor versus Driver reduced 4-year target vessel revascularization rates per 100 subjects (10.4 vs. 21.5; difference: -11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -16.0 to -6.1; p < 0.001), with no difference in the rates per 100 subjects of death (5.0 vs. 5.2; difference: -0.2; 95% CI: -2.7 to 2.4; p = 0.90) or nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.2 vs. 4.4; difference: -1.2; 95% CI: -3.4 to 1.0; p = 0.29). After discounting at a 3% annual rate, there were no differences in quality-adjusted survival days (1,093 vs. 1,090; difference: 3; 95% CI: -13 to 19; p = 0.69) and total medical costs ($21,483 vs. $21,680; difference: -$198; 95% CI: -$1,608 to $1,207; p = 0.78). The use of Endeavor versus Driver was associated with a significant reduction in target vessel revascularization through 4-year follow-up with no difference in death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, quality-adjusted survival, or total medical costs. These results are comparable to those for other studies

  10. Evaluation of the medtronic exponent self-expanding carotid stent system with the medtronic guardwire temporary occlusion and aspiration system in the treatment of carotid stenosis: combined from the MAVErIC (Medtronic AVE Self-expanding CaRotid Stent System with distal protection In the treatment of Carotid stenosis) I and MAVErIC II trials.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Randall T; Popma, Jeffrey J; Apruzzese, Patricia; Zimetbaum, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Embolic protection devices and improved stent technology have advanced the endovascular treatment of carotid artery disease. A combined analysis was performed of the MAVErIC (Medtronic AVE Self-expanding CaRotid Stent System with distal protection) I and II trials to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this system among patients at high risk for surgical endarterectomy. Four hundred ninety-eight patients were enrolled in the MAVErIC I (99 patients) and MAVErIC II (399 patients) studies from June 2001 to October 2004. The results were pooled for statistical analysis of a common primary end point, the 365-day rate of major adverse events. Clinical follow-up took place at 30 days, 6 months, and 365 days postprocedure. The 365-day major adverse event rate, defined as death, stroke, or myocardial infarction within 30 days, and death, ipsilateral stroke, or myocardial infarction from days 31 to 365 was 12.5%. The incidence of neurological death through 365 days was 1.1%. The 30-day major adverse event rate was 5.4%. Subgroup analyses showed no notable differences in the 365-day major adverse event rate for symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Treatment of carotid artery disease with carotid artery stenting with a self-expanding stent and distal embolic protection results in a low 30-day adverse event rate, including the occurrence of stroke in patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy.

  11. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although cortical lines of arrested growth have been observed in extant penguins, none was observed in any of the current sampled specimens. Therefore, it is likely that even these 'giant' penguin taxa completed their growth cycle without a major pause in bone deposition, implying that they did not undergo a prolonged fasting interval before reaching adult size. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  12. Dating the diversification of the major lineages of Passeriformes (Aves)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The avian Order Passeriformes is an enormously species-rich group, which comprises almost 60% of all living bird species. This diverse order is believed to have originated before the break-up of Gondwana in the late Cretaceous. However, previous molecular dating studies have relied heavily on the geological split between New Zealand and Antarctica, assumed to have occurred 85–82 Mya, for calibrating the molecular clock and might thus be circular in their argument. Results This study provides a time-scale for the evolution of the major clades of passerines using seven nuclear markers, five taxonomically well-determined passerine fossils, and an updated interpretation of the New Zealand split from Antarctica 85–52 Mya in a Bayesian relaxed-clock approach. We also assess how different interpretations of the New Zealand–Antarctica vicariance event influence our age estimates. Our results suggest that the diversification of Passeriformes began in the late Cretaceous or early Cenozoic. Removing the root calibration for the New Zealand–Antarctica vicariance event (85–52 Mya) dramatically increases the 95% credibility intervals and leads to unrealistically old age estimates. We assess the individual characteristics of the seven nuclear genes analyzed in our study. Our analyses provide estimates of divergence times for the major groups of passerines, which can be used as secondary calibration points in future molecular studies. Conclusions Our analysis takes recent paleontological and geological findings into account and provides the best estimate of the passerine evolutionary time-scale currently available. This time-scale provides a temporal framework for further biogeographical, ecological, and co-evolutionary studies of the largest bird radiation, and adds to the growing support for a Cretaceous origin of Passeriformes. PMID:24422673

  13. Recovery of Oswaldotrema nacinovici from Whimbrels (Aves) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Il; Chung, Ok-Sik; Seo, Min

    2016-12-01

    Adult specimens of Oswaldotrema nacinovici (Digenea: Philophthalmidae) have been first identified in Korea from 2 migratory birds (whimbrels, Numenius phaeopus) which were found dead at a western seashore area near Gunsan. The worms were recovered in the intestine of these birds. The worms were morphologically characterized by a large ventral sucker in comparison to the oral sucker, an external seminal vesicle extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, and conspicuous uterine seminal receptacle. It was noteworthy that metacercariae-like bodies were contained within the inflated regions of 2 ceca. Other intestinal trematode species found in whimbrels included Spelotrema pygmeum, Gynaecotyla squatarolae, Maritrema obstipum, and Himasthla megacotyle. Zoonotic potential of these trematode species should be taken into considerations.

  14. AVE/VAS 5: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals for the 24 and 14 special stations participation in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals. The method of processing soundings is discussed briefly, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso beta scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  15. AVE/VAS 4: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals for the 24 stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment is presented. Sounding were taken at 3 hr intervals. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. Some soundings were computed from raw ordinate data, while others were interpolated from significant level data.

  16. The Hindlimb Myology of Tyto alba (Tytonidae, Strigiformes, Aves).

    PubMed

    Mosto, M C

    2017-02-01

    This work is the first myological dissection performed in detail on the hindlimb of Tyto alba. Six specimens were dissected and their muscle masses were obtained. T. alba has the classical myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, such as a well-developed m. flexor digitorum longus and the absence of the m. plantaris, flexor cruris lateralis and ambiens. Also, T. alba lacks the m. extensor propius digiti III, m. extensor propius digiti IV and m. lumbricalis, present in the Strigidae. Hindlimb muscle mass accounts for 14.13% of total body mass, which is within the range of values of both nocturnal (Strigiformes) and diurnal (Falconidae and Accipitridae) raptors. This study provides important information for future studies related to functional morphology and ecomorphology. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. A stability analysis of AVE-4 severe weather soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The stability and vertical structure of an average severe storm sounding, consisting of both thermodynamic and wind vertical profiles, were investigated to determine if they could be distinguished from an average lag sounding taken 3 to 6 hours prior to severe weather occurrence. The term average is defined here to indicate the arithmetic mean of a parameter, as a function of altitude, determined from a large number of available observations taken either close to severe weather occurrence, or else more than 3 hours before it occurs. The investigative computations were also done to help determine if a severe storm forecast or index could possibly be used or developed. These mean vertical profiles of thermodynamic and wind parameters as a function of severity of the weather, determined from manually digitized radar (MDR) categories are presented. Profile differences and stability index differences are presented along with the development of the Johnson Lag Index (JLI) which is determined entirely upon environmental vertical parameter differences between conditions 3 hours prior to severe weather, and severe weather itself.

  18. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  19. DNA barcoding and phylogeny of Calidris and Tringa (Aves: Scolopacidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zuhao; Tu, Feiyun

    2017-07-01

    The avian genera Calidris and Tringa are the largest of the widespread family of Scolopacidae. The phylogeny of members of the two genera is still a matter of controversial. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification and phylogeny of animal species. In this study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of thirty-one species of the two genera. All the species had distinct COI sequences. Two hundred and twenty-one variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees. All the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades in the phylogenetic trees. The phylogenetic trees grouped all the species of Calidris and Tringa into different monophyletic clade, respectively. COI data showed a well-supported phylogeny for Calidris and Tringa species.

  20. Eye Morphology and Retinal Topography in Hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Aves).

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are a group of small, highly specialized birds that display a range of adaptations to their nectarivorous lifestyle. Vision plays a key role in hummingbird feeding and hovering behaviours, yet very little is known about the visual systems of these birds. In this study, we measured eye morphology in 5 hummingbird species. For 2 of these species, we used stereology and retinal whole mounts to study the topographic distribution of neurons in the ganglion cell layer. Eye morphology (expressed as the ratio of corneal diameter to eye transverse diameter) was similar among all 5 species and was within the range previously documented for diurnal birds. Retinal topography was similar in Amazilia tzacatl and Calypte anna. Both species had 2 specialized retinal regions of high neuron density: a central region located slightly dorso-nasal to the superior pole of the pecten, where densities reached ∼ 45,000 cells · mm(-2), and a temporal area with lower densities (38,000-39,000 cells · mm(-2)). A weak visual streak bridged the two high-density areas. A retina from Phaethornis superciliosus also had a central high-density area with a similar peak neuron density. Estimates of spatial resolving power for all 3 species were similar, at approximately 5-6 cycles · degree(-1). Retinal cross sections confirmed that the central high-density region in C. anna contains a fovea, but not the temporal area. We found no evidence of a second, less well-developed fovea located close to the temporal retina margin. The central and temporal areas of high neuron density allow for increased spatial resolution in the lateral and frontal visual fields, respectively. Increased resolution in the frontal field in particular may be important for mediating feeding behaviors such as aerial docking with flowers and catching small insects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A compilation of studies from Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Carlson, R. D.; Phelps, R. W.; Bellue, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    Five methods for obtaining the sign of vertical motion at various levels in the atmosphere were investigated to determine which gave the best explanation for areas of rain and no-rain in the southeastern United States during the period February 19-22, 1964. The methods used were the terrain-induced vertical motion, the kinematic method including the terrain effect, the adiabatic method, the omega equation, and the vorticity equation combined with Dines' Compensation Principle. Stability and moisture availability were considered but not as extensively as vertical motion. Values of vertical motion obtained by the kinetic method, including orographic lifting produced the best agreement with the observed areas. When terms in the omega equation were added through use of constant multipliers, results comparable to the adiabatic method were obtained. Without this addition large uncertainties occurred. Maps showing areas where terms of the omega equation would indicate positive vertical motion did not correlate well with the observed rainfall patterns.

  2. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae).

    PubMed

    García-R, Juan C; Gibb, Gillian C; Trewick, Steve A

    2014-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  3. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides).

    PubMed

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Holt, Ben G; Borregaard, Michael K; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world's major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial relationships have been resolved, based on phylogenetic analyses using multiple nuclear loci. In the current study we analyse eight nuclear and four mitochondrial loci to generate a dated phylogeny for the majority of corvoid species. This phylogeny includes 667 out of 780 species (85.5%), 141 out of 143 genera (98.6%) and all 31 currently recognized families, thus providing a baseline for comprehensive macroecological, macroevolutionary and biogeographical analyses. Using this phylogeny we assess the temporal consistency of the current taxonomic classification of families and genera. By adopting an approach that enforces temporal consistency by causing the fewest possible taxonomic changes to currently recognized families and genera, we find the current familial classification to be largely temporally consistent, whereas that of genera is not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA barcoding and phylogenetic relationships of Ardeidae (Aves: Ciconiiformes).

    PubMed

    Huang, Z H; Li, M F; Qin, J W

    2016-08-19

    The avian family Ardeidae comprises long-legged freshwater and coastal birds. There has been considerable disagreement concerning the intrafamilial relationships of Ardeidae. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was used as a marker for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of avian species. In the present study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of 32 species from 17 genera belonging to the family Ardeidae. Each bird species possessed a barcode distinct from that of other bird species except for Egretta thula and E. garzetta, which shared one barcoding sequence. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. The average genetic distance between species was 34-fold higher than the average genetic distance within species. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees. Most species could be discriminated by their distinct clades in the phylogenetic tree. Both methods of phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that Zebrilus, Tigrisoma, and Cochlearius were an offshoot of the primitive herons. COI gene analysis suggested that the other herons could be divided into two clades: Botaurinae and Ardeinae. Our results support the Great Egret and Intermediate Egret being in separate genera, Casmerodius and Mesophoyx, respectively.

  5. A reappraisal of Cerebavis cenomanica (Aves, Ornithurae), from Melovatka, Russia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stig A; Milner, Angela C; Bourdon, Estelle

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the avian brain is of crucial importance to studies of the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to modern birds, but very few avian fossils provide information on brain morphological development during the Mesozoic. An isolated specimen from the Cenomanian of Melovatka in Russia was described by Kurochkin and others as a fossilized brain, designated the holotype of Cerebavis cenomanica Kurochkin and Saveliev and tentatively referred to Enantiornithes. We have previously highlighted that this specimen is an incomplete skull, rendering the diagnostic characters invalid and Cerebavis cenomanica a nomen dubium. We provide here a revised diagnosis of Cerebavis cenomanica based on osteological characters, and a reconstruction of the endocranial morphology (= brain shape) based on μCT investigation of the braincase. Absence of temporal fenestrae indicates an ornithurine affinity for Cerebavis. The brain of this taxon was clearly closer to that of modern birds than to Archaeopteryx and does not represent a divergent evolutionary pathway as originally concluded by Kurochkin and others. No telencephalic wulst is present, suggesting that this advanced avian neurological feature was not recognizably developed 93 million years ago. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  6. Hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) of the wood stork (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Thomas, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Černý) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cutdcular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  7. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The first darter (Aves: Anhingidae) fossils from India (late Pliocene).

    PubMed

    Stidham, Thomas; Patnaik, Rajeev; Krishan, Kewal; Singh, Bahadur; Ghosh, Abhik; Singla, Ankita; Kotla, Simran S

    2017-01-01

    New fossils from the latest Pliocene portion of the Tatrot Formation exposed in the Siwalik Hills of northern India represent the first fossil record of a darter (Anhingidae) from India. The darter fossils possibly represent a new species, but the limited information on the fossil record of this group restricts their taxonomic allocation. The Pliocene darter has a deep pit on the distal face of metatarsal trochlea IV not reported in other anhingids, it has an open groove for the m. flexor perforatus et perforans digiti II tendon on the hypotarsus unlike New World anhingid taxa, and these darter specimens are the youngest of the handful of Neogene records of the group from Asia. These fossil specimens begin to fill in a significant geographic and temporal gap in the fossil record of this group that is largely known from other continents and other time periods. The presence of a darter and pelican (along with crabs, fish, turtles, and crocodilians) in the same fossil-bearing horizon strongly indicates the past presence of a substantial water body (large pond, lake, or river) in the interior of northern India in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains.

  9. Hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) of the wood stork (Aves: Ciconiiformes; Ciconiidae).

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Thomas, N J

    1995-11-01

    A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Cerný) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cuticular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P.) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  10. Comparative study of visual pathways in owls (Aves: Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Although they are usually regarded as nocturnal, owls exhibit a wide range of activity patterns, from strictly nocturnal, to crepuscular or cathemeral, to diurnal. Several studies have shown that these differences in the activity pattern are reflected in differences in eye morphology and retinal organization. Despite the evidence that differences in activity pattern among owl species are reflected in the peripheral visual system, there has been no attempt to correlate these differences with changes in the visual regions in the brain. In this study, we compare the relative size of nuclei in the main visual pathways in nine species of owl that exhibit a wide range of activity patterns. We found marked differences in the relative size of all visual structures among the species studied, both in the tectofugal and the thalamofugal pathway, as well in other retinorecipient nuclei, including the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, the nucleus of the basal optic root and the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis. We show that the barn owl (Tyto alba), a species widely used in the study of the integration of visual and auditory processing, has reduced visual pathways compared to strigid owls. Our results also suggest there could be a trade-off between the relative size of visual pathways and auditory pathways, similar to that reported in mammals. Finally, our results show that although there is no relationship between activity pattern and the relative size of either the tectofugal or the thalamofugal pathway, there is a positive correlation between the relative size of both visual pathways and the relative number of cells in the retinal ganglion layer. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Eye shape and retinal topography in owls (Aves: Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Bandet, Mischa V; Wylie, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    The eyes of vertebrates show adaptations to the visual environments in which they evolve. For example, eye shape is associated with activity pattern, while retinal topography is related to the symmetry or 'openness' of the habitat of a species. Although these relationships are well documented in many vertebrates including birds, the extent to which they hold true for species within the same avian order is not well understood. Owls (Strigiformes) represent an ideal group for the study of interspecific variation in the avian visual system because they are one of very few avian orders to contain species that vary in both activity pattern and habitat preference. Here, we examined interspecific variation in eye shape and retinal topography in nine species of owl. Eye shape (the ratio of corneal diameter to eye axial length) differed among species, with nocturnal species having relatively larger corneal diameters than diurnal species. All the owl species have an area of high retinal ganglion cell (RGC) density in the temporal retina and a visual streak of increased cell density extending across the central retina from temporal to nasal. However, the organization and degree of elongation of the visual streak varied considerably among species and this variation was quantified using H:V ratios. Species that live in open habitats and/or that are more diurnally active have well-defined, elongated visual streaks and high H:V ratios (3.88-2.33). In contrast, most nocturnal and/or forest-dwelling owls have a poorly defined visual streak, a more radially symmetrical arrangement of RGCs and lower H:V ratios (1.77-1.27). The results of a hierarchical cluster analysis indicate that the apparent interspecific variation is associated with activity pattern and habitat as opposed to the phylogenetic relationships among species. In seven species, the presence of a fovea was confirmed and it is suggested that all strigid owls may possess a fovea, whereas the tytonid barn owl (Tyto alba) does not. A size-frequency analysis of cell soma area indicates that a number of different RGC classes are represented in owls, including a population of large RGCs (cell soma area >150 µm(2)) that resemble the giant RGCs reported in other vertebrates. In conclusion, eye shape and retinal topography in owls vary among species and this variation is associated with different activity patterns and habitat preferences, thereby supporting similar observations in other vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the manakins (Aves: Pipridae).

    PubMed

    McKay, Bailey D; Barker, F Keith; Mays, Herman L; Doucet, Stéphanie M; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2010-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the 14 manakin genera were inferred from DNA sequence data obtained from both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in a well-supported hypothesis that corroborates a sister relationship between tyrant-manakins and the "core" manakins (Antilophia, Chiroxiphia, Corapipo, Dixiphia, Heterocercus, Ilicura, Lepidothrix, Manacus, Masius, Machaeropterus, Pipra, and Xenopipo). Our data strongly support these core manakin genera as a monophyletic group. Consistent with previous work, we find two major clades within the core manakins, although the placement of the genus Xenopipo with regards to these two clades is ambiguous. Generic relationships within these clades are generally well resolved. Although we find some concordance between our study and a previous manakin phylogeny based on syringeal characters, we note several fundamental differences between the phylogenies. Thus, we offer a new phylogenetic hypothesis for Pipridae.

  13. Hindlimb myology of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Mosto, María C; Picasso, Mariana B J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2014-07-01

    We studied the hindlimb myology of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). Like all parrots, it has zygodactyl feet enabling perching, climbing, hanging, moving easily among trees, and handling food. Muscles were described and weighed, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of four flexors and one extensor was calculated. In comparison to other muscles, the M. tibialis cranialis and the M. fibularis brevis show increased development and high PCSA values, and therefore, large potential force production. Also, a large proportion of muscle mass was involved in flexing the digits. We hypothesize that these muscle traits are associated with the arboreal locomotion and food manipulation habits. In the monk parakeet, the M. extensor digitorum longus sends a branch to the hallux, and the connection between the M. flexor digitorum longus and the M. flexor hallucis longus is type I (Gadow's classification). We reaffirm the presence of the M. ambiens as a plesiomorphic condition that disappears in most members of the order. Among Psittaciformes, the M. fibularis brevis is stronger and the M. fibularis weaker in arboreal species than in basal terrestrial ones (e.g., Strigops). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bone marrow chromosomes in Corvus species (Corvidae: Passeriformes: Aves).

    PubMed

    Mittal, O P; Sakhuja, S

    1980-01-01

    The diploid number of 80 +/- chromosomes has been established for two species of Indian crows, viz. Corvus splendens splendens Viellot, and Corvus macrorhynchus culminatus Sykes. In addition to the usual macro- and microchromosomes, there exist certain elements in both cases, falling in between the two different size categories of chromosomes. The number of these medium-sized, and of the macrochromosomes, was found to be 6 and 14, respectively, in both species. All chromosomes included in these two categories depict the clear position of their centromeres, while in the microchromosomes the centromeric position is not distinct. The sex-chromosome mechanism which has been studied only in Corvus splendens splendens, is of the ZZ and ZW type in the male and female, respectively.

  15. Hypopi (Acari:Hypoderatidae) from owls (Aves:Strigiformes:Strigidae).

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Bergan, J F

    1996-09-01

    Hypopi (deutonymphs) of the family Hypoderatidae were found in a barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli), and a burrowing owl, Speotyto cunicularia (Molina), from Texas. A redescription is provided for mature specimens of the hypopus of Tytodectes (Tytodectes) tyto Fain from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelvic region in the barn owl. The hypopus of Tytodectes (Tytodectes) speotyto n. sp. is described from specimens in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelvic region and in the adipose tissues of the intermuscular fasciae of the ankle in the burrowing owl. T. (T.) speotyto appears most similar in size and chaetotaxy to T. (T.) glaucidii Cerný described from the Cuban pygmy owl, Glaucidium siju (d'Orbigny), in Cuba, but differs in the presence of a spine on tibia IV, which also occurs in T. (T.) tyto. Both of the former species have the anterior apodemes of coxae I fused in a simple V and lack a sternum. They differ from T. (T.) tyto which has the anterior apodemes of coxae I fused in a Y and there is a well developed sternum. Based on the above 3 described hypopi, the hypoderatids of owls represent an assemblage of small closely related, but easily differentiated, species. The occurrence of a few specimens of Neottialges evansi Fain in the barn owl and Hypodectes (Hypodectoides) propus (Nitzsch) in the burrowing owl probably represent examples of host capture by hypopi that normally occur in cormorants and pigeons, herons or egrets, respectively.

  16. Phylogeny and biogeography of the fruit doves (Aves: Columbidae).

    PubMed

    Cibois, Alice; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Bonillo, Céline; Filardi, Christopher E; Watling, Dick; Pasquet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We reconstruct the phylogeny of fruit doves (genus Ptilinopus) and allies with a dense sampling that includes almost all species, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We evaluate the most likely biogeographic scenario for the evolution of this group that colonized many islands of the Pacific Ocean. We also investigate the evolution of one of the main plumage character of fruit doves (the color of the crown), and we propose several revisions of the group's systematics. All Ptilinopus taxa formed a monophyletic group that includes two morphologically distinct genera, Alectroenas and Drepanoptila, confirming a previous result found with less species and genes. The divergence time analysis suggests that the basal divergences within Ptilinopus dated to the Early Oligocene, and the biogeographic analysis indicates that fruit doves originated most probably from the proto New Guinea region. The earliest dispersals from the New Guinea region to Oceania occurred with the colonization of New Caledonia and Fiji. A large group of Polynesian species (Central and Eastern), as well as the three taxa found in Micronesia and four species from the Guinean-Moluccan region, form the "purpuratus" clade, the largest diversification of fruit doves within Oceania, which also has a New Guinean origin. However, the eastbound colonization of fruit doves was not associated with a significant increase of their diversification rate. Overall, the Melanesian region did not act as a cradle for fruit doves, in contrast to the New Guinea region which is found as the ancestral area for several nodes within the phylogeny.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of the mockingbirds and thrashers (Aves: Mimidae).

    PubMed

    Lovette, Irby J; Arbogast, Brian S; Curry, Robert L; Zink, Robert M; Botero, Carlos A; Sullivan, John P; Talaba, Amanda L; Harris, Rebecca B; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Ricklefs, Robert E; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-05-01

    The mockingbirds, thrashers and allied birds in the family Mimidae are broadly distributed across the Americas. Many aspects of their phylogenetic history are well established, but there has been no previous phylogenetic study that included all species in this radiation. Our reconstructions based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence markers show that an early bifurcation separated the Mimidae into two clades, the first of which includes North and Middle American taxa (Melanotis, Melanoptila, Dumetella) plus a small radiation that likely occurred largely within the West Indies (Ramphocinclus, Allenia, Margarops, Cinclocerthia). The second and larger radiation includes the Toxostoma thrasher clade, along with the monotypic Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes) and the phenotypically diverse and broadly distributed Mimus mockingbirds. This mockingbird group is biogeographically notable for including several lineages that colonized and diverged on isolated islands, including the Socorro Mockingbird (Mimus graysoni, formerly Mimodes) and the diverse and historically important Galapagos mockingbirds (formerly Nesomimus). Our reconstructions support a sister relationship between the Galapagos mockingbird lineage and the Bahama Mockingbird (M. gundlachi) of the West Indies, rather than the Long-tailed Mockingbird (M. longicaudatus) or other species presently found on the South American mainland. Relationships within the genus Toxostoma conflict with traditional arrangements but support a tree based on a preivous mtDNA study. For instance, the southern Mexican endemic Ocellated Thrasher (T. ocellatum) is not an isolated sister species of the Curve-billed thrasher (T. curvirostre). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Eocene Diversification of Crown Group Rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    García–R, Juan C.; Gibb, Gillian C.; Trewick, Steve A.

    2014-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves. PMID:25291147

  19. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil.

  20. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Thomas, Daniel B

    2012-03-07

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna.

  1. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Ksepka, Daniel T.; Thomas, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna. PMID:21900330

  2. Systematic relationships and biogeography of the tracheophone suboscines (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Irestedt, Martin; Fjeldså, Jon; Johansson, Ulf S; Ericson, Per G P

    2002-06-01

    Based on their highly specialized "tracheophone" syrinx, the avian families Furnariidae (ovenbirds), Dendrocolaptidae (woodcreepers), Formicariidae (ground antbirds), Thamnophilidae (typical antbirds), Rhinocryptidae (tapaculos), and Conopophagidae (gnateaters) have long been recognized to constitute a monophyletic group of suboscine passerines. However, the monophyly of these families have been contested and their interrelationships are poorly understood, and this constrains the possibilities for interpreting adaptive tendencies in this very diverse group. In this study we present a higher-level phylogeny and classification for the tracheophone birds based on phylogenetic analyses of sequence data obtained from 32 ingroup taxa. Both mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear genes (c-myc, RAG-1, and myoglobin) have been sequenced, and more than 3000 bp were subjected to parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses. The phylogenetic signals in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were compared and found to be very similar. The results from the analysis of the combined dataset (all genes, but with transitions at third codon positions in the cytochrome b excluded) partly corroborate previous phylogenetic hypotheses, but several novel arrangements were also suggested. Especially interesting is the result that the genus Melanopareia represents a basal branch within the tracheophone group, positioned in the phylogenetic tree well away from the typical tapaculos with which it has been supposed to group. Other novel results include the observation that the ground antbirds are paraphyletic and that Sclerurus is the sister taxon to an ovenbird-woodcreeper clade. Patterns of generic richness within each clade suggest that the early differentiation of feeble-winged forest groups took place south of the Amazon Basin, while the more recent diversification was near the equator and (in tapaculos and ovenbirds) in the south of the continent.

  3. A molecular phylogeny of the cotingas (Aves: Cotingidae).

    PubMed

    Ohlson, Jan I; Prum, Richard O; Ericson, Per G P

    2007-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of members of Cotingidae were investigated using >2100 bp of sequence data from two nuclear introns (myoglobin intron 2 and G3PDH intron 11) and one protein-coding mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b). Strong support was found for a monophyletic clade including 23 traditional cotingid genera, corresponding to the Cotingidae sensu [Remsen, J.V. Jr., Jaramillo, A., Nores, M., Pacheco, J.F., Robbins, M.B., Schulenberg, T.S., Stiles, F.G., da Silva, J.M.C., Stotz, D.F., Zimmer, K.J., 2005. Version 2005-11-15. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. ]. Neither Oxyruncus nor any of the genera in Tityrinae sensu [Prum, R.O, Lanyon, W.E., 1989. Monophyly and phylogeny of the Schiffornis group (Tyrannoidea). Condor 91, 444-461.] are members of Cotingidae. Within Cotingidae a polytomy of four well-supported clades was recovered: (1) the fruiteaters Pipreola and Ampelioides; (2) the Ampelion group, including Phytotoma; (3) Rupicola and Phoenicircus; and (4) the 'core cotingas' consisting of the remainder of the Cotingas (e.g. fruitcrows, Cotinga, Procnias, Lipaugus, and Carpodectes), with Snowornis in a basal position. The separation of Snowornis from Lipaugus [Prum, R.O, Lanyon, W.E., 1989. Monophyly and phylogeny of the Schiffornis group (Tyrannoidea). Condor 91, 444-461.] was strongly supported, as were the close relationships between Gymnoderus and Conioptilon, and between Tijuca and Lipaugus. However, basal relationships among 'core cotinga' clades were not resolved.

  4. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  5. Taxonomy of the Loggerhead Kingbird (Tyrannus caudifasciatus) complex (Aves: Tyrannidae)

    Treesearch

    Orlando H. Garrido; James W. Wiley; George B. Reynard

    2009-01-01

    We examined the complex of populations of the Loggerhead Kingbird (Tyrannus caudifasciatus), a West Indian endemic. We separate populations in Puerto Rico and Isla Vieques (T. taylori), and Hispaniola (T. gabbii) as distinct species. Subspecific distinction is assigned to populations in Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and Cuban satellites (T. caudifasciatus caudifasciatus);...

  6. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the hornbills (Aves: Bucerotidae).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Juan-Carlos T; Sheldon, Ben C; Collar, Nigel J; Tobias, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    The hornbills comprise a group of morphologically and behaviorally distinct Palaeotropical bird species that feature prominently in studies of ecology and conservation biology. Although the monophyly of hornbills is well established, previous phylogenetic hypotheses were based solely on mtDNA and limited sampling of species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all 61 extant hornbill species, based on nuclear and mtDNA gene sequences extracted largely from historical samples. The resulting phylogenetic trees closely match vocal variation across the family but conflict with current taxonomic treatments. In particular, they highlight a new arrangement for the six major clades of hornbills and reveal that three groups traditionally treated as genera (Tockus, Aceros, Penelopides) are non-monophyletic. In addition, two other genera (Anthracoceros, Ocyceros) were non-monophyletic in the mtDNA gene tree. Our findings resolve some longstanding problems in hornbill systematics, including the placement of 'Penelopides exharatus' (embedded in Aceros) and 'Tockus hartlaubi' (sister to Tropicranus albocristatus). We also confirm that an Asiatic lineage (Berenicornis) is sister to a trio of Afrotropical genera (Tropicranus [including 'Tockus hartlaubi'], Ceratogymna, Bycanistes). We present a summary phylogeny as a robust basis for further studies of hornbill ecology, evolution and historical biogeography.

  7. Recovery of Oswaldotrema nacinovici from Whimbrels (Aves) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Il; Chung, Ok-Sik; Seo, Min

    2016-01-01

    Adult specimens of Oswaldotrema nacinovici (Digenea: Philophthalmidae) have been first identified in Korea from 2 migratory birds (whimbrels, Numenius phaeopus) which were found dead at a western seashore area near Gunsan. The worms were recovered in the intestine of these birds. The worms were morphologically characterized by a large ventral sucker in comparison to the oral sucker, an external seminal vesicle extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, and conspicuous uterine seminal receptacle. It was noteworthy that metacercariae-like bodies were contained within the inflated regions of 2 ceca. Other intestinal trematode species found in whimbrels included Spelotrema pygmeum, Gynaecotyla squatarolae, Maritrema obstipum, and Himasthla megacotyle. Zoonotic potential of these trematode species should be taken into considerations. PMID:28095668

  8. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  9. Entamoeba sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus) (Aves: Struthionidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Herrera, S; Castro, A; Ponce, F

    2000-10-01

    The first case of Entamoeba of the 1-nucleate mature cyst group in birds is described. Trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba have been found in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from farms located all over Spain. The cysts are large (13.47microm mean diameter); they possess one nucleus when mature, with a large endosome and peripheral chromatine arranged in small granules; chromatoid bodies, when present, are large and elongated. Trophozoites are large (19. 88microm mean diameter), with a clear differentiation between ecto- and endoplasm, this containing numerous vacuoles; the nucleus is large and diffuse. The characteristics of this amoeba resembles but do not completely fulfill those of E. suis and E. chattoni; also, these species are from mammals.

  10. A new Neopaxillus species (Agaricomycetes) from the Dominican Republic and the status of Neopaxillus within the Agaricales.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Alfredo; Angelini, Claudio; Ercole, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The new species Neopaxillus dominicanus is described on the basis of collections from the Dominican Republic. It is distinguished by having a basidiome with decurrent, distant, white lamellae with evident pink-lilac tinges, a non-depressed pileus at maturity and well developed catenulate cheilocystidia. A description, color photographs of fresh basidiomes and line drawings of relevant microscopic traits are provided. N. dominicanus is morphologically similar to Neopaxillus echinospermus, a type species of the genus. Based on comparative ITS-LSU rDNA gene sequence analyses, Neopaxillus, formerly placed in the Boletales, is considered within the Agaricales where it is sister to Crepidotus (Crepidotaceae), and N. dominicanus is supported as distinct from N. echinospermus. Finally, according to our morphological and molecular analyses, two collections of N. echinospermus from Mexico are referable to N. dominicanus.

  11. Recurrent hybridization and recent origin obscure phylogenetic relationships within the ‘white-headed’ gull (Larus sp.) complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Wilson, Robert E.; Chesser, Terry; Pons, Jean-Marc; Crochet, Pierre-Andre; Driscoll, Amy; Dove, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Species complexes that have undergone recent radiations are often characterized by extensive allele sharing due to recent ancestry and (or) introgressive hybridization. This can result in discordant evolutionary histories of genes and heterogeneous genomes, making delineating species limits difficult. Here we examine the phylogenetic relationships among a complex group of birds, the white-headed gulls (Aves: Laridae), which offer a unique window into the speciation process due to their recent evolutionary history and propensity to hybridize. Relationships were examined among 17 species (61 populations) using a multilocus approach, including mitochondrial and nuclear intron DNA sequences and microsatellite genotype information. Analyses of microsatellite and intron data resulted in some species-based groupings, although most species were not represented by a single cluster. Considerable allele and haplotype sharing among white-headed gull species was observed; no locus contained a species-specific clade. Despite this, our multilocus approach provided better resolution among some species than previous studies. Interestingly, most clades appear to correspond to geographic locality: our BEAST analysis recovered strong support for a northern European/Icelandic clade, a southern European/Russian clade, and a western North American/canus clade, with weak evidence for a high latitude clade spanning North America and northwestern Europe. This geographical structuring is concordant with behavioral observations of pervasive hybridization in areas of secondary contact. The extent of allele and haplotype sharing indicates that ecological and sexual selection are likely not strong enough to complete reproductive isolation within several species in the white-headed gull complex. This suggests that just a few genes are driving the speciation process.

  12. Recurrent hybridization and recent origin obscure phylogenetic relationships within the 'white-headed' gull (Larus sp.) complex.

    PubMed

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Wilson, Robert E; Chesser, R Terry; Pons, Jean-Marc; Crochet, Pierre-Andre; Driskell, Amy; Dove, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Species complexes that have undergone recent radiations are often characterized by extensive allele sharing due to recent ancestry and (or) introgressive hybridization. This can result in discordant evolutionary histories of genes and heterogeneous genomes, making delineating species limits difficult. Here we examine the phylogenetic relationships among a complex group of birds, the white-headed gulls (Aves: Laridae), which offer a unique window into the speciation process due to their recent evolutionary history and propensity to hybridize. Relationships were examined among 17 species (61 populations) using a multilocus approach, including mitochondrial and nuclear intron DNA sequences and microsatellite genotype information. Analyses of microsatellite and intron data resulted in some species-based groupings, although most species were not represented by a single cluster. Considerable allele and haplotype sharing among white-headed gull species was observed; no locus contained a species-specific clade. Despite this, our multilocus approach provided better resolution among some species than previous studies. Interestingly, most clades appear to correspond to geographic locality: our BEAST analysis recovered strong support for a northern European/Icelandic clade, a southern European/Russian clade, and a western North American/canus clade, with weak evidence for a high latitude clade spanning North America and northwestern Europe. This geographical structuring is concordant with behavioral observations of pervasive hybridization in areas of secondary contact. The extent of allele and haplotype sharing indicates that ecological and sexual selection are likely not strong enough to complete reproductive isolation within several species in the white-headed gull complex. This suggests that just a few genes are driving the speciation process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the starlings (Aves: Sturnidae) and mockingbirds (Aves: Mimidae): congruent mtDNA and nuclear trees for a cosmopolitan avian radiation.

    PubMed

    Lovette, Irby J; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2007-09-01

    We generated a comprehensive phylogeny for the avian families Sturnidae (starlings, mynas, Rhabdornis, oxpeckers, and allies) and Mimidae (mockingbirds, thrashers, and allies) to explore patterns of morphological and behavioral diversification. Reconstructions were based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from five coding genes (4108 bp), and nuclear intron sequences from four loci (2974 bp), for most taxa, supplemented with NDII gene sequences (1041 bp) derived from museum skin specimens from additional taxa; together the 117 sampled taxa comprise 78% of the 151 species in these families and include representatives of all currently or recently recognized genera. Phylogenetic analyses consistently identified nine major clades. The basal lineage is comprised of the two Buphagus oxpeckers, which are presently confined to Africa where they are obligately associated with large mammals. Some species in nearly all of the other major clades also feed on or around large vertebrates, and this association may be an ancestral trait that fostered the world-wide dispersal of this group. The remaining taxa divide into sister clades representing the New-World Mimidae and Old-World Sturnidae. The Mimidae are divided into two subclades, a group of Central American and West Indian catbirds and thrashers, and a pan-American clade of mockingbirds and thrashers. The Sturnidae are subdivided into six clades. The Phillipine endemic Rhabdornis are the sister lineage to a larger and substantially more recent radiation of South Asian and Pacific island starlings and mynas. A clade of largely migratory or nomadic Eurasian starlings (within which the basal lineage is the model taxon Sturnus vulgaris) is allied to three groups of largely African species. These reconstructions confirm that Buphagus should not be included in the Sturnidae, and identify many genera that are not monophyletic. They also highlight the substantial diversity among the major Sturnidae subclades in rates of species accumulation, morphological differentiation, and behavioral variation.

  14. Complex species status for extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) from the genus Euryapteryx.

    PubMed

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2014-01-01

    The exact species status of New Zealand's extinct moa remains unknown. In particular, moa belonging to the genus Euryapteryx have been difficult to classify. We use the DNA barcoding sequence on a range of Euryapteryx samples in an attempt to resolve the species status for this genus. We obtained mitochondrial control region and the barcoding region from Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) from a number of new moa samples and use available sequences from previous moa phylogenies and eggshell data to try and clarify the species status of Euryapteryx. Using the COI barcoding region we show that species status in Euryapteryx is complex with no clear separation between various individuals. Eggshell, soil, and bone data suggests that a Euryapteryx subspecies likely exists on New Zealand's North Island and can be characterized by a single mitochondrial control region SNP. COI divergences between Euryapteryx individuals from the south of New Zealand's South Island and those from the Far North of the North Island exceed 1.6% and are likely to represent separate species. Individuals from other areas of New Zealand were unable to be clearly separated based on COI differences possibly as a result of repeated hybridisation events. Despite the accuracy of the COI barcoding region to determine species status in birds, including that for the other moa genera, for moa from the genus Euryapteryx, COI barcoding fails to provide a clear result, possibly as a consequence of repeated hybridisation events between these moa. A single control region SNP was identified however that segregates with the two general morphological variants determined for Euryapteryx; a smaller subspecies restricted to the North Island of New Zealand, and a larger subspecies, found on both New Zealand's North and South Island.

  15. Polyphyly of Hylophilus and a new genus for the Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Aves: Passeriformes: Vireonidae).

    PubMed

    Slager, David L; Klicka, John

    2014-11-13

    Once a catch-all taxon for various small, greenish passerines (Sclater 1881), today the genus Hylophilus Temminck contains 15 species of Neotropical greenlets in the avian family Vireonidae (Clements et al. 2013). Although Hylophilus species do share some common anatomical proportions and plumage features (Baird 1866; Ridgway 1904), some striking and concordant differences in habitat, voice, and iris color led Ridgely and Tudor (1989) to posit that the genus might contain sufficient diversity to warrant splitting into multiple genera.

  16. Impact evaluation of an energy {dollar_sign}avings plan project at Elf Atochem North America

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1992-08-01

    This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Elf Atochem North America (Atochem) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy savings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Atochem as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interview, review of previous program submittals and review of process evaluation results from 1989. The ECM itself consists of adding anode area to each of the sodium chlorate (chlorate) cells at Atochem`s Tacoma facility. Increasing the anode area reduces the current density, which reduces cell resistance at the same current, thus reducing energy consumption at the same chlorate production rate. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to average about 24,000,000 kWh/yr or about 1000 kWh/ton of chlorate produced. The net cost of the ECM was $1,410,400, and Atochem received a payment of $212,500 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 0.7 mills/kWh over the ECM`s expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 5.7 mills/kWh. Bonneville`s offer to pay Atochem $212,500 via the E$P Program was viewed by Atochem management as a big incentive that made a difference.

  17. Impact evaluation of an energy dollar sign avings plan project at Elf Atochem North America

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1992-08-01

    This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Elf Atochem North America (Atochem) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy savings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Atochem as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interview, review of previous program submittals and review of process evaluation results from 1989. The ECM itself consists of adding anode area to each of the sodium chlorate (chlorate) cells at Atochem's Tacoma facility. Increasing the anode area reduces the current density, which reduces cell resistance at the same current, thus reducing energy consumption at the same chlorate production rate. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to average about 24,000,000 kWh/yr or about 1000 kWh/ton of chlorate produced. The net cost of the ECM was $1,410,400, and Atochem received a payment of $212,500 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 0.7 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 5.7 mills/kWh. Bonneville's offer to pay Atochem $212,500 via the E$P Program was viewed by Atochem management as a big incentive that made a difference.

  18. A new subspecies of Chamaea fasciata (Wrentit) from Oregon (Aves: Timaliinae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M. Ralph

    1992-01-01

    Geographic variation in plumage color of Chamaea fasciata (Wrentit) from northern California and southern Oregon is related to climate. A new subspecies, Chamaea fasciata margra, is described from a disjunct population of southern interior Oregon. Colonization of C. fasciata in interior Oregon was perhaps from birds crossing coniferous forests via isolated balds of Ceonothus. Recent increases of Wrentits in interior Oregon may be in response to habitat alterations (deforestation, fires) and concurrent global warming.

  19. Neottialges neopelagicus new species (Acari:Hypoderatidae) from the pelagic cormorant (Aves:Phalacrocoracidae:Pelecaniformes).

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Newman, S

    1997-01-01

    A new species of hypoderatid deutonymph is described from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelagic cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas, from Alaska. Neotialges neopelagicus n. sp. is similar to the 3 other Neottialges spp. from cormorants. N. neopelagicus closely resembles N. tasmaniensis Fain & Domrow except the genital apodeme is incomplete in the latter, but the sclerotized T-shaped extremities are connected by a thin line of sclerotization to form a complete central apodeme in N. neopelagicus. There also are minor differences in leg chaetotaxy of these 2 species. The genital apodeme is heavily sclerotized throughout its length in N. evanis Fain and N. pelagicus OConnor. In both these species, seta d4 is long and resembles other middorsal idiosomal setae, whereas it is short and hairlike in N. tasmaniensis and N. neopelagicus. In N. pelagicus terminal seta as on tarsus IV is smooth; it is serrated in the other three species. The single pelagic cormorant we found infected with N. neopelagicus shared this host with N. pelagicus, emphasizing the possibility of coexistence of 2 very similar species of hypoderatids in the same host individual.

  20. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (Phalacrocoracidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Jackowiak, Hanna; Andrzejewski, Wojciech; Godynicki, Szymon

    2006-02-01

    The tongue of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo is a small, immobile structure with a length of 1.4 cm, situated in the middle part of the elongated lower bill. The uniquely shaped tongue resembles a mushroom, with a short base and an elongated dorsal part with sharpened anterior and posterior tips. A median crest can be observed on the surface of the tongue. Examination by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the whole tongue is formed by a dense connective tissue with many bundles of elastic fibers. The lingual mucosa is covered by a multilayered keratinized epithelium. The thickest, horny layer of the lingual epithelium was observed on the surface of the median crest and on the posterior tip of the tongue. Lingual glands are absent in cormorants. The framework of the tongue is composed of a hyoid cartilage incorporated into the base. The localization and structure of the tongue in the cormorant show that it is a rudimentary organ and that the lingual body, usually well-developed in birds, is conserved.

  1. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  2. Subulura halli (Ascaridida: Subuluridae) from the endangered great bustard Otis tarda Linnaeus (Aves: Gruiformes) in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Qiang; Xu, Zhen; Li, Shun-Cai; Li, Liang

    2014-02-01

    Subulurid nematodes identified as Subulura halli Barreto, 1918 were collected from the endangered bird Otis tarda Linnaeus (Gruiformes: Otididae) in China. A detailed redescription of the hitherto poorly known species is presented using both light and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy. Previously unreported and erroneous morphological features of taxonomic significance are revealed. This species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the relatively long oesophagus (1.47-1.92 mm long, representing 10.6-16.9% of body length), the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae (11 pairs in total, arranged as five pairs of precloacal and six pairs of postcloacal papillae), the equal length of spicules (1.35-1.52 mm long, representing 10.7-13.7% of body length) and the presence of a small medioventral, precloacal papilla in the male.

  3. Comparative brain morphology of Neotropical parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes) inferred from virtual 3D endocasts.

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia Patricia; Degrange, Federico Javier; Benitez Saldivar, María Juliana; Picasso, Mariana Beatriz Julieta

    2016-08-01

    Psittaciformes are a very diverse group of non-passerine birds, with advanced cognitive abilities and highly developed locomotor and feeding behaviours. Using computed tomography and three-dimensional (3D) visualization software, the endocasts of 14 extant Neotropical parrots were reconstructed, with the aim of analysing, comparing and exploring the morphology of the brain within the clade. A 3D geomorphometric analysis was performed, and the encephalization quotient (EQ) was calculated. Brain morphology character states were traced onto a Psittaciformes tree in order to facilitate interpretation of morphological traits in a phylogenetic context. Our results indicate that: (i) there are two conspicuously distinct brain morphologies, one considered walnut type (quadrangular and wider than long) and the other rounded (narrower and rostrally tapered); (ii) Psittaciformes possess a noticeable notch between hemisphaeria that divides the bulbus olfactorius; (iii) the plesiomorphic and most frequently observed characteristics of Neotropical parrots are a rostrally tapered telencephalon in dorsal view, distinctly enlarged dorsal expansion of the eminentia sagittalis and conspicuous fissura mediana; (iv) there is a positive correlation between body mass and brain volume; (v) psittacids are characterized by high EQ values that suggest high brain volumes in relation to their body masses; and (vi) the endocranial morphology of the Psittaciformes as a whole is distinctive relative to other birds. This new knowledge of brain morphology offers much potential for further insight in paleoneurological, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies.

  4. An examination of species limits in the Aulacorhynchus “prasinus” toucanet complex (Aves: Ramphastidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The number of species recognized in Aulacorhynchus toucanets has varied tremendously over the past century. Revisors seem to disagree on whether head and bill coloration are useful indicators of species limits, especially in the A. “prasinus” complex. Using morphometrics, I tested the hypothesis that the major color-based subspecific groups of A. “prasinus” sensu lato are simply “cookie-cutter” (i.e., morphologically nearly identical) toucanets with different head and bill colorations. Univariate and multivariate analyses show that they are not simply morphological replicates of different colors: a complex array of morphometric similarities and dissimilarities occur between the major subspecific groups, and these variations differ between the sexes. Latitude and longitude had a small but significant association with female (but not male) PC1 and PC2. Hybridization and intergradation were also considered using plumage and bill characters as a surrogate to infer gene flow. Hybridization as indicated by phenotype appears to be substantial between A. “p.” cyanolaemus and A. “p.” atrogularis and nonexistent between other major groups, although from genetic evidence it is likely rare between A. “p.” albivitta and A. “p.” cyanolaemus. The congruence and complexities of the morphological and color changes occurring among these groups suggest that ecological adaptation (through natural selection) and social selection have co-occurred among these groups and that species limits are involved. Further, hybridization is not evident at key places, despite in many cases (hypothetical) opportunity for gene flow. Consequently, I recommend that this complex be recognized as comprising five biological species: A. wagleri, prasinus, caeruleogularis, albivitta, and atrogularis. Four of these also have valid subspecies within them, and additional work may eventually support elevation of some of these subspecies to full species. Species limits in South America especially need more study. PMID:27635345

  5. Differences between measured and linearly interpolated synoptic variables over a 12-h period during AVE 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupuis, L. R.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Results of analyses revealed that nonlinear changes or differences formed centers or systems, that were mesosynoptic in nature. These systems correlated well in space with upper level short waves, frontal zones, and radar observed convection, and were very systematic in time and space. Many of the centers of differences were well established in the vertical, extending up to the tropopause. Statistical analysis showed that on the average nonlinear changes were larger in convective areas than nonconvective regions. Errors often exceeding 100 percent were made by assuming variables to change linearly through a 12-h period in areas of thunderstorms, indicating that these nonlinear changes are important in the development of severe weather. Linear changes, however, accounted for more and more of an observed change as the time interval (within the 12-h interpolation period) increased, implying that the accuracy of linear interpolation increased over larger time intervals.

  6. Waves of genomic hitchhikers shed light on the evolution of gamebirds (Aves: Galliformes)

    PubMed Central

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Matzke, Andreas; Churakov, Gennady; Kuritzin, Andrej; Mayr, Gerald; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Background The phylogenetic tree of Galliformes (gamebirds, including megapodes, currassows, guinea fowl, New and Old World quails, chicken, pheasants, grouse, and turkeys) has been considerably remodeled over the last decades as new data and analytical methods became available. Analyzing presence/absence patterns of retroposed elements avoids the problems of homoplastic characters inherent in other methodologies. In gamebirds, chicken repeats 1 (CR1) are the most prevalent retroposed elements, but little is known about the activity of their various subtypes over time. Ascertaining the fixation patterns of CR1 elements would help unravel the phylogeny of gamebirds and other poorly resolved avian clades. Results We analyzed 1,978 nested CR1 elements and developed a multidimensional approach taking advantage of their transposition in transposition character (TinT) to characterize the fixation patterns of all 22 known chicken CR1 subtypes. The presence/absence patterns of those elements that were active at different periods of gamebird evolution provided evidence for a clade (Cracidae + (Numididae + (Odontophoridae + Phasianidae))) not including Megapodiidae; and for Rollulus as the sister taxon of the other analyzed Phasianidae. Genomic trace sequences of the turkey genome further demonstrated that the endangered African Congo Peafowl (Afropavo congensis) is the sister taxon of the Asian Peafowl (Pavo), rejecting other predominantly morphology-based groupings, and that phasianids are monophyletic, including the sister taxa Tetraoninae and Meleagridinae. Conclusion The TinT information concerning relative fixation times of CR1 subtypes enabled us to efficiently investigate gamebird phylogeny and to reconstruct an unambiguous tree topology. This method should provide a useful tool for investigations in other taxonomic groups as well. PMID:17925025

  7. A suite of microsatellite markers for genetic management of captive cracids (Aves, Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Camargo, C; Laganaro, N M; Oliveira, P R R; Davanço, P V; Azeredo, R M A; Simpson, J G P; Silveira, L F; Francisco, M R

    2014-11-27

    Cracids are medium to large frugivorous birds that are endemic to the Neotropics. Because of deforestation and overhunting, many species are threatened. The conservation of several species has relied on captive breeding and reintroduction in the wild, but captive populations may be inbred. Microsatellite tools can permit the construction of genetic pedigrees to reduce inbreeding, but only a few loci are available for this group of birds. Here, we present 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the cross-amplification of these and of 10 additional loci available in the literature in a panel of 5 cracid species, including 3 species with high conservation concern. We provide the first polymorphic loci for the jacutinga, Aburria jacutinga (N = 8), and red-billed curassow, Crax blumenbachii (N = 9), and additional loci for bare-faced curassow, C. fasciolata (N = 8), Alagoas curassow, Pauxi mitu (N = 5), and razor-billed curassow, P. tuberosa (N = 5). The average number of alleles was 2.9 for A. jacutinga, 2.7 for C. blumenbachii, 3.5 for C. fasciolata, 2.6 for P. mitu, and 5.7 for P. tuberosa. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.42, 0.40, 0.48, 0.37, and 0.59, respectively. The average probabilities that the set of loci would not exclude a pair of parents of an arbitrary offspring were 2.9% in A. jacutinga, 1% in C. blumenbachii, 0.5% in C. fasciolata, 0.4% in P. mitu, and 0.002% in P. tuberosa suggesting that these loci may be adequate for parentage analysis and to implement ex situ genetic management plans.

  8. Effects of body size on take-off flight performance in the Phasianidae (Aves).

    PubMed

    Tobalske, B W; Dial, K P

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms responsible for relationships between body mass and maximum take-off performance in birds, we studied four species in the Phasianidae: northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), chukar (Alectoris chukar), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). These species vary in body mass from 0.2 to 5.3 kg, and they use flight almost solely to escape predators. During take-off, all the species used a similar wingbeat style that appeared to be a vortex-ring gait with a tip reversal during the upstroke. The tip reversal is unusual for birds with rounded wings; it may offer an aerodynamic advantage during rapid acceleration. Flight anatomy generally scaled geometrically, except for average wing chord and wing area, which increased more than expected as body mass (m) increased. Pectoralis strain varied from 19.1 to 35.2 % and scaled in proportion to m(0.23). This positive scaling is not consistent with the widely held assumption that muscle strain is independent of body mass among geometrically similar species. The anatomy of the species precluded measurements of in vivo pectoralis force using the strain-gauge technique that has been employed successfully in other bird species, so we could not directly test in vivo pectoralis force-velocity relationships. However, whole-body kinematics revealed that take-off power (P(ta)), the excess power available for climbing and accelerating in flight, scaled in proportion to m(0.75) and that pectoralis mass-specific P(ta) decreased in proportion to m(-)(0.26) and was directly proportional to wingbeat frequency. These trends suggest that mass-specific pectoralis work did not vary with body mass and that pectoralis stress and strain were inversely proportional, as expected from classical force-velocity models for skeletal muscle. Our observations of P(ta) were consistent with evidence from other species engaged in escape flight and, therefore, appear to contradict evidence from studies of take-off or hovering with an added payload.

  9. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the flightless Mancallinae (Aves, Pan-Alcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Neil Adam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although flightless alcids from the Miocene and Pliocene of the eastern Pacific Ocean have been known for over 100 years, there is no detailed evaluation of diversity and systematic placement of these taxa. This is the first combined analysis of morphological and molecular data to include all extant alcids, the recently extinct Great Auk Pinguinus impennis, the mancalline auks, and a large outgroup sampling of 29 additional non-alcid charadriiforms. Based on the systematic placement of Mancallinae outside of crown clade Alcidae, the clade name Pan-Alcidae is proposed to include all known alcids. An extensive review of the Mancallinae fossil record resulted in taxonomic revision of the clade, and identification of three new species. In addition to positing the first hypothesis of inter-relationships between Mancallinae species, phylogenetic results support placement of Mancallinae as the sister taxon to all other Alcidae, indicating that flightlessness evolved at least twice in the alcid lineage. Convergent osteological characteristics of Mancallinae, the flightless Great Auk, and Spheniscidae are summarized, and implications of Mancallinae diversity, radiation, and extinction in the context of paleoclimatic changes are discussed. PMID:21594108

  10. Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the antbirds, ovenbirds, woodcreepers, and allies (Aves: Passeriformes: Infraorder Furnariides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, R.G.; Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.; Tello, J.G.; Marchese, D.J.; Cracraft, J.

    2009-01-01

    The infraorder Furnariides is a diverse group of suboscine passerine birds comprising a substantial component of the Neotropical avifauna. The included species encompass a broad array of morphologies and behaviours, making them appealing for evolutionary studies, but the size of the group (ca. 600 species) has limited well-sampled higher-level phylogenetic studies. Using DNA sequence data from the nuclear RAG-1 and RAG-2 exons, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of the Furnariides sampling 124 (more than 88%) of the genera. Basal relationships among family-level taxa differed depending on phylogenetic method, but all topologies had little nodal support, mirroring the results from earlier studies in which discerning relationships at the base of the radiation was also difficult. In contrast, branch support for family-rank taxa and for many relationships within those clades was generally high. Our results support the Melanopareidae and Grallariidae as distinct from the Rhinocryptidae and Formicariidae, respectively. Within the Furnariides our data contradict some recent phylogenetic hypotheses and suggest that further study is needed to resolve these discrepancies. Of the few genera represented by multiple species, several were not monophyletic, indicating that additional systematic work remains within furnariine families and must include dense taxon sampling. We use this study as a basis for proposing a new phylogenetic classification for the group and in the process erect new family-group names for clades having high branch support across methods. ?? 2009 The Willi Hennig Society.

  11. An improved phylogeny of the Andean tit-tyrants (Aves, Tyrannidae): More characters trump sophisticated analyses

    PubMed Central

    DuBay, Shane G.; Witt, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeny of the flycatcher genus Anairetes was previously inferred using short fragments of mitochondrial DNA and parsimony and distance-based methods. The resulting topology spurred taxonomic revision and influenced understanding of Andean biogeography. More than a decade later, we revisit the phylogeny of Anairetes tit-tyrants using more mtDNA characters, seven unlinked loci (3 mitochondrial genes, 6 nuclear loci), more closely related outgroup taxa, partitioned Bayesian analyses, and two coalescent species-tree approaches (Bayesian estimation of species trees, BEST; Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees, *BEAST). Of these improvements in data and analyses, the fourfold increase in mtDNA characters was both necessary and sufficient to incur a major shift in the topology and near-complete resolution. The species-tree analyses, while theoretically preferable to concatenation or single gene approaches, yielded topologies that were compatible with mtDNA but with weaker statistical resolution at nodes. The previous results that had led to taxonomic and biogeographic reappraisal were refuted, and the current results support the resurrection of the genus Uromyias as the sister clade to Anairetes. The sister relationship between these two genera corresponds to an ecological dichotomy between a depauperate humid cloudforest clade and a diverse dry-tolerant clade that has diversified along the latitudinal axis of the Andes. The species-tree results and the concatenation results each reaffirm the primacy of mtDNA to provide phylogenetic signal for avian phylogenies at the species and subspecies level. This is due in part to the abundance of informative characters in mtDNA, and in part to its lower effective population size that causes it to more faithfully track the species tree. PMID:22525942

  12. Power-line electrocution of birds (Electrocucion de Aves en Lineas Electricas en Mexico)

    Treesearch

    Patricia Manzano Fischer

    2006-01-01

    A result of rapid growth in human population and energy use, is proliferating power lines that electrocute birds, killing eagles and causing power outages. The United States was one of the first countries to recognize the significance of this problem. Suggested Practices for the Protection of Raptors on Power Lines, first published in the 1970s, has now been translated...

  13. DNA barcoding and phylogenetic relationships of genera Picoides and Dendrocopos (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Z H; Tu, F Y; Liao, X J

    2015-12-28

    Picoides and Dendrocopos are two closely related genera of woodpeckers (family Picidae), and members of these genera have long been the subjects of phylogenetic debate. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is a powerful marker for the identification and phylogenetic study of animal species. In the present study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of 21 species from the two genera, and 222 variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. The average interspecific genetic distance was more than 20 times higher than the average intraspecific genetic distance. The neighbor-joining method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, and all of the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades. Picoides arcticus was the first to split from the lineage, and the other species were grouped into two divergent clades. The results of this study indicated that the COI genetic data did not support the monophyly of Picoides and Dendrocopos.

  14. Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B; Peterson, A Townsend

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed 2995 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data (nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 and mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND2 genes), using parsimony and model-based approaches to infer phylogenetic relationships of the woodpeckers and allies, yielding novel hypotheses for several critical gaps in the knowledge of picid phylogeny. We tested the monophyly of sub-families within the Picidae, and sampled from widely distributed and diverse genera (Celeus, Colaptes, Dryocopus, Melanerpes, Picoides, Picumnus, Sasia, Piculus, and Picus). Relationships of three poorly known Southeast Asian genera (Dinopium, Reinwardtipicus, and Blythipicus) were also examined, revealing unexpected sister relationships. All phylogenetic approaches recovered largely congruent topologies, supporting a monophyletic Picinae and paraphyletic Picumninae, with the monotypic piculet, Nesoctites micromegas, as sister to the Picinae. We report paraphyly for Celeus and Piculus, whereas the broadly distributed genera Picumnus and Dryocopus were supported as monophyletic. Our phylogenetic results indicate a complex geographic history for the Picidae, with multiple disjunct sister lineages distributed between the New World and Asia. The relationships and geographic distribution of basal picid lineages indicates an Old World origin of the Picidae; however, the geographic origin of the Picinae remains equivocal, as the sister relationship between the Caribbean N. micromegas and the true woodpeckers presents the possibility of a New World origin for the Picinae.

  15. Brain size and morphology of the brood-parasitic and cerophagous honeyguides (Aves: Piciformes).

    PubMed

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Birkhead, Tim R; Spottiswoode, Claire N; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Boogert, Neeltje J; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristian; Overington, Sarah E; Wylie, Douglas R; Lefebvre, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Honeyguides (Indicatoridae, Piciformes) are unique among birds in several respects. All subsist primarily on wax, are obligatory brood parasites and one species engages in 'guiding' behavior in which it leads human honey hunters to bees' nests. This unique life history has likely shaped the evolution of their brain size and morphology. Here, we test that hypothesis using comparative data on relative brain and brain region size of honeyguides and their relatives: woodpeckers, barbets and toucans. Honeyguides have significantly smaller relative brain volumes than all other piciform taxa. Volumetric measurements of the brain indicate that honeyguides have a significantly larger cerebellum and hippocampal formation (HF) than woodpeckers, the sister clade of the honeyguides, although the HF enlargement was not significant across all of our analyses. Cluster analyses also revealed that the overall composition of the brain and telencephalon differs greatly between honeyguides and woodpeckers. The relatively smaller brains of the honeyguides may be a consequence of brood parasitism and cerophagy ('wax eating'), both of which place energetic constraints on brain development and maintenance. The inconclusive results of our analyses of relative HF volume highlight some of the problems associated with comparative studies of the HF that require further study.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics, vocalizations, and species limits in Celeus woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    Species limits and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped diversification of woodpeckers and allies (Picidae) remain obscure, as inter and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships have yet to be comprehensively resolved for most genera. Herein, we analyzed 5020 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Celeus woodpeckers. Broad geographic sampling was employed to assess species limits in phenotypically variable lineages and provide a first look at the evolution of song and plumage traits in this poorly known Neotropical genus. Our results strongly support the monophyly of Celeus and reveal several novel relationships across a shallow phylogenetic topology. We confirm the close sister relationship between Celeus spectabilis and the enigmatic Celeus obrieni, both of which form a clade with Celeus flavus. The Mesoamerican Celeus castaneus was placed as sister to a Celeus undatus-grammicus lineage, with the species status of the latter drawn into question given the lack of substantial genetic, morphological, and vocal variation in these taxa. We recovered paraphyly in Celeus elegans; however, this result appears to be the consequence of mitochondrial introgression from Celeus lugubris considering the monophyly of elegans at the ß-FIBI7 locus. A second instance of paraphyly was observed in Celeus flavescens with deep genetic splits and substantial phenotypic variation indicating the presence of two distinct species in this broadly distributed lineage. As such, we advocate elevation of Celeus flavescens ochraceus to species status. Our analysis of Celeus vocalizations and plumage characters demonstrates a pattern of lability consistent with a relatively recent origin of the genus and potentially rapid speciation history.

  17. Evolution in Australasian mangrove forests: multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the Gerygone warblers (Aves: Acanthizidae).

    PubMed

    Nyári, Árpád S; Joseph, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The mangrove forests of Australasia have many endemic bird species but their evolution and radiation in those habitats has been little studied. One genus with several mangrove specialist species is Gerygone (Passeriformes: Acanthizidae). The phylogeny of the Acanthizidae is reasonably well understood but limited taxon sampling for Gerygone has constrained understanding of its evolution and historical biogeography in mangroves. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Gerygone based on comprehensive taxon sampling and a multilocus dataset of thirteen loci spread across the avian genome (eleven nuclear and two mitochondrial loci). Since Gerygone includes three species restricted to Australia's coastal mangrove forests, we particularly sought to understand the biogeography of their evolution in that ecosystem. Analyses of individual loci, as well as of a concatenated dataset drawn from previous molecular studies indicates that the genus as currently defined is not monophyletic, and that the Grey Gerygone (G. cinerea) from New Guinea should be transferred to the genus Acanthiza. The multilocus approach has permitted the nuanced view of the group's evolution into mangrove ecosystems having occurred on multiple occasions, in three non-overlapping time frames, most likely first by the G. magnirostris lineage, and subsequently followed by those of G. tenebrosa and G. levigaster.

  18. A new genus for the American Tree Sparrow (Aves: Passeriformes: Passerellidae).

    PubMed

    Slager, David L

    2014-06-23

    The genus Spizella (Bonaparte) contains seven species of North American sparrows in the recently resurrected family Passerellidae (Bock 1994; Barker et al. 2013), formerly placed in the Emberizidae, and includes a few of the region's most common and familiar bird species. Spizella sparrows occupy more or less open habitats; most species are at least partially migratory and form small flocks when not breeding. On the basis of their similar morphology and behavior, they have long been treated as a natural group (Ridgway 1901; American Ornithologists' Union 1998). 

  19. Speciational history of North American Haemorhous finches (Aves: Fringillidae) inferred from multilocus data.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian Tilston; Bryson, Robert W; Chua, Vivien; Africa, Lia; Klicka, John

    2013-03-01

    We investigated species relationships and timing of speciation in North American Haemorhous finches by using a mitochondrial phylogeographic approach combined with a multilocus species tree reconstruction. Haemorhous purpureus and H. cassinii were strongly supported as sister taxa, and H. mexicanus was sister to H. purpureus+H. cassinii. Our divergence times indicated that diversification within Haemorhous occurred progressively from the Late Miocene into the Pleistocene. Our inferred pattern of speciation demonstrates the complexity of the origins of North American birds, and provides additional evidence that a single cause for speciation in closely related North American birds, such as Late Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles, is unlikely.

  20. Flexibility along the Neck of the Neogene Terror Bird Andalgalornis steulleti (Aves Phorusrhacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tambussi, Claudia P.; de Mendoza, Ricardo; Degrange, Federico J.; Picasso, Mariana B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Andalgalornis steulleti from the upper Miocene–lower Pliocene (≈6 million years ago) of Argentina is a medium-sized patagornithine phorusrhacid. It was a member of the predominantly South American radiation of ‘terror birds’ (Phorusrhacidae) that were apex predators throughout much of the Cenozoic. A previous biomechanical study suggests that the skull would be prepared to make sudden movements in the sagittal plane to subdue prey. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze the flexion patterns of the neck of Andalgalornis based on the neck vertebrae morphology and biometrics. The transitional cervical vertebrae 5th and 9th clearly separate regions 1–2 and 2–3 respectively. Bifurcate neural spines are developed in the cervical vertebrae 7th to 12th suggesting the presence of a very intricate ligamentary system and of a very well developed epaxial musculature. The presence of the lig. elasticum interespinale is inferred. High neural spines of R3 suggest that this region concentrates the major stresses during downstrokes. Conclusions/Significance The musculoskeletal system of Andalgalornis seems to be prepared (1) to support a particularly big head during normal stance, and (2) to help the neck (and the head) rising after the maximum ventroflexion during a strike. The study herein is the first interpretation of the potential performance of the neck of Andalgalornis in its entirety and we considered this an important starting point to understand and reconstruct the flexion pattern of other phorusrhacids from which the neck is unknown. PMID:22662194

  1. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical redstarts (Myioborus; Aves, Parulinae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Emán, Jorge L

    2005-11-01

    Montane areas in the Neotropics are characterized by high diversity and endemism of birds and other groups. The avian genus Myioborus (Parulinae) is a group of insectivorous warblers, characteristic of cloud forests, that represents one of the few Parulinae genera (New World warblers) that has radiated substantially in South America. The genus is distributed throughout most montane regions from the southwestern United States to northern Argentina. Here, I use mitochondrial sequences from the cytochrome b, ND2, and ND3 genes to present the first hypothesis of phylogenetic relationship among all Myioborus species level taxa. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods produced similar results and suggest a northern origin for the genus Myioborus with subsequent colonization of the Neotropical Montane Region. The lower-montane species, M. miniatus, is the sister taxon to a clade in which all taxa occupy upper-montane habitats. These "highland" taxa diverged early in the history of the genus and produced two well-defined monophyletic lineages, a Central-northern Andean clade formed by M. albifrons, M. ornatus, and M. melanocephalus, and a Pantepui (table-mountains of southern Venezuela, northern Brazil, and western Guyana) clade consisting of M. castaneocapillus, M. albifacies, and M. cardonai, and probably M. pariae. M. brunniceps, M. flavivertex, and M. torquatus were included in this upper-montane clade but without clear relationships to other taxa. Lack of resolution of nodes defining the upper-montane species clade is likely to result from a period of rapid diversification mediated by geological and climatic events during the Late Pliocene. These results suggest that an interplay of dispersal and vicariance has shaped the current biogeographic patterns of Myioborus.

  2. Data for NASA's AVE 2 pilot experiment. Part 1: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Turner, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from surface to 25 mb is presented for the 54 stations participating in the Atmospheric Variability Experiment 11 pilot experiment which began at 12 GMT on May 11, 1974, and ended at 12 GMT on May 12, 1974. Soundings were made at 3 hour intervals. A brief discussion is included on methods of processing and data accuracy, and synoptic charts prepared from the the data are presented. The area covered by the sounding stations is the eastern United States, east of approximately 105 deg west longitude.

  3. [Advantages and limitations of interspecies associations in northern migratory sandpipers (Charadrii, Aves)].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Investigations were carried out at two stations of Ornithological Unit, IBPN FEB RAS, located in Nizhnekolymsk District, Yakutia, starting from May 15-20 in 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1990; at the northern coast of Pukhovoy Bay, Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya starting from June 1 in 1994; at Cape Beliy Nos, the Yugorsky Peninsula, starting from June 1 in 1995-1997. Classic associations are detected in interspecies flocks of sandpipers between the following species: the Pacific golden plover and the curlew sandpiper, the pectoral sandpiper and the long-billed dowitcher, the pectoral sandpiper and the dunlin, the grey plover and the dunlin. However, total amount of birds that form associations is not large. In species of group "A" (the grey plover, the Pacific golden plover, the pectoral sandpiper), no difference has been observed in migratory birds behavior within inter- or conspecific flocks. Species of group "B" (the dunlin, the curlew sandpiper, the long-billed dowitcher), on the contrary, change their behavior sharply depending on whether they belong to an association or not. Species of group "A" do not get any advantages when forming an association. Unlike them, species of group "B" profit from associating: a part of time spent in foraging substantially increases; more time is spent on rest and less time is spent on reconnaissance and vigilance (readiness for actions); safety of birds is enhanced. On the other hand, in species of group "B" there are also disadvantages related with associating: i.e., interspecies competition for food; foraging in suboptimal habitats which, in turn, may lead to notable increase of time spent by birds in foraging. An assumption is put forward that in species of group "B" advantages and limitations of associating cancel each other to a certain extent, and this explains rather small number of birds forming associations.

  4. Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) based on nuclear DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Per GP; Envall, Ida; Irestedt, Martin; Norman, Janette A

    2003-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have not been tested by analysis of DNA sequence data. Herein we utilize 1692 bp of aligned, nuclear DNA sequences obtained from 23 charadriiform species, representing 15 families. We also test earlier suggestions that bustards and sandgrouses may be nested with the charadriiforms. The data is analysed with methods based on the parsimony and maximum-likelihood criteria. Results Several novel phylogenetic relationships were recovered and strongly supported by the data, regardless of which method of analysis was employed. These include placing the gulls and allied groups as a sistergroup to the sandpiper-like birds, and not to the plover-like birds. The auks clearly belong to the clade with the gulls and allies, and are not basal to most other charadriiform birds as suggested in analyses of morphological data. Pluvialis, which has been supposed to belong to the plover family (Charadriidae), represents a basal branch that constitutes the sister taxon to a clade with plovers, oystercatchers and avocets. The thick-knees and sheathbills unexpectedly cluster together. Conclusion The DNA sequence data contains a strong phylogenetic signal that results in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree with many strongly supported internodes. Taxonomically it is the most inclusive study of shorebird families that relies on nucleotide sequences. The presented phylogenetic hypothesis provides a solid framework for analyses of macroevolution of ecological, morphological and behavioural adaptations observed within the order Charadriiformes. PMID:12875664

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Threskiornithidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, J L; Miyaki, C Y; Del Lama, S N

    2013-07-30

    The family Threskiornithidae includes 13 genera and 32 species, and it is traditionally divided into 2 subfamilies: Plataleinae and Threskiornithinae. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction to test the monophyly of currently accepted subfamilies, including 15 species from both subfamilies and 10 genera of family Threskiornithidae. Phylogenetic trees were inferred on the basis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and the nuclear intron 7 of β-fibrinogen. Threskiornithidae was recovered as a monophyletic group. Plataleinae formed a monophyletic group, but nested within Threskiornithinae, which was thus paraphyletic. Two major phylogenetic groups were identified: the 'endemic New World clade', including genera endemic to the American continent, and the 'widespread clade', comprising the remaining species. These phylogenetic groups diverged about 39-42 million years ago, i.e., before the separation of South America and Antarctica. Our results agree with an initial vicariance due to Gondwana break-up and subsequent colonization of species from the Old World to the New World.

  6. A new genus of syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) from cuculiform birds (Aves: Cuculiformes).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej

    2008-06-01

    Cuculisyringophilus crotophaginus gen. n. et sp. n. is described from the guira cuckoo Guira guira (Gmelin) from Paraguay and also was collected from the groove-billed ani Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson from Colombia and Mexico. This new genus is closely related to Neoaulobia Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000 but is distinguished by the following characters: propodosomal setae sce are situated distinctly anterior to level of setae d1, leg setae vs'II are absent, apodemes I are divergent.

  7. [Geographical distribution and habitat of Trochilidae (Aves) in the state of Guerrero, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Sierra-Morales, Pablo; Almazán-Núñez, Carlos; Beltrán-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Coro Arizmendi, María del

    2016-03-01

    The distribution and abundance of species of Trochillidae family is usually influenced by the flowering and phenology of plants used as a feeding source, mainly in primary forest, so that changes in vegetation cover could impact their populations. We analyzed and characterized the geographical distribution and habitat for 22 species of resident hummingbirds in the state of Guerrero using the vegetation and the land use map of INEGI Series IV (2007-2010). Distribution models were generated with the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP), using historical records of scientific collections and fieldwork (2001-2009), in combination with climatic and topographic variables. Of the 22 modeled species, six are endemic to Mexico, the same number of species found in a risk category. The highest concentration with regards to richness (14-20 species), endemism (5-6 species) and number of threatened species of hummingbirds (5-6 species) occurred in the biotic province of Sierra Madre del Sur. However, the potential distribution of most of the hummingbirds occurred in disturbed sites or agroecosystems, as a result of changes in land-use. For Campylopterus hemileucurus, Lamprolaima rhami and Heliomaster longisrostris, their potential distribution was highest in areas of primary vegetation. Areas of high hummingbirds presence do not coincide with the Important Bird Areas proposed for bird conservation in Guerrero, considering that, despite its diversity and its extreme popularity, from the conservation perspective hummingbirds have received relatively little attention.

  8. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O; Berv, Jacob S; Dornburg, Alex; Field, Daniel J; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Lemmon, Alan R

    2015-10-22

    Although reconstruction of the phylogeny of living birds has progressed tremendously in the last decade, the evolutionary history of Neoaves--a clade that encompasses nearly all living bird species--remains the greatest unresolved challenge in dinosaur systematics. Here we investigate avian phylogeny with an unprecedented scale of data: >390,000 bases of genomic sequence data from each of 198 species of living birds, representing all major avian lineages, and two crocodilian outgroups. Sequence data were collected using anchored hybrid enrichment, yielding 259 nuclear loci with an average length of 1,523 bases for a total data set of over 7.8 × 10(7) bases. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses yielded highly supported and nearly identical phylogenetic trees for all major avian lineages. Five major clades form successive sister groups to the rest of Neoaves: (1) a clade including nightjars, other caprimulgiforms, swifts, and hummingbirds; (2) a clade uniting cuckoos, bustards, and turacos with pigeons, mesites, and sandgrouse; (3) cranes and their relatives; (4) a comprehensive waterbird clade, including all diving, wading, and shorebirds; and (5) a comprehensive landbird clade with the enigmatic hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) as the sister group to the rest. Neither of the two main, recently proposed Neoavian clades--Columbea and Passerea--were supported as monophyletic. The results of our divergence time analyses are congruent with the palaeontological record, supporting a major radiation of crown birds in the wake of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) mass extinction.

  9. [Egg size variation in egrets and herons (Aves: Ardeidae) nesting in Birama's swamp, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Denis Avila, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    Intraclutch egg size variation in birds depends on many ecological factors and on the evolutive history of each species. In wading birds, a trend to smaller eggs with laying order has been described, but comparative reports are scarce. In this study, egg size variation patterns were described for nine Egrets and Heron species nesting in Birama' Swamp, Cuba. The patterns were described using external dimensions of 3142 eggs from 1875 nests of Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea and four Egretta species, taken in the field between 1998 and 2006. Results showed that eggs were 4.9-10% of adult weight and had volume variation coefficients between 6-9%. There were no general and consistent interspecies relationship between clutch size and egg sizes. Average volumes tend to get smaller with laying order, but it is not statistically detectable in Butorides and Bubulcus. Last egg was between 0.2% and 15% smaller than the first, showing an inverse relationship with it. Intraclutch asymmetry is light in E. thula and fluctuating around null in Bubulcus. Size only predicted laying or hatching order for the last egg, in nests with more than two eggs, with 72.4% of confidence.

  10. Structure and growth pattern of pseudoteeth in Pelagornis mauretanicus (Aves, Odontopterygiformes, Pelagornithidae).

    PubMed

    Louchart, Antoine; Sire, Jean-Yves; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Geraads, Denis; Viriot, Laurent; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    The extinct Odontopterygiformes are the sole birds known to possess strong and sharp bony pseudoteeth, the shape and location of which are closely mimetic of real teeth. The structure of the pseudoteeth is investigated here in a late Pliocene/early Pleistocene species, Pelagornis mauretanicus, using X-ray microtomography and thin sections. The results are interpreted with regard to the pseudotooth mode of growth, and have implications concerning aspects of Pelagornis ecology. The larger pseudoteeth are hollow and approximately cone-shaped, and the smaller ones are rostro-caudally constricted. The walls of pseudoteeth are composed of bone tissue of the fibro-lamellar type, which is intensively remodeled by Haversian substitution. The jaw bones display the same structure as the pseudoteeth, but their vascular canals are oriented parallel to the long axis of the bones, whereas they are perpendicular to this direction in the pseudoteeth. There is no hiatus or evidence of a fusion between the pseudoteeth and the jaw bones. Two possible models for pseudotooth growth are derived from the histological data. The most plausible model is that pseudotooth growth began after the completion of jaw bone growth, as a simple local protraction of periosteal osteogenic activity. Pseudotooth development thus occurred relatively late during ontogeny. The highly vascularized structure and the relative abundance of parallel-fibered bone tissue in the pseudoteeth suggest poor mechanical capabilities. The pseudoteeth were most likely covered and protected by the hardened, keratinized rhamphotheca in the adult during life. The late development of the pseudoteeth would involve a similarly late and/or partial hardening of the rhamphotheca, as displayed by extant Anseriformes, Apterygiformes and some Charadriiformes. This would add support to the hypothesis of a close phylogenetic relationship between Odontopterygiformes and Anseriformes. The late maturation of the Pelagornis feeding apparatus, and hence the delayed capability for efficient prey catching, suggests that Pelagornis was altricial.

  11. The 25-MB sounding data and synoptic charts for NASA's AVE 2 pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Rawinsonde data were tabulated at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 54 stations participating in the atmospheric variability experiment 2 Pilot Experiment which began at 12 Greenwich mean time on May 11 and ended at 12 Greenwich mean time on May 12, 1974. Soundings were made at 3 hour intervals. Methods of processing and data accuracy are discussed, and synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented. The area covered by the sounding stations is the eastern United States east of approximately 105 deg west longitude.

  12. AVES: A high performance computer cluster array for the INTEGRAL satellite scientific data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, Memmo; Martino, Bruno Luigi; Ubertini, Pietro

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we describe a new computing system array, designed, built and now used at the Space Astrophysics and Planetary Institute (IAPS) in Rome, Italy, for the INTEGRAL Space Observatory scientific data analysis. This new system has become necessary in order to reduce the processing time of the INTEGRAL data accumulated during the more than 9 years of in-orbit operation. In order to fulfill the scientific data analysis requirements with a moderately limited investment the starting approach has been to use a `cluster' array of commercial quad-CPU computers, featuring the extremely large scientific and calibration data archive on line.

  13. A cryptic new species of hummingbird of the Campylopterus largipennis complex (Aves: Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Leonardo Esteves; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira DE; Gonzaga, Luiz Pedreira

    2017-05-15

    A new species of Campylopterus sabrewing is described from eastern Brazilian tropical dry forests occurring below 900 m asl. Its holotype (MZUSP 99024) is an adult female from Sítio Duboca (16°43'19''S, 43°58'20''W, elevation 840 m), municipality of Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais. A taxonomic revision based on more than 1,000 museum specimens revealed that the new taxon, together with C. largipennis, C. diamantinensis and C. obscurus (with C. aequatorialis considered as a subjective junior synonym) should be ranked as species. We provide a key to permit easy identification of the four species. The new species is very similar to the parapatric C. diamantinensis of high altitude "campos rupestres" above 1,000 m asl, differing from it by its smaller size and longer light tail tips, as well as by sternum measurements. Given the several threats faced by the habitat to which the new species is endemic, we propose to consider it as Vulnerable under the IUCN criteria.

  14. A pelican tarsometatarsus (Aves: Pelecanidae) from the latest Pliocene Siwaliks of India.

    PubMed

    Stidham, Thomas A; Krishan, Kewal; Singh, Bahadur; Ghosh, Abhik; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    We report a new fossil specimen of a pelican from the Tatrot Formation of the Siwalik Hills, India. It likely represents Pelecanus sivalensis Davies, 1880, the smaller of the two previously published species from the Siwalik Group stratigraphic sequence. This complete tarsometatarsus is the first fossil bone of a pelican collected in India for over 100 years. It is from the latest Pliocene (∼2.6 Ma), and is the youngest pelican fossil from the region. The new specimen exhibits a derived distoplantar 'slant' to the plantar margin of the medial crest of the hypotarsus, and a combination of features related to the morphology of the hypotarsus, the distal foramen, trochleae, and overall size that allow further differentiation from known tarsometatarsi of fossil and extant pelicans, including the three species of extant pelicans that occur in India (Pelecanus crispus, P. onocrotalus, and P. philippensis). It is of appropriate size for Pelecanus sivalensis, which to date has been known only by fragments of other skeletal elements of the wing, leg, and shoulder girdle. Thus, the observation that this tarsometatarsus is morphologically distinct from those of known pelicans provides further support for the distinctiveness of at least one extinct species of pelican from the Siwalik Group sediments. While the morphology of the tarsometatarsus allows for separation from other taxa known from tarsometatarsi, we found no clear shared derived states to place this taxon with any confidence in a phylogenetic context relative to any other pelican species, or even determine if it is part of the crown group of Pelecanidae. However, published molecular data are consistent with an origin of the crown clade prior to the Pleistocene, suggesting (along with one morphological character) the possibility that this species belongs to the Old World clade of pelican species.

  15. A multilocus analysis provides evidence for more than one species within Eugenes fulgens (Aves: Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Beltrán, Luz E; Hernández-Baños, Blanca E

    2015-09-01

    The status of subspecies in systematic zoology is the focus of controversy. Recent studies use DNA sequences to evaluate the status of subspecies within species complexes and to recognize and delimit species. Here, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships, the taxonomic status of the proposed subspecies, and the species limits of the monotypic hummingbird genus Eugenes (E. fulgens with traditionally recognized subspecies E. f. fulgens, E. f. viridiceps, and E. f. spectabilis), using nuclear (Beta Fibrinogen BFib, Ornithine Decarboxylase ODC, and Muscle Skeletal Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MUSK) and mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 ND2, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 ND4, and Control Region CR) markers. We performed Bayesian and Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography analyses and found genetic differences between the three groups, suggesting the existence of two cryptic species (E. fulgens and E. viridiceps) and one phenotypically differentiated species (E. spectabilis). Our analyses show that the E. viridiceps and E. fulgens groups are more closely related with one another than with E. spectabilis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification, classification, and growth of moa chicks (Aves: Dinornithiformes) from the genus Euryapteryx.

    PubMed

    Huynen, Leon; Gill, Brian J; Doyle, Anthony; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of growth in extinct organisms is difficult. The general lack of skeletal material from a range of developmental states precludes determination of growth characteristics. For New Zealand's extinct moa we have available to us a selection of rare femora at different developmental stages that have allowed a preliminary determination of the early growth of this giant flightless bird. We use a combination of femora morphometrics, ancient DNA, and isotope analysis to provide information on the identification, classification, and growth of extinct moa from the genus Euryapteryx. Using ancient DNA, we identify a number of moa chick bones for the species Euryapteryx curtus, Dinornis novaezealandiae, and Anomalopteryx didiformis, and the first chick bone for Pachyornis geranoides. Isotope analysis shows that ∂15N levels vary between the two known size classes of Euryapteryx, with the larger size class having reduced levels of ∂15N. A growth series for femora of the two size classes of Euryapteryx shows that early femora growth characteristics for both classes are almost identical. Morphometric, isotopic, and radiographic analysis of the smallest Euryapteryx bones suggests that one of these femora is from a freshly hatched moa at a very early stage of development. Using morphometric, isotopic, and ancient DNA analyses have allowed the determination of a number of characteristics of rare moa chick femora. For Euryapteryx the analyses suggest that the smaller sized class II Euryapteryx is identical in size and growth to the extant Darwin's rhea.

  17. Molecular evidence of the taxonomic status of western Mexican populations of Pliaethornis longirostris (Aves: Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity is largely underestimated by current taxonomy, precluding a precise understanding of evolutionary processes. Genetic data have increased our understanding of that cryptic diversity, and multilocus studies are now desirable. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to evaluate the taxonomic status of the western Mexico's populations of Phaethornis longirostris. We found differences of 4.2 % in mtDNA and different alleles for one nDNA locus between western and eastern Mexican populations. Molecular and morphological evidence support the separation of these populations (P. 1. mexicanus and P. 1. griseoventer) as the species Phaethornis mexicanus Hartert 1897. Phaethornis mexicanus is endemic to western Mexico and sister to the remaining populations of P. longirostris. The speciation of P mexicanus probably occurred around 880,000 years ago by a vicariant event involving climatic-vegetational changes.

  18. Data for NASA's AVE 6 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupuis, L. R.; Hill, K.

    1977-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiments 6 experiment is described, and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 22 stations participating in the experiment is presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT 27 May and 1200 GMT 28 May 1977. The methods of data processing and their accuracy are briefly discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented together with an example of contact data.

  19. Multi-locus phylogenetic inference among New World Vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeff A; Brown, Joseph W; Fuchs, Jérôme; Mindell, David P

    2016-12-01

    New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses. We also included an additional four nuclear loci (2578bp) for the species tree analysis to explore changes in nodal support values. Although the stem lineage is inferred to have originated ∼69 million years ago (Ma; 74.5-64.9 credible interval), a more recent basal split within Cathartidae was recovered at ∼14Ma (17.1-11.1 credible interval). Two primary clades were identified: (1) Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) together with the three Cathartes species (Lesser C. burrovianus and Greater C. melambrotus Yellow-headed Vultures, and Turkey Vulture C. aura), and (2) King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), California (Gymnogyps californianus) and Andean (Vultur gryphus) Condors. Support for taxon relationships within the two basal clades were inconsistent between analyses with the exception of Black Vulture sister to a monophyletic Cathartes clade. Increased support for a yellow-headed vulture clade was recovered in the species tree analysis using the four additional nuclear loci. Overall, these results are in agreement with cathartid life history (e.g. olfaction ability and behavior) and contrasting habitat affinities among sister taxa with overlapping geographic distributions. More research is needed using additional molecular loci to further resolve the phylogenetic relationships within the two basal cathartid clades, as speciation appeared to have occurred in a relatively short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New host records for parasitic mites of the family Syringophilidae from accipitriform birds (Aves: Accipitriformes).

    PubMed

    Zmudzinski, Mateusz; Unsoeld, Markus; Knee, Wayne; Skoracki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Four accipitriform bird species of the family Accipitridae are reported as new hosts for quill mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae): Megasyringophilus aquilus Skoracki, Lontkowski and Stawarczyk, 2010 was collected from Hieraaetus pennatus Gmelin, 1788 in France and Spain, and Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin, 1788 in Canada; Peristerophila accipitridicus Skoracki, Lontkowski and Stawarczyk, 2010 was collected from Circaetus gallicus Gmelin, 1788 in France, and Buteo lagopus Pontoppidan, 1763 in Germany.

  2. [Recommendations to researchers who will study lice (Phthiraptera) of wild birds (Aves) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal

    2014-12-01

    Lice (Antennata: Phthiraptera) fauna in Turkey is not a well-known field. A large number of lice species described up to date parasitize birds. Most bird species of nearly 500 species in Turkey have not been examined from the perspective of louse specimen. No louse was seen on some examined species, and that is why lice fauna on poultry have not been searched out well. This paper emphasizes on what researchers need to pay attention in the course of research, which features and knowledge they need to have, and which morphological criteria they need to examine during diagnosis of lice.

  3. Phylogeny of major lineages of galliform birds (Aves: Galliformes) based on complete mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Kan, X-Z; Yang, J-K; Li, X-F; Chen, L; Lei, Z-P; Wang, M; Qian, C-J; Gao, H; Yang, Z-Y

    2010-08-17

    Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences have been used successfully to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa, and for studies of population genetics and molecular evolution. We made phylogenetic analyses of 22 species of Galliformes, with two species of Anseriformes as outgroups, using maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods based on the nucleotide dataset and the corresponding amino acid dataset of 13 concatenated protein-coding genes. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported monophyly of Galliformes, Phasianidae (nucleotide and amino acid: posterior probabilities 1.00 in BI, bootstrap value > 99% in ML and MP), Coturnicinae, and Gallininae (nucleotide and amino acid: posterior probabilities 1.00 in BI, bootstrap value > 85% in ML and MP), but failed to demonstrate monophyly of Pavoninae and Phasianinae. Our results also support a sister-group relationship between megapodes and all other galliforms. We found that Arborophilinae is basal to the balance of the Phasianidae. Moreover, we suggest that the turkey should be classified in the Phasianinae of Phasianidae. Although the relationships among the various lineages of the Galliformes remain controversial, these results should be useful for further study.

  4. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  5. Variation of plumage patterns, geographic distribution and taxonomy of the Unicolored Blackbird (Aves: Icteridae).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Leonardo Esteves

    2017-01-19

    The Unicolored Blackbird Agelasticus cyanopus (Vieillot, 1819) is a marsh bird with four allopatric subspecies restricted to lowlands in South America east of the Andes. I conducted a taxonomic revision of the species based on analysis of external morphological characters of 288 study skins, including all types available. My revision shows that: 1) Leistes unicolor Swainson, 1838, is a senior synonym of A. c. xenicus (Parkes, 1966) and, therefore, the correct name of the taxon should be A. c. unicolor (Swainson, 1838); 2) the range of A. c. unicolor (Swainson, 1838) is much wider than previously thought, extending from the mouth of the Rio Amazonas to the state of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil, where it intergrades with A. c. atroolivaceus (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1831); 3) A. c. atroolivaceus extends its range well beyond the coast of Rio de Janeiro, reaching the coast of São Paulo, the central part of Minas Gerais, Bahia and Espírito Santo; and 4) specimens attributed to A. c. beniensis are highly variable, so this name must be considered a subjective junior synonym of the nominotypical taxon. Under the Biological Species Concept, two broadly parapatric species should be recognized, A. cyanopus and A. atroolivaceus (including unicolor as a subspecies). Under the Phylogenetic Species Concept or the General Lineage Concept of Species, the best taxonomic treatment is to recognize three species: A. cyanopus, A. atroolivaceus, and A. unicolor.

  6. [Trematodes of birds (Aves) from the Middle Volga region. 2. Orders Plagiorchiida, Renicolida, Strigeida, and Schistosomatida].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu

    2013-01-01

    Data on trematodes of Plagiorchiida, Renicolida, Strigeida, and Schistosomatida, parasitizing in birds of the Middle Volga region are given. Proceedings of the different authors are supplemented by results of our research. Two species of trematodes (Brachylaima mesostoma and Mosesia amplavaginata) are specified for birds of the middle Volga region for the first time. New hosts were revealed for 2 trematode species: the great tit for Plagiorchis laricola and the common chaffinch for M. amplavaginata. The following characteristics for each parasite are given: it's systematic position, the spectrum of hosts, localization, collecting site, biology, the degree of host specificity and geographical range. The morphological description and original figures of 11 species of trematodes are presented.

  7. Correction of Cassicinae Bonaparte, 1853 (Aves, Icteridae) to Cacicinae Bonaparte, 1853.

    PubMed

    Schodde, Richard; Remsen, J V Jr

    2016-09-08

    In our recently published revised classification of the Icteridae (Remsen et al. 2016), we used the family group name Cassicinae Bonaparte, 1853 on the assumption that its type genus was Cassicus Illiger, 1811. We have since confirmed, after kind advice from Thomas Donegan (pers. comm. 2016), that Cassicus Illiger (1811: 214) is simply an unjustified emendation of Cacicus Lacépède, 1799, made clear by Illiger (l.c.) in a footnote to his description of Cassicus. Under Articles 32.5.3.2 and 35.4.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999), a family-group name formed from an unjustified emendation of the name of its type genus is to be corrected, unless the emendation has come into use as a substitute name or through prevailing use. This is not the case here, and accordingly we correct the spelling of Cassicinae to Cacicinae. Bonaparte (1853) retains authorship; and, although not expressly mentioned before, his originally ligatured suffix -eoe for the name was automatically corrected by us (Remsen et al. l.c.) under Articles 11.7.1.3 and 32.5.3 of the Code (ICZN l.c.).

  8. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-10

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira.

  9. Does behavior reflect phylogeny in swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)? A test using cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P L; Clayton, D H; Griffiths, R; Page, R D

    1996-01-01

    Swiftlets are small insectivorous birds, many of which nest in caves and are known to echolocate. Due to a lack of distinguishing morphological characters, the taxonomy of swiftlets is primarily based on the presence or absence of echolocating ability, together with nest characters. To test the reliability of these behavioral characters, we constructed an independent phylogeny using cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequences from swiftlets and their relatives. This phylogeny is broadly consistent with the higher classification of swifts but does not support the monophyly of swiftlets. Echolocating swiftlets (Aerodramus) and the nonecholocating "giant swiftlet" (Hydrochous gigas) group together, but the remaining nonecholocating swiftlets belonging to Collocalia are not sister taxa to these swiftlets. While echolocation may be a synapomorphy of Aerodramus (perhaps secondarily lost in Hydrochous), no character of Aerodramus nests showed a statistically significant fit to the molecular phylogeny, indicating that nest characters are not phylogenetically reliable in this group. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8692950

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome and the phylogenetic position of the Lesser Cuckoo, Cuculus poliocephalus (Aves: Cuculiformes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Liang, Bin; Huo, Juan; Liang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Lesser Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus was determined using next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses with 20 cuckoo species and six genes (12S, ATP6, CYTb, ND2, ND3, and ND6) strongly verified the identity of our sample as grouping with C. poliocephalus, which was sister to a clade of other Cuculus spp., including C. canorus, C. micropterus, and C. saturatus. The mitogenomic length of C. poliocephalus was 17 508 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, one control region with 48 bp unit tandem repeats close to 3' end, and one short pseudo-control region with 33 tandem repeats of CAACAAA. An extra nucleotide (T) was identified at position 174 of ND3. The mitogenome of C. poliocephalus will contribute to studies of mitogenomic evolution, the phylogenetic relationship of cuckoos, and the co-evolutionary pattern between brood parasitic birds and their hosts.

  11. Helminth parasites of the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) (Aves, Sturnidae), an invasive bird in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Valente, Romina; Ibañez, Lucía Mariel; Lorenti, Eliana; Fiorini, Vanina Dafne; Montalti, Diego; Diaz, Julia Inés

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the European starling Sturnus vulgaris, an invasive bird from Argentina. Seventy-six birds were collected during the spring of 2007 and were examined for helminths. Six parasite species were found: one trematoda of the Echinostoma revolutum "group," four nematodes (Synhimantus nasuta, Microtetrameres sp., Pterothominx exilis, and Ornithocapillaria ovopunctata), and one acanthocephalan (Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus). All species found have been recorded in Eurasia and/or North America previously, although present reports enlarge their geographical distribution. As expected in an invasive host, the parasite community shows much lower species richness (n = 6) than those observed in their native area (79 and 35 in the Eurasia and North America, respectively).

  12. Mitochondrial phylogeography, subspecific taxonomy, and conservation genetics of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; Aves: Gruidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhymer, J.M.; Fain, M.G.; Austin, J.E.; Johnson, D.H.; Krajewski, C.

    2001-01-01

    Six subspecies of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) have been denoted based on perceived morphological and/or breeding locality differences among them. Three subspecies are migratory, breeding from the high arctic in North America and Siberia (lesser sandhill, G. c. canadensis), south through central Canada (Canadian sandhill, G. c. rowani) and into the northern United States (greater sandhill, G. c. tabida). A review of sandhill crane taxonomy indicates that the size variation, on the basis of which these subspecies were named, may be clinal and not diagnostic. The other three subspecies, all listed as endangered or threatened, are non-migratory, resident in Florida (G. c. pratensis), Mississippi (G. c. pulla), and Cuba (G. c. nesiotes). We used analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences to determine whether haplotypes representing current subspecies show any genetic cohesion or are more consistent with a pattern of clinal variation in morphology. CR sequences indicate that only two highly divergent (5.3%) lineages of sandhill cranes occur in North America: one lineage composed only of arctic-nesting G. c. canadensis, the other of the remaining North American subspecies (we lack data on the Cuban population). The deep split between lineages is consistent with an estimated isolation of approximately 1.5 Mya (mid-Pleistocene), while the distribution of mutational changes within lineages is consistent with an hypothesis of rapid, post-Pleistocene population expansions. No other phylogeographic structuring is concordant with subspecific boundaries, however, analysis of molecular variance indicates that there is significant population genetic differentiation among all subspecies except G. c. tabida and G. c. rowani, which are indistinguishable. We suggest that recognition of the recently named G. c. rowani be abandoned.

  13. Rapid diversification of falcons (Aves: Falconidae) due to expansion of open habitats in the Late Miocene.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Johnson, Jeff A; Mindell, David P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how and why lineages diversify is central to understanding the origins of biological diversity. The avian family Falconidae (caracaras, forest-falcons, falcons) has an uneven distribution of species among multiple well-supported clades, and provides a useful system for testing hypotheses about diversification rate and correlation with environmental changes. We analyzed eight independent loci for 1-7 individuals from each of the 64 currently recognized Falconidae species, together with two fossil falconid temporal calibrations, to assess phylogeny, absolute divergence times and potential shifts in diversification rate. Our analyses supported similar diversification ages in the Early to Middle Miocene for the three traditional subfamilies, Herpetotherinae, Polyborinae and Falconinae. We estimated that divergences within the subfamily Falconinae began about 16mya and divergences within the most species-rich genus, Falco, including about 60% of all Falconidae species, began about 7.5mya. We found evidence for a significant increase in diversification rate at the basal phylogenetic node for the genus Falco, and the timing for this rate shift correlates generally with expansion of C4 grasslands beginning around the Miocene/Pliocene transition. Concomitantly, Falco lineages that are distributed primarily in grassland or savannah habitats, as opposed to woodlands, and exhibit migratory, as opposed to sedentary, behavior experienced a higher diversification rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Crumble analysis of the historic sympatric distribution between Dendrortyx macroura and D. barbatus (Aves: Galliformes)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In Mexico, the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) is distributed in the mountains of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Sierra Madre del Sur and Sierra Norte de Oaxaca; while the Bearded Wood-Partridge (D. barbatus) is distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO). There is a controversial overlap in distribution (sympatry) between these two species (on the Cofre de Perote and Pico de Orizaba volcanoes, SMO and Sierra Norte de Oaxaca), based on the ambiguity and current lack of information regarding the distribution of these two species. In order to disentangle the possible presence of both species in the area of sympatry, we conducted a crumble analysis of the historic knowledge regarding the geographic distribution of both species, based on a review of scientific literature, database records, the specimen examination (in ornithological collections), field work and a reconstruction of the distribution range based on Ecological Niche Modeling. Our results support the presence of only one of these two species in the overlapping area, rejecting the existence of such an area of sympatry between the two species. We discuss alternative hypotheses that could explain the historically reported distribution pattern: 1) an error in the single existing historical record; 2) a possible local extinction of the species and 3) the past existence of interspecific competition that has since been resolved under the principle of competitive exclusion. We propose that the Santo Domingo River in northern Oaxaca and western slope of the Sierra Madre Oriental, mark the distribution limits between these species. PMID:28863140

  15. A Pelican Tarsometatarsus (Aves: Pelecanidae) from the Latest Pliocene Siwaliks of India

    PubMed Central

    Stidham, Thomas A.; Krishan, Kewal; Singh, Bahadur; Ghosh, Abhik; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    We report a new fossil specimen of a pelican from the Tatrot Formation of the Siwalik Hills, India. It likely represents Pelecanus sivalensis Davies, 1880, the smaller of the two previously published species from the Siwalik Group stratigraphic sequence. This complete tarsometatarsus is the first fossil bone of a pelican collected in India for over 100 years. It is from the latest Pliocene (∼2.6 Ma), and is the youngest pelican fossil from the region. The new specimen exhibits a derived distoplantar ‘slant’ to the plantar margin of the medial crest of the hypotarsus, and a combination of features related to the morphology of the hypotarsus, the distal foramen, trochleae, and overall size that allow further differentiation from known tarsometatarsi of fossil and extant pelicans, including the three species of extant pelicans that occur in India (Pelecanus crispus, P. onocrotalus, and P. philippensis). It is of appropriate size for Pelecanus sivalensis, which to date has been known only by fragments of other skeletal elements of the wing, leg, and shoulder girdle. Thus, the observation that this tarsometatarsus is morphologically distinct from those of known pelicans provides further support for the distinctiveness of at least one extinct species of pelican from the Siwalik Group sediments. While the morphology of the tarsometatarsus allows for separation from other taxa known from tarsometatarsi, we found no clear shared derived states to place this taxon with any confidence in a phylogenetic context relative to any other pelican species, or even determine if it is part of the crown group of Pelecanidae. However, published molecular data are consistent with an origin of the crown clade prior to the Pleistocene, suggesting (along with one morphological character) the possibility that this species belongs to the Old World clade of pelican species. PMID:25365300

  16. Molecular systematics of the new world screech-owls (Megascops: Aves, Strigidae): biogeographic and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Sidnei M; Weckstein, Jason D; Bates, John M; Krabbe, Niels K; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Robbins, Mark B; Valderrama, Eugenio; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Megascops screech-owls are endemic to the New World and range from southern Canada to the southern cone of South America. The 22 currently recognized Megascops species occupy a wide range of habitats and elevations, from desert to humid montane forest, and from sea level to the Andean tree line. Species and subspecies diagnoses of Megascops are notoriously difficult due to subtle plumage differences among taxa with frequent plumage polymorphism. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear genes we estimated a phylogeny for all but one Megascops species. Phylogenies were estimated with Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, and a Bayesian chronogram was reconstructed to assess the spatio-temporal context of Megascops diversification. Megascops was paraphyletic in the recovered tree topologies if the Puerto Rican endemic M. nudipes is included in the genus. However, the remaining taxa are monophyletic and form three major clades: (1) M. choliba, M. koepckeae, M. albogularis, M. clarkii, and M. trichopsis; (2) M. petersoni, M. marshalli, M. hoyi, M. ingens, and M. colombianus; and (3) M. asio, M. kennicottii, M. cooperi, M. barbarus, M. sanctaecatarinae, M. roboratus, M. watsonii, M. atricapilla, M. guatemalae, and M. vermiculatus. Megascops watsonii is paraphyletic with some individuals more closely related to M. atricapilla than to other members in that polytypic species. Also, allopatric populations of some other Megascops species were highly divergent, with levels of genetic differentiation greater than between some recognized species-pairs. Diversification within the genus is hypothesized to have taken place during the last 8 million years, with a likely origin in Central America. The genus later expanded over much of the Americas and then diversified via multiple dispersal events from the Andes into the Neotropical lowlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative phylogeography of co-distributed Phrygilus species (Aves, Thraupidae) from the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Varas, R; González-Acuña, D; Vianna, J A

    2015-09-01

    The Neotropical ecoregion has been an important place of avian diversification where dispersal and allopatric events coupled with periods of active orogeny and climate change (Late Pliocene-Pleistocene) have shaped the biogeography of the region. In the Neotropics, avian population structure has been sculpted not only by geographical barriers, but also by non-allopatric factors such as natural selection and local adaptation. We analyzed the genetic variation of six co-distributed Phrygilus species from the Central Andes, based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers in conjunction with morphological differentiation. We examined if Phrygilus species share patterns of population structure and historical demography, and reviewed the intraspecific taxonomy in part of their geographic range. Our results showed different phylogeographic patterns between species, even among those belonging to the same phylogenetic clade. P. alaudinus, P. atriceps, and P. unicolor showed genetic differentiation mediated by allopatric mechanisms in response to specific geographic barriers; P. gayi showed sympatric lineages in northern Chile, while P. plebejus and P. fruticeti showed a single genetic group. We found no relationship between geographic range size and genetic structure. Additionally, a signature of expansion was found in three species related to the expansion of paleolakes in the Altiplano region and the drying phase of the Atacama Desert. Morphological analysis showed congruence with molecular data and intraspecific taxonomy in most species. While we detected genetic and phenotypic patterns that could be related to natural selection and local adaptation, our results indicate that allopatric events acted as a major factor in the population differentiation of Phrygilus species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new extinct species of Snipe (Aves: Scolopacidae: Gallinago) from the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Takano, Oona M

    2016-05-09

    We describe an extinct species of snipe (Gallinago kakuki, new species) from late Quaternary fossils in the Bahamian Archipelago (Abaco, New Providence, Little Exuma, Long, and Middle Caicos islands). The new species is known as well from fossils on Cuba, and Cayman Brac in the Cayman Islands. This rather large species of snipe was volant, although because of its relatively short carpometacarpus, the primary flight feathers probably were short. The only other species of Gallinago from the West Indies is the extant, migratory G. delicata, which breeds only in North America. Gallinago kakuki shares more osteological characters with two Eurasian species (G. media, G. hardwickii) than with either of the New World species we examined (G. delicata, G. paraguaiae). A possible inter-hemispherical relationship has been proposed as well for the two extinct, late Quaternary species of woodcocks from the West Indies (Scolopax anthonyi of Puerto Rico, S. brachycarpa of Hispaniola).

  19. Development of the "Standard Educational Materials List." Audiovisual Instructional Materials. AVE in Japan No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audio-Visual Education Association, Tokyo.

    The Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science in Japan revised its standards for educational materials to be provided in schools and promulgated a new "Standard Educational Materials List" on March 17, 1991. This manual provides information about the new list first in Japanese and then in an English language version. The new list…

  20. Crumble analysis of the historic sympatric distribution between Dendrortyx macroura and D. barbatus (Aves: Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Mota-Vargas, Claudio; Galindo-González, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R

    2017-01-01

    In Mexico, the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) is distributed in the mountains of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Sierra Madre del Sur and Sierra Norte de Oaxaca; while the Bearded Wood-Partridge (D. barbatus) is distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO). There is a controversial overlap in distribution (sympatry) between these two species (on the Cofre de Perote and Pico de Orizaba volcanoes, SMO and Sierra Norte de Oaxaca), based on the ambiguity and current lack of information regarding the distribution of these two species. In order to disentangle the possible presence of both species in the area of sympatry, we conducted a crumble analysis of the historic knowledge regarding the geographic distribution of both species, based on a review of scientific literature, database records, the specimen examination (in ornithological collections), field work and a reconstruction of the distribution range based on Ecological Niche Modeling. Our results support the presence of only one of these two species in the overlapping area, rejecting the existence of such an area of sympatry between the two species. We discuss alternative hypotheses that could explain the historically reported distribution pattern: 1) an error in the single existing historical record; 2) a possible local extinction of the species and 3) the past existence of interspecific competition that has since been resolved under the principle of competitive exclusion. We propose that the Santo Domingo River in northern Oaxaca and western slope of the Sierra Madre Oriental, mark the distribution limits between these species.

  1. Carotenoid-based bill coloration functions as a social, not sexual, signal in songbirds (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Dey, C J; Valcu, M; Kempenaers, B; Dale, J

    2015-01-01

    Many animals use coloration to communicate with other individuals. Although the signalling role of avian plumage colour is relatively well studied, there has been much less research on coloration in avian bare parts. However, bare parts could be highly informative signals as they can show rapid changes in coloration. We measured bill colour (a ubiquitous bare part) in over 1600 passerine species and tested whether interspecific variation in carotenoid-based coloration is consistent with signalling to potential mates or signalling to potential rivals in a competitive context. Our results suggest that carotenoid bill coloration primarily evolved as a signal of dominance, as this type of coloration is more common in species that live in social groups in the nonbreeding season, and species that nest in colonies; two socio-ecological conditions that promote frequent agonistic interactions with numerous and/or unfamiliar individuals. Additionally, our study suggests that carotenoid bill coloration is independent of the intensity of past sexual selection, as it is not related to either sexual dichromatism or sexual size dimorphism. These results pose a significant challenge to the conventional view that carotenoid-based avian coloration has evolved as a developmentally costly, condition-dependent sexual signal. We also suggest that bare part ornamentation may often signal different information than plumage ornaments.

  2. DNA hybridization evidence for the principal lineages of hummingbirds (Aves:Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, R; Kirsch, J A; Matheus, J C

    1997-03-01

    The spectacular evolutionary radiation of hummingbirds (Trochilidae) has served as a model system for many biological studies. To begin to provide a historical context for these investigations, we generated a complete matrix of DNA hybridization distances among 26 hummingbirds and an outgroup swift (Chaetura pelagica) to determine the principal hummingbird lineages. FITCH topologies estimated from symmetrized delta TmH-C values and subjected to various validation methods (bootstrapping, weighted jackknifing, branch length significance) indicated a fundamental split between hermit (Eutoxeres aquila, Threnetes ruckeri; Phaethornithinae) and nonhermit (Trochilinae) hummingbirds, and provided strong support for six principal nonhermit clades with the following branching order: (1) a predominantly lowland group comprising caribs (Eulampis holosericeus) and relatives (Androdon aequatorialis and Heliothryx barroti) with violet-ears (Colibri coruscans) and relatives (Doryfera ludovicae); (2) an Andean-associated clade of highly polytypic taxa (Eriocnemis, Heliodoxa, and Coeligena); (3) a second endemic Andean clade (Oreotrochilus chimborazo, Aglaiocercus coelestis, and Lesbia victoriae) paired with thorntails (Popelairia conversii); (4) emeralds and relatives (Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Amazilia tzacatl, Thalurania colombica, Orthorhyncus cristatus and Campylopterus villaviscensio); (5) mountain-gems (Lampornis clemenciae and Eugenes fulgens); and (6) tiny bee-like forms (Archilochus colubris, Myrtis fanny, Acestrura mulsant, and Philodice mitchellii). Corresponding analyses on a matrix of unsymmetrized delta values gave similar support for these relationships except that the branching order of the two Andean clades (2, 3 above) was unresolved. In general, subsidiary relationships were consistent and well supported by both matrices, sometimes revealing surprising associations between forms that differ dramatically in plumage and bill morphology. Our results also reveal some basic aspects of hummingbird ecologic and morphologic evolution. For example, most of the diverse endemic Andean assemblage apparently comprises two genetically divergent clades, whereas the majority of North American hummingbirds belong a single third clade. Genetic distances separating some morphologically distinct genera (Oreotrochilus, Aglaiocercus, Lesbia; Myrtis, Acestrura, Philodice) were no greater than among congeneric (Coeligena) species, indicating that, in hummingbirds, morphological divergence does not necessarily reflect level of genetic divergence.

  3. Evolution of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) in Boobies and Gannets (Aves, Suliformes).

    PubMed

    Baião, Patricia C; Parker, Patricia G

    2012-01-01

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) has been linked to intraspecific variation of melanin-based plumage color in several unrelated bird species. However, its involvement in interspecific variation has far less evidence. The Sulidae is a family in the Suliformes composed of 10 species of pelagic seabirds, distributed in 3 genera. There is significant variation in the amount and distribution of melanin pigments among species in the family Sulidae, and 2 species, the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and the red-footed booby (S. sula), present plumage polymorphisms, with the latter being considered one of the most plumage polymorphic birds. We performed a survey of the MC1R evolution in 68 individuals representing all 9 species in the Sulidae, except the Abbott's booby, to determine the role played by this locus in explaining the melanic variation observed in the Sulidae. We found the amino acid substitution R112H to be in full concordance with the plumage color observed in the brown booby, which shows a unique phaeomelanin-dominant coloration. Furthermore, all amino acid residues known to be important for function at the MC1R were completely conserved in the Sulidae, except for the previously described V85M and H207R substitutions among the 2 red-footed booby's color morphs. A total of 14 substitutions were inferred from estimated ancestral nodes throughout the Sulidae phylogeny. Finally, we found evidence that the MC1R is under strong purifying selection in all Sulid species. This study provides additional evidence of the potential involvement of the MC1R in melanin-based plumage variation at the interspecific level.

  4. Nesting distributions of Galápagos boobies (Aves: Sulidae): an apparent case of amensalism.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Howard M; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Hodum, Peter J; Anderson, David J

    2002-08-01

    Blue-footed boobies (Sula nebouxii) in the Galápagos Islands nest at coastal sites such as cliff edges if Nazca boobies (S. granti) are absent. However, if sympatric with nesting Nazca boobies, they nest nearby, but farther inland, in areas with little topographical relief. Nazca boobies nest at the coastal sites whether blue-footed boobies are present or not. The segregated nesting pattern of these two species offers a model system to investigate factors influencing community structure. We tested a non-interactive hypothesis, in which different fundamental niches generate the non-overlapping distributions, and an interactive hypothesis, in which the two fundamental niches overlap and an interaction between the two species causes the segregation. Data on three factors considered as likely parameters differentiating fundamental niches (nest microclimate, nature of the nesting substrate, and ease of taking flight from nest sites) failed to support the non-interactive hypothesis. These results suggest that the two species have indistinguishable fundamental niches with respect to these parameters, but different realized niches. Researchers studying resource partitioning by ecologically similar species often only consider competition (a "-/-" interaction) to explain situations like this, ignoring the more parsimonious amensal (0/-) possibility. Nesting segregation in this situation is apparently caused by attacks of non-breeding adult Nazca boobies on blue-footed booby nestlings, injuring nestlings and ultimately preventing them from fledging. The interaction does not result in any discernible costs or benefits (i.e., effects on fecundity or survival) for the adult Nazca boobies, so it is best described as an amensal interaction. This interaction provides a sufficient explanation of the observed nesting segregation, and precludes present competition for nesting space.

  5. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 5 conducted on 20-21 May 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    July, M.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Information on data collected, synoptic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the period are presented. Records of the synoptic conditions include synoptic charts, radar charts, satellite photographs, and rainfall observations.

  6. The structure and dynamics of mesoscale systems influencing severe thunderstorm development during AVE/SESAME 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Relationships between meso-beta scale systems and thunderstorm formation were examined as part of the NASA atmospheric variability experiment/severe environmental storms and mesoscale experiment 1979. The McIdas program was employed for meso-beta scale analyses of atmospheric structure and dynamics in kinematic computations of the Abilene Triangle on a grid mesh of 100 km for station spacing of 275 km. Mesoscale short wave systems were detected imbedded and propagating cyclonically around upper-level vortex circulation and creating environmental conditions conducive to thunderstorm development. TIROS-N and GOES satellite data served to connect the systems with two convective storms which developed. The necessity to use spaceborne instrumentation carried on the Shuttle or on free-flying satellites for enhancing the data-base on storm development is noted.

  7. Nesting behavior of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Trochilidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Oniki, Y; Willis, E O

    2000-11-01

    An August or winter nestling of Eupetomena macroura was fed only every 40-50 min for at least 24 days in the nest, with fewer feedings at midday. As in other hummingbirds, it was brooded only the first week or two, and left alone even on cool nights after 12 days, probably due to the small nest size. The female attacked birds of many non-nectarivore species near the nest, in part probably to avoid predation. Botfly parasitism was extremely high, as in some other forest-edge birds.

  8. Host associations and turnover of haemosporidian parasites in manakins (Aves: Pipridae).

    PubMed

    Fecchio, Alan; Svensson-Coelho, Maria; Bell, Jeffrey; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Medeiros, Matthew C; Trisos, Christopher H; Blake, John G; Loiselle, Bette A; Tobias, Joseph A; Fanti, Rebeka; Coffey, Elyse D; DE Faria, Iubatã P; Pinho, João B; Felix, Gabriel; Braga, Erika M; Anciães, Marina; Tkach, Vasyl; Bates, John; Witt, Christopher; Weckstein, Jason D; Ricklefs, Robert E; Farias, Izeni P

    2017-03-14

    Parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) are a diverse group of pathogens that infect birds nearly worldwide. Despite their ubiquity, the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape the diversity and distribution of these protozoan parasites among avian communities and geographic regions are poorly understood. Based on a survey throughout the Neotropics of the haemosporidian parasites infecting manakins (Pipridae), a family of Passerine birds endemic to this region, we asked whether host relatedness, ecological similarity and geographic proximity structure parasite turnover between manakin species and local manakin assemblages. We used molecular methods to screen 1343 individuals of 30 manakin species for the presence of parasites. We found no significant correlations between manakin parasite lineage turnover and both manakin species turnover and geographic distance. Climate differences, species turnover in the larger bird community and parasite lineage turnover in non-manakin hosts did not correlate with manakin parasite lineage turnover. We also found no evidence that manakin parasite lineage turnover among host species correlates with range overlap and genetic divergence among hosts. Our analyses indicate that host switching (turnover among host species) and dispersal (turnover among locations) of haemosporidian parasites in manakins are not constrained at this scale.

  9. Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae).

    PubMed

    Suárez, William; Olson, Storrs L

    2015-09-23

    After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the extinct West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto) larger than the living barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli), we reached the following conclusions: (1) the species T. ostologa Wetmore (1922) is the only giant barn owl known so far from Hispaniola; (2) T. pollens Wetmore (1937) was a somewhat larger and even more robust representative of T. ostologa known from the Great Bahama Bank and Cuba; (3) the very rare species T. riveroi Arredondo (1972b) is here synonymized with T. pollens; (4) the smallest taxon of these giant barn owls is T. noeli Arredondo (1972a), which is widespread and abundant in Quaternary deposits of Cuba and is here reported for the first time from two cave deposits in Jamaica; (5) the only large barn owl named so far from the Lesser Antilles is T. neddi Steadman & Hilgartner (1999), which is here synonymized with T. noeli; (6) a new taxon from Cuba, T. cravesae new species, which in size approached the linear dimensions of T. ostologa, is named and described herein.

  10. An improved phylogeny of the Andean tit-tyrants (Aves, Tyrannidae): more characters trump sophisticated analyses.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Shane G; Witt, Christopher C

    2012-08-01

    The phylogeny of the flycatcher genus Anairetes was previously inferred using short fragments of mitochondrial DNA and parsimony and distance-based methods. The resulting topology spurred taxonomic revision and influenced understanding of Andean biogeography. More than a decade later, we revisit the phylogeny of Anairetes tit-tyrants using more mtDNA characters, seven unlinked loci (three mitochondrial genes, six nuclear loci), more closely related outgroup taxa, partitioned Bayesian analyses, and two coalescent species-tree approaches (Bayesian estimation of species trees, BEST; Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees, (*)BEAST). Of these improvements in data and analyses, the fourfold increase in mtDNA characters was both necessary and sufficient to incur a major shift in the topology and near-complete resolution. The species-tree analyses, while theoretically preferable to concatenation or single gene approaches, yielded topologies that were compatible with mtDNA but with weaker statistical resolution at nodes. The previous results that had led to taxonomic and biogeographic reappraisal were refuted, and the current results support the resurrection of the genus Uromyias as the sister clade to Anairetes. The sister relationship between these two genera corresponds to an ecological dichotomy between a depauperate humid cloud forest clade and a diverse dry-tolerant clade that has diversified along the latitudinal axis of the Andes. The species-tree results and the concatenation results each reaffirm the primacy of mtDNA to provide phylogenetic signal for avian phylogenies at the species and subspecies level. This is due in part to the abundance of informative characters in mtDNA, and in part to its lower effective population size that causes it to more faithfully track the species tree. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    EPA Science Inventory

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  12. Phylogeography of the Buarremon brush-finch complex (Aves, Emberizidae) in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Townsend Peterson, A; Nyari, Arpad; García-Deras, Gabriela M; García-Moreno, Jaime

    2008-04-01

    The Buarremon brush-finches represent a complex suite of populations distributed in the montane New World Tropics from Mexico south to South America. Traditional taxonomic arrangements have separated populations of this genus into three species, based on plumage variation, although plumage patterns are well known to exhibit homoplasy. We present a first detailed phylogeographic and phylogenetic study, focused on Mesoamerican populations, and signal the existence of strong differentiation among populations with a clear geographic structure. We find well differentiated clades for (1) the Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, (2) western Mexican populations, including the B. brunneinucha populations in the Sierra Madre del Sur and B. virenticeps, (3) Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra de los Tuxtlas, (4) northern Central America, (5) southern Central America, (6) middle Central America, and (7) South America. We demonstrate a lack of concordance with plumage patterns, and argue for several additional species to be recognized in the complex.

  13. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  14. Diversidad de aves en agropaisajes en la region norte de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Wayne J. Arendt; Marvin Tórrez; Sergio. Vílchez

    2012-01-01

    Avian diversity in agroscapes in Nicaragua’s north highlands. – Nicaragua’s highland forests are threatened by continual wood extraction and encroaching agriculture. Still, the effects of forest loss and fragmentation on avian communities remain little known. We used fixed-width point counts (distance sampling: 4843 detections during 86 h of observation) to...

  15. A new species of masked-owl (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae) from Seram, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Poulsen, Michael Køie; Haryoko, Tri; Reeve, Andrew Hart; Fabre, Pierre-Henri

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of masked-owl from the lower montane forest of Seram, one of the largest islands in the Moluccas of eastern Indonesia, for which we propose the name Tyto almae (Seram Masked-Owl), sp. nov. Molecular (mitochondrial cyt-b) differences show that Tyto sororcula of Buru and Tanimbar is closely related to T novaehollandiae of Australia and New Guinea (-1% uncorrected pairwise distance), and that Tyto almae of Seram differs by -3% (uncorrected pairwise distance) from both of them. These differences are further corroborated by morphology and colouration. Although a photograph from Seram published in 1987 had already established the presence of a Tyto owl on the island, ours represents the first specimen of this species. The bird was mist-netted in wet, mossy lower montane forest at an elevation of 1,350 m. No further observations of the owl were made during four weeks of fieldwork in Seram.

  16. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes).

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  17. Structure and Growth Pattern of Pseudoteeth in Pelagornis mauretanicus (Aves, Odontopterygiformes, Pelagornithidae)

    PubMed Central

    Louchart, Antoine; Sire, Jean-Yves; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Geraads, Denis; Viriot, Laurent; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    The extinct Odontopterygiformes are the sole birds known to possess strong and sharp bony pseudoteeth, the shape and location of which are closely mimetic of real teeth. The structure of the pseudoteeth is investigated here in a late Pliocene/early Pleistocene species, Pelagornis mauretanicus, using X-ray microtomography and thin sections. The results are interpreted with regard to the pseudotooth mode of growth, and have implications concerning aspects of Pelagornis ecology. The larger pseudoteeth are hollow and approximately cone-shaped, and the smaller ones are rostro-caudally constricted. The walls of pseudoteeth are composed of bone tissue of the fibro-lamellar type, which is intensively remodeled by Haversian substitution. The jaw bones display the same structure as the pseudoteeth, but their vascular canals are oriented parallel to the long axis of the bones, whereas they are perpendicular to this direction in the pseudoteeth. There is no hiatus or evidence of a fusion between the pseudoteeth and the jaw bones. Two possible models for pseudotooth growth are derived from the histological data. The most plausible model is that pseudotooth growth began after the completion of jaw bone growth, as a simple local protraction of periosteal osteogenic activity. Pseudotooth development thus occurred relatively late during ontogeny. The highly vascularized structure and the relative abundance of parallel-fibered bone tissue in the pseudoteeth suggest poor mechanical capabilities. The pseudoteeth were most likely covered and protected by the hardened, keratinized rhamphotheca in the adult during life. The late development of the pseudoteeth would involve a similarly late and/or partial hardening of the rhamphotheca, as displayed by extant Anseriformes, Apterygiformes and some Charadriiformes. This would add support to the hypothesis of a close phylogenetic relationship between Odontopterygiformes and Anseriformes. The late maturation of the Pelagornis feeding apparatus, and hence the delayed capability for efficient prey catching, suggests that Pelagornis was altricial. PMID:24244680

  18. Impact evaluation of an Energy $avings Plan project at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company (Columbia Harbor Lumber), Chehalis, Washington, was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy Savings Plan (ESP) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Columbia Harbor Lumber as a result of the ESP and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Columbia Harbor Lumber`s Completion Report and Proposal). The ECM itself consists of an adjustable speed drive for controlling the speed of nine fans on a lumber drying kiln. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to be 286,500 kWh/yr. On a per unit of output basis, this ECM will save 0.053 kWh/board foot, a 48% reduction. The ECM cost $24,086 to install, and Columbia Harbor Lumber received payment of $19,269 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. In all likelihood, this ECM would have been installed even without the acquisition payment from Bonneville. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 5.6 mills/kWh over the ECM`s expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 7.4 mills/kWh.

  19. Impact evaluation of an Energy $avings Plan project at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company (Columbia Harbor Lumber), Chehalis, Washington, was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy Savings Plan (ESP) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Columbia Harbor Lumber as a result of the ESP and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Columbia Harbor Lumber's Completion Report and Proposal). The ECM itself consists of an adjustable speed drive for controlling the speed of nine fans on a lumber drying kiln. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to be 286,500 kWh/yr. On a per unit of output basis, this ECM will save 0.053 kWh/board foot, a 48% reduction. The ECM cost $24,086 to install, and Columbia Harbor Lumber received payment of $19,269 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. In all likelihood, this ECM would have been installed even without the acquisition payment from Bonneville. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 5.6 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 7.4 mills/kWh.

  20. Phylogeny of the owlet-nightjars (Aves: Aegothelidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumbacher, J.P.; Pratt, T.K.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    The avian family Aegothelidae (Owlet-nightjars) comprises nine extant species and one extinct species, all of which are currently classified in a single genus, Aegotheles. Owlet-nightjars are secretive nocturnal birds of the South Pacific. They are relatively poorly studied and some species are known from only a few specimens. Furthermore, their confusing morphological variation has made it difficult to cluster existing specimens unambiguously into hierarchical taxonomic units. Here we sample all extant owlet-nightjar species and all but three currently recognized subspecies. We use DNA extracted primarily from museum specimens to obtain mitochondrial gene sequences and construct a molecular phylogeny. Our phylogeny suggests that most species are reciprocally monophyletic, however A. albertisi appears paraphyletic. Our data also suggest splitting A. bennettii into two species and splitting A. insignis and A. tatei as suggested in another recent paper. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  1. Niche divergence promotes rapid diversification of East African sky island white-eyes (Aves: Zosteropidae).

    PubMed

    Cox, Siobhan C; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Habel, Jan C; Amakobe, Bernard A; Day, Julia J

    2014-08-01

    The Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot composed of highly fragmented forested highlands (sky islands) harbours exceptional diversity and endemicity, particularly within birds. To explain their elevated diversity within this region, models founded on niche conservatism have been offered, although detailed phylogeographic studies are limited to a few avian lineages. Here, we focus on the recent songbird genus Zosterops, represented by montane and lowland members, to test the roles of niche conservatism versus niche divergence in the diversification and colonization of East Africa's sky islands. The species-rich white-eyes are a typically homogeneous family with an exceptional colonizing ability, but in contrast to their diversity on oceanic islands, continental diversity is considered depauperate and has been largely neglected. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of ~140 taxa reveals extensive polyphyly among different montane populations of Z. poliogastrus. These larger endemic birds are shown to be more closely related to taxa with divergent habitat types, altitudinal distributions and dispersal abilities than they are to populations of restricted endemics that occur in neighbouring montane forest fragments. This repeated transition between lowland and highland habitats over time demonstrate that diversification of the focal group is explained by niche divergence. Our results also highlight an underestimation of diversity compared to morphological studies that has implications for their taxonomy and conservation. Molecular dating suggests that the spatially extensive African radiation arose exceptionally rapidly (1-2.5 Ma) during the fluctuating Plio-Pleistocene climate, which may have provided the primary driver for lineage diversification.

  2. Rapid diversification and secondary sympatry in Australo-Pacific kingfishers (Aves: Alcedinidae: Todiramphus)

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Michael J.; Shult, Hannah T.; Cibois, Alice; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Filardi, Christopher E.; Moyle, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Todiramphus chloris is the most widely distributed of the Pacific's ‘great speciators’. Its 50 subspecies constitute a species complex that is distributed over 16 000 km from the Red Sea to Polynesia. We present, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of this enigmatic radiation of kingfishers. Ten Pacific Todiramphus species are embedded within the T. chloris complex, rendering it paraphyletic. Among these is a radiation of five species from the remote islands of Eastern Polynesian, as well as the widespread migratory taxon, Todiramphus sanctus. Our results offer strong support that Pacific Todiramphus, including T. chloris, underwent an extensive range expansion and diversification less than 1 Ma. Multiple instances of secondary sympatry have accumulated in this group, despite its recent origin, including on Australia and oceanic islands in Palau, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Significant ecomorphological and behavioural differences exist between secondarily sympatric lineages, which suggest that pre-mating isolating mechanisms were achieved rapidly during diversification. We found evidence for complex biogeographic patterns, including a novel phylogeographic break in the eastern Solomon Islands that separates a Northern Melanesian clade from Polynesian taxa. In light of our results, we discuss systematic relationships of Todiramphus and propose an updated taxonomy. This paper contributes to our understanding of avian diversification and assembly on islands, and to the systematics of a classically polytypic species complex. PMID:26064600

  3. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    PubMed

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sexual selection and the evolution of mechanical sound production in manakins (Aves: Pipridae).

    PubMed

    Prum

    1998-04-01

    I surveyed and described modulated, non-vocal, mechanical sounds of the lek-breeding Neotropical manakins (Pipridae). Variation among manakin species in mechanical sound production, repertoire size, acoustic structure, associated feather specialization, and mechanical sound production mechanisms were analysed comparatively in the context of a phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Mechanical sound production has probably evolved five or six times independently and been lost once within the 42 species of manakins. Complex mechanical sound repertoires have also evolved independently several times. Acoustic structure of these sounds indicates that at least four different physical mechanisms of mechanical sound production have evolved: short, broad-frequency spectrum pulses; short, low-frequency pulses; aerodynamic vortices; and harmonic oscillations. All well-known mechanical sounds in manakins are associated with obvious wing movements and sexually dimorphic wing feather specializations. Both primary and secondary wing feather specializations have evolved convergently within the family for the production of short, broad-frequency mechanical sound pulses. Two less well-known manakin clades also have tail feather specializations that may function in mechanical sound production. A concentrated-changes test documented that the dynamic patterns of evolution in mechanical sound production in the polygynous manakins are highly unlikely by chance alone. Intersexual selection for acrobatic display may have created subsequent opportunities for the evolution of novel preferences for incidental non-vocal sounds produced by acrobatic movements. Novel female preferences for these mechanical sounds led to further elaboration of these sounds and to the evolution of complex mechanical sound repertoires in independent lineages of the family. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  5. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the white-ruffed manakin Corapipo altera (Aves, Pipridae).

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jacob R; Stenzler, Laura M; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Lovette, Irby J

    2008-01-01

    We describe 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the white-ruffed manakin Corapipo altera, a common understory bird of Neotropical lowland and montane evergreen forests from eastern Honduras to northwestern Colombia. These markers were developed in order to assess population structure and genetic diversity in a fragmented landscape, and to study gene flow between forest fragments. Primers were tested on a population of 159 individuals from the Coto Brus region of southwestern Costa Rica. We found between four and 23 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.23 to 0.93.

  6. Jaw myology and bite force of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Carril, Julieta; Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2015-01-01

    Psittaciform birds exhibit novelties in jaw bone structure and musculature that are associated with strong bite forces. These features include an ossified arcus suborbitalis and the muscles ethmomandibularis and pseudomasseter. We analyse the jaw musculature of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) to enable future studies aimed at understanding craniofacial development, morphology, function and evolution. We estimate bite force based on muscle dissections, physiological cross-sectional area and skull biomechanical modelling. We also compare our results with available data for other birds and traced the evolutionary origin of the three novel diagnostic traits. Our results indicate that, in Myiopsitta, (i) the arcus suborbitalis is absent and the orbit is ventrally closed by an elongate processus orbitalis and a short ligamentum suborbitale; (ii) the ethmomandibularis muscle is a conspicuous muscle with two bellies, with its origin on the anterior portion of the septum interorbitale and insertion on the medial aspect of the mandible; (iii) the pseudomasseter muscle consists of some fibers arising from the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, covering the lateral surface of the arcus jugalis and attaches by an aponeurotic sheet on the processus orbitalis; (iv) a well-developed adductor mandibulae complex is present; (v) the bite force estimation relative to body mass is higher than that calculated for other non-psittaciform species; and (vi) character evolution analysis revealed that the absence of the arcus suborbitalis and the presence of the m. pseudomassseter are the ancestral conditions, and mapping is inconclusive about presence of one or two bellies of the m. ethmomandibularis. PMID:26053435

  7. Geostrophic transport variability along the Aves Ridge in the eastern Caribbean Sea during 1985-1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, John M.; Smith, Orson P.

    1990-01-01

    Data from five cruises during 1985-1986 along 63.55°W, across the eastern Caribbean Sea, are examined for seasonal variability of gcostrophic transport. A biannual maximum transport signal appears to correspond to that measured in the Florida Straits as well as to variations in the regional wind stress curl. Similar seasonal variations in the properties of water masses, entering the eastern margin of the basin and concentrated through the passages of the Lesser Antilles, are also indicated. A permanent system of strong westward flowing streams, interspersed by weaker eastward flowing streams, is shown to exist.

  8. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Graves, Gary R; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2013-12-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two species are similar and that vision plays an equally important role in the biology of both species, despite the apparently greater reliance on olfaction for finding carrion in turkey vultures. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. DNA fingerprinting in the rare black-fronted piping guan Pipile jacutinga (Cracidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Pereira, S L; Miyaki, C Y; Wajntal, A

    1996-11-01

    Brazilian Cracidae are threatened by heavy environmental degradation and hunting. The Black-fronted piping-guan (Pipile jacutinga) used to inhabit the Atlantic coastal highland forests. Now it occurs in limited forest areas where it is rarely seen. Interative management, including captive breeding, might be an important action for its survival. We present data on DNA fingerprinting using Jeffreys' human minisatellite probes 33.6 and 33.15. Our results show that this technique is useful for estimating the genetic variability of natural populations and may help to maintain the genetic variability of captive bred individuals of this species. A linkage analysis of the fingerprint profiles in a family with 7 chicks was performed (to estimate the number of independently segregating loci detected in this species) and at least 16 highly polymorphic independent loci were identified for each probe.

  10. Development of the Superaltricial Monk Parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes): Embryo Staging, Growth, and Heterochronies.

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge about the embryonic stages of birds is important in answering many questions about development and evolution. We give the first description of 41 embryological stages of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) on the basis of external morphology and comparison with the chicken. We also provide measurements of some external morphological characters (i.e. body mass, crown-rump, beak, forelimb, and third toe lengths) and perform comparisons with other precocial and altricial birds with the aim of identifying heterochronous developmental features. The following differences in the development of characters in the monk parakeet when compared with other birds were found: (1) delay of the feathers primordia, (2) wing buds initially greater than leg buds, (3) forelimbs and hindlimbs with similar relative size, (4) retroversion of the toe IV, (5) ventral curvature of the upper jaw, (6) positive regressions between stages and beak length with acceleration and higher values and III toe lengths with deceleration and lower values in the monk parakeet compared to the chicken. The growth pattern of the monk paraket Myiopsitta monachus could be influenced by some heterochronic processes like post-displacement, acceleration and/or deceleration. Results of this research allow the standard identification of stages in different species of parrots, recognize similarities and differences between precocial (the chicken) and altricial species (Myiopsitta), and provide planning data for future studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Jaw myology and bite force of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2015-07-01

    Psittaciform birds exhibit novelties in jaw bone structure and musculature that are associated with strong bite forces. These features include an ossified arcus suborbitalis and the muscles ethmomandibularis and pseudomasseter. We analyse the jaw musculature of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) to enable future studies aimed at understanding craniofacial development, morphology, function and evolution. We estimate bite force based on muscle dissections, physiological cross-sectional area and skull biomechanical modelling. We also compare our results with available data for other birds and traced the evolutionary origin of the three novel diagnostic traits. Our results indicate that, in Myiopsitta, (i) the arcus suborbitalis is absent and the orbit is ventrally closed by an elongate processus orbitalis and a short ligamentum suborbitale; (ii) the ethmomandibularis muscle is a conspicuous muscle with two bellies, with its origin on the anterior portion of the septum interorbitale and insertion on the medial aspect of the mandible; (iii) the pseudomasseter muscle consists of some fibers arising from the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, covering the lateral surface of the arcus jugalis and attaches by an aponeurotic sheet on the processus orbitalis; (iv) a well-developed adductor mandibulae complex is present; (v) the bite force estimation relative to body mass is higher than that calculated for other non-psittaciform species; and (vi) character evolution analysis revealed that the absence of the arcus suborbitalis and the presence of the m. pseudomassseter are the ancestral conditions, and mapping is inconclusive about presence of one or two bellies of the m. ethmomandibularis. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of a sunbird, Aethopyga gouldiae (Aves: Passeriformes), the first representative of Nectariniidae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Liang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome of a sunbird was determined for Gould's sunbird Aethopyga gouldiae. The identity of the sample was verified by conducting nucleotide blast for each mitochondrial ribosomal RNA and protein-coding gene, and by estimating its phylogenetic position using five genes (12S, ND2, ATP6, ND3, CYTb) and 52 passerines (including 17 sunbirds and allies). The mitogenomic length of A. gouldiae was 16,893 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The nucleotide composition of the genome shows a bias toward A + T. Since the sunbirds and allies form a large bird group that feeds on nectar, along with the hummingbirds and honeyeaters, the mitogenome of A. gouldiae could contribute to understand the evolution of feeding behavior in birds and the phylogenetic position of the sunbirds.

  13. Arlenelepis harpiprioni gen. et sp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) from Harpiprion caerulescens (Vieillot) (Aves: Threskiornithidae) in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Boyko B; Vaucher, Claude

    2004-12-01

    Arlenelepis harpiprioni gen. et sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea, Dilepididae) is described from the plumbeous ibis Harpiprion caerulescens (Vieillot) (Ciconiiformes, Threskiomithidae) in Province Concepción, Paraguay. This cestode is characterised by a very small body (not exceeding 5 mm in length) consisting of about 30 proglottides, musculo-glandular rostellar apparatus, rostellar hooks arranged in two regular rows, few testes (7-10 in number) situated mostly in a post-ovarian group but one testis pre-ovarian, a large oval cirrus sac reaching antiporal osmoregulatory canals, massive cirrus armed with needle-shaped and thorn-shaped spines, long convoluted vagina, and longitudinally elongate sacciform horseshoe-shaped uterus with deep lobes of the medial uterine wall. The new genus is unique among the family Dilepididae in possessing a rhynchus armed with conical spines.

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of the imperial pigeons (Aves: Columbidae) in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cibois, Alice; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Bonillo, Céline; Filardi, Christopher E; Pasquet, Eric

    2017-02-27

    We reconstruct the phylogeny of imperial pigeons (genus Ducula) using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We evaluate the most likely biogeographic scenario for the evolution of this group that colonized many islands of the Pacific Ocean. The divergence time analysis suggests that the basal divergences within Ducula occurred more recently than in the fruit doves (genus Ptilinopus), a group that is also well diversified in Oceania. The imperial pigeons colonized the Melanesian region several times independently, and the diversification within this region led to several species in sympatry, in particular in the Bismarck archipelago. Central Polynesia was also colonized several times, first by a lineage during the Miocene that led to the large D. latrans, sister to the New Caledonian endemic D. goliath, then more recently by the widespread D. pacifica, during the Pleistocene. The phylogenetic pattern obtained with the extant Ducula species showed that the Eastern Polynesian endemics do not form a monophyletic group, with the Pacific Imperial Pigeon D. pacifica sister species with good support to the Polynesian Imperial Pigeon D. aurorae. However, the impact of recent anthropic extinctions has been important for the imperial pigeons, more than for the smaller fruit doves, suggesting that several Ducula lineages might be missing today.

  15. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  16. Audiovisual Equipment in Educational Facilities Today. AVE in Japan No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

    This report summarizes a 1989 update of a 1986 survey on the diffusion and utilization of audiovisual media and equipment in Japan. A comparison of the two reveals the advancements in types of audiovisual equipment available to schools and social education facilities in Japan which have developed in only 3 years. An outline of the equipment…

  17. Supermatrix phylogeny and biogeography of the Australasian Meliphagides radiation (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Marki, Petter Z; Jønsson, Knud A; Irestedt, Martin; Nguyen, Jacqueline M T; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2017-02-01

    With nearly 300 species, the infraorder Meliphagides represents one of the largest and most conspicuous Australasian bird radiations. Although the group has been the focus of a number of recent phylogenetic studies, a comprehensive species-level phylogenetic hypothesis is still lacking. This has impeded the assessment of broad-scale evolutionary, biogeographic and ecological hypotheses. In the present study, we use a supermatrix approach including five mitochondrial and four nuclear markers to infer a time-calibrated phylogeny of the Meliphagides. Our phylogeny, which includes 286 of the 289 (99%) currently recognized species, is largely congruent with previous estimates. However, the addition of 60 newly sequenced species reveals some novel relationships. Our biogeographic analyses suggest an Australian origin for the group in the early Oligocene (31.3Mya, 95% HPD 25.2-38.2Mya). In addition, we find that dispersal events out of Australia have been numerous and frequent, particularly to New Guinea, which has also been the source of multiple back-colonizations to the Australian mainland. The phylogeny provides an important framework for studying a wide variety of macroecological and macroevolutionary themes, including character evolution, origin and timing of diversification, biogeographic patterns and species responses to climate change.

  18. Brood size and its importance for nestling growth in the Biscutate Swift (Streptoprocne biscutata, Aves: Apodidae).

    PubMed

    Pichorim, M; Monteiro-Filho, E L A

    2008-11-01

    Many Apodidae, including Streptoprocne biscutata (Sclater, 1866), drop eggs from their nests during incubation. This is interpreted as nest site competition or accident. We provide evidence that egg ejection is deliberate and that this behaviour controls the brood size. Brood sizes were manipulated and nestling growth was measured to test the hypothesis that pairs can regulate brood size during incubation based on current ability to rear nestlings. Natural (control) broods with one, two and three nestlings, and manipulated (experimental) broods reduced to one and increased to two and three young were monitored. Growth rates were measured based on weight, and wing, tail and tarsus lengths of natural and manipulated broods. We compared the slopes of each measure's regression lines of the nestlings of each brood size by t-test. Nestling growth of control nests was similar and relatively little associated with brood size. In broods reduced to one nestling, weight, wing and tail had greater growth rates, and in broods increased to three nestlings growth rates were lower. Weight was most, and tarsus length least influenced by brood size. In general, nestling growth of manipulated nests was inversely proportional to brood size. The results suggest that pairs with larger clutches are in better physical conditions than others. Thus, in experimental broods, pairs are over or under-loaded because feeding activities increase or decrease and these changes affect the growth rate of the nestlings. The present study suggests that egg ejection can control brood size. This behaviour is probably stimulated by physical changes in the adult birds during incubation.

  19. Rapid diversification and secondary sympatry in Australo-Pacific kingfishers (Aves: Alcedinidae: Todiramphus).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Michael J; Shult, Hannah T; Cibois, Alice; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Filardi, Christopher E; Moyle, Robert G

    2015-02-01

    Todiramphus chloris is the most widely distributed of the Pacific's 'great speciators'. Its 50 subspecies constitute a species complex that is distributed over 16 000 km from the Red Sea to Polynesia. We present, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of this enigmatic radiation of kingfishers. Ten Pacific Todiramphus species are embedded within the T. chloris complex, rendering it paraphyletic. Among these is a radiation of five species from the remote islands of Eastern Polynesian, as well as the widespread migratory taxon, Todiramphus sanctus. Our results offer strong support that Pacific Todiramphus, including T. chloris, underwent an extensive range expansion and diversification less than 1 Ma. Multiple instances of secondary sympatry have accumulated in this group, despite its recent origin, including on Australia and oceanic islands in Palau, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Significant ecomorphological and behavioural differences exist between secondarily sympatric lineages, which suggest that pre-mating isolating mechanisms were achieved rapidly during diversification. We found evidence for complex biogeographic patterns, including a novel phylogeographic break in the eastern Solomon Islands that separates a Northern Melanesian clade from Polynesian taxa. In light of our results, we discuss systematic relationships of Todiramphus and propose an updated taxonomy. This paper contributes to our understanding of avian diversification and assembly on islands, and to the systematics of a classically polytypic species complex.

  20. Nucleolar organizer regions in Sittasomus griseicapillus and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Aves, Dendrocolaptidae): Evidence of a chromosome inversion.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcelo; da Silva, Rubens Rodrigues; de Sena Correia, Vanessa Carolina; Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2013-03-01

    Cytogenetic studies in birds are still scarce compared to other vertebrates. Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) are part of a highly specialized group within the Suboscines of the New World. They are forest birds exclusive to the Neotropical region and similar to woodpeckers, at a comparable evolutionary stage. This paper describes for the first time the karyotypes of the Olivaceous and the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper using conventional staining with Giemsa and silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs). Metaphases were obtained by fibular bone marrow culture. The chromosome number of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper was 2n = 82 and of the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, 2n = 82. Ag-NORs in the largest macrochromosome pair and evidence of a chromosome inversion are described herein for the first time for this group.

  1. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation.

    PubMed

    Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M

    2012-02-01

    We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  2. Evidence of taxon cycles in an Indo-Pacific passerine bird radiation (Aves: Pachycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Irestedt, Martin; Christidis, Les; Clegg, Sonya M.; Holt, Ben G.; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Many insular taxa possess extraordinary abilities to disperse but may differ in their abilities to diversify and compete. While some taxa are widespread across archipelagos, others have disjunct (relictual) populations. These types of taxa, exemplified in the literature by selections of unrelated taxa, have been interpreted as representing a continuum of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). Here, we use molecular data of 35 out of 40 species of the avian genus Pachycephala (including 54 out of 66 taxa in Pachycephala pectoralis (sensu lato), to assess the spatio-temporal evolution of the group. We also include data on species distributions, morphology, habitat and elevational ranges to test a number of predictions associated with the taxon-cycle hypothesis. We demonstrate that relictual species persist on the largest and highest islands across the Indo-Pacific, whereas recent archipelago expansions resulted in colonization of all islands in a region. For co-occurring island taxa, the earliest colonists generally inhabit the interior and highest parts of an island, with little spatial overlap with later colonists. Collectively, our data support the idea that taxa continuously pass through phases of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). PMID:24403319

  3. Evolution of seasonal ecological niches in the Passerina buntings (Aves: Cardinalidae).

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of migration has long been considered complex and recent work has demonstrated additional complexity: some species follow the same ecological conditions throughout the year, whereas others 'switch niches' between breeding and wintering ranges. Hypotheses regarding the evolution of migration would generally predict niche-following as primitive, and niche-switching as derived. However, no test has, to our knowledge, yet determined the directionality of evolution of these states within a lineage. We present an analysis of phylogenetic dimensions of seasonal niches in the Passerina buntings that indicates greater evolutionary change in the niches of breeding populations than among those of wintering populations. These results are consistent with hypotheses of (i) niche conservatism (in winter, at least) across a recently speciated lineage; and (ii) the derived state of the breeding (rather than winter) ecological niches of each species. PMID:15306365

  4. Applications of the AVE-Sesame data sets to mesoscale studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.; Mosher, F.; Norton, C.; Krauss, R. J.; Suchman, D.; Young, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Data collected by the lightning data concentrator are available for research. The Mark 3 McIDAS capability provides greater flexibility for the Marshall user community and serves as a model of future UW McIDAS to remote computer links. Techniques were investigated for the display of dynamic 3-D data sets. To date the most promising display technology is a polarized two CRT perspective display which allows both dynamic 3-D images and graphics presentations with full color capability. Algorithms were for the preparation and display of conventional and satellite based weather data in 3-D. These include gridding, contouring, and streamlining processors which operate on both real time and case study data bases. An upper air trajectory model was implemented which creates a display of air parcel trajectories in perspective 3-D. A subsystem for the generation of 3-D solid surface display with shading and hidden surface display with shading and hidden surface removal was tested and its products are currently being evaluated. Motion parallax introduced by moving the point of observation during display is an important depth cue, which, when added to the perspective parallax creates a very realistic appearing display.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships within the Alcidae (Charadriiformes: Aves) inferred from total molecular evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Vicki L.; Baker, Allan J.; Piatt, John F.

    1996-01-01

    The Alcidae is a unique assemblage of Northern Hemisphere seabirds that forage by "flying" underwater. Despite obvious affinities among the species, their evolutionary relationships are unclear. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of 1,045 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and allelic profiles for 37 allozyme loci in all 22 extant species. Trees were constructed on independent and combined data sets using maximum parsimony and distance methods that correct for superimposed changes. Alternative methods of analysis produced only minor differences in relationships that were supported strongly by bootstrapping or standard error tests. Combining sequence and allozyme data into a single analysis provided the greatest number of relationships receiving strong support. Addition of published morphological and ecological data did not improve support for any additional relationship. All analyses grouped species into six distinct lineages: (1) the dovekie (Alle alle) and auks, (2) guillemots, (3) brachyramphine murrelets, (4) synthliboramphine murrelets, (5) true auklets, and (6) the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) and puffins. The two murres (genus Uria) were sister taxa, and the black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) was basal to the other guillemots. The Asian subspecies of the marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus perdix) was the most divergent brachyramphine murrelet, and two distinct lineages occurred within the synthliboramphine murrelets. Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and the rhinoceros auklet were basal to the other auklets and puffins, respectively, and the Atlantic (Fratercula arctica) and horned (Fratercula corniculata) puffins were sister taxa. Several relationships among tribes, among the dovekie and auks, and among the auklets could not be resolved but resembled "star" phylogenies indicative of adaptive radiations at different depths within the trees.

  6. Biogeography and spatio-temporal diversification of Selenidera and Andigena toucans (Aves: Ramphastidae).

    PubMed

    Lutz, Holly L; Weckstein, Jason D; Patané, José S L; Bates, John M; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    Andean uplift, Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuation, and river dynamics in the Amazon basin have all been implicated in the diversification of the South American avifauna. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships in the genus Selenidera, which has served as a classic case of putative refugial speciation, and the closely related genus Andigena, to better understand the processes driving their diversification. Using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, we constructed a phylogeny to estimate the pattern and timing of divergence within and between seven lowland Selenidera toucanets and the five species of Andigena mountain-toucans, which together form a single clade. All phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of the montane genus Andigena, but indicated that the genus Selenidera is likely paraphyletic with respect to Andigena. Our time tree analysis is consistent with the orogenic uplift of the northern Andean range having initiated the divergence between Selenidera and Andigena, and that the movement and fragmentation of montane habitats in response to Pleistocene climatic oscillations likely influenced diversification within Andigena. Estimated divergence times for lowland Amazonian Selenidera did not support the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) refuge hypothesis as an important biogeographic factor for the diversification of lineages studied here. The timing of divergence within Selenidera is consistent with the hypothesis that geographic isolation of areas of endemism generated by Amazonian river dynamics during the Plio-Pleistocene contributed to Selenidera speciation and current species distributions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, Flávia G; Vecchi, Maurício B; Laurindo, Thiago F S; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2013-01-01

    We describe the nest, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis), an endangered bird of Restinga ecosystem (sandy coastal plain vegetation) that is endemic to Rio de Janeiro state. Twelve nests were found at the edges of trails or natural gaps at Massambaba Restinga region, in different supporting plants and heights from the ground (X ± SD 1.27 ± 0.97 m, range 0.27 to 3.45 m). Nests were cup-shaped and were in horizontal forks attached to branches at three to five points with whitish, soft, and thin cotton-like vegetable fiber. The nests' cup shape and measurements were similar to congeneric species, but nest material was different. Eggs were white with brown spots concentrated on the large end or around the middle, giving the appearance of a rough brown ring. Their mean (± SD) minimum diameter was 13.1 ± 0.34 mm, with maximum diameter of 18.0 ± 0.38 mm, and mass of 1.7 ± 0.18 g (n = 8). We found two nestlings completely naked on their first day after hatching.

  8. Phylogeography and genetic structure of two Patagonian shag species (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae).

    PubMed

    Calderón, Luciano; Quintana, Flavio; Cabanne, Gustavo S; Lougheed, Stephen C; Tubaro, Pablo L

    2014-03-01

    We compared the phylogeographic and genetic structure of two sympatric shag species, Phalacrocorax magellanicus (rock shag) and Phalacrocorax atriceps (imperial shag), from Patagonia (southern South America). We used multilocus genotypes of nuclear DNA (microsatellite loci) from 324 individuals and mitochondrial DNA sequences (ATPase) from 177 individuals, to evaluate hypotheses related to the effect of physical and non-physical barriers on seabird evolution. Despite sharing many ecological traits, the focal species strongly differ in two key aspects: P. magellanicus has a strong tendency to remain at/near their breeding colonies during foraging trips and the non-breeding season, while P. atriceps exhibits the converse pattern. Both species showed similar mtDNA genetic structure, where colonies from the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast and Fuegian region were genetically divergent. We also found similarities in the results of Bayesian clustering analysis of microsatellites, with both species having four clusters. However population differentiation (e.g. Fst, Φst) was higher in P. magellanicus compared to P. atriceps, and average membership probabilities of individuals to specific clusters (Q-values) were also higher in the former. Phalacrocorax magellanicus has strong phylogeographic structure, consistent with the impact of Pleistocene glaciations, with diagnostic haplotypes associated with each of the three mentioned regions. The same pattern was not as evident for P. atriceps. Migration rate estimators were higher for P. atriceps than for P. magellanicus; however both species followed an n-island-like model of gene flow, this implies that dispersal occurs across the continental land mass that separates Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Our results supported the hypothesis that non-physical barriers are important drivers of the genetic and phylogeographic structure in seabirds, and also that physical barriers constitute effective but not absolute impediments to gene flow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. When decisions on homologous structures cause ambiguous taxa relationships: the Neomorphinae (Aves, Cuculidae) example.

    PubMed

    Posso, S R; Donatelli, R J

    2010-02-01

    The anatomy of Neomorphinae is poorly understood and the systematics of this sub-family is also the most controversial of the cuckoo taxa, mainly with regard to the systematic position of Tapera and Dromococcyx. In this study, morphological similarities of the Neomorphinae are discussed after a comprehensive description of the cranial osteology was conducted in seven species, embracing all the Neomorphinae genera. This description is followed by comparisons with other cuckoos in order to contribute to the anatomy and systematics of this sub-family. In this way, we provide illustrations that enable the osteological descriptions and the proposed primary homologies to be visualised and compared. Even though Neomorphinae species share many cranial osteological characteristics, there are some anatomical divergences that allowed us to divide them into two distinct groups: (Dromococcyx/Tapera) and (Morococcyx(Neomorphus/Geococcyx)). After comparisons among all cuckoos this study suggests that Neomorphinae are more similar to Crotophaginae and Couinae than to other sub-families of cuckoos. Our results contrast with a recent phylogenetic study based on morphological features, mainly because alternative interpretations to the primary osteological homologies in this study grouped Tapera and Dromococcyx with Cuculinae. Although morphological studies can be used in phylogenetic analysis, we demonstrated here that decisions in the interpretation of the homologies can provide ambiguous results.

  10. Niche divergence promotes rapid diversification of East African sky island white-eyes (Aves: Zosteropidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Siobhan C; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Habel, Jan C; Amakobe, Bernard A; Day, Julia J

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot composed of highly fragmented forested highlands (sky islands) harbours exceptional diversity and endemicity, particularly within birds. To explain their elevated diversity within this region, models founded on niche conservatism have been offered, although detailed phylogeographic studies are limited to a few avian lineages. Here, we focus on the recent songbird genus Zosterops, represented by montane and lowland members, to test the roles of niche conservatism versus niche divergence in the diversification and colonization of East Africa's sky islands. The species-rich white-eyes are a typically homogeneous family with an exceptional colonizing ability, but in contrast to their diversity on oceanic islands, continental diversity is considered depauperate and has been largely neglected. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of ∼140 taxa reveals extensive polyphyly among different montane populations of Z. poliogastrus. These larger endemic birds are shown to be more closely related to taxa with divergent habitat types, altitudinal distributions and dispersal abilities than they are to populations of restricted endemics that occur in neighbouring montane forest fragments. This repeated transition between lowland and highland habitats over time demonstrate that diversification of the focal group is explained by niche divergence. Our results also highlight an underestimation of diversity compared to morphological studies that has implications for their taxonomy and conservation. Molecular dating suggests that the spatially extensive African radiation arose exceptionally rapidly (1–2.5 Ma) during the fluctuating Plio-Pleistocene climate, which may have provided the primary driver for lineage diversification. PMID:24954273

  11. Waves of genomic hitchhikers shed light on the evolution of gamebirds (Aves: Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Matzke, Andreas; Churakov, Gennady; Kuritzin, Andrej; Mayr, Gerald; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-10-09

    The phylogenetic tree of Galliformes (gamebirds, including megapodes, currassows, guinea fowl, New and Old World quails, chicken, pheasants, grouse, and turkeys) has been considerably remodeled over the last decades as new data and analytical methods became available. Analyzing presence/absence patterns of retroposed elements avoids the problems of homoplastic characters inherent in other methodologies. In gamebirds, chicken repeats 1 (CR1) are the most prevalent retroposed elements, but little is known about the activity of their various subtypes over time. Ascertaining the fixation patterns of CR1 elements would help unravel the phylogeny of gamebirds and other poorly resolved avian clades. We analyzed 1,978 nested CR1 elements and developed a multidimensional approach taking advantage of their transposition in transposition character (TinT) to characterize the fixation patterns of all 22 known chicken CR1 subtypes. The presence/absence patterns of those elements that were active at different periods of gamebird evolution provided evidence for a clade (Cracidae + (Numididae + (Odontophoridae + Phasianidae))) not including Megapodiidae; and for Rollulus as the sister taxon of the other analyzed Phasianidae. Genomic trace sequences of the turkey genome further demonstrated that the endangered African Congo Peafowl (Afropavo congensis) is the sister taxon of the Asian Peafowl (Pavo), rejecting other predominantly morphology-based groupings, and that phasianids are monophyletic, including the sister taxa Tetraoninae and Meleagridinae. The TinT information concerning relative fixation times of CR1 subtypes enabled us to efficiently investigate gamebird phylogeny and to reconstruct an unambiguous tree topology. This method should provide a useful tool for investigations in other taxonomic groups as well.

  12. New genus and three new species of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae: Picobiinae) parasitising puffbirds (Aves: Piciformes).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Scibek, Katarzyna; Sikora, Bozena

    2012-09-01

    Abstract: Three new species, belonging to the newly proposed genus Pseudopicobia gen. n., inhabiting body quill feathers of puff-birds (Piciformes: Bucconidae), are described: P nonnula sp. n. from Nonnula frontalis (Sclater) in Colombia, P malacoptila sp. n. from Malacoptila panamensis Lafresnaye in Colombia and P hapaloptila sp. n. from Hapaloptila castanea (Verreaux) in Ecuador. The new genus differs from morphologically similar genus Picobia Heller, 1878 by the absence of the genital setae, absence of the genital lobes, solenidia phiI represented by microsetae, and by the presence of setiform solenidia sigma I. Syringophilid mites are recorded from birds of this family for the first time.

  13. Breeding system evolution influenced the geographic expansion and diversification of the core Corvoidea (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Marki, Petter Z; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Jønsson, Knud A; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon; Kennedy, Jonathan D

    2015-07-01

    Birds vary greatly in their life-history strategies, including their breeding systems, which range from brood parasitism to a system with multiple nonbreeding helpers at the nest. By far the most common arrangement, however, is where both parents participate in raising the young. The traits associated with parental care have been suggested to affect dispersal propensity and lineage diversification, but to date tests of this potential relationship at broad temporal and spatial scales have been limited. Here, using data from a globally distributed group of corvoid birds in concordance with state-dependent speciation and extinction models, we suggest that pair breeding is associated with elevated speciation rates. Estimates of transition between breeding systems imply that cooperative lineages frequently evolve biparental care, whereas pair breeders rarely become cooperative. We further highlight that these groups have differences in their spatial distributions, with pair breeders overrepresented on islands, and cooperative breeders mainly found on continents. Finally, we find that speciation rates appear to be significantly higher on islands compared to continents. These results imply that the transition from cooperative breeding to pair breeding was likely a significant contributing factor facilitating dispersal across tropical archipelagos, and subsequent world-wide phylogenetic expansion among the core Corvoidea.

  14. Genetic differentiation among populations of the Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja; Aves: Pelecaniformes) in three Brazilian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Miño, Carolina Isabel; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2014-08-01

    Effective population size, levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and genetic structuring were assessed in 205 colonial Roseate spoonbills from 11 breeding colonies from north, central west, and south Brazil. Colonies and regions exhibited similar moderate levels of diversity at five microsatellite loci (mean expected heterozygosity range 0.50-0.62; allelic richness range 3.17-3.21). The central west region had the highest Ne (59). F ST values revealed low but significant genetic structuring among colonies within the north and within the south regions. Significant global genetic structuring was found between the northern and central western populations as well as between the northern and southern populations. An individual-based Bayesian clustering method inferred three population clusters. Assignment tests correctly allocated up to 64% of individuals to their source regions. Collectively, results revealed complex demographic dynamics, with ongoing gene flow on a local scale, but genetic differentiation on a broader scale. Populations in the three regions may all be conserved, but special concern should be given to central western ones, which can significantly contribute to the species' gene pool in Brazil.

  15. Biogeographic history of the species complex Basileuterus culicivorus (Aves, Parulidae) in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; Santos, Fabrício Rodrigues

    2010-11-01

    The taxonomic status of Basileuterus culicivorus complex has been under debate for a long time. There are uncertainties about the relationships among recognized species (B. culicivorus and B. hypoleucus), and whether B. culicivorus can be considered as a single species. In order to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among these species and their biogeographic history we used a broad geographic sampling from Mexico to Argentina of B. culicivorus and B. hypoleucus. Using a mitochondrial gene, a nuclear intron and microsatellites we identified highly structured groups according to their spatial distribution. The known subspecies of B. culicivorus formed monophyletic groups, except two ones from Brazil and Paraguay. Basileuterus hypoleucus sequences did not form a monophyletic clade, being more related to B. culicivorus from Brazil and Paraguay. The divergence time analysis indicated that the deep separation of the basal lineages of B. culicivorus occurred in Late Pliocene. Contrasting with the other geographically structured populations from Central and South America, the clade of birds from Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina showed a remarkably high population growth starting in the mid-Pleistocene, according to the most plausible evolutionary scenario expected for parulid birds of a range expansion directed southwards.

  16. The Mitochondrial Genomes of Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus (Aves, Accipitriformes): Sequence, Structure and Phylogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lan; Chen, Juan; Wang, Ping; Ren, Qiongqiong; Yuan, Jian; Qian, Chaoju; Hua, Xinghong; Guo, Zhichun; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jianke; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Hengwu; Bi, De; Zhang, Zongmeng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Dongsheng; Kan, Xianzhao

    2015-01-01

    The family Accipitridae is one of the largest groups of non-passerine birds, including 68 genera and 243 species globally distributed. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial sequences of two species of accipitrid, namely Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus, and conducted a comparative mitogenome analysis across the family. The mitogenome length of A. fasciata and B. lagopus are 18,513 and 18,559 bp with an A + T content of 54.2% and 55.0%, respectively. For both the two accipitrid birds mtDNAs, obvious positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew biases were detected for all 12 PCGs encoded by the H strand, whereas the reverse was found in MT-ND6 encoded by the L strand. One extra nucleotide‘C’is present at the position 174 of MT-ND3 gene of A. fasciata, which is not observed at that of B. lagopus. Six conserved sequence boxes in the Domain II, named boxes F, E, D, C, CSBa, and CSBb, respectively, were recognized in the CRs of A. fasciata and B. lagopus. Rates and patterns of mitochondrial gene evolution within Accipitridae were also estimated. The highest dN/dS was detected for the MT-ATP8 gene (0.32493) among Accipitridae, while the lowest for the MT-CO1 gene (0.01415). Mitophylogenetic analysis supported the robust monophyly of Accipitriformes, and Cathartidae was basal to the balance of the order. Moreover, we performed phylogenetic analyses using two other data sets (two mitochondrial loci, and combined nuclear and mitochondrial loci). Our results indicate that the subfamily Aquilinae and all currently polytypic genera of this subfamily are monophyletic. These two novel mtDNA data will be useful in refining the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary processes of Accipitriformes. PMID:26295156

  17. Phylogeny of Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Per G P; Johansson, Ulf S

    2003-10-01

    Passerida is a monophyletic group of oscine passerines that includes almost 3500 species (about 36%) of all bird species in the world. The current understanding of higher-level relationships within Passerida is based on DNA-DNA hybridizations [C.G. Sibley, J.E. Ahlquist, Phylogeny and Classification of Birds, 1990, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT]. Our results are based on analyses of 3130 aligned nucleotide sequence data obtained from 48 ingroup and 13 outgroup genera. Three nuclear genes were sequenced: c-myc (498-510 bp), RAG-1 (930 bp), and myoglobin (693-722 bp), as well one mitochondrial gene; cytochrome b (879 bp). The data were analysed by parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The African rockfowl and rockjumper are found to constitute the deepest branch within Passerida, but relationships among the other taxa are poorly resolved--only four major clades receive statistical support. One clade corresponds to Passeroidea of [C.G. Sibley, B.L. Monroe, Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World, 1990, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT] and includes, e.g., flowerpeckers, sunbirds, accentors, weavers, estrilds, wagtails, finches, and sparrows. Starlings, mockingbirds, thrushes, Old World flycatchers, and dippers also group together in a clade corresponding to Muscicapoidea of Sibley and Monroe [op. cit.]. Monophyly of their Sylvioidea could not be corroborated--these taxa falls either into a clade with wrens, gnatcatchers, and nuthatches, or one with, e.g., warblers, bulbuls, babblers, and white-eyes. The tits, penduline tits, and waxwings belong to Passerida but have no close relatives among the taxa studied herein.

  18. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    EPA Science Inventory

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  19. Qualitative skeletal correlates of wing shape in extant birds (Aves: Neoaves).

    PubMed

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-02-27

    Among living fliers (birds, bats, and insects), birds display relatively high aspect ratios, a dimensionless shape variable that distinguishes long and narrow vs. short and broad wings. Increasing aspect ratio results in a functional tradeoff between low induced drag (efficient cruise) and increased wing inertia (difficult takeoff). Given the wide scope of its functional effects, the pattern of aspect ratio evolution is an important factor that contributes to the substantial ecological and phylogenetic diversity of living birds. However, because the feathers that define the wingtip (and hence wingspan and aspect ratio) often do not fossilize, resolution in the pattern of avian wing shape evolution is obscured by missing information. Here I use a comparative approach to investigate the relationship between skeletal proxies of flight feather attachment and wing shape. An accessory lobe of the internal index process of digit II-1, a bony correlate of distal primary attachment, shows weak but statistically significant relationships to aspect ratio and mass independent of other skeletal morphology. The dorsal phalangeal fossae of digit II-1, which house distal primaries VIII and IX, also show a trend of increased prominence with higher aspect ratio. Quill knobs on the ulna are examined concurrently, but do not show consistent signal with respect to wing shape. Although quill knobs are cited as skeletal correlates of flight performance in birds, their relationship to wing shape is inconsistent among extant taxa, and may reflect diverging selection pressures acting on a conserved architecture. In contrast, correlates of distal primary feather attachment on the major digit show convergent responses to increasing aspect ratio. In light of the diversity of musculoskeletal and integumentary mophology that underlies wing shape in different avian clades, it is unlikely that a single skeletal feature will show consistent predictive power across Neoaves. Confident inference of wing shape in basal ornithurine birds will require multiple lines of evidence, together with an understanding of clade-specific evolutionary trends within the crown.

  20. Taxonomic review of Physconelloides (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Columbiformes (aves), including descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Price, R D; Clayton, D H; Hellenthal, R A

    1999-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive taxonomic review of Physconelloides, a genus of ischnoceran chewing lice found on pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Thirteen previously known Physconelloides species are redescribed and 16 new synonymies are designated: P. rubripes Carriker, P. rubripes longulus Tendeiro, P. piotrowskii Tendeiro and P. auritae Tendeiro are synonyms of P. zenaidurae (McGregor); P. recurvatus Eichler, P. chocoensis Carriker and P. montana Carriker are synonyms of P. ceratoceps Ewing; P. silvestris Tendeiro is a synonym of P. perijae Carriker; P. keleri Kaddou and P. branderi Kaddou are synonyms of P. spenceri Emerson and Ward; P. wolfdietrichi Kaddou is a synonym of P. anolaimae Carriker; and Goniocotacanthus mattogrossensis Guimaraes, P. passerinae Emerson, P. eurysema pretiosa Carriker, P. talpacoti Carriker and P. picuii Tendeiro are synonyms of P. eurysema (Carriker). Three new species are also described: P. moyeri (type host Geotrygon linearis), P. johnsoni (type host Columbina passerina bahamensis), and P. robbinsi (type host Metriopelia ceciliae). A key is provided for identification of the 16 recognized species.

  1. Evolution of seasonal ecological niches in the Passerina buntings (Aves: Cardinalidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2004-06-07

    The evolution of migration has long been considered complex and recent work has demonstrated additional complexity: some species follow the same ecological conditions throughout the year, whereas others 'switch niches' between breeding and wintering ranges. Hypotheses regarding the evolution of migration would generally predict niche-following as primitive, and niche-switching as derived. However, no test has, to our knowledge, yet determined the directionality of evolution of these states within a lineage. We present an analysis of phylogenetic dimensions of seasonal niches in the Passerina buntings that indicates greater evolutionary change in the niches of breeding populations than among those of wintering populations. These results are consistent with hypotheses of (i) niche conservatism (in winter, at least) across a recently speciated lineage; and (ii) the derived state of the breeding (rather than winter) ecological niches of each species.

  2. Spring migratory birds (Aves) extend the northern occurrence of blacklegged tick (Acari:Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Klich, M; Lankester, M W; Wu, K W

    1996-07-01

    Birds that had migrated northward across Lake Superior were captured upon reaching landfall at Thunder Cape (48 degrees 18' N, 88 degrees 56' W) at the southwestern tip of the Sibley Peninsula, northwestern Ontario, from 9 May to 9 June 1995. Twenty-one of 530 birds examined (6 of 55 species) had a total of 34 ticks; 1 blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata, had a northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Four blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, larvae were found on an American robin, Turdus migratorius, and 2 on a chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina. This tick was not found on small mammals at Thunder Cape. Twenty-six larvae and a nymph of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) were found on 1 American robin, 2 Swainson's thrushes, Catharus ustulatus, 1 white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, 1 common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas, 1 blue jay, and 12 chipping sparrows. A nymph of H. chordeilis (Packard) occurred on 1 chipping sparrow. Results demonstrate that northward migrating birds transport larvae of I. scapularis to areas of Ontario where the tick does not appear to have become established in small mammal populations. Spring migrants may be more involved in the dispersal of I. scapularis larvae than previously thought. Cooler temperatures and shorter seasons experienced in the more northerly, continental parts of the established distribution of this tick may extend the life cycle, resulting in a predominance of larvae rather than nymphs being acquired by northward-bound birds in early spring. Consequently, the role of spring migrating birds in the northward spread of I. scapularis and of borreliosis should be reevaluated.

  3. Cytotaxonomy of the Ciconiiformes (Aves), with karyotypes of eight species new to cytology.

    PubMed

    de Boer, L E; van Brink, J M

    1982-01-01

    Somatic karyotypes of 13 species of ciconiiform birds, Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis, Phoeniconaias minor, Cochlearius cochlearius, Geronticus eremita, Threskiornis molucca, T. spinicollis, Balaeniceps rex, Ciconia ciconia, C. nigra, Euxenura maguari, Xenorhynchus asiaticus, Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis, and Leptoptilos crumeniferus are presented. The chromosomes of eight of these species are described in detail for the first time. Of special interest are a case of structural heterozygosity in a male B. rex and remarkably low diploid numbers in C. nigra (2n = ca 52) and L. crumeniferus (2n = ca 52). The karyological relationships of the ciconiiform families are discussed. The karyotypes of the Phoenicopteridae are identical to karyotypes found in various other bird orders. All members of the Ardeidae hitherto studied are characterized by a submetacentric third pair of macrochromosomes (subtelocentric in all other Ciconiiformes). All Threskiornithidae share a pair of acrocentric chromosomes resulting from a reciprocal translocation between a pair of microchromosomes and pair No. 1. Both the Ciconiidae and the Balaenicipitidae show the original structure of Nos. 1, 2 and 3, also found in the Phoenicopteridae and many other birds. In contrast to the Phoenicopteridae, however, both families share a relatively high number of medium-sized to small biarmed chromosomes with the Ardeidae and the Threskiornithidae. Several characteristics in this group of chromosomes separate Balaenicipitidae from Ciconiidae.

  4. Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant aves: a case study examining Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M

    2004-08-01

    Anseriform birds were surveyed to examine how the degree of postcranial pneumaticity varies in a behaviorally and size-diverse clade of living birds. This study attempts to extricate the relative effects of phylogeny, body size, and behavioral specializations (e.g., diving, soaring) that have been postulated to influence the extent of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. One hundred anseriform species were examined as the focal study group. Methods included latex injection of the pulmonary apparatus followed by gross dissection or direct examination of osteological specimens. The Pneumaticity Index (PI) is introduced as a means of quantifying and comparing postcranial pneumaticity in a number of species simultaneously. Phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) were used to examine the relationship between body size and the degree of postcranial pneumaticity throughout the clade. There is a high degree of similarity (i.e., clade-specificity) within most anseriform subgroups. As a whole, Anseriformes demonstrate no significant relationship between relative pneumaticity and body size, as indicated by regression analysis of body mass on PI. It is apparent, however, that many clades of diving ducks do exhibit lower PIs than their nondiving relatives. By exclusion of diving taxa from analyses, a significant positive slope is observed and the hypothesis of relatively higher pneumaticity in larger-bodied birds is only weakly supported. However, low correlations indicate that factors other than body size account for much of the variation observed in relative pneumaticity. Pneumaticity profiles were mapped onto existing phylogenetic hypotheses. A reduction in the degree of postcranial pneumaticity occurred independently in at least three anseriform subclades specialized for diving. Finally, enigmatic pneumatic features located in distal forelimb elements of screamers (Anhimidae) result from invasion of bone by a network of subcutaneous air sac diverticula spreading distally along the wings. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Ecomorphology of eye shape and retinal topography in waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae) with different foraging modes.

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Schmidt, Brian K; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R

    2013-05-01

    Despite the large body of literature on ecomorphological adaptations to foraging in waterfowl, little attention has been paid to their sensory systems, especially vision. Here, we compare eye shape and retinal topography across 12 species representing 4 different foraging modes. Eye shape was significantly different among foraging modes, with diving and pursuit-diving species having relatively smaller corneal diameters compared to non-diving species. This may be associated with differences in ambient light intensity while foraging or an ability to tightly constrict the pupil in divers in order to facilitate underwater vision. Retinal topography was similar across all species, consisting of an oblique visual streak, a central area of peak cell density, and no discernible fovea. Because the bill faces downwards when the head is held in the normal posture in waterfowl, the visual streak will be held horizontally, allowing the horizon to be sampled with higher visual acuity. Estimates of spatial resolving power were similar among species with only the Canada goose having a higher spatial resolution. Overall, we found no evidence of ecomorphological adaptations to different foraging modes in the retinal ganglion cell layer in waterfowl. Rather, retinal topography in these birds seems to reflect the 'openness' of their habitats.

  6. Arboviral infection in two species of wild jays (Aves: Corvidae): evidence for population impacts.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Mary C; Tarvin, Keith A; Stark, Lillian M; Woolfenden, Glen E; Fitzpatrick, John W; Day, Jonathan F

    2004-03-01

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to three mosquito-borne arboviruses in blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, and Florida scrub-jays, Aphelocoma coerulescens, to identify the effects on host survival, the influence of sex and age on infection, and the temporal patterns of antibody prevalence. Blood samples from 306 blue jays and 219 Florida scrub-jays were collected at Archbold Biological Station (Lake Placid, FL) from April 1994 through December 1995. Sera were analyzed for hemagglutination-inhibition antibody to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses, and neutralizing antibodies to EEE, Highlands J (HJ), and SLE viruses. Overall, 31.4% of blue jay samples and 22.1% of scrub-jay samples had antibodies to EEE. Antibodies to HJ were detected in slightly >15% of samples in each jay species, and SLE was detected in <3% of the samples in each jay species. A single EEE virus isolation was made from the blood of an 11-d-old scrub-jay nestling. Survival of adult blue jays seropositive to EEE was significantly lower than that of seronegative birds based on resight rates, but infection did not seem to affect survival of adult or juvenile Florida scrub-jays.

  7. A genus-level classification of the family Thraupidae (Class Aves: Order Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin J; Unitt, Philip; Mason, Nicholas A

    2016-03-09

    The tanagers (Thraupidae) are a major component of the Neotropical avifauna, and vary in plumage colors, behaviors, morphologies, and ecologies. Globally, they represent nearly 4% of all avian species and are the largest family of songbirds. However, many currently used tanager genera are not monophyletic, based on analyses of molecular data that have accumulated over the past 25 years. Current genus-level classifications of tanagers have not been revised according to newly documented relationships of tanagers for various reasons: 1) the lack of a comprehensive phylogeny, 2) reluctance to lump existing genera into larger groups, and 3) the lack of available names for newly defined smaller groups. Here, we present two alternative classifications based on a newly published comprehensive phylogeny of tanagers. One of these classifications uses existing generic names, but defines them broadly. The other, which we advocate and follow here, provides new generic names for more narrowly defined groups. Under the latter, we propose eleven new genera (Asemospiza, Islerothraupis, Maschalethraupis, Chrysocorypha, Kleinothraupis, Castanozoster, Ephippiospingus, Chionodacryon, Pseudosaltator, Poecilostreptus, Stilpnia), and resurrect several generic names to form monophyletic taxa. Either of these classifications would allow taxonomic authorities to reconcile classification with current understanding of tanager phylogenetic relationships. Having a more phylogenetically accurate classification for tanagers will facilitate the study and conservation of this important Neotropical radiation of songbirds.

  8. Foraging activity of the snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves: Accipitridae) in wetlands of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, F B; Amaral, H L C; Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Tozetti, A M

    2013-05-01

    The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is widely distributed in the American continent. Its specialised diet consists mostly of the gastropod mollusk Pomacea sp and its foraging strategy probably varies depending on the season, prey availability, and climate factors, which can be reflected in its semi-nomad behaviour. This study was aimed at examining the hunting strategy of the snail kite, and its association with climate factors and habitat heterogeneity. Direct observations of birds between January 2010 and March 2011 in southernmost Brazil revealed that hunting was still the predominant foraging strategy (79% of records) to capture mollusks. Despite morphological specialisations to extract mollusks from the shells, the handling time (average = 92.4 s) was twice as much the time between prey search and capture (average = 55 s). The increase in the number of mollusks ingested apparently occurs when the resting time on perches or any other substrates near the hunting sites decreases between successive unsuccessful attempts. The correlation between the number of consumed preys and the climatic variables examined was low. Regarding habitat heterogeneity, our findings suggest that birds forage preferentially in marshes with low vegetation, which may increase the access to mollusks. The hunting efficiency of the snail kite was high (76 % successful attempts) compared to those of other birds of prey.

  9. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A phylogeny of the tinamous (aves: palaeognathiformes) based on integumentary characters.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Sara; Giannini, Norberto P; Goloboff, Pablo A

    2002-12-01

    A cladistic analysis of the tinamous, including the 47 currently recognized species and some distinct subspecies, was conducted based on 80 integumentary characters from adult and natal plumage, ramphoteca (corneum sheath of bill), and podoteca (horny scales of legs). For the adult plumage (50 characters), we studied feather pigmentation patterns from different pterylae (feather tracts). A criterion of overlap of basic pigmentation elements was used to assign costs to the transformation between the states in most of these characters in such a way that transformations between more similar conditions were less costly. The consensus tree was almost fully resolved, and about 50% of its groups were relatively well supported. Because the only outgroup that could be used provided a poor root, two possible rootings of the ingroup subtree were considered; in both cases, only one of the two traditional subfamilies (the steppe tinamous) was recovered, and the other (the forest tinamous) appeared as paraphyletic. The results of the present analysis are compared with those from an osteological data set, using a strict supertree technique. The combined tree has a large number of nodes, indicating a high degree of congruence between the two data sets.

  11. Nucleolar organizer regions in Sittasomus griseicapillus and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Aves, Dendrocolaptidae): Evidence of a chromosome inversion

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcelo; da Silva, Rubens Rodrigues; de Sena Correia, Vanessa Carolina; dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Garnero, Analía del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies in birds are still scarce compared to other vertebrates. Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) are part of a highly specialized group within the Suboscines of the New World. They are forest birds exclusive to the Neotropical region and similar to woodpeckers, at a comparable evolutionary stage. This paper describes for the first time the karyotypes of the Olivaceous and the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper using conventional staining with Giemsa and silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs). Metaphases were obtained by fibular bone marrow culture. The chromosome number of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper was 2n = 82 and of the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, 2n = 82. Ag-NORs in the largest macrochromosome pair and evidence of a chromosome inversion are described herein for the first time for this group. PMID:23569410

  12. Molecular diversity, metabolic transformation, and evolution of carotenoid feather pigments in cotingas (Aves: Cotingidae).

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O; LaFountain, Amy M; Berro, Julien; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Frank, Harry A

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid pigments were extracted from 29 feather patches from 25 species of cotingas (Cotingidae) representing all lineages of the family with carotenoid plumage coloration. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, chemical analysis, and ¹H-NMR, 16 different carotenoid molecules were documented in the plumages of the cotinga family. These included common dietary xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin), canary xanthophylls A and B, four well known and broadly distributed avian ketocarotenoids (canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, α-doradexanthin, and adonixanthin), rhodoxanthin, and seven 4-methoxy-ketocarotenoids. Methoxy-ketocarotenoids were found in 12 species within seven cotinga genera, including a new, previously undescribed molecule isolated from the Andean Cock-of-the-Rock Rupicola peruviana, 3'-hydroxy-3-methoxy-β,β-carotene-4-one, which we name rupicolin. The diversity of cotinga plumage carotenoid pigments is hypothesized to be derived via four metabolic pathways from lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene. All metabolic transformations within the four pathways can be described by six or seven different enzymatic reactions. Three of these reactions are shared among three precursor pathways and are responsible for eight different metabolically derived carotenoid molecules. The function of cotinga plumage carotenoid diversity was analyzed with reflectance spectrophotometry of plumage patches and a tetrahedral model of avian color visual perception. The evolutionary history of the origin of this diversity is analyzed phylogenetically. The color space analyses document that the evolutionarily derived metabolic modifications of dietary xanthophylls have resulted in the creation of distinctive orange-red and purple visual colors.

  13. Status, ecology, and conservation of the Himalayan griffon Gyps himalayensis (Aves, Accipitridae) in the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Ke, Dianhua; Zeng, Xianhai; Gong, Guohong; Ci, Ren

    2009-05-01

    The dramatic population crashes of 3 species of Gyps vulture have raised concerns about the status of their lesser-known congeners. Among these is the Himalayan griffon, G. himalayensis, an iconic vulture of the Tibetan plateau. The continued existence of this scavenger has not only ecological but also cultural implications because of their unique role in the centuries-old sky burial tradition that is followed by nearly 5 million Tibetan people. A lack of baseline information of the Himalayan griffon limits our ability to take conservation measures. The presented data, which were collected during 1996 and 2004 to 2007, indicate that this species is still widespread throughout the plateau and has not experienced a major population decline, likely as a result of protection by Tibetan Buddhism and limited disturbances from human activities largely due to the remoteness of the plateau. Both site and road counts showed that open meadow habitats had the highest griffon abundance, followed by alpine shrub and forest habitats. Estimates based on road transect counts showed that 229,339 Himalayan griffons (+/- 40,447) occupy the 2.5 million km2 Tibetan plateau. In contrast, the maximum carrying capacity of the plateau, on the basis of the total biomass of potential food resources, is 507,996 griffons, with meadow habitats accounting for about 76% of the total population. Griffons depend largely on livestock carcasses for food and forage in groups averaging 5.5 (range 1-100) individuals. Domestic yaks provide about 64% of the griffons' diet, while wild ungulates and human corpses provide 1% and 2%, respectively. Compared with its lowland congeners, this, the only high-elevation Gyps species, had both low population density and small group size, a likely response to the harsh environmental conditions. Although griffon abundance appears relatively stable in their fairly pristine environment, precautionary measures, including investigation of threats, monitoring of population dynamics, and establishment of modern conservation consciousness among Tibetan Buddhists, should be carried out to ensure that this abundance continues.

  14. Historical relationships of three enigmatic phasianid genera (Aves: Galliformes) inferred using phylogenomic and mitogenomic data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Hosner, Peter A; Liang, Bin; Braun, Edward L; Kimball, Rebecca T

    2017-04-01

    The phylogeny of the Phasianidae (pheasants, partridges, and allies) has been studied extensively. However, these studies have largely ignored three enigmatic genera because of scarce DNA source material and limited overlapping phylogenetic data: blood pheasants (Ithaginis), snow partridges (Lerwa), and long-billed partridges (Rhizothera). Thus, phylogenetic positions of these three genera remain uncertain in what is otherwise a well-resolved phylogeny. Previous studies using different data types place Lerwa and Ithaginis in similar positions, but the absence of overlapping data means the relationship between them could not be inferred. Rhizothera was originally described in the genus Perdix (true partridges), although a partial cytochrome b (CYB) sequence suggests it is sister to Pucrasia (koklass pheasant). To identify robust relationships among Ithaginis, Lerwa, Rhizothera, and their phasianid relatives, we used 3692 ultra-conserved element (UCE) loci and complete mitogenomes from 19 species including previously hypothesized relatives of the three focal genera and representatives from all major phasianid clades. We used DNA extracted from historical specimen toepads for species that lacked fresh tissue in museum collections. Maximum likelihood and multispecies coalescent UCE analyses strongly supported Lerwa sister to a large clade which included Ithaginis at its base, and also including turkey, grouse, typical pheasants, tragopans, Pucrasia, and Perdix. Rhizothera was also in this clade, sister to a diverse group comprising Perdix, typical pheasants, Pucrasia, turkey and grouse. Mitogenomic genealogies differed from UCEs topologies, supporting a sister relationship between Ithaginis and Lerwa rather than a grade. The position of Rhizothera using mitogenomes depended on analytical choices. Unpartitioned and codon-based analyses placed Rhizothera sister to a tragopan clade, whereas a partitioned DNA model of the mitogenome was congruent with UCE results. In all mitogenome analyses, Pucrasia was sister to a clade including Perdix and the typical pheasants with high support, in contrast to UCEs and published nuclear intron data. Due to the strong support and consistent topology provided by all UCE analyses, we have identified phylogenetic relationships of these three enigmatic, poorly-studied, phasianid taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Avoiding Missing Data Biases in Phylogenomic Inference: An Empirical Study in the Landfowl (Aves: Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Hosner, Peter A; Faircloth, Brant C; Glenn, Travis C; Braun, Edward L; Kimball, Rebecca T

    2016-04-01

    Production of massive DNA sequence data sets is transforming phylogenetic inference, but best practices for analyzing such data sets are not well established. One uncertainty is robustness to missing data, particularly in coalescent frameworks. To understand the effects of increasing matrix size and loci at the cost of increasing missing data, we produced a 90 taxon, 2.2 megabase, 4,800 locus sequence matrix of landfowl using target capture of ultraconserved elements. We then compared phylogenies estimated with concatenated maximum likelihood, quartet-based methods executed on concatenated matrices and gene tree reconciliation methods, across five thresholds of missing data. Results of maximum likelihood and quartet analyses were similar, well resolved, and demonstrated increasing support with increasing matrix size and sparseness. Conversely, gene tree reconciliation produced unexpected relationships when we included all informative loci, with certain taxa placed toward the root compared with other approaches. Inspection of these taxa identified a prevalence of short average contigs, which potentially biased gene tree inference and caused erroneous results in gene tree reconciliation. This suggests that the more problematic missing data in gene tree-based analyses are partial sequences rather than entire missing sequences from locus alignments. Limiting gene tree reconciliation to the most informative loci solved this problem, producing well-supported topologies congruent with concatenation and quartet methods. Collectively, our analyses provide a well-resolved phylogeny of landfowl, including strong support for previously problematic relationships such as those among junglefowl (Gallus), and clarify the position of two enigmatic galliform genera (Lerwa, Melanoperdix) not sampled in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. First report of an hypopus (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from a jaeger (Aves: Charadriiformes: Stercorariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Cole, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, originally described from two species of auklets (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) from maritime eastern Russia, is reported from a third species of pelagic charadriiform (Stercorariidae), the pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius poinarinus (Temminck), from Florida. The specimens from the jaeger are slightly smaller, the genital apodeme is more heavily sclerotized, paired setae gm are twice as long and there are other minor variations in the idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy. These differences are not considered sufficient to warrant taxonomic separation at the species or subspecies level from the nominate species T. (A.) aukletae. The same hypopus occurring across different families of birds is unusual in the Hypoderatidae. The diversity in hosts from several orders of birds, low intensities of infection in the two species from Africa, low prevalences in alcids from Russia, and rarity of these hypoderatids in all surveyed hosts leads us to speculate that the true host affinities of species in the genus Thalassornectes are unknown. The alternative consideration is that these are simply uncommon species that are very host specific.

  17. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of Old World suboscine birds (Aves: Eurylaimides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, R.G.; Chesser, R.T.; Prum, R.O.; Schikler, P.; Cracraft, J.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular and morphological data were used to derive a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Eurylaimides, an Old World bird group now known to be distributed pantropically, and to investigate the evolution and biogeography of the group. Phylogenetic results indicated that the Eurylaimides consist of two monophyletic groups, the pittas (Pittidae) and the broadbills (Eurylaimidae sensu lato), and that the broadbills consist of two highly divergent clades, one containing the sister genera Smithornis and Calyptomena, the other containing Pseudocalyptomena graueri, Sapayoa aenigma, the asity genera Philepitta and Neodrepanis, and five Asian genera. Our results indicate that over a ~10 million year time span in the early Tertiary, the Eurylaimides came to inhabit widely disjunct tropical regions and evolved disparate morphology, diet, and breeding behavior. Biogeographically, although a southern origin for the lineage is likely, time estimates for major lineage splitting do not correspond to Gondwanan vicariance events, and the biogeographic history of the crown clade is better explained by Laurasian climatic and geological processes. In particular, the timing and phylogenetic pattern suggest a likely Laurasian origin for the sole New World representative of the group, Sapayoa aenigma.

  18. Paraphyly of Cinclodes fuscus (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae): Implications for taxonomy and biogeography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanin, Camilo; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Maley, James M.; Lijtmaer, Dario A.; Tubaro, Pablo L.; Chesser, R. Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Andes are a hotspot of global avian diversity, but studies on the historical diversification of Andean birds remain relatively scarce. Evolutionary studies on avian lineages with Andean–Patagonian distributions have focused on reconstructing species-level phylogenies, whereas no detailed phylogeographic studies on widespread species have been conducted. Here, we describe phylogeographic patterns in the Bar-winged Cinclodes (Cinclodes fuscus), a widespread and common species of ovenbird (Furnariidae) that breeds from Tierra del Fuego to the northern Andes. Traditionally, C. fuscus has been considered a single species composed of nine subspecies, but its long and narrow range suggests the possibility of considerable genetic variation among populations. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes revealed three discrete and geographically coherent groups of C. fuscus, occupying the southern, central, and northern Andes. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that these groups were more closely related to other species of Cinclodes than to each other. Relationships of the southern and northern C. fuscus clades to other species of Cinclodes were straightforward; in combination with available information on plumage, behavioral, and vocal variation, this suggests that each should be recognized as a distinct biological species. The central Andean group was paraphyletic with respect to C. oustaleti, and relationships among these taxa and C. olrogi were poorly resolved. We suggest that the central Andean C. fuscus should also be considered a different species, pending new information to clarify species limits in this group. These new phylogenetic data, along with recently developed methods, allowed us to review the biogeography of the genus, confirming southern South America and the central Andes as important areas for the diversification of these birds.

  19. [Respiratory symptoms in the textile industry. Their prevalence in the Vale do Ave].

    PubMed

    da Costa, J T; Barros, H; Macedo, J A; Ribeiro, H; Mayan, O; Pinto, A S

    1997-01-01

    Some workers in the textile industry have respiratory symptoms related to their occupation. This study is aimed at evaluating the frequency of respiratory symptoms in textile industries in the North of Portugal. We evaluated 3529 workers from 20 factories (19 deal with synthetic fibres and cotton and the other deals with sisal.) Among the workers, there were 34.5% with respiratory symptoms - 24,5% referred nasal symptoms, 22,6% with bronchial symptoms and 12,6% associated both. The workers who dealt with cotton presented a higher frequency of bronchial symptoms (25,0%) than the ones dealing with synthetic fibres (12,7% p < 0,000001). The same was noticed among the workers in the opening and spinning areas, who showed a higher frequency of bronchial symptoms (28,3%) than the ones in weaving areas (12,7% p < 0,000001). We did not find any differences concerning the frequency of symptoms among the workers handling both natural fibres (cotton and sisal). Individually all the symptoms were more frequent among the workers handling natural fibres. The most frequent symptom depended on the fibre. Cough was more frequently mentioned among the workers handling synthetic fibres (9.6%) and cotton (15.7%). Among the workers who handle sisal, dyspnea was the most frequently mentioned (16.9%). Productive cough was the most frequent association (7.2% sisal; 2.8% synthetic; 8.0% cotton), and the association between dyspnea and wheezing the least mentioned (6.4% sisal; 0.5% synthetic; 5.9% cotton). The workers with bronchial symptoms (synthetic fibre and cotton) have more years of exposure and greater smoking habits. In a covariance adjusted for age and smoking habits, the workers with bronchial symptoms, exposed to cotton have more years of exposure.

  20. Intraspecific rearrangement of duplicated mitochondrial control regions in the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill Penelopides manillae (Aves: Bucerotidae).

    PubMed

    Sammler, Svenja; Ketmaier, Valerio; Havenstein, Katja; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Philippine hornbills of the genera Aceros and Penelopides (Bucerotidae) are known to possess a large tandemly duplicated fragment in their mitochondrial genome, whose paralogous parts largely evolve in concert. In the present study, we surveyed the two distinguishable duplicated control regions in several individuals of the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill Penelopides manillae, compare their characteristics within and across individuals, and report on an intraspecific mitochondrial gene rearrangement found in one single specimen, i.e., an interchange between the two control regions. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of two distinct mitochondrial genome rearrangements within a bird species. We briefly discuss a possible evolutionary mechanism responsible for this pattern, and highlight potential implications for the application of control region sequences as a marker in population genetics and phylogeography.

  1. A New Owl Species of the Genus Otus (Aves: Strigidae) from Lombok, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sangster, George; King, Ben F.; Verbelen, Philippe; Trainor, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    The avifauna of Indonesia is one of the richest in the world but the taxonomic status of many species remains poorly documented. The sole species of scops owl known from Lombok has long been assigned to the widespread Moluccan Scops Owl Otus magicus on the basis of superficial similarities in morphology. Field work in 2003 has shown that the territorial song of the scops owls inhabiting the foothills of Gunung Rinjani differs dramatically from that of O. magicus and is more similar to those of Rufescent Scops Owl O. rufescens and Singapore Scops Owl O. cnephaeus. Detailed comparisons of sound recordings and museum specimens with those of other scops owls in Wallacea and the Indo-Malayan region have confirmed the distinctiveness of the Lombok population. We describe Otus jolandae as a new species, the Rinjani Scops Owl. It is locally common at elevations from 25–1350 m. and occurs within Gunung Rinjani National Park. The new species is known from seven specimens collected by Alfred Everett in 1896. Otus jolandae represents the first endemic bird species from Lombok. PMID:23418422

  2. A complete multilocus species phylogeny of the tits and chickadees (Aves: Paridae).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ulf S; Ekman, Jan; Bowie, Rauri C K; Halvarsson, Peter; Ohlson, Jan I; Price, Trevor D; Ericson, Per G P

    2013-12-01

    The avian family Paridae (tits and chickadees) contains c. 55 species distributed in the Palearctic, Nearctic, Afrotropics and Indomalaya. The group includes some of the most well-known and extensively studied avian species, and the evolutionary history, in particular the post-glacial colonization of the northern latitudes, has been comparably well-studied for several species. Yet a comprehensive phylogeny of the whole clade is lacking. Here, we present the first complete species phylogeny for the group based on sequence data from two nuclear introns and one mitochondrial gene for 67 taxa of parids. Our results strongly support the inclusion of the Fire-capped Tit (Cephalopyrus flammiceps), currently placed in the Remizidae, as the most basal member of the Paridae. The Yellow-browed Tit (Sylviparus modestus) and the Sultan Tit (Melanochlora sultanea) constitute the next two sequential branches whereas the remaining tits fall into two large clades, one of which contains the seed hoarding and nest excavating species. The indicated clades within these two groups are largely congruent with recent classifications, but with several unforeseen relationships, such as non-monophyly of the Sombre Tit (Poecile lugubris) and the Marsh Tit (Poecile palustris), as well as non-monophyly of both the African gray and the African black tits. Further, our results support a close relationship between the White-fronted Tit (Parus semilarvatus) and the varied Tit (Poecile varius) as well as a close relationship between the White-naped Tit (Parus nuchalis) and the Yellow-cheeked and Black-lored tits (Parus spilonotus and P. xanthogenys). Finally, Hume's Ground-tit (Pseudopodoces humilis) is found to be closely related to the Green-backed Tit (Parus monticolus) and the Great Tit (Parus major). We propose a new classification that is in accordance with this phylogeny.

  3. Oswaldotrema nacinovici gen. nov. sp. nov. (Digenea: Philophthalmidae) from Numenius phaeopus (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Muniz-Pereira, L C; Pinto, R M

    2000-01-01

    A new genus, Oswaldotrema gen. nov. is proposed. Oswaldotrema nacinovici sp. nov. is descibed from Numenius phaeopus Latham, 1790. Differentiation from the other related genera, namely Philophthalmus, Pygorchis, Proctobium, Parorchis, Echinostephila, Cloacitrema, Pittacium, Ophthalmotrema, Skrjabinovermis and Paratrema, was based on morphological characters, mainly on those referring to the body surface, body shape, head, esophagus, pharynx, acetabulum, vitellaria, vitelline reservoir and seminal vesicle.

  4. A new owl species of the genus Otus (aves: strigidae) from Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sangster, George; King, Ben F; Verbelen, Philippe; Trainor, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    The avifauna of Indonesia is one of the richest in the world but the taxonomic status of many species remains poorly documented. The sole species of scops owl known from Lombok has long been assigned to the widespread Moluccan Scops Owl Otus magicus on the basis of superficial similarities in morphology. Field work in 2003 has shown that the territorial song of the scops owls inhabiting the foothills of Gunung Rinjani differs dramatically from that of O. magicus and is more similar to those of Rufescent Scops Owl O. rufescens and Singapore Scops Owl O. cnephaeus. Detailed comparisons of sound recordings and museum specimens with those of other scops owls in Wallacea and the Indo-Malayan region have confirmed the distinctiveness of the Lombok population. We describe Otus jolandae as a new species, the Rinjani Scops Owl. It is locally common at elevations from 25-1350 m. and occurs within Gunung Rinjani National Park. The new species is known from seven specimens collected by Alfred Everett in 1896. Otus jolandae represents the first endemic bird species from Lombok.

  5. Phylogeography, inter-specific limits and diversification of Turdus ignobilis (Aves: Turdidae).

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Pablo Vieira; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Turdus ignobilis is a widely distributed thrush species throughout northern South America and the Amazon, inhabiting a diverse set of habitats ranging from floodplain forests, white sand "campinas", to highland forests (Andes and Tepuis). There are currently six known subspecies of T. ignobilis, which vary extensively phenotypically and also ecologically, but whose interspecific limits and evolutionary history have never been investigated before. In this study, we used molecular data and plumage characters to review the taxonomy and uncover the evolutionary relationships of the six T. ignobilis subspecies described to date. We estimated gene and species trees based on both mitochondrial (ND2 and COI) and nuclear (TGFB2 and G3PDH) genes, which recovered, with high statistical support, the polyphyly of Turdus ignobilis, as currently defined. Therefore, based on our results, we propose a new taxonomic treatment that splits T. ignobilis into at least three separate species based on both molecular data and plumage characters. Each newly recognized species inhabit a distinct habitat type, with "true" T. ignobilis occurring in highland habitats of the Tepuis and the Andes, while T. arthuri and T. debilis are tied to "white-sand forest" and várzea floodplain forests in lowland Amazonia, respectively.

  6. Visitor influence on the behavior of captive greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae Aves).

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Lima, Márcia Fontes Figueiredo; da Silva, Vitor Caetano Alves; Young, Robert John; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Visitors can affect and reduce the welfare of nonhuman animals. The Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil, had a group of greater rheas intended for reintroduction to the wild. Because this group received public visitation, evaluating its effect on the birds' behavior and welfare was important. The study conducted 60 hr of behavioral observations: 30 with, and 30 without, visitors in front of the birds' enclosure. The study, conducted April-December 2009, collected data using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every minute. The study collected data on public behavior, visitor density, and time spent observing the birds. More than 4,000 persons visited the birds' enclosure: 9.86 s average time spent. Public behaviors most expressed were walking-watching-talking and stopped-watching-talking; visitors or not, greater rheas' most expressed behaviors (inversed between treatments) were foraging and walking alert; defecating/urinating and other behaviors differed statistically between treatments. Walking alert was most expressed in the presence of visitors; defecating/urinating and other behaviors were most expressed in their absence. Greater rheas seemed to habituate to visitors. Birds' behaviors differed little in visitors' presence or absence.

  7. Ground Wave Emergency Network Final Operational Capability: Environmental Assessment for Northwestern Nebraska Relay Node, Site Number RN 8C930NE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-19

    migrans 2 Swift fox Vulpes velox Canidae 2 Yellow mud turtle Kinosternon flavescens Kinosternidac (northern population) flavescens C-7 UXEýUV - United...ign niJgje Laridae 2 Harlequin duck Histrionicum Anaatidae hiutrionigue 2 Swift fox y•GI velax Canidae 2 Fringed-tailed myotis •1i tvg

  8. Latitudinal gradients in abundance, and the causes of rarity in the tropics: a test using Australian honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae).

    PubMed

    Symonds, Matthew R E; Christidis, Les; Johnson, Christopher N

    2006-09-01

    Several studies have uncovered interspecific latitudinal gradients in abundance (population density) such that tropical species tend to be, on average, less abundant than species at higher latitudes. The causes of this relationship remain poorly studied, in contrast to the relative wealth of literature examining the relationship to latitude of other variables such as range size and body mass. We used a cross-species phylogenetic comparative approach and a spatial approach to examine three potential determining factors (distribution, reproductive output and climate) that might explain why abundance correlates with latitude, using data from 54 species of honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) in woodland environments in eastern Australia. There is a strong positive correlation between mean abundance and latitude in these birds. Reproductive output (clutch size) was positively linked to both abundance and latitude, but partial correlation analysis revealed that clutch size is not related to abundance once the effects of latitude are removed. A subsequent multiple regression model that also considered range size, clutch size and body mass showed that latitude is the only strong predictor of abundance in honeyeaters. In the separate spatial analysis, the climatic variables that we considered (temperature, rainfall and seasonality) were all strongly linked to latitude, but none served as a better predictor of abundance than latitude per se, either individually or collectively. The most intriguing result of our analyses was that the cross-species latitudinal pattern in abundance was not evident within species. This suggests an intrinsic cause of the pattern of 'rarity in the tropics' in Australian honeyeaters. We suggest that evolutionary age may provide a key to understanding patterns of abundance in these birds.

  9. [New species of mites of the genus Ptilonyssus (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) isolated from Passeriformes (Aves: Passeriformes) from Russia and neighboring countries].

    PubMed

    Staniukovich, M K; Butenko, O M

    2003-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Ptilonyssus (Berl. et Troues.) (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) from nasal cavities of the passeriformes from territory of the former USSR are described: P. ammomani sp. n. from Ammomanus deserti (Alaudidae) collected in Turkmenistan; P. spini sp. n. from Spinus spinus (Fringillidae) of Kaliningrad district (Russia); P. ripariae sp. n. from Riparia riparia (Hirundinidae) and P. acanthopneustes sp. n. from Phylloscopus borealis (Sylviidae) collected in Tjumen district (Russia); P. pyrrhulinus sp. n. from Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Fringillidae) and P. anthi sp. n. from Anthus trivialis (Motacillidae) of Rjazan district; P. sylviicola sp. n. from Sylviae communis (Sylviidae) collected in Tatarstan; P. cyanosylviae sp. n. from Cyanosylvia svecica (Turdidae) collected from Novosibirsk district.

  10. Type specimens and type localities of birds (Aves) collected during F. J. F. Meyen's circumnavigation in 1830-1832.

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Jiří; Frahnert, Sylke

    2017-04-03

    At least 32 bird species were described as new to science on the basis of material collected by Franz Meyen during his circumnavigation in 1830-1832. We identified the type specimens and determined the type localities of these species, which are currently housed in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany. Ardea longicollis Meyen, 1834, is identified as a senior synonym of Egretta eulophotes (Swinhoe, 1860), but is set aside as a nomen oblitum. The name of a Neotropical dove is corrected from Metriopelia ceciliae zimmeri (Peters, 1937) to Metriopelia ceciliae gymnops (Chubb, 1917). A lectotype is designated for Nectarinia philippensis Meyen, 1834a.

  11. Population Genetic Structure of the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens (Aves, Suliformes) Breeding Colonies in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Andressa; Carlos, Caio J.; Moreno, Ignacio B.; Fagundes, Nelson J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens has a pantropical distribution, nesting on islands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. In the Caribbean, there is little genetic structure among colonies; however, the genetic structure among the colonies off Brazil and its relationship with those in the Caribbean are unknown. In this study, we used mtDNA and microsatellite markers to infer population structure and evolutionary history in a sample of F. magnificens individuals collected in Brazil, Grand Connétable (French Guyana), and Barbuda. Virtually all Brazilian individuals had the same mtDNA haplotype. There was no haplotype sharing between Brazil and the Caribbean, though Grand Connétable shared haplotypes with both regions. A Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data found two genetic clusters: one associated with Barbuda and the other with the Brazilian populations. Grand Connétable was more similar to Barbuda but had ancestry from both clusters, corroborating its “intermediate” position. The Caribbean and Grand Connétable populations showed higher genetic diversity and effective population size compared to the Brazilian population. Overall, our results are in good agreement with an effect of marine winds in isolating the Brazilian meta-population. PMID:26901878

  12. Population Genetic Structure of the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens (Aves, Suliformes) Breeding Colonies in the Western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Andressa; Carlos, Caio J; Moreno, Ignacio B; Fagundes, Nelson J R

    2016-01-01

    The Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens has a pantropical distribution, nesting on islands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. In the Caribbean, there is little genetic structure among colonies; however, the genetic structure among the colonies off Brazil and its relationship with those in the Caribbean are unknown. In this study, we used mtDNA and microsatellite markers to infer population structure and evolutionary history in a sample of F. magnificens individuals collected in Brazil, Grand Connétable (French Guyana), and Barbuda. Virtually all Brazilian individuals had the same mtDNA haplotype. There was no haplotype sharing between Brazil and the Caribbean, though Grand Connétable shared haplotypes with both regions. A Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data found two genetic clusters: one associated with Barbuda and the other with the Brazilian populations. Grand Connétable was more similar to Barbuda but had ancestry from both clusters, corroborating its "intermediate" position. The Caribbean and Grand Connétable populations showed higher genetic diversity and effective population size compared to the Brazilian population. Overall, our results are in good agreement with an effect of marine winds in isolating the Brazilian meta-population.

  13. The Staurotypus turtles and aves share the same origin of sex chromosomes but evolved different types of heterogametic sex determination.

    PubMed

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY) and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW) sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines) and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii) have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution.

  14. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Fabio S Raposo; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Results Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved at least twice in the group. Furthermore, species found to the east and west of the Andes (cis-Andean and trans-Andean, respectively) are not reciprocally monophyletic, nor are forest and non-forest species. Conclusion The polyphyly of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo establishes a lack of concordance of current Accipitridae taxonomy with the mtDNA phylogeny for the group, and points to the need for further phylogenetic analysis at all taxonomic levels in the family as also suggested by other recent analyses. Habitat shifts, as well as cis- and trans-Andean disjunctions, took place more than once during buteonine diversification in the Neotropical region. Overemphasis of the black and white plumage patterns has led to questionable conclusions regarding the relationships of Leucopternis species, and suggests more generally that plumage characters should be used with considerable caution in the taxonomic evaluation of the Accipitridae. PMID:16464261

  15. Jaw myogenesis in the monk parakeet: evidence of developmental reprogramming in the emergence of novel muscles in Psittaciformes (Aves).

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Ronderos, Jorge R; Tambussi, Claudia P; Chiale, María C

    2016-12-01

    Psittaciformes have apomorphies in the muscles of the jaw that include both the adductors m. ethmomandibularis (EM) and m. pseudomasseter (PM), which are responsible for the generation of strong bite forces. While the EM is present in all Psittaciformes, the PM can be absent or present, and even underdeveloped or well-developed. The aim of this study is to identify developmental reprogramming processes by comparing the myogenesis of the jaw of the monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus with the information available about other species of Psittaciformes. Seventeen specimens including embryos at different developmental stages, and nestlings of different ages were studied through the analysis of serial histological sections. At embryonic stage 24 (S24) the muscle precursor was observed in the first pharyngeal arch. At S27 the muscle precursor was found to be divided into lateral, intermediate and medial portions. At S31 the independent development of the EM as a rostro-dorsal projection of the mm. pterygoidei could be observed. At S36 the individualization of all muscles was complete. Finally, the PM was detected two days after hatching as an aponeurotic dorsal projection of the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, located lateral to the arcus jugalis. Our results suggest that in M. monachus the muscles EM and PM emerge as a result of a process of heterotipy, and variations in the degree of development of the PM are associated to a heterochronic process of post-displacement, with M. monachus having an underdeveloped PM with respect to basal Psittaciformes.

  16. Marshes as "Mountain Tops": Genetic Analyses of the Critically Endangered São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Crisley; Gibbs, H Lisle; Costa, Mariellen C; Del-Rio, Glaucia; Silveira, Luís F; Wasko, Adriane P; Francisco, Mercival R

    2015-01-01

    Small populations of endangered species can be impacted by genetic processes such as drift and inbreeding that reduce population viability. As such, conservation genetic analyses that assess population levels of genetic variation and levels of gene flow can provide important information for managing threatened species. The São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) is a recently-described and critically endangered bird from São Paulo State (Brazil) whose total estimated population is around 250-300 individuals, distributed in only 15 isolated marshes around São Paulo metropolitan region. We used microsatellite DNA markers to estimate the population genetic characteristics of the three largest remaining populations of this species all within 60 km of each other. We detected a high and significant genetic structure between all populations (overall FST = 0.103) which is comparable to the highest levels of differentiation ever documented for birds, (e.g., endangered birds found in isolated populations on the tops of African mountains), but also evidence for first-generation immigrants, likely from small local unsampled populations. Effective population sizes were small (between 28.8-99.9 individuals) yet there are high levels of genetic variability within populations and no evidence for inbreeding. Conservation implications of this work are that the high levels of genetic structure suggests that translocations between populations need to be carefully considered in light of possible local adaptation and that remaining populations of these birds should be managed as conservation units that contain both main populations studied here but also small outlying populations which may be a source of immigrants.

  17. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopus griseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopus griseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopus griseicollis griseicollis and Scytalopus griseicollis gilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. PMID:26085800

  18. Reconstruction and in vivo analysis of the extinct tbx5 gene from ancient wingless moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The forelimb-specific gene tbx5 is highly conserved and essential for the development of forelimbs in zebrafish, mice, and humans. Amongst birds, a single order, Dinornithiformes, comprising the extinct wingless moa of New Zealand, are unique in having no skeletal evidence of forelimb-like structures. Results To determine the sequence of tbx5 in moa, we used a range of PCR-based techniques on ancient DNA to retrieve all nine tbx5 exons and splice sites from the giant moa, Dinornis. Moa Tbx5 is identical to chicken Tbx5 in being able to activate the downstream promotors of fgf10 and ANF. In addition we show that missexpression of moa tbx5 in the hindlimb of chicken embryos results in the formation of forelimb features, suggesting that Tbx5 was fully functional in wingless moa. An alternatively spliced exon 1 for tbx5 that is expressed specifically in the forelimb region was shown to be almost identical between moa and ostrich, suggesting that, as well as being fully functional, tbx5 is likely to have been expressed normally in moa since divergence from their flighted ancestors, approximately 60 mya. Conclusions The results suggests that, as in mice, moa tbx5 is necessary for the induction of forelimbs, but is not sufficient for their outgrowth. Moa Tbx5 may have played an important role in the development of moa’s remnant forelimb girdle, and may be required for the formation of this structure. Our results further show that genetic changes affecting genes other than tbx5 must be responsible for the complete loss of forelimbs in moa. PMID:24885927

  19. Isolation and characterization of macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) microsatellite loci and their utility in other penguin species (Spheniscidae, AVES).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sophia; Hart, Tom; Dawson, Deborah A; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Trathan, Philip N; Rogers, Alex D

    2009-11-01

    We report the characterization of 25 microsatellite loci isolated from the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus). Thirteen loci were arranged into four multiplex sets for future genetic studies of macaroni penguin populations. All 25 loci were tested separately in each of four other penguin species [Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica), gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)]. Between eight and 12 loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are expected to be useful for studies of population genetic structure in a range of penguin species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A distinctive avian assemblage (Aves: Passeriformes) in Western Darién, Panama is uncovered through a disease surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J

    2014-06-01

    Basic knowledge about the distribution of flora and fauna is lacking for most tropical areas. Improving our knowledge of the tropical biota will help address contemporary global problems, including emerging tropical diseases. Less appreciated is the role that applied studies can have in improving our understanding of basic biological patterns and processes in the tropics. Here, I describe a novel avifauna assemblage uncovered in Western Darién province in the Republic of Panama that was uncovered during a vector-borne disease surveillance program. I compared the passerine bird species composition at 16 sites using records from recent ornithological expeditions sponsored by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Central and Eastern Panama. Based on the results of a Mantel test, geographic distance did not correlate with pairwise distinctiveness of sites. instead, based on an index of distinctiveness modified from the Chao-Jaccard index, most sites were more or less similarly distinctive, with one site, Aruza Abajo, significantly more distinctive than the rest. I found that the distinctiveness of this site was due not only to the presence of several rare and range-restricted taxa, but also to the absence of taxa that are common elsewhere. This finding provides more evidence of high species composition turnover (beta-diversity) in the Panamanian biota, which appears to be driven by a combination of soil and climate differences over narrow distances.

  1. Genetic evaluation of the mating system in the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Aves, Psittacidae) by DNA fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Caparroz, Renato; Miyaki, Cristina Y.; Baker, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    More than 90% of birds are socially monogamous, although genetic studies indicate that many are often not sexually monogamous. In the present study, DNA fingerprinting was used to estimate the genetic relationships between nestlings belonging to the same broods to evaluate the mating system in the socially monogamous macaw, Ara ararauna. We found that in 10 of 11 broods investigated, the nestlings showed genetic similarity levels congruent with values expected among full-sibs, suggesting that they shared the same parents. However, in one brood, the low genetic similarity observed between nestlings could be a result of intraspecific brood parasitism, intraspecific nest competition or extra-pair paternity. These results, along with available behavioral and life-history data, imply that the blue-and-yellow macaw is not only socially, but also genetically monogamous. However, the occurrence of eventual cases of extra-pair paternity cannot be excluded. PMID:21637560

  2. Cestode communities in non-breeding populations of four grebe species (Aves: Podicipedidae) from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, G P; Georgiev, B B

    1999-09-01

    Cestode communities in Podiceps cristatus, P. grisegena, P. nigricollis and Tachybaptus ruficollis during their migrations and overwintering are studied at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The infracommunities exhibit high richness, abundance and dominance, and low diversity and similarity. The component communities have a similar taxonomic structure at the levels higher than species, a small number of core species and a high portion of grebe specialists in the richness and abundance. The comparison with cestode communities in grebes from Canada (Stock & Holmes, 1987) reveals several differences and similarities. The higher richness and abundance of the infracommunities in Canada are explained by the constant conditions of breeding habitats enhancing higher transmission rates. At the component community level, there is a significant difference between the two species lists. The degree of parasite exchange among the grebe species in Bulgaria is lower. Several characters of cestode component communities in grebes do not depend on either historical factors or different habitats. These are the similar patterns of the taxonomic structure at the levels higher than species, almost the same list of generalists, the participation of specialists of anatids, and the leading role of grebe specialists in the structure.

  3. CracidMex1: a comprehensive database of global occurrences of cracids (Aves, Galliformes) with distribution in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla-Buitrago, Gonzalo; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel; González-García, Fernando; Enríquez, Paula L.; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis; Romero, Carlos Alberto Guichard; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.; Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio César; Escalona-Segura, Griselda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cracids are among the most vulnerable groups of Neotropical birds. Almost half of the species of this family are included in a conservation risk category. Twelve taxa occur in Mexico, six of which are considered at risk at national level and two are globally endangered. Therefore, it is imperative that high quality, comprehensive, and high-resolution spatial data on the occurrence of these taxa are made available as a valuable tool in the process of defining appropriate management strategies for conservation at a local and global level. We constructed the CracidMex1 database by collating global records of all cracid taxa that occur in Mexico from available electronic databases, museum specimens, publications, “grey literature”, and unpublished records. We generated a database with 23,896 clean, validated, and standardized geographic records. Database quality control was an iterative process that commenced with the consolidation and elimination of duplicate records, followed by the geo-referencing of records when necessary, and their taxonomic and geographic validation using GIS tools and expert knowledge. We followed the geo-referencing protocol proposed by the Mexican National Commission for the Use and Conservation of Biodiversity. We could not estimate the geographic coordinates of 981 records due to inconsistencies or lack of sufficient information in the description of the locality. Given that current records for most of the taxa have some degree of distributional bias, with redundancies at different spatial scales, the CracidMex1 database has allowed us to detect areas where more sampling effort is required to have a better representation of the global spatial occurrence of these cracids. We also found that particular attention needs to be given to taxa identification in those areas where congeners or conspecifics co-occur in order to avoid taxonomic uncertainty. The construction of the CracidMex1 database represents the first comprehensive research effort to compile current, available global geographic records for a group of cracids. The database can now be improved by continuous revision and addition of new records. The CracidMex1 database will provide high quality input data that could be used to generate species distribution models, to assess temporal changes in species distributions, to identify priority areas for research and conservation, and in the definition of management strategies for this bird group. This compilation exercise could be replicated for other cracid groups or regions to attain a better knowledge of the global occurrences of the species in this vulnerable bird family. PMID:25061374

  4. Testing founder effect speciation: Divergence population genetics of the Spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. minor (Threskiornithidae, Aves)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Carol K.L.; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R. Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10-8) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we discuss the potential importance of evolutionarily labile traits with significant fitness consequences, such as migratory behavior and habitat preference, in facilitating divergence of the spoonbills.

  5. Rapid parallel evolution of aberrant traits in the diversification of the Gulf of Guinea white-eyes (Aves, Zosteropidae).

    PubMed

    Melo, Martim; Warren, Ben H; Jones, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Archipelago-endemic bird radiations are familiar to evolutionary biologists as key illustrations of evolutionary patterns. However, such radiations are in fact rare events. White-eyes (Zosteropidae) are birds with an exceptionally high colonization and speciation potential; they have colonized more islands globally than any other passerine group and include the most species-rich bird genus. The multiplication of white-eye island endemics has been consistently attributed to independent colonizations from the mainland; the white-eyes of the Gulf of Guinea archipelago had been seen as a classic case, spanning as great a breadth of phenotypic diversity as the family worldwide. Contrary to this hypothesis, our molecular phylogenetic analysis places the Gulf of Guinea white-eyes in just two radiations, one grouping all five oceanic island taxa and the other grouping continental island and land-bridge taxa. Numerous 'aberrant' phenotypes (traditionally grouped in the genus Speirops) have evolved independently over a short space of time from nonaberrant (Zosterops) phenotypes; the most phenotypically divergent species have separated as recently as 0.22 Ma. These radiations rival those of Darwin's finches and the Hawaiian honeycreepers in terms of the extent of adaptive radiation per unit time, both in terms of species numbers and in terms of phenotypic diversity. Tempo and patterns of morphological divergence are strongly supportive of an adaptive radiation in the oceanic islands driven by ecological interactions between sympatric white-eyes. Here, very rapid phenotypic evolution mainly affected taxa derived from the youngest wave of colonization, in accordance with the model of asymmetric divergence owing to resource competition in sympatry.

  6. Prey selection by nesting House Martins Delichon urbica Linné, 1758 (Aves: Hirundinidae) in Algiers suburbs (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Merzouki, Youcef; Souttou, Karim; Sekour, Makhlouf; Daoudi-Hacini, Samia; Doumandji, Salaheddine

    2014-01-01

    The diet of the House Martin Delichon urbica was analyzed in a suburban area in Pins maritimes, northeast of Algiers (Algeria). The diet was determined by analyzing 120 faecal samples collected from a breeding colony between April and September 2007. Insects were the most numerous prey types (99.86%). Hymenopterans were the dominant preys (56.99%), followed by Coleopterans (20.14%), Homopterans (14.22%), Heteropterans (5.45%), and Dipterans (3.10%). Division of the prey items into families demonstrated that the highest relative frequency was large Hymenopterans in the family Formicidae (54.0%). The dominant species in the diet was Tetramorium biskrensis, which comprised 32.6% of the diet. It was followed by Camponotus barbaricus (6.9%) and Monomorium salomonis (5.6%). Comparison between diet and availability of preys using the Savage index showed that T. biskrensis, Crematogaster scutelaris, Pheidole pallidula, Diptera sp. unident. and Aphidae sp. unident. were positively selected by D. urbica.

  7. A multi-locus phylogeny suggests an ancient hybridization event between Campephilus and melanerpine woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Liu, Liang; Ericson, Per G P; Couloux, Arnaud; Pasquet, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The ever increasing number of analysed loci in phylogenetics has not only allowed resolution of some parts of the Tree of Life but has also highlighted parts of the tree where incongruent signals among loci were detected. Previous molecular studies suggested conflicting relationships for the New World genus Campephilus, being either associated to the Megapicini or Dendropocini. Yet, the limited number of analysed loci and the use of the concatenation approach to reconstruct the phylogeny prevented the disentanglement of lineage sorting and introgression as causal explanation of this topological conflict. We sequenced four mitochondrial, nine autosomal and three Z-linked loci and used a method that incorporates population level processes into the phylogenetic framework to understand which process (lineage sorting of genetic polymorphism or hybridization/introgression) best explains this conflict. Our analyses revealed that the autosomal FGB intron-7 and to a lesser extent the Z-linked loci have a different phylogenetic history from the mitochondrial loci and some other nuclear loci we analysed. We suggest that this conflicting pattern is the result of introgression consecutive to a hybridization event at the time when members of the Campephilus and melanerpine (Melanerpes and Sphyrapicus) lineages colonized the New World. The case of Campephilus highlights that the mitochondrial genome does not always carry the 'wrong' phylogenetic signal after a past hybridization event. Indeed, we here emphasise that the signature of such event can also be detected in the nuclear genome. With the ongoing increase in the number of loci analysed in phylogenetic studies, it is very likely that further cases will be discovered. Our current results indicate that (1) the genus Campephilus is related to the Asian genera Blythipicus, Chrysocolaptes and Reinwardtipicus, in accordance with morphological data and (2) that the nuclear genome of Campephilus is likely the mixture of two unrelated lineages. Yet, further work with a denser sampling of loci is necessary to evaluate the extant of the Sphyrapicus/Melanerpes lineage nuclear genome that introgressed into the Campephilus genome.

  8. A Late Miocene Accipitrid (Aves: Accipitriformes) from Nebraska and Its Implications for the Divergence of Old World Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zihui; Feduccia, Alan; James, Helen F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Old World vultures are likely polyphyletic, representing two subfamilies, the Aegypiinae and Gypaetinae, and some genera of the latter may be of independent origin. Evidence concerning the origin, as well as the timing of the divergence of each subfamily and even genera of the Gypaetinae has been elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with the Old World, the New World has an unexpectedly diverse and rich fossil component of Old World vultures. Here we describe a new accipitriform bird, Anchigyps voorhiesi gen. et sp. nov., from the Ash Hollow Formation (Upper Clarendonian, Late Miocene) of Nebraska. It represents a form close in morphology to the Old World vultures. Characteristics of its wing bones suggest it was less specialized for soaring than modern vultures. It was likely an opportunistic predator or scavenger having a grasping foot and a mandible morphologically similar to modern carrion-feeding birds. Conclusions/Significance The new fossil reported here is intermediate in morphology between the bulk of accipitrids and the Old World gypaetine vultures, representing a basal lineage of Accipitridae trending towards the vulturine habit, and of its Late Miocene age suggests the divergence of true gypaetine vultures, may have occurred during or slightly before the Miocene. PMID:23152811

  9. Nasal conchae function as aerodynamic baffles: Experimental computational fluid dynamic analysis in a turkey nose (Aves: Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jason M; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-12-01

    We tested the aerodynamic function of nasal conchae in birds using CT data from an adult male wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) to construct 3D models of its nasal passage. A series of digital "turbinectomies" were performed on these models and computational fluid dynamic analyses were performed to simulate resting inspiration. Models with turbinates removed were compared to the original, unmodified control airway. Results revealed that the four conchae found in turkeys, along with the crista nasalis, alter the flow of inspired air in ways that can be considered baffle-like. However, these baffle-like functions were remarkably limited in their areal extent, indicating that avian conchae are more functionally independent than originally hypothesized. Our analysis revealed that the conchae of birds are efficient baffles that-along with potential heat and moisture transfer-serve to efficiently move air to specific regions of the nasal passage. This alternate function of conchae has implications for their evolution in birds and other amniotes.

  10. Interspecifc variation in eye shape and retinal topography in seven species of galliform bird (Aves: Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Bandet, Mischa V; Corfield, Jeremy R; Wylie, Douglas R

    2012-10-01

    Eye morphology and the retinal topography of animals that live in either 'open' (e.g., grassland) or 'enclosed' (e.g., forest) terrestrial habitats show common adaptations to constraints imposed by these different habitat types. Although relationships between habitat and the visual system are well documented in most vertebrates, relatively few studies have examined this relationship in birds. Here, we compare eye shape and retinal topography across seven species from the family Phasianidae (Galliformes) that are diurnally active in either open or enclosed habitats. Species from enclosed habitats have significantly larger corneal diameters, relative to transverse diameters, than species from open habitats, which we predict serves to enhance visual sensitivity. Retinal topography, however, was similar across all seven species and consisted of a centrally positioned area centralis and a weak horizontal visual streak, with no discernible fovea. In the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), there was also a dorso-temporal extension of increased neuron density and, in some specimens, a putative area dorsalis. The total number of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer was correlated with retinal whole-mount area. Average and peak neuron densities were similar across species, with the exception of the Japanese quail, which had greater average and peak densities. Peak anatomical spatial resolving power was also similar among species, ranging from approximately 10-13 cycles/°. Overall, the pattern of retinal topography we found in phasianids is associated with ground-foraging in birds and presumably facilitates the identification of small food items on the ground as well as other visually guided behaviors, irrespective of habitat type.

  11. Chromosome Painting in Trogon s. surrucura (Aves, Trogoniformes) Reveals a Karyotype Derived by Chromosomal Fissions, Fusions, and Inversions.

    PubMed

    Degrandi, Tiago M; Del Valle Garnero, Analía; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Kretschmer, Rafael; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Gunski, Ricardo J

    2017-01-01

    Trogons are forest birds with a wide distribution, being found in Africa, Asia, and America, and are included in the order Trogoniformes, family Trogonidae. Phylogenetic studies using molecular data have not been able to determine the phylogenetic relationship among the different genera of trogons. So far, no cytogenetic data for these birds exist. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize the karyotype of Trogon surrucura surrucura by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics. We found a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 82, similar to most birds, with several derived features compared to chicken and the putative ancestral avian karyotype. T. s. surrucura showed 3 pairs of microchromosomes bearing 18S rDNA clusters. The Z and W sex chromosomes were of similar size but could readily be identified by morphological differences. Using chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis, we found that the chromosomes homologous to chicken chromosomes 2 and 5 correspond to 2 different pairs in T. s. surrucura and L. albicollis, due to the occurrence of centric fissions. Paracentric inversions were detected in the segment homologous to chicken chromosome 1q, and we confirmed the recurrence of breakpoints when our results were compared to other species of birds already analyzed by FISH or by in silico genome assembly. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-09-06

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae).

  13. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion

    PubMed Central

    LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C; ZUSI, RICHARD L

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, avian systematics has been characterized by a diminished reliance on morphological cladistics of modern taxa, intensive palaeornithogical research stimulated by new discoveries and an inundation by analyses based on DNA sequences. Unfortunately, in contrast to significant insights into basal origins, the broad picture of neornithine phylogeny remains largely unresolved. Morphological studies have emphasized characters of use in palaeontological contexts. Molecular studies, following disillusionment with the pioneering, but non-cladistic, work of Sibley and Ahlquist, have differed markedly from each other and from morphological works in both methods and findings. Consequently, at the turn of the millennium, points of robust agreement among schools concerning higher-order neornithine phylogeny have been limited to the two basalmost and several mid-level, primary groups. This paper describes a phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of 150 taxa of Neornithes, including exemplars from all non-passeriform families, and subordinal representatives of Passeriformes. Thirty-five outgroup taxa encompassing Crocodylia, predominately theropod Dinosauria, and selected Mesozoic birds were used to root the trees. Based on study of specimens and the literature, 2954 morphological characters were defined; these characters have been described in a companion work, approximately one-third of which were multistate (i.e. comprised at least three states), and states within more than one-half of these multistate characters were ordered for analysis. Complete heuristic searches using 10 000 random-addition replicates recovered a total solution set of 97 well-resolved, most-parsimonious trees (MPTs). The set of MPTs was confirmed by an expanded heuristic search based on 10 000 random-addition replicates and a full ratchet-augmented exploration to ascertain global optima. A strict consensus tree of MPTs included only six trichotomies, i.e. nodes differing topologically among MPTs. Bootstrapping (based on 10 000 replicates) percentages and ratchet-minimized support (Bremer) indices indicated most nodes to be robust. Several fossil Neornithes (e.g. Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes) were placed within the ingroup a posteriori either through unconstrained, heursitic searches based on the complete matrix augmented by these taxa separately or using backbone-constraints. Analysis confirmed the topology among outgroup Theropoda and achieved robust resolution at virtually all levels of the Neornithes. Findings included monophyly of the palaeognathous birds, comprising the sister taxa Tinamiformes and ratites, respectively, and the Anseriformes and Galliformes as monophyletic sister-groups, together forming the sister-group to other Neornithes exclusive of the Palaeognathae (Neoaves). Noteworthy inferences include: (i) the sister-group to remaining Neoaves comprises a diversity of marine and wading birds; (ii) Podicipedidae are the sister-group of Gaviidae, and not closely related to the Phoenicopteridae, as recently suggested; (iii) the traditional Pelecaniformes, including the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) as sister-taxon to other members, are monophyletic; (iv) traditional Ciconiiformes are monophyletic; (v) Strigiformes and Falconiformes are sister-groups; (vi) Cathartidae is the sister-group of the remaining Falconiformes; (vii) Ralliformes (Rallidae and Heliornithidae) are the sister-group to the monophyletic Charadriiformes, with the traditionally composed Gruiformes and Turniciformes (Turnicidae and Mesitornithidae) sequentially paraphyletic to the entire foregoing clade; (viii) Opisthocomus hoazin is the sister-taxon to the Cuculiformes (including the Musophagidae); (ix) traditional Caprimulgiformes are monophyletic and the sister-group of the Apodiformes; (x) Trogoniformes are the sister-group of Coliiformes; (xi) Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes are mutually monophyletic and closely related; and (xii) the Galbulae are retained within the Piciformes. Unresolved portions of the Neornithes (nodes having more than one most-parsimonious solution) comprised three parts of the tree: (a) several interfamilial nodes within the Charadriiformes; (b) a trichotomy comprising the (i) Psittaciformes, (ii) Columbiformes and (iii) Trogonomorphae (Trogoniformes, Coliiformes) + Passerimorphae (Coraciiformes, Piciformes, Passeriformes); and (c) a trichotomy comprising the Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes. The remaining polytomies were among outgroups, although several of the highest-order nodes were only marginally supported; however, the majority of nodes were resolved and met or surpassed conventional standards of support. Quantitative comparisons with alternative hypotheses, examination of highly supportive and diagnostic characters for higher taxa, correspondences with prior studies, complementarity and philosophical differences with palaeontological phylogenetics, promises and challenges of palaeogeography and calibration of evolutionary rates of birds, and classes of promising evidence and future directions of study are reviewed. Homology, as applied to avian examples of apparent homologues, is considered in terms of recent theory, and a revised annotated classification of higher-order taxa of Neornithes and other closely related Theropoda is proposed. © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 149, 1–95. PMID:18784798

  14. [Microsatellite data verify low genetic differentiation between western and eastern subspecies of the common crane Grusgrus L. (Gruidae, Aves)].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Redchuk, P S; Politov, D V

    2015-01-01

    Using a set of 10 microsatellite loci (Gram-22, Gram-30, Gpa-12, Gpa-38, Gpa-39, Gj-M15, Gj-M34, Gj-4066, Gj-8077, Gj-2298) a high level of genetic variability (N(A) = 10.2, H(O) = = 0.684, H(E) = 0.728) and low genetic differentiation (F(ST) = 0.011) in the Common crane (Grus grus L.) was detected throughout its range. Genetic diversity in disputed western (G. g. grus) and eastern (G. g. lilfordi) sub- species was shown to be similar. Spatial distribution of multi-locus individual genotypes has not been revealed (R(XY) = 0.017). Despite low differentiation, subspecies and local populations of the Common crane should be considered as separate conservational units. Organization of programs for gene pool conservation and monitor- ing requires more detailed analysis based on combined analysis of various molecular markers.

  15. Fossil evidence of wing shape in a stem relative of swifts and hummingbirds (Aves, Pan-Apodiformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Kulp, Felicia B; Grande, Lance

    2013-06-22

    A feathered specimen of a new species of Eocypselus from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming provides insight into the wing morphology and ecology in an early part of the lineage leading to extant swifts and hummingbirds. Combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data supports placement of Eocypselus outside the crown radiation of Apodiformes. The new specimen is the first described fossil of Pan-Apodiformes from the pre-Pleistocene of North America and the only reported stem taxon with informative feather preservation. Wing morphology of Eocypselus rowei sp. nov. is intermediate between the short wings of hummingbirds and the hyper-elongated wings of extant swifts, and shows neither modifications for the continuous gliding used by swifts nor modifications for the hovering flight style used by hummingbirds. Elongate hindlimb elements, particularly the pedal phalanges, also support stronger perching capabilities than are present in Apodiformes. The new species is the smallest bird yet described from the Green River Formation, and supports the hypothesis that a decrease in body size preceded flight specializations in Pan-Apodiformes. The specimen also provides the first instance of melanosome morphology preserved in association with skeletal remains from the Green River Formation.

  16. Verification of mesoscale objective analyses of VAS and rawinsonde data using the March 1982 AVE/VAS special network data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, James D.; Warner, Thomas T.

    1987-01-01

    Various combinations of VAS (Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder) data, conventional rawinsonde data, and gridded data from the National Weather Service's (NWS) global analysis, were used in successive-correction and variational objective-analysis procedures. Analyses are produced for 0000 GMT 7 March 1982, when the VAS sounding distribution was not greatly limited by the existence of cloud cover. The successive-correction (SC) procedure was used with VAS data alone, rawinsonde data alone, and both VAS and rawinsonde data. Variational techniques were applied in three ways. Each of these techniques was discussed.

  17. The biogeographic and evolutionary history of an endemic clade of Middle American sparrows: Melozone and Aimophila (Aves: Passerellidae).

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Luis; Epperly, Kevin L; Klicka, John; Mennill, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    The large number of endemic species in Middle America is frequently attributed to the interplay of geographical barriers and historical climatic changes in the region. This process promotes genetic divergence between populations, and given enough time, may yield new species. Animals that inhabit mid-elevation or highland habitats may be disproportionately affected in this way. Genetic analyses of animals in this region allow us to better understand how historical patterns of isolation have influenced the generation of new species in this biodiversity hotspot. We studied the biogeography and systematics of two closely related genera of sparrows (Passerellidae): Melozone and Aimophila. Collectively, this group is distributed from the southwestern United States and southward as far as central Costa Rica. We sampled 81 individuals of 8 Melozone and 2 Aimophila species, from 19 localities distributed throughout their ranges. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships and time-calibrated species trees using multilocus sequence data comprised of one mitochondrial gene and five nuclear genes. We conducted an ancestral area reconstruction analysis to determine the probability of ancestral range at each divergent event. Despite analyzing six loci, we were unable to obtain a fully resolved phylogenetic tree. We recovered four main lineages: lineage 1 includes four Melozone species distributed north of Isthmus of Tehuantepec (M. albicollis, M. crissalis, M. aberti, M. fusca); lineage 2 includes three Melozone species distributed south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (M. biarcuata, M. cabanisi, M. leucotis); lineage 3 lineage consists of a single species endemic to the Pacific coast of Mexico (M. kieneri); and lineage 4 includes the more widely distributed sparrows in the genus Aimophila. Our analyses suggest that these genera probably originated during the late Miocene in the Madrean Highlands of southern Mexico. We identified dispersal as the prevalent cause of speciation in this clade with most lineages dispersing to their current distributions from southern Mexico either to the north following a developing and expanding Madro-Tertiary flora, or to the south across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. A similar pattern of dispersal from this biogeographic region has been reported in other taxa including fishes, reptiles, and birds. Our results reveal that the four lineages identified represent geographically coherent and ecologically similar assemblages of taxa. Finally, when our genetic results are considered, along with apparent differences in morphology and song, the allopatric forms M. b. cabanisi and M. l. occipitalis warrant recognition as biological species. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Trematodes of birds (Aves) from the Middle Volga region. 1. Orders Brachylaimidae, Cyclocoelida, Echinostomatida, Notocotylida, and Opisthorchiida].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, A A; Kitillova, N Iu

    2013-01-01

    The data on trematodes of the orders Brachylaimidae, Cyclocoelida, Echinostomatida, Notocotylida, and Opisthorchiida from the Middle Volga region are given. Records of different authors are supplemented with the results of our own research. Reliable records are confirmed for 61 trematode species. The following characteristics for each parasite species are given: the systematic position, the host spectrum, locality, collecting sites, biology, degree of host specificity, and the geographical range. Morphological descriptions and original figures of 3 trematodes species are given.

  19. Morphologic identification of a new Sarcocystis sp. in the common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus ) (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from Brolos Lake, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Morsey, Ahmed; El-Seify, Mahmoud; Desouky, Abdel-Razik Y; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed M; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis species are among the most common and widespread protozoan parasites of mammals and birds. The current study provides the first record of infection with Sarcocystis species in the common moorhens from Brolos Lake, KafrElsheikh province, Egypt. Morphology of the parasite cysts was described using light and transmission electron microscopy. Out of 25 examined birds, sarcocysts were found in neck, thigh, and legs muscles of two birds. The cysts were microscopic and measured 150-650 μm in length×45-185 μm in width. Histologically, the sarcocyst wall appeared striated and characterized by the presence of radial spines. Ultrastructurally, it measured 2-4.5 μm in thickness and had irregularly shaped crowded finger-like villar protrusions that measured 1.5-4 μm in length and up to 0.4-2 μm in width with the presence of dense electron ground substance of 200-750 nm thick. Several septa derived from the ground substance were present and divided the cyst into compartments containing both bradyzoites and metrocytes. The bradyzoites were banana-shaped and measured 6-12 × 1-2 μm with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. The ultrastructural features of the cyst wall belonged to type 10 cyst wall according the classification of Dubey et al. (1989) and Dubey and Odening (2001).

  20. Two new species of the syringophilid quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitizing apodiform birds (Aves: Apodiformes).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Kaszewska, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna

    2015-12-07

    Two new syringophilid species (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) are described, Apodisyringiana hirundapi sp. nov. from Hirundapus caudacutus (Latham) from Japan and Syringophiloidus apus sp. nov. from Apus melba (Linnaeus) from Chile.

  1. Foraging behaviour of the Scale-throated Hermit Phaethornis eurynome Lesson, 1832 (Aves, Trochilidae) in Vriesea incurvata Gaudich (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, B G; Piratelli, A J

    2014-05-01

    In this study we tested for density-dependent relationships between visitation rates of the Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome) and the plant density and flower number of the bromeliad Vriesea incurvata, by comparing plots with varying densities of this bromeliad. Eight 100 m2 plots were established at least 200 m from each other; four plots contained 10-15 individuals of V. incurvata each, whereas the other four contained 4-5 individuals each. The visitors, number of visits, behaviour (nectar thief or potential pollinator) and the height of foraging were recorded during focal observations on the plants. The number of visits of P. eurynome varied according to the local density of V. incurvata, showing that the heterogeneous distribution of this bromeliad species may promote adjustments in the pollinator populations, through resource variation at a local scale.

  2. The first records of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) from trogoniform birds (Aves: Trogoniformes).

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae parasitising trogoniform birds (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae) are described: Syringophiloidus quetzali sp. nov. from Pharomachrus mocinno Llave and Ph. antisianus (Orbigny); and Syringophilopsis trogoni sp. nov. from Trogon citreolus Gould and T. melanocephalus Gould. These findings are the first records of syringophilids associated with trogoniform birds.

  3. CracidMex1: a comprehensive database of global occurrences of cracids (Aves, Galliformes) with distribution in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinilla-Buitrago, Gonzalo; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel; González-García, Fernando; Enríquez, Paula L; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis; Romero, Carlos Alberto Guichard; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio César; Escalona-Segura, Griselda

    2014-01-01

    Cracids are among the most vulnerable groups of Neotropical birds. Almost half of the species of this family are included in a conservation risk category. Twelve taxa occur in Mexico, six of which are considered at risk at national level and two are globally endangered. Therefore, it is imperative that high quality, comprehensive, and high-resolution spatial data on the occurrence of these taxa are made available as a valuable tool in the process of defining appropriate management strategies for conservation at a local and global level. We constructed the CracidMex1 database by collating global records of all cracid taxa that occur in Mexico from available electronic databases, museum specimens, publications, "grey literature", and unpublished records. We generated a database with 23,896 clean, validated, and standardized geographic records. Database quality control was an iterative process that commenced with the consolidation and elimination of duplicate records, followed by the geo-referencing of records when necessary, and their taxonomic and geographic validation using GIS tools and expert knowledge. We followed the geo-referencing protocol proposed by the Mexican National Commission for the Use and Conservation of Biodiversity. We could not estimate the geographic coordinates of 981 records due to inconsistencies or lack of sufficient information in the description of the locality. Given that current records for most of the taxa have some degree of distributional bias, with redundancies at different spatial scales, the CracidMex1 database has allowed us to detect areas where more sampling effort is required to have a better representation of the global spatial occurrence of these cracids. We also found that particular attention needs to be given to taxa identification in those areas where congeners or conspecifics co-occur in order to avoid taxonomic uncertainty. The construction of the CracidMex1 database represents the first comprehensive research effort to compile current, available global geographic records for a group of cracids. The database can now be improved by continuous revision and addition of new records. The CracidMex1 database will provide high quality input data that could be used to generate species distribution models, to assess temporal changes in species distributions, to identify priority areas for research and conservation, and in the definition of management strategies for this bird group. This compilation exercise could be replicated for other cracid groups or regions to attain a better knowledge of the global occurrences of the species in this vulnerable bird family.

  4. Aromatase expression in the brain of the ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and comparisons with other galliform birds (Aves, Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Harada, Nobuhiro; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase is important for regulating sexual and aggressive behaviors during the reproductive season, including many aspects of courtship. In birds, aromatase is expressed at high levels in a number of different brain regions. Although this expression does vary among species, the extent to which the distribution of aromatase positive cells reflects species differences in courtship and other behaviors is not well established. Here, we examine the distribution of aromatase immunoreactive (ARO) neurons in the brain of a species with a unique courtship display, the ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). Unlike most other galliforms, male ruffed grouse do not vocalize as part of their courtship and instead use their wings to create a non-vocal auditory signal to attract females. Because aromatase is involved in courtship behaviors in several bird species, including other galliforms, we hypothesized that aromatase distribution in the ruffed grouse would differ from that of other galliforms. We used an antibody raised against quail aromatase to examine aromatase immunoreactivity in the ruffed grouse, the closely related spruce grouse (Falcipennis canadensis) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In all three species, ARO neurons were identified in the medial preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the nucleus ventromedialis hypothalami. Both grouse species had ARO neurons in two regions of the telencephalon, the hyperpallium, and entopallium, and the ruffed grouse also in field L. ARO neurons were only found in one region in the telencephalon of the Japanese quail, the septum. In general, breeding male ruffed grouse had significantly more ARO neurons and those neurons were larger than that of both the non-breeding male and female ruffed grouse. Aromatase expression in the telencephalon of the ruffed grouse suggests that steroid hormones might modulate responses to visual and acoustic stimuli, but how this relates to species differences in courtship displays and co-expression with estrogenic receptors is yet to be determined.

  5. New information on the anatomy of the Chinese Early Cretaceous Bohaiornithidae (Aves: Enantiornithes) from a subadult specimen of Zhouornis hani

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuguang; O’Connor, Jingmai; Di, Liu; Qingjin, Meng; Sigurdsen, Trond

    2014-01-01

    Enantiornithines are the most diverse avian clade in the Cretaceous. However, morphological specializations indicative of specific ecological roles are not well known for this clade. Here we report on an exquisitely well-preserved specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of northeastern China, which pedal morphology is suggestive of a unique ecological specialization within Enantiornithes. The morphology of the new specimen is largely indistinguishable from that of the holotype of the bohaiornithid enantiornithine Zhouornis hani, albeit the latter is somewhat larger. The new specimen provides important and previously unknown details of the skull of Zhouornis hani, which add to the limited knowledge about the cranial anatomy and evolution of enantiornithines. The information offered by the new specimen also augments our understanding of the postcranial morphology of bohaiornithid enantiornithines, a clade that has been only recently recognized. With the description of this specimen, Zhouornis hani becomes one of the most anatomically complete known enantiornithine species, which will facilitate future morphological studies. PMID:24918031

  6. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    C.Livezey, B.

    1998-01-01

    The order Gruiformes, for which even familial composition remains controversial, is perhaps the least well understood avian order from a phylogenetic perspective. The history of the systematics of the order is presented, and the ecological and biogeographic characteristics of its members are summarized. Using cladistic techniques, phylogenetic relationships among fossil and modern genera of the Gruiformes were estimated based on 381 primarily osteological characters; relationships among modern species of Grues (Psophiidae, Aramidae, Gruidae, Heliornithidae and Rallidae) were assessed based on these characters augmented by 189 characters of the definitive integument. A strict consensus tree for 20,000 shortest trees compiled for the matrix of gruiform genera (length = 967, CI = 0.517) revealed a number of nodes common to the solution set, many of which were robust to bootstrapping and had substantial support (Bremer) indices. Robust nodes included those supporting: a sister relationship between the Pedionomidae and Turnicidae; monophyly of the Gruiformes exclusive of the Pedionomidae and Turnicidae; a sister relationship between the Cariamidae and Phorusrhacoidea; a sister relationship between a clade comprising Eurypyga and Messelornis and one comprising Rhynochetos and Aptornis; monophyly of the Grues (Psophiidae, Aramidae, Gruidae, Heliornithidae and Rallidae); monophyly of a clade (Gruoidea) comprising (in order of increasingly close relationship) Psophia, Aramus, Balearica and other Gruidae, with monophyly of each member in this series confirmed; a sister relationship between the Heliornithidae and Rallidae; and monophyly of the Rallidae exclusive of Himantornis. Autapomorphic divergence was comparatively high for Pedionomus, Eurypyga, Psophia, Himantornis and Fulica; extreme autapomorphy, much of which is unique for the order, characterized the extinct, flightless Aptornis. In the species-level analysis of modern Grues, special efforts were made to limit the analytical impacts of homoplasy related to flightlessness in a number of rallid lineages. A strict consensus tree of 20,000 shortest trees compiled (length = 1232, CI = 0.463) confirmed the interfamilial relationships resolved in the ordinal analysis and established a number of other, variably supported groups within the Rallidae. Groupings within the Rallidae included: monophyly of Rallidae exclusive of Himantornis and a clade comprising Porphyrio (including Notornis) and Porphyrula; a poorly resolved, basal group of genera including Gymnocrex, Habroptila, Eulabeornis, Aramides, Canirallus and Mentocrex; an intermediate grade comprising Anurolimnas, Amaurolimnas, and Rougetius; monophyly of two major subdivisions of remaining rallids, one comprising Rallina (paraphyletic), Rallicula, and Sarothrura, and the other comprising the apparently paraphyletic 'long-billed' rails (e.g. Pardirallus, Cyanolimnas, Rallus, Gallirallus and Cabalus and a variably resolved clade comprising 'crakes' (e.g. Atlantisia, Laterallus and Porzana, waterhens (Amaurornis), moorhens (Gallinula and allied genera) and coots (Fulica). Relationships among 'crakes' remain poorly resolved; Laterallus may be paraphyletic, and Porzana is evidently polyphyletic and poses substantial challenges for reconciliation with current taxonomy. Relationships among the species of waterhens, moorhens and coots, however, were comparatively well resolved, and exhaustive, fine-scale analyses of several genera (Grus, Porphyrio, Aramides, Rallus, Laterallus and Fulica) and species complexes (Porphyrio porphyrio -group,Gallirallus philippensis -group and Fulica americana -group) revealed additional topological likelihoods. Many nodes shared by a majority of the shortest trees under equal weighting were common to all shortest trees found following one or two iterations of successive weighting of characters. Provisional placements of selected subfossil rallids (e.g. Diaphorapteryx, Aphanapteryx and Capellirallus ) were based on separate heuristic searches using the strict consensus tree for modern rallids as a backbone constraint. These analyses were considered with respect to assessments of robustness, homoplasy related to flightlessness, challenges and importance of fossils in cladistic analysis, previously published studies and biogeography, and an annotated phylogenetic classification of the Gruiformes is proposed.

  7. Educational Practices in an Age of Information Innovation: Audiovisual Education Prize Winning Papers in 1998. AVE in Japan No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

    This booklet contains two papers that won the 1998 Audiovisual Education Prize of the Japan Audio-Visual Education Association. "Nurturing the Ability To Live in an Advanced Information Network Society: Making the Most Effective Use of Networking" reports on a study of 7th grade students in Okazaki City (Japan). The focus was on an…

  8. Lineage diversification and morphological evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: The neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (Aves: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Graham; Chesser, R. Terry; Cracraft, Joel; Aleixo, Alexandre; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of diversification in species-rich clades provide insight into the processes that generate biological diversity. We tested different models of lineage and phenotypic diversification in an exceptional continental radiation, the ovenbird family Furnariidae, using the most complete species-level phylogenetic hypothesis produced to date for a major avian clade (97% of 293 species). We found that the Furnariidae exhibit nearly constant rates of lineage accumulation but show evidence of constrained morphological evolution. This pattern of sustained high rates of speciation despite limitations on phenotypic evolution contrasts with the results of most previous studies of evolutionary radiations, which have found a pattern of decelerating diversity-dependent lineage accumulation coupled with decelerating or constrained phenotypic evolution. Our results suggest that lineage accumulation in tropical continental radiations may not be as limited by ecological opportunities as in temperate or island radiations. More studies examining patterns of both lineage and phenotypic diversification are needed to understand the often complex tempo and mode of evolutionary radiations on continents.

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis of Pelecaniformes (Aves) Based on Osteological Data: Implications for Waterbird Phylogeny and Fossil Calibration Studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Debate regarding the monophyly and relationships of the avian order Pelecaniformes represents a classic example of discord between morphological and molecular estimates of phylogeny. This lack of consensus hampers interpretation of the group's fossil record, which has major implications for understanding patterns of character evolution (e.g., the evolution of wing-propelled diving) and temporal diversification (e.g., the origins of modern families). Relationships of the Pelecaniformes were inferred through parsimony analyses of an osteological dataset encompassing 59 taxa and 464 characters. The relationships of the Plotopteridae, an extinct family of wing-propelled divers, and several other fossil pelecaniforms (Limnofregata, Prophaethon, Lithoptila, ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis) were also assessed. The antiquity of these taxa and their purported status as stem members of extant families makes them valuable for studies of higher-level avian diversification. Methodology/Principal Findings Pelecaniform monophyly is not recovered, with Phaethontidae recovered as distantly related to all other pelecaniforms, which are supported as a monophyletic Steganopodes. Some anatomical partitions of the dataset possess different phylogenetic signals, and partitioned analyses reveal that these discrepancies are localized outside of Steganopodes, and primarily due to a few labile taxa. The Plotopteridae are recovered as the sister taxon to Phalacrocoracoidea, and the relationships of other fossil pelecaniforms representing key calibration points are well supported, including Limnofregata (sister taxon to Fregatidae), Prophaethon and Lithoptila (successive sister taxa to Phaethontidae), and ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis (sister taxon to Phalacrocoracidae). These relationships are invariant when ‘backbone’ constraints based on recent avian phylogenies are imposed. Conclusions/Significance Relationships of extant pelecaniforms inferred from morphology are more congruent with molecular phylogenies than previously assumed, though notable conflicts remain. The phylogenetic position of the Plotopteridae implies that wing-propelled diving evolved independently in plotopterids and penguins, representing a remarkable case of convergent evolution. Despite robust support for the placement of fossil taxa representing key calibration points, the successive outgroup relationships of several “stem fossil + crown family” clades are variable and poorly supported across recent studies of avian phylogeny. Thus, the impact these fossils have on inferred patterns of temporal diversification depends heavily on the resolution of deep nodes in avian phylogeny. PMID:20976229

  10. [Conditioning of the avoidance to the contact call in the red face lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis, Aves, Psittacidae)].

    PubMed

    Delsaut, M; Roy, J C

    1976-10-01

    Two experiments were run on 10 lovebirds to test the reinforcing effect of the social call in an operant conditioning task. In the first experiment, the reinforced behavior (perching) which provoked the occurence of the call decreased. In the second experiment, where the same behavior stopped the continuous emission of the call, the behavior increased. This behavior may results from an avoidance to the call recorded from a lovebird which do not belong to the group of our experimental birds.

  11. The first fossil parrot (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Siberia and its implications for the historical biogeography of Psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Zelenkov, Nikita V

    2016-10-01

    Modern parrots (crown Psittaciformes) are a species-rich group of mostly tropical and subtropical birds with a very limited fossil record. A partial tarsometatarsus from the late Early Miocene of Siberia (Baikal Lake) is the first pre-Quaternary find of crown Psittaciformes in Asia (and Siberia in particular) and is also the northern-most find of this bird order worldwide. This find documents a broad geographical distribution of parrots during the warmest phase of the Miocene (the so-called 'Miocene Climatic Optimum'), which has implications for the historical biogeography of Psittaciformes. The presence of parrots on both sides of the Pacific Ocean at the end of the Early Miocene implies a (most probably eastwards) trans-Beringian dispersal which likely took place about 16-18 Ma. The broad Eurasian distribution of parrots in the past further supports a hypothesis that ancestors of modern genera Coracopsis and Agapornis could reach Africa from Eurasia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Patterns and processes of diversification in a widespread and ecologically diverse avian group, the buteonine hawks (Aves, Accipitridae).

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Fábio Raposo; Sheldon, Frederick H; Gamauf, Anita; Haring, Elisabeth; Riesing, Martin; Silveira, Luís F; Wajntal, Anita

    2009-12-01

    Buteonine hawks represent one of the most diverse groups in the Accipitridae, with 58 species distributed in a variety of habitats on almost all continents. Variations in migratory behavior, remarkable dispersal capability, and unusual diversity in Central and South America make buteonine hawks an excellent model for studies in avian evolution. To evaluate the history of their global radiation, we used an integrative approach that coupled estimation of the phylogeny using a large sequence database (based on 6411 bp of mitochondrial markers and one nuclear intron from 54 species), divergence time estimates, and ancestral state reconstructions. Our findings suggest that Neotropical buteonines resulted from a long evolutionary process that began in the Miocene and extended to the Pleistocene. Colonization of the Nearctic, and eventually the Old World, occurred from South America, promoted by the evolution of seasonal movements and development of land bridges. Migratory behavior evolved several times and may have contributed not only to colonization of the Holarctic, but also derivation of insular species. In the Neotropics, diversification of the buteonines included four disjunction events across the Andes. Adaptation of monophyletic taxa to wet environments occurred more than once, and some relationships indicate an evolutionary connection among mangroves, coastal and várzea environments. On the other hand, groups occupying the same biome, forest, or open vegetation habitats are not monophyletic. Refuges or sea-level changes or a combination of both was responsible for recent speciation in Amazonian taxa. In view of the lack of concordance between phylogeny and classification, we propose numerous taxonomic changes.

  13. Testing founder effect speciation: divergence population genetics of the spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. minor (Threskiornithidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Yeung, Carol K L; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10(-8)) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we discuss the potential importance of evolutionarily labile traits with significant fitness consequences, such as migratory behavior and habitat preference, in facilitating divergence of the spoonbills.

  14. [Phylogeographic carrion, hooded and jungle crows (Aves, Corvidae) from data on partial sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome B gene].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, A P; Suzuki, H

    2000-08-01

    Distribution of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene haplotypes in two crow species was examined by means of sequencing of the 336-bp gene fragment. The topology of the NJ and UPGMA trees showed that the carrion crow range was split into two parts due to the presence of significantly diverged ancestral lineage localized in the southeastern part of the range. The carrion crow populations, inhabiting a territory ranging from France to northern Sakhalin, along with interspersed hooded crow populations and hybrid Siberian populations, shared a common haplotype. The border between two carrion crow lineages revealed is located in central Sakhalin. The subdivision of two weakly differentiated lineages within the jungle crown range, also observed within this territory, coincided with the subspecies division of this species. The estimated genetic distances indicate the isolation of the subgenus Coloeus. These data also suggest the convergent similarity between the chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax and the Corvus genus, as well as the conspecificity of Corvus corone corone and C. c. cornix.

  15. Food supply for waders (Aves: Charadrii) in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masero, José A.; Pérez-González, Maite; Basadre, Marta; Otero-Saavedra, Mónica

    1999-07-01

    We studied the composition, density, size distribution and biomass of the food supply for waders in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula), in winter (January-February) and in the pre-migratory period (late March). The estuarine area comprises an intertidal mudflat and an adjacent salina or salt-pan. On the intertidal mudflat, the biomass was 53 and 37 g AFDW .m -2in winter and the pre-migratory period, respectively. The main food source on mudflat was the polychaete Nereis diversicolor (44-54 % of the total biomass). On the other hand, the biomass in the salina was comparatively very poor, ranging from 0.008 to 0.079 g AFDW .m -2in winter and ranging from 0.011 to 0.09 g AFDW in late March. The main source of food in the salina was the crustacean Artemia. The total biomass on the mudflat during the pre-migratory period was 1.4 times lower than in February. This depletion could be caused by wader predation, mainly by Nereis diversicolor consumption. Although the potential food on the mudflats could allow high intertidal densities of waders, the availability of high tide foraging areas in the salina seems to contribute to the maintenance of these high intertidal densities.

  16. [Monomers of a satellite sequence of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L., Aves: Passeriformes) genome contains short clusters of the TTTAGGG repeat].

    PubMed

    Lianguzov, I A; Deriusheva, S E; Saĭfitdinova, A F; Malykh, A G; Gaginskaia, E R

    2002-12-01

    A novel repeated sequence of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) designated as GS was isolated from genomic DNA after in vitro amplification of satellite DNA sequences using GSP-PCR technique. The proportion of this repeat in the chaffinch genome constitutes about 2%. Monomers are 176 to 199 bp in size and contain a short cluster of the TTAGGG telomeric tandem repeat. The oligomer of the telomeric hexanucleotide is flanked by the sequences that are significantly different in different monomers. The GS sequences are organized as tandemly repeated units and located in a number of chromomycin-positive blocks on the long arms of macrochromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6, as well as on several microchromosomes. The sequences homologous to the GS satellite of chaffinch were not found in the genomes of redwing (Turdus iliacus) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

  17. Investigations of severe/tornadic thunderstorm development and evolution based on satellite and AVE/SESAME/VAS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Purdom, J. F. W.

    1985-01-01

    Development of cloud relative tracking for severe thunderstorm identification and the beginning of the development of mesoscale airmass characteristics based on vertical atmospheric sounding data were accomplished.

  18. Investigations of severe/tornadic thunderstorm development and evolution based on satellite and AVE/SESAME/VAS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Purdom, J. F. W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of rapid scan satellite imagery to investigate the local environment of severe thunderstorms is discussed. Mesoscale cloud tracking and vertical wind shear as it affects thunderstorm relative flow are mentioned. The role of pre-existing low level cloud cover in the outbreak of tornadoes was investigated. Applying visible atmospheric sounding imagery to mesoscale phenomena is also addressed.

  19. Two new species of Brueelia (Phthiraptera: Philopteridas s. l.) parasitic on two species of Phrygilus (Aves: Emberizidae) from Chile.

    PubMed

    Cicchino, A C; González-Acuña, D

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Brueelia Kéler, 1936 are described of two species in the genus Phrygilus Cabanis, 1844 from Punitaqui, Coquimbo, IV Región, Chile: Phrygilus gayi (Gervais, 1834) and P. fruticeti (Kittlitz, 1833). Descriptions were made in a comparative form, adding comments on their relatives, as well as an account of all Brueelia species known to infest South American Emberizine finches.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of pelecaniformes (aves) based on osteological data: implications for waterbird phylogeny and fossil calibration studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan D

    2010-10-14

    Debate regarding the monophyly and relationships of the avian order Pelecaniformes represents a classic example of discord between morphological and molecular estimates of phylogeny. This lack of consensus hampers interpretation of the group's fossil record, which has major implications for understanding patterns of character evolution (e.g., the evolution of wing-propelled diving) and temporal diversification (e.g., the origins of modern families). Relationships of the Pelecaniformes were inferred through parsimony analyses of an osteological dataset encompassing 59 taxa and 464 characters. The relationships of the Plotopteridae, an extinct family of wing-propelled divers, and several other fossil pelecaniforms (Limnofregata, Prophaethon, Lithoptila, ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis) were also assessed. The antiquity of these taxa and their purported status as stem members of extant families makes them valuable for studies of higher-level avian diversification. Pelecaniform monophyly is not recovered, with Phaethontidae recovered as distantly related to all other pelecaniforms, which are supported as a monophyletic Steganopodes. Some anatomical partitions of the dataset possess different phylogenetic signals, and partitioned analyses reveal that these discrepancies are localized outside of Steganopodes, and primarily due to a few labile taxa. The Plotopteridae are recovered as the sister taxon to Phalacrocoracoidea, and the relationships of other fossil pelecaniforms representing key calibration points are well supported, including Limnofregata (sister taxon to Fregatidae), Prophaethon and Lithoptila (successive sister taxa to Phaethontidae), and ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis (sister taxon to Phalacrocoracidae). These relationships are invariant when 'backbone' constraints based on recent avian phylogenies are imposed. Relationships of extant pelecaniforms inferred from morphology are more congruent with molecular phylogenies than previously assumed, though notable conflicts remain. The phylogenetic position of the Plotopteridae implies that wing-propelled diving evolved independently in plotopterids and penguins, representing a remarkable case of convergent evolution. Despite robust support for the placement of fossil taxa representing key calibration points, the successive outgroup relationships of several "stem fossil + crown family" clades are variable and poorly supported across recent studies of avian phylogeny. Thus, the impact these fossils have on inferred patterns of temporal diversification depends heavily on the resolution of deep nodes in avian phylogeny.

  1. Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES).

    PubMed

    Klein, Akos; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Küpper, Clemens; Major, Agnes; Lee, Patricia L M; Hoffmann, Gyula; Mátics, Róbert; Dawson, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56-58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n = 1-6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Aves: Icteridae), at 2,800 m asl in Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Pinto, C Miguel; Carrión, Juan Manuel; Jarrín-E, Rubén D; Poveda, Cristian; de Vries, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis Gmelin, 1789, is a brood parasite of hundreds of small-bodied birds that is native to South American lowlands. Within the last 100 years this species has been expanding its range throughout the Caribbean, towards North America, but has rarely been seen above 2,000 m asl. Here, we present records of Shiny Cowbirds in Quito, a city located 2,800 m above sea level that harbors a bird community typical of the Andean valleys. We found two juvenile individuals parasitizing two different pairs of Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776). This report constitutes an altitudinal range expansion of reproductive populations of ca. 500m, which may have beenprompted by anthropogenic disturbance.

  3. Functional roles of Aves class-specific cis-regulatory elements on macroevolution of bird-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Ryohei; Li, Cai; Fang, Qi; Hayashi, Shinichi; Egawa, Shiro; Hu, Jiang; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Kondo, Mao; Sato, Tomohiko; Matsubara, Haruka; Kamiyama, Namiko; Kitajima, Keiichi; Saito, Daisuke; Liu, Yang; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Xing; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Irie, Naoki; Tamura, Koji; Zhang, Guojie

    2017-01-01

    Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers. By analysing 48 bird genomes, we identified millions of avian-specific highly conserved elements (ASHCEs) that predominantly (>99%) reside in non-coding regions. Many ASHCEs show differential histone modifications that may participate in regulation of limb development. Comparative embryonic gene expression analyses across tetrapod species suggest ASHCE-associated genes have unique roles in developing avian limbs. In particular, we demonstrate how the ASHCE driven avian-specific expression of gene Sim1 driven by ASHCE may be associated with the evolution and development of flight feathers. Together, these findings demonstrate regulatory roles of ASHCEs in the creation of avian-specific traits, and further highlight the importance of cis-regulatory rewiring during macroevolutionary changes. PMID:28165450

  4. Ultraviolet plumage ornamentation affects social mate choice and sperm competition in bluethroats (Aves: Luscinia s. svecica): a field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, A.; Andersson, S.; rnborg, J.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    The blue throat feathers of male bluethroats (Luscinia s. svecica) show a reflectance peak in the ultraviolet (UV) waveband (320 to 400 nm). The throat is actively displayed during courtship, suggesting a role for sexual selection on an ultraviolet signal. Indeed, a recent aviary experiment demonstrated that females discriminated against males with artificially reduced UV reflectance (Andersson and Amundsen 1997). Here, we report the results of a similar experimental manipulation applied on free-ranging males. UV-reduced (UVR) males had a lower success in attracting mates, as judged from a significantly later start of egg laying, compared with control (C) males. UVR males also spent significantly less time advertising for additional mates when their own mate was fertile, and they had a lower success in achieving extra-pair fertilizations. Furthermore, UVR males tended to guard their mates more closely and lose more paternity in their own brood than C males did. We conclude that the treatment affected both social and extra-pair mate choice. This is the first experimental evidence that UV signalling influences male mating success in free-ranging birds.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the manakins (Aves: Passeriformes: Pipridae), with a new classification and the description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Ohlson, Jan I; Fjeldså, Jon; Ericson, Per G P

    2013-12-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within the manakin family (Pipridae) were investigated with sequence data from three nuclear introns and one mitochondrial protein-coding gene. This study confirms a sister group relationship between Neopelminae and Piprinae. We also find support for dividing the Piprinae into two principal clades: Ilicurini and Piprini. The genera Pipra and Chloropipo are found to be polyphyletic. Chloropipo species are placed in three different clades, including two species in an unresolved position alongside Ilicurini and Piprini. We propose a new classification of the family, where the most important modifications include recognizing the genus Ceratopipra for five species formerly placed in Pipra and the erection of a new genus for Chloropipo holochlora.

  6. Fossil evidence of wing shape in a stem relative of swifts and hummingbirds (Aves, Pan-Apodiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Ksepka, Daniel T.; Clarke, Julia A.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Kulp, Felicia B.; Grande, Lance

    2013-01-01

    A feathered specimen of a new species of Eocypselus from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming provides insight into the wing morphology and ecology in an early part of the lineage leading to extant swifts and hummingbirds. Combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data supports placement of Eocypselus outside the crown radiation of Apodiformes. The new specimen is the first described fossil of Pan-Apodiformes from the pre-Pleistocene of North America and the only reported stem taxon with informative feather preservation. Wing morphology of Eocypselus rowei sp. nov. is intermediate between the short wings of hummingbirds and the hyper-elongated wings of extant swifts, and shows neither modifications for the continuous gliding used by swifts nor modifications for the hovering flight style used by hummingbirds. Elongate hindlimb elements, particularly the pedal phalanges, also support stronger perching capabilities than are present in Apodiformes. The new species is the smallest bird yet described from the Green River Formation, and supports the hypothesis that a decrease in body size preceded flight specializations in Pan-Apodiformes. The specimen also provides the first instance of melanosome morphology preserved in association with skeletal remains from the Green River Formation. PMID:23760643

  7. Parasite communities of the neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin) (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae) from two coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Flores-Garza, Rafael; Larumbe-Morán, Edvino

    2011-11-01

    The parasite community structure of the neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from two lagoons (Coyuca and Tres Palos) from Guerrero state, México, was examined. Fourteen species of adult helminths (6,391 individuals) from 48 cormorants were identified: 9 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 3 nematodes. A total of 11 species were collected in Coyuca Lagoon and 12 in Tres Palos Lagoon. Nine species co-occurred in cormorants of both lagoons but, with the exception of Contracaecum multipapillatum and Drepanocephalus olivaceus, species were not equally common in both lagoons. The prevalence values of six species of helminth and the mean abundance of four species varied significantly between lagoons, and C. multipapillatum was numerically dominant in both lagoons. The qualitative similarity between the two communities at the component level was 64%. All cormorants examined were infected, and parasite species richness was 3-5 in Coyuca and 4-9 in Tres Palos lagoon. The results indicate that both communities presented a similar structure at the component level, probably because the cormorants of both lagoons feed on the same species of fish and thus acquire almost the same species of parasites. Differences observed at the infracommunity level were attributed to variations in the degree of dominance of the particular species.

  8. Multiple evolutionary units and demographic stability during the last glacial maximum in the Scytalopus speluncae complex (Aves: Rhinocryptidae).

    PubMed

    Pulido-Santacruz, Paola; Bornschein, Marcos Ricardo; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2016-09-01

    The Atlantic Forest (AF) of South America harbors one of the world's highest bird species richness, but to date there is a deficient understanding of the spatial patterns of genetic diversity and the evolutionary history of this biome. Here we estimated the phylogenetic and populational history of the widespread Mouse-colored Tapaculo (Scytalopus speluncae) complex across the Brazilian AF, using data from two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellite loci. Both markers uncovered several cryptic, mostly allopatric and well-supported lineages that may represent distinct species-level taxa. We investigated whether diversification in S. speluncae is compatible with the Carnaval-Moritz model of Pleistocene refugia. We found that northern lineages have high levels of genetic diversity, agreeing with predictions of more stable forest refugia in these areas. In contrast, southern lineages have lower levels of mtDNA diversity with a signature of population expansion that occurred earlier (∼0.2Mya) than the last glacial maximum. This result suggests that the AF may be stable enough to maintain endemic taxa through glacial cycles. Moreover, we propose that the "mid-Pleistocene climate transition" between 1.2 and 0.7million years ago, from a warmer to a colder climate, may have played an important but mostly overlooked role in the evolution of AF montane taxa.

  9. The type specimens, type localities and nomenclature of Sarcoramphus vultures (Aves: Cathartidae), with a note on their speciation.

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Jiří

    2015-02-13

    A nomenclatural review of Sarcoramphus vultures resulted in the following: The genus Sarcoramphus was described by Duméril in 1805 rather than 1806. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, is the type of Sarcoramphus by subsequent monotypy (Froriep in Duméril 1806), not by Vigors's (1825) designation. The type of the genus Gypagus Vieillot, 1816, is, by monotypy, Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758, not Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758. Due to this, Gypagus is a junior objective synonym of Vultur Linnaeus, 1758. Gyparchus was created by Gloger (1841) as a new genus for Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, not as an emendation of Gypagus Vieillot, 1816. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758 was found to be possibly based on syntypes from two different taxa and a lectotype is here designated. The author of Vultur sacer is Zimmermann (in Bartram 1793), not Cassin (1853). Possible speciation events in the genus Sarcoramphus are also discussed.

  10. Lineage diversification and morphological evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: the neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (aves: Furnariidae).

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Graham; Chesser, R Terry; Cracraft, Joel; Aleixo, Alexandre; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Remsen, J V; Brumfield, Robb T

    2011-10-01

    Patterns of diversification in species-rich clades provide insight into the processes that generate biological diversity. We tested different models of lineage and phenotypic diversification in an exceptional continental radiation, the ovenbird family Furnariidae, using the most complete species-level phylogenetic hypothesis produced to date for a major avian clade (97% of 293 species). We found that the Furnariidae exhibit nearly constant rates of lineage accumulation but show evidence of constrained morphological evolution. This pattern of sustained high rates of speciation despite limitations on phenotypic evolution contrasts with the results of most previous studies of evolutionary radiations, which have found a pattern of decelerating diversity-dependent lineage accumulation coupled with decelerating or constrained phenotypic evolution. Our results suggest that lineage accumulation in tropical continental radiations may not be as limited by ecological opportunities as in temperate or island radiations. More studies examining patterns of both lineage and phenotypic diversification are needed to understand the often complex tempo and mode of evolutionary radiations on continents.

  11. Functional roles of Aves class-specific cis-regulatory elements on macroevolution of bird-specific features.

    PubMed

    Seki, Ryohei; Li, Cai; Fang, Qi; Hayashi, Shinichi; Egawa, Shiro; Hu, Jiang; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Kondo, Mao; Sato, Tomohiko; Matsubara, Haruka; Kamiyama, Namiko; Kitajima, Keiichi; Saito, Daisuke; Liu, Yang; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Xing; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Irie, Naoki; Tamura, Koji; Zhang, Guojie

    2017-02-06

    Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers. By analysing 48 bird genomes, we identified millions of avian-specific highly conserved elements (ASHCEs) that predominantly (>99%) reside in non-coding regions. Many ASHCEs show differential histone modifications that may participate in regulation of limb development. Comparative embryonic gene expression analyses across tetrapod species suggest ASHCE-associated genes have unique roles in developing avian limbs. In particular, we demonstrate how the ASHCE driven avian-specific expression of gene Sim1 driven by ASHCE may be associated with the evolution and development of flight feathers. Together, these findings demonstrate regulatory roles of ASHCEs in the creation of avian-specific traits, and further highlight the importance of cis-regulatory rewiring during macroevolutionary changes.

  12. The State of Audiovisual Education Facilities in Japanese Schools and Social Education Centers Today. AVE in Japan No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audio-Visual Education Association, Tokyo.

    This booklet, in English and Japanese, reports on a national survey conducted during the 1992 academic year by the Education Media and Learning Resources Division, Lifelong Leaning Bureau of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (Japan). Similar surveys are conducted triennially. This report describes the current situation regarding the…

  13. U.S. EPA Awards $175,000 Brownfield grant to City of Fresno for revitalization of Elm Ave Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - This week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will award $175,000 to the City of Fresno to assist with planning for cleanup and reuse of potentially contaminated sites as part of the Brownfields Area-Wide Planning program. Nationw

  14. Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera Psittacella and Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leo; Toon, Alicia; Schirtzinger, Erin E; Wright, Timothy F

    2011-06-01

    The platycercine parrots of Australia, usually recognized as the Platycercinae or Platycercini, are the broad-tailed parrots and their allies typified by the rosellas Platycercus spp. Debate concerning their circumscription has most recently centerd on the position of four genera, Neophema, Neopsephotus, Pezoporus and Psittacella, the last two having never been adequately included in sequence-based analyses. We use broad taxon sampling, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data from seven independent loci (two linked mitochondrial loci and six nuclear loci), and both gene tree and species tree approaches to reconstruct phylogenies and so determine the systematic placement all four genera. Analyses of two data sets, one of 48 taxa and five loci and one of 27 taxa and the same five plus three additional loci produced broadly congruent and consistently well-resolved phylogenies. We reject placement of any of these four genera within core platycercines. Pezoporus is closely allied to Neophema and Neopsephotus. These three genera are the likely sister group to core platycercines and we advocate their recognition as a subfamily. Psittacella is the sole extant representative of a lineage that branched very early in the history of Australo-Papuan parrot fauna and is not closely related to any of the mostly south-east Asian and Indonesian psittaculine taxa with which it is more often linked. We present a revised view of the extraordinary phylogenetic, phenotypic and ecological diversity that is the adaptive radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots. Finally, our analyses highlight the likely paraphyly of Mayr's (2008) Loricoloriinae.

  15. A new genus and two new species of feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from New Zealand endemic passerines (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Palma, Ricardo L

    2015-03-09

    The first descriptions of New Zealand endemic feather lice belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are given. The new genus Melibrueelia and new species M. novaeseelandiae are described, illustrated and compared with morphologically close taxa within the complex. The type host of M. novaeseelandiae is the tui, Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae (Gmelin, 1788), and an additional host is the bellbird, Anthornis melanura (Sparrman, 1786) (Passeriformes: Meliphagidae), both endemic to New Zealand. Also, the new species Brueelia callaeincola is described and illustrated from four endemic bird species belonging to two endemic genera and an endemic family: Philesturnus carunculatus (Gmelin, 1789) (the type host), Ph. rufusater (Lesson, 1828), Callaeas cinerea (Gmelin, 1788) and C. wilsoni (Bonaparte, 1851) (Passeriformes: Callaeidae). Brief discussions on possible evolutionary histories of the new taxa are included.

  16. A new coccidian, Isospora rheae sp. nov. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae), from Rhea americana (Aves, Rheidae) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Samira S.M.; Ederli, Nicole B.; Berto, Bruno P.; de Oliveira, Francisco C.R.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of coccidian (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from rheas, Rhea americana, is reported in Brazil. Oocysts of Isospora rheae sp. nov. are spherical to subspheroidal, measuring 22.6 × 21.0 µm, and have a double and smooth wall that is approximately 1.7 µm thick. The micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 13.9 × 9.6 µm. The Stieda body is flattened, the substieda body is pointed, irregular and wavy and the sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules of varying sizes. Sporozoites have an oblong refractile body and one nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporid coccidian infecting birds of the family Rheidae. PMID:25426418

  17. A new eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-fronted Amazon parrot Amazona aestiva L. (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hofstatter, P G; Guaraldo, A M A

    2011-12-01

    The Neotropical psittacine species Amazona aestiva, commonly known as the blue-fronted Amazon, is one of the most common and best-known psittacine birds kept as a pet worldwide. However, very little is known about the diseases or parasites of these birds. In this study, we describe a new species, Eimeria aestivae, associated with these parrots. The new species is characterized by: ovoid smooth oocysts (n  =  60), 36.8 (33.2-41.5) × 23.7 (21.7-25.7) µm, length/width ratio  =  1.55; polar granule present; ellipsoidal sporocysts (n  =  25), 19.8 (17.5-21.6) × 9.3 (8.3-9.9) µm; Stieda, sub-Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum present. Sporozoites (n  =  20), 2 per sporocyst, elongate and curved, 17.6 (15.8-19.2) × 3.8 (3.2-4.8) µm; each with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts of the other 2 eimerian species described for Amazona are larger than those of the presented species, but they all seem to be closely related because of some similarities among them.

  18. Two new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hofstatter, P G; Kawazoe, U

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we describe 2 new species of Eimeria associated with the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala. Eimeria amazonae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 48.9 × 36.2 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.35. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are both absent, but the polar granule is present. Ovoidal sporocysts are 22.2 × 11.9 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present. The 2 elongate sporozoites are curved and measure 18.1 × 3.4 µm; both have 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria ochrocephalae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 43.8 × 27.7 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.58. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but the polar granule is present; ovoidal sporocysts are 20.6 × 10.1 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present; 2 elongate and curved sporozoites are 15.8 × 3.4 µm, each of which has 2 refractile bodies.

  19. Biogeography of speciation of two sister species of neotropical amazona (Aves, Psittaciformes) based on mitochondrial sequence data.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Amanda V; Rivera, Luis O; Martinez, Jaime; Prestes, Nêmora P; Caparroz, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent theory provides powerful models for population genetic inference and is now increasingly important in estimates of divergence times and speciation research. We use molecular data and methods based on coalescent theory to investigate whether genetic evidence supports the hypothesis of A. pretrei and A. tucumana as separate species and whether genetic data allow us to assess which allopatric model seems to better explain the diversification process in these taxa. We sampled 13 A. tucumana from two provinces in northern Argentina and 28 A. pretrei from nine localities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A 491 bp segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I was evaluated using the haplotype network and phylogenetic methods. The divergence time and other demographic quantities were estimated using the isolation and migration model based on coalescent theory. The network and phylogenetic reconstructions showed similar results, supporting reciprocal monophyly for these two taxa. The divergence time of lineage separation was estimated to be approximately 1.3 million years ago, which corresponds to the lower Pleistocene. Our results enforce the current taxonomic status for these two Amazon species. They also support that A. pretrei and A. tucumana diverged with little or no gene flow approximately 1.3 million years ago, most likely after the establishment of a small population in the Southern Yungas forest by dispersion of a few founders from the A. pretrei ancestral population. This process may have been favored by habitat corridors formed in hot and humid periods of the Quaternary. Considering that these two species are considered threatened, the results were evaluated for their implications for the conservation of these two species.

  20. Does the colonization of new biogeographic regions influence the diversification and accumulation of clade richness among the Corvides (Aves: Passeriformes)?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jonathan D; Borregaard, Michael K; Jønsson, Knud A; Holt, Ben; Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Regional variation in clade richness can be vast, reflecting differences in the dynamics of historical dispersal and diversification among lineages. Although it has been proposed that dispersal into new biogeographic regions may facilitate diversification, to date there has been limited assessment of the importance of this process in the generation, and maintenance, of broad-scale biodiversity gradients. To address this issue, we analytically derive biogeographic regions for a global radiation of passerine birds (the Corvides, c. 790 species) that are highly variable in the geographic and taxonomic distribution of species. Subsequently, we determine rates of historical dispersal between regions, the dynamics of diversification following regional colonization, and spatial variation in the distribution of species that differ in their rates of lineage diversification. The results of these analyses reveal spatiotemporal differences in the build-up of lineages across regions. The number of regions occupied and the rate of transition between regions both predict family richness well, indicating that the accumulation of high clade richness is associated with repeated expansion into new geographic areas. However, only the largest family (the Corvidae) had significantly heightened rates of both speciation and regional transition, implying that repeated regional colonization is not a general mechanism promoting lineage diversification among the Corvides.

  1. Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae).

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Miguel; Muñoz, Joaquin; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-03-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) hosts the most polymorphic genes ever described in vertebrates. The MHC triggers the adaptive branch of the immune response, and its extraordinary variability is considered an evolutionary consequence of pathogen pressure. The last few years have witnessed the characterization of the MHC multigene family in a large diversity of bird species, unraveling important differences in its polymorphism, complexity, and evolution. Here, we characterize the first MHC class II B sequences isolated from a Rallidae species, the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. A next-generation sequencing approach revealed up to 265 alleles that translated into 251 different amino acid sequences (β chain, exon 2) in 902 individuals. Bayesian inference identified up to 19 codons within the presumptive peptide-binding region showing pervasive evidence of positive, diversifying selection. Our analyses also detected a significant excess of high-frequency segregating sites (average Tajima's D = 2.36, P < 0.05), indicative of balancing selection. We found one to six different alleles per individual, consistent with the occurrence of at least three MHC class II B gene duplicates. However, the genotypes comprised of three alleles were by far the most abundant in the population investigated (49.4%), followed by those with two (29.6%) and four (17.5%) alleles. We suggest that these proportions are in agreement with the segregation of MHC haplotypes differing in gene copy number. The most widespread segregating haplotypes, according to our findings, would contain one single gene or two genes. The MHC class II of the Eurasian Coot is a valuable system to investigate the evolutionary implications of gene copy variation and extensive variability, the greatest ever found, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a non-passerine bird.

  2. A molecular genetic time scale demonstrates Cretaceous origins and multiple diversification rate shifts within the order Galliformes (Aves).

    PubMed

    Stein, R Will; Brown, Joseph W; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2015-11-01

    The phylogeny of Galliformes (landfowl) has been studied extensively; however, the associated chronologies have been criticized recently due to misplaced or misidentified fossil calibrations. As a consequence, it is unclear whether any crown-group lineages arose in the Cretaceous and survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg; 65.5 Ma) mass extinction. Using Bayesian phylogenetic inference on an alignment spanning 14,539 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, four fossil calibrations, and a combination of uncorrelated lognormally distributed relaxed-clock and strict-clock models, we inferred a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny for 225 of the 291 extant Galliform taxa. These analyses suggest that crown Galliformes diversified in the Cretaceous and that three-stem lineages survived the K-Pg mass extinction. Ideally, characterizing the tempo and mode of diversification involves a taxonomically complete phylogenetic hypothesis. We used simple constraint structures to incorporate 66 data-deficient taxa and inferred the first taxon-complete phylogenetic hypothesis for the Galliformes. Diversification analyses conducted on 10,000 timetrees sampled from the posterior distribution of candidate trees show that the evolutionary history of the Galliformes is best explained by a rate-shift model including 1-3 clade-specific increases in diversification rate. We further show that the tempo and mode of diversification in the Galliformes conforms to a three-pulse model, with three-stem lineages arising in the Cretaceous and inter and intrafamilial diversification occurring after the K-Pg mass extinction, in the Paleocene-Eocene (65.5-33.9 Ma) or in association with the Eocene-Oligocene transition (33.9 Ma). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of food availability and distance to protective cover on the winter foraging behaviour of tits (Aves: Parus).

    PubMed

    Walther, B; Gosler, A

    2001-10-01

    To maximize fitness, many animals must trade off their need to forage efficiently against their need to avoid predators. We studied such a trade-off in four species of tits (Paridae) in a forest near Oxford, UK. During winter, tits form flocks which increase feeding efficiency and reduce predation risk. These flocks feed extensively on beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds, the abundance of which may be critical for winter survival. Because these seeds drop to the ground, where birds are exposed to sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) attack, tits need to trade off their need to find seeds against the proximity to protective cover, provided by dense clusters of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.). The quality of the beech crop differs markedly between trees and years. During a year of abundant beechmast, most tits searched for seeds close to protective cover. This 'safety-first' strategy precluded visits to superabundant food patches if they were too far from protective cover. Among beech trees near to cover, tits tended to prefer those with high seed density. Tits benefited from foraging under trees with high seed density because this correlated significantly with seed mass per square metre and because mean search times decreased with increasing seed density. Finally, we show experimentally that great tits, Parus major, can discriminate between edible (viable) and inedible (empty) seeds.

  4. The Staurotypus Turtles and Aves Share the Same Origin of Sex Chromosomes but Evolved Different Types of Heterogametic Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY) and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW) sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines) and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii) have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution. PMID:25121779

  5. Annual adult survival of Least Auklets (Aves, Alcidae) varies with large-scale climatic conditions of the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian L; Hunter, Fiona M; Robertson, Gregory J

    2002-09-01

    We evaluated whether annual adult survival of Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla), a small planktivorous seabird, covaried with large-scale oceanographic conditions in the North Pacific ocean during 1990-2000. Adult Least Auklets (n=358 total) were captured near their nest sites, marked with plastic color bands, and survival estimates were based on color band resightings at their breeding colony. Survival estimates and relationships between survival and three large-scale indices of climatic conditions that correlate with oceanography: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index (PDO), Aleutian Low Pressure Index (ALPI), and North Pacific Index (NPI) were evaluated using program MARK. The best models included: (1) two groups of birds, defined by ease of resighting, that differed in recapture rate (p) but not survival rate (φ); and (2) models that allowed for survival rates to differ in the year immediately after first capture from all subsequent years (structurally an age-model). Both of these model structures effectively explained (i.e. removed) sources of heterogeneity in the data set. For Least Auklet survival, the best fitting model was a two-age model incorporating the covariate NPI (average value for the period auklets were at sea, August - April), [φ(age1, age2×NPI), p(g)]. The annual survival rate varied from 0.747±0.075 SE in 1992-1993 to 0.953±0.052 in 1991-1992 (based on the model [φ(age1, age2×t), p(g)]) and averaged 0.873±0.037 over the study period. Least Auklet annual survival covaried with continuous variation in large-scale climatic conditions. Our results point to oceanographic conditions that relate to climate change as crucial to the status of auklet populations, notwithstanding conservation measures taken to control introduced predators, oil spills, human disturbance and other anthropogenic sources of mortality.

  6. Review of the type series of Pterocles exustus Temminck, 1825 (Aves, Pterocliformes, Pteroclidae) and designation of a lectotype

    PubMed Central

    Gouraud, Christophe; Frahnert, Sylke; Gamauf, Anita; van der Mije, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The type locality of Pterocles exustus Temminck, 1825, is ‘West coast of Africa, Egypt and Nubia’. This is problematic because it includes the type locality of Pterocles exustus floweri (Nicoll, 1921), which is Fayum, Egypt. In the interest of clarification and to preserve stability of nomenclature, a non-Egyptian specimen from the type series of Pterocles exustus is designated as lectotype of the taxon, and the type locality is restricted to Senegal. PMID:27110210

  7. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion.

    PubMed

    Livezey, Bradley C; Zusi, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, avian systematics has been characterized by a diminished reliance on morphological cladistics of modern taxa, intensive palaeornithogical research stimulated by new discoveries and an inundation by analyses based on DNA sequences. Unfortunately, in contrast to significant insights into basal origins, the broad picture of neornithine phylogeny remains largely unresolved. Morphological studies have emphasized characters of use in palaeontological contexts. Molecular studies, following disillusionment with the pioneering, but non-cladistic, work of Sibley and Ahlquist, have differed markedly from each other and from morphological works in both methods and findings. Consequently, at the turn of the millennium, points of robust agreement among schools concerning higher-order neornithine phylogeny have been limited to the two basalmost and several mid-level, primary groups. This paper describes a phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of 150 taxa of Neornithes, including exemplars from all non-passeriform families, and subordinal representatives of Passeriformes. Thirty-five outgroup taxa encompassing Crocodylia, predominately theropod Dinosauria, and selected Mesozoic birds were used to root the trees. Based on study of specimens and the literature, 2954 morphological characters were defined; these characters have been described in a companion work, approximately one-third of which were multistate (i.e. comprised at least three states), and states within more than one-half of these multistate characters were ordered for analysis. Complete heuristic searches using 10 000 random-addition replicates recovered a total solution set of 97 well-resolved, most-parsimonious trees (MPTs). The set of MPTs was confirmed by an expanded heuristic search based on 10 000 random-addition replicates and a full ratchet-augmented exploration to ascertain global optima. A strict consensus tree of MPTs included only six trichotomies, i.e. nodes differing topologically among MPTs. Bootstrapping (based on 10 000 replicates) percentages and ratchet-minimized support (Bremer) indices indicated most nodes to be robust. Several fossil Neornithes (e.g. Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes) were placed within the ingroup a posteriori either through unconstrained, heursitic searches based on the complete matrix augmented by these taxa separately or using backbone-constraints. Analysis confirmed the topology among outgroup Theropoda and achieved robust resolution at virtually all levels of the Neornithes. Findings included monophyly of the palaeognathous birds, comprising the sister taxa Tinamiformes and ratites, respectively, and the Anseriformes and Galliformes as monophyletic sister-groups, together forming the sister-group to other Neornithes exclusive of the Palaeognathae (Neoaves). Noteworthy inferences include: (i) the sister-group to remaining Neoaves comprises a diversity of marine and wading birds; (ii) Podicipedidae are the sister-group of Gaviidae, and not closely related to the Phoenicopteridae, as recently suggested; (iii) the traditional Pelecaniformes, including the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) as sister-taxon to other members, are monophyletic; (iv) traditional Ciconiiformes are monophyletic; (v) Strigiformes and Falconiformes are sister-groups; (vi) Cathartidae is the sister-group of the remaining Falconiformes; (vii) Ralliformes (Rallidae and Heliornithidae) are the sister-group to the monophyletic Charadriiformes, with the traditionally composed Gruiformes and Turniciformes (Turnicidae and Mesitornithidae) sequentially paraphyletic to the entire foregoing clade; (viii) Opisthocomus hoazin is the sister-taxon to the Cuculiformes (including the Musophagidae); (ix) traditional Caprimulgiformes are monophyletic and the sister-group of the Apodiformes; (x) Trogoniformes are the sister-group of Coliiformes; (xi) Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes are mutually monophyletic and closely related; and (xii) the Galbulae are retained within the Piciformes. Unresolved portions of the Neornithes (nodes having more than one most-parsimonious solution) comprised three parts of the tree: (a) several interfamilial nodes within the Charadriiformes; (b) a trichotomy comprising the (i) Psittaciformes, (ii) Columbiformes and (iii) Trogonomorphae (Trogoniformes, Coliiformes) + Passerimorphae (Coraciiformes, Piciformes, Passeriformes); and (c) a trichotomy comprising the Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes. The remaining polytomies were among outgroups, although several of the highest-order nodes were only marginally supported; however, the majority of nodes were resolved and met or surpassed conventional standards of support. Quantitative comparisons with alternative hypotheses, examination of highly supportive and diagnostic characters for higher taxa, correspondences with prior studies, complementarity and philosophical differences with palaeontological phylogenetics, promises and challenges of palaeogeography and calibration of evolutionary rates of birds, and classes of promising evidence and future directions of study are reviewed. Homology, as applied to avian examples of apparent homologues, is considered in terms of recent theory, and a revised annotated classification of higher-order taxa of Neornithes and other closely related Theropoda is proposed. (c) 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 149, 1-95.

  8. A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

  9. M aritrema corai n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the white ibis Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus) (Aves: Threskiornithidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; García-Varela, Martín; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    M aritrema corai n. sp. is described based on material from the intestine of the white ibis Eudocimus albus (L.) (Threskiornithidae) in Mexico. The new species can be distinguished morphologically from all congeners by the unique combination of the following morphological features: a very long cirrus sac attenuated distally [cirrus sac to body length ratio 1:0.90-1.29 (mean 1:1.07)]; a large, elongate-oval seminal receptacle, located dorsally between the cirrus sac and ovary; and long, filiform, unarmed, evaginable cirrus. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for the new species and for Maritrema spp. and Microphallus spp. depicted strong support for the two genera (excluding Microphallus fusiformis) and revealed close relationships between Ma. corai n. sp. and the clade formed by Maritrema novaezealandense Martorelli, Fredensborg, Mouritsen & Poulin, 2004, Maritrema heardi (Kinsella & Deblock, 1994) and Maritrema cf. eroliae.

  10. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopusgriseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopusgriseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopusgriseicollisgriseicollis and Scytalopusgriseicollisgilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.

  11. Conspecific brood parasitism in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Pelecaniformes) revealed by microsatellites' based kinship-reconstruction.

    PubMed

    de Castro e Souza, Andiara Silos Moraes; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif; Miño, Carolina Isabel

    2013-06-01

    The white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi Vieillot, 1817 (Pelecaniformes: Threskiornithidae) is a socially monogamous colonially breeding bird in which behavioral and ecological observations suggest the occurrence of conspecific brood parasitism (CBP). We inferred aspects of the genetic mating system of P. chihi in nature, using a genetic approach in the absence of parental information. We used five heterologous microsatellite loci and a multiple-step methodological approach to infer kinship patterns among 104 pairs of nestlings sampled inside 80 nests in a breeding colony from southern Brazil. The estimated effective population size was 69 white-faced ibises (95% CI: 50-98), enough to ensure long-term population survival. Kinship patterns were identified for 38% of the analyzed pairs: 60% of the diagnosed pairs were identified as full-siblings, 2.5% as half-siblings and 37.5% as unrelated individuals. CBP could explain the presence of unrelated nestlings within broods, in agreement with available non-genetic evidence. The presence of half-siblings within broods could indicate extra-pair paternity. Results suggest that a non-strictly monogamous genetic mating system may be present in the white-faced ibis. This study is the first molecular approach to better characterize the reproductive behavior of P. chihi in the wild. Our findings set the stage for further research to investigate the possible causes and consequences of alternative reproductive strategies in this species.

  12. The feather mites of nightjars (Aves: Caprimulgidae), with descriptions of two new species from Brazil (Acari: Xolalgidae, Gabuciniidae).

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi

    2014-04-01

    Two new species of feather mites are described from nightjars (Caprimulgiformes: Caprimulgidae) of Brazil: Hartingiella neotropica sp. n. (Xolalgidae) described from Hydropsalis parvula (Gould) and Paragabucinia brasiliensis sp. n. (Gabuciniidae) from H. albicollis (Gmelin). The former differs from the type species by having, in males, the anterior projections on epimerites III towards setae 3b and the adanal shield bearing setae ps3 present; in both sexes, a pair of small sclerites situated posterior to setae se have flat suprategumental processes. Paragabucinia brasiliensis sp. n. differs from P. petitoti (Gaud et Mouchet, 1959) by the smaller size of the incisions in the internal margins of opisthosomal lobes of males. These mites are the first representatives of corresponding genera described from the Neotropical region. The genus Hartingiella Gaud, 1980 was previously known solely from its type species. Keys to males and females of the genus Paragabucinia Gaud et Atyeo, 1975 are presented. In addition, all previous records of feather mites associated with birds of the order Caprimulgiformes of the world are summarised.

  13. Surface topography of two trematodes parasites infecting grey heron Ardea cinerea Jouyi (Aves, Ciconiiformes) in Qena, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed

    2015-04-01

    Apharyngostrigea ardeolina and Echinoparyphium recurvatum are two important digenean parasites that were recovered from small intestine of grey heron with an infection rate (16.2%) and (8.8%) respectively. The surface topography of two species was redescribed by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Using SEM studies showed that the body surface of two trematodes were covered by contact receptors, several types of sensory tegumental papillae which may have useful function in orientation and feeding through increasing the surface area of absorption, could also play a role in sensation or in selection of the materials for ingestion by the fluke. The head collar of E. recurvatum is reniform in shape, bearing uninterrupted double row of 41 collar finger-like spines, a total including 4 end group ones on both ventral corners., tegumental spines were tongue-shaped without a terminal tip.

  14. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves).

    PubMed

    Lovette, Irby J; Pérez-Emán, Jorge L; Sullivan, John P; Banks, Richard C; Fiorentino, Isabella; Córdoba-Córdoba, Sergio; Echeverry-Galvis, María; Barker, F Keith; Burns, Kevin J; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott M; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-11-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group.

  15. The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Aves: Icteridae), at 2,800 m asl in Quito, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, C. Miguel; Carrión, Juan Manuel; Jarrín-E, Rubén D.; Poveda, Cristian; de Vries, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis Gmelin, 1789, is a brood parasite of hundreds of small-bodied birds that is native to South American lowlands. Within the last 100 years this species has been expanding its range throughout the Caribbean, towards North America, but has rarely been seen above 2,000 m asl. New information Here, we present records of Shiny Cowbirds in Quito, a city located 2,800 m above sea level that harbors a bird community typical of the Andean valleys. We found two juvenile individuals parasitizing two different pairs of Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776). This report constitutes an altitudinal range expansion of reproductive populations of ca. 500m, which may have beenprompted by anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27226760

  16. The Top-Awarded Reports: The First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. AVE in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

    This booklet presents two activities that received awards in the First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. The first paper describes CHaTNet (Children Homes and Teachers Network) at the Tamagawa Gakuen school, winner of the Prime Minister's Award. CHaTNet is a network of 4,500 participants, including parents,…

  17. Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, Miguel; Muñoz, Joaquin; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) hosts the most polymorphic genes ever described in vertebrates. The MHC triggers the adaptive branch of the immune response, and its extraordinary variability is considered an evolutionary consequence of pathogen pressure. The last few years have witnessed the characterization of the MHC multigene family in a large diversity of bird species, unraveling important differences in its polymorphism, complexity, and evolution. Here, we characterize the first MHC class II B sequences isolated from a Rallidae species, the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. A next-generation sequencing approach revealed up to 265 alleles that translated into 251 different amino acid sequences (β chain, exon 2) in 902 individuals. Bayesian inference identified up to 19 codons within the presumptive peptide-binding region showing pervasive evidence of positive, diversifying selection. Our analyses also detected a significant excess of high-frequency segregating sites (average Tajima's D = 2.36, P < 0.05), indicative of balancing selection. We found one to six different alleles per individual, consistent with the occurrence of at least three MHC class II B gene duplicates. However, the genotypes comprised of three alleles were by far the most abundant in the population investigated (49.4%), followed by those with two (29.6%) and four (17.5%) alleles. We suggest that these proportions are in agreement with the segregation of MHC haplotypes differing in gene copy number. The most widespread segregating haplotypes, according to our findings, would contain one single gene or two genes. The MHC class II of the Eurasian Coot is a valuable system to investigate the evolutionary implications of gene copy variation and extensive variability, the greatest ever found, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a non-passerine bird. PMID:24683452

  18. Biogeography of Speciation of Two Sister Species of Neotropical Amazona (Aves, Psittaciformes) Based on Mitochondrial Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Amanda V.; Rivera, Luis O.; Martinez, Jaime; Prestes, Nêmora P.; Caparroz, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent theory provides powerful models for population genetic inference and is now increasingly important in estimates of divergence times and speciation research. We use molecular data and methods based on coalescent theory to investigate whether genetic evidence supports the hypothesis of A. pretrei and A. tucumana as separate species and whether genetic data allow us to assess which allopatric model seems to better explain the diversification process in these taxa. We sampled 13 A. tucumana from two provinces in northern Argentina and 28 A. pretrei from nine localities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A 491 bp segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I was evaluated using the haplotype network and phylogenetic methods. The divergence time and other demographic quantities were estimated using the isolation and migration model based on coalescent theory. The network and phylogenetic reconstructions showed similar results, supporting reciprocal monophyly for these two taxa. The divergence time of lineage separation was estimated to be approximately 1.3 million years ago, which corresponds to the lower Pleistocene. Our results enforce the current taxonomic status for these two Amazon species. They also support that A. pretrei and A. tucumana diverged with little or no gene flow approximately 1.3 million years ago, most likely after the establishment of a small population in the Southern Yungas forest by dispersion of a few founders from the A. pretrei ancestral population. This process may have been favored by habitat corridors formed in hot and humid periods of the Quaternary. Considering that these two species are considered threatened, the results were evaluated for their implications for the conservation of these two species. PMID:25251765

  19. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, A; Modry, D; Foronda, P

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective of identifying the species of Eimeria present in a cynegetic farm. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species is described from Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara, from the Canary Islands. Experimental infections were carried out in order to determine the prepatent period, sporulation time, site of infection, and morphology of endogenous stages. One species is described as new. Eimeria barbarae n. sp. has ellipsoidal oocysts, 20.0 × 14.4 (16-23 × 13-16) μm, with a shape-index (SI) of 1.39. Sporocysts are almond-shaped, 9.0 × 5.4 (6.5-11 × 4.5-6) μm, SI = 1.56. The endogenous development takes place along the intestine. The present study showed that E. barbarae causes severe pathologies in A. barbara chickens, with impact on their health condition. Control strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis at studied farm.

  20. Incipient speciation with gene flow on a continental island: Species delimitation of the Hainan Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum owstoni, Passeriformes, Aves).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Liang, Bin; Wang, Jichao; Yeh, Chia-Fen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yanlin; Liang, Wei; Yao, Cheng-Te; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2016-09-01

    Because of their isolation, continental islands (e.g., Madagascar) are often thought of as ideal systems to study allopatric speciation. However, many such islands have been connected intermittently to their neighboring continent during recent periods of glaciation, which may cause frequent contact between the diverging populations on the island and continent. As a result, the speciation processes on continental islands may not meet the prerequisites for strictly allopatric speciation. We used multiple lines of evidence to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of the Hainan Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum owstoni), which is endemic to Hainan, the largest continental island in the South China Sea. Our analysis of mitochondrial DNA and twelve nuclear loci suggests that the Hainan Hwamei can be regarded as an independent species (L. owstoni); the morphological traits of the Hainan Hwamei also showed significant divergence from those of their mainland sister taxon, the Chinese Hwamei (L. canorum). We also inferred the divergence history of the Hainan and Chinese Hwamei to see whether their divergence was consistent with a strictly allopatric model. Our results suggest that the two Hwameis split only 0.2 million years ago with limited asymmetrical post-divergence gene flow. This implies that the Hainan Hwamei is an incipient species and that speciation occurred through ecologically divergent selection and/or assortative mating rather than a strictly allopatric process.